Science.gov

Sample records for early twentieth century

  1. Transnational Connections in Early Twentieth-Century Women Teachers' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Using a transnational framework, this paper focuses on four graduates of Gipsy Hill Training College (GHTC) for nursery school teachers in London, United Kingdom, in the early to mid-twentieth century. Firstly, I explore GHTC's progressive ideals and highlight ways in which its principal, Lillian de Lissa, encouraged students to "think…

  2. Early Twentieth Century Responses to the Drug Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfennig, Dennis Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Describes early twentieth-century responses to the drug problem in the United States. Discusses pressure from the media and reformers to control the availability of drugs such as opium and cocaine that were widely available in over-the-counter medications. Focuses on New York State, which took the lead in enacting drug control legislation. (DK)

  3. Remembering and forgetting Freud in early twentieth-century dreams.

    PubMed

    Forrester, John

    2006-03-01

    The paper explores the use of Freud's methods of dream interpretation by four English writers of the early twentieth century: T. H. Pear, W. H. R. Rivers, Ernest Jones, and Alix Strachey. Each employed their own dreams in rather different ways: as part of an assessment of Freud's work as a psychological theory, as illustrative of the cogency of Freud's method and theories as part of the psychoanalytic process. Each adopted different approaches to the question of privacy and decorum. The paper argues that assessment of the impact of Freud's work must take account of the application of the method to the researcher's own dreams and the personal impact this process of analysis had upon them, and must also gauge how the dreamers' deployment of Freud's methods influenced their explicit relationship to him and his theories.

  4. Immigration, crime, and incarceration in early twentieth-century America.

    PubMed

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2009-11-01

    The major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses. The time series pattern reflects a growing gap between natives and immigrants at older ages, one that was driven by sharp increases in the commitment rates of the native-born, while commitment rates for the foreign-born were remarkably stable.

  5. Remapping Genre: Spanish Jaiku of the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landeira, Joy

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century a new subgenre of poetry written in Spanish, but rooted in Japanese literary tradition, began to emerge in the works of Spain's vanguard and Generation of 1927 poets and among young modernist poets in Mexico and South America. Transmitted first through France and later directly from Japan, the popularity…

  6. Preserving Sydney's built heritage in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Freestone, R

    1999-01-01

    Modernity has been antithetical to heritage conservation in the twentieth century. The value of inherited buildings was not widely acknowledged by government officials, politicians, architects, planners and the broader community until the' 1970s. From the turn of the century, a coalition of pioneering preservationists in Sydney confronted a formidable growth mentality, which linked preservation with economic and cultural stasis. This article explores the objectives, composition, ideology, modus operandi and record of the fledgeling preservation movement against the backdrop of modernisation.

  7. Immigration, Crime, and Incarceration in Early Twentieth-Century America

    PubMed Central

    MOEHLING, CAROLYN; PIEHL, ANNE MORRISON

    2009-01-01

    The major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses. The time series pattern reflects a growing gap between natives and immigrants at older ages, one that was driven by sharp increases in the commitment rates of the native-born, while commitment rates for the foreign-born were remarkably stable. PMID:20084827

  8. Modeling and Reality in Early Twentieth-Century Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Suman

    2011-04-01

    Towards the end of 1913, Arnold Sommerfeld, Professor of theoretical physics at Munich University, sent a letter of congratulations to a young Niels Bohr. The Dane's now-classic trilogy of papers, which coupled Rutherford's conception of the atom with a ``planetary'' configuration of electrons, had just appeared. Sommerfeld saw the calculation of the Rydberg constant as a singular triumph and immediately spotted an opportunity to try to explain the Zeeman effect. Yet he also sounded a note of caution, confessing that he remained ``somewhat skeptical'' of atomic models in general. In this, of course, he was hardly alone. Bohr's atom was a particularly egregious example of a peculiar model, one requiring what even its creator considered ``horrid assumptions.'' Nonetheless, success bred conviction. Expanding upon Bohr's original ideas, Sommerfeld soon produced the so-called ``Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization conditions,'' using them to calculate a myriad of results. Experimental evidence, Sommerfeld argued in 1915, showed that quantised electron-paths ``correspond exactly to reality'' and possess ``real existence.'' This kind of realism would not, of course, last long. In 1925, Werner Heisenberg (earlier a student of Sommerfeld's) made scepticism about the details of the Bohr model into a methodological dictum, one later enshrined in the ``Copenhagen interpretation'' of quantum mechanics. This paper uses Sommerfeld's work from the turn of the twentieth century to the mid-1920s as a window onto a landscape involving multiple contestations over the legitimacy of atomic modelling. The surprise that greeted Heisenberg's and others' phenomenological insistences, we will see, can only be understood with reference to what should be considered a ``realist interlude'' in the history of twentieth century atomic physics, one inspired by the astonishing successes of Rutherford's and Bohr's imaginings.

  9. Industrial Characteristics and Employment of Older Manufacturing Workers in the Early-Twentieth-Century United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how industry-specific technological, organizational, and managerial features affected the employment of old male manufacturing workers in the early twentieth-century United States. Industrial characteristics favorably related to the employment of old industrial workers include high labor productivity, less capital- and material-intensive production, short workdays, low intensity of work, high job flexibility, and formalized employment relationship. Results show that aged industrial workers were heavily concentrated in “unfavorable” industries, suggesting that the contemporary argument of “industrial scrap heap” was applicable for most of the manufacturing workers in the early twentieth century United States. PMID:26989273

  10. "Are You Only an Applauder?" American Music Correspondence Schools in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…

  11. Early Twentieth Century Arrow, Javelin, and Dart Games of the Western Native American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The general purpose of this study was to determine whether the traditional native American ball games continued to be positive culture traits of the American Indian in the early twentieth century. The investigation was centered about (1) determining the current arrow, javelin, and dart games of western native Americans, (2) determining the…

  12. Learning Early Twentieth-Century History through First-Person Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    For many of the students in the author's American history class, early twentieth-century American history seems far removed from their daily lives. Being first and second-generation American citizens, many of the students do not have the luxury of hearing grandparents and great-grandparents telling stories about FDR and Henry Ford. More…

  13. Intertransitions between Islam and Eastern Orthodoxy in Kazakhstan (Nineteenth-Early Twentieth Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadvokasova, Zakish T.; Orazbayeva, Altynay I.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the historical facts related to conversion of indigenous people of the Kazakh steppe from Islam to Christianity and the conversion of the Russian migrants from Orthodoxy to Islam in Kazakhstan in the nineteenth-early twentieth century. The study deals with the laws that were detrimental to Islam and reforms…

  14. Converting the Rosebud: Sicangu Lakota Catholicism in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a number of the dominant features of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Indian Catholicism on the Rosebud Reservation, focusing primarily on the Sicangu's responses to the significant differences between their traditional religious customs and the beliefs, rituals, and requirements of Catholicism. It first examines…

  15. Translation, Hybridization, and Modernization: John Dewey and Children's Literature in Early Twentieth Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the early twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of modern childhood that…

  16. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  17. Gendered Perceptions of Father Involvement in Early Twentieth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRossa, Ralph; Reitzes, Donald C.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes 256 letters written by middle-class fathers and mothers to nationally known educator Angelo Patri to illustrate the degree to which perceptions of father involvement in the 1920s-30s varied according to gender. Suggests the difference in father involvement during the 20th century is not as sharp as some suppose. (Author/JPS)

  18. Scientific Instruments for Education in Early Twentieth-Century Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Castell, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    1898 marked a crucial point in the end of the nineteenth-century Spanish crisis. The military defeat ending the Spanish-American War was seen as proof that the country was in terminal decline. With the ideals of regeneration spreading throughout Spanish society, the State became more interested in supporting and sponsoring science and technology,…

  19. American Influence on Chinese Physics Study in the Early Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Danian

    2016-01-01

    To save China from the perils she faced in the early twentieth century, the majority of the Chinese seemed to agree that it was necessary to strengthen the country by developing shiye or industry and commerce. For this purpose, they overhauled China's education system and sent a large number of students to study overseas. Many of them enrolled in American colleges, sponsored either by governmental grants or by private funds. As American physics advanced rapidly during the early twentieth century, Chinese physicists studying in top US institutions received first-class professional training. They later went on to become a main driving force in Chinese physics development. The study-in-America programs were apparently more successful than other study-overseas programs. Among other factors, the historical lessons learned from the aborted Chinese Educational Mission in the 1870s, the prevalent and long-time presence of American mission schools in China, and stable public and private funding contributed to their success. American-trained Chinese physicists not only advanced physics study in China but also played leading roles in the development of Chinese science and technology during the twentieth century. This fertile and far-reaching American influence has been embedded in all their accomplishments.

  20. Surviving the Lunacy Act of 1890: English Psychiatrists and Professional Development during the Early Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Takabayashi, Akinobu

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, historians of English psychiatry have shifted their major concerns away from asylums and psychiatrists in the nineteenth century. This is also seen in the studies of twentieth-century psychiatry where historians have debated the rise of psychology, eugenics and community care. This shift in interest, however, does not indicate that English psychiatrists became passive and unimportant actors in the last century. In fact, they promoted Lunacy Law reform for a less asylum-dependent mode of psychiatry, with a strong emphasis on professional development. This paper illustrates the historical dynamics around the professional development of English psychiatry by employing Andrew Abbott's concept of professional development. Abbott redefines professional development as arising from both abstraction of professional knowledge and competition regarding professional jurisdiction. A profession, he suggests, develops through continuous re-formation of its occupational structure, mode of practice and political language in competing with other professional and non-professional forces. In early twentieth-century England, psychiatrists promoted professional development by framing political discourse, conducting a daily trade and promoting new legislation to defend their professional jurisdiction. This professional development story began with the Lunacy Act of 1890, which caused a professional crisis in psychiatry and led to inter-professional competition with non-psychiatric medical service providers. To this end, psychiatrists devised a new political rhetoric, 'early treatment of mental disorder', in their professional interests and succeeded in enacting the Mental Treatment Act of 1930, which re-instated psychiatrists as masters of English psychiatry.

  1. Our Environment in Miniature: Dust and the Early Twentieth-Century Forensic Imagination

    PubMed Central

    BURNEY, IAN

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the articulation of the crime scene as a distinct space of theory and practice in the early twentieth century. In particular it focuses on the evidentiary hopes invested in what would at first seem an unpromising forensic object: dust. Ubiquitous and, to the uninitiated, characterless, dust nevertheless featured as an exemplary object of cutting-edge forensic analysis in two contemporary domains: writings of criminologists and works of detective fiction. The article considers how in these texts dust came to mark the furthest reach of a new forensic capacity they were promoting, one that drew freely upon the imagination to invest crime scene traces with meaning. PMID:23766552

  2. The acceleration of the masculine in early-twentieth-century Berlin.

    PubMed

    Prickett, David James

    2012-01-01

    In early-twentieth-century Berlin, agents of speed and industrialisation, such as the railway, contributed to the seemingly unbridled velocity of urban life. Doctors and cultural critics took an ambivalent stance toward the impact of speed and technology on the human body. Critics argued that these factors, in conjunction with sexual excess and prostitution, accelerated the sexual maturation of young men, thereby endangering ‘healthy’ male sexuality. This comparison of Hans Ostwald's socio-literary study Dunkle Winkel in Berlin (1904) with Georg Buschan's sexual education primer Vom Jüngling zum Mann (1911) queries the extent to which speed shaped the understanding of ‘the masculine’ in pre-World-War-I Germany. The essay thus examines Ostwald's and Buschan's arguments and postulates that speed in the city (Berlin) can be seen as a feminised, sexualised force that determined sex in the city. According to this reading, the homosexual urban dandy resisted the accelerated modernist urban tempo, whereas the heterosexual man and hegemonic, heteronormative masculinity yielded to speed. ‘“Das Verhältnis”’ became a fleeting, momentary alternative to stable marital relationships, which in turn contributed to the general ‘crisis’ of – and in– masculinity in early-twentieth-century Berlin.

  3. Surviving the Lunacy Act of 1890: English Psychiatrists and Professional Development during the Early Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Takabayashi, Akinobu

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, historians of English psychiatry have shifted their major concerns away from asylums and psychiatrists in the nineteenth century. This is also seen in the studies of twentieth-century psychiatry where historians have debated the rise of psychology, eugenics and community care. This shift in interest, however, does not indicate that English psychiatrists became passive and unimportant actors in the last century. In fact, they promoted Lunacy Law reform for a less asylum-dependent mode of psychiatry, with a strong emphasis on professional development. This paper illustrates the historical dynamics around the professional development of English psychiatry by employing Andrew Abbott’s concept of professional development. Abbott redefines professional development as arising from both abstraction of professional knowledge and competition regarding professional jurisdiction. A profession, he suggests, develops through continuous re-formation of its occupational structure, mode of practice and political language in competing with other professional and non-professional forces. In early twentieth-century England, psychiatrists promoted professional development by framing political discourse, conducting a daily trade and promoting new legislation to defend their professional jurisdiction. This professional development story began with the Lunacy Act of 1890, which caused a professional crisis in psychiatry and led to inter-professional competition with non-psychiatric medical service providers. To this end, psychiatrists devised a new political rhetoric, ‘early treatment of mental disorder’, in their professional interests and succeeded in enacting the Mental Treatment Act of 1930, which re-instated psychiatrists as masters of English psychiatry. PMID:28260566

  4. Plastic body, permanent body: Czech representations of corporeality in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Sleigh, Charlotte

    2009-12-01

    In the early twentieth century, the body was seen as both an ontogenetic and a phylogenetic entity. In the former case, its individual development, it was manifestly changeable, developing from embryo to maturity and thence to a state of decay. But in the latter case, concerning its development as a species, the question was an open one. Was its phylogenetic nature a stationary snapshot of the slow process of evolution, or was this too mutable? Historians have emphasised that the question of acquired inheritance remained open into the twentieth century; this paper explores how various constructions of the individual as a phylogenetic episode--a stage in the race's evolution--related to representations of the body in the same period. A discussion of the work of the brothers Josef and Karel Capek offers a contextualised answer to the question of bodily representation. Karel Capek (1890-1938) explored the nature of the 'average man' through two different organisms, the robot and the amphibian, epitomes respectively of corporeal permanence and plasticity. Josef Capek (1887-1945), along with other members of the Group of Plastic Artists, explored visual representations of the body that challenged cubist Bergsonian norms. In so doing, he affirmed what his brother also held: that despite the constrictions imposed by the oppressive political conditions in which the Czechs found themselves, the individual body was a fragile but fluid entity, capable of effecting change upon the future evolution of humankind.

  5. Learning to File: Reconfiguring Information and Information Work in the Early Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This article uses textbooks and advertisements to explore the formal and informal ways in which people were introduced to vertical filing in the early twentieth century. Through the privileging of "system" an ideal mode of paperwork emerged in which a clerk could "grasp" information simply by hand without having to understand or comprehend its content. A file clerk's hands and fingers became central to the representation and teaching of filing. In this way, filing offered an example of a distinctly modern form of information work. Filing textbooks sought to enhance dexterity as the rapid handling of paper came to represent information as something that existed in discrete units, in bits that could be easily extracted. Advertisements represented this mode of information work in its ideal form when they frequently erased the worker or reduced him or her to hands, as "instant" filing became "automatic" filing, with the filing cabinet presented as a machine.

  6. Birth Attendants and Midwifery Practice in Early Twentieth-century Derbyshire

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Summary The 1902 Midwives Act introduced training and supervision for midwives in England and Wales, outlawing uncertified-and-untrained midwives (handywomen) and phasing out certified-but-untrained (bona fide) midwives. This paper compares the numbers and practices of these two different types of birth attendant with each other, with qualified and certified midwives and with doctors in early twentieth-century Derbyshire during this period of change, and examines the spatial and social factors influencing women's choice of birth attendant. It finds that the new legislation did not entirely eliminate continuity in traditional practices and allegiance, and that both social and spatial factors governed the choice of delivery attendant, with fewer midwives available in rural areas and a surviving network of untrained bona fide midwives in mining communities. Within this spatial pattern, however, although wealthier women were more likely to have chosen a doctor or a qualified midwife, familiarity and loyalty allowed bona fide midwives to maintain their case loads.

  7. Alfred Owre: revisiting the thought of a distinguished, though controversial, early twentieth-century dental educator.

    PubMed

    Nash, David A

    2013-08-01

    Many in dental education are unfamiliar with the professional life and thought of Dr. Alfred Owre, a distinguished though controversial dental educator in the early twentieth century. Owre served as dean of dentistry at both the University of Minnesota, 1905-27, and Columbia University, 1927-33. He was also a member of the Carnegie Foundation's commission that developed the report Dental Education in the United States and Canada, written by Dr. William J. Gies. Owre was a controversial leader due to his creative and original ideas that challenged dental education and the profession. His assessment and critique of the problems of dental education in his era can readily be applied to contemporary dental education and the profession, just as his vision for transformative change resonates with ideas that continue to be advocated by some individuals today. This article also documents his tumultuous relationship with Gies.

  8. Dr. William Theodore Hodge: pioneer surgeon-apothecary in early-twentieth-century Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Kamien, Max

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 I chanced upon the lonely grave of Dr. William Theodore Hodge, buried in 1934, in the Derby Pioneer and Aboriginal Cemetery. He turned out to be the founding doctor of the practice in which I have worked for the past thirty years. Dr. Hodge migrated from England in 1896. He was the first western trained doctor to work in the Perth suburb of Claremont and in the wheat-belt town of Kellerberrin. He was an innovative and inventive modern doctor who became a legend in the Kimberley where he died tragically, on the day prior to his retirement, at the age of seventy-five. His story is illustrative of the life and medical practice of a pioneering doctor in metropolitan, rural, and remote practice in Western Australia at the end of the nineteenth and the early years of the twentieth centuries.

  9. Medical confidentiality in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: an Anglo-German comparison1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Professional secrecy of doctors became an issue of considerable medico-legal and political debate in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in both Germany and England, although the legal preconditions for this debate were quite different in the two countries. While in Germany medical confidentiality was a legal obligation and granted in court, no such statutory recognition of doctors’ professional secrecy existed in England. This paper is a comparative analysis of medical secrecy in three key areas - divorce trials, venereal disease and abortion - in both countries. Based on sources from the period between c.1870 and 1939, our paper shows how doctors tried to define the scope of professional secrecy as an integral part of their professional honour in relation to important matters of public health. PMID:21077462

  10. "El destierro de los Chinos": Popular Perspectives on Chinese-Mexican Intermarriage in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Robert Chao

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines Chinese-Mexican interracial marriage during the early twentieth century through the lens of Mexican popular culture. Comedy, poetry, cartoons, and musical recordings of the time portrayed these marriages as relationships of abuse, slavery, and neglect, and rejected the offspring of such unions as subhuman and unworthy of full…

  11. Reading to the Soul: Narrative Imagery and Moral Education in Early to Mid-Twentieth-Century Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carden, Clarissa

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the way in which narratives, including stories and poetry, have been used in school texts relating to moral instruction. The paper will draw on texts used in Queensland classrooms in the early part of the twentieth century to demonstrate the ways in which description of sights and the experiences of the senses, and of…

  12. Looking White and Middle-Class: Stereoscopic Imagery and Technology in the Early Twentieth-Century United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malin, Brenton J.

    2007-01-01

    This essay explores a series of discourses surrounding the images of the early twentieth-century stereoscope, focusing on Underwood & Underwood of Ottawa, Kansas, and the Keystone View Company, of Meadville, Pennsylvania. By publishing images of particular geographic areas and historical events, as well as compendium volumes that included…

  13. The Democratic School and the Pedagogy of Janusz Korczak: A Model of Early Twentieth Century Reform in Modern Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Liba H.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the history and pedagogy of Janusz Korczak within the context of his contemporary early Twentieth-Century European Innovative Educators which include Maria Montessori, Homer Lane, A.S. Neill, and Anton Semyonovitch Makarenko. The pedagogies of the aforementioned are compared and contrasted within the literature.

  14. Useful Citizens, Useful Citizenship: Cultural Contexts of Sámi Education in Early Twentieth-Century Norway, Sweden, and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortekangas, Otso

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates Sámi elementary education in early twentieth-century Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The main focus lies on cultural contexts that frame and limit language use. The key analytical concepts are "useful citizen" and "useful citizenship". Through these concepts the article probes the ways in which…

  15. Educational Ideas in Geography Education in Sweden during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: The Relationship between Maps and Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennerdal, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the geography education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden are typically offered to contrast with current ideas in geography education, and the content of geography textbooks is the focus of this comparison. The role of maps and visual pedagogy are ignored, and the educational ideas developed from regional…

  16. Reform Pedagogy as a National Innovation System: Early Twentieth-Century Educational Entrepreneurs in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarning, Harald

    2009-01-01

    In Norway "Pedagogikk" was institutionalised as an academic field of knowledge in the first part of the twentieth century. As a professional field of knowledge, however, pedagogy developed gradually from the 1840s, mainly through rurally based teacher seminars. In this article, relations between the progressive movement and the…

  17. Potentially induced earthquakes during the early twentieth century in the Los Angeles Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.; Page, Morgan T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence that early to mid‐twentieth‐century earthquakes in Oklahoma and Texas were likely induced by fossil fuel production and/or injection of wastewater (Hough and Page, 2015; Frohlich et al., 2016). Considering seismicity from 1935 onward, Hauksson et al. (2015) concluded that there is no evidence for significant induced activity in the greater Los Angeles region between 1935 and the present. To explore a possible association between earthquakes prior to 1935 and oil and gas production, we first revisit the historical catalog and then review contemporary oil industry activities. Although early industry activities did not induce large numbers of earthquakes, we present evidence for an association between the initial oil boom in the greater Los Angeles area and earthquakes between 1915 and 1932, including the damaging 22 June 1920 Inglewood and 8 July 1929 Whittier earthquakes. We further consider whether the 1933 Mw 6.4 Long Beach earthquake might have been induced, and show some evidence that points to a causative relationship between the earthquake and activities in the Huntington Beach oil field. The hypothesis that the Long Beach earthquake was either induced or triggered by an foreshock cannot be ruled out. Our results suggest that significant earthquakes in southern California during the early twentieth century might have been associated with industry practices that are no longer employed (i.e., production without water reinjection), and do not necessarily imply a high likelihood of induced earthquakes at the present time.

  18. On the Causes and Dynamics of the Early Twentieth Century North American Pluvial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century North American pluvial (1905-1917) was one of the most extreme wet periods of the last five hundred years and directly led to overly generous water allotments in the water-limited American West. Here we examine the causes and dynamics of the pluvial event using a combination of observation-based data sets and general circulation model (GCM) experiments. The character of the moisture surpluses during the pluvial differed by region, alternately driven by increased precipitation (the Southwest), low evaporation from cool temperatures (the Central Plains), or a combination of the two (the Pacific Northwest). Cool temperature anomalies covered much of the west and persisted through most months, part of a globally extensive period of cooler land and sea surface temperatures (SST). Circulation during boreal winter favored increased moisture import and precipitation in the southwest, while other regions and seasons were characterized by near normal or reduced precipitation. Anomalies in the mean circulation, precipitation, and SST fields are partially consistent with the relatively weak El Nino forcing during the pluvial, and also reflect the impact of positive departures in the Arctic Oscillation that occurred in ten of the thirteen pluvial winters. Differences between the reanalysis dataset, an independent statistical drought model, and GCM simulations highlight some of the remaining uncertainties in understanding the full extent of SST forcing of North American hydroclimatic variability.

  19. How to manage a revolution: Isaac Newton in the early twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, dramatic developments in physics came to be viewed as revolutionary, apparently requiring a complete overthrow of previous theories. British physicists were keen to promote quantum physics and relativity theory as exciting and new, but the rhetoric of revolution threatened science's claim to stability and its prestigious connections with Isaac Newton. This was particularly problematic in the first decades of the twentieth century, within the broader context of political turmoil, world war, and the emergence of modernist art and literature. This article examines how physicists responded to their cultural and political environment and worked to maintain disciplinary connections with Isaac Newton, emphasizing the importance of both the old and the new. In doing so they attempted to make the physics ‘revolution’ more palatable to a British public seeking a sense of permanence in a rapidly changing world.

  20. Metal Construction Toys of the Early Twentieth Century: Their Astronomical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    During the early twentieth century several toy manufacturers around the globe introduced construction toys in the form of sets of metal parts which could be assembled into a variety of models. The two most successful were the Erector Set, introduced in the United States by A.C. Gilbert in 1913, and the Meccano Set, patented in 1901 in England by Frank Hornby. Whereas the Erector Set never developed beyond being a child's toy, Hornby envisioned his Meccano system as providing a way to teach principles of mechanical engineering to young schoolboys. Indeed, his sets were first marketed under the name "Mechanics Made Easy", and were endorsed by Dr. H.S. Hele-Shaw, Head of the Engineering Department at Liverpool University. Popularity of the new Meccano sets spread throughout the world, spawning the formation of numerous amateur societies composed of adolescent boys and an increasing number of adult hobbyists. The variety of parts increased during the first third of the century, and increasingly sophisticated models were constructed and exhibited in competitive events. Among these were several clocks of remarkable accuracy, and at least one equatorial mounting for a small astronomical telescope. At the same time, many university science and engineering departments found these interchangeable metal parts invaluable in the construction of experimental apparatus. In 1934 a small-scale replica of Vannevar Bush's Differential Analyzer was constructed at the University of Manchester, and used for many years to perform mathematical computations. The introduction in 1928 of a flanged ring with 73 (a sub-multiple of 365) teeth allowed for construction of accurate orreries and astronomical clocks. The most remarkable of these was the Astronomical Clock constructed in the period 1924-1932 by M. Alexandre Rahm of Paris.

  1. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens.

    PubMed

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Some doctors of medicine who published optometry books and played significant roles in early twentieth century optometric education.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides brief profiles of four doctors of medicine who wrote books for optometrists and who were faculty members in, and/or directors of, optometry schools in the early twentieth century. Those studied were Thomas G. Atkinson (1870-1946), Marshall B. Ketchum (1856-1937), Joseph I. Pascal (1890-1955), and Clarence W. Talbot (1883-1958). The content of the books they wrote is also discussed.

  3. A visit to Biotopia: genre, genetics and gardening in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Endersby, Jim

    2018-06-20

    The early decades of the twentieth century were marked by widespread optimism about biology and its ability to improve the world. A major catalyst for this enthusiasm was new theories about inheritance and evolution (particularly Hugo de Vries's mutation theory and Mendel's newly rediscovered ideas). In Britain and the USA particularly, an astonishingly diverse variety of writers (from elite scientists to journalists and writers of fiction) took up the task of interpreting these new biological ideas, using a wide range of genres to help their fellow citizens make sense of biology's promise. From these miscellaneous writings a new and distinctive kind of utopianism emerged - the biotopia. Biotopias offered the dream of a perfect, post-natural world, or the nightmare of violated nature (often in the same text), but above all they conveyed a sense that biology was - for the first time - offering humanity unprecedented control over life. Biotopias often visualized the world as a garden perfected for human use, but this vision was tinged with gendered violence, as it became clear that realizing it entailed dispossessing, or even killing, 'Mother Nature'. Biotopian themes are apparent in journalism, scientific reports and even textbooks, and these non-fiction sources shared many characteristics with intentionally prophetic or utopian fictions. Biotopian themes can be traced back and forth across the porous boundaries between popular and elite writing, showing how biology came to function as public culture. This analysis reveals not only how the historical significance of science is invariably determined outside the scientific world, but also that the ways in which biology was debated during this period continue to characterize today's debates over new biological breakthroughs.

  4. The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.

    PubMed

    Ha, Nathan Q

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command.

  5. Bruised Witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the Performance of Early Twentieth-Century English Forensic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    BURNEY, IAN; PEMBERTON, NEIL

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the status, apparatus and character of forensic pathology in the inter-war period, with a special emphasis on the ‘people’s pathologist’, Bernard Spilsbury. The broad expert and public profile of forensic pathology, of which Spilsbury was the most prominent contemporary representative, will be outlined and discussed. In so doing, close attention will be paid to the courtroom strategies by which he and other experts translated their isolated post-mortem encounters with the dead body into effective testimony. Pathologists built a high-profile practice that transfixed the popular, legal and scientific imagination, and this article also explores, through the celebrated 1925 murder trial of Norman Thorne, how Spilsbury’s courtroom performance focused critical attention on the practices of pathology itself, which threatened to destabilise the status of forensic pathology. In particular, the Thorne case raised questions about the interrelation between bruising and putrefaction as sources of interpretative anxiety. Here, the question of practice is vital, especially in understanding how Spilsbury’s findings clashed with those of rival pathologists whose autopsies centred on a corpse that had undergone further putrefactive changes and that had thereby mutated as an evidentiary object. Examining how pathologists dealt with interpretative problems raised by the instability of their core investigative object enables an analysis of the ways in which pathological investigation of homicide was inflected with a series of conceptual, professional and cultural difficulties stemming in significant ways from the materiality of the corpse itself. This article presents early findings of a larger study of twentieth-century English homicide investigation which focuses on the interaction between two dominant forensic regimes: the first, outlined in part here, is a body-centred forensics, associated with the lone, ‘celebrity’ pathologist, his scalpel and

  6. Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Burney, Ian; Pemberton, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the status, apparatus and character of forensic pathology in the inter-war period, with a special emphasis on the 'people's pathologist', Bernard Spilsbury. The broad expert and public profile of forensic pathology, of which Spilsbury was the most prominent contemporary representative, will be outlined and discussed. In so doing, close attention will be paid to the courtroom strategies by which he and other experts translated their isolated post-mortem encounters with the dead body into effective testimony. Pathologists built a high-profile practice that transfixed the popular, legal and scientific imagination, and this article also explores, through the celebrated 1925 murder trial of Norman Thorne, how Spilsbury's courtroom performance focused critical attention on the practices of pathology itself, which threatened to destabilise the status of forensic pathology. In particular, the Thorne case raised questions about the interrelation between bruising and putrefaction as sources of interpretative anxiety. Here, the question of practice is vital, especially in understanding how Spilsbury's findings clashed with those of rival pathologists whose autopsies centred on a corpse that had undergone further putrefactive changes and that had thereby mutated as an evidentiary object. Examining how pathologists dealt with interpretative problems raised by the instability of their core investigative object enables an analysis of the ways in which pathological investigation of homicide was inflected with a series of conceptual, professional and cultural difficulties stemming in significant ways from the materiality of the corpse itself. This article presents early findings of a larger study of twentieth-century English homicide investigation which focuses on the interaction between two dominant forensic regimes: the first, outlined in part here, is a body-centred forensics, associated with the lone, 'celebrity' pathologist, his scalpel and the mortuary

  7. Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

    PubMed

    Mårald, Erland; Langston, Nancy; Sténs, Anna; Moen, Jon

    2016-02-01

    By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader-and often ecologically focused-concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.

  8. Negotiating Assimilation: Chicago Catholic High Schools' Pursuit of Accreditation in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann Marie

    2006-01-01

    While the national debates over the accreditation of Catholic schools remain an essential element of understanding Catholic education during the early 20th century, this study examines how individuals, groups, and institutions grappled with the perceived need for standardization and increased articulation of schools. In particular, it examines the…

  9. Urania in the Marketplace: Astronomical Imagery in Early Twentieth-Century Advertizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    The pages of popular magazines such as Sky and Telescope and Astronomy are filled with advertisements for telescopes and other equipment. However, during the past century astronomical imagery has been widely used to promote distinctly non-astronomical products and services. One of the earliest and most famous examples is the 1893 Chicago newspaper advertisement for Kirk's Soap, which was inspired by the opening of the Yerkes Observatory. A survey of popular magazines published in America during the first half of the twentieth century suggests that these advertisements fall into four categories: 1) Astronomy is universally regarded as an exact and precise science. Manufacturers of mechanical devices may employ images of telescopes or astronomers at work to suggest that their products meet these same standards of quality. This was primarily the case with makers of automobiles and automotive products, although the Longines Watch Company ran an extensive series of ads featuring observatories. 2) The heavens induce a sense of wonder in most people, and advertisers may locate their products in an a celestial setting to give them an otherworldly flavor. 3) Astronomical observatories themselves are viewed as exotic settings, and have provided backgrounds for automotive and travel ads. They may also appear in advertisements for products used in their construction. 4) Finally, newsworthy astronomical events will inspire advertisers to associate their products with that event, in order to capitalize upon the publicity. This was particularly true in the case of the 1910 passage of Halley's Comet and the 1948 opening of the 200-inch Hale telescope at Mt. Palomar. Examples of magazine advertisements from each category are presented for comparison. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  10. Italian news coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century: A qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Candela, Andrea; Pasquarè Mariotto, Federico

    2016-02-01

    This work uses a qualitative approach coupled with a quantitative software-based methodology to examine the Italian news media coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century. We analyze 80 news stories from two of the most influential Italian newspapers from that time: La Stampa (a daily newspaper) and La Domenica del Corriere (an Italian Sunday supplement). While much of previous research on media coverage of scientific topics was generally focused on present-day news, our work revolves around the ground-breaking discovery of X-rays and radioactivity at the dawn of the last century. Our analysis aims to identify journalistic frames in the news coverage of radiation that journalists might have used to emphasize the benefits (or the risks) of the new discoveries. We also hypothesize how this kind of news coverage might have influenced public perception of technological, commercial, and public health applications of the new scientific advancements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  12. Has psychology "found its true path"? Methods, objectivity, and cries of "crisis" in early twentieth-century French psychology.

    PubMed

    Carson, John

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how French psychologists understood the state of their field during the first quarter of the twentieth century, and whether they thought it was in crisis. The article begins with the Russian-born psychologist Nicolas Kostyleff and his announcement in 1911 that experimental psychology was facing a crisis. After briefly situating Kostyleff, the article examines his analysis of the troubles facing experimental psychology and his proposed solution, as well as the rather muted response his diagnosis received from the French psychological community. The optimism about the field evident in many of the accounts surveying French psychology during the early twentieth century notwithstanding, a few others did join Kostyleff in declaring that all was not well with experimental psychology. Together their pronouncements suggest that under the surface, important unresolved issues faced the French psychological community. Two are singled out: What was the proper methodology for psychology as a positive science? And what kinds of practices could claim to be objective, and in what sense? The article concludes by examining what these anxieties reveal about the type of science that French psychologists hoped to pursue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Planning ideology and geographic thought in the early twentieth century: Charles Whitnall's progressive era park designs for socialist Milwaukee.

    PubMed

    Platt, Lorne A

    2010-01-01

    As Milwaukee’s chief park planner in the early to mid-twentieth century, Charles Whitnall responded to the various underlying ideologies of the period within which he worked. His preference for parks was a political and physical response to and remedy for the industrialized and heavily congested city he called home. By examining the Progressive Era discourse associated with planning, this article situates Whitnall’s work within the political, aesthetic, and environmental contexts of geographic thought that influenced his plans for Milwaukee. In promoting a physical awareness associated with the natural features of the region and responding to the sociopolitical framework of contemporaries such as Ebenezer Howard, Whitnall incorporated a sense of compassion within his planning. He responded to the preexisting beer gardens of Pabst and Schlitz, as well as Olmsted-designed park spaces, by advocating for decentralization as part of a broader socialist agenda that had swept through Milwaukee during the early 1900s.

  14. Techniques for nothingness: Debate over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen in early-twentieth-century Japan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Chuan

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores a debate that took place in Japan in the early twentieth century over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen. The debate was among the first exchanges between psychology and Buddhism in Japan, and it cast doubt on previous assumptions that a clear boundary existed between the two fields. In the debate, we find that contemporaries readily incorporated ideas from psychology and Buddhism to reconstruct the experiences and concepts of hypnosis and Buddhist nothingness. The resulting new theories and techniques of nothingness were fruits of a fairly fluid boundary between the two fields. The debate, moreover, reveals that psychology tried to address the challenges and possibilities posed by religious introspective meditation and intuitive experiences in a positive way. In the end, however, psychology no longer regarded them as viable experimental or psychotherapeutic tools but merely as particular subjective experiences to be investigated and explained.

  15. Freedom to divorce or protection of marriage? The divorce laws in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Le Bouteillec, Nathalie; Bersbo, Zara; Festy, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In the period 1909-1927, new laws concerning divorce and marriage were enacted by the Scandinavian countries. Both at the time and more recently, these laws were considered as "liberal" as they promoted greater freedom to divorce based on individuality and gender equality. In this article, the authors first analyze the changes in these Family laws in the early twentieth century. Then, the authors study the effect of these laws on divorce and marriage patterns. As these laws did not modify the trend in divorce rates, the authors ask why this was the case. The authors' conclusions are that the laws were more concerned with preserving the sanctity of marriage and maintaining social order than with promoting individual freedom and gender equality.

  16. Fumigating the Hygienic Model City: Bubonic Plague and the Sulfurozador in Early-Twentieth-Century Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Lukas

    2018-07-01

    The 1899/1900 arrival of bubonic plague in Argentina had thrown the model status of Buenos Aires as a hygienic city into crisis. Where the idea of foreign threats and imported epidemics had dominated the thinking of Argentina's sanitarians at that time, plague renewed concerns about hidden threats within the fabric of the capital's dense environment; concerns that led to new sanitary measures and unprecedented rat-campaigns supported by the large-scale application of sulphur dioxide. The article tells the story of early twentieth-century urban sanitation in Buenos Aires through the lens of a new industrial disinfection apparatus. The Aparato Marot, also known as Sulfurozador was acquired and integrated in the capital's sanitary administration by the epidemiologist José Penna in 1906 to materialise two key lessons learned from plague. First, the machine was supposed to translate the successful disinfection practices of global maritime sanitation into urban epidemic control in Argentina. Second, the machine's design enabled public health authorities to reinvigorate a traditional hygienic concern for the entirety of the city's terrain. While the Sulfurozador offered effective destruction of rats, it promised also a comprehensive - and utopian - disinfection of the whole city, freeing it from all imaginable pathogens, insects as well as rodents. In 1910, the successful introduction of the Sulfurozador encouraged Argentina's medico-political elite to introduce a new principle of 'general prophylaxis'. This article places the apparatus as a technological modernisation of traditional sanitary practices in the bacteriological age, which preserved the urban environment - 'el terreno' - as a principal site of intervention. Thus, the Sulfurozador allowed the 'higienistas' to sustain a long-standing utopian vision of all-encompassing social, bodily and political hygiene into the twentieth century.

  17. J. E. W. Wallin's Diagnostic Theory for Classifying the Feeble-Minded and Backward in Early Twentieth-Century Public Schools in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshii, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, American psychologists began addressing problems related to the intellectual capacity of students enrolled in public schools. This paper focuses on the role and influence of psychologists in addressing these problems, specifically the difficulty of classifying students deemed feeble-minded and…

  18. Classroom Wall Charts and Biblical History: A Study of Educational Technology in Elementary Schools in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertsson, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the emergence of classroom wall charts as a teaching technology in Swedish elementary schools in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, using Biblical history teaching as an example. There has been some work done internationally on wall charts as an instructional technology, but few studies have looked at their…

  19. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  20. The Scientific Enlightenment System in Russia in the Early Twentieth Century as a Model for Popularizing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balashova, Yuliya B.

    2016-01-01

    This research reconstructs the traditions of scientific enlightenment in Russia. The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was chosen as the most representative period. The modern age saw the establishment of the optimal model for advancing science in the global context and its crucial segment--Russian science. This period was…

  1. BODY MASS INDEX VALUES IN THE GENTRY AND PEASANTRY IN NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY POLAND.

    PubMed

    Czapla, Zbigniew; Liczbińska, Grażyna; Piontek, Janusz

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social and occupational status on the BMI of the gentry and peasantry in the Kingdom of Poland at the turn of 19th and early 20th centuries. Use was made of data on the height and weight of 304 men, including 200 peasants and 104 gentlemen, and 275 women, including 200 from the peasantry and 75 from the gentry. Gentlemen were characterized by a greater body height than peasants (169.40 cm and 166.96 cm, respectively), a greater body weight (67.09 kg and 60.99 kg, respectively) and a higher BMI (23.33 kg/m2 and 21.83 kg/m2, respectively). Landowners and intelligentsia had a greater BMI than peasants (23.12 kg/m2 and 24.20 kg/m2 vs 21.83 kg/m2, respectively). In the case of women, there were no statistically significant differences in mean height, weight and BMI by their social position, and in BMI by occupational status. Underweight occurred less frequently in the gentry and more frequently in the peasantry (0.97% and 2.04%, respectively). Overweight was five times more common in gentlemen than in peasants (26.21% and 5.10%, respectively). Differences in the BMI of gentlefolk and peasants resulted from differences in diet and lifestyle related to socioeconomic status.

  2. A brief history of the American radium industry and its ties to the scientific community of its early twentieth century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Federally funded remedial action projects are presently underway in New Jersey and Colorado at sites containing 226Ra and other radionuclides from radium-uranium ore extraction plants that operated during the early twentieth century. They are but the latest chapter in the story of an American industry that emerged and perished in the span of three decades. Major extraction plants were established in or near Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and New York City (NY) to process radium from ore that came largely from the carnotite deposits of western Colorado and eastern Utah. The staffs of these plants included some of the finest chemists and physicists in the nation, and the highly-refined radium products found a variety of uses in medicine and industry. The discovery of high-grade pitchblende ores in the Belgian Congo and the subsequent opening of an extraction plant near Antwerp, Belgium, in 1992, however, created an economic climate that put an end to the American radium industry. The geologic, chemical, and engineering information gathered during this era formed the basis of the uranium industry of the later part of the century, while the tailings and residues came to be viewed as environmental problems during the same period.

  3. Illustrating phallic worship: uses of material objects and the production of sexual knowledge in eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science.

    PubMed

    Funke, Jana; Fisher, Kate; Grove, Jen; Langlands, Rebecca

    2017-07-03

    This article reveals previously overlooked connections between eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science by presenting a comparative reading of two illustrated books: An Account of the Remains of the Worship of Priapus , by British antiquarian scholar Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824), and Die Weltreise eines Sexualforschers (The World Journey of a Sexologist), by German sexual scientist Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935). A close analysis of these publications demonstrates the special status of material artefacts and the strategic engagement with visual evidence in antiquarian and scientific writings about sex. Through its exploration of the similarities between antiquarian and sexual scientific thought, the article demonstrates the centrality of material culture to the production of sexual knowledge in the Western world. It also opens up new perspectives on Western intellectual history and on the intellectual origins of sexual science. While previous scholarship has traced the beginnings of sexual science back to nineteenth-century medical disciplines, this article shows that sexual scientists drew upon different forms of evidence and varied methodologies to produce sexual knowledge and secure scientific authority. As such, sexual science needs to be understood as a field with diverse intellectual roots that can be traced back (at least) to the eighteenth century.

  4. Illustrating phallic worship: uses of material objects and the production of sexual knowledge in eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science

    PubMed Central

    Funke, Jana; Fisher, Kate; Grove, Jen; Langlands, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article reveals previously overlooked connections between eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science by presenting a comparative reading of two illustrated books: An Account of the Remains of the Worship of Priapus, by British antiquarian scholar Richard Payne Knight (1750–1824), and Die Weltreise eines Sexualforschers (The World Journey of a Sexologist), by German sexual scientist Magnus Hirschfeld (1868–1935). A close analysis of these publications demonstrates the special status of material artefacts and the strategic engagement with visual evidence in antiquarian and scientific writings about sex. Through its exploration of the similarities between antiquarian and sexual scientific thought, the article demonstrates the centrality of material culture to the production of sexual knowledge in the Western world. It also opens up new perspectives on Western intellectual history and on the intellectual origins of sexual science. While previous scholarship has traced the beginnings of sexual science back to nineteenth-century medical disciplines, this article shows that sexual scientists drew upon different forms of evidence and varied methodologies to produce sexual knowledge and secure scientific authority. As such, sexual science needs to be understood as a field with diverse intellectual roots that can be traced back (at least) to the eighteenth century. PMID:29393929

  5. Fire Disasters in the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Cavallini, M.; Papagni, M.F.; Baruffaldi Preis, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    Summary In the field of natural and man-made disasters, fire has played a predominant role. A report is presented of fire disasters in the twentieth century, with a chronological analysis of different worldwide typologies. PMID:21991077

  6. Circuit Chautauqua: From Rural Education to Popular Entertainment in Early Twentieth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, John Edward

    In 1874, Methodist minister John Vincent began a Sunday school retreat on the shores of Lake Chautauqua, New York, the mission of which was education. Initial offerings such as Bible reading, biblical geography, and public oration were supplemented with general education and entertainment activities. In the late 19th century, the Chautauqua…

  7. Landscapes and Literature: A Look at the Early Twentieth Century Rural South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Examines samples of southern literature from the first half of the century that can be used to understand, geographically, the rural landscapes of the Coastal Plain from North Carolina through Mississippi. Addresses the socioeconomic imprint upon the land, climatic perceptions, and the role of the forest in literary works. (CMK)

  8. Unwelcome Stranger to the System: Vocational Education in Early Twentieth-Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Both in China and internationally, educators and policy makers claim that vocational education and training (VET) is essential for the sound economic development of a country and the physical and social well-being of its population. However, China looks back upon a century-long history of rejection when it comes to popularising VET, despite…

  9. Educational Sciences, Morality and Politics: International Educational Congresses in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Eckhardt

    2004-01-01

    Internationalism became one of the keywords in the international intellectual and political debates at the end of the nineteenth century. As a political, cultural and social movement it also included science and education. The desire for international cooperation and global understanding was caused by the growing economic interdependence in the…

  10. Reformist and Feminist Views of Sport in the Early Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Susan J.

    This paper examines the development of women's sports during the first three decades of the 20th century and compares it with the development of the women's movement during the same period. In so doing, the paper focuses on the views of female physical educators and female athletes and on their participation in sport. These views and the…

  11. Making Space for Red Tide: Discolored Water and the Early Twentieth Century Bayscape of Japanese Pearl Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Kjell

    2017-05-01

    "Red tide" has become a familiar shorthand for unusual changes in the color of ocean waters. It is intimately related both to blooms of creatures like dinoflagellates and to the devastating effects they pose to coastal fisheries. This essay tracks the early twentieth century emergence of discolored water as an aquacultural problem, known in Japan as akashio, and its trans-oceanic transformation into the terms and practices of "red tide" in the post-World War II United States. For Japan's "Pearl King" Mikimoto Kōkichi and his contacts in diverse marine scientific communities, the years-long cycle of guarding and cultivating a pearl oyster went together with the ascription of moral qualities to tiny creatures that posed a threat to farmed bayscapes of pearl monoculture. As akashio, discolored water went from curiosity to marine livestock pest, one that at times left dead pearl oysters in its wake. Red tide arose from the sustained study of the mechanisms by which changes in the biological and chemical composition of seawater might become deadly to exclusively-claimed shellfish along Japanese coastlines, but came to be seen as a way to understand aquatic manifestations of harm in other parts of the littoral world.

  12. The instrumental seismicity of the Barents and Kara sea region: relocated event catalog from early twentieth century to 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Alexey Nikolaevich; Vaganova, Natalya V.; Asming, Vladimir E.; Konechnaya, Yana V.; Evtyugina, Zinaida A.

    2018-05-01

    We have relocated seismic events registered within the Barents and Kara sea region from early twentieth century to 1989 with a view to creating a relocated catalog. For the relocation, we collected all available seismic bulletins from the global network using data from the ISC Bulletin (International Seismological Centre), ISC-GEM project (International Seismological Centre-Global Earthquake Model), EuroSeismos project, and by Soviet seismic stations from Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The location was performed by applying a modified method of generalized beamforming. We have considered several travel time models and selected one with the best location accuracy for ground truth events. Verification of the modified method and selection of the travel time model were performed using data on four nuclear explosions that occurred in the area of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago and in the north of the European part of Russia. The modified method and the Barents travel time model provide sufficient accuracy for event location in the region. The relocation procedure was applied to 31 of 36 seismic events registered within the Barents and Kara sea region.

  13. Chinese paleontology and the reception of Darwinism in early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaobo

    2017-12-01

    The paper examines the social, cultural and disciplinary factors that influenced the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by China's first generation paleontologists. Darwinism was mixed with Social Darwinism when first introduced to China, and the co-option of Darwinian phrases for nationalistic awakening obscured the scientific essence of Darwin's evolutionary theory. First generation Chinese paleontologists started their training in 1910s-1920s. They quickly asserted their professional identity by successfully focusing on morphology, taxonomy and biostratigraphy. Surrounded by Western paleontologists with Lamarckian or orthogenetic leanings, early Chinese paleontologists enthusiastically embraced evolution and used fossils as factual evidence; yet not enough attention was given to mechanistic evolutionary studies. The 1940s saw the beginning of a new trend for early Chinese paleontologists to incorporate more biological and biogeographical components in their work, but external events such as the dominance of Lysenkoism in the 1950s made the Modern Synthesis pass by without being publicly noticed in Chinese paleontology. Characterized by the larger goal of using science for nation building and by the utilitarian approach favoring local sciences, the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by first generation Chinese paleontologists raise important questions for studying the indigenizing efforts of early Chinese scientists to appropriate Western scientific theories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Science and miscegenation in the early twentieth century: Edgard Roquette-Pinto's debates and controversies with US physical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Souza, Vanderlei Sebastião de

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes Brazilian anthropologist Edgard Roquette-Pinto's participation in the international debate that involved the field of physical anthropology and discussions on miscegenation in the first decades of the twentieth century. Special focus is on his readings and interpretations of a group of US anthropologists and eugenicists and his controversies with them, including Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, and Franz Boas. The article explores the various ways in which Roquette-Pinto interpreted and incorporated their ideas and how his anthropological interpretations took on new meanings when they moved beyond Brazil's borders.

  15. Physics in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskopf, Victor F.

    1970-01-01

    Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

  16. Metallographic examination of the structure of the metal of cold arms of the nineteenth-early twentieth centuries made at the Zlatoust arms factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Rodionov, D. P.; Gerasimov, V. Yu.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.

    2010-11-01

    Data are given concerning the structure and the chemical composition of carbon steel used for making cold arms, which was produced at the Zlatoust arms factory in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The results of the analysis of the structure of metal demonstrates the general trend of the development of metallurgy both at the Ural plants and in the world: from the creation of the crucible methods of production of cast steel to the mass production of cast steel by the Bessemer and Martin methods.

  17. Freedom of Speech as Protected by the States: A Review of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century State Court Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbeck, Dale A.

    While some analysts have asserted that the First Amendment was intended to prohibit laws against seditious libel (speech overtly critical of the government), the judicial record reveals a willingness to tolerate some onerous infringements on free expression. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, 25 states passed "sedition" or…

  18. [Twentieth-century Penelopes: popular culture revisited].

    PubMed

    Favaro, Cleci Eulalia

    2010-01-01

    During their settlement of the so-called Old Italian Colonies of Rio Grande do Sul, immigrants constructed a set of positive values that were to serve as an emotional support and a means of outside communication. When women immigrants embroidered images and sayings on wall hangings or kitchen towels made of rustic fabric, they helped nourish the dream of a better life, sought by all and achieved by some. The objects crafted by these twentieth-century Penelopes bear witness to a way of doing, thinking, and acting. Local museums and exhibits have fostered the recovery of old-time embroidery techniques and themes; sold at open-air markets and regional festivals, these products represent income for women whose age excludes them from the formal labor market.

  19. Unmarried motherhood in twentieth-century England.

    PubMed

    Thane, Pat

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of unmarried mothers who kept and tried to raise their children between World War One and the end of the twentieth century. It argues that there has not been a simple progression from their experiencing social stigma and ostracism to more enlightened attitudes since the 1970s. Rather there is a great deal that has hitherto been unknown about what the evidence suggests were very diverse experiences and attitudes throughout the period. A major change since the 1970s has been from pervasive secrecy about unmarried motherhood, cohabitation, adultery and similar 'irregular' practices, especially among the middle classes, to greater openness. The article uses a variety of sources, including the records of the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and Her Child (founded in 1918, now One Parent Families), oral histories, contemporary interviews and official and unofficial investigations.

  20. Veterinary entomology, colonial science and the challenge of tick-borne diseases in South Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Brown, K

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an historical overview of developments in veterinary entomology during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During that period state employed entomologists and veterinary scientists discovered that ticks were responsible for transmitting a number of livestock diseases in South Africa. Diseases such as heartwater, redwater and gallsickness were endemic to the country. They had a detrimental effect on pastoral output, which was a mainstay of the national economy. Then in 1902 the decimating cattle disease East Coast fever arrived making the search for cures or preventatives all the more urgent. Vaccine technologies against tick-borne diseases remained elusive overall and on the basis of scientific knowledge, the South African state recommended regularly dipping animals in chemical solutions to destroy the ticks. Dipping along with quarantines and culls resulted in the eradication of East Coast fever from South Africa in the early 1950s. However, from the 1930s some ticks evolved a resistance to the chemical dips meaning that diseases like redwater were unlikely to be eliminated by that means. Scientists toiled to improve upon existing dipping technologies and also carried out ecological surveys to enhance their ability to predict outbreaks. Over the longer term dipping was not a panacea and ticks continue to present a major challenge to pastoral farming.

  1. Vienna in the Early Twentieth Century: The Cultural Response to Modernization. Curriculum Units, NEH Institute, Summer 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene.

    These curriculum units were developed by participants in the National Endowment for the Humanities seminar at the University of Oregon in 1993. The lessons include: (1) "Schule, Freunde, Liebe: Wien um die Jahrhundertwende (School, Friends, Love: Vienna at the Turn of the Century)" (Linda Hansen; Glenn Tetterton-Opheim); (2) "Kultur…

  2. Enduring Visions of Instruction in Academic Libraries: A Review of a Spirited Early Twentieth-Century Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunselman, Cheryl; Blakesley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most enduring, and engaging, questions within academic librarianship are those about students and research skills. The vocabulary employed for discussion has evolved, but essential questions--what skills do students need to be taught, who should teach them, and how?--have persisted from the nineteenth century into the twenty-first.…

  3. Informal Learning in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Greece: Greek Children's Literature in Historical and Political Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zervas, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    After Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire (1827), a newly formed Greek state looked to retrieve its past through the teaching of a Greek national history. For much of the nineteenth century Greek schools forged common religious, linguistic, and historical ties among the Greek people through the teaching of a Greek historical past (Zervas…

  4. From Danger and Motherhood to Health and Beauty: Health Advice for the Factory Girl in Early Twentieth-Century Britain1

    PubMed Central

    LONG, VICKY; MARLAND, HILARY

    2015-01-01

    A survey of government reports and the archives and journals of other agencies interested in industrial health in early twentieth-century Britain has led us to conclude that, in addition to apprehension about the potentially harmful impact of industrial work on the reproductive health of women, there was a great deal of interest in the health of young, unmarried girls in the workplace, particularly the factory. Adopting a broader time frame, we suggest that the First World War, with its emphasis on the reproductive health of women, was an anomalous experience in a broader trend which stressed the growing acceptability of women’s work within industry. Concern with girls’ health and welfare embraced hygiene, diet, exercise, recreation, fashion and beauty within and outside of the workplace, as well as the impact of the boredom and monotony associated with industrial work. The health problems of young women workers tended to be associated with behaviour and environment rather than biology, as were anxieties about the impact of work on morals, habits and character. Efforts to ensure that young female factory workers would be equipped to take their place as citizens and parents, we argue, often dovetailed rather than diverged with the ‘boy labour’ question. PMID:20481061

  5. A Computer Compatible System for the Categorization, Enumeration, and Retrieval of Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Archaeological Material Culture. Part 2. Manual for Identification and Classification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    process, when aged and subject to archaeological conditions, often blackens. (14) Jewelry set This category includes all cut or ground glass insets used to...individually ground to fit, and in fact the ground glass stoppers are still in use for decanters and perfume bottles. After this date, bottle openings...hollow ground and heavier at one end. Safety razors using separate blades did not appear commercially until the first . decade of the twentieth century

  6. Global generations: social change in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, June; Turner, Bryan S

    2005-12-01

    The concept of generation within sociology has until recently been a marginal area of interest. However, various demographic, cultural and intellectual developments have re-awakened an interest in generations that started with the classic essay by Karl Mannheim. To date, the sociological literature has generally conceptualized generations as nationally bounded entities. In this paper we suggest that the sociology of generations should develop the concept of global generations. This conceptual enhancement is important because the growth of global communications technology has enabled traumatic events, in an unparalleled way, to be experienced globally. The late nineteenth and early twentieth century was the era of international generations, united through print media, and the mid-twentieth century saw the emergence of transnational generations, facilitated by new broadcast communications. However, the latter part of the twentieth century is the period of global generations, defined by electronic communications technology, which is characterized, uniquely, by increasing interactivity. The 1960s generation was the first global generation, the emergence of which had world-wide consequences; today with major developments in new electronic communications, there is even more potential for the emergence of global generations that can communicate across national boundaries and through time. If in the past historical traumas combined with available opportunities to create national generations, now globally experienced traumas, facilitated by new media technologies, have the potential for creating global generational consciousness. The media have become increasingly implicated in the formation of generational movements. Because we are talking about generations in the making rather than an historical generation, this article is necessarily speculative; it aims to provoke discussion and establish a new research agenda for work on generations.

  7. Politics and pellagra: the epidemic of pellagra in the U.S. in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed Central

    Bollet, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The epidemic of pellagra in the first half of this century at its peak produced at least 250,000 cases and caused 7,000 deaths a year for several decades in 15 southern states. It also filled hospital wards in other states, which had a similar incidence but refused to report their cases. Political influences interfered, not only with surveillance of the disease, but also in its study, recognition of its cause, and the institution of preventive measures when they became known. Politicians and the general public felt that it was more acceptable for pellagra to be infectious than for it to be a form of malnutrition, a result of poverty and thus an embarrassing social problem. Retrospectively, a change in the method of milling cornmeal, degermination, which began shortly after 1900, probably accounted for the appearance of the epidemic; such a process was suggested at the time, but the suggestion was ignored. PMID:1285449

  8. Studies of Socioeconomic and Ethnic Differences in Intelligence in the Former Soviet Union in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigoriev, Andrei; Lynn, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies of socioeconomic and ethnic and racial differences in intelligence carried out in Russia/USSR during the late 1920s and early 1930s. In these studies the IQs of social classes and of ethnic minorities were tested. These included Tatars (a Caucasoid people), Chuvash and Altai (mixed Caucasoid-Mongoloid peoples), Evenk…

  9. Confirmation of an early estimation for an increase in the seismic activity towards the end of the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritakis, V.; Repapis, C.; Karamanos, J. A.

    2018-04-01

    A new series analysis from 1970 to 2015 of earthquakes with moment magnitude Mw ≥ 6.5 on a global scale, confirms an early estimation, since the 1980s that seismic activity after 1990 would be increased in relation to the previous period.

  10. Graphs as a Managerial Tool: A Case Study of Du Pont's Use of Graphs in the Early Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, JoAnne

    1985-01-01

    Sketches the development of business graphs in America. Examines their early use at Du Pont and the origin of the chart room around 1920, an important factor in the executive control systems at Du Pont. Draws lessons from this case study for managers and teachers of business communication. (PD)

  11. "God save us from psychologists as expert witnesses": the battle for forensic psychology in early twentieth-century Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolffram, Heather

    2015-11-01

    This article is focused on the jurisdictional battle between psychiatrists and psychologists over psychological expertise in legal contexts that took place during the first decades of the 20th century. Using, as an example, the debate between the psychologist William Stern, the psychiatrist Albert Moll, and the jurist Albert Hellwig, which occurred at the International Congress for Sexual Research held in Berlin in 1926, it aims to demonstrate the manner in which psychiatrists' responses to psychologists' attempts to gain admittance to Germany's courtrooms were shaped not only by epistemological and methodological objections, but also by changes to expert witnessing that had already encroached on psychiatrists' professional territory. Building upon recent work examining the relationship between psychologists and jurists prior to the First World War, this article also seeks to examine the role of judges and lawyers in the contest over forensic psychology in the mid-1920s, arguing that they ultimately became referees in the increasingly public disputes between psychiatrists and psychologists. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alyson

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems. It is important to recognise that these children have been sexually abused and that…

  13. Rethinking Folk Culture in Twentieth-Century Britain.

    PubMed

    Carter, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Research on folk culture in twentieth-century Britain has focused on elite and transgressive political episodes, but these were not its mainstream manifestations. This article re-evaluates the place of folk culture in twentieth-century Britain in the context of museums. It argues that in the modern heritage landscape folk culture was in an active dialogue with the modern democracy. This story begins with the vexed, and ultimately failed, campaign for a national English folk museum and is traced through the concurrent successes of local, regional, and Celtic 'first wave' folk museums across Britain from the 1920s to the 1960s. The educational activities of these museums are explored as emblematic of a 'conservative modernity', which gave opportunities to women but also restricted their capacity to do intellectual work. By the 1970s, a 'second wave' folk museology is identified, revealing how forms of folk culture successfully accommodated the rapid social change of the later twentieth century, particularly in deindustrializing regions. From this new, museums' perspective, folk culture appears far less marginal to twentieth-century British society. In museums folk culture interacted with mainstream concerns about education, regionalism, and commercialization. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Our Time: The Legacy of the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Tom

    2014-01-01

    We are probably only at the beginning of our understanding of a period of time that gave us a new name for an old language, "ASL," a new consciousness called "Deaf culture," a national uprising called "DPN," and a science fiction-like new technology called "VP." The two halves of the twentieth century might…

  15. Outdoor Physical Education in French Schools during the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Michaël; Saint-Martin, Jean

    2017-01-01

    During the twentieth century, outdoor physical education (OPE) gradually integrated with the French education system. Culturally speaking, OPE had to overcome several hurdles because it promoted values such as freedom, initiative and responsibility that were deemed incompatible with the existing educational model. Beyond being a pedagogical tool,…

  16. Hybrid Practices Meet Nation-State Language Policies: Transcarpathia in the Twentieth Century and Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernicskó, István; Laihonen, Petteri

    2016-01-01

    From the early twentieth century to the present day, Transcarpathia has belonged to several states: the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy, Czechoslovakia, the Hungarian Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and finally to Ukraine. The status of what counts as a minority and a majority language has changed each time the state affiliation has been changed. Based on…

  17. The Not-so-Dark Ages: ecology for human growth in medieval and early twentieth century Portugal as inferred from skeletal growth profiles.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Garcia, Susana

    2009-02-01

    This study attempts to address the issue of relative living standards in Portuguese medieval and early 20th century periods. Since the growth of children provides a good measure of environmental quality for the overall population, the skeletal growth profiles of medieval Leiria and early 20th century Lisbon were compared. Results show that growth in femur length of medieval children did not differ significantly from that of early 20th century children, but after puberty medieval adolescents seem to have recovered, as they have significantly longer femora as adults. This is suggestive of greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents. We suggest that this results from distinct child labor practices, which impact differentially on the growth of Leiria and Lisbon adolescents. Work for medieval children and adolescents were related to family activities, and care and attention were provided by family members. Conversely, in early 20th century Lisbon children were more often sent to factories at around 12 years of age as an extra source of family income, where they were exploited for their labor. Since medieval and early 20th century children were stunted at an early age, greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents results from exhausting work being added to modern adolescent's burdens of disease and poor diet, when they entered the labor market. Although early 20th century Lisbon did not differ in overall unfavorable living conditions from medieval Leiria, after puberty different child labor practices may have placed modern adolescents at greater risk of undernutrition and poor growth. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Late Twentieth-Century Racial Uplift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Shirley Wilson

    This paper presents a description and brief history of the concept of "racial uplift" and describes its implications for a contemporary, Black college professor. The phrase "racial uplift," for 19th-century Black women, describes almost any type of political activity designed to improve conditions for Black people during the…

  19. Metal pollution in Spanish terrestrial ecosystems during the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Peñuelas, Josep; Filella, Iolanda

    2002-01-01

    We show here additional biological evidence of the alteration in global biogeochemistry by human activities during the twentieth century. The mineral concentration of herbarium specimens of 24 species of vascular plants and three species of bryophytes collected in North and East regions of Spain have substantially changed throughout the twentieth century. While V, a proxy tracer of oil pollution, exponentially increased in the last decades, other metals such as Cr, Ba, Sr, Al, Fe, Pb, Cd and Ti increased up to 1960-1970 and started to decrease in 1985-1995, when environmental legal regulations started to be effective. Multivariate principal component analysis showed an overall change in plant elemental concentrations throughout the different decades of the century and a clear separation of vascular plants and bryophytes. Likely important consequences for ecosystem structure and functioning and even for human health may be expected from these changes in mineral concentration.

  20. Mammalian developmental genetics in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas.

  1. Mammalian Developmental Genetics in the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas. PMID:23212897

  2. Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2015-01-22

    Estimating and accounting for twentieth-century global mean sea level (GMSL) rise is critical to characterizing current and future human-induced sea-level change. Several previous analyses of tide gauge records--employing different methods to accommodate the spatial sparsity and temporal incompleteness of the data and to constrain the geometry of long-term sea-level change--have concluded that GMSL rose over the twentieth century at a mean rate of 1.6 to 1.9 millimetres per year. Efforts to account for this rate by summing estimates of individual contributions from glacier and ice-sheet mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and changes in land water storage fall significantly short in the period before 1990. The failure to close the budget of GMSL during this period has led to suggestions that several contributions may have been systematically underestimated. However, the extent to which the limitations of tide gauge analyses have affected estimates of the GMSL rate of change is unclear. Here we revisit estimates of twentieth-century GMSL rise using probabilistic techniques and find a rate of GMSL rise from 1901 to 1990 of 1.2 ± 0.2 millimetres per year (90% confidence interval). Based on individual contributions tabulated in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this estimate closes the twentieth-century sea-level budget. Our analysis, which combines tide gauge records with physics-based and model-derived geometries of the various contributing signals, also indicates that GMSL rose at a rate of 3.0 ± 0.7 millimetres per year between 1993 and 2010, consistent with prior estimates from tide gauge records.The increase in rate relative to the 1901-90 trend is accordingly larger than previously thought; this revision may affect some projections of future sea-level rise.

  3. Twentieth Century Thinkers in Adult & Continuing Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 19 papers on 20th century thinkers in adult and continuing education. The book is arranged in four parts as follows: early 20th century English thinkers; early 20th century American thinkers; theorists of adult and continuing education; and theorists of adult education and social change. The following papers are included:…

  4. Embedding the New Science of Research: The Organised Culture of Scottish Educational Research in the Mid-Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Deary, Ian J.; Bartholomew, David J.; Brett, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Educational research was established in the early decades of the twentieth century in many parts of Europe. The early years were the crucial years as they established dominant forms of inquiry, pioneer sites, and related artefacts, the tools and texts. This paper focuses on the early growth of research culture in education in Scotland, its…

  5. Changing notions of lone motherhood in twentieth-century Finland.

    PubMed

    May, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Through written life stories of lone mothers, this article examines changes in lone motherhood in twentieth-century Finland. While the older life-story writers' narratives are clearly influenced by an 'ethos of survival' and the regulation of female sexuality, the younger writers relate their experiences with the help of scripts on gender equality and the psychological importance of 'good' parenting. These narrative shifts point to important changes in cultural scripts on women's positions in families, on the labour market, and in society.

  6. Compulsory schooling reforms, education and mortality in twentieth century Europe.

    PubMed

    Gathmann, Christina; Jürges, Hendrik; Reinhold, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    Education yields substantial non-monetary benefits, but the size of these gains is still debated. Previous studies report causal effects of education and compulsory schooling on mortality ranging anywhere from zero to large and negative. Using data from 18 compulsory schooling reforms implemented in Europe during the twentieth century, we quantify the average mortality gain and explore its dispersion across gender, time and countries. We find that more education yields small mortality reductions in the short- and long-run for men. In contrast, women seem to experience no mortality reductions from compulsory schooling reforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exceptional twentieth-century slowdown in Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan; Box, Jason E.; Feulner, Georg; Mann, Michael E.; Robinson, Alexander; Rutherford, Scott; Schaffernicht, Erik J.

    2015-05-01

    Possible changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) provide a key source of uncertainty regarding future climate change. Maps of temperature trends over the twentieth century show a conspicuous region of cooling in the northern Atlantic. Here we present multiple lines of evidence suggesting that this cooling may be due to a reduction in the AMOC over the twentieth century and particularly after 1970. Since 1990 the AMOC seems to have partly recovered. This time evolution is consistently suggested by an AMOC index based on sea surface temperatures, by the hemispheric temperature difference, by coral-based proxies and by oceanic measurements. We discuss a possible contribution of the melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet to the slowdown. Using a multi-proxy temperature reconstruction for the AMOC index suggests that the AMOC weakness after 1975 is an unprecedented event in the past millennium (p > 0.99). Further melting of Greenland in the coming decades could contribute to further weakening of the AMOC.

  8. Rabid epidemiologies: the emergence and resurgence of rabies in twentieth century South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brown, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the history of rabies in South Africa since the early twentieth century. It argues that rabies is a zoonotic disease that traverses rural and urban spaces, that transfers itself between wild and domestic animals and remains a potential threat to human life in the region. Scientists discovered an indigenous form of rabies, found primarily in the yellow mongoose, after the first biomedically confirmed human fatalities in 1928. Since the 1950s canine rabies, presumed to have moved southwards from across the Zambezi River, has become endemic also. South Africa is home to a comparatively large number of rabies strains and animal carriers, making it a particularly interesting case study. Environmental changes during the colonial and apartheid periods have helped to explain the increase in rabies cases since the mid-twentieth century. Moreover, developments in the biological and ecological sciences have provided insights into why the rabies virus has become endemic in certain wildlife species.

  9. Great Plains Drought in Simulations of Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrary, R. R.; Randall, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Great Plains region of the United States was influenced by a number of multi-year droughts during the twentieth century. Most notable were the "Dust Bowl" drought of the 1930s and the 1950s Great Plains drought. In this study we evaluate the ability of three of the Coupled Global Climate Models (CGCMs) used in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the IPCC to simulate Great Plains drought with the same frequency and intensity as was observed during the twentieth century. The models chosen for this study are: GFDL CM 2.0, NCAR CCSM3, and UKMO HadCM3. We find that the models accurately capture the climatology of the hydrologic cycle of the Great Plains, but that they tend to overestimate the variability in Great Plains precipitation. We also find that in each model simulation at least one long-term drought occurs over the Great Plains region during their representations 20th Century Climate. The multi-year droughts produced by the models exhibit similar magnitudes and spatial scales as was observed during the twentieth century. This study also investigates the relative roles that external forcing from the tropical Pacific and local feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere have in the initiation and perpetuation of Great Plains drought in each model. We find that cool, La Nina-like conditions in the tropical pacific are often associated with long-term drought conditions over the Great Plains in GFDL CM 2.0 and UKMO HadCM3, but there appears to be no systematic relationship between tropical Pacific SST variability and Great Plains drought in CCSM3. It is possible the strong coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere in the NCAR model causes precipitation anomalies to lock into phase over the Great Plains thereby perpetuating drought conditions. Results from this study are intended to help assess whether or not these climate models are credible for use in the assessment of future drought over the Great Plains region of the United States.

  10. The rise of a science in the early twentieth century: the forgotten voice of Gualtiero Sarfatti and the first "social psychology" volumes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sensales, Gilda; Dal Secco, Alessandra

    2014-02-01

    Establishing social psychology as a distinct field of study has been the object of heated debate over the first decades of the 20th century. Entrenched in different theoretical traditions, such as philosophy, sociology, psychology, and criminology, the development of the conceptual boundaries of social psychology as an autonomous science was the result of a historic effort. Resulting from a negotiation process between competing stances, some voices relevant to the identity construction of social psychology have been lost over time. Within the framework of a "polycentric" historical perspective valorizing local histories, the present study aims to scrutinize those early voices, which were later marginalized. To this scope, we conducted a narrative analysis on the first volumes explicitly naming social psychology in their titles and identified the main themes, conceptual frameworks, and scientific advancements. The analysis illustrates the work of Gualtiero Sarfatti and articulates his forgotten contribution to drawing social psychology as a distinct discipline, built on the scientific method and positioned within the psychological sociocentric tradition. Our analysis reveals the leading role of Sarfatti in the disciplinary foundation of social psychology as a psychological science based on the concept of social psyche. Yet despite the fact his contribution was influential in the scholarly community of his time, our work highlights how his voice vanished from the subsequent disciplinary developments to date, and suggests some explanations behind this neglect.

  11. Intercultural Education by Governesses (Seventeenth to Twentieth Century)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardach-Pinke, Irene

    2010-01-01

    One of the early forms of intercultural education was the upbringing of children by foreign governesses, who appeared on the European labour market during the seventeenth century. In Germany families of the gentry and the wealthy middle-classes began, since the eighteenth century, to copy the upbringing of princely children. They too wanted their…

  12. Climate of Hungary in the twentieth century according to Feddema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ács, Ferenc; Breuer, Hajnalka; Skarbit, Nóra

    2015-01-01

    Feddema's (Physical Geography 26:442-466, 2005) bioclimatic classification scheme is applied to Hungary for the twentieth century using the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data series. The method is tested in two modes. In the first, its original form is used which is suitable for global scale analysis. In the second, the criteria used in the method are slightly modified for mesoscale classification purposes. In both versions, potential evapotranspiration (PET) is calculated using McKenney and Rosenberg's (Meteorol 64:81-110, 1993) formula. We showed that McKenney and Rosenberg's formula could be applied to Hungary. According to Feddema's global scale application, local climates of the three main geographical regions, the Great Hungarian Plain, the North Hungarian Mountains, and Transdanubia, can be distinguished. However, the spatial distribution pattern within the regions is poorly reproduced, if at all. According to Feddema's mesoscale application, a picture of climatic subregions could be observed.

  13. Twentieth-Century Literature in the Survey and in the Special Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lynda G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides a semester syllabus for a course in twentieth-century world literature and suggests selections to add to a world literature survey based on works of Nobel Prize winners. Includes an annotated bibliography of background information on both the literature and the philosophies of the twentieth century. (MKM)

  14. Advances in Plant Health Management in the Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Cook, R James

    2000-09-01

    ▪ Abstract  Plant health management is the science and practice of understanding and overcoming the succession of biotic and abiotic factors that limit plants from achieving their full genetic potential as crops, ornamentals, timber trees, or other uses. Although practiced as long as agriculture itself, as a science-based concept, plant heath management is even younger than integrated pest management (IPM), and includes and builds upon but is not a replacement for IPM. Probably the greatest collection of success stories for plant health management is the number of diseases managed by cleaning up the planting material. The record for root health management is more mixed, with the loss or phase-out of soil fumigants, and practices such as crop rotation and clean tillage being replaced with more intensive cropping and less or no tillage. Perhaps the greatest scientific and technical advances for plant health management have come from the work aimed at management of the pathogens, pests, and other hazards that arrive by air. Flor's work on flax rust, which produced the gene-for-gene model, is possibly the most significant contribution of plant pathology to the life sciences in the twentieth century. Research aimed at the management of foliar pathogens is also the basis for modern theory on epidemiology, population biology, aerobiology, and disease prediction and decision-support systems. Even IPM arose mainly in response to the need to protect crops from pests that arrive by air. If the definition of biological control includes the plant induced or genetically modified to defend itself, as it should, then biological control has been the most significant approach to plant health management during the twentieth century and promises through modern biotechnology to be even more significant in the twenty-first century. Rather than "reducing losses," the advances are discussed here within the simple framework of achieving the attainable yield by increasing the actual and

  15. Hydrotherapy in state mental hospitals in the mid-twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Rebecca Bouterie

    2009-08-01

    This research describes nurses' experiences in administering "the water cure," hot or cold wet sheet packs, and continuous tub baths in state mental hospitals during the early twentieth century. Student and graduate nurses were required to demonstrate competence in hydrotherapy treatments used to calm agitated or manic patients in the era before neuroleptics. The nurses interviewed for this study indicated that, although labor intensive, hydrotherapy worked, at least temporarily. Although no longer used in state hospitals, hydrotherapy is regaining popularity with the general public and may serve as an adjunct to pharmacological treatments to calm hospitalized patients in the future.

  16. Léon Marillier and the veridical hallucination in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century French psychology and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Le Maléfan, Pascal; Sommer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the professionalization of psychology at the end of the nineteenth century shows how objects of knowledge which appear illegitimate to us today shaped the institutionalization of disciplines. The veridical or telepathic hallucination was one of these objects, constituting a field both of division and exchange between nascent psychology and disciplines known as 'psychic sciences' in France, and 'psychical research' in the Anglo-American context. In France, Leon Marillier (1862-1901) was the main protagonist in discussions concerning the concept of the veridical hallucination, which gave rise to criticisms by mental specialists and psychopathologists. After all, not only were these hallucinations supposed to occur in healthy subjects, but they also failed to correspond to the Esquirolian definition of hallucinations through being corroborated by their representation of external, objective events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were “global” in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others. PMID:26689938

  18. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others.

  19. Ecumenism, Economic Necessity and the Disappearance of Methodist Elementary Schools in England in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to define the extent of, and causes for, the decline of the Wesleyan educational effort in England in the twentieth century. In 1902 the Church had 738 schools, but these rapidly declined throughout the century, with only 28 remaining in 1996. The establishment of these schools during the nineteenth century had been largely for the…

  20. Sulfate Aerosol Control of Tropical Atlantic Climate over the Twentieth Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C.-Y.; Chiang, J. C. H.; Wehner, M. F.; Friedman, A. R.; Ruedy, R.

    2011-01-01

    The tropical Atlantic interhemispheric gradient in sea surface temperature significantly influences the rainfall climate of the tropical Atlantic sector, including droughts over West Africa and Northeast Brazil. This gradient exhibits a secular trend from the beginning of the twentieth century until the 1980s, with stronger warming in the south relative to the north. This trend behavior is on top of a multi-decadal variation associated with the Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation. A similar long-term forced trend is found in a multimodel ensemble of forced twentieth-century climate simulations. Through examining the distribution of the trend slopes in the multimodel twentieth-century and preindustrial models, the authors conclude that the observed trend in the gradient is unlikely to arise purely from natural variations; this study suggests that at least half the observed trend is a forced response to twentieth-century climate forcings. Further analysis using twentieth-century single-forcing runs indicates that sulfate aerosol forcing is the predominant cause of the multimodel trend. The authors conclude that anthropogenic sulfate aerosol emissions, originating predominantly from the Northern Hemisphere, may have significantly altered the tropical Atlantic rainfall climate over the twentieth century

  1. Landlordism, Rent Regulation and the Labour Party in mid-twentieth century Britain, 1950-64.

    PubMed

    Child, Phil

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the politics of private renting in 1950s and early 1960s Britain, through the radical approach taken by Labour Party towards private landlords. Through setting the radical aims of Labour in a mid-twentieth-century context of decrepit housing, rising rents and sluggish public housing programmes, Labour's rationale in arguing for the 'abolition' of the private landlord is more transparent. This article takes a chronological approach, investigating what actions Labour actors took, at local and national level, and what effect this had on the wider housing market. Part one takes a long view of Labour attitudes to the private rented sector. Part two explores the policy of 'municipalization'-the attempt to place rented homes under local authority control. Part three discusses the post-1962 policy shift to state-sponsored 'improvement' of private rented housing, prior to Labour's victory at the 1964 general election. Three key arguments are made: that Labour's radicalism hastened the collapse of the post-war private rented sector; that rental market weaknesses indicated the confused place of renting in the 'tenurial pattern'; and that the proposed 'abolition' of private landlords had a direct effect on slum clearance and the composition of British cities. The conclusion suggests that Labour's pursuit of the private landlord can shed light on the vast urban transformations of the post-war period. It invites greater attention to be paid to the effects that political ideas had on the composition of the twentieth-century British housing market.

  2. Monolingualism and Prescriptivism: The Ecology of Slovene in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savski, Kristof

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the ecology of Slovene in the twentieth century by focusing on two key emergent themes. It focuses firstly on monolingualism as a key goal for Slovene language planners, starting with their efforts to create a standard language with no German influences in the nineteenth century, and continuing in their work to prevent…

  3. [Puppet shows, Mexican television and health education in the mid-twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Gudiño, María Rosa; Sosenski, Susana

    2017-01-01

    This article resurrects the puppet show Las calenturas de Don Ferruco (Don Ferruco's Fevers), which was televised in the late 1950s in order to help eradicate malaria in Mexico, as a useful instrument for health education. It analyzes how the spread of educational puppet shows on Mexican television showed the need to keep updating preventive healthcare pedagogy and it underlines the importance of television as an educational health-promotion production in the mid-twentieth century. The article discusses the early use of puppet shows as an especially important tool for what would later become mass-media transmission of discourses from the Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia (Department of Health and Healthcare).

  4. Twentieth-century astronomical heritage: the case of the Brazilian National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza, Christina Helena

    2015-08-01

    The National Observatory of Brazil was created in 1827. It was initially focused on the practical teaching of Astronomy to the students of military and naval academies. Since the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century it was installed over the ruins of a Jesuit church located in the center of Rio de Janeiro, capital of the Brazilian Empire.Due to the constant complaints of its successive directors, the search for a new site to house the Observatory began in 1911. The new headquarters of the institution were located on the hill of São Januário, a little further but still around the city center of Rio de Janeiro. Its inauguration took place in 1921.The main building of the new Observatory was based on one of the Brazilian pavilions of the Turin Exhibition of 1911, and its architecture can be characterized as eclectic. The pavilions intended to house the many telescopes were scattered in a large wooded area. Since 1985 all these facilities are protected by the Federal government, as a consequence of the same initiative that gave birth to the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences, which has the custody also of the Observatory’s former instruments, furniture, and documents.Although built in the early twentieth century the National Observatory new facilities reveal astronomical practices typical of the previous century. One of its most important activities was the determination of the legal time, a task that justifies its location in the urban environment. It was also responsible for the organization of expeditions destined to determine the geographical positions of railroads and the borders of Brazil. For this reason, the Museum of Astronomy has currently more than 3,000 portable instruments. Moreover, these instruments belong to the domain of Astronomy, but also to Geodesy, Meteorology, Electricity. Due to the creation of the Museum of Astronomy, this rich collection is now open to public visitation, and has become the object of scholarly

  5. Experiments in Reconstructing Twentieth-Century Sea Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Douglas, Bruce C.

    2011-01-01

    One approach to reconstructing historical sea level from the relatively sparse tide-gauge network is to employ Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) as interpolatory spatial basis functions. The EOFs are determined from independent global data, generally sea-surface heights from either satellite altimetry or a numerical ocean model. The problem is revisited here for sea level since 1900. A new approach to handling the tide-gauge datum problem by direct solution offers possible advantages over the method of integrating sea-level differences, with the potential of eventually adjusting datums into the global terrestrial reference frame. The resulting time series of global mean sea levels appears fairly insensitive to the adopted set of EOFs. In contrast, charts of regional sea level anomalies and trends are very sensitive to the adopted set of EOFs, especially for the sparser network of gauges in the early 20th century. The reconstructions appear especially suspect before 1950 in the tropical Pacific. While this limits some applications of the sea-level reconstructions, the sensitivity does appear adequately captured by formal uncertainties. All our solutions show regional trends over the past five decades to be fairly uniform throughout the global ocean, in contrast to trends observed over the shorter altimeter era. Consistent with several previous estimates, the global sea-level rise since 1900 is 1.70 +/- 0.26 mm/yr. The global trend since 1995 exceeds 3 mm/yr which is consistent with altimeter measurements, but this large trend was possibly also reached between 1935 and 1950.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-03-01

    Physics has a long history, but more physics has been discovered in the twentieth century than in all previous eras together. That in itself would be a sufficient justification for a history of physics in the twentieth century, but the end of the previous century also marked a discontinuity, from Newtonian classical physics to relativity and quantum mechanics. If any single event marks the start of the process it is the discovery of x-rays in 1895, and Kragh's century spans from about 1895 to about 1995. It is, of course, too much for a single volume, even a large one, and Kragh recognizes from the outset that he has to be selective and concentrate on those subjects that define twentieth-century physics. For the early part of the century the author relies on carefully chosen secondary sources, to avoid the near-impossible task of absorbing a multitude of original papers. The recent period is more difficult, and the sources are articles, reviews, and the recollections of physicists. The book is in three main sections, roughly to the end of World War I, to the end of World War II, and up to 1995, plus a retrospective summary. It deals with more than just discoveries in physics, looking also at physicists and institutions, and at their interactions with the rest of society. The broad outlines of many discoveries are often known to physicists who have no special interest in history, and Kragh is careful to point out where these conventional accounts are inadequate. The first chapters set the scene at the end of the nineteenth century, acknowledging that there was a belief that all the grand underlying principles had been established, but also pointing out that there was a ferment of attempts to reinterpret physics in terms of concepts like vortices and hyperspaces. The history begins with the mould-breaking discoveries of x-rays, radioactivity and the electron. The chapters that follow look at theories about atomic structure, and at quantum physics, relativity and

  7. Educational Aspirations of Twentieth-Century American Females: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, Mary Huston

    1979-01-01

    Identifies research tools comprising a wide variety of materials from many disciplines which are available for exploring changes in educational aspirations among twentieth century females in the United States. A comprehensive list of these tools is provided and problems involved in accessing and using them are discussed. (EJS)

  8. The Attenuation of Women's Role on Southern Illinois Farmsteads in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jane

    Five farms in Union County in extreme southern Illinois were studied in depth, and about 100 more were briefly surveyed to ascertain how the farm women's roles have changed over the years. Well into the twentieth century, the male and female domains on these farms were relatively well defined. Within the barn and its yards, the husband had primary…

  9. Teaching the French Revolution: Lessons and Imagery from Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2002-01-01

    This article considers the "myths" and negative images of the French Revolution which were fashioned in the United States by examining interpretations found in nineteenth and twentieth-century American school texts. The texts are part of the Floyd Family Collection at Indiana State University, representing books used in Indiana schools,…

  10. Intellectual Portraits: Politics, Professions and Identity in Twentieth-Century England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article brings together six talented women historians in twentieth-century England whose scholarly productions helped shape modern historical practice but who are little known in the canonical accounts of history-writing in the period. The author is looking to map and describe historical communities from a grounded and qualitative perspective…

  11. American Art Music in the Twentieth-Century: An Assessment of the Basic Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alan Anthony

    This assessment of 62 reference sources that contain information on U.S. art (classical) music of the twentieth century examines the following categories of sources: (1) Pilot Sources; (2) Lexica; (3) Histories and Chronologies; (4) Gesamtausgaben, Denkmaler, and Thematic catalogs; (5) Indexes and Bibliographies of Literature; (6) Lists of Music…

  12. Harmonisation and South African Languages: Twentieth Century Debates of Homogeneity and Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heugh, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a historiographic analysis of twentieth century debates amongst agents with linguistic, missionary and ideological interest in the standardisation or harmonisation of two widely used clusters of languages in South Africa, Nguni and Sotho. The discussion illustrates how faith-based and political ideologies interact with and…

  13. Conceptual Revolutions in Twentieth-Century Art. NBER Working Paper No. 15073

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galenson, David

    2009-01-01

    Art critics and scholars have acknowledged the breakdown of their explanations and narratives of contemporary art in the face of what they consider the incoherent era of "pluralism" or "postmodernism" that began in the late twentieth century. This failure is in fact a result of their inability to understand the nature of the development of…

  14. Westward Bound? Dutch Education and Cultural Transfer in the Mid-Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the transition from philosophy to psychology as the main source of inspiration for education during the mid-twentieth century in the Netherlands, situated between Germany in the east and the English-speaking world in the west. Claims have been made that educational theory in the Netherlands was dominated by German philosophy…

  15. Sociology of Twentieth Century Congregate Care of the Developmentally Disabled-Recollections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Elements of the twentieth century care facility of state origin are enumerated as the reader hopefully gets some idea of the social milieu or ethos of that period and the management profile thought to be proper and expeditious for unfortunate, homeless and poorly adjusted citizens. The life of staff and patients within these state sponsored…

  16. Harbingers of Feminism? Gender, Cultural Capital and Education in Mid-Twentieth-Century Rural Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sally; Brown, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a small-scale narrative study of men and women who grew up in mid-twentieth-century rural Wales, and their reminiscences regarding women and education. Although the dominant image of Wales during that era is that of a male-dominated society, all of our participants remembered influential independent women and…

  17. Bookends of the Twentieth Century: Irving Babbitt, E. D. Hirsch, and the Humanistic Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smilie, Kipton D.

    2013-01-01

    Irving Babbitt and E.D. Hirsch defended the humanistic curriculum at both the beginning and end of the twentieth century, respectively. Both claimed that a set of specific knowledge needed to be passed from one generation to the next. Both found this knowledge primarily, though certainly not exclusively, through the classical Western tradition.…

  18. Educational Testing as an Accountability Measure: Drawing on Twentieth-Century Danish History of Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ydesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article reveals perspectives based on experiences from twentieth-century Danish educational history by outlining contemporary, test-based accountability regime characteristics and their implications for education policy. The article introduces one such characteristic, followed by an empirical analysis of the origins and impacts of test-based…

  19. Singing the Nation into Being: Teaching Identity and Culture at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargeant, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the music education in the United States and the Russian Empire at the turn of the twentieth century. In both countries, music educators struggled to secure a permanent role for vocal music in the school. By comparing Russian music instruction to that in the United States, educators can better understand not…

  20. Embodiments of Human Identity: Detecting and Interpreting Hidden Narratives in Twentieth-Century Design History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the practice and influence of design history can benefit from new forms of visual and chronological analysis. Identifies and discusses a unique phenomenon, the "historical visual narrative." Examines special instances of this phenomenon in twentieth-century design and visual culture, which are tied to the theme of the…

  1. Scholarly Publishing: Books, Journals, Publishers, and Libraries in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Richard E., Ed.; Newlin, Lyman W., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    In this volume, publishers, booksellers, journal dealers, and librarians share their views on libraries and publishing. While the information/knowledge transfer process in the entire span of the twentieth century was to be addressed by the contributors, the principal focus of every author was to be the last five decades in which the most profound,…

  2. The Italian neurological schools of the twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Bonavita, Vincenzo

    Summary This lecture is not a historical lecture, but rather a journey through the “story” of neurology in Italy from its “prehistoric” beginning in the 19th century. The birth of a neurological school is that magical moment in which a founder attracts disciples: the more capable this founder is of transmitting methodology and allowing his pupils intellectual freedom, the longer his memory will live on. On the basis of this idea, the scientific biography of a few leading Italian neurologists of the 20th century is outlined, starting from Leonardo Bianchi, founder of the Italian Neurological Society in 1907. PMID:21729589

  3. Zoological Collections and Collecting in Cuba during the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taboada, Gilberto Silva

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of 20th-century zoological collections in Cuba, and the present whereabouts of Cuba's zoological collections. The historical accounts are divided into two periods: from 1902 to 1959 and from 1959 to the present. A preliminary survey of the nature, size, and current state of these collections is included. (MDH)

  4. Interactionism in Personality in the Twentieth Century. Research Report #146.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endler, Norman S.; Edwards, Jean M.

    This paper examines the historical development of the interaction model of personality in the 20th century. The philosophical roots of interactionism can be traced to the writings of Aristotle and Descartes. One of the earliest interactionist positions in psychology can be found in the works of Kantor (1924, 1926). Although theoretical interest in…

  5. Readings on La Raza--The Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Matt S., Ed.; Rivera, Feliciano, Ed.

    This chronological anthology consists of documents and articles on the history of Mexican American people in the 20th century. The anthology may be directed to students in higher education, historians, and those interested in the Mexican American people. Section I spans the period from 1900 to 1920 and introduces immigration as the starting point…

  6. Twentieth-Century American Education Reform in the Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    As detailed in the articles throughout this issue, the U.S. education system experienced a number of structural developments throughout the 20th century. These changes served to shift the landscape of decision-making authority in multiple areas of primary and secondary schooling. This article provides an international perspective on the changes…

  7. The wisdom of elders: Inuvialuit social memories of continuity and change in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    The Inuvialuit of the Canadian Western Arctic are no strangers to change. From the arrival of whalers ca. 1890, they underwent a century of monumental societal upheaval. Perhaps against the odds, they sustained many of their traditional socioeconomic activities and continued to follow a land-based lifestyle through much of the twentieth century. With a few notable exceptions, historical accounts of this period were written by cultural outsiders who conveyed their own perspectives on Inuvialuit culture. This paper focuses on the social memories of present-day Inuvialuit Elders who recount aspects of their lifeways throughout the twentieth century, including seasonal practices, traditional skills they maintained, and responses to the historical events that challenged their ways of living and spurred continuous change. These oral narratives form part of a larger history for succeeding generations, and a platform from which to construct contemporary identities and to negotiate a collective future.

  8. Educating the Young Mathematician: The Twentieth Century and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Educational programs for young children emerged reasonably early in the history of the United States of America. The movements of Child-Centered Education, the Nursery School, the Project Method, Curriculum Reform, and contemporary research have all influenced mathematics in early childhood education. The Froebelian kindergarten and the Montessori…

  9. One hundred years of alcoholism: the Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Mann, K; Hermann, D; Heinz, A

    2000-01-01

    The past 100 years witnessed the formation of a disease concept of alcoholism and a rapid increase in the knowledge of its aetiopathology and treatment options. In the first half of the century, public sanctions aimed at the abolition of alcoholism. In the United States, alcohol prohibition was revoked in the economic turmoil of the Great Depression. In Germany, proposed medical procedures to reduce the fertility of alcoholics had catastrophic consequences during the fascist dictatorship. A revived focus on alcoholics as patients with a right to medical treatment came out of self-organized groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous. The current disease concept includes the psychosocial and neurobiological foundations and consequences of alcoholism. Neurobiological research points to the dispositional factor of monoaminergic dysfunction and indicates that neuroadaptation and sensitization may play a role in the maintenance of addictive behaviour. New treatment options include pharmacological approaches and indicate that behaviour and motivational therapy and the attendance of patient groups may equally reduce the relapse risk. The task of the future will be to apply scientific discoveries in the best interest of the patients and to support their efforts to be respected like subjects suffering from other diseases.

  10. The Instability of Astrophysics Witnessed in the Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Scientific progress entails instabilities that advance a field; but excessive instability, often arising from misunderstandings, thwarts planning and adds cost. The history of 20th century astronomy provides insight on several factors that make astronomy and astrophysics exceptionally unstable. A fundamental source of instability is astronomy’s inability, sometimes for decades at a time, to pursue discoveries of rare events systematically. Such delays inject levels of uncertainty in an observational science that are more readily avoided in the experimental sciences. Beneficial instabilities can arise through the import of novel theories and tools from sister sciences, industry or the military. Such imports, however, can also destabilize the field. Astronomy comprises many distinct disciplines, which need to interact coherently for a broader understanding of the Cosmos to emerge. As the complexity of these disciplines’ undertakings increases, and their respective uses of tools and vocabularies diverge, misunderstandings arise to threaten coherence. Misinformation can then cascade back and forth, with consequences similar to those of failures in electrical power grinds and financial meltdowns. A balance needs to be sought, which protects astrophysics against such failures, while permitting ready discourse so the whole field can benefit from genuine advances in its respective disciplines. I will discuss means by which the benefits of instabilities advancing the field may be retained while avoiding more damaging instabilities.

  11. New perspectives on forced migration in the history of twentieth-century neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank W; Russell, Gül

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, comprised of six articles and one commentary, reflects on the multifold dimensions of intellectual migration in the neurosciences and illustrates them by relevant case studies, biographies, and surveys from twentieth-century history of science and medicine perspectives. The special issue as a whole strives to emphasize the impact of forced migration in the neurosciences and psychiatry from an interdisciplinary perspective by, first, describing the general research topic, second, by showing how new models can be applied to the historiography and social studies of twentieth-century neuroscience, and, third, by providing a deeper understanding of the impact of European émigré researchers on emerging allied fields, such as neurogenetics, biological psychiatry, psychosomatics, and public mental health, etc. as resulting from this process at large.

  12. The holist tradition in twentieth century genetics. Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype concept

    PubMed Central

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    The terms ‘genotype’, ‘phenotype’ and ‘gene’ originally had a different meaning from that in the Modern Synthesis. These terms were coined in the first decade of the twentieth century by the Danish plant physiologist Wilhelm Johannsen. His bean selection experiment and his theoretical analysis of the difference between genotype and phenotype were important inputs to the formation of genetics as a well-defined special discipline. This paper shows how Johannsen's holistic genotype theory provided a platform for criticism of narrowly genocentric versions of the chromosome theory of heredity that came to dominate genetics in the middle decades of the twentieth century. Johannsen came to recognize the epoch-making importance of the work done by the Drosophila group, but he continued to insist on the incompleteness of the chromosome theory. Genes of the kind that they mapped on the chromosomes could only give a partial explanation of biological heredity and evolution. PMID:24882823

  13. Oral history, subjectivity, and environmental reality: Occupational health histories in twentieth-century Scotland

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.; McIvor, A.

    2004-07-01

    This essay uses oral histories of dust disease in twentieth-century Scotland to illustrate the ways in which such history can illuminate how the working environment and work cultures affect workers' bodies and how workers come to terms with the ill-health caused by their employment. It emphasizes the agency of the interpreter but argues further that oral histories of dust disease in twentieth-century Scotland are simultaneously influenced by, and evidence for, material conditions. The essay explores the notion that the bodies, not just the voices of interviewees, are material testament to health-corroding work practices, cultures, and habitat. The focus is themore » problems caused by the inhalation of coal and asbestos dust.« less

  14. A historical synopsis of farm animal disease and public policy in twentieth century Britain

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were perceived and managed by farmers, vets and the state, changed considerably over the course of the twentieth century. This paper documents and analyses these changes in relation to the development of public policy. It reveals that scientific knowledge and disease demographics cannot by themselves explain the shifting boundaries of state responsibility for animal health, the diseases targeted and the preferred modes of intervention. Policies were shaped also by concerns over food security and the public's health, the state of the national and livestock economy, the interests and expertise of the veterinary profession, and prevailing agricultural policy. This paper demonstrates how, by precipitating changes to farming and trading practices, public policy could sometimes actually undermine farm animal health. Animal disease can therefore be viewed both as a stimulus to, and a consequence of, twentieth century public policy. PMID:21624915

  15. The biological universe: the twentieth-century extraterrestrial life debate and the limits of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. Does `biological law' reign throughout the universe? Are there other histories, religions, and philosophies outside of those on Earth? Do extraterrestrial minds ponder the mysteries of the universe? The attempts toanswer these often asked questions form one of the most interesting chapters in the history of science and culture, and The Biological Universe is the first book to provide a rich and colorful history of those attempts during the twentieth century. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, Steven J. Dick shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a `biophysical cosmology' that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe.

  16. The biological universe. The twentieth century extraterrestrial life debate and the limits of science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. Does 'biological law' reign throughout the universe? Are there other histories, religions, and philosophies outside of those on Earth? Do extraterrestrial minds ponder the mysteries of the universe? The attempts to answer these often asked questions form one of the most interesting chapters in the history of science and culture, and this is the first book to provide a rich and colorful history of those attempts during the twentieth century. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, the author shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a 'biophysical cosmology' that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe.

  17. On the rate and causes of twentieth century sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laury; Douglas, Bruce C

    2006-04-15

    Both the rate and causes of twentieth century global sea-level rise (GSLR) have been controversial. Estimates from tide-gauges range from less than one, to more than two millimetre yr(-1). In contrast, values based on the processes mostly responsible for GSLR-mass increase (from mountain glaciers and the great high latitude ice masses) and volume increase (expansion due to ocean warming)-fall below this range. Either the gauge estimates are too high, or one (or both) of the component estimates is too low. Gauge estimates of GSLR have been in dispute for several decades because of vertical land movements, especially due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). More recently, the possibility has been raised that coastal tide-gauges measure exaggerated rates of sea-level rise because of localized ocean warming. Presented here are two approaches to a resolution of these problems. The first is morphological, based on the limiting values of observed trends of twentieth century relative sea-level rise as a function of distance from the centres of the ice loads at last glacial maximum. This observational approach, which does not depend on a geophysical model of GIA, supports values of GSLR near 2 mm yr(-1). The second approach involves an analysis of long records of tide-gauge and hydrographic (in situ temperature and salinity) observations in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. It was found that sea-level trends from tide-gauges, which reflect both mass and volume change, are 2-3 times higher than rates based on hydrographic data which reveal only volume change. These results support those studies that put the twentieth century rate near 2 mm yr(-1), thereby indicating that mass increase plays a much larger role than ocean warming in twentieth century GSLR.

  18. Mid-twentieth-century anatomical transparencies and the depiction of three-dimensional form.

    PubMed

    Wall, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    Before the advent of digital visualization, the "anatomical transparency"--layered images of organ systems, printed on a transparent medium--flourished in the mid-twentieth century as an interactive means to represent complex anatomical relationships to medical professionals and lay audiences. This article introduces the transparency work of medical illustrators Gladys McHugh and Ernest W. Beck, situating it in the historical context of strategies to represent three-dimensional anatomical relationships using print media.

  19. Disability dilemmas and rehabilitation tensions: a twentieth century inheritance.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, J G

    1985-01-01

    Although disability has gradually become part of the social justice concept in Western nations since the seventeenth century, and is a current world-wide social concern, it is no way as readily definable or determinable as race, gender, age or even poverty, other issues of social justice. It remains a relative term despite efforts to contain it. The World Health Organization's definition for disability is a restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being, arising as a consequence of physiological, psychological or anatomical impairment. Under the impairment/disability paradigm, rehabilitation interventions aim for the restoration of maximum functional activity or independence. The consequences of impairment and disability can, but do not necessarily, lead to handicaps or conditions of disadvantage, the composite result of individual functional limitations and faults in physical, cultural, social, economic and political environments. Rehabilitation for handicapping conditions then implies not necessarily the restoration of maximum functional activity or independence, but the restoration of maximum social function, including work and family roles. Recent literature on disability and rehabilitation research and policy reflects the complex and expanding context, but the relativity of the concepts involved, particularly the slippage between disability and handicap, create problems of consistently determining and communicating need. For the literature, certain dilemmas are evident in determining and providing for the needs of disabled persons: self-perceived and self-defined need vs bureaucratic standards and statistical definition; resource compensation vs resource enhancement; urban vs rural needs. Closely related to these perplexing problems are tensions in rehabilitation approaches: institutional and community approaches; individual functional improvement and environmental improvement. This

  20. ‘A Wicked Operation’? Tonsillectomy in Twentieth-Century Britain

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer-Hemmings, Louis

    2018-01-01

    Histories of twentieth-century surgery have focused on surgical ‘firsts’ – dramatic tales of revolutionary procedures. The history of tonsillectomy is less glamorous, but more widespread, representing the experience and understanding of medicine for hundreds of children, parents and surgeons daily. At the start of the twentieth century, tonsillectomy was routine – performed on at least 80 000 schoolchildren each year in Britain. However, by the 1980s, public and professional discourse condemned the operation as a ‘dangerous fad’. This profound shift in the medical, political and social position of tonsillectomy rested upon several factors: changes in the organisation of medical institutions and national health care; changes in medical technologies and the criteria by which they are judged; the political, cultural and economic context of Britain; and the social role of the patient. Tonsillectomy was not a mere passive subject of external influences, but became a potent concept in medical, political, and social discourse. Therefore, it reciprocally influenced these discourses and subsequently the development of twentieth-century British medicine. These complex interactions between ‘medical’ and ‘non-medical’ spheres question the possibility of demarcating what is internal from what is external to medicine. PMID:29553012

  1. Mass and volume contributions to twentieth-century global sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laury; Douglas, Bruce C

    2004-03-25

    The rate of twentieth-century global sea level rise and its causes are the subjects of intense controversy. Most direct estimates from tide gauges give 1.5-2.0 mm yr(-1), whereas indirect estimates based on the two processes responsible for global sea level rise, namely mass and volume change, fall far below this range. Estimates of the volume increase due to ocean warming give a rate of about 0.5 mm yr(-1) (ref. 8) and the rate due to mass increase, primarily from the melting of continental ice, is thought to be even smaller. Therefore, either the tide gauge estimates are too high, as has been suggested recently, or one (or both) of the mass and volume estimates is too low. Here we present an analysis of sea level measurements at tide gauges combined with observations of temperature and salinity in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans close to the gauges. We find that gauge-determined rates of sea level rise, which encompass both mass and volume changes, are two to three times higher than the rates due to volume change derived from temperature and salinity data. Our analysis supports earlier studies that put the twentieth-century rate in the 1.5-2.0 mm yr(-1) range, but more importantly it suggests that mass increase plays a larger role than ocean warming in twentieth-century global sea level rise.

  2. Quantum Poetics: Science and Spirit in Twentieth Century American Poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, Mary Patricia

    Concepts from quantum physics illuminate ways in which five 20th century American poets struggle with the expression of nonlinear, nontemporal experiences in linear, temporal language. An "experience of spirit"- -an experience of cosmic unity which occurs in a timeless moment and involves a paradoxical sensuality--is expressed by poets Wallace Stevens, Albert Goldbarth, Nancy Willard, Linda Gregg and Marilyn Waniek. Contemporary science similarly seeks ways to express nonlinear realities in linear language. The English language is found to guide users to linear, time-bounded expression through the noun (leading to nominalization), the verb (demanding experience be limited to past, present or future), adverb and adjective (which separate senses from each other and divide attributes from essence). English presents structural difficulties to those who wish to express experiences of spirit--difficulties also articulated by quantum theorists struggling to express unvisualizable concepts. Wallace Stevens devoted the first half of his poetic career to questions of order, which find reflections within the works of quantum physicists who theorize an "implicate order" within the subatomic universe. During his later years, Stevens turned to the question of chaos, an interest paralleled by recent developments in dynamical systems theory. Albert Goldbarth and Nancy Willard alter narrative form in three ways to convey nonlinear possibilities. The "parabolic" narrative uses story to exemplify a moral or philosophical message. The "midrashic" illuminates the meaning of one story by the telling of another. Finally, the "coyotic" begins with one, apparently ordinary, story which is then altered to introduce fantastical realities. These narratives form a "relative time," similar to that which Einstein defined in his special theory of relativity. The works of Marilyn Waniek and Linda Gregg are examined in terms of the language of paradoxical sensuality, which calls into question the

  3. Twentieth century arroyo changes in Chaco Culture National Historical Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, Allen C.

    2002-01-01

    Chaco Wash arroyo channel changes in the 20th century have become a major concern of the National Park Service. Several archeologic and cultural sites are located in the Chaco Wash corridor; thus, increased erosional activity of Chaco Wash, such as channel incision and increased meandering, may affect these sites. Through field surveys, photogrammetric analyses, and reviews of existing reports and maps, arroyo changes at Chaco Culture National Historic Park were documented. Arroyo changes were documented for the inner active channel and the entire arroyo cross section. The inner channel of Chaco Wash evolved from a wide, braided channel in the 1930's to a narrower channel with a well-developed flood plain by the 1970's. From 1934 to 1973 the active channel narrowed an average of 26 meters, and from the 1970's to 2000 the channel narrowed an average of 9 meters. Overall from 1934 to 2000, the inner channel narrowed an average of 30 meters. From 1934 to 2000, the top of Chaco Wash widened at four cross sections, narrowed at one, and remained the same at another. The top of Chaco Wash widened at a rate of 0.4 meter per year from the 1970's to 2000 compared with 0.2 meter per year from 1934 to 1973. At 50-percent depth or halfway down the arroyo channel, four cross sections widened and two cross sections narrowed from 1934 to 2000. Rates of widening at 50-percent depth decreased from 0.2 meter per year from 1934 to 1973 to 0.1 meter per year from the 1970's to 2000. From 1934 to 2000, arroyo depth decreased at five of six cross sections and increased at one cross section. Arroyo depth between 1934 and 1973 decreased an average 1.4 meters from aggradation and between the 1970's and 2000 increased an average 0.4 meter from channel scour. From 1934 to 2000, arroyo cross-sectional area decreased at all six cross sections. Cross-sectional areas in Chaco Wash decreased from 1934 to 1973 as a result of sediment deposition and both decreased and increased from the 1970's to

  4. Class and gender in twentieth-century British psychiatry: shell-shock and psychopathic disorder.

    PubMed

    Busfield, Joan

    2004-01-01

    This chapter explores the ways in which class and gender permeated psychiatric practice in twentieth-century Britain. It first outlines the historical context and changing character of psychiatric ideas and practice, dividing the century into four main periods - Custodialism under attack, 1890-1929; Integration and Medical Innovation, 1930-1953; Community Care and Public Sector Expansion, 1954-1973; and Privatisation and Commercialisation, 1974 to the Present. The chapter then uses the prism of two psychiatric categories - shell-shock and psychopathic disorder to examine in some detail the ways in which class and gender are embedded in psychiatric work.

  5. Pain, sympathy and the medical encounter between the mid eighteenth and the mid twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Joanna

    2012-08-01

    Witnessing people in pain inevitably elicits anxiety in physicians and other caregivers. Physicians are often required to inflict certain types of discomforts in order to alleviate other, more destructive, pains. Accusations that physicians lacked sympathy can be heard throughout the centuries. This article explores the diverse medical responses to such claims between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It interrogates changing definitions of clinical sympathy. The concept of sympathy was continually being reworked for each generation of medical professional. Crucially, in this reworking, philosophers (such as Adam Smith) and physicians came into dialogue. Cultures of sympathy were understood in both physiological and metaphorical terms, and were tied to changing notions of professionalization.

  6. Pain, sympathy and the medical encounter between the mid eighteenth and the mid twentieth centuries

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Witnessing people in pain inevitably elicits anxiety in physicians and other caregivers. Physicians are often required to inflict certain types of discomforts in order to alleviate other, more destructive, pains. Accusations that physicians lacked sympathy can be heard throughout the centuries. This article explores the diverse medical responses to such claims between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It interrogates changing definitions of clinical sympathy. The concept of sympathy was continually being reworked for each generation of medical professional. Crucially, in this reworking, philosophers (such as Adam Smith) and physicians came into dialogue. Cultures of sympathy were understood in both physiological and metaphorical terms, and were tied to changing notions of professionalization PMID:24489439

  7. Italian neuropsychology in the second half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Boller, François; Grossi, Dario; Gainotti, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Since the early 1960s, human neuropsychology, the study of brain-behavior interrelations, mainly based on the analysis of their pathological variations, brought about by brain damage, has had a remarkable systematical development in Italy. All this started in Milan, with the neurologist Ennio de Renzi, and his collaborators (Luigi Vignolo, then Anna Basso, Pietro Faglioni, Hans Spinnler, François Boller, and, more autonomously, Edoardo Bisiach), in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Scientists of the "Milan group" investigated several neuropsychological deficits caused by focal hemispheric lesions in large series of left- and right-brain-damaged patients, and control participants, comparable for cultural and demographic variables. Standardized tests and advanced statistical methods were used, which also applied to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of aphasia. Subsequently, neuropsychology developed in Italy extensively, reaching high international reputation. Leading neuropsychologists have been the neurologists Guido Gainotti (Rome), and Franco Denes (Padua), the physicians and psychologists Luigi Pizzamiglio (Rome), and Carlo Umiltà (Parma, with fruitful interactions with the neurophysiologists Giovanni Berlucchi, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Carlo Marzi, from the school of Giuseppe Moruzzi in Pisa) A second scientific generation of neuropsychologists has then developed in the 1970s, trained by the abovementioned scientists, further boosting and spreading high-level basic and applied research (diagnosis and rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits of patients with brain damage or dysfunction throughout the life span, from childhood to the elderly). Available techniques include structural and functional imaging (CT, PET, SPET, MRI and fMRI Scans, DTI), electrophysiological recording (EEG, ERPs), non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS, tES), and their combined use.

  8. Ocean heat content variability in an ensemble of twentieth century ocean reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boisséson, Eric; Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Mayer, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a ten-member ensemble of twentieth century Ocean ReAnalyses called ORA-20C. ORA-20C assimilates temperature and salinity profiles and is forced by the ECMWF twentieth century atmospheric reanalysis (ERA-20C) over the 1900-2010 period. This study attempts to identify robust signals of ocean heat content change in ORA-20C and detect contamination by model errors, initial condition uncertainty, surface fluxes and observing system changes. It is shown that ORA-20C trends and variability in the first part of the century result from the surface fluxes and model drift towards a warmer mean state and weak meridional overturning circulation. The impact of the observing system in correcting the mean state causes the deceleration of the warming trend and alters the long-term climate signal. The ensemble spread reflects the long-lasting memory of the initial conditions and the convergence of the system to a solution compatible with surface fluxes, the ocean model and observational constraints. Observations constrain the ocean heat uptake trend in the last decades of the twentieth century, which is similar to trend estimations from the post-satellite era. An ocean heat budget analysis attributes ORA-20C heat content changes to surface fluxes in the first part of the century. The heat flux variability reflects spurious signals stemming from ERA-20C surface fields, which in return result from changes in the atmospheric observing system. The influence of the temperature assimilation increments on the heat budget is growing with time. Increments control the most recent ocean heat uptake signals, highlighting imbalances in forced reanalysis systems in the ocean as well as in the atmosphere.

  9. In Referees We Trust? Controversies over Grant Peer Review in the Late Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Melinda

    While many accounts of external refereeing assume that it has been a consistent part of science since the seventeenth century, the practice developed far more slowly and haphazardly than many observers realize, and it was not until after the Second World War that ''peer review'' became considered an essential part of scientific publishing or grant-making. This talk will explore refereeing procedures at American grant-giving organizations in the twentieth century, focusing especially on the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. The creators of the NSF and the NIH put refereeing systems in place at their foundation. However, the form and function of these systems differed from modern ''peer review'' in several important ways. At the NSF the initial purpose of the referee process was to advise the NSF program directors, not to dictate funding decisions. At the NIH, small ''study sections'' devoted to particular subjects made recommendations to the NIH leadership, which rendered final judgments. However, beginning in the 1960s a series of controversies about NIH and NSF grants placed refereeing procedures at these organizations under more intense scrutiny. These debates culminated in six days of Special Oversight Hearings into the NSF's peer review process in the summer of 1975. Following the hearings, both the NSF and NIH reformed their review processes to place more emphasis on referees' opinions about grant proposals, making peer review increasingly responsible for decision-making. These controversies illustrate that refereeing continued to undergo significant changes in form and purpose throughout the twentieth century, and further suggest that both the scientific community and the public placed increased emphasis on the role of the referee during the late twentieth century.

  10. Multi-year climate variability in the Southwestern United States within a context of a dynamically downscaled twentieth century reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, Carlos M.; Castro, Christopher L.; Chang, Hsin-I.; Luong, Thang M.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation evaluates whether there is coherency in warm and cool season precipitation at the low-frequency scale that may be responsible for multi-year droughts in the US Southwest. This low-frequency climate variability at the decadal scale and longer is studied within the context of a twentieth-century reanalysis (20CR) and its dynamically-downscaled version (DD-20CR). A spectral domain matrix methods technique (Multiple-Taper-Method Singular Value Decomposition) is applied to these datasets to identify statistically significant spatiotemporal precipitation patterns for the cool (November-April) and warm (July-August) seasons. The low-frequency variability in the 20CR is evaluated by exploring global to continental-scale spatiotemporal variability in moisture flux convergence (MFC) to the occurrence of multiyear droughts and pluvials in Central America, as this region has a demonstrated anti-phase relationship in low-frequency climate variability with northern Mexico and the southwestern US By using the MFC in lieu of precipitation, this study reveals that the 20CR is able to resolve well the low-frequency, multiyear climate variability. In the context of the DD-20CR, multiyear droughts and pluvials in the southwestern US (in the early twentieth century) are significantly related to this low-frequency climate variability. The precipitation anomalies at these low-frequency timescales are in phase between the cool and warm seasons, consistent with the concept of dual-season drought as has been suggested in tree ring studies.

  11. Science for the Chinese Common Reader? Myriad Treasures and New Knowledge at the Turn of the Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Judge, Joan

    2017-09-01

    Argument This article argues that in order to discern the place of science in the epistemology of Chinese common readers, it is critical to look beyond the coastal enclaves where foreign missionaries and experts interacted with Chinese scholars and officials, beyond the translated treatises they produced, and even beyond the various forms of new media that attempted to more widely disseminate the principles of Western science. Instead, it asserts the need to engage a different register of materials that were less directly tied to foreign expertise, more directly in line with pre-existing lineages of printed materials, and at the same time, integral to early-twentieth-century Chinese circuits of information. The article focuses explicitly on one print phenomena that has been completely overlooked in the scholarship to date, the expansion and revitalization of the genre of texts known as wanbao quanshu (comprehensive compendia of myriad treasures) in the late Qing (1890-1911) and early Republic (1912-1930).

  12. Aerosols implicated as a prime driver of twentieth-century North Atlantic climate variability.

    PubMed

    Booth, Ben B B; Dunstone, Nick J; Halloran, Paul R; Andrews, Timothy; Bellouin, Nicolas

    2012-04-04

    Systematic climate shifts have been linked to multidecadal variability in observed sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean. These links are extensive, influencing a range of climate processes such as hurricane activity and African Sahel and Amazonian droughts. The variability is distinct from historical global-mean temperature changes and is commonly attributed to natural ocean oscillations. A number of studies have provided evidence that aerosols can influence long-term changes in sea surface temperatures, but climate models have so far failed to reproduce these interactions and the role of aerosols in decadal variability remains unclear. Here we use a state-of-the-art Earth system climate model to show that aerosol emissions and periods of volcanic activity explain 76 per cent of the simulated multidecadal variance in detrended 1860-2005 North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. After 1950, simulated variability is within observational estimates; our estimates for 1910-1940 capture twice the warming of previous generation models but do not explain the entire observed trend. Other processes, such as ocean circulation, may also have contributed to variability in the early twentieth century. Mechanistically, we find that inclusion of aerosol-cloud microphysical effects, which were included in few previous multimodel ensembles, dominates the magnitude (80 per cent) and the spatial pattern of the total surface aerosol forcing in the North Atlantic. Our findings suggest that anthropogenic aerosol emissions influenced a range of societally important historical climate events such as peaks in hurricane activity and Sahel drought. Decadal-scale model predictions of regional Atlantic climate will probably be improved by incorporating aerosol-cloud microphysical interactions and estimates of future concentrations of aerosols, emissions of which are directly addressable by policy actions.

  13. "Do grandmas have husbands?" Generational memory and twentieth-century women's lives.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This essay uses memory in the ancient and modern sense of the "inner life of thought" to describe the formation of generational memory in a modern professional family whose twentieth-century history has been fractured by migration, war, education, and divorce. It is about the power of feeling and law, which framed the practical freedoms of twentieth-century women's lives and introduced the modern citizen in the aftermath of universal suffrage and world war. The first part of the essay emphasizes the psychic dimension of bodily feeling and drive in the formation of memory; a dimension overlooked by oral history and social movements, yet confirmed by autobiography and memoir. My granddaughter's questions provoked resistance as well as family stories, and let me observe the thought process in a child. Social history, autobiography, and personal memory confirm the common experience of everyday life reaching back through generations of London families; folklore, commerce, and family story make narratives of dreams, hopes, terrors, and events; a child's comprehension of the outside world is grasped through curiosity, imagination, and play in which bodily feeling is as powerful as speech and prohibition to make meanings that flow between inner world and external reality. The second half of the essay reflects on Joan Riviere's description of the self. Leading British psychoanalyst, translator of Freud, writing in the 1950s, Riviere's language of the inner world resonates with the liberal social ethics -- empathy, public service, common good -- which underpinned women's and human rights mid-twentieth century and the egalitarian and reproduction reforms whose universalism has been challenged since the 1970s. Negative feeling is striking in Riviere's description of the self -- fear, shame, shock, and trauma, which are confirmed in memoir and autobiography. In contrast, liberal social democratic accounts of the time idealized English character. Today, the future uncertain

  14. Pain: metaphor, body, and culture in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-10-02

    This article explores the relationship between metaphorical languages, body, and culture, and suggests that such an analysis can reveal a great deal about the meaning and experience of pain in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It uses concepts within embodied cognition to speculate on how historians can write a history of sensation. Bodies are actively engaged in the linguistic processes and social interactions that constitute painful sensations. Language is engaged in a dialogue with physiological bodies and social environments. And culture collaborates in the creation of physiological bodies and metaphorical systems.

  15. Pain: metaphor, body, and culture in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between metaphorical languages, body, and culture, and suggests that such an analysis can reveal a great deal about the meaning and experience of pain in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It uses concepts within embodied cognition to speculate on how historians can write a history of sensation. Bodies are actively engaged in the linguistic processes and social interactions that constitute painful sensations. Language is engaged in a dialogue with physiological bodies and social environments. And culture collaborates in the creation of physiological bodies and metaphorical systems. PMID:28331427

  16. The consequences of consensus: American health policy in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Fox, D M

    1986-01-01

    For most of the twentieth century the central theme in the history of health policy in the United States was the elaboration and implementation of a consensus that health services should be organized in regional hierarchies. This consensus was based on shared beliefs about how medical advances were made and disseminated. Hierarchical regionalism became national health policy in several stages that culminated in the 1960s. Since the 1970s, however, the national policy of hierarchical regionalism has been eroded by the unexpected consequences of its success.

  17. Buddhism, Christianity, and psychotherapy: A three-way conversation in the mid-twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Harding, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the scope of 'religion-psy dialogue' in the mid-twentieth century, via a case study from Japan: Kosawa Heisaku, a Buddhist psychoanalyst based in Tokyo. By putting this case study in brief comparative perspective, with the conversation that took place in 1965 between Paul Tillich and Carl Rogers, the article discusses both the promise and the pitfalls of the modern and contemporary world of 'religion-psy dialogue', alongside the means by which specialists in a variety of fields might investigate and hold it to account.

  18. [Constant or break? On the relations between human genetics and eugenics in the Twentieth Century].

    PubMed

    Germann, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The history of human genetics has been a neglected topic in history of science and medicine for a long time. Only recently, have medical historians begun to pay more attention to the history of human heredity. An important research question deals with the interconnections between human genetics and eugenics. This paper addresses this question: By focusing on a Swiss case study, the investigation of the heredity of goiter, I will argue that there existed close but also ambiguous relations between heredity research and eugenics in the twentieth century. Studies on human heredity often produced evidence that challenged eugenic aims and ideas. Concurrently, however, these studies fostered visions of genetic improvement of human populations.

  19. Buddhism, Christianity, and psychotherapy: A three-way conversation in the mid-twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the scope of ‘religion-psy dialogue’ in the mid-twentieth century, via a case study from Japan: Kosawa Heisaku, a Buddhist psychoanalyst based in Tokyo. By putting this case study in brief comparative perspective, with the conversation that took place in 1965 between Paul Tillich and Carl Rogers, the article discusses both the promise and the pitfalls of the modern and contemporary world of ‘religion-psy dialogue’, alongside the means by which specialists in a variety of fields might investigate and hold it to account. PMID:29527127

  20. Male prostitution in the twentieth century: pseudohomosexuals, hoodlum homosexuals, and exploited teens.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Kerwin

    2003-01-01

    Male prostitution altered its form dramatically over the course of the twentieth century. While some of these changes relate to economics and general cultural shifts (the Depression of the 1930s, the rise of a counterculture during the 1960s and 70s), some of the most important changes have arisen in response to transformations in the idea of "homosexuality," and the growing influence this idea had within middle-class and then working-class culture. This essay identifies the diverse forms male prostitution has taken since the late-Victorian period, and also examines the way in which male prostitution has been written about by various commentators in different eras.

  1. The Teacher's Voice: A Social History of Teaching in Twentieth-century America. Studies in Curriculum History Series: 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altenbaugh, Richard J., Ed.

    This collection of essays presents narratives describing the role of classroom teachers in the development of public education in 20th century United States. Following a preface, the book is organized into four parts. The first part, Women's Work, includes "Having a Purpose in Life: Western Women Teachers in the Twentieth Century"…

  2. New perspectives in the history of twentieth-century life sciences: historical, historiographical and epistemological themes.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Robert; Nickelsen, Kärin

    2018-01-18

    The history of twentieth-century life sciences is not exactly a new topic. However, in view of the increasingly rapid development of the life sciences themselves over the past decades, some of the well-established narratives are worth revisiting. Taking stock of where we stand on these issues was the aim of a conference in 2015, entitled "Perspectives for the History of Life Sciences" (Munich, Oct 30-Nov 1, 2015). The papers in this topical collection are based on work presented and discussed at and around this meeting. Just as the conference, the collection aims at exploring fields in the history of life sciences that appear understudied, sources that have been overlooked, and novel ways of engaging with this material. The papers convened in this collection may not be representative of the field as a whole; but we feel that they do indicate some elements that have received emphasis in recent years, and may become more central in the years to come, such as the history of previously neglected contexts and domains of the life sciences, the question of continuity and change on the level of practices, the history of complexity and diversity in twentieth-century life sciences and the reconsideration of the relationship between history and philosophy of life sciences.

  3. The holist tradition in twentieth century genetics. Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype concept.

    PubMed

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2014-06-01

    The terms 'genotype', 'phenotype' and 'gene' originally had a different meaning from that in the Modern Synthesis. These terms were coined in the first decade of the twentieth century by the Danish plant physiologist Wilhelm Johannsen. His bean selection experiment and his theoretical analysis of the difference between genotype and phenotype were important inputs to the formation of genetics as a well-defined special discipline. This paper shows how Johannsen's holistic genotype theory provided a platform for criticism of narrowly genocentric versions of the chromosome theory of heredity that came to dominate genetics in the middle decades of the twentieth century. Johannsen came to recognize the epoch-making importance of the work done by the Drosophila group, but he continued to insist on the incompleteness of the chromosome theory. Genes of the kind that they mapped on the chromosomes could only give a partial explanation of biological heredity and evolution. © 2014 The Author. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  4. Pronounced differences between observed and CMIP5-simulated multidecadal climate variability in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Sergey

    2017-06-01

    Identification and dynamical attribution of multidecadal climate undulations to either variations in external forcings or to internal sources is one of the most important topics of modern climate science, especially in conjunction with the issue of human-induced global warming. Here we utilize ensembles of twentieth century climate simulations to isolate the forced signal and residual internal variability in a network of observed and modeled climate indices. The observed internal variability so estimated exhibits a pronounced multidecadal mode with a distinctive spatiotemporal signature, which is altogether absent in model simulations. This single mode explains a major fraction of model-data differences over the entire climate index network considered; it may reflect either biases in the models' forced response or models' lack of requisite internal dynamics, or a combination of both.Plain Language SummaryGlobal and regional warming trends over the course of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> have been nonuniform, with decadal and longer periods of faster or slower warming, or even cooling. Here we show that state-of-the-art global models used to predict climate fail to adequately reproduce such multidecadal climate variations. In particular, the models underestimate the magnitude of the observed variability and misrepresent its spatial pattern. Therefore, our ability to interpret the observed climate change using these models is limited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22145183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22145183"><span>Traveling with faith: the creation of women's immigrant aid associations in nineteenth and <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> France.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Machen, Emily</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the efforts of French Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish women to morally, spiritually, and physically protect immigrant and migrant women and girls in the late nineteenth and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span>. Women of faith worried about the dangers posed by the white slave trade, and they feared the loss of spiritual consciousness among women living far from their families and their places of worship. In response to these concerns, they developed numerous faith-based international organizations aimed at protecting vulnerable working-class immigrants. Upper-class women's work in immigrant aid societies allowed them to take on much greater social and religious leadership roles than they had in the past. Likewise, the intricate, international networks that these women developed contributed to the building of international cooperation throughout Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17369663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17369663"><span>"For Jimmy and the boys and girls of America": publicizing childhood cancers in <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krueger, Gretchen</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines a collection of images of children printed in cancer education and fund-raising materials distributed by voluntary health organizations, released by public relations departments of specialized cancer hospitals, and featured in popular magazines and newspapers beginning in the late 1940s. Children represented only a small fraction of all persons with cancer, yet they became a key component of the media campaign for the disease. What narratives were embedded in the photographs and profiles? Like the March of Dimes' use of young polio patients to promote their programs, "poster children" were strategically used throughout the mid-to-late <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> to advance principles of <span class="hlt">early</span> cancer detection and prompt treatment; to illustrate or, at times, exaggerate promising biomedical advances in the field; and to elicit emotional responses and donations from a wide audience during the escalation of the war against cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3933202','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3933202"><span>Three <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Multiauthored Neurological Handbooks – A Historical Analysis and Bibliometric Comparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koehler, Peter J.; Stahnisch, Frank W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The emergence of neurology as a separate specialty from internal medicine and psychiatry took several decades, starting at the end of the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>. This can be adequately reconstructed by focusing on the establishment of specialized journals, societies, university chairs, the invention and application of specific instruments, medical practices, and certainly also the publication of pivotal textbooks in the field. Particularly around 1900, the German-speaking countries played an integral role in this process. In this article, one aspect is extensively explored, notably the publication (in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>) of three comprehensive and influential multivolume and multiauthor handbooks entirely devoted to neurology. All available volumes of Max Lewandowsky's Handbuch der Neurologie (1910–1914) and the Handbuch der Neurologie (1935–1937) of Oswald Bumke and Otfrid Foerster were analyzed. The handbooks were then compared with Pierre Vinken's and George Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology (1968–2002). Over the span of nearly a <span class="hlt">century</span> these publications became ever more comprehensive and developed into a global, encompassing project as is reflected in the increasing number of foreign authors. Whereas the first two handbooks were published mainly in German, “Vinken & Bruyn” was eventually published entirely in English, indicating the general changes in the scientific language of neurology after World War II. Distinctions include the uniformity of the series, manner of editorial involvement, thematic comprehensiveness, inclusion of volume editors in “Vinken & Bruyn,” and the provision of index volumes. The increasing use of authorities in various neurological subspecialties is an important factor by which these handbooks contrast with many compact neurological textbooks that were available at the time. For historiographical purposes, the three neurological handbooks considered here were important sources for the general study of the history of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28808784','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28808784"><span>The history of optic chiasm from antiquity to the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Costea, Claudia Florida; Turliuc, Şerban; Buzdugă, Cătălin; Cucu, Andrei Ionuţ; Dumitrescu, Gabriela Florenţa; Sava, Anca; Turliuc, Mihaela Dana</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The optic chiasm is an essential structure located at the skull base that stirred over time the curiosity of anatomists, who became more and more interested in its structure and function. Through <span class="hlt">centuries</span>, the optic chiasm was viewed as a vessel crossing, a way of transporting tears secreted by the brain to the eye, integrating images, or responsible for coordinated eye movements. The paper aims to overview the history of understanding the optic chiasm from the beginnings of antiquity to the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. We reviewed the literature and studied all the historical sources on optic chiasm and eyes in the works of ancient, medieval, Renaissance authors, and the seventeenth to nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> works. The optic chiasm is a structure that fascinated ancient anatomists and made them develop various theories on its function. In terms of function, the optic chiasm had a history based more on speculation, the seventeenth <span class="hlt">century</span> bringing its first understanding and reaching the peak in the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> with the understanding of the anatomical structure of the chiasm and its role in the visual process. The history of the optic chiasm is a fascinating time travel displaying the conceptual transformations that have been made in anatomy and medicine by our forerunners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011155&hterms=climate+change+ocean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange%2Bocean','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011155&hterms=climate+change+ocean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange%2Bocean"><span>Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry-Climate <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koch, Dorothy; Bauer, Susanne E.; Del Genio, Anthony; Faluvegi, Greg; McConnell, Joseph R.; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ronald L.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto; Schmidt, Gavin A.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20120011155'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20120011155_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20120011155_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20120011155_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20120011155_hide"></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The authors simulate transient <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> climate in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, with aerosol and ozone chemistry fully coupled to one another and to climate including a full dynamic ocean. Aerosols include sulfate, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, nitrate, sea salt, and dust. Direct and BC snow-albedo radiative effects are included. Model BC and sulfur trends agree fairly well with records from Greenland and European ice cores and with sulfur deposition in North America; however, the model underestimates the sulfur decline at the end of the <span class="hlt">century</span> in Greenland. Global BC effects peak <span class="hlt">early</span> in the <span class="hlt">century</span> (1940s); afterward the BC effects decrease at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but continue to increase at lower latitudes. The largest increase in aerosol optical depth occurs in the middle of the <span class="hlt">century</span> (1940s-80s) when sulfate forcing peaks and causes global dimming. After this, aerosols decrease in eastern North America and northern Eurasia leading to regional positive forcing changes and brightening. These surface forcing changes have the correct trend but are too weak. Over the <span class="hlt">century</span>, the net aerosol direct effect is -0.41 Watts per square meter, the BC-albedo effect is -0.02 Watts per square meter, and the net ozone forcing is +0.24 Watts per square meter. The model polar stratospheric ozone depletion develops, beginning in the 1970s. Concurrently, the sea salt load and negative radiative flux increase over the oceans around Antarctica. Net warming over the <span class="hlt">century</span> is modeled fairly well; however, the model fails to capture the dynamics of the observedmidcentury cooling followed by the late <span class="hlt">century</span> warming.Over the <span class="hlt">century</span>, 20% of Arctic warming and snow ice cover loss is attributed to the BC albedo effect. However, the decrease in this effect at the end of the <span class="hlt">century</span> contributes to Arctic cooling. To test the climate responses to sulfate and BC pollution, two experiments were branched from 1970 that removed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=liberalism+AND+century+AND+19th&id=EJ523827','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=liberalism+AND+century+AND+19th&id=EJ523827"><span>Nineteenth-<span class="hlt">Century</span> Agrarian Populism and <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Communitarianism: Points of Contact and Contrast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Michael N.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Connects contemporary communitarian ideas to the agenda of the 19th-<span class="hlt">century</span> populist movement. The populist educational agenda (the agrarian revolt and Farmers' Alliance) provides historical examples of the implementation of communitarian educational theory. The populist movement as an example of communitarianism highlights an instance of a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20299640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20299640"><span>Hidden in plain sight marketing prescription drugs to consumers in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greene, Jeremy A; Herzberg, David</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Although the public health impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising remains a subject of great controversy, such promotion is typically understood as a recent phenomenon permitted only by changes in federal regulation of print and broadcast advertising over the past two decades. But today's omnipresent ads are only the most recent chapter in a longer history of DTC pharmaceutical promotion (including the ghostwriting of popular articles, organization of public-relations events, and implicit advertising of products to consumers) stretching back over the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. We use trade literature and archival materials to examine the continuity of efforts to promote prescription drugs to consumers and to better grapple with the public health significance of contemporary pharmaceutical marketing practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17272315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17272315"><span>Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parascandola, John</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2853635','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2853635"><span>HIDDEN in PLAIN SIGHT Marketing Prescription Drugs to Consumers in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Herzberg, David</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Although the public health impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising remains a subject of great controversy, such promotion is typically understood as a recent phenomenon permitted only by changes in federal regulation of print and broadcast advertising over the past two decades. But today's omnipresent ads are only the most recent chapter in a longer history of DTC pharmaceutical promotion (including the ghostwriting of popular articles, organization of public-relations events, and implicit advertising of products to consumers) stretching back over the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. We use trade literature and archival materials to examine the continuity of efforts to promote prescription drugs to consumers and to better grapple with the public health significance of contemporary pharmaceutical marketing practices. PMID:20299640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoRL..45.1981J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoRL..45.1981J"><span>Northern Galápagos Corals Reveal <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Warming in the Eastern Tropical Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jimenez, Gloria; Cole, Julia E.; Thompson, Diane M.; Tudhope, Alexander W.</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>Models and observations disagree regarding sea surface temperature (SST) trends in the eastern tropical Pacific. We present a new Sr/Ca-SST record that spans 1940-2010 from two Wolf Island corals (northern Galápagos). Trend analysis of the Wolf record shows significant warming on multiple timescales, which is also present in several other records and gridded instrumental products. Together, these data sets suggest that most of the eastern tropical Pacific has warmed over the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. In contrast, recent decades have been characterized by warming during boreal spring and summer (especially north of the equator), and subtropical cooling during boreal fall and winter (especially south of the equator). These SST trends are consistent with the effects of radiative forcing, mitigated by cooling due to wind forcing during boreal winter, as well as intensified upwelling and a strengthened Equatorial Undercurrent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22250307','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22250307"><span>"The necessity for better bodies to perpetuate our institutions, insure a higher development of the individual, and advance the conditions of the race." Physical culture and the formation of the self in the late nineteenth and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martschukat, Jürgen</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the significance of sports and physical exercise in the turn-of-the-<span class="hlt">century</span> culture and society of the U.S. It depicts how physical fitness became a decisive feature of collective and individual self-perception and was understood as being at the core of a successful shaping of both the self and of the American body politic. I concentrate in particular on paradigms and strategies of human resources management to exemplify the overarching significance of physical fitness as it established itself at the heart of the USA's enterprise culture that began to emerge in the later nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>. American peculiarities will be considered, alongside ties and allusions to European, and particularly British, developments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025583','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025583"><span>Fault interaction and stress triggering of <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> earthquakes in Mongolia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pollitz, F.; Vergnolle, M.; Calais, E.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A cluster of exceptionally large earthquakes in the interior of Asia occurred from 1905 to 1967: the 1905 M7.9 Tsetserleg and M8.4 Bolnai earthquakes, the 1931 M8.0 Fu Yun earthquake, the 1957 M8.1 Gobi-Altai earthquake, and the 1967 M7.1 Mogod earthquake (sequence). Each of the larger (M ??? 8) earthquakes involved strike-slip faulting averaging more than 5 m and rupture lengths of several hundred kilometers. Available geologic data indicate that recurrence intervals on the major source faults are several thousands of years and distances of about 400 km separate the respective rupture areas. We propose that the occurrences of these and many smaller earthquakes are related and controlled to a large extent by stress changes generated by the compounded static deformation of the preceding earthquakes and subsequent viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and upper mantle beneath Mongolia. We employ a spherically layered viscoelastic model constrained by the 1994-2002 GPS velocity field in western Mongolia [Vergnolle et al., 2003]. Using the succession of <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> earthquakes as sources of deformation, we then analyze the time-dependent change in Coulomb failure stress (????f). At remote interaction distances, static ????f values are small. However, modeled postseismic stress changes typically accumulate to several tenths of a bar over time intervals of decades. Almost all significant <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> regional earthquakes (M ??? 6) with well-constrained fault geometry lie in positive ????f lobes of magnitude about +0.5 bar. Our results suggest that significant stress transfer is possible among continental faults separated by hundreds of kilometers and on timescales of decades. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70186755','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70186755"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> warming of the tropical Atlantic captured by Sr-U paleothermometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Alpert, Alice E.; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Hernandez-Delgado, Edwin A.; Winter, Amos; Gonneea, Meagan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Coral skeletons are valuable archives of past ocean conditions. However, interpretation of coral paleotemperature records is confounded by uncertainties associated with single-element ratio thermometers, including Sr/Ca. A new approach, Sr-U, uses U/Ca to constrain the influence of Rayleigh fractionation on Sr/Ca. Here we build on the initial Pacific Porites Sr-U calibration to include multiple Atlantic and Pacific coral genera from multiple coral reef locations spanning a temperature range of 23.15–30.12°C. Accounting for the wintertime growth cessation of one Bermuda coral, we show that Sr-U is strongly correlated with the average water temperature at each location (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001, n = 19). We applied the multispecies spatial calibration between Sr-U and temperature to reconstruct a 96 year long temperature record at Mona Island, Puerto Rico, using a coral not included in the calibration. Average Sr-U derived temperature for the period 1900–1996 is within 0.12°C of the average instrumental temperature at this site and captures the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> warming trend of 0.06°C per decade. Sr-U also captures the timing of multiyear variability but with higher amplitude than implied by the instrumental data. Mean Sr-U temperatures and patterns of multiyear variability were replicated in a second coral in the same grid box. Conversely, Sr/Ca records from the same two corals were inconsistent with each other and failed to capture absolute sea temperatures, timing of multiyear variability, or the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> warming trend. Our results suggest that coral Sr-U paleothermometry is a promising new tool for reconstruction of past ocean temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PalOc..32..146A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PalOc..32..146A"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> warming of the tropical Atlantic captured by Sr-U paleothermometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alpert, Alice E.; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Hernandez-Delgado, Edwin A.; Winter, Amos; Gonneea, Meagan E.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Coral skeletons are valuable archives of past ocean conditions. However, interpretation of coral paleotemperature records is confounded by uncertainties associated with single-element ratio thermometers, including Sr/Ca. A new approach, Sr-U, uses U/Ca to constrain the influence of Rayleigh fractionation on Sr/Ca. Here we build on the initial Pacific Porites Sr-U calibration to include multiple Atlantic and Pacific coral genera from multiple coral reef locations spanning a temperature range of 23.15-30.12°C. Accounting for the wintertime growth cessation of one Bermuda coral, we show that Sr-U is strongly correlated with the average water temperature at each location (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001, n = 19). We applied the multispecies spatial calibration between Sr-U and temperature to reconstruct a 96 year long temperature record at Mona Island, Puerto Rico, using a coral not included in the calibration. Average Sr-U derived temperature for the period 1900-1996 is within 0.12°C of the average instrumental temperature at this site and captures the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> warming trend of 0.06°C per decade. Sr-U also captures the timing of multiyear variability but with higher amplitude than implied by the instrumental data. Mean Sr-U temperatures and patterns of multiyear variability were replicated in a second coral in the same grid box. Conversely, Sr/Ca records from the same two corals were inconsistent with each other and failed to capture absolute sea temperatures, timing of multiyear variability, or the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> warming trend. Our results suggest that coral Sr-U paleothermometry is a promising new tool for reconstruction of past ocean temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006masc.book.....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006masc.book.....H"><span>The Martians of Science - Five Physicists Who Changed the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hargittai, István</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>If science has the equivalent of a Bloomsbury group, it is the five men born at the turn of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> in Budapest: Theodore von Kármán, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann, and Edward Teller. From Hungary to Germany to the United States, they remained friends and continued to work together and influence each other throughout their lives. As a result, their work was integral to some of the most important scientific and political developments of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. They were an extraordinary group of talents: Wigner won a Nobel Prize in theoretical physics; Szilard was the first to see that a chain reaction based on neutrons was possible, initiated the Manhattan Project, but left physics to try to restrict nuclear arms; von Neumann could solve difficult problems in his head and developed the modern computer for more complex problems; von Kármán became the first director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, providing the scientific basis for the U.S. Air Force; and Teller was the father of the hydrogen bomb, whose name is now synonymous with the controversial "Star Wars" initiative of the 1980s. Each was fiercely opinionated, politically active, and fought against all forms of totalitarianism. István Hargittai, as a young Hungarian physical chemist, was able to get to know some of these great men in their later years, and the depth of information and human interest in The Martians of Science is the result of his personal relationships with the subjects, their families, and their contemporaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=technical+AND+analysis&pg=3&id=EJ974180','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=technical+AND+analysis&pg=3&id=EJ974180"><span>"Strong Mothers Make Strong Children": Sports, Eugenics and Nationalism in Brazil at the Beginning of the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goellner, Silvana Vilodre; Votre, Sebastiao Josue; Pinheiro, Maria Claudia Brandao</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Based on post-structural feminist and gender studies, the present article analyses the importance given to the practice of physical education, sports and exercise as part of the national policy to strengthen the Caucasian-Brazilian population at the beginning of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, emphasising the priority made of the White female body as the…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=education+AND+childish&id=EJ933136','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=education+AND+childish&id=EJ933136"><span>Childish Pleasures and Adult Fears: Reflections on becoming Literate in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> and Twenty-First <span class="hlt">Centuries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jackson, Cath</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>With the Skills for Life strategy came new professional qualifications for teachers of literacy to adults. Having learned to be literate themselves in the mid-to-late <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, how ready are these teachers to take on the challenges of preparing their learners for the literacies of the new millennium? This paper comes out of doctoral…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22image+analysis%22&pg=3&id=EJ962191','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22image+analysis%22&pg=3&id=EJ962191"><span>Chemistry and Chemical Education through Text and Image: Analysis of <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Textbooks Used in Brazilian Context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Souza, Karina Ap F. D.; Porto, Paulo Alves</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Assuming that textbooks give literary expression to cultural and ideological values of a nation or group, we propose the analysis of chemistry textbooks used in Brazilian universities throughout the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. We analyzed iconographic and textual aspects of 31 textbooks which had significant diffusion in the context of Brazilian…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=river+AND+urban+AND+city&pg=3&id=ED300164','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=river+AND+urban+AND+city&pg=3&id=ED300164"><span>Population Growth in New Hampshire during the Nineteenth and <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Centuries</span>. Studies in New England Geography, Number 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hobart, Christine L.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper traces the shifts in New Hampshire's state and county population during the nineteenth and <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span>, focusing on the growth of urban centers and industry. From 1790 to 1840 most of New Hampshire's population growth was agricultural despite the beginnings of industrialization and urbanization. These processes greatly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=author+AND+name&id=EJ1005569','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=author+AND+name&id=EJ1005569"><span>Rural Schoolteachers and the Pressures of Community Life: Local and Cosmopolitan Coping Strategies in Mid-<span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Finland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anttila, Erkko; Vaananen, Ari</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article discusses rural schoolteachers' relationships with local village communities in mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Finland. At the time, Finnish rural teachers were typically very public figures in their local community. To deal with the pressures of their position, teachers resorted to coping strategies which the authors name "local"…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4620669','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4620669"><span>Alcoholism in Romania in the Late Nineteenth <span class="hlt">Century</span> and at the Beginning of the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>ANDREESCU, OANA; LEAŞU, FLORIN; ROGOZEA, LILIANA</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although alcohol consumption has been described from the earliest times, alcohol abuse has grown significantly since the mid-nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> as a consequence of the industrialization progress. Due to the socio-economic profile of Romania, which was considered to be agrarian, the idea of developing mainly the industry branches belonging to agriculture was considered. Amongst these branches, the production of alcohol appeared to be the most appropriate. The political state leaders from Romania enjoyed the taxes collected from alcohol commercialization, disregarding the costs involved in alcoholism which went far beyond them. PMID:26528038</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4759717','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4759717"><span>Engineering and technology of industrial water power at Castleford Mills from the seventeenth <span class="hlt">century</span> to the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rollinson, Andrew N.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article tells the story of engineering and technology at Castleford Water Mills from the seventeenth <span class="hlt">century</span> to the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> through the presentation of recently discovered design plans and deeds, supplemented by other historical research. One of Castleford's mills was operated by Dr Thomas Allinson's Natural Food Company and therefore retained stoneground milling when fashions for white flour prompted other mills to switch to roller systems. The millstones were powered by a high-efficiency breastshot wheel, believed to be the last of its type taken out of industrial service in Britain. Many of its features, and its subsequent longevity, can be attributed to the influential works of William Fairbairn and John Smeaton. Detailed colour designs show the construction specifications of this water-wheel and its civil housing, along with other engineering plans such as a previously unrecorded Henry Simon horizontal turbine. Links with John Smeaton and the entry in his catalogue of designs for Castleford Oil Mill are also explored, and a former flood mill is identified at the site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1375434','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1375434"><span>Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Reanalysis over France</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean -Philippe; Sauquet, Eric</p> <p></p> <p>This work proposes a daily high-resolution probabilistic reconstruction of precipitation and temperature fields in France over the 1871–2012 period built on the NOAA <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> global extended atmospheric reanalysis (20CR). The objective is to fill in the spatial and temporal data gaps in surface observations in order to improve our knowledge on the local-scale climate variability from the late nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> onwards. The SANDHY (Stepwise ANalogue Downscaling method for HYdrology) statistical downscaling method, initially developed for quantitative precipitation forecast, is used here to bridge the scale gap between large-scale 20CR predictors and local-scale predictands from the Safran high-resolution near-surface reanalysis,more » available from 1958 onwards only. SANDHY provides a daily ensemble of 125 analogue dates over the 1871–2012 period for 608 climatically homogeneous zones paving France. Large precipitation biases in intermediary seasons are shown to occur in regions with high seasonal asymmetry like the Mediterranean. Moreover, winter and summer temperatures are respectively over- and under-estimated over the whole of France. Two analogue subselection methods are therefore developed with the aim of keeping the structure of the SANDHY method unchanged while reducing those seasonal biases. The calendar selection keeps the analogues closest to the target calendar day. The stepwise selection applies two new analogy steps based on similarity of the sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale 2 m temperature ( T). Comparisons to the Safran reanalysis over 1959–2007 and to homogenized series over the whole <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> show that biases in the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are reduced with both methods. The stepwise subselection moreover leads to a large improvement of interannual correlation and reduction of errors in seasonal temperature time series. When the calendar subselection is an easily applicable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1375434-probabilistic-precipitation-temperature-downscaling-twentieth-century-reanalysis-over-france','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1375434-probabilistic-precipitation-temperature-downscaling-twentieth-century-reanalysis-over-france"><span>Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Reanalysis over France</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean -Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; ...</p> <p>2016-03-16</p> <p>This work proposes a daily high-resolution probabilistic reconstruction of precipitation and temperature fields in France over the 1871–2012 period built on the NOAA <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> global extended atmospheric reanalysis (20CR). The objective is to fill in the spatial and temporal data gaps in surface observations in order to improve our knowledge on the local-scale climate variability from the late nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> onwards. The SANDHY (Stepwise ANalogue Downscaling method for HYdrology) statistical downscaling method, initially developed for quantitative precipitation forecast, is used here to bridge the scale gap between large-scale 20CR predictors and local-scale predictands from the Safran high-resolution near-surface reanalysis,more » available from 1958 onwards only. SANDHY provides a daily ensemble of 125 analogue dates over the 1871–2012 period for 608 climatically homogeneous zones paving France. Large precipitation biases in intermediary seasons are shown to occur in regions with high seasonal asymmetry like the Mediterranean. Moreover, winter and summer temperatures are respectively over- and under-estimated over the whole of France. Two analogue subselection methods are therefore developed with the aim of keeping the structure of the SANDHY method unchanged while reducing those seasonal biases. The calendar selection keeps the analogues closest to the target calendar day. The stepwise selection applies two new analogy steps based on similarity of the sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale 2 m temperature ( T). Comparisons to the Safran reanalysis over 1959–2007 and to homogenized series over the whole <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> show that biases in the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are reduced with both methods. The stepwise subselection moreover leads to a large improvement of interannual correlation and reduction of errors in seasonal temperature time series. When the calendar subselection is an easily applicable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6.1050E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6.1050E"><span>Statistically derived contributions of diverse human influences to <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> temperature changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Estrada, Francisco; Perron, Pierre; Martínez-López, Benjamín</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The warming of the climate system is unequivocal as evidenced by an increase in global temperatures by 0.8°C over the past <span class="hlt">century</span>. However, the attribution of the observed warming to human activities remains less clear, particularly because of the apparent slow-down in warming since the late 1990s. Here we analyse radiative forcing and temperature time series with state-of-the-art statistical methods to address this question without climate model simulations. We show that long-term trends in total radiative forcing and temperatures have largely been determined by atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, and modulated by other radiative factors. We identify a pronounced increase in the growth rates of both temperatures and radiative forcing around 1960, which marks the onset of sustained global warming. Our analyses also reveal a contribution of human interventions to two periods when global warming slowed down. Our statistical analysis suggests that the reduction in the emissions of ozone-depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol, as well as a reduction in methane emissions, contributed to the lower rate of warming since the 1990s. Furthermore, we identify a contribution from the two world wars and the Great Depression to the documented cooling in the mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, through lower carbon dioxide emissions. We conclude that reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are effective in slowing the rate of warming in the short term.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27480370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27480370"><span>Economic performance and public concerns about social class in <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> books.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yunsong; Yan, Fei</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>What is the association between macroeconomic conditions and public perceptions of social class? Applying a novel approach based on the Google Books N-gram corpus, this study addresses the relationship between public concerns about social class and economic conditions throughout the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. The usage of class-related words/phrases, or "literary references to class," in American English-language books is related to US economic performance and income inequality. The findings of this study demonstrate that economic conditions play a significant role in literary references to class throughout the <span class="hlt">century</span>, whereas income inequality does not. Similar results are obtained from further analyses using alternative measures of class concerns as well as different corpora of English Fiction and the New York Times. We add to the social class literature by showing that the long-term temporal dynamics of an economy can be exhibited by aggregate class concerns. The application of massive culture-wide content analysis using data of unprecedented size also represents a contribution to the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27232946','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27232946"><span>Theory versus Practice in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Search for the Ideal Anaesthetic Gas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rae, Ian D</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>At the beginning of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, an anaesthetist could choose between nitrous oxide, chloroform, and ether (diethyl ether) for the induction of painrelieving unconsciousness. By the end of <span class="hlt">century</span>, the choice was between a small number of fluorinated aliphatic ethers such as Enflurane, Desflurane, and Sevoflurane, and (in some jurisdictions) the rare gas, xenon. Between these endpoints researchers had identified a surprisingly broad range of hydrocarbons, noble gases, organohalogens, and aliphatic ethers that possessed anaesthetic properties. None was entirely satisfactory, but clinicians at various times and in various places employed substances in each of these categories. Behind the search for new anaesthetic gases was a theory of action (Meyer- Overton theory) that was known to be inadequate, but as no alternative was strong enough to displace it the search continued on purely empirical grounds, while lip-service was paid to the theory. By the time a theory couched in more modern terms was proposed, a suite of modern anaesthetic gases was in place, and there have been no attempts to use that theory to drive a new search.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2586786','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2586786"><span>Police deaths in New York and London during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kyriacou, D N; Monkkonen, E H; Peek‐Asa, C; Lucke, R E; Labbett, S; Pearlman, K S; Hutson, H R</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To describe the incidences and causes of occupational police deaths in New York City in the United States and Greater London in the United Kingdom during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. To assess the relation between overall societal violence and violence directed toward police officers in these metropolitan areas. Design and setting Ecological study of New York and London from 1900 through 1999. Main outcome measures Intentional and unintentional occupational police mortality rates for New York and London were estimated for each decade. The general population homicide rates of both New York and London were assessed for their correlation with their respective intentional occupational police mortality rates. Results During the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, 585 police officers in New York and 160 police officers in London died while participating in law enforcement activities. New York had markedly greater intentional police mortality rates compared to London throughout most of the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, but these differences decreased significantly by the end of the <span class="hlt">century</span>. Intentional gunshot wounds comprised 290 police deaths in New York, but only 14 police deaths in London. In New York, gun shot wounds (both intentional and unintentional) accounted for more occupational police deaths (51.6%) than did all other injury mechanisms combined. In London, motor vehicle collision was the most common cause (47.5%) of occupational police death. There were no apparent correlations between the general population homicide rates and intentional police mortality rates in either New York (r2 = 0.05, 95% CI −0.77 to 0.81) or London (r2 = 0.34, 95% CI −0.61 to 0.89). Conclusions During the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, both intentional and unintentional occupational police mortality rates were significantly greater in New York compared to London. These differences are likely from several socioeconomic, cultural, and occupational factors. The declines in police deaths in New York during the latter part of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoRL..45.1586A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoRL..45.1586A"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Regional Climate Change During the Summer in the Central United States Attributed to Agricultural Intensification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alter, Ross E.; Douglas, Hunter C.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>Both land use changes and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have significantly modified regional climate over the last <span class="hlt">century</span>. In the central United States, for example, observational data indicate that rainfall increased, surface air temperature decreased, and surface humidity increased during the summer over the course of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> concurrently with increases in both agricultural production and global GHG emissions. However, the relative contributions of each of these forcings to the observed regional changes remain unclear. Results of both regional climate model simulations and observational analyses suggest that much of the observed rainfall increase—as well as the decrease in temperature and increase in humidity—is attributable to agricultural intensification in the central United States, with natural variability and GHG emissions playing secondary roles. Thus, we conclude that <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> land use changes contributed more to forcing observed regional climate change during the summer in the central United States than increasing GHG emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048421','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048421"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth-century</span> global-mean sea level rise: Is the whole greater than the sum of the parts?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gregory, J.M.; White, N.J.; Church, J.A.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Box, J.E.; Van den Broeke, M.R.; Cogley, J.G.; Fettweis, X.; Hanna, E.; Huybrechts, P.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Leclercq, P.W.; Marzeion, B.; Oerlemans, J.; Tamisiea, M.E.; Wada, Y.; Wake, L.M.; Van de Wal, R.S.W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Confidence in projections of global-mean sea level rise (GMSLR) depends on an ability to account for GMSLR during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. There are contributions from ocean thermal expansion, mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets, groundwater extraction, and reservoir impoundment. Progress has been made toward solving the “enigma” of <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> GMSLR, which is that the observed GMSLR has previously been found to exceed the sum of estimated contributions, especially for the earlier decades. The authors propose the following: thermal expansion simulated by climate models may previously have been underestimated because of their not including volcanic forcing in their control state; the rate of glacier mass loss was larger than previously estimated and was not smaller in the first half than in the second half of the <span class="hlt">century</span>; the Greenland ice sheet could have made a positive contribution throughout the <span class="hlt">century</span>; and groundwater depletion and reservoir impoundment, which are of opposite sign, may have been approximately equal in magnitude. It is possible to reconstruct the time series of GMSLR from the quantified contributions, apart from a constant residual term, which is small enough to be explained as a long-term contribution from the Antarctic ice sheet. The reconstructions account for the observation that the rate of GMSLR was not much larger during the last 50 years than during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> as a whole, despite the increasing anthropogenic forcing. Semiempirical methods for projecting GMSLR depend on the existence of a relationship between global climate change and the rate of GMSLR, but the implication of the authors' closure of the budget is that such a relationship is weak or absent during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=darwinism&pg=3&id=EJ880932','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=darwinism&pg=3&id=EJ880932"><span>Collecting among the Menomini: Cultural Assault in <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Wisconsin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beck, David R. M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>From the late nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> through the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1930s a succession of collectors, ethnologists, and other scholars scoured the Menominee Reservation for data and items of material culture, which they presented to the American public through both publication and display. They did this with the cautious aid of Menominees they hired to provide…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=liberalism+AND+century+AND+19th&id=EJ310596','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=liberalism+AND+century+AND+19th&id=EJ310596"><span>If All the World Were Chicago: American Education in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lazerson, Marvin</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Four sets of issues as they relate to the city of Chicago during the late 19th and <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">centuries</span> are examined: race and the liberal agenda, the role of academics in public policy, the organization of teachers, and the ambiguities of progressive policy. (RM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26707968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26707968"><span>Between biomedical and psychological experiments: The unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institutes and the study of animal mind in the second quarter of <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> France.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomas, Marion</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This article explores the unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institute in French Guinea and the study of animal mind in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> France. At a time when the study of animal intelligence was thriving in France and elsewhere, apes were appealing research subjects both in psychological and biomedical studies. Drawing on two case studies (Guillaume/Meyerson and Urbain), and then, on someone responding negatively to those connections, Thétard, this article shows how the long reach of biomedicine (linked to the prestige of Bernard and Pasteur) impinged on French biology and played a role in the tortuous, if not unsuccessful fate of animal psychology in France in the second quarter of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. It shows how attempts to use apes (and other zoo animals) to yield new insights on animal psychology faced heavy restrictions or experienced false starts, and examines the reasons why animal psychology could not properly thrive at that time in France. Beyond the supremacy of biomedical interests over psychological ones, this article additionally explains that some individuals used animal behaviour studies as steppingstones in careers in which they proceeded on to other topics. Finally, it illustrates the tension between non-academic and academic people at a time when animal psychology was trying to acquire scientific legitimacy, and also highlights the difficulties attached to the scientific study of animals in a multipurpose and hybrid environment such as the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> Parisian zoo and also the Pasteur Institute of French Guinea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22280529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22280529"><span>Weight stigma, addiction, science, and the medication of fatness in mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, Nicolas</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Obesity and overweight are today recognised as subject to harmful stigma. Through an analysis of discussions of obesity in major American newspapers, the medical literature, and pharmaceutical advertising in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, I document a significant shift in medical thinking about overweight and obesity based in psychiatry, and explore the relationship of that shift to changes in popular understandings of fatness after the Second World War. I argue that the psychiatrically-oriented postwar medical thinking about obesity was more stigmatising as compared with the endocrinologically-oriented thinking of the interwar period, in that the newer biomedical theory linked fatness to the already stigmatised condition of addiction and authorised attribution of moral blame to the fat. I further argue that the pharmaceutical industry cannot be assigned the lead role in medicalisation in this period that some authors attributed to it. These events cast doubt on the received view of fatness as subject to decreasing stigma and increasing medicalisation over the course of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, and call for exploration of the social factors influencing specific forms of medicalisation. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18161596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18161596"><span>Vinken and Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology. A witness of late-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> neurological progress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koehler, P J; Jennekens, F G I</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Vinken and Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology (HCN) is best characterized as an encyclopedia. In this paper we describe the origin, production, and reception of HCN. Data were gathered from a literature search, by screening of HCN-volumes, interviewing key-role persons and a study of an HCN-archive. The initiative for HCN was taken by two Excerpta Medica staff members, the one a strategist with expertise in information systems, the other a gifted neurologist with an expert knowledge of who is who in the world of neurological literature. Within a period of 38 years, 2799 authors, 28 volume editors, the two initiators, and a third chief editor for the American continent described the whole of neurology in 1909 chapters on all together 46,025 pages (excluding index volumes). HCN was sold mainly to medical institutes in affluent countries. A digital version of the revised edition was proposed by the editors but refused by the publisher for commercial reasons. HCN was in general well received by book reviewers. The main criticisms concerned the price of the volumes, lack of editorial control, inadequacy of indexes, and lack of cross references. HCN offers unrivalled information on the state of the art of the clinical neurosciences in the second half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. In addition, it contains extensive reviews of the history of neurological diseases in the volumes of the original edition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27756007','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27756007"><span>Towards an anthropometric history of latin America in the second half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Challú, Amílcar E; Silva-Castañeda, Sergio</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We examine the evolution of adult female heights in twelve Latin American countries during the second half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> based on demographic health surveys and related surveys compiled from national and international organizations. Only countries with more than one survey were included, allowing us to cross-examine surveys and correct for biases. We first show that average height varies significantly according to location, from 148.3cm in Guatemala to 158.8cm in Haiti. The evolution of heights over these decades behaves like indicators of human development, showing a steady increase of 2.6cm from the 1950s to the 1990s. Such gains compare favorably to other developing regions of the world, but not so much with recently developed countries. Height gains were not evenly distributed in the region, however. Countries that achieved higher levels of income, such as Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico, gained on average 0.9cm per decade, while countries with shrinking economies, such as Haiti and Guatemala, only gained 0.25cm per decade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21995222','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21995222"><span>Creeping, drinking, dying: the cinematic portal and the microscopic world of the <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> cell.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Landecker, Hannah</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Film scholars have long posed the question of the specificity of the film medium and the apparatus of cinema, asking what is unique to cinema, how it constrains and enables filmmakers and audiences in particular ways that other media do not. This question has rarely been considered in relation to scientific film, and here it is posed within the specific context of cell biology: What does the use oftime-based media such as film coupled with the microscope allow scientists to experience that other visualization practices do not? Examining three episodes in the <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> study of the cell, this article argues that the apparatus ofmicrocinematography constitutes what might be thought of as a technical portal to another world, a door that determines the experience of the world that lies on the other side of it. In this case, the design of apparatuses to capture time-lapsed images enabled the acceleration of cellular time, bringing it into the realm of human perception and experience. Further, the experience of the cellular temporal world was part of a distinct kind of cell biology, one that was focused on behavior rather than structure, focused on the relation between cells, and between the cell and its milieu rather than on cell-intrinsic features such as chromosomes or organelles. As such, the instruments and technical design of the microcinematographic apparatus may be understood as a kind of materialized epistemology, the history of which can elucidate how cinema was and is used to produce scientific knowledge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12592885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12592885"><span>The fire ant wars. Nature and science in the pesticide controversies of the late <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buhs, Joshua Blu</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>This essay uses an approach borrowed from environmental history to investigate the interaction of science and nature in a late <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> controversy. This debate, over the proper response to fire ants that had been imported into the American South accidentally and then spread across the region, pitted Rachel Carson and loosely federated groups of conservationists, scientists, and citizens against the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The analysis falls into three sections: an examination of the natural history of the ants; an examination of the views of the competing factions; and an examination of how those views, transformed into action, affected the natural world. Both sides saw the ants in terms of a constellation of beliefs about the relationship between nature, science, and democracy. As various ideas were put into play, they interacted with the natural history of the insects in unexpected ways--and with consequences for the cultural authority of the antagonists. Combining insights from the history of science and environmental history helps explain how scientists gain and lose cultural authority and, more fundamentally, allows for an examination of how nature can be integrated into the history of science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H51I..03T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H51I..03T"><span>Alternatives to Dam Building: Deindustrialization and the Redevelopment of Waterways in the Northeast During the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taber, J. S.; Pompeii, B. J.; Nicoletti, C.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Northeast United States contains more dams than any other region in the country but it lacks structures on the scale of the Hoover or Bonneville dams in the American West. This work addresses why the Northeast lacks such large dams and how the pattern of small dams within the region shaped its social development. During the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, changing social and economic conditions rendered the initial purposes of many dams in the region moot, but these structures continued to influence hydrologic conditions and the provision of ecosystem services to an expanding population. The continued existence of many of these dams resulted from a worldview unable to conceive of dam removal as it did to the economic or environmental services provided by the structure. Documenting the process by which society developed alternatives to dam building in this region can contextualize the origins and contingent character of ideas about dam removal. The overarching theme in this process is the deindustrialization of the Northeast, which pitted the interests of industrial cities undergoing economic reorganization, emerging suburban communities, and growing service industries in the region. This paper considers changing attitudes toward dams as part of a four step process: (1) although the mill dams of the industrial revolution remained after electrification rendered manufacturers independent of direct water power in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, deindustrialization reshaped the political and legal responses to flooding by stregnthening the political and economic position of service industries and suburban residential interests; (2) the most tangible response to this development was proposed federal investment in dam building in the region between the 1930s and the 1950s; (3) political conflicts between local interests and federal proposals for dam construction slowed down the dam building process and enabled people to consider alternative strategies for flood control and power</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=early+AND+child&pg=5&id=EJ1153609','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=early+AND+child&pg=5&id=EJ1153609"><span>The Imperfect Child in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Byford, Andy</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The article discusses the role that conceptualisations of child "imperfection" played in the rise and fall of Russian "child study" between the 1900s and the 1930s. Drawing on Georges Canguilhem's ideas on "the normal" and "the pathological", the article analyses practices centred on diagnosing subnormality…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431982"><span>Women, work and health between the nineteenth and <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span> from a national and international perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salerno, Silvana</p> <p>2014-11-16</p> <p>A few years after a series of meetings of Italian scientists were convened prior to the unification of Italy, the first women qualified in medicine and other dedicated women participated in founding a movement for the improvement of living and working conditions of women and children in Italy. analysis of Italian women's contributions in the proceedings of the International Council of Women Congresses and their impact on increasing the number of women's occupational health studies presented at the fourth National Congress on Occupational Diseases held in Rome in 1914. Analysis of the proceedings of the International Council of Women Congresses (Washington, Chicago, London), and of the Women's National Council and other documents so as to obtain a picture of Italian women's working conditions at that time. Women and children worked an excessive number of hours per day, were underpaid, and had a legal status of inferiority. The main work sectors were sewing, embroidery, lace making, ironing, cooking, washing, dressmaking, millinery, fashion design, typing, weaving, artificial flowers, etc. The same sort of work was available to Italian women who emigrated to the United States of America. The success achieved by the women's movement is shown in the paper presented by Irene de Bonis "Occupational diseases among women" and published in the proceedings of the fourth National Congress on Occupational Diseases held in Rome, 9-14 June 1914. The article outlines the main features of the women's movement at the turn of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, focussing on their publications describing Italian women's working conditions, considered in an international context. The movement's engagement in the promotion of women's occupational health at international and national level was successful but the First World War was to transform this achievement into the women's peace movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170002647&hterms=sea&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsea','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170002647&hterms=sea&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsea"><span>Assessing the Impact of Vertical Land Motion on <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Global Mean Sea Level Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamlington, B. D.; Thompson, P.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Ray, R. D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Near-global and continuous measurements from satellite altimetry have provided accurate estimates of global mean sea level in the past two decades. Extending these estimates further into the past is a challenge using the historical tide gauge records. Not only is sampling nonuniform in both space and time, but tide gauges are also affected by vertical land motion (VLM) that creates a relative sea level change not representative of ocean variability. To allow for comparisons to the satellite altimetry estimated global mean sea level (GMSL), typically the tide gauges are corrected using glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. This approach, however, does not correct other sources of VLM that remain in the tide gauge record. Here we compare Global Positioning System (GPS) VLM estimates at the tide gauge locations to VLM estimates from GIA models, and assess the influence of non-GIA-related VLM on GMSL estimates. We find that the tide gauges, on average, are experiencing positive VLM (i.e., uplift) after removing the known effect of GIA, resulting in an increase of 0.2460.08 mm yr21 in GMSL trend estimates from 1900 to present when using GPS-based corrections. While this result is likely dependent on the subset of tide gauges used and the actual corrections used, it does suggest that non-GIA VLM plays a significant role in <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> estimates of GMSL. Given the relatively short GPS records used to obtain these VLM estimates, we also estimate the uncertainty in the GMSL trend that results from limited knowledge of non-GIA-related VLM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5044C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5044C"><span>Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Reanalysis over France</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Graff, Benjamin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p> considered to correct monthly precipitation and temperature time series. The first one applies two new analogy steps, using the sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale two-meter temperature. The second method is a calendar selection that keeps the closest analogue dates in the year for each target date. A sensitivity study has been performed to assess the final number of analogues dates to retain for each method. A comparison to Safran over 1958-2010 shows that biases on the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are strongly reduced with both methods. Using two supplementary analogy levels moreover leads to a large improvement of correlation in seasonal temperature time series. These two methods have also been validated before 1958 thanks to both raw observations and homogenized time series. The two post-processing methods come with some advantages and drawbacks. The calendar selection allows to slightly better correct for seasonal biases in precipitation and is therefore adapted in a forecasting context. The selection with two supplementary analogy levels would allow for possible season shifts and SST trends and is therefore better suited for climate reconstruction and climate change studies. Compo, G. P. et al. (2011). The <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137:1-28. doi: 10.1002/qj.776 Radanovics, S., Vidal, J.-P., Sauquet, E., Ben Daoud, A., and Bontron, G. (2013). Optimising predictor domains for spatially coherent precipitation downscaling. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17:4189-4208. doi:10.5194/hess-17-4189-2013 Vidal, J.-P ., Martin, E., Franchistéguy, L., Baillon, M., and Soubeyroux, J.-M. (2010). A 50-year high-resolution atmospheric reanalysis over France with the Safran system. International Journal of Climatology, 30:1627-1644. doi:10.1002/joc.2003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20527457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20527457"><span>[Bibliometry of biological systematics in Latin America during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> in three global databases].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Michán, Layla; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>We present a review of the biological systematic research in Latin America during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, applying a bibliometric analysis to the information contained in international databases with the largest number of biological records: Biosis (since 1969), CAB (since 1910) and Science Citation Index (since 1900), to recognize certain patterns and trends regarding the document production. We obtained 19079 documents and 1387 journals for Biosis, 14326 and 2537 for CAB, 3257 and 1636 for SCI. Of the documents, 54.6% related to new species, 15.3% dealt with morphology, 14.9% keys, 12.5% descriptions, 10.6% cases of synonymies, 6% new genera, 4.9% new geographical records, 23.6% geographical distribution, 4.2% redescriptions, and 3.6% with new nomenclatural combinations. The regions mentioned were South America with 11.9%, Central America with 4% and America (all) with 2.56%. Nineteen Latin American countries appear, whereas outside this region we found the United States of America with 12.6% of representation and Canada with 3%. Animals (65.6%) were the most studied taxa, which was 1.7 times higher than what was published for plants (37%), 11 times higher than fungi (6%) and nearly 30 times higher than microorganisms (2.3%). Out of the 155 journals that produced 66% of the papers, 76.5% were better represented in Biosis, 21.4% in CAB and 2% in SCI. Twenty-nine journals published 33% of the articles, the maximum number of records obtained was 69% for Biosis, CAB 24% and 6.9% for SCI, three (10.3%) are in biology, 11 (37.9%) in botany, 13 (44.8%) zoology, and two (6.9%) paleontology; eight of these journals (27.5%) were published in Latin America and twenty were indexed in the Science Citation Index. In the last two years more journals of the region that publish on taxonomy have been indexed, but their impact factor is still low. However, the impact factor of a number of Latin American journals that published biodiversity increased with time. Countries that are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......181C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......181C"><span>Biography of a technology: North America's power grid through the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cohn, Julie A.</p> <p></p> <p>North Americans are among the world's most intense consumers of electricity. The vast majority in the United States and Canada access power from a network of transmission lines that stretch from the East Coast to the West Coast and from Canada to the Mexican Baja. This network, known as the largest interconnected machine in the world, evolved during the first two thirds of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. With the very first link-ups occurring at the end of the 1890s, a wide variety of public and private utilities extended power lines to reach markets, access and manage energy resources, balance loads, realize economies of scale, provide backup power, and achieve economic stability. In 1967, utility managers and the Bureau of Reclamation connected the expansive eastern and western power pools to create the North American grid. Unlike other power grids around the world, built by single, centrally controlled entities, this large technological system emerged as the result of multiple decisions across eighty-five years of development, and negotiations for control at the economic, political, and technological levels. This dissertation describes the process of building the North American grid and the paradoxes the resulting system represents. While the grid functions as a single machine moving electricity across the continent, it is owned by many independent entities. Smooth operations suggest that the grid is a unified system; however, it operates under shared management and divided authority. In addition, although a single power network seems the logical outcome of electrification, in fact it was assembled through aggregation, not planning. Interconnections intentionally increase the robustness of individual sub-networks, yet the system itself is fragile, as demonstrated by major cascading power outages. Finally, the transmission network facilitates increased use of energy resources and consumption of power, but at certain points in the past, it also served as a technology of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110022587','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110022587"><span>Forced and Unforced Variability of <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> North American Droughts and Pluvials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cook, Benjamin I.; Cook, Edward R.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Research on the forcing of drought and pluvial events over North America is dominated by general circulation model experiments that often have operational limitations (e.g., computational expense, ability to simulate relevant processes, etc). We use a statistically based modeling approach to investigate sea surface temperature (SST) forcing of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> pluvial (1905-1917) and drought (1932-1939, 1948-1957, 1998-2002) events. A principal component (PC) analysis of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the North American Drought Atlas separates the drought variability into five leading modes accounting for 62% of the underlying variance. Over the full period spanning these events (1900-2005), the first three PCs significantly correlate with SSTs in the equatorial Pacific (PC 1), North Pacific (PC 2), and North Atlantic (PC 3), with spatial patterns (as defined by the empirical orthogonal functions) consistent with our understanding of North American drought responses to SST forcing. We use a large ensemble statistical modeling approach to determine how successfully we can reproduce these drought/pluvial events using these three modes of variability. Using Pacific forcing only (PCs 1-2), we are able to reproduce the 1948-1957 drought and 1905-1917 pluvial above a 95% random noise threshold in over 90% of the ensemble members; the addition of Atlantic forcing (PCs 1-2-3) provides only marginal improvement. For the 1998-2002 drought, Pacific forcing reproduces the drought above noise in over 65% of the ensemble members, with the addition of Atlantic forcing increasing the number passing to over 80%. The severity of the drought, however, is underestimated in the ensemble median, suggesting this drought intensity can only be achieved through internal variability or other processes. Pacific only forcing does a poor job of reproducing the 1932-1939 drought pattern in the ensemble median, and less than one third of ensemble members exceed the noise threshold</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70189931','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70189931"><span>Glacier variability in the conterminous United States during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McCabe, Gregory J.; Fountain, Andrew G.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Glaciers of the conterminous United States have been receding for the past <span class="hlt">century</span>. Since 1900 the recession has varied from a 24 % loss in area (Mt. Rainier, Washington) to a 66 % loss in the Lewis Range of Montana. The rates of retreat are generally similar with a rapid loss in the <span class="hlt">early</span> decades of the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, slowing in the 1950s–1970s, and a resumption of rapid retreat starting in the 1990s. Decadal estimates of changes in glacier area for a subset of 31 glaciers from 1900 to 2000 are used to test a snow water equivalent model that is subsequently employed to examine the effects of temperature and precipitation variability on annual glacier area changes for these glaciers. Model results indicate that both winter precipitation and winter temperature have been important climatic factors affecting the variability of glacier variability during the 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span>. Most of the glaciers analyzed appear to be more sensitive to temperature variability than to precipitation variability. However, precipitation variability is important, especially for high elevation glaciers. Additionally, glaciers with areas greater than 1 km2 are highly sensitive to variability in temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19660161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19660161"><span>"Not a very nice subject." Changing views of parasites and parasitology in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vickerman, Keith</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>The man in-the-street who frequently asks the question "Why am I here?" finds even more difficulty with the question "Why are parasites here?" The public's distaste for parasites (and by implication, for parasitologists!) is therefore understandable, as maybe was the feeling of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> biologists that parasites were a puzzle because they did not conform to the then widely held association between evolution and progress, let alone the reason why a benevolent Creator should have created them. In mid-<span class="hlt">century</span>, the writer, contemplating a career in parasitology was taken aback when he found that extolled contemporary biologists disdained parasites or thought little of parasitology as an intellectual subject. These attitudes reflected a lack of appreciation of the important role of parasites in generating evolutionary novelty and speciation, also unawareness of the value of parasite life-cycle studies for formulating questions of wider significance in biology, deficiencies which were gratifyingly beginning to be remedied in the latter half of the <span class="hlt">century</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......325B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......325B"><span>The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beaubouef, Bruce Andre</p> <p></p> <p>The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20027783','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20027783"><span>The return of the phoenix: the 1963 International Congress of Zoology and American zoologists in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, Kristin</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the International Congress of Zoology held in Washington D.C. in 1963 as a portrait of American zoologists' search for effective and rewarding relationships with both each other and the public. Organizers of the congress envisioned the congress as a last ditch effort to unify the disparate subdisciplines of zoology, overcome the barriers of specialization, and ward off the heady claims of more reductionist biologists. The problems zoologists faced as they worked to fulfill these ambitious goals illuminate some of the challenges faced by members of the naturalist tradition as they worked to establish disciplinary unity while seeking public support in the competitive world of <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27066627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27066627"><span>Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-<span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rutherford, Alexandra</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Using mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26331654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26331654"><span>[The medical, social and institutional challenges resulting from poliomyelitis: comprehensive rehabilitation in Argentina in the mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alvarez, Adriana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Poliomyelitis on an epidemic scale gave rise to several challenges, one of which was the rehabilitation from the after-effects on many of the people who suffered from the disease. Paralysis and the ways it transformed the concept of physical rehabilitation (where the objective was only to restore the mobility of the affected muscles) and comprehensive rehabilitation that included social, educational and professional aspects in Argentina in the mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> are the themes addressed in this article. It uses the methodology of institutional history that interacts in an ongoing manner with the history of health and disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21299010','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21299010"><span>The other woman and her child: extra-marital affairs and illegitimacy in <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Britain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, Tanya Evans</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article investigates the numbers of 'other women' and their children up until the 1960s in Britain. It analyses 'irregular and illicit unions' in the records of the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and her Child (now One Parent Families/Gingerbread), and explores evidence on these unions in the debates over the passage of the Divorce Acts of 1923 and 1937 as well as the Legitimacy Acts of 1926 and 1959. It suggests that the prevalence of illicit unions throughout the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> and before allows us to question contemporary concerns about our supposed 'divorcing society' and the decline of family life in modern Britain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25169684','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25169684"><span>A historical perspective on the development of modern concepts of tissue perfusion: prehistory to the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ashby, Nathan; Squiers, Joshua</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The historical development of the concept of perfusion is traced, with particular focus on the development of the modern clinical concepts of perfusion through the fields of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. This article reviews many of the significant contributors to the changing ideas of perfusion up through the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> that have influenced the modern physiologic circulatory and metabolic models. The developments outlined have provided the modern model of perfusion, linking the cardiopulmonary circulation, tissue oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide production, food intake, tissue waste production and elimination, and ultimately the production and utilization of ATP in the body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29481678','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29481678"><span>Working-Class Ideas and Experiences of Sexuality in <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Britain: Regionalism as a Category of Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Helen</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>This article will explore region as a category of analysis for understanding gender, sexual cultures, and the expression of same-sex desire. In unpicking the notion of regional difference in both its tangible and intangible forms, it outlines the corresponding impact on how sexual cultures developed and were experienced in <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Britain. By recognizing that the area in which an individual lived could have as much impact on their sense of self and their sexual experiences as issues of race, gender, and class, a new and fruitful avenue of interpretation is opened up for the history of sexuality and <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> British history more broadly. Such a methodology has the potential to add a new dimension to all histories of non-state-sanctioned sexual experience such as illegitimacy, premarital sex, extramarital affairs, and prostitution. In using regional case studies and interrogating ideas of sexual taboo, this article offers a unique interpretation of sexual experience that destabilizes current London-centric narratives and offers a more democratic and nuanced history of sex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1287270','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1287270"><span>Anomalous mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> atmospheric circulation change over the South Atlantic compared to the last 6000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turney, Chris S. M.; Jones, Richard T.; Lister, David</p> <p></p> <p>Determining the timing and impact of anthropogenic climate change in data-sparse regions is a considerable challenge. Arguably, nowhere is this more difficult than the Antarctic Peninsula and the subantarctic South Atlantic where observational records are relatively short but where high rates of warming have been experienced since records began. Here we interrogate recently developed monthly-resolved observational datasets from the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and extend the records back using climate-sensitive peat growth over the past 6000 years. Investigating the subantarctic climate data with ERA-Interim and <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Reanalysis, we find that a stepped increase in precipitation across the 1940smore » is related to a change in synoptic atmospheric circulation: a westward migration of quasi-permanent positive pressure anomalies in the South Atlantic has brought the subantarctic islands under the increased influence of meridional airflow associated with the Amundsen Sea Low. Analysis of three comprehensively multi-dated (using 14C and 137Cs) peat sequences across the two islands demonstrates unprecedented growth rates since the mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> relative to the last 6000 years. Comparison to observational and reconstructed sea surface temperatures suggests this change is linked to a warming tropical Pacific Ocean. Lastly, our results imply 'modern' South Atlantic atmospheric circulation has not been under this configuration for millennia.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1287270-anomalous-mid-twentieth-century-atmospheric-circulation-change-over-south-atlantic-compared-last-years','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1287270-anomalous-mid-twentieth-century-atmospheric-circulation-change-over-south-atlantic-compared-last-years"><span>Anomalous mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> atmospheric circulation change over the South Atlantic compared to the last 6000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Turney, Chris S. M.; Jones, Richard T.; Lister, David; ...</p> <p>2016-06-09</p> <p>Determining the timing and impact of anthropogenic climate change in data-sparse regions is a considerable challenge. Arguably, nowhere is this more difficult than the Antarctic Peninsula and the subantarctic South Atlantic where observational records are relatively short but where high rates of warming have been experienced since records began. Here we interrogate recently developed monthly-resolved observational datasets from the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and extend the records back using climate-sensitive peat growth over the past 6000 years. Investigating the subantarctic climate data with ERA-Interim and <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Reanalysis, we find that a stepped increase in precipitation across the 1940smore » is related to a change in synoptic atmospheric circulation: a westward migration of quasi-permanent positive pressure anomalies in the South Atlantic has brought the subantarctic islands under the increased influence of meridional airflow associated with the Amundsen Sea Low. Analysis of three comprehensively multi-dated (using 14C and 137Cs) peat sequences across the two islands demonstrates unprecedented growth rates since the mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> relative to the last 6000 years. Comparison to observational and reconstructed sea surface temperatures suggests this change is linked to a warming tropical Pacific Ocean. Lastly, our results imply 'modern' South Atlantic atmospheric circulation has not been under this configuration for millennia.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC51A0673C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC51A0673C"><span>Ranking GCM Estimates of <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Precipitation Seasonality in the Western U.S. and its Influence on Floristic Provinces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cole, K. L.; Eischeid, J. K.; Garfin, G. M.; Ironside, K.; Cobb, N. S.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Floristic provinces of the western United States (west of 100W) can be segregated into three regions defined by significant seasonal precipitation during the months of: 1) November-March (Mediterranean); 2) July- September (Monsoonal); or, 3) May-June (Rocky Mountain). This third region is best defined by the absence of the late spring-<span class="hlt">early</span> summer drought that affects regions 1 and 2. Each of these precipitation regimes is characterized by distinct vegetation types and fire seasonality adapted to that particular cycle of seasonal moisture availability and deficit. Further, areas where these regions blend from one to another can support even more complex seasonal patterns and resulting distinctive vegetation types. As a result, modeling the effects of climates on these ecosystems requires confidence that GCMs can at least approximate these sub- continental seasonal precipitation patterns. We evaluated the late <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> (1950-1999 AD) estimates of annual precipitation seasonality produced by 22 GCMs contained within the IPCC Fourth Assessment (AR4). These modeled estimates were compared to values from the PRISM dataset, extrapolated from station data, over the same historical period for the 3 seasonal periods defined above. The correlations between GCM estimates and PRISM values were ranked using 4 measures: 1) A map pattern relationship based on the correlation coefficient, 2) A map pattern relationship based on the congruence coefficient, 3) The ratio of simulated/observed area averaged precipitation based on the seasonal precipitation amounts, and, 4) The ratio of simulated/observed area averaged precipitation based on the seasonal precipitation percentages of the annual total. For each of the four metrics, the rank order of models was very similar. The ranked order of the performance of the different models quantified aspects of the model performance visible in the mapped results. While some models represented the seasonal patterns very well, others</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14660259','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14660259"><span>Interdependencies, values and the reshaping of difference: gender and generation at the birth of <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> modernity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Irwin, Sarah</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The paper explores the mutuality of values, claims and social relations in the process of social change. Values are not separable from social relations but are embedded in the shaping and reshaping of social difference and interdependence. The paper focuses on developments around the turn of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, and analyses changes in the relative social positioning of children and adults, and women and men, shifting patterns of interdependence, and linked values and ideas about difference. The reconfiguring of generational and gender relations was integral to the first fertility decline, to transformation in family life and societal divisions of labour, and to the embedding of particular values and claims regarding gendered difference, identities and gender appropriate roles. Analysis of these developments reveals the mutuality of 'cultural' and 'material' processes and holds lessons for interpreting social change today.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21936237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21936237"><span>Crisis, change and creativity in science and technology: chemistry in the aftermath of <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> global wars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, Jeffrey Allan</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>This paper presents the organising ideas behind the symposium "Chemistry in the Aftermath of World Wars," held at the 23rd International Congress of History of Science and Technology, Budapest, 2009, whose theme was "Ideas and Instruments in Social Context." After first recounting the origins of the notion of "crisis" as a decisive turning point in general history as well as in the history of science, the paper presents war and its aftermath as a form of crisis that may affect science and technology, including chemistry, in a variety of contexts and leading to a variety of types of change. The <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> world wars were exemplary forms of crisis, whose aftermaths shaped the contexts for decisive changes in modern chemistry, which continue to offer challenging opportunities for historical research. In discussing these, the paper cites selected current literature and briefly describes how the individual papers of the symposium, including the three papers published in this volume, approached these challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24783494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24783494"><span>Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duarte, Regina Horta</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span>. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27545484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27545484"><span>The limited effect of increasing educational attainment on childlessness trends in <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Europe, women born 1916-65.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beaujouan, Eva; Brzozowska, Zuzanna; Zeman, Kryštof</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>During the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, trends in childlessness varied strongly across European countries while educational attainment grew continuously across them. Using census and large-scale survey data from 13 European countries, we investigated the relationship between these two factors among women born between 1916 and 1965. Up to the 1940 birth cohort, the share of women childless at age 40+ decreased universally. Afterwards, the trends diverged across countries. The results suggest that the overall trends were related mainly to changing rates of childlessness within educational groups and only marginally to changes in the educational composition of the population. Over time, childlessness levels of the medium-educated and high-educated became closer to those of the low-educated, but the difference in level between the two better educated groups remained stable in Western and Southern Europe and increased slightly in the East.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5214374','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5214374"><span>The limited effect of increasing educational attainment on childlessness trends in <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Europe, women born 1916–65</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Beaujouan, Eva; Brzozowska, Zuzanna; Zeman, Kryštof</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>During the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, trends in childlessness varied strongly across European countries while educational attainment grew continuously across them. Using census and large-scale survey data from 13 European countries, we investigated the relationship between these two factors among women born between 1916 and 1965. Up to the 1940 birth cohort, the share of women childless at age 40+ decreased universally. Afterwards, the trends diverged across countries. The results suggest that the overall trends were related mainly to changing rates of childlessness within educational groups and only marginally to changes in the educational composition of the population. Over time, childlessness levels of the medium-educated and high-educated became closer to those of the low-educated, but the difference in level between the two better educated groups remained stable in Western and Southern Europe and increased slightly in the East. PMID:27545484</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25455542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25455542"><span>Charles Darwin's reputation: how it changed during the <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> and how it may change again.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amundson, Ron</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Charles Darwin died in 1882. During the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> his reputation varied through time, as the scientific foundation of evolutionary theory changed. Beginning the <span class="hlt">century</span> as an intellectual hero, he soon became a virtual footnote as experimental approaches to evolution began to develop. As the Modern Synthesis developed his reputation began to rise again until eventually he was identified as a founding father of the Modern Synthesis itself. In the meantime, developmental approaches to evolution began to challenge certain aspects of the Modern Synthesis. Synthesis authors attempted to refute the relevance of development by methodological arguments, some of them indirectly credited to Darwin. By the end of the <span class="hlt">century</span>, molecular genetics had given new life to development approaches to evolution, now called evo devo. This must be seen as a refutation of the aforesaid methodological arguments of the Modern Synthesis advocates. By the way, we can also see now how the historiography that credited Darwin with the Synthesis was in error. In conclusion, one more historical revision is suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4597240','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4597240"><span>Social Skills: Adolf Meyer’s Revision of Clinical Skill for the New Psychiatry of the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lamb, Susan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Adolf Meyer (1866–1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine’s traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the ‘New Psychiatry’, a clinical discipline that embodied social and scientific ideals shared with other ‘new’ progressive reform movements in the United States. This revision conformed to his concept of psychobiology – his biological theory of mind and mental disorders – and accorded with his definition of scientific medicine as a unity of clinical–pathological methods and therapeutics. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, neuron theory and American pragmatist philosophy, Meyer concluded that subjective experience and social behaviour were functions of human biology. In addition to the time-honoured techniques devised to exploit the material data of the diseased body – observing and recording in the clinic, dissecting in the morgue and conducting histological experiments in the laboratory – he insisted that psychiatrists must also be skilled at wielding social interaction and interpersonal relationships as investigative and therapeutic tools in order to conceptualise, collect, analyse and apply the ephemeral data of ‘social adaptation’. An examination of his clinical practices and teaching at Johns Hopkins between 1913 and 1917 shows how particular historical and intellectual contexts shaped Meyer’s conceptualisation of social behaviour as a biological function and, subsequently, his new vision of clinical skill for <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> psychiatry. PMID:26090738</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1791/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1791/"><span>The Novarupta-Katmai eruption of 1912 - largest eruption of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>; centennial perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The explosive outburst at Novarupta (Alaska) in June 1912 was the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>'s most voluminous volcanic eruption. Marking its centennial, we illustrate and document the complex eruptive sequence, which was long misattributed to nearby Mount Katmai, and how its deposits have provided key insights about volcanic and magmatic processes. It was one of the few historical eruptions to produce a collapsed caldera, voluminous high-silica rhyolite, wide compositional zonation (51-78 percent SiO2), banded pumice, welded tuff, and an aerosol/dust veil that depressed global temperature measurably. It emplaced a series of ash flows that filled what became the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, sustaining high-temperature metal-transporting fumaroles for a decade. Three explosive episodes spanned ~60 hours, depositing ~17 km3 of fallout and 11±2 km3 of ignimbrite, together representing ~13.5 km3 of zoned magma. No observers were nearby and no aircraft were in Alaska, and so the eruption narrative was assembled from scattered villages and ship reports. Because volcanology was in its infancy and the <span class="hlt">early</span> investigations (1915-23) were conducted under arduous expeditionary conditions, many provocative misapprehensions attended reports based on those studies. Fieldwork at Katmai was not resumed until 1953, but, since then, global advances in physical volcanology and chemical petrology have gone hand in hand with studies of the 1912 deposits, clarifying the sequence of events and processes and turning the eruption into one of the best studied in the world. To provide perspective on this <span class="hlt">century</span>-long evolution, we describe the geologic and geographic setting of the eruption - in a remote, sparsely inhabited wilderness; we review the cultural and scientific contexts at the time of the eruption and <span class="hlt">early</span> expeditions; and we compile a chronology of the many Katmai investigations since 1912. Products of the eruption are described in detail, including eight layers of regionwide fallout</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3720031','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3720031"><span>African tropical rainforest net carbon dioxide fluxes in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fisher, Joshua B.; Sikka, Munish; Sitch, Stephen; Ciais, Philippe; Poulter, Benjamin; Galbraith, David; Lee, Jung-Eun; Huntingford, Chris; Viovy, Nicolas; Zeng, Ning; Ahlström, Anders; Lomas, Mark R.; Levy, Peter E.; Frankenberg, Christian; Saatchi, Sassan; Malhi, Yadvinder</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The African humid tropical biome constitutes the second largest rainforest region, significantly impacts global carbon cycling and climate, and has undergone major changes in functioning owing to climate and land-use change over the past <span class="hlt">century</span>. We assess changes and trends in CO2 fluxes from 1901 to 2010 using nine land surface models forced with common driving data, and depict the inter-model variability as the uncertainty in fluxes. The biome is estimated to be a natural (no disturbance) net carbon sink (−0.02 kg C m−2 yr−1 or −0.04 Pg C yr−1, p < 0.05) with increasing strength fourfold in the second half of the <span class="hlt">century</span>. The models were in close agreement on net CO2 flux at the beginning of the <span class="hlt">century</span> (σ1901 = 0.02 kg C m−2 yr−1), but diverged exponentially throughout the <span class="hlt">century</span> (σ2010 = 0.03 kg C m−2 yr−1). The increasing uncertainty is due to differences in sensitivity to increasing atmospheric CO2, but not increasing water stress, despite a decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature. However, the largest uncertainties were associated with the most extreme drought events of the <span class="hlt">century</span>. These results highlight the need to constrain modelled CO2 fluxes with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and extreme climatic events, as the uncertainties will only amplify in the next <span class="hlt">century</span>. PMID:23878340</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21875','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21875"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth-century</span> fire patterns in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area, Idaho/Montana, and the Gila/Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex, New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Matthew Rollins; Tom Swetnam; Penelope Morgan</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> fire patterns were analyzed for two large, disparate wilderness areas in the Rocky Mountains. Spatial and temporal patterns of fires were represented as GIS-based digital fire atlases compiled from archival Forest Service data. We find that spatial and temporal fire patterns are related to landscape features and changes in land use. The rate and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dark&pg=6&id=EJ1167450','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dark&pg=6&id=EJ1167450"><span>Selected Representations of Teachers and Teaching in <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Anglo-Irish Fiction and Memoir: Some Literary-Critical and Pedagogical Explorations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hanratty, Brian</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>This paper has two complementary objectives. After providing some theoretical perspectives on fiction generally, and on the teaching of fiction more specifically, it firstly evaluates, from a literary-critical perspective, a reasonably representative selection of the portrayal of teachers and teaching in some <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Anglo-Irish fiction…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=plants+AND+human&pg=2&id=EJ1160383','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=plants+AND+human&pg=2&id=EJ1160383"><span>"A Pleasant Way of Teaching the Little Ones to Recognise Flowers": Instructional Nature Plays in <span class="hlt">Early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span> Britain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Palmer, Amy</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This article analyses plays written for child performers in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. The plays chosen are classified as "instructional" and aimed at developing pupils' knowledge of the curriculum. The focus is on understanding why these plays were useful for Froebelian educators in the period. Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852) was a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED043649.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED043649.pdf"><span>Developing Understanding of <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Composition in Junior High School General Music. Final Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adler, Marvin Stanley</p> <p></p> <p>To develop an understanding of major 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> musical styles and compositional techniques in junior high school general music classes, and to utilize rather than ignore student interest in current music, a sequence for units-of-study was developed and tested over a 2-year period in urban junior high schools. The initial units dealt with what…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=co-education&id=EJ667284','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=co-education&id=EJ667284"><span>No Issue, No Problem? Co-Education in Dutch Secondary Physical Education during the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Van Essen, Mineke</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Examines the development co-education in Dutch secondary physical education, suggesting that the dominant 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> co-educational tradition in the Netherlands has influenced educational ideals and school practice with respect to physical education. Asserts that a historical lack of discussions about co-education trivializes today's problems in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=literary+AND+theory+AND+epistemology&pg=3&id=ED358485','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=literary+AND+theory+AND+epistemology&pg=3&id=ED358485"><span>Readers and Mythic Signs: The Oedipus Myth in <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Fiction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moddelmog, Debra A.</p> <p></p> <p>Offering a poetics for myth in 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> fiction, this book argues that the nature of myth is to inspire interpretation, that every myth carries with it an intertextual body of theories regarding its meaning and yet remains capable of evoking new meaning. The book further argues that myth, when used in fiction, functions like a language, with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gender+AND+Discrimination+AND+Women+AND+workplace&pg=6&id=ED391045','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gender+AND+Discrimination+AND+Women+AND+workplace&pg=6&id=ED391045"><span>Women Workers and Technological Change in Europe in the Nineteenth and <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Centuries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>de Groot, Gertjan, Ed.; Schrover, Marlou, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>Drawing on research from a number of European countries, the contributors to this book present nine detailed studies on women's work spanning 2 <span class="hlt">centuries</span> and dealing with a variety of work environments. "General Introduction" (Gertjan de Groot, Marlou Schrover) provides an overview of the book's content. "Frames of Reference: Skill,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Charles+AND+W.L&id=ED039252','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Charles+AND+W.L&id=ED039252"><span>Native Sons: A Critical Study of <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Negro American Authors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Margolies, Edward</p> <p></p> <p>This analysis of 20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> Negro literature contains chapters discussing 16 authors: (1) "The First Forty Years: 1900-1940," including W. E. B. DuBois, Charles W. Chesnutt, James W. Johnson, Paul L. Dunbar, Langston Hughes, Jean Toomer, Claude McKay, and Countee Cullen; (2) "Migration: William Attaway and 'Blood on the Forge'"; (3) "Richard…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=nolan&pg=5&id=EJ485281','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=nolan&pg=5&id=EJ485281"><span>A Feminist Perspective on Multicultural Children's Literature in the Middle Years of the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vandergrift, Kay E.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Examines the development of multicultural literature for children and youth in the mid-20th <span class="hlt">century</span> in the light of feminist theory. Phases of curricular revision are described; and the works of four white women writers, Florence Crannell Means, Ann Nolan Clark, Marguerite de Angeli, and Lois Lenski, are reviewed. (Contains 71 references.) (LRW)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=case+AND+catalonia&pg=3&id=EJ691792','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=case+AND+catalonia&pg=3&id=EJ691792"><span>The Educational System and National Identities: The Case of Spain in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davila Balsera, Pauli</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this article is to study the construction of the Spanish education system and its relationship with nationalist education policies. Throughout the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, there has been a great deal of tension between Spanish nationalism and Basque and Catalan nationalism, in particular, over the establishment of a national curriculum that is the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mistress&id=ED159097','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mistress&id=ED159097"><span>Women and Work in Nineteenth and <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> America: A Course for High School Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>DaGue, Elizabeth L.</p> <p></p> <p>This document describes an interdisciplinary English and history course on women and work in the 19th and 20th <span class="hlt">centuries</span>. It is designed for 11th and 12th grade students and it includes ideas suitable for use with college bound or vocationally oriented students. A major objective of the course is to help students analyze their ideas on work and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=1535&pg=3&id=ED433018','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=1535&pg=3&id=ED433018"><span>Term Paper Resource Guide to <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> United States History.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Muccigrosso, Robert; Blazek, Ron; Maggio, Teri</p> <p></p> <p>Geared to the needs of high school and undergraduate students, this guide presents 500 term paper ideas and print and nonprint sources on 20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> U.S. history. Entries on 100 of the most important topics, issues, and developments in U.S. history, beginning with the Spanish-American War, are organized in chronological order. Each entry…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+classes&pg=5&id=EJ1023138','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+classes&pg=5&id=EJ1023138"><span>Competitive Opportunity and Liberal Culture: The Significance of Scottish Education in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Paterson, Lindsay</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Three of the great social ambitions of educational reform since the late nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> are now seriously problematical. Although education does offer individuals a way of bettering themselves, we now know that it does little to change the terms of the competition among people who start from different social classes: it probably does not, by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22675135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22675135"><span>Faunal isotope records reveal trophic and nutrient dynamics in <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> Yellowstone grasslands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Nelson, Abigail A; Koch, Paul L; Leonard, Jennifer A</p> <p>2012-10-23</p> <p>Population sizes and movement patterns of ungulate grazers and their predators have fluctuated dramatically over the past few <span class="hlt">centuries</span>, largely owing to overharvesting, land-use change and historic management. We used δ(13)C and δ(15)N values measured from bone collagen of historic and recent gray wolves and their potential primary prey from Yellowstone National Park to gain insight into the trophic dynamics and nutrient conditions of historic and modern grasslands. The diet of reintroduced wolves closely parallels that of the historic population. We suggest that a significant shift in faunal δ(15)N values over the past <span class="hlt">century</span> reflects impacts of anthropogenic environmental changes on grassland ecosystems, including grazer-mediated shifts in grassland nitrogen cycle processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3440976','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3440976"><span>Faunal isotope records reveal trophic and nutrient dynamics in <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> Yellowstone grasslands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Nelson, Abigail A.; Koch, Paul L.; Leonard, Jennifer A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Population sizes and movement patterns of ungulate grazers and their predators have fluctuated dramatically over the past few <span class="hlt">centuries</span>, largely owing to overharvesting, land-use change and historic management. We used δ13C and δ15N values measured from bone collagen of historic and recent gray wolves and their potential primary prey from Yellowstone National Park to gain insight into the trophic dynamics and nutrient conditions of historic and modern grasslands. The diet of reintroduced wolves closely parallels that of the historic population. We suggest that a significant shift in faunal δ15N values over the past <span class="hlt">century</span> reflects impacts of anthropogenic environmental changes on grassland ecosystems, including grazer-mediated shifts in grassland nitrogen cycle processes. PMID:22675135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IAUFM..29A.106B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IAUFM..29A.106B"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth-century</span> astronomical heritage: the case of the Brazilian National Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barboza, Christina Helena</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>This paper aims at contributing to the UNESCO-IAU Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative's discussions by presenting the case study of a 20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> observatory located in a South American country. In fact, the National Observatory of Brazil was created in the beginning of the 19th <span class="hlt">century</span>, but its present facilities were inaugurated in 1921. Through this paper a brief description of the heritage associated with the Brazilian observatory is given, focused on its main historical instruments and the scientific and social roles it performed along its history. By way of conclusion, the paper suggests that the creation of the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences with its multidisciplinary team of academic specialists and technicians was decisive for the preservation of that expressive astronomical heritage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29089592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29089592"><span>Indian Ocean corals reveal crucial role of World War II bias for <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> warming estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pfeiffer, M; Zinke, J; Dullo, W-C; Garbe-Schönberg, D; Latif, M; Weber, M E</p> <p>2017-10-31</p> <p>The western Indian Ocean has been warming faster than any other tropical ocean during the 20 th <span class="hlt">century</span>, and is the largest contributor to the global mean sea surface temperature (SST) rise. However, the temporal pattern of Indian Ocean warming is poorly constrained and depends on the historical SST product. As all SST products are derived from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere dataset (ICOADS), it is challenging to evaluate which product is superior. Here, we present a new, independent SST reconstruction from a set of Porites coral geochemical records from the western Indian Ocean. Our coral reconstruction shows that the World War II bias in the historical sea surface temperature record is the main reason for the differences between the SST products, and affects western Indian Ocean and global mean temperature trends. The 20 th <span class="hlt">century</span> Indian Ocean warming pattern portrayed by the corals is consistent with the SST product from the Hadley Centre (HadSST3), and suggests that the latter should be used in climate studies that include Indian Ocean SSTs. Our data shows that multi-core coral temperature reconstructions help to evaluate the SST products. Proxy records can provide estimates of 20 th <span class="hlt">century</span> SST that are truly independent from the ICOADS data base.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10711239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10711239"><span>From Halsted to prevention and beyond: advances in the management of breast cancer during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fisher, B</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>This commentary evaluates progress made in the treatment of breast cancer during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. Most of the period from 1900 to 1970 was governed by the 'non-science' of anecdotalism and classical inductivism and was marked by the absence of a scientific gestalt. In keeping with the Halstedian concept that breast cancer was a local disease that spread throughout the body by contiguous extension and could be cured by more expansive surgery, the disease was treated with radical surgery. In 1950, however, a new era of enlightenment began to emerge. The awareness that there was a scientific process in which hypotheses generated from laboratory and clinical investigation could be tested by means of randomised clinical trials was a seminal advance, as were findings from studies that laid the groundwork for the modern era of steroid hormone action, including identification of oestrogen receptors. Expanding knowledge regarding tumour cell kinetics, tumour heterogeneity, and technological advances related to mammography and radiation therapy were also to play a role in making possible the advances in therapy that were subsequently to occur. In the past 30 years, as a result of laboratory and clinical investigation, the Halstedian thesis of cancer surgery was displaced by an alternative hypothesis that was supported by findings from subsequent clinical trials. A new paradigm governed surgery for breast cancer, and lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy became accepted practice. A second paradigm that governed the use of adjuvant systemic therapy arose as a result of laboratory and clinical investigation. Treating patients who were free of identifiable metastatic disease with systemic adjuvant therapy because some of them might develop distant disease in the future was a revolutionary departure from prior treatment strategy and became a new exemplar. Not only did the chemotherapy favourably alter the outcome of breast cancer patients, but the anti</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17411002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17411002"><span>Young patients in a young nation: scarlet fever in <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> rural New England.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Radikas, Regina; Connolly, Cindy</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Children in the United States have benefited considerably from advancements in medical and nursing science over the course of the past 200 years. The <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> saw dramatic declines in the incidence of childhood diseases; the prevalence of measles, haemophilus influenzae type B, diphtheria, rubella and tetanus are at all time lows (CDC, 2006). Indeed, many pediatric nurses have never seen any of these diseases, something that would certainly have startled their predecessors just a few generations ago. Before the mid- <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, caring for children with communicable diseases represented the cornerstone of pediatric nursing practice. Now that the incidence has decreased among American children, it is easy to forget about these diseases that once decimated whole communities. This article tries to peel back the mists of history by studying children's health in one rural New England town during the days of the <span class="hlt">early</span> republic in the 1830s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039615','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039615"><span>Tampa Bay coastal wetlands: nineteenth to <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> tidal marsh-to-mangrove conversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Raabe, Ellen A.; Roy, Laura C.; McIvor, Carole C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Currently, mangroves dominate the tidal wetlands of Tampa Bay, Florida, but an examination of historic navigation charts revealed dominance of tidal marshes with a mangrove fringe in the 1870s. This study's objective was to conduct a new assessment of wetland change in Tampa Bay by digitizing nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> topographic and public land surveys and comparing these to modern coastal features at four locations. We differentiate between wetland loss, wetland gain through marine transgression, and a wetland conversion from marsh to mangrove. Wetland loss was greatest at study sites to the east and north. Expansion of the intertidal zone through marine transgression, across adjacent low-lying land, was documented primarily near the mouth of the bay. Generally, the bay-wide marsh-to-mangrove ratio reversed from 86:14 to 25:75 in 125 years. Conversion of marsh to mangrove wetlands averaged 72 % at the four sites, ranging from 52 % at Old Tampa Bay to 95 % at Feather Sound. In addition to latitudinal influences, intact wetlands and areas with greater freshwater influence exhibited a lower rate of marsh-to-mangrove conversion. Two sources for nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> coastal landscape were in close agreement, providing an unprecedented view of historic conditions in Tampa Bay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402337"><span>COMPLETED FERTILITY DURING THE <span class="hlt">TWENTIETH</span> <span class="hlt">CENTURY</span>: AN EXAMPLE FROM SIX SETTLEMENTS IN NORTHERN GREECE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zafeiris, Konstantinos N; Kaklamani, Stamatina</p> <p>2018-02-06</p> <p>This study aimed to delineate temporal trends and differentials of completed fertility and their relationship with some characteristics of the marriage system in specific anthropological populations of northern Greece. The analysis was based on the life history of quinquennial and decennial birth cohorts of married women born in the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> who reproduced solely within the settlements studied. The variables studied were: children ever born, mean age of mother at first marriage, mean age of mother at first child (live birth), mean age of mother at last child and reproductive span. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the demographic characteristics of marriage and that there was an ongoing fertility transition in the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> in the populations studied. The mechanism of fertility decline was connected with the gradual reduction of the mean age of the mother at last child, the parallel decrease in the mean age at childbearing and a shortening of the reproductive span. Fertility levels at all times maintained a dynamic character imposed by local cultural, economic and social structures, which, in turn, were part of broader national and international structures, in all the populations studied. A strong trend of convergence of fertility levels was observed among the populations studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..37.8703C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..37.8703C"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> bipolar seesaw of the Arctic and Antarctic surface air temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Folland, Chris K.; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Understanding the phase relationship between climate changes in the Arctic and Antarctic regions is essential for our understanding of the dynamics of the Earth's climate system. In this paper we show that the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> de-trended Arctic and Antarctic temperatures vary in anti-phase seesaw pattern - when the Arctic warms the Antarctica cools and visa versa. This is the first time that a bi-polar seesaw pattern has been identified in the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic and Antarctic temperature records. The Arctic (Antarctic) de-trended temperatures are highly correlated (anti-correlated) with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) index suggesting the Atlantic Ocean as a possible link between the climate variability of the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Recent accelerated warming of the Arctic results from a positive reinforcement of the linear warming trend (due to an increasing concentration of greenhouse gases and other possible forcings) by the warming phase of the multidecadal climate variability (due to fluctuations of the Atlantic Ocean circulation).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyA..391.3995N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyA..391.3995N"><span>Diffusion of knowledge and globalization in the web of <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naumis, G. G.; Phillips, J. C.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Scientific communication is an essential part of modern science: whereas Archimedes worked alone, Newton (correspondence with Hooke, 1676) acknowledged that “If I have seen a little further, it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.” How is scientific communication reflected in the patterns of citations in scientific papers? How have these patterns changed in the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, as both means of communication and individual transportation changed rapidly, compared to the earlier post-Newton 18th and 19th <span class="hlt">centuries</span>? Here we discuss a diffusive model for scientific communications, based on a unique 2009 scientometric study of 25 million papers and 600 million citations that encapsulates the epistemology of modern science. The diffusive model predicts and explains, using no adjustable parameters, a surprisingly universal internal structure in the development of scientific research, which is essentially constant across the natural sciences, but which because of globalization changed qualitatively around 1960. Globalization corresponds physically to anomalous diffusion, which has been observed near the molecular glass transition, and can enhance molecular diffusion by factors as large as 100.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20734558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20734558"><span>From antiquity to Olympic revival: sports and Greek national historiography (nineteenth-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koulouri, Christina</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28722576','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28722576"><span>Malaria-Associated Mortality in the Australian Defence Force during the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shanks, G Dennis</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Malaria has been a military problem throughout history capable of causing epidemics that stop military operations. Individual mortality was examined from records of the three major wars of the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> that involved Australia in which 133 (1914-1919), 92 (1943-1945), and two (1965-1967) soldiers are known to have died with malaria. Those dying were predominately enlisted soldiers with a mean age of 29 years often complicated by other infections such as influenza, pneumonia or scrub typhus. Lethal epidemics of falciparum malaria occurred in Palestine/Syria in October 1918 and New Guinea in September 1943 to March 1944. Although no Australian soldier has died in nearly 50 years from malaria, there were three serious falciparum infections in soldiers in East Timor 1999-2000 who might have died if intensive care had not been provided. Recent military deployments into Africa including United Nations contingents still show falciparum malaria's lethality despite the availability of effective malaria chemoprophylaxis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27884401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27884401"><span>The "Make Love, Not War" Ape: Bonobos and Late <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Explanations for War and Peace.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weinstein, Deborah</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Why do people fight wars? Following the devastation of the Second World War, this question became particularly pressing. Postwar scholars in the human sciences, from political science to anthropology, investigated the role of human nature in the causes of war even as they debated the very meaning of human nature itself. Among the wide-ranging efforts of postwar social and behavioral scientists to explain the causes of war, research on primate aggression became a compelling approach to studying the evolution of human warfare. In contrast, primatologist Frans de Waal's popular and scientific publications on primate reconciliation emphasized the naturalness of conflict resolution and peacemaking, thereby providing a counterpoint to the pessimism of aggression research while simultaneously shoring up the logic of simian analogy. De Waal's popular books heralded the "make love, not war" bonobo as humans' evolutionary next-of-kin and contributed to raising public interest in bonobos during the late <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, although the apes' popular reputation subsequently exceeded the scientific discourse about them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23806932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23806932"><span>Key textbooks in the development of modern american plastic surgery: the first half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haddock, Nicholas T; McCarthy, Joseph G</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>A number of historical texts published during the first half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> played a pivotal role in shaping and defining modern plastic surgery in the United States. Blair's Surgery and Diseases of the Mouth and Jaws (1912), John Staige Davis's Plastic Surgery: Its Principles and Practice (1919), Gillies's Plastic Surgery of the Face (1920), Fomon's Surgery of Injury and Plastic Repair (1939), Ivy's Manual of Standard Practice of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Military Surgery Manuals (1943), Padgett and Stephenson's Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (1948), and Kazanjian and Converse's The Surgical Treatment of Facial Injuries (1949) were reviewed. These texts were published at a time when plastic surgery was developing as a distinct specialty. Each work represents a different point in this evolution. All were not inclusive of all of plastic surgery, but all had a lasting impact. Four texts were based on clinical experience from World War I; one included experience from World War II; and two included experience from both. One text became a military surgical handbook in World Wars I and II, playing an important role in care for the wounded. History has demonstrated that times of war spark medical/surgical advancements, and these wars had a dramatic impact on the development of reconstructive plastic surgery. Each of these texts documented surgical advancements and provided an intellectual platform that helped shape and create the independent discipline of plastic surgery during peacetime. For many future leaders of plastic surgery, these books served as their introduction to this new field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21106196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21106196"><span>Sex discrimination from the acetabulum in a <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> skeletal sample from France using digital photogrammetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Macaluso, P J</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Digital photogrammetric methods were used to collect diameter, area, and perimeter data of the acetabulum for a <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> skeletal sample from France (Georges Olivier Collection, Musée de l'Homme, Paris) consisting of 46 males and 36 females. The measurements were then subjected to both discriminant function and logistic regression analyses in order to develop osteometric standards for sex assessment. Univariate discriminant functions and logistic regression equations yielded overall correct classification accuracy rates for both the left and the right acetabula ranging from 84.1% to 89.6%. The multivariate models developed in this study did not provide increased accuracy over those using only a single variable. Classification sex bias ratios ranged between 1.1% and 7.3% for the majority of models. The results of this study, therefore, demonstrate that metric analysis of acetabular size provides a highly accurate, and easily replicable, method of discriminating sex in this documented skeletal collection. The results further suggest that the addition of area and perimeter data derived from digital images may provide a more effective method of sex assessment than that offered by traditional linear measurements alone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22397079','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22397079"><span>Making biomedicine in <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Italy: Domenico Marotta (1886-1974) and the Italian Higher Institute of Health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cozzoli, Daniele; Capocci, Mauro</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on the role played by Domenico Marotta, director of the ISS (Higher Institute of Health) for over twenty-five years, in the development of <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Italian biomedicine. We will show that Marotta aimed to create an integrated centre for research and production able to interact with private industry. To accomplish this, Marotta shifted the original mission of the ISS, from public health to scientific research. Yet Mussolini's policy turned most of the ISS resources towards controls and military tasks, opposing Marotta's aspiration. By contrast, in the post-war years Marotta was able to turn the ISS into the most important Italian biomedical research institution, where research and production fruitfully cohabited. Nobel laureates, such as Ernst Chain, and future Nobel laureates, such as Daniel Bovet, were hired. The ISS built up an integrated research and production centre for penicillin and antibiotics. In the 1960s, Marotta's vision was in accord with the new centre-left government. However, he pursued his goals by ruling the ISS autocratically and beyond any legal control. This eventually led to his downfall and prosecution. This also marked the decline of the ISS, intertwined with the weakness of the centre-left government, who failed to achieve structural reforms and couple the modernization of the country with the democratization of its scientific institutions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21491805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21491805"><span>Ready, willing, and able to divorce: an economic and cultural history of divorce in <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Sweden.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simonsson, Per; Sandström, Glenn</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study outlines a long history of divorce in Sweden, recognizing the importance of considering both economic and cultural factors in the analysis of marital dissolution. Following Ansley Coale, the authors examine how a framework of multiple theoretical constructs, in interaction, can be applied to the development toward mass divorce. Applying a long historical perspective, the authors argue that an analysis of gendered aspects of the interaction between culture and economics is crucial for the understanding of the rise of mass divorce. The empirical analysis finds support for a marked decrease in legal and cultural obstacles to divorce already during the first decades of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. However, economic structures remained a severe obstacle that prohibited significant increases in divorce rate prior to World War II. It was only during the 1940s and 1960s, when cultural change was complemented by marked decreases in economic interdependence between spouses, that the divorce rate exhibited significant increases. The authors find that there are advantages to looking at the development of divorce as a history in which multiple empirical factors are examined in conjunction, recognizing that these factors played different roles during different time periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5341281-holocaust-strategic-bombing-case-studies-psychology-organization-technology-mass-killing-twentieth-century','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5341281-holocaust-strategic-bombing-case-studies-psychology-organization-technology-mass-killing-twentieth-century"><span>Holocaust and strategic bombing: case studies in the psychology, organization, and technology of mass killing in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Markusen, E.R.</p> <p></p> <p>After preliminary discussion of the unprecedented scale of mass killing in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, the threat of nuclear war, and the widespread neglect of these issues, the literature on two major types of government sanctioned mass killing is reviewed; genocide, in which a government slaughters its own citizens or subjects, and total war, in which two or more governments slaughter each other's civilian citizens or subjects. This literature review reaches two basic conclusions: (1) there is considerable inconsistency and ambiguity among definitions of genocide and total war; and (2) there is a controversy regarding how distinct or similar the twomore » forms of mass killing actually are. A comparative historical analysis was undertaken in which the Nazi Holocaust was selected as an example of genocide, and the Allied strategic bombing campaigns during World War II were selected to exemplify total war. The two cases are compared in terms of a conceptual framework of five hypothesized facilitating factors. On the basis of this comparative analysis, four or the five hypothesized facilitating factors are found to have played important roles in both cases. The findings of the study are discussed, and their implications for the threat of nuclear holocaust are explored.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26309196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26309196"><span>From Science to Industry: The Sites of Aluminium in France from the Nineteenth to the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Le Roux, Muriel</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This paper explores the history of the isolation and industrial production of aluminium in France, from the work of Henri Sainte-Claire Deville in the 1850s to the latter part of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, focusing on the relationships between academic research and industrial exploitation. In particular, it identifies a culture and organisation of research and development, "learning-by-doing," that emerged in the French aluminium industry following the establishment of the first electrolytic production facilities in the late 1880s by Paul Héroult, who, along with the American Charles Hall, patented the electrolytic method of producing the metal. This French method of R&D was a product both of a scientific culture that saw a continuity between scientific research and industrial application, and of a state policy that, unlike in Germany or the United States, was late to recognise the importance of fostering, on a large scale, the relations between academic chemistry and industry. It was only after World War II that the French state came fully to recognise the importance of underpinning industry with scientific research. And it was only from the 1960s, in the face of intensifying global competition, the risks of pollution, and the cost of energy, that the major aluminium firm Pechiney et Cie was able to replace a culture of "learning-by-doing" by one that integrated fundamental science with the production process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70196282','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70196282"><span>Anthropocene landscape change and the legacy of nineteenth- and <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> mining in the Fourmile Catchment, Colorado Front Range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dethier, David P.; Ouimet, William B.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Kotikian, Maneh; Wicherski, Will; Samuels, Rachel M.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Human impacts on earth surface processes and materials are fundamental to understanding the proposed Anthropocene epoch. This study examines the magnitude, distribution, and long-term context of nineteenth- and <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> mining in the Fourmile Creek catchment, Colorado, coupling airborne LiDAR topographic analysis with historical documents and field studies of river banks exposed by 2013 flooding. Mining impacts represent the dominant Anthropocene landscape change for this basin. Mining activity, particularly placer operations, controls floodplain stratigraphy and waste rock piles related to mining cover >5% of hillslopes in the catchment. Total rates of surface disturbance on slopes from mining activities (prospecting, mining, and road building) exceed pre-nineteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> rates by at least fifty times. Recent flooding and the overprint of human impacts obscure the record of Holocene floodplain evolution. Stratigraphic relations indicate that the Fourmile valley floor was as much as two meters higher in the past 2,000 years and that placer reworking, lateral erosion, or minor downcutting dominated from the late Holocene to present. Concentrations of As and Au in the fine fraction of hillslope soil, mining-related deposits, and fluvial deposits serve as a geochemical marker of mining activity in the catchment; reducing As and Au values in floodplain sediment will take hundreds of years to millennia. Overall, the Fourmile Creek catchment provides a valuable example of Anthropocene landscape change for mountainous regions of the Western United States, where hillslope and floodplain markers of human activity vary, high rates of geomorphic processes affect mixing and preservation of marker deposits, and long-term impact varies by landscape location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074622','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074622"><span>The Axial Age and the Problems of the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>: Du Bois, Jaspers, and Universal History.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boy, John D</p> <p></p> <p>The axial age debate has put big questions of social and cultural change back on the agenda of sociology. This paper takes this development as an occasion to reflect on how social thought works with (and against) nineteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> intellectual traditions in its efforts to understand history on a macro scale. Karl Jaspers, who initially formulated the axial age thesis in The Origin and Goal of History , revised the Hegelian account of world history by broadening the scope of the narrative to encompass all civilizations participating in the events of the first millennium BCE that saw the rise of major philosophical and religious traditions. However, his account, like the earlier philosophical accounts he seeks to improve upon, privileges cognitive developments over material practices and social interactions, and as such offers little to those seeking to make sense of how cultural patterns interact with others and spread. Here another social theorist engaging with Hegel, W. E. B. Du Bois, provides a helpful contrast. His account of the development of double-consciousness in "Of Our Spiritual Strivings," the opening chapter of The Souls of Black Folk , helps us to understand experiences of encounter and the perduring historical effects they may have. Du Bois' relational theory reminds us of the importance of unpacking abstractions and understanding processes in terms of social interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.7338G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.7338G"><span>Aerosol-driven increase in Arctic sea ice over the middle of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gagné, Marie-Ève; Fyfe, John C.; Gillett, Nathan P.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Flato, Gregory M.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Updated observational data sets without climatological infilling show that there was an increase in sea ice concentration in the eastern Arctic between 1950 and 1975, contrary to earlier climatology infilled observational data sets that show weak interannual variations during that time period. We here present climate model simulations showing that this observed sea ice concentration increase was primarily a consequence of cooling induced by increasing anthropogenic aerosols and natural forcing. Indeed, sulphur dioxide emissions, which lead to the formation of sulphate aerosols, peaked around 1980 causing a sharp increase in the burden of sulphate between the 1950s and 1970s; but since 1980, the burden has dropped. Our climate model simulations show that the cooling contribution of aerosols offset the warming effect of increasing greenhouse gases over the midtwentieth <span class="hlt">century</span> resulting in the expansion of the Arctic sea ice cover. These results challenge the perception that Arctic sea ice extent was unperturbed by human influence until the 1970s, suggesting instead that it exhibited earlier forced multidecadal variations, with implications for our understanding of impacts and adaptation in human and natural Arctic systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoRL..45..391S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoRL..45..391S"><span>The Diversity of Cloud Responses to <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Sea Surface Temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silvers, Levi G.; Paynter, David; Zhao, Ming</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Low-level clouds are shown to be the conduit between the observed sea surface temperatures (SST) and large decadal fluctuations of the top of the atmosphere radiative imbalance. The influence of low-level clouds on the climate feedback is shown for global mean time series as well as particular geographic regions. The changes of clouds are found to be important for a midcentury period of high sensitivity and a late <span class="hlt">century</span> period of low sensitivity. These conclusions are drawn from analysis of amip-piForcing simulations using three atmospheric general circulation models (AM2.1, AM3, and AM4.0). All three models confirm the importance of the relationship between the global climate sensitivity and the eastern Pacific trends of SST and low-level clouds. However, this work argues that the variability of the climate feedback parameter is not driven by stratocumulus-dominated regions in the eastern ocean basins, but rather by the cloudy response in the rest of the tropics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASSL..285..207B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASSL..285..207B"><span>Pre-College Astronomy Education in the United States in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bishop, J. E.</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>The nature of pre-college astronomy education in the United States can be divided into several periods: 1900 to about 1955, 1955 to about 1980, and about 1980 to 2000. Until the Space Age, astronomy in elementary and secondary schools was minimal, a situation influenced in great part of the work of the National Education Association Committee of Ten in 1892. With the launch of the Russian Sputnik in November 1957, a rapid response of concern and action took place to improve science and math education, including astronomy. Efforts by small planetariums and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) played large roles in re-introducing astronomy back into schools in the 1960s and 1970s. During the last decades, educational-research-based astronomy programs and a nationwide effort to improve astronomy and other science education were important at all pre-college levels. Although the basic astronomical literacy of students leaving secondary school at the close of the <span class="hlt">century</span> needed improvement, awareness of astronomical discoveries had increased since the opening of the Space Age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ThApC..93...75N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ThApC..93...75N"><span>Variability of tropical days over Greece within the second half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nastos, P. T.; Matzarakis, A. P.</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Tropical days (TD) are defined as the days with a maximum air temperature greater than 30.0 °C. It is clear that the study of TD includes also the absolute maximum temperatures, which are of great interest for the description of a region’s climate. These days are considered as very hot, and they particularly are of great importance not only for bioclimatology and applied sciences, but also for the individuals who are sensitive in the heat-stress. The regime of the TD in Greece is the focus of this study. The aim is to demonstrate their changes from decade to decade, for the time period 1960-2000. For this study, the Annual Number of Tropical Days (ANTD) recorded by each of the 26 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service, which are uniformly distributed in the Hellenic peninsula, was calculated and analysed. In terms of quantifying the conditions in a humanbiometeorological manner, the thermal index Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the consecutive days for Athens have been included in this study. The trends of the TD for each station were analysed through the Mann-Kendall technique, while the spatial distribution per decade reveals the regions with change (increase or decrease) in the ANTD during the examined period. Two characteristic periods of change for the ANTD appear in the majority of the meteorological stations in Greece. The first period (1955-1976) is determined by a negative trend, which is statistically significant (c.l. 95%), for adequate stations. In the period between 1976 and 2000, the increase in the ANTD and the maximum temperature exceed the corresponding maximum that appeared in the beginning of the 1950s for several of the examined meteorological stations. The human-biometeorological analysis shows that the consecutive days of PET > 35 °C have had a positive trend in the last two decades of the last <span class="hlt">century</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3579P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3579P"><span>Occurrence of floods and the role of climate during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> (Calabria, Southern Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petrucci, Olga; Polemio, Maurizio</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In region as Calabria (Southern Italy), characterized by mountainous morphology, the areas suitable for agriculture and urban development are represented by narrow river and coastal plains. The human utilization of these areas is often hard fought with rivers and flowing waters; floods cause periodically damage to agricultural activities, roads, rural settlements and, sometimes, to people. The morphological setting of the region is dominated by the presence of a main river network made up of ephemeral streams widely observed in southern Italy, are locally called fiumara. They show river beds that in plain sector are often larger than one kilometer, completely dry for almost the entire summer season and affected, during the winter, by severe flash floods characterized by huge sediment load. Because the migration of river channel through the wide river bed, discharge data are unavailable. A wide archive containing data on historical floods occurred through the past two <span class="hlt">centuries</span> and the defensive works carried out to cope with flood damage in Calabria has been recently upgraded by using data coming from the Ministry of Public Works. In the present work, for a study area located in the northernmost province of Calabria, the historical series of floods which have occurred since 1800 has been collected. Damage caused by the different flood events have been compared to both rainfall data (if available) and data concerning defensive work construction. The aim is to assess if and (for what fiumara of the study area) works carried out in the past obtained the effect of reducing damage caused by flash floods. Results of the analysis can represent a useful tool to correctly drive the future development of the main plain of the study area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.117..625D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.117..625D"><span>Variability and trends of local/regional scale surface climate in northern Africa during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Djomou, Zéphirin Yepdo; Monkam, David; Woafo, Paul</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Four regions are detected in northern Africa (20° W-40° E, 0-30° N) by applying the cluster analysis method on the annual rainfall anomalies of the period 1901-2000. The first region (R1), an arid land, covers essentially the north of 17.75° N from west to east of the study zone. The second region (R2), a semiarid land with a Sahelian climate, less warm than the dry climate of R1, is centred on Chad, with almost regular extension to the west towards Mauritania, and to the east, including the north of the Central African Republic and the Sudan. The region 3 (R3), a wet land, is centred on the Ivory Coast and covers totally Liberia, the south part of Ghana, Togo, Benin and the southwest of Nigeria. The fourth region (R4), corresponding to the wet equatorial forest, covers a part of Senegal, the Central Africa, the south of Sudan and a part of Ethiopia. An analysis of observed temperature and precipitation variability and trends throughout the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> over these regions is presented. Summer, winter and annual data are examined using a range of variability measures. Statistically, significant warming trends are found over the majority of regions. The trends have a magnitude of up to 1.5 K per <span class="hlt">century</span>. Only a few precipitation trends are statistically significant. Regional temperature and precipitation show pronounced variability at scales from interannual to multi-decadal. The interannual variability shows significant variations and trends throughout the <span class="hlt">century</span>, the latter being mostly negative for precipitation and both positive and negative for temperature. Temperature and precipitation anomalies show a chaotic-type behaviour in which the regional conditions oscillate around the long-term mean trend and occasionally fall into long-lasting (up to 10 years or more) anomaly regimes. A generally modest temporal correlation is found between anomalies of different regions and between temperature and precipitation anomalies for the same region. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12279571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12279571"><span>Women as food producers and suppliers in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. The case of Zambia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muntemba, S</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>It is argued in this discussion that women's ability to produce and supply food has been deteriorating over time. Although this may have begun in precolonial times, particularly with the advent of merchant capital, 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> economic and political developments have accelerated the process. This situation applies to peasant production as a whole, but discussion is limited to food production and supply. The discussion attempts to understand and discuss the position of women as food producers and suppliers within the framework of the social relations of production, distribution, and surplus appropriation. Land and labor issues have affected women's food production capabilities adversely, and their ability to supply food has been deteriorating. In those countries where their husbands are wage laborers, women have both fed themselves and their children and have supplemented their husbands' wages through food gifts and by maintaining them during their stay at home before the cycle begins again. Despite the fact that they could not adequately do so, men were obligated to start partially maintaining their families "back home" through cash remittances, but cash came at irregular intervals, or it was insufficient, mainly because of small wages. Some women have tried to increase their food supply capacities by going into seasonal wage labor, but often the wages are too low and the prices of food too high for this strategy to work. The time spent in wage labor could be better spent in their own production, provided the factors of production are favorable to them. The intensification of cash crop production has drawn land and labor away from food crops resulting in local food shortages. This process was realized earlier in West Africa when the colonial government started to import rice from China. Gradually, this became an acceptable food crop, but attempts to grow it in sufficient quantities have benefited only men. With the growing urban population rice became a viable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21114070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21114070"><span>Labeling the good: alternative visions and organic branding in Sweden in the late <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Broberg, Oskar</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The past decade's rapid expansion of a global market for organic food has set powerful economic and political forces in motion. The most important dividing line is whether organic food production should be an alternative to or a niche within a capitalist mode of production. To explore this conflict the article analyzes the formation of a market for eco-labeled milk in Sweden. The analysis draws on three aspects: the strategy of agri-business, the role of eco-labeling, and the importance of inter-organizational dynamics. Based on archival studies, daily press, and interviews, three processes are emphasized: the formative years of the alternative movement in the 1970s, the founding of an independent eco-label (KRAV) in the 1980s, and a discursive shift from alternative visions to organic branding in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1990s following the entry of agri-business.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17593402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17593402"><span>[Milk of paradise? Opium and opiates in nineteenth and <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> literature].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schäfer, D</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>One cannot have an idea of this multifaceted theme without its medical and cultural-historical background. After a history of several thousand years as a remedy and consumer good, around 1800 this poppy drug was in the focus of public attention due to Brownianism, at first as an often self-prescribed unspecific remedy against physical and mental pain. Many representatives of the <span class="hlt">early</span> Romanticism knew it from personal experience. However, it was the publication of Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821/1822) which made it a subject of international debate in accordance with the programmatic statements of writers of that epoque and corresponding to the antibourgeois attitude of these men. It became a motif of a counter-world experience and a subject and cause of lyric-subjective reflection as well as a possible premise of poetic creativity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029105','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029105"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> demographic changes in cirio and cardón in Baja California, Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bullock, Stephen H.; Martijena, Nora E.; Webb, Robert H.; Turner, Raymond M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Aim  Our purpose was to discern long-term large-scale patterns of survivorship and recruitment of two dominant, charismatic and useful desert plants, cirio [Fouquieriaceae; Fouquieria columnaris (Kell.) Kell. ex Curran] and cardón [Cactaceae; Pachycereus pringlei(S.Watson) Britton & Rose], and to evaluate the effects of physical and human factors. Location  The study included 77 sites distributed over c. 13,200 km2 in the northern Vizcaíno Region of the Sonoran Desert, state of Baja California, México. Method  Censuses used identified individuals (n = 3780 cirio and 2246 cardón) and were based on repeat photography. Time intervals between censuses ranged from 29 to 96 years, ending in 1996–2002. Earlier repetition (1963) of old photographs at 14 sites allowed analysis of temporal variation. The effect of elapsed time was modelled with Weibull functions for survivorship and linear functions for recruitment. To explain the residual variations, we tested categorical and continuous variables related to substrate, geomorphology, climate and geography. Human impacts were weighed with historical and quantitative analysis. Results  Elapsed time accounted for 45% of the variation of survivorship in cirio but only 35% in cardón. The fitted Weibull curves were used to estimate longevity: all-size cohorts of 1000 individuals would die out in 388 (cirio) and 723 years (cardón). Recruitment in cirio was linearly related to time (r2 = 0.71) and averaged < 0.003 year−1 but was less than mortality at 90% of the sites. For cardón, recruitment averaged > 0.005 year−1, was linearly related to time (r2 = 0.66) and was less than mortality at only 33% of the sites. Vital rates were not strongly correlated between mid- and late-<span class="hlt">century</span> but were mostly similar to the long-term regional rates. Removing the factor of elapsed time, the residual variations showed that survivorship was greater on sites protected from winds for cirio and was less on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4982442','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4982442"><span>The domestic participation in birth assistance in the mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Díaz, Elena Andina; González, José Siles</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Objective: to describe how the progressive creation of the Social Security (providing widespread health care) affected the birth assistance in Spain from the 1940s to the 1970s in a rural area. Method: historical ethnography. Twenty-seven people who lived at that time were selected and interviewed guided by a semistructured script. Based on their testimonies, a chart was built with the functional elements involved in birth assistance in this region. Results: three agents performed such care: traditional midwives, women of the family/neighbors and health workers. Conclusion: although birth assistance had been transferred to the hands of the health workers from the forties in this region, women in labor continued to count on the domestic resources until the <span class="hlt">early</span> seventies, when births were compulsorily transferred to hospitals. This research brings to light the names and recognizes the work performed by these female characters of the popular sphere, who helped women in labor of that community to give birth, for at least three decades. PMID:27463108</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25045182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25045182"><span>Healthcare and warfare. Medical space, mission and apartheid in <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> northern Namibia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nord, Catharina</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents' ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a 'terrorist hospital' in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system <span class="hlt">early</span> in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people's healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4103386','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4103386"><span>Healthcare and Warfare. Medical Space, Mission and Apartheid in <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Northern Namibia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nord, Catharina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents’ ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a ‘terrorist hospital’ in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system <span class="hlt">early</span> in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people’s healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic. PMID:25045182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..525S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..525S"><span>Spatiotemporal variations of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> Tibetan Plateau precipitation based on the monthly 2.5° reconstructed data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Samuel S. P.; Clarke, Gregori; Shen, Bo-Wen; Yao, Tandong</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>This paper studies the spatiotemporal variations of precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) region with latitude and longitude ranges of (25° N, 45° N) and (65° E, 105° E) of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> from January 1901-December 2000. A long-term (January 1901-December 2009) TP monthly precipitation dataset with 2.5° latitude-longitude resolution is generated in this paper using spectral optimal gridding (SOG) method. The method uses the Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC) ground station data to anchor the basis of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) computed from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data. Our gridding takes teleconnection into account and uses data from stations both within and outside of the TP region. While the annual total precipitation increased at an approximate rate of 2.6 mm per decade in the period of 1971-2000 exists, no significant increase of TP precipitation from 1901 to 2000 was found. Our rate is less than those of previous publications based only on the TP stations because our data consider the entire TP region, including desert and high-altitude areas. An analysis of extremes and spatiotemporal patterns of our data shows that our reconstructed data can properly quantify the reported disasters of flooding and droughts in India, Bangladesh, and China for the following events: flooding in 1988 and 1998 and drought in 1972. Our time-frequency analysis using the empirical mode decomposition method shows that our nonlinear trend agrees well with the linear trend in the period from 1971 to 2000. The spatiotemporal variation characteristics documented in this paper can help understand atmospheric circulations on TP precipitation and validate the TP precipitation in climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15332429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15332429"><span>Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: advances and controversies of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scarlatti, G</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the overwhelming source of HIV-1 infection in young children. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), during the year 2003, despite effective antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, there were approximately 700,000 new infections in children worldwide, the majority of whom were from resource-limited countries. Alternative protocols to the long-course and complex regimens of ARV drugs, which in high-income countries have almost eradicated HIV MTCT, have been shown to reduce <span class="hlt">early</span> transmission rates by 38-50%. However, the accumulation of drug resistance and the long-term toxicities of ARVs mean that alternative approaches need to be developed. Furthermore, transmission via breastfeeding, which accounts for one third of all transmission events, can reduce the benefits of short-course therapies given to women for the prevention of MTCT. The complex mechanisms and determinants of HIV-1 MTCT and its prevention in the different routes of transmission are still not completely understood. Despite the large contribution that many international agencies have made during the past 10-15 years in support of observational and intervention trials, as well as basic scientific research, HIV-1 MTCT intervention trials and basic research often are not integrated, leading to the generation of a fragmented picture. Maternal RNA levels, CD4+ T-cell counts, mode of delivery and gestational age were shown to be independent factors associated with transmission. However, these markers are only partial surrogates and cannot be used as absolute predictors of MTCT of HIV-1. Studies on the role of viral characteristics, immune response and host genomic polymorphisms did not always achieve conclusive results. Although CCR5-using viruses are preferentially carried by HIV-1 infected women as well as transmitted to their infants, the 32-basepair deletion of the CCR5 gene was not shown to influence perinatal MTCT. X4 viruses are apparently hampered in MTCT</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28414619','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28414619"><span>How the nerves reached the muscle: Bernard Katz, Stephen W. Kuffler, and John C. Eccles-Certain implications of exile for the development of <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> neurophysiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stahnisch, Frank W</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the work by Bernard Katz (1911-2003), Stephen W. Kuffler (1913-1980), and John C. Eccles (1903-1997) on the nerve-muscle junction as a milestone in <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> neurophysiology with wider scientific implications. The historical question is approached from two perspectives: (a) an investigation of <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> solutions to a longer physiological dispute and (b) an examination of a new kind of laboratory and academic cooperation. From this vantage point, the work pursued in Sydney by Sir John Carew Eccles' team on the neuromuscular junction is particularly valuable, since it contributed a central functional element to modern physiological understanding regarding the function and structure of the human and animal nervous system. The reflex model of neuromuscular action had already been advanced by neuroanatomists such as Georg Prochaska (1749-1820) in Bohemia since the eighteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>. It became a major component of neurophysiological theories during the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>, based on the law associated with the names of François Magendie (1783-1855) in France and Charles Bell (1774-1842) in Britain regarding the functional differences of the sensory and motor spinal nerves. Yet, it was not until the beginning of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> that both the histological and the neurophysiological understanding of the nerve-muscle connection became entirely understood and the chemical versus electrical transmission further elicited as the mechanisms of inhibition. John C. Eccles, Bernard Katz, and Stephen W. Kuffler helped to provide some of the missing links for modern neurophysiology. The current article explores several of their scientific contributions and investigates how the context of forced migration contributed to these interactions in contingently new ways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4232607','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4232607"><span>Tree-Ring Stable Isotopes Reveal <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Increases in Water-Use Efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last <span class="hlt">century</span>. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations. PMID:25398040</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25338030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25338030"><span>The sea as science: ocean research institutions and strategies in Portugal in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> (from the First Republic to democracy).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rollo, Maria Fernanda; Queiroz, Maria Inês; Brandão, Tiago</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Historical perspective has revealed the many aspects of Portugal's interest in the sea, evident in a series of initiatives and entities throughout the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. From the beginning of the <span class="hlt">century</span> until the 1974 Revolution, the genesis of organizations devoted to the scientific study of the sea is analyzed, observing their specific missions in the context of the formulation of science policy, and more specifically "ocean policies." The Portuguese valued knowledge of the sea due to their maritime vocation, coastal life and geographic position. Traversing different historical and political contexts and development cycles, the assumptions and political implications that accentuate the strategic dimension of science policy, visible in the geopolitical affirmation of oceanography, are studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.2771B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.2771B"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth-century</span> atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>A new atmospheric-river detection and tracking scheme based on the magnitude and direction of integrated water vapour transport is presented and applied separately over 13 regions located along the west coasts of Europe (including North Africa) and North America. Four distinct reanalyses are considered, two of which cover the entire <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span>: NOAA-CIRES <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Reanalysis v2 (NOAA-20C) and ECMWF ERA-20C. Calculations are done separately for the OND and JFM-season and, for comparison with previous studies, for the ONDJFM-season as a whole. Comparing the AR-counts from NOAA-20C and ERA-20C with a running 31-year window looping through 1900-2010 reveals differences in the climatological mean and inter-annual variability which, at the start of the <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span>, are much more pronounced in western North America than in Europe. Correlating European AR-counts with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reveals a pattern reminiscent of the well-know precipitation dipole which is stable throughout the entire <span class="hlt">century</span>. A similar analysis linking western North American AR-counts to the North Pacific index (NPI) is hampered by the aforementioned poor reanalysis agreement at the start of the <span class="hlt">century</span>. During the second half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span>, the strength of the NPI-link considerably varies with time in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska. Considering the period 1950-2010, AR-counts are then associated with other relevant large-scale circulation indices such as the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, Pacific-North American and West Pacific patterns (EA, SCAND, PNA and WP). Along the Atlantic coastline of the Iberian Peninsula and France, the EA-link is stronger than the NAO-link if the OND season is considered and the SCAND-link found in northern Europe is significant during both seasons. Along the west coast of North America, teleconnections are generally stronger during JFM in which case the NPI-link is significant in any of the five considered</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ottoman&pg=7&id=ED236094','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ottoman&pg=7&id=ED236094"><span>History of the Balkans: <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>. Volume 2. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication Series. No. 12.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jelavich, Barbara</p> <p></p> <p>Principal issues in the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> development of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed in this introductory history text. Three themes--national rivalries, great power interference, and the economic, social, and political problems of modernization--are given special emphasis. An overview of 18th and 19th <span class="hlt">century</span> history precedes the two major…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5914418','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5914418"><span>John Wickham’s New Surgery: ‘Minimally Invasive Therapy’, Innovation, and Approaches to Medical Practice in <span class="hlt">Twentieth-century</span> Britain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Frampton, Sally; Kneebone, Roger L.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Abstract The term ‘minimally invasive’ was coined in 1986 to describe a range of procedures that involved making very small incisions or no incision at all for diseases traditionally treated by open surgery. We examine this major shift in British medical practice as a means of probing the nature of surgical innovation in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. We first consider how concerns regarding surgical invasiveness had long been present in surgery, before examining how changing notions of post-operative care formed a foundation for change. We then go on to focus on a professional network involved in the promotion of minimally invasive therapy led by the urologist John Wickham. The minimally invasive movement, we contend, brought into focus tensions between surgical innovation and the evidence-based model of medical practice. Premised upon professional collaborations beyond surgery and a re-positioning of the patient role, we show how the movement elucidated changing notions of surgical authority. PMID:29713119</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E3SWC..3301032G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E3SWC..3301032G"><span>The architecture and artistic features of high-rise buildings in USSR and the United States of America during the first half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Golovina, Svetlana; Oblasov, Yurii</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Skyscraper is a significant architectural structure in the world's largest cities. The appearance of a skyscraper in the city's architectural composition enhances its status, introduces dynamics into the shape of the city, modernizes the existing environment. Its architectural structure which can have both expressive triumphal forms and ascetic ones. For a deep understanding of the architecture of high-rise buildings must be considered by several criteria. Various approaches can be found in the competitive development of high-rise buildings in Moscow and the US cities in the middle of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> In this article we will consider how and on the basis of what the architectural decisions of high-rise buildings were formed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29791663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29791663"><span>[Evolution and revolution: the anarchist geographers Elisée Reclus and Pëtr Kropotkin and their connection to modern science in the nineteenth and <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferretti, Federico</p> <p>2018-05-10</p> <p>This text examines the construction of a line of scientific thinking by a group of anarchist geographers who were active in the nineteenth and <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span>, most famously represented by Elisée Reclus and Pëtr Kropotkin. The members of this network were simultaneously intellectuals and activists, and the originality of their scientific production stands out in comparison with the science of that time. They were also interested in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and pedagogy, and used the scientific tools from the leading intellectual trains of thought of that era (such as positivism and especially evolutionism) in an attempt to reach different conclusions that did not justify social inequalities, but rather could be used to construct a fairer society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1056925-inter-annual-tropospheric-aerosol-variability-late-twentieth-century-its-impact-tropical-atlantic-west-african-climate-direct-semi-direct-effects','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1056925-inter-annual-tropospheric-aerosol-variability-late-twentieth-century-its-impact-tropical-atlantic-west-african-climate-direct-semi-direct-effects"><span>Inter-annual Tropospheric Aerosol Variability in Late <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> and its Impact on Tropical Atlantic and West African Climate by Direct and Semi-direct Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Evans, Katherine J; Hack, James J; Truesdale, John</p> <p></p> <p>A new high-resolution (0.9more » $$^{\\circ}$$x1.25$$^{\\circ}$$ in the horizontal) global tropospheric aerosol dataset with monthly resolution is generated using the finite-volume configuration of Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a bulk aerosol model and forced with recent estimates of surface emissions for the latter part of <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. The surface emissions dataset is constructed from Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) decadal-resolution surface emissions dataset to include REanalysis of TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO) wildfire monthly emissions dataset. Experiments forced with the new tropospheric aerosol dataset and conducted using the spectral configuration of CAM4 with a T85 truncation (1.4$$^{\\circ}$$x1.4$$^{\\circ}$$) with prescribed <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> observed sea surface temperature, sea-ice and greenhouse gases reveal that variations in tropospheric aerosol levels can induce significant regional climate variability on the inter-annual timescales. Regression analyses over tropical Atlantic and Africa reveal that increasing dust aerosols can cool the North African landmass and shift convection southwards from West Africa into the Gulf of Guinea in the spring season in the simulations. Further, we find that increasing carbonaceous aerosols emanating from the southwestern African savannas can cool the region significantly and increase the marine stratocumulus cloud cover over the southeast tropical Atlantic ocean by aerosol-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere above the low clouds. Experiments conducted with CAM4 coupled to a slab ocean model suggest that present day aerosols can shift the ITCZ southwards over the tropical Atlantic and can reduce the ocean mixed layer temperature beneath the increased marine stratocumulus clouds in the southeastern tropical Atlantic.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28707853','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28707853"><span>History in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Nineteenth <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ratcliff, Jessica</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>At the turn of the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>, at its headquarters in the City of London, the Honourable East India Company established a new museum and library. By midcentury this museum would contain one of Europe’s most extensive collections of the natural history, arts, and sciences of Asia. This essay uses the <span class="hlt">early</span> history of the company’s museum, focusing in particular on its natural history collections, to explore the material relationship between scientific practice and the imperial political economy. Much of the collections had been gathered in the wake of military campaigns, trade missions, or administrative surveys. Once specimens and reports arrived in Leadenhall Street and passed through the museum storage areas, this plunder would become the stuff of science, going on to feed the growth of disciplines, societies, and projects in Britain and beyond. In this way, the East India Company was integral to the information and communication infrastructures within which many sciences then operated. Collections-based disciplines and societies flourished in this period; their growth, it is argued, was coextensive with administrative and political economic change at institutions like the East India Company. The essay first explores the company’s practices and patterns of collecting and then considers the consequences of this accumulation for aspects of scientific practice—particularly the growth of scientific societies—in both London and Calcutta.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dry+AND+eyes&id=ED329990','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dry+AND+eyes&id=ED329990"><span>Philological Papers: Special Issue Devoted to the Teacher in Nineteenth- and <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Literature and Film. Volume 36. Papers Presented at the West Virginia University's Annual Colloquium (13th, Morgantown, West Virginia, September 29-October 1, 1988).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Singer, Armand E., Ed.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>This volume contains papers read at West Virginia University's Colloquium on "The Teacher in Nineteenth- and <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Literature and Film" including the following 12 articles listed with their authors: "A Second Pair of Eyes: The Editor as Teacher" (Hart L. Wegner); "Don Juan Goes to the Movies" (Armand E.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14758857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14758857"><span>Social differentials in the decline of infant mortality in Sweden in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>: the impact of politics and policy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burström, Bo</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This article describes some of the policies behind the decline of infant mortality in Sweden during the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, from very high levels and large social differentials at the turn of the 19th <span class="hlt">century</span> to one of the lowest levels in the world by 1950. Political commitment to reducing infant mortality and disparities between groups, a more equitable distribution of economic resources, and a successful combination of universal social and health policies most benefiting the least advantaged families and their children contributed to this favorable development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=qualitative+AND+research+AND+trustworthiness+AND+credibility&pg=2&id=EJ959644','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=qualitative+AND+research+AND+trustworthiness+AND+credibility&pg=2&id=EJ959644"><span>A Portrait of the PETE Major: Re-Touched for the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Twenty-First <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCullick, Bryan A.; Lux, Karen M.; Belcher, Donald G.; Davies, Nigel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new <span class="hlt">century</span> enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=friction&pg=7&id=EJ1135830','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=friction&pg=7&id=EJ1135830"><span>Languages, Script and National Identity: Struggles over Linguistic Heterogeneity in Switzerland in the Nineteenth and <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Centuries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boser, Lukas; Brühwiler, Ingrid</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">centuries</span>, Switzerland has been a multilingual country (which currently has no less than four official languages.) Furthermore, one of those languages, German, is characterised by bigraphism (i.e. the coexistence of two different type styles). This article discusses the role played by language and writing systems in the great educational…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA402696','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA402696"><span>Canada’s Army and the Concept of Maneuver Warfare: The Legacy of the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> (1899-1998)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>comprehensiveness and authenticity. Canadian operational experience in peace and war over the last <span class="hlt">century</span> has been characterized by: static warfare; attrition; lack...2 THE BOER WAR (1899 - 1901) .............................................................................................5...PRELUDE TO WORLD WAR I (1902 - 1913) ........................................................................8 WORLD WAR ONE (1914 - 1918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=DRS+AND+19&pg=4&id=ED270263','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=DRS+AND+19&pg=4&id=ED270263"><span>Dr. Charles Alexander Eastman, Sioux Physician-Author, 1858-1939. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.</p> <p></p> <p>A biography for elementary school students of a 19th <span class="hlt">century</span> American Indian physician and author, Charles Alexander Eastman (Sioux), includes photographs of Dr. Eastman and his wife. A teacher's guide following the bibliography contains information on the Sioux Uprising of 1862 and the Wounded Knee Massacre, learning objectives and directions for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12918493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12918493"><span>[Malaria in pictures: images from Brazil's public health campaigns in the first half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hochman, Gilberto; Mello, Maria Teresa Bandeira de; Santos, Paulo Roberto Elian dos</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The article discusses a set of pictures that illustrate public health activities, practices, and campaigns against malaria in Brazil from 1918 through 1956. Exemplary of certain key moments in this history, the illustrations belong to three archives from the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fundação Oswaldo Cruz collection: Arquivo Belisário Penna, Arquivto Fundação Rockefeller ("Serviço de Malária do Nordeste" series), and Arquivo Rostan Soares. The article links these photographic records to their specific historical-public health contexts and to the campaign models and strategies represented by each archive. It also draws relations with the 20th -<span class="hlt">century</span> history of the photographic medium itself. It is argued that these images of malaria constitute prime sources in constructing a visual history of the disease in 20th -<span class="hlt">century</span> Brazil and of the country's public health history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20705387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20705387"><span>Land-use changes and carbon sequestration through the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> in a Mediterranean mountain ecosystem: implications for land management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Padilla, Francisco M; Vidal, Beatriz; Sánchez, Joaquín; Pugnaire, Francisco I</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Ecosystems in the western Mediterranean basin have undergone intense changes in land use throughout the <span class="hlt">centuries</span>, resulting in areas with severe alterations. Today, most these areas have become sensitive to human activity, prone to profound changes in land-use configuration and ecosystem services. A consensus exists amongst stakeholders that ecosystem services must be preserved but managerial strategies that help to preserve them while ensuring sustainability are often inadequate. To provide a basis for measuring implications of land-use change on carbon sequestration services, changes in land use and associated carbon sequestration potential throughout the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> in a rural area at the foothills of the Sierra Nevada range (SE Spain) were explored. We found that forest systems replaced dryland farming and pastures from the middle of the <span class="hlt">century</span> onwards as a result of agricultural abandonment and afforestation programs. The area has always acted as a carbon sink with sequestration rates ranging from 28,961 t CO(2) year(-1) in 1921 to 60,635 t CO(2) year(-1) in 1995, mirroring changes in land use. Conversion from pastures to woodland, for example, accounted for an increase in carbon sequestration above 30,000 t CO(2) year(-1) by the end of the <span class="hlt">century</span>. However, intensive deforestation would imply a decrease of approximately 66% of the bulk CO(2) fixed. In our study area, woodland conservation is essential to maintain the ecosystem services that underlie carbon sequestration. Our essay could inspire policymakers to better achieve goals of increasing carbon sequestration rates and sustainability within protected areas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Sc%26Ed..21..311S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Sc%26Ed..21..311S"><span>Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural Events in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Portuguese Daily Press</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simões, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural events were communicated in two different newspapers—the capital newspaper Diário de Notícias ( Daily News) and the Diário dos Açores ( Azores Daily). In particular, we look at how the 1900 solar eclipse, a hot topic throughout Europe, was reported by the capital newspaper, and how news on seismology were conveyed in the period 1907-1910 in the newspaper published in Azores, an archipelago with a significant seismic and volcanic activity. We argue that the importance conceded to these scientific news was related to their overwhelming features, that their dissimilar presentation stemmed from their local relevance allied to their different nature, predictable in the case of eclipses, and unpredictable in the case of earthquakes, and that behind these two instances of science journalism laid an attempt by the scientific and political communities to gain the support of the general public to such an extent that these two specific instances of science journalism transcended their usual features to become successful forms of expository science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21966299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21966299"><span>Demographic Disequilibrium in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Thailand: Falling Mortality, Rising Fertility, or Both?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carmichael, Gordon A</p> <p>2008-07-17</p> <p>Estimates of Thai crude birth and death rates date from 1920 when the former was around 20 per thousand higher than the latter, implying natural increase of 2 percent per annum. Such disequilibrium cannot have been the norm over the long term historical past, when population growth must have been comparatively slow. This paper explores the bases for likely past relative equilibrium between Siamese birth and death rates, then seeks to explain the disequilibrium apparent by 1920. Classic demographic transition theory postulates initially high birth and death rates, this equilibrium eventually being broken by falling mortality. In Thailand, however, there is likely to have been both significant mortality decline and appreciable fertility increase after 1850, as the virtual elimination of indigenous warfare, rapid growth of the export rice economy and the demise of slavery and corvée labour created a new domestic environment. Characterized by more dispersed, often frontier, settlement, this environment was unprecedentedly sedate and settled, afforded ordinary households a previously unknown level of control over their resources of labour, and generated optimism about prospects for the next generation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bible&id=EJ1159280','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bible&id=EJ1159280"><span>Bible Classes and the Spread of Literacy Education in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lee, Myung-sil</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Shortly after the rise of Protestantism in Korea in the 1880s, Bible classes began to be formed to promote the study of Christian scripture. By the mid-1890s, these classes were being widely offered. As a result of The Great Revival Movement of 1907, the need for a system to educate and form new believers became evident. In this article, I examine…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=electronegativity&id=EJ663494','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=electronegativity&id=EJ663494"><span>Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling: II. Late Nineteenth- and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Developments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jensen, William B.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Traces electronegativity in four fundamental areas of chemistry during the period 1870-1910: (1) the relationship between electronegativity and classical valence; (2) the relationship between electronegativity and periodic law; (3) the relationship between electronegativity thermochemistry; and (4) the relationship between electronegativity and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA227050','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA227050"><span>The American in Europe as Portrayed in American Literature of Late Nineteenth and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Centuries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-05-22</p> <p>understood. In the end, James uses all of these characters to draw a distinction between stereotypical Americans and Europeans. One critic, James Tuttleton...lover in the ruins by moonlight , she would probably never have caught malaria. She falls critically ill because of the malaria and ultimately dies...America’s political dominance was established, ,.ry few people could question its cultural dominance. Today, Hollywood films are shown in every</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=new+AND+invented&pg=3&id=EJ1094242','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=new+AND+invented&pg=3&id=EJ1094242"><span>Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Child Psychology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beauvais, Clementine</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=men+AND+paid+AND+women&pg=4&id=EJ818471','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=men+AND+paid+AND+women&pg=4&id=EJ818471"><span>The Woman Peril and Male Teachers in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Shaun</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The last few decades in America were marked with perceptible changes in educational and occupational opportunities for women, particularly with the passage of Title IX and a growing consensus towards more egalitarian values in our culture. A pro-male backlash, or recuperative masculinity, emerged in more recent years as an outgrowth of feminist…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hot+AND+papers&pg=5&id=EJ957137','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hot+AND+papers&pg=5&id=EJ957137"><span>Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural Events in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Portuguese Daily Press</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Simoes, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural events were communicated in two different newspapers--the capital newspaper "Diario de Noticias" ("Daily News") and the "Diario dos Acores" ("Azores Daily"). In particular, we look at how the 1900…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18198513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18198513"><span>Producing citizens, reproducing the "French race": immigration, demography, and pronatalism in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> France.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Camiscioli, E</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This essay examines how, in the context of depopulation and mass immigration, members of the French pronatalist movement advanced a policy favouring immigrants from Italy, Spain, and Poland. Because the 'demographic crisis' created a shortage of citizens as well as workers, pronatalists held that foreign workers must also be assimilable, and able to produce French offspring. While the racial difference of colonial subjects was deemed immutable, pronatalists called for the immigration of white foreigners whose less 'modern' condition promoted fecundity, traditionalism, and gender dimorphism. Evidence is drawn from demographic studies, the press of France's largest pronatalist movement, and a pronatalist advisory committee created by the Ministry of Health in 1920.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21176968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21176968"><span>A poster of pustules: representations of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> industrial anthrax in Britain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stark, James F</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>In the decades around 1900, industrial anthrax attracted significant attention from medical practitioners, legislators and the general public in Britain. Attempts to reduce the incidence of the disease ranged from basic health measures - preventing workmen from eating inside factories and trialling the use of respirators - through to national legislation making disinfection of dangerous materials mandatory. Another effort involved the production of industrial warning posters (or cautionary notices) which were designed for use in the factory environment. In the case of anthrax, the context in which these notices appeared adds to our understanding of not only the disease itself, but also the relations between those producing such posters and those who encountered them in an industrial setting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED380801.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED380801.pdf"><span>Transformations of Wordsworth's Nature in Nineteenth and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> British Literature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dodson, Charles B.</p> <p></p> <p>One way of making connections among various authors in a survey course is to emphasize recurring themes, images, and tropes; the instructor can point out how they are transformed by a constantly changing ethos and set of historical circumstances. A case in point is the second part of a British survey, typically going from William Blake or William…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Automotive+AND+book&id=EJ527283','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Automotive+AND+book&id=EJ527283"><span>Victor W. Page's <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Automotive and Aviation Books: "Practical Books for Practical Men."</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brockmann, R. John</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Discusses Victor Page, one of the first people to make a living as a technical communicator. Focuses on his 33 automotive and aviation books, popular with the public and critics, which contained information on novel technology, profuse illustrations, and easy-to-access information. States that Page published quickly, had firsthand expertise, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25512142','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25512142"><span>Attention deficit and attention training in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takeda, Toshinobu; Ando, Mizuho; Kumagai, Keiko</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Yuzero Motora (1856-1912), regarded as the first professional Japanese psychologist, tried to address students' attention difficulties through attention training methods of his own design. His reports contain the first description of ADHD-like symptoms in the history of Japan. Motora viewed "distractibility" as the irregular transition of attention. Students with low scores and attention difficulties who participated in Motora's exercises showed improvement in arithmetic, psychological testing, and certain aspects of daily life. This article describes Motora's theoretical conception of attention and attention training methodology, the history of attention deficit and attention training, and the significance of Motora's experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3182556','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3182556"><span>Demographic Disequilibrium in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Thailand: Falling Mortality, Rising Fertility, or Both?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carmichael, Gordon A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Estimates of Thai crude birth and death rates date from 1920 when the former was around 20 per thousand higher than the latter, implying natural increase of 2 percent per annum. Such disequilibrium cannot have been the norm over the long term historical past, when population growth must have been comparatively slow. This paper explores the bases for likely past relative equilibrium between Siamese birth and death rates, then seeks to explain the disequilibrium apparent by 1920. Classic demographic transition theory postulates initially high birth and death rates, this equilibrium eventually being broken by falling mortality. In Thailand, however, there is likely to have been both significant mortality decline and appreciable fertility increase after 1850, as the virtual elimination of indigenous warfare, rapid growth of the export rice economy and the demise of slavery and corvée labour created a new domestic environment. Characterized by more dispersed, often frontier, settlement, this environment was unprecedentedly sedate and settled, afforded ordinary households a previously unknown level of control over their resources of labour, and generated optimism about prospects for the next generation. PMID:21966299</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mountain+AND+range&pg=3&id=EJ843319','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mountain+AND+range&pg=3&id=EJ843319"><span>Constructing a Home on the Range: Homemaking in <span class="hlt">Early-Twentieth-Century</span> Plains Photograph Albums</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dando, Christina E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>For people living near the coasts or mountains of America, it must be hard to imagine longing for a "home on the plains"--but many Americans have had, and still have, a home on the Plains. The stereotypical American image of the Plains is flatness, austerity, emptiness. Not all would consider this an ideal landscape for home. So how did…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED315771.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED315771.pdf"><span>Fictional Narrative as Resistant Argument in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Feminist Writing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allen, Julia M.</p> <p></p> <p>Helen Forbes, in her short story "The Hunky Woman," written in 1916 for "The Masses," an eclectic Socialist magazine, undermines particular categorical propositions. By using narration with a shifting of narrative voice, Forbes calls into question the validity of the traditional teaching of argumentation. Forbes demonstrates…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=single+AND+sex+AND+schools&pg=5&id=EJ865502','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=single+AND+sex+AND+schools&pg=5&id=EJ865502"><span>Catholic Women Teachers and Scottish Education in the Nineteenth and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Centuries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McDermid, Jane</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Catholics remained outside the Scottish educational system until 1918. The Church preferred mixed-sex infant schools and either single-sex schools or separate departments. In small towns and rural areas the schools were mixed-sex. Women were considered naturally best suited to teach infants and girls, but even in boys' schools, female assistants…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA471706','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA471706"><span>Groundhog Day: Expectation Management by Examining Warfare in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Balkans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-06-15</p> <p>Balkan Peninsula around the Former Republic of Yugoslavia and its neighboring nations. This excludes Romania 7 and southern Hungary, but movement...of modern-day Romania . With the expansion to include more of the Peninsula, however, things began to change. Missionaries from Constantinople had...inclusion of Orthodox Christianity. Second, obviously using the Byzantine Empire as the model, the sovereign was the originator of law. However, the powers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=music+AND+industry+AND+time&pg=4&id=ED034125','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=music+AND+industry+AND+time&pg=4&id=ED034125"><span>WNYC: 1922-1940-- The <span class="hlt">Early</span> History of a <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Urban Service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Luscombe, Irving Foulds</p> <p></p> <p>Station WNYC, New York, began operation in 1924 as a means of improving police and fire department services and raising the educational and cultural level of the citizenry. However, Mayor Hylan tried to use WNYC for personal political purposes; and until 1933, under Mayors Walker, McKee, and O'Brien, the station was handicapped by the Hylan…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=equality+AND+women+AND+men&pg=5&id=EJ1021762','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=equality+AND+women+AND+men&pg=5&id=EJ1021762"><span>Edinburgh University, Schools and the Civil Service in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anderson, Robert David</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article is a case study of the relation between urban schooling and university education, using two main sources. Data on the schools attended by history students at Edinburgh University between 1899 and 1933 illustrate the diversity and social ranking of schools in the city. New higher grade schools had a key role in increasing access to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=new+AND+left&id=EJ1027150','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=new+AND+left&id=EJ1027150"><span>Orphan Trains: Teaching about an <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Social Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chiodo, John J.; Meliza, Evette</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Between 1854 and 1930, over 200,000 children left New York City, as well as other major east coast cities, bound for families in rural areas. They traveled to towns in New England, the Midwest, the South, and even as far west as Texas, California, Oregon, and Washington. These orphans were the children of immigrant families who were pouring into…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...61a2033M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...61a2033M"><span>Emergence of a utopian vision of modernist and futuristic houses and cities in <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Nan</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Throughout the development of literature on urban design theories, utopian thinking has played a crucial role as utopians were among the first designers. Many unrealized utopian projects such as The Radiant City, have presented a research laboratory and positive attempts for all architects, urban designers and theorists. In this essay, a utopian vision following under More’s and Jameson’s definitions is discussed, examining how the utopian vision of modernist and futuristic houses and cities emerged in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> in response to several factors, what urban utopia aimed to represent, and how such version was represented in the built form and the urban landscapes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1220123B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1220123B"><span>Global riverine N and P transport to ocean increased during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> despite increased retention along the aquatic continuum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beusen, A. H. W.; Bouwman, A. F.; Van Beek, L. P. H.; Mogollón, J. M.; Middelburg, J. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Various human activities, including agriculture, water consumption, river damming, and aquaculture, have intensified over the last <span class="hlt">century</span>. This has had a major impact on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in global continental waters. In this study, we use a coupled nutrient-input, hydrology, in-stream nutrient retention model to quantitatively track the changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. Our results suggest that, during this period, the global nutrient delivery to streams increased from 34 to 64 Tg N yr-1 and from 5 to 9 Tg N yr-1. Furthermore, in-stream retention and removal grew from 14 to 27 Tg N yr-1 and 3 to 5 Tg N yr-1. One of the major cause of increased retention is the growing number of reservoirs which now account for 24 and 22 % of global N and P retention/removal in freshwater systems, respectively. This increase in nutrient retention could not balance the increase in nutrient delivery to rivers with the consequence that river nutrient transport to the ocean increased from 19 to 37 Tg N yr-1 and from 2 to 4 Tg N yr-1. Human activities have also led to a global increase in the molar N : P ratio in freshwater bodies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25605888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25605888"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth-century</span> shifts in forest structure in California: Denser forests, smaller trees, and increased dominance of oaks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McIntyre, Patrick J; Thorne, James H; Dolanc, Christopher R; Flint, Alan L; Flint, Lorraine E; Kelly, Maggi; Ackerly, David D</p> <p>2015-02-03</p> <p>We document changes in forest structure between historical (1930s) and contemporary (2000s) surveys of California vegetation through comparisons of tree abundance and size across the state and within several ecoregions. Across California, tree density in forested regions increased by 30% between the two time periods, whereas forest biomass in the same regions declined, as indicated by a 19% reduction in basal area. These changes reflect a demographic shift in forest structure: larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height) have declined, whereas smaller trees (<30 cm) have increased. Large tree declines were found in all surveyed regions of California, whereas small tree increases were found in every region except the south and central coast. Large tree declines were more severe in areas experiencing greater increases in climatic water deficit since the 1930s, based on a hydrologic model of water balance for historical climates through the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. Forest composition in California in the last <span class="hlt">century</span> has also shifted toward increased dominance by oaks relative to pines, a pattern consistent with warming and increased water stress, and also with paleohistoric shifts in vegetation in California over the last 150,000 y.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70182466','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70182466"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth-century</span> shifts in forest structure in California: Denser forests, smaller trees, and increased dominance of oaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McIntyre, Patrick J.; Thorne, James H.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Kelly, Maggi; Ackerly, David D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We document changes in forest structure between historical(1930s) and contemporary (2000s) surveys of California vegetation through comparisons of tree abundance and size across the state and within several ecoregions. Across California, tree density in forested regions increased by 30% between the two time periods, whereas forest biomass in the same regions declined, as indicated by a 19% reduction in basal area. These changes reflect a demographic shift in forest structure: larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height) have declined, whereas smaller trees ( < 30 cm) have increased. Large tree declines were found in all surveyed regions of California, whereas small tree increases were found in every region except the south and central coast. Large tree declines were more severe in areas experiencing greater increases in climaticwater deficit since the 1930s, based on a hydrologicmodel of water balance for historical climates through the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. Forest composition in California in the last <span class="hlt">century</span> has also shifted toward increased dominance by oaks relative to pines, a pattern consistent with warming and increased water stress, and also with paleohistoric shifts in vegetation in California over the last 150,000 y.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21823270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21823270"><span>"Now if you have only sons you are dead": migration, gender, and family economy in <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> northwestern Ghana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdul-Korah, Gariba B</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the interconnectedness between labor migration, gender, and the family economy in northwestern Ghana in the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. It focuses specifically on the Dagaaba of the Nadowli and Jirapa administrative districts of what is now the Upper West Region (UWR). It examines how the relationships between men and women in terms of roles, status, access to productive resources and inheritance, changed in tandem with broader changes in society in the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>; changes that over time produced enhanced value and elevated status for women in the family. These changes in gender relations are reflected increasingly in the belief among elderly men that ‘now if you have only sons, you are dead’. By focusing on the lived experiences of ordinary women and men in the migration process, it argues that even though indigenous social structures privileged men over women in almost all spheres of life, Dagaaba women were nonetheless significantly active in shaping the history of their communities and that gender relations in Dagaaba communities were not static — they changed over time and generation. This article contributes to the ongoing discussion of the internal migration phenomenon in West Africa, which has so far attracted scant historical analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22403912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22403912"><span>The reformist triad and institutional forgetting of culture: a field study into <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Swedish social medicine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nyce, James M; Timpka, Toomas</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Social medicine deals with the interplay between medicine and society. An awareness of how analytical categories have emerged historically can strengthen the role the discipline can play in the societal reinventions of health care now under way around the world. This study examines the categories that informed social medicine in Sweden during the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. An anthropological field study was conducted over a 12-year period in a Swedish academic clinical setting. Historical documents were used to link local-level issues with macro-level (here, national and European) contexts. Social medicine, modernity, and social democracy were found to share a common history and a common vision of what society should be. As a result, concepts from politics, ideology, economy, and science tended to be conflated. As a clinician at the study site explained, "samhälle [community] is both society and state". The consequence for social medicine is that culture has become neglected as an analytical category. This institutional amnesia has strongly influenced how 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> social medicine, in this region of the world, has defined itself and its interests. To return a cultural perspective to social medicine, a critical distance must be kept between the analyses the discipline undertakes and the prevailing societal ideologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26202618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26202618"><span>[Emancipation of the works of artists with psychiatric illness - Artistic reflections from the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> and the Art Brut].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Plesznivy, Edit</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The study presents the emancipation of the artworks of psychiatric patients through the review of four <span class="hlt">centuries</span>, focusing on some of the most important medical cultural and art historical stages of the period between the 18th and the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span>, which is a particularly relevant era in this regard. It touches on the collections linked to psychiatrists and hospitals that were formed primarily on the basis of the researches that were analyzing the connection between creativity and mental illness. After that, the study discusses the ever-changing attitudes and preferences of artists' and major artistic movements towards psychosis and the pictorial world of the psychotic. With great care, it analyses the aesthetic category of the art brut, which is connected to the French painter Jean Dubuffet and was born in the middle of the 1940s, and the relationship between contemporary art and art brut. In connection with some of the most significant art brut collections and exhibitions, the works of a few classical and contemporary art brut artists are also discussed (Adolf Wolfli, Louis Soutter, Aloise Corbaz, August Walla ).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010083955','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010083955"><span>A Chronology of Annual-Mean Effective Radii of Stratospheric Aerosols from Volcanic Eruptions During the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> as Derived From Ground-based Spectral Extinction Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Strothers, Richard B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Stratospheric extinction can be derived from ground-based spectral photometric observations of the Sun and other stars (as well as from satellite and aircraft measurements, available since 1979), and is found to increase after large volcanic eruptions. This increased extinction shows a characteristic wavelength dependence that gives information about the chemical composition and the effective (or area weighted mean) radius of the particles responsible for it. Known to be tiny aerosols constituted of sulfuric acid in a water solution, the stratospheric particles at midlatitudes exhibit a remarkable uniformity of their column-averaged effective radii r(sub eff) in the first few months after the eruption. Considering the seven largest eruptions of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, r(sub eff) at this phase of peak aerosol abundance is approx. 0.3 micrometers in all cases. A year later, r(sub eff) either has remained about the same size (almost certainly in the case of the Katmai eruption of 1912) or has increased to approx. 0.5 micrometers (definitely so for the Pinatubo eruption of 1991). The reasons for this divergence in aerosol growth are unknown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23568393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23568393"><span>[Nutrition sciences in Spain in the second half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>: a descriptive bibliometric study of the journal Anales de Bromatologia (1949-1993)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bernabeu-Mestre, J; Ureña Alberola, M T; Esplugues Pellicer, J X; Trescastro-López, E M; Galiana-Sánchez, M E; Castelló Botía, I</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>To analyse the institutionalisation of nutrition sciences in Spain in the second half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, and evaluate the activities of the journal Anales de Bromatología. Descriptive bibliometric study of the original articles. Full names of the authors and the complete article title were recorded. Using key words, each article was assigned by consensus of the researchers to a single main subject in accordance with the thirteen subject areas addressed by the Spanish Society of Bromatology in its meetings. An analysis was conducted of the distribution and trends of general productivity indicators and their characteristics. A total of 917 original articles were published, with a mean of 20.8 papers/year. The subjects for which the highest percentage of articles was recorded were foreign substances in foods, foods of plant origin and nutrition. A total of 874 authors contributed, with a collaboration rate of 2.43 and a transience rate of 70.1%. Distribution of the number of authors per article was close to that indicated by Lotka's law of scientific productivity. The top twelve producers, predominantly women, participated in 49.9% of the articles published. The journal showed low productivity and was of an endogamous nature, with a predominance of authors related to the School of Bromatology in the Faculty of Pharmacy, at the Complutense University. The subjects addressed reflected the demands of the nutrition transition in Spain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GPC....72..192Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GPC....72..192Q"><span>Intensified pluvial conditions during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> in the inland Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China over the past millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qin, Chun; Yang, Bao; Burchardt, Iris; Hu, Xiaoli; Kang, Xingcheng</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Past streamflow variability is of special significance in the inland river basin, i.e., the Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China, where water shortage is a serious environmental and social problem. However, the current knowledge of issues related to regional water resources management and long-term planning and management is limited by the lack of long-term hydro-meteorological records. Here we present a 1009-year annual streamflow (August-July) reconstruction for the upstream of the Heihe River in the arid northwestern China based on a well-replicated Qilian juniper ( Sabina przewalskii Kom.) ring-width chronology. This reconstruction accounts for 46.9% of the observed instrumental streamflow variance during the period 1958-2006. Considerable multidecadal to centennial flow variations below and above the long-term average are displayed in the millennium streamflow reconstruction. These periods 1012-1053, 1104-1212, 1259-1352, 1442-1499, 1593-1739 and 1789-1884 are noteworthy for the persistence of low-level river flow, and for the fact that these low streamflow events are not found in the observed instrumental hydrological record during the recent 50 years. The 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> witnessed intensified pluvial conditions in the upstream of the Heihe River in the arid northwestern China in the context of the last millennium. Comparison with other long-term hydrological reconstructions indicates that the intensification of the hydrological cycle in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> from different regions could be attributable to regional to large-scale temperature increase during this time. Furthermore, from a practical perspective, the streamflow reconstruction can serve as a robust database for the government to work out more scientific and more reasonable water allocation alternatives for the Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43J..03B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43J..03B"><span>Exploring the impact of agriculture on nitrogen and phosphorus biogeochemistry in global rivers during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bouwman, L.; Beusen, A.; Van Beek, L. P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Nutrients are transported from land to sea through the continuum formed by soils, groundwater, riparian zones, floodplains, streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. The hydrology, ecology and biogeochemical processing in each of these components are strongly coupled and result in retention of a significant fraction of the nutrients transported. This paper analyzes the global changes in nutrient biogeochemical processes and retention in rivers during the past <span class="hlt">century</span> (1900-2000); this period encompasses dramatic increases in human population and economic human activities including agriculture that have resulted in major changes in land use, nutrient use in agriculture, wastewater flows and human interventions in the hydrology (1). We use the hydrological PCR-GLOBWB model (2) for the period 1900-2000, including climate variability and the history of dam construction and land use conversion. Global agricultural and natural N and P soil budgets for the period 1900-2000 are the starting point to simulate nutrient flows from the soil via surface runoff and leaching through the groundwater system and riparian zones. In-stream processes are described with the nutrient spiraling concept. In the period 1900-2000, the global soil N budget surplus (inputs minus withdrawal in harvested crops) for agricultural and natural ecosystems increased from 118 to 202 Tg yr-1, and the global P budget increased from < 0.5 to 11 Tg P yr-1. As a result of this massive increase, nutrient delivery to streams and river nutrient export has increased rapidly in the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. Model results are sensitive to factors determining the N and P delivery, as well as in-stream processes. The most uncertain factors are N delivery to streams by groundwater (denitrification as a function of thickness and reactivity of aquifers), and in-stream N and P retention parameters (net uptake velocity, retention as function of concentration). References 1. Bouwman AF, Beusen AHW, Griffioen J, Van Groenigen JW</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21299017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21299017"><span>For better or for worse? The dilemmas of unmarried motherhood in mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> popular British film and fiction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fink, Janet</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article investigates representations of unmarried motherhood in the late 1940s and <span class="hlt">early</span> 1950s through readings of popular British film and fiction. These sources are used to illustrate contradictions and conflicts in the meanings afforded to unmarried motherhood and, in turn, to highlight how the unmarried mother was used as a motif for exploring post-war normative boundaries around marriage, motherhood, and female sexuality. The article draws upon Raymond Williams's idea of a 'structure of feeling' to make connections between these representations and issues and debates about the role and status of women and mothers more generally in post-war Britain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........63J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........63J"><span>Changes in atmospheric chemical composition determined from ice core records in southwestern Siberia during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joswiak, Daniel R.</p> <p></p> <p> background atmospheric concentrations in the middle-troposphere. The large size particles (4.0-16.0 mum) are deposited from the atmosphere rapidly compared to small particles and were transported to high elevations from the central Asian desert sources. All size particles were found to be negatively correlated with average monthly temperatures indicating low temperatures during the dry particle deposition. During the first half of the 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span>, soluble ions were dominated by organic acids; indicating mainly natural sources from vegetation and biomass burning. Ion profiles associated with human activities such as fuel combustion (SO4, NO3) significantly increased in concentration from the mid-1950s; coinciding with population growth in large industrialized cities upwind from the study location. Highest correlations between major ions and the ground and upper level wind speed were observed for SO4, indicating long-range transport of pollution to the Altai Mountains. Ion profiles associated with central Asian dust (Ca, Mg) and with sea salt aerosols (Na, Cl) were mainly influenced by climatic factors, and average concentrations did not significantly change during the 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span>. Factor analysis revealed that ions typically associated with biomass burning (NH4, K) were not resolvable as indicators of separate aerosol source. The organic acid components better preserve forest fire signatures at this study location. The back-trajectories exhibited several notable differences in transport paths of air masses. The trajectories modeled for 1991 show a farther transport distance with significant time of transfer over heavily populated regions of Europe and Russia. The modeled back-trajectories over the Middle-East on two heaviest precipitation days in 1991 provided evidence of the large oil fires in Kuwait, appeared as increased concentrations in sulfate, nitrate, and organic acids. The modeled back-trajectories for 1990 show more localized transport paths or transport over</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AAS...23120804C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AAS...23120804C"><span>All Over the World: Mid-<span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Radio Astronomy and the Origin of the International SETI Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Charbonneau, Rebecca</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Cold War mythology is rife with stories about secrecy, competition, espionage, and animosity. Yet the history behind the myth-- the overlooked scientists collaborating outside of the aims of the state-- also tells an interesting story. This paper examines the challenges of international scientific collaboration during the Cold War, focusing especially on a case study concerning Soviet radio astronomer Iosif Samuilovich Shklovskii and U.S. astrophysicist Carl Sagan, and their collaborative work on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Despite the hyper-politics that instigated and fueled the Space Race, SETI was held up as an ideal internationalist science, with the lofty goal of uniting all of humanity by situating it within a cosmic community. Although the internationalism of SETI discourse is not entirely unfounded due to its roots in international collaboration, further research indicates that such internationalism was in reality instilled with geopolitics, international conflict, and even espionage. That said, however, the cultural and philosophical perspectives of individual SETI scientists led them to operate within the tensions between national and ideological restraints and their own personal philosophical perspectives. In reviewing the letters of correspondence, conference proceedings, interviews, transcripts of lectures, and autobiographical writings of <span class="hlt">early</span>-SETI radio astronomers, this paper ultimately argues that, although SETI was not the ideal internationalist science it was portrayed as, SETI pioneers were able to connect and form international networks within a contentious system which often centred on the restriction of free information and international collaboration through their mutual unconventional scientific interests, and facilitated by their personal utopian futurist philosophies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NHESS...5...49K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NHESS...5...49K"><span>Avalanche related damage potential - changes of persons and mobile values since the mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, case study Galtür</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keiler, M.; Zischg, A.; Fuchs, S.; Hama, M.; Stötter, J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>When determining risk related to natural hazard processes, many studies neglect the investigations of the damage potential or are limited to the assessment of immobile values like buildings. However, persons as well as mobile values form an essential part of the damage potential. Knowledge of the maximum number of exposed persons in an endangered area is of great importance for elaborating evacuation plans and immediate measures in case of catastrophes. In addition, motor vehicles can also be highly damaged, as was shown by the analysis of avalanche events. With the removal of mobile values in time as a preventive measure this kind of damage can be minimised. This study presents a method for recording the maximum number of exposed persons and monetarily assessing motor vehicles in the municipality of Galtür (Tyrol, Austria). Moreover, general developments of the damage potential due to significant socio-economic changes since the mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> are pointed out in the study area. The present situation of the maximum number of persons and mobile values in the official avalanche hazard zones of the municipality is described in detail. Information on the number of persons is derived of census data, tourism and employment statistics. During the winter months, a significant increase overlaid by strong short-term fluctuation in the number of persons can be noted. These changes result from a higher demand of tourism related manpower as well as from varying occupancy rates. The number of motor vehicles in endangered areas is closely associated to the number of exposed persons. The potential number of motor vehicles is investigated by means of mapping, statistics on the stock of motor vehicles and the density distribution. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations of the investigated damage potential are pointed out. The recording of the number of persons and mobile values in endangered areas is vital for any disaster management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dependency+AND+economy+AND+external+AND+internal&id=ED294823','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dependency+AND+economy+AND+external+AND+internal&id=ED294823"><span>Regionalism and Development in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Nineteenth <span class="hlt">Century</span> Spanish America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Friedman, Douglas</p> <p></p> <p>An understanding of regionalism in <span class="hlt">early</span> 19th <span class="hlt">century</span> Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=originals&pg=5&id=EJ1115453','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=originals&pg=5&id=EJ1115453"><span>Reproducing an <span class="hlt">Early</span>-20th-<span class="hlt">Century</span> Wave Machine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Physics students often have problems understanding waves. Over the years numerous mechanical devices have been devised to show the propagation of both transverse and longitudinal waves (Ref. 1). In this article an updated version of an <span class="hlt">early</span>-20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> transverse wave machine is discussed. The original, Fig. 1, is at Creighton University in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ842893.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ842893.pdf"><span>Signatures and Popular Literacy in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Seventeenth-<span class="hlt">Century</span> Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rubinger, Richard</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>My paper looks at "signatures" in the form of "ciphers" (kao) and other personal marks made on population registers, town rules, and apostasy oaths in the <span class="hlt">early</span> seventeenth <span class="hlt">century</span> to provide some empirical evidence of very high literacy among village leaders. The essay also argues, using the same data, that literacy had…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27153920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27153920"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> conceptualization of health promotion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Madsen, Wendy</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span>. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th <span class="hlt">century</span> and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span>. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28457641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28457641"><span>Premature Infant Care in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prescott, Stephanie; Hehman, Michelle C</p> <p></p> <p>The complex <span class="hlt">early</span> history of infant incubators provides insight into challenges faced by medical professionals as they promoted care for premature infants in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. Despite their absence from the narrative to date, nurses played vital roles in the development of neonatal care. Working in many different settings, from incubator-baby shows to the first hospital unit designed specifically for premature infants, nurses administered quality care and promoted advanced treatment for these newborns. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770026105','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770026105"><span>Comparative analysis of the designs and implementation of vehicles based on reactive propulsion proposed during the nineteenth and beginning of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sokolskiy, V. N.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Examination of the presently known historical scientific literature related to the problem of reactive flight indicates that considerable attention had already been given to the idea of reactive propulsion in the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>; about thirty designs for reaction flying vehicles were proposed during this period. However, the authors of a majority of the designs limited themselves only to a presentation of a diagram of the engine or an account of the principle of its operation, giving neither plans for its structural development nor precise calculations of the amount of energy required for accomplishing reaction flight. None of these authors considered the reaction flying vehicle as an object of variable mass, their choice of energy sources was extremely random, and the theory of the flight of reaction flying vehicles remained completely undeveloped. <span class="hlt">Early</span> rocket designs of Nezhdanovsky, Ganswindt, Goddard, Tsiolkovsky, and others are examined and the evolution of liquid-propellant rocket engines, solid-propellant rocket engines, and jet aircraft engines is reviewed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19896715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19896715"><span>In the laboratory of the Ghost-Baron: parapsychology in Germany in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wolffram, Heather</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>During the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> the Munich-based psychiatrist Albert von Schrenck-Notzing constructed a parapsychological laboratory in his Karolinenplatz home. Furnished with a range of apparatus derived from the physical and behavioural sciences, the Baron's intention was to mimic both the outward form and disciplinary trajectory of contemporary experimental psychology, thereby legitimating the nascent field of parapsychology. Experimentation with mediums, those labile subjects who produced ectoplasm, materialisation and telekinesis, however, necessitated not only the inclusion of a range of spiritualist props, but the lackadaisical application of those checks and controls intended to prevent simulation and fraud. Thus Schrenck-Notzing's parapsychological laboratory with its stereoscopic cameras, galvanometers and medium cabinets was a strange coalescence of both the séance room and the lab, a hybrid space that was symbolic of the irresolvable epistemological and methodological problems at the heart of this aspiring science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073959','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073959"><span>Carbon balance of the terrestrial biosphere in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>: analyses of CO2, climate and land use effects with four process-based ecosystem models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McGuire, A.D.; Sitch, S.; Clein, Joy S.; Dargaville, R.; Esser, G.; Foley, J.; Heimann, Martin; Joos, F.; Kaplan, J.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Meier, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Prentice, I.C.; Ramankutty, N.; Reichenau, T.; Schloss, A.; Tian, H.; Williams, L.J.; Wittenberg, U.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The concurrent effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variability, and cropland establishment and abandonment on terrestrial carbon storage between 1920 and 1992 were assessed using a standard simulation protocol with four process-based terrestrial biosphere models. Over the long-term(1920–1992), the simulations yielded a time history of terrestrial uptake that is consistent (within the uncertainty) with a long-term analysis based on ice core and atmospheric CO2 data. Up to 1958, three of four analyses indicated a net release of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere caused by cropland establishment. After 1958, all analyses indicate a net uptake of carbon by terrestrial ecosystems, primarily because of the physiological effects of rapidly rising atmospheric CO2. During the 1980s the simulations indicate that terrestrial ecosystems stored between 0.3 and 1.5 Pg C yr−1, which is within the uncertainty of analysis based on CO2 and O2 budgets. Three of the four models indicated (in accordance with O2 evidence) that the tropics were approximately neutral while a net sink existed in ecosystems north of the tropics. Although all of the models agree that the long-term effect of climate on carbon storage has been small relative to the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 and land use, the models disagree as to whether climate variability and change in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> has promoted carbon storage or release. Simulated interannual variability from 1958 generally reproduced the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-scale variability in the atmospheric CO2 increase, but there were substantial differences in the magnitude of interannual variability simulated by the models. The analysis of the ability of the models to simulate the changing amplitude of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 suggested that the observed trend may be a consequence of CO2 effects, climate variability, land use changes, or a combination of these effects</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JChEd..76..901C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JChEd..76..901C"><span>Women in Chemistry: Their Changing Roles from Alchemical Times to the Mid-<span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> (by Marelene Rayner-Canham and Geoffrey Rayner-Canham)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caserio, Marjorie C.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p> authors are selective in their choice of biographies. They feature women on the basis of importance and interest rather than just the most notable. The crystallography chapter reveals the paradox that outstanding work is sometimes recognized (Lonsdale and Hodgkin) and sometimes not (Franklin). Chapter 6 is a fascinating account of the roller-coaster fortunes of women in radioactivity (Curie, Gleditsch, Chamie, Joliot-Curie, Perey, Brooks, Horovitz, Meitner, Noddack, and Goeppert-Mayer) and is the strongest chapter of the book. The biochemistry chapter acknowledges the work of Hoobler, Pennington, Denis, Fuller Brown, Cori, Elion, Willcock, Menten, Wrinch, and others. Industrial Chemistry was not a haven for women during the first part of this <span class="hlt">century</span>, but the remarkable contributions of a few (Leslie, Wall, Blodgett, and Lathbury) are described in Chapter 8. The barriers for women in industry were numerous, including policy bans on married women and perceptions that women were unskilled or incapable of chemical work, even though they proved otherwise in the urgent need of wartime. Chapter 9 is a mixed bag, beginning with analytical chemists (Cremer and Miller), including surprisingly few who became prominent in education (Emma Perry Carr of Mount Holyoke and Mary Fieser of Bryn Mawr and Harvard), and ending with the famous historian of science Helen Metzger. In the concluding chapter, we are reminded of the ups and downs for women scientists in the first half of the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. Blossoming educational and job opportunities led to record numbers of women in science by the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1900s, but the numbers declined in the aftermath of World War I and to a lesser extent after World War II, as a result of changing societal attitudes when men and women compete for the same jobs. This thought-provoking book, elegantly written, concludes with the rhetorical question: will the current "second wave" of women scientists in this <span class="hlt">century</span> be more permanent than the first, and will they</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SHPMP..33..357K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SHPMP..33..357K"><span>Book Review: The genius of science: a portrait gallery of <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> physicists. Abraham Pais, Oxford University Press, New York, 2000, 365 pp., UK £26.50, ISBN 0-19-850614-7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kragh, Helge</p> <p></p> <p>Abraham Pais made important contributions to the physics of elementary particles and other areas of theoretical physics before he turned, in the 1970s, to the history of modern physics, a field he cultivated energetically and successfully until his death in 2000. Among the best works of the prolific physicist-historian (a better term, in this case, than historian of physics) is the acclaimed Einstein biography Subtle is the Lord (1982) and Inward Bound (1986), a comprehensive chronicle of elementary particle physics. More recently his autobiography, A Tale of Two Continents (1997), appeared, a book to a large extent based on Pais's friendship and acquaintance with many of the greatest physicists of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. In the present book, the physicists who appeared as supporting cast in his autobiography are presented in their own right, chapter by chapter. Yet Pais himself is present throughout the book and the reader is constantly reminded of his friendship with the physicists portrayed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5467686','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5467686"><span>Cancer screening and <span class="hlt">early</span> detection in the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Murphy, Jeanne</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Objective To review the trends in and principles of cancer screening and <span class="hlt">early</span> detection. Data Sources Journal articles, United States Preventive Services Task Force (U SPSTF) publications, professional organization position statements, evidence-based summaries Conclusion Cancer screening has contributed to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Efforts to improve the selection of candidates for cancer screening, to understand the biological basis of carcinogenesis, and the development of new technologies for cancer screening will allow for improvements in the cancer screening over time. Implications for Nursing Practice Nurses are well-positioned to lead the implementation of cancer screening recommendations in the 21st <span class="hlt">Century</span> through their practice, research, educational efforts and advocacy. PMID:28343835</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16463913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16463913"><span>Immigration and the American <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hirschman, Charles</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the <span class="hlt">early</span> decades of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=japanese+AND+wife&id=ED228152','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=japanese+AND+wife&id=ED228152"><span>Changes in Families since the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> in Japan--The Role of Higher Girls' Schools.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sekiguchi, Reiko W.</p> <p></p> <p>The higher girls' schools in Japan from 1895-1926 are related to the family structure and cycle, the role of the wife and mother, the relationship between the sexes, and the relationship between generations. The higher girls' schools (comparable to secondary education), were created for the families of middle class society. They fostered the good…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=audiovisual+AND+learning&pg=6&id=EJ1138151','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=audiovisual+AND+learning&pg=6&id=EJ1138151"><span>Inhabiting Culture: Spanish Anarchists' Vision of Cultural Learning through Aesthetics in the Nineteenth and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Centuries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Collelldemont, Eulàlia; Vilanou, Conrad</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Revisions of textual and audio-visual materials reveal the educational vision of Spanish anarchists. Through research, we have discovered the importance of aesthetical education and art in general for this protest political party. By studying the three key historical moments of the movement (1868-1939/1901-1910/1910-1936-1939) we have traced the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23070376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23070376"><span>[The strategies of the symbolic struggle for the training of the visiting nurse in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ayres, Lílian Fernandes Arial; Amorim, Wellington Mendonça de; Piva, Teresa Cristina de Carvalho; Porto, Fernando Rocha</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Based on the historical and social perspective, the scope of this documentary study were the strategies of the symbolic struggle for the training of agents in home visitation in the Courses for Visiting Nurses of the Brazilian Red Cross and the National Department of Public Health in Rio de Janeiro (Federal District), with repercussions in the Department of Health and Welfare of the State of Pernambuco between 1920 and 1926. We adopted the thinking of sociologist Pierre Bourdieu as a theoretical benchmark, showing the symbolic struggle in the field of public health between sanitarians Amaury de Medeiros and José P. Fontenelle and public health nurse Ethel Parsons, to analyze who was responsible for the scientific authority and competence of the training of visiting nurses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17369666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17369666"><span>The "ineffable freemasonry of sex": feminist surgeons and the establishment of radiotherapy in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Britain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moscucci, Ornella</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In 1924 the London Committee of the Medical Women's Federation was instrumental in establishing a clinic for the purpose of investigating the radium treatment of cervical cancer. The scheme was later to evolve into a hospital, the Marie Curie, where adherence to the methods developed in Stockholm served to establish radiotherapy as an alternative to surgery in cancer of the cervix. This article examines the women's contribution in the light of feminist and professional struggles over the relative merits of surgery and radiotherapy. It argues that radiotherapy was an issue of special interest to women surgeons, not only because of the long history of feminist opposition to gynecological surgery, but also because it could widen women's access to the medical profession in the face of male exclusion from training posts and honorary appointments at voluntary hospitals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=america+AND+conservation&id=EJ607279','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=america+AND+conservation&id=EJ607279"><span>'Conservation Education' and the Foundations of National Prosperity: Comparative Perspectives from <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> North America and Britain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marsden, William E.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Compares the development of conservation education in North America and Britain. Reports that the focus of British conservation education was on preserving the countryside, while the United States focused on protecting natural resources. Finds that a major difference was that the label of 'conservation education' did not appear in Britain. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mating&pg=5&id=EJ758416','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mating&pg=5&id=EJ758416"><span>How Did Illiterates Fare as Literacy Became Almost Universal? Evidence from Nineteenth and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Liverpool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mitch, David</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A sample of marriage registers from the parish of Liverpool St. Nicholas Church in England between 1839-1927 is used to examine changing characteristics of grooms who signed with a mark over this period. The proportion of illiterate grooms in the parish fell from about a third to under 5%. Age at marriage and likelihood of being a widower rose…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Antoine&pg=2&id=EJ384667','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Antoine&pg=2&id=EJ384667"><span>La Maison Paternelle: 'A College of Repression' for Wayward Bourgeois Adolescents in Nineteenth and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> France.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ramsland, John</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Describes the Maison Paternelle de St Antoine near Tours, France, which operated as a private institution for the correction of recalcitrant bourgeois adolescents from 1855 until 1909. Cites the suicide of an inmate as the factor which led to the closing of this facility and the focusing of attention in France on the rights of children. (KO)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27255229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27255229"><span>Transition from traditional to modern forest management shaped the spatial extent of cattle pasturing in Białowieża Primeval Forest in the nineteenth and <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samojlik, Tomasz; Fedotova, Anastasia; Kuijper, Dries P J</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Pasturing of livestock in forests has had profound consequences for Europe's landscapes. In Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), cattle pasturing was a part of traditional forest use that ceased only in the second half of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. We collected information on the institutional changes governing forest cattle pasturing and the changes in spatial extent of cattle presence in BPF in last two <span class="hlt">centuries</span> and information on cattle numbers and their impact on forest regeneration. The spatial extent of cattle pasturing was highly variable, with the distribution of grazing areas frequently changing. Forest near villages (constituting less than 10 % of the area) was most often used for cattle grazing during continued longer time periods. Historical data showed that cattle have had a clear impact on forest regeneration. However, the frequent changes that occurred in the extent of cattle grazing indicate that their impact occurred locally, was smaller in other less intensively used areas, and in the forest as a whole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED370122.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED370122.pdf"><span>Proceedings of the Conference of the American Journalism Historians Association (Lawrence, Kansas, October 1-3, 1992). Part II: Journalism History in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>American Journalism Historians' Association.</p> <p></p> <p>This proceedings contain 16 papers on American journalism history in the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. Papers in the proceedings are: "News Suppression & Press Intimidation During the Nixon Administration" (Egbe Enonnchong); "The Persian Gulf War: Revolution in News Transmission" (Robert L. Spellman); "South Dakota's W. R. Ronald:…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED319140.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED319140.pdf"><span>Education Politics for the New <span class="hlt">Century</span>: The <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> Anniversary Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association. Falmer Press Education Policy Perspectives Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Goertz, Margaret E., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This book focuses on the forces that will shape education politics and policy into the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span>. Ten chapters written by prominent educators center on the roles to be played by education professionals, local citizen groups, government agencies, and business leaders in shaping education policy, responses to racial and ethnic segregation, school…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24341264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24341264"><span>Organizing knowledge in the Isis bibliography from Sarton to the <span class="hlt">early</span> twenty-first <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weldon, Stephen P</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>This essay explores various ways in which bibliographies have exhibited "sociality." Bibliographies are both products of the social contexts that have created them and engines of social interaction in scholarly communities. By tracing the history of the Isis Bibliography, the longest-running and most comprehensive bibliography in its field, this essay explains how different Isis classification systems have been tied to major <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> cataloging efforts. By looking at classification, the essay also attends to the ways in which aspects of the Isis Bibliography in different decades have reflected social mores of their period. Finally, it demonstrates how critical the Isis Bibliography was in the formation of the discipline of history of science and goes on to discuss how that disciplinary connection is evolving in the twenty-first <span class="hlt">century</span>. By thinking of the bibliography as a network of scholars, not just scholarly works, the essay asks us to reflect on the nature and purpose of bibliography in the digital age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.4593C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.4593C"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> sea surface temperature and salinity variations at Timor inferred from paired coral δ18O and Sr/Ca measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cahyarini, Sri Yudawati; Pfeiffer, Miriam; Nurhati, Intan Suci; Aldrian, Edvin; Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Hetzinger, Steffen</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), which represents the global ocean circulation connecting the Pacific Warm Pool to the Indian Ocean, strongly influences the Indo-Pacific climate. ITF monitoring since the late 1990s using mooring buoys have provided insights on seasonal and interannual time scales. However, the absence of longer records limits our perspective on its evolution over the past <span class="hlt">century</span>. Here, we present sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) proxy records from Timor Island located at the ITF exit passage via paired coral δ18O and Sr/Ca measurements spanning the period 1914-2004. These high-resolution proxy based climate data of the last <span class="hlt">century</span> highlights improvements and cautions when interpreting paleoclimate records of the Indonesian region. If the seasonality of SST and SSS is not perfectly in phase, the application of coral Sr/Ca thermometry improves SST reconstructions compared to estimates based on coral δ18O only. Our records also underline the importance of ocean advection besides rainfall on local SSS in the region. Although the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) causes larger anomalies relative to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Timor coral-based SST and SSS records robustly correlate with IOD on interannual time scales, whereas ENSO only modifies Timor SST. Similarly, Timor SST and SSS are strongly linked to Indian Ocean decadal-scale variations that appear to lead Timor oceanographic conditions by about 1.6-2 years. Our study sheds new light on the complex signatures of Indo-Pacific climate modes on SST and SSS dynamics of the ITF. This article was corrected on 8 AUG 2014. See the end of the full text for details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ERL....13b5009W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ERL....13b5009W"><span>Warm Arctic-cold Siberia: comparing the recent and the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warmings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Zolina, Olga</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>The Warm Arctic-cold Siberia surface temperature pattern during recent boreal winter is suggested to be triggered by the ongoing decrease of Arctic autumn sea ice concentration and has been observed together with an increase in mid-latitude extreme events and a meridionalization of tropospheric circulation. However, the exact mechanism behind this dipole temperature pattern is still under debate, since model experiments with reduced sea ice show conflicting results. We use the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Arctic warming (ETCAW) as a case study to investigate the link between September sea ice in the Barents-Kara Sea (BKS) and the Siberian temperature evolution. Analyzing a variety of long-term climate reanalyses, we find that the overall winter temperature and heat flux trend occurs with the reduction of September BKS sea ice. Tropospheric conditions show a strengthened atmospheric blocking over the BKS, strengthening the advection of cold air from the Arctic to central Siberia on its eastern flank, together with a reduction of warm air advection by the westerlies. This setup is valid for both the ETCAW and the current Arctic warming period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28523337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28523337"><span>A parallel between two important Romanian histologists of <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>: Alexandru Tupa (1886-1956) and Cornel Crisan (1895-1958).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bârsu, Dan Cristian</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>During the XXth <span class="hlt">century</span>, the evolution of histology in Romania was marked by different personalities. The aim of our paper is to present a parallel between two Professors of Histology: Alexandru Tupa (1886-1956) and Cornel Crisan (1895-1958) - who were contemporaries. Thus, we bring a homage to their memory, because in 2016 was the anniversary of 130 years since the birth of Al. Tupa and in 2018 will be the commemoration of 60 years since the death of C. Crisan. Both carried out their didactic and scientific activities at two prestigious Faculties of Medicine from Romania: Tupa in Jassy and Crisan in Cluj. Although they had a great respect one for the other, both of them progressing in the same morphological domain, yet it was not a close relationship between them. In our paper, we point out the numerous similarities regarding their lives and careers. The main resemblance between them, seen from a general perspective, is that they did not become unrivalled figures of the School of Medicine from Jassy, respectively from Cluj, even they were remarkable professors and scientists. In our article, we also mention their contribution to the development of histology in Romania.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA173521','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA173521"><span>Military Planning in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>, Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (11th) Held on 10-12 October 1984,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>World War II, which includes war service with the Board of Economic Warfare from 1942 to 1943, with the Office of Strategic Services in France and... economic vulnerabilities for a long and even for a short war left him rather cold. He counted on <span class="hlt">early</span> blitzkrieg victories that would give him...keenly aware of their own continuing shortcomings, especially economic gaps and vulnerabilities. These, they figured, would detract seriously 21 from the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0113.photos.125811p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0113.photos.125811p/"><span>2. Copy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photograph showing Euclid Avenue ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Copy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photograph showing Euclid Avenue facade, looking norh. Photograph owned by H.D. Koblitz. - F. B. Stearns Company, Euclid & Lakeview Avenues, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0116.photos.125831p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0116.photos.125831p/"><span>12. Copy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photograph showing facade, looking ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>12. Copy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photograph showing facade, looking west. Photograph owned by Parker-Hannifin Corporation. - Cleveland-Chandler Motors Corporation, 300 East 131st Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0116.photos.125830p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0116.photos.125830p/"><span>11. Copy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photograph, an aerial view, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>11. Copy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photograph, an aerial view, showing the plant from the south looking north. Photo owned by the Parker- Hannifin Corporation. - Cleveland-Chandler Motors Corporation, 300 East 131st Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0118.photos.125753p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0118.photos.125753p/"><span>3. Copy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photograph of Assembly Bldg., ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. Copy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photograph of Assembly Bldg., interior. Photograph owned by: The Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, 10825 East Blvd., Cleveland, Ohio. - Winton Motor Carriage Company, Berea Road & Madison Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0118.photos.125752p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0118.photos.125752p/"><span>2. Copy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span> photograph showing interior of ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Copy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span> photograph showing interior of Assembly Bldg. Photograph owned by the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum 10825 East Blvd., Cleveland, Ohio. - Winton Motor Carriage Company, Berea Road & Madison Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0118.photos.125751p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0118.photos.125751p/"><span>1. Copy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span> lithograph looking north showing ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Copy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span> lithograph looking north showing aerial view of company. Rendering owned by the Crawford Auto- aviation Museum, 10825 East Blvd, Cleveland, Ohio. - Winton Motor Carriage Company, Berea Road & Madison Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+america&pg=6&id=EJ863689','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+america&pg=6&id=EJ863689"><span>Teachers' Lyceums in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Nineteenth-<span class="hlt">Century</span> America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Spearman, Mindy</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Most historians interested in the cultural history of nineteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> America are familiar with the lyceum movement, first popularized by Massachusetts' Josiah Holbrook. While lyceums were extremely popular during the 1820s and 1830s, they disappeared with the advent of the Civil War--though later providing inspiration for Chautauquan lectures…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795850.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795850.pdf"><span>American Marriage in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Twenty-First <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cherlin, Andrew J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>During the past <span class="hlt">century</span> the U.S. family system has seen vast changes--in marriage and divorce rates, cohabitation, childbearing, sexual behavior, and women's work outside the home. Andrew Cherlin reviews these historic changes, noting that marriage remains the most common living arrangement for raising children, but that children, especially poor…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.131...17G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.131...17G"><span>Mid-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> increases in anthropogenic Pb, Cd and Cu in central Asia set in hemispheric perspective using Tien Shan ice core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Wake, C. P.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. B.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>High-resolution major and trace element (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Ti, and V) ice core records from Inilchek glacier (5120 m above sea level) on the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau provide the first multi-decadal ice core record spanning the period 1908-1995 AD in central Tien Shan. The trace element records reveal pronounced temporal baseline trends and concentration maxima characteristic of post-1950 anthropogenic emissions. Examination of Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations, along with non-crustal calculation estimates (i.e. excess (ex) and enrichment factor (EF)), reveal that discernable anthropogenic inputs began during the 1950s and rapidly increased to the late-1970s and <span class="hlt">early</span> 1980s, by factors up to of 5, 6 and 3, respectively, relative to a 1910-1950 means. Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations between the 1950s-1980s are reflective of large-scale Soviet industrial and agricultural development, including the growth of production and/or consumption of the non-ferrous metals, coal and phosphate fertilizers. NOAA HYSPLIT back-trajectory frequency analysis suggests pollutant sources originating primarily from southern Kazakhstan (e.g. Shymkent and Balkhash) and the Fergana Valley (located in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Inilchek ice core Pb, Cd and Cu reveals declines during the 1980s concurrent with Soviet economic declines, however, due to the rapid industrial and agricultural growth of western China, Pb, Cd and Cu trends increase during the 1990s reflecting a transition from primarily central Asian sources to emission sources from western China (e.g. Xinjiang Province).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Strategic+AND+leadership%2c&pg=6&id=EJ1028868','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Strategic+AND+leadership%2c&pg=6&id=EJ1028868"><span>"Doing" Social Justice in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood: The Potential of Leadership</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hard, Louise; Press, Frances; Gibson, Megan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span> childhood education has long been connected with objectives related to social justice. Australian <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood education and care (ECEC) has its roots in philanthropic and educational reform movements prevalent at the turn of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. More recently, with the introduction of the National <span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood Reform Agenda, early…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA198439','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA198439"><span>Military Planning in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-10-01</p> <p>College Review 32:51-62, July-August 1979. Brown, Harold. Planning our military forces. Foreign Affails 45(2): 277- 290, 1967. Brugger, Robert J. Apocalypse ... now : American military planning in an age of diminishing possibilities. Virginia Quarterly Review 58:392-406, Summer 1982. Bruins, Berend D. Should</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA442826','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA442826"><span>Military Planning in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Mehr sein als scheinen” (be more than you appear to be) was his principal motto. Single-mindedness that critics have at times labeled obsessiveness...interviewing nearly a hundred leading figures of the World War I era, the Schlieffen Plan and the eventuating Marne campaign were major topics of...rehabilitate him as a commander, he remains the chief whipping boy for the disaster of the Marne . Criticisms of Moltke’s generalship focus about</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22RECEPTION+theory%22&id=EJ629828','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22RECEPTION+theory%22&id=EJ629828"><span>Misreading Science in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Budd, John M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Considers textual aspects of scientific communication and problems for reception presented by the complex dynamics of communicating scientific work. Discusses scientific work based on fraud or misconduct and disputes about the nature of science, and applies reception theory and reader-response criticism to understand variations in readings of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED066046.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED066046.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Fund Annual Report 1971.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Twentieth Century Fund, New York, NY.</p> <p></p> <p>Research continued and new studies were launched in four major areas: communications, urban problems, politics, and economic issues. The foci of these studies are described briefly. Projects in communications are examining flows of news, media monopoly, press freedoms under pressure, public affairs broadcasting, press councils, political access to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Thorndike&pg=7&id=EJ157838','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Thorndike&pg=7&id=EJ157838"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Books Influencing American Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCaul, Robert L.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Discusses: "Educational Psychology," Thorndike; "Medical Education," Flexner; "Democracy and Education," Dewey; "The Measurement of Intelligence," Terman; "Public Education," Cubberley; "The Thirty-Ninth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Intelligence: Its Nature and Nurture;" and, "Why Johnny Can't Read," Flesch. (JM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Peanuts&pg=4&id=EJ046023','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Peanuts&pg=4&id=EJ046023"><span>Bringing Job into the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meador, Melba</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>A model for teaching the Book of Job to high school students, using such diverse media as Peanuts" cartoons and poems, news articles and novels. Describes some of the major themes in Job and their relevance to modern literature. Suggests supplementary reading and themes for student papers. (JB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=destiny+AND+fate&id=EJ251193','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=destiny+AND+fate&id=EJ251193"><span>Urban Universities: <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Phenomena.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hill, S. Richardson, Jr.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The destinies of cities and their universities are seen as inextricably linked. The fate of society depends to a great extent upon the university's ability to fulfill its unique role to give new meaning to the quality of urban life in this country. (MLW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atomic+AND+bomb&pg=3&id=EJ374772','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atomic+AND+bomb&pg=3&id=EJ374772"><span>Death and Society in <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fulton, Robert; Owen, Greg</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Discusses how American experiences with death have changed since 1900 and shows how changes have served to transform attitudes and responses toward death. Compares individuals born prior to advent of atomic bomb to those born in nuclear age, and considers pervasive influence of television and other media in changing attitudes. (Author/NB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=china+AND+economy&pg=3&id=EJ1018681','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=china+AND+economy&pg=3&id=EJ1018681"><span>Globalization and Chinese Education in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bailey, Paul J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>With China's growing significance in the global economy ever more evident, studies in recent years have highlighted multiple aspects of China's "Globalization" (or global connections) that predate the contemporary period. This article focuses on educational reform in the late Qing and <span class="hlt">early</span> Republic as a way of illuminating a significant…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AN....334..300V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AN....334..300V"><span>No evidence for an <span class="hlt">early</span> seventeenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova (SN1604)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Gent, R. H.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an <span class="hlt">early</span> 17th-<span class="hlt">century</span> Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an <span class="hlt">early</span> 17th-<span class="hlt">century</span> Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5474770','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5474770"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> 20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warming intensified by Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tokinaga, Hiroki; Xie, Shang-Ping; Mukougawa, Hitoshi</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>With amplified warming and record sea ice loss, the Arctic is the canary of global warming. The historical Arctic warming is poorly understood, limiting our confidence in model projections. Specifically, Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing. Here, we show that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal variability modes is the major driver for the rapid <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations successfully reproduce the <span class="hlt">early</span> Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warming is associated with positive SST anomalies over the tropical and North Atlantic and a Pacific SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. Atmospheric circulation changes are important for the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warming. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air into the North American Arctic. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. Coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, negative-to-positive phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal modes. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region. PMID:28559341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PNAS..114.6227T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PNAS..114.6227T"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> 20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warming intensified by Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tokinaga, Hiroki; Xie, Shang-Ping; Mukougawa, Hitoshi</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>With amplified warming and record sea ice loss, the Arctic is the canary of global warming. The historical Arctic warming is poorly understood, limiting our confidence in model projections. Specifically, Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing. Here, we show that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal variability modes is the major driver for the rapid <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations successfully reproduce the <span class="hlt">early</span> Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warming is associated with positive SST anomalies over the tropical and North Atlantic and a Pacific SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. Atmospheric circulation changes are important for the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th-<span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warming. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air into the North American Arctic. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. Coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, negative-to-positive phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal modes. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16158729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16158729"><span>American marriage in the <span class="hlt">early</span> twenty-first <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cherlin, Andrew J</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>During the past <span class="hlt">century</span> the U.S. family system has seen vast changes--in marriage and divorce rates, cohabitation, childbearing, sexual behavior, and women's work outside the home. Andrew Cherlin reviews these historic changes, noting that marriage remains the most common living arrangement for raising children, but that children, especially poor and minority children, are increasingly likely to grow up in single-parent families and to experience family instability. Cherlin describes the economic and cultural forces that have transformed family life. Job market changes have drawn married women into the work force and deprived less-educated men of the blue-collar jobs by which they traditionally supported their families. And effective contraception and legalized abortion have eroded the norm of marriage before childbearing. Cherlin notes that sentiment in favor of marriage appears to be stronger in the United States than in other developed countries. The share of U.S. adults who are likely to marry is higher, but so is the share likely to divorce. U.S. children are also more likely to live in single-parent families at some time in their childhood. Although nearly all Americans, whether poor or well-to-do, hold to marriage as an ideal, today marriage is increasingly optional. To a greater extent than ever before, individuals can choose whether to form a family on their own, in a cohabiting relationship, or in a marriage. Given U.S. patterns of swift transitions into and out of marriage and high rates of single parenthood, American policymakers eager to promote marriage are unlikely to be able to raise U.S. family stability to levels typical of other developed countries. Consequently, a family policy that relies too heavily on marriage will not help the many children destined to live in single-parent and cohabiting families--many of them poor--during their formative years. Assistance must be directed to needy families, regardless of their household structure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED413604.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED413604.pdf"><span>Figuring The Value of Literacy Education in the Late 19th and <span class="hlt">Early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">Centuries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>George, D'Ann</p> <p></p> <p>As part of the research for a dissertation on composition at Bryn Mawr College during the late 19th and <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">centuries</span>, hundreds of student essays and daily themes were read. Over and over students affirmed the essential worth and significance of events in their daily lives and of their college education in general. More often than not,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0114.photos.125805p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0114.photos.125805p/"><span>2. Photocopy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photo, showing the Euclid ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Photocopy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photo, showing the Euclid Avenue facade of the branch assembly building. Photograph owned by the Cleveland Public Library. - Ford Motor Company, Cleveland Branch Assembly Plant, Euclid Avenue & East 116th Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0004.photos.126444p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0004.photos.126444p/"><span>2. Photocopy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> drawing, looking south from ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. Photocopy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> drawing, looking south from the air. Drawing owned by the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, 10825 East Blvd., Cleveland, Ohio. - Peerless Motor Car Company, East Ninety-third Street & Quincy Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0004.photos.126443p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0004.photos.126443p/"><span>1. Photocopy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> rendering showing aerial veiw, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Photocopy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> rendering showing aerial veiw, looking south. Rendering owned by the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, 10825 East Blvd., Cleveland, Ohio. - Peerless Motor Car Company, East Ninety-third Street & Quincy Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny1230.photos.121416p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny1230.photos.121416p/"><span>4. Photocopy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photo of the bridge. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. Photocopy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photo of the bridge. Donated to HAER for its collection at the Library of Congress; donation courtesy of the Erie Railroad Company. - Erie Railway, Moodna Creek Viaduct, Moodna Creek, Orrs Mill Road, Salisbury Mills, Orange County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0114.photos.125804p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/oh0114.photos.125804p/"><span>1. Photocpy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photograph, looking east, of ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. Photocpy of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> photograph, looking east, of east facade of assembly building on Euclid Ave. Photo owned by the Cleveland Public Library. - Ford Motor Company, Cleveland Branch Assembly Plant, Euclid Avenue & East 116th Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46524','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46524"><span>Functional response of U.S. grasslands to the <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st-<span class="hlt">century</span> drought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>M. Susan Moran; Guillermo E. Ponce-Campos; Alfredo Huete; Mitchel P. McClaran; Yongguang Zhang; Erik P. Hamerlynck; David J. Augustine; Stacey A. Gunter; Stanley G. Kitchen; Debra P. C. Peters; Patrick J. Starks; Mariano Hernandez</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Grasslands across the United States play a key role in regional livelihood and national food security. Yet, it is still unclear how this important resource will respond to the prolonged warm droughts and more intense rainfall events predicted with climate change. The <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st-<span class="hlt">century</span> drought in the southwestern United States resulted in hydroclimatic conditions that...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mythology&pg=6&id=ED520879','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mythology&pg=6&id=ED520879"><span>Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Twenty-First <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hawkins, Paul Henry</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the <span class="hlt">early</span> twenty-first <span class="hlt">century</span>. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=patriarchal+AND+society&id=EJ951396','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=patriarchal+AND+society&id=EJ951396"><span>Cherokee Practice, Missionary Intentions: Literacy Learning among <span class="hlt">Early</span> Nineteenth-<span class="hlt">Century</span> Cherokee Women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moulder, M. Amanda</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article discusses how archival documents reveal <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> Cherokee purposes for English-language literacy. In spite of Euro-American efforts to depoliticize Cherokee women's roles, Cherokee female students adapted the literacy tools of an outsider patriarchal society to retain public, political power. Their writing served…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mather&pg=4&id=EJ435541','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mather&pg=4&id=EJ435541"><span>Family Literacy in <span class="hlt">Early</span> 18th-<span class="hlt">Century</span> Boston: Cotton Mather and His Children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Monaghan, E. Jennifer</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Offers a naturalistic picture of literacy in colonial North America by exploring family literacy in an <span class="hlt">early</span> eighteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> urban New England setting. Uses the diaries and other writings of Cotton Mather (1663-1728) as sources on literacy within his family. Notes the importance of writing within the family. (SR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED554803.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED554803.pdf"><span>The Carnegie Unit: A <span class="hlt">Century</span>-Old Standard in a Changing Education Landscape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Silva, Elena; White, Taylor; Toch, Thomas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span> in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, the industrialist Andrew Carnegie established the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching to create a pension system for the nation's college professors. The introduction of this pension system proved an ingenious educational reform. At the time, American higher education was a largely ill-defined…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=religion&id=EJ1166472','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=religion&id=EJ1166472"><span>Religion or Citizenship? Beyond the Binary; Lessons after a <span class="hlt">Century</span> of Disagreement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Caride, Ezequiel Gomez</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>This article describes how different approaches to religion (institutional and cultural) lead to startlingly different conclusions when analyzing how religion shapes the republican citizen. Through a genealogical discourse analysis, I examine educational reports issued by Argentinean authorities in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> that made the Jew out…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037566','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037566"><span>Future dryness in the Southwest US and the hydrology of the <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> drought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cayan, D.R.; Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunova, A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> drought has been the most extreme in over a <span class="hlt">century</span> of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given <span class="hlt">century</span> with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span>. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3003012','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3003012"><span>Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> drought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cayan, Daniel R.; Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W.; Barnett, Tim P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunov, Alexander</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> drought has been the most extreme in over a <span class="hlt">century</span> of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given <span class="hlt">century</span> with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span>. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge. PMID:21149687</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMGC41A0993T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMGC41A0993T"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span> Arctic Warming Intensified by Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tokinaga, H.; Xie, S. P.; Mukougawa, H.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>We investigate the influence of Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability on the Arctic temperature, with a particular focus on the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warming. Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing than at present. We find that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability is the major driver for the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations reproduce the <span class="hlt">early</span> Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The <span class="hlt">early</span> Arctic warming is associated with the cold-to-warm phase shifts of Atlantic and Pacific multidecadal variability modes, a SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal and Atlantic multidecadal oscillations. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air to the North American Arctic. Coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, cold-to-warm phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5836350','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5836350"><span>Syphilis and psychiatry at the Mysore Government Mental Hospital (NIMHANS) in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ghani, Sarah; Murthy, Pratima; Jain, Sanjeev; Sarin, Alok</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Prior to the advent of the Wasserman Test as a diagnostic tool for Syphilis, the identification rate for Syphilis at the Mysore Government Mental Hospital in Southern India was 1%. With the introduction of the test, there was a dramatic increase in the diagnosis of Syphilis, with 17% of the patients testing positive. This paper throws light on the <span class="hlt">early</span> notions of Syphilis and GPI, societal responses to the disease, <span class="hlt">early</span> misdiagnosis, the advent of the Wasserman test and treatment management as reflected in the records of the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> at the Mysore Government Mental Hospital (currently known as NIMHANS). PMID:29527060</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Wundt&pg=2&id=ED435437','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Wundt&pg=2&id=ED435437"><span>The Imagination of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Morgan, Harry</p> <p></p> <p>This book examines historical features from antiquity through present times that are important to <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood scholars. Chapter 1 presents the history of education, including discussions of educational practices from the seventeenth through the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span> in Europe and the United States, recent efforts to merge preschool and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17367007','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17367007"><span>Tragic mathematics: romantic narratives and the refounding of mathematics in the <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alexander, Amir R</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>A new, Romantic type of mathematical story appeared in the <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> that was radically different from the sober narrative characteristic of the previous generation of mathematicians. At the same time, a new mathematical practice emerged that differed sharply from the understanding and practice of mathematics during the Enlightenment. These parallel developments are inseparable: the new type of mathematical practice went hand in hand with the new mathematical story.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18447318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18447318"><span>['The spirit has left the bottle': the medieval Arabic physician 'Abd al-Latĭf ibn Yŭsuf al-Baghdădĭ: his medical work and his bizarre affiliation with <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> spiritualism].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Joosse, N Peter</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Arabic physician 'Abd al-Latĭf ibn Yŭsuf al-Baghdădĭ, lived at the crossroads of the twelfth and the thirteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>. His unbridled curiosity and his unquenchable thirst for knowledge of any kind brought him to far-away countries and regions and put him in contact with all sorts and conditions of people. The great Egyptian famine of the years 1200-1202 enabled him to study and examine thousands of human cadavers and skeletons at first hand. This led to a new understanding of the anatomical structure of the human body, and rejected the more or less antiquated ideas of the Greek doctor Galen of Pergamum. However, 'Abd al-Latĭf's vision was granted only a short life. After his death, his discovery sank into oblivion and as a consequence it was never again mentioned in Arabic medical manuals. From then on the Arabic physicians once more referred to the anatomical data which were developed and taught by Galen. Relatively few specimens of his remaining medical work were preserved for posterity. However, his Book of the two advices (or: K. al-Nasĭhatain) is of the utmost importance as a source for the medical thinking and the medical treatment in the late twelfth and the <span class="hlt">early</span> thirteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> A.D. During the years following World War I, 'Abd al-Latĭf's name reappeared within the spiritualistic movement in England. He became known as Abduhl Latif the great Persian physician and acted as a control of mediums. Until the late sixties, he practised the art of healing as the head of a medical mission somewhere in the Spheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900065927&hterms=manuel+cruz&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmanuel%2Bcruz','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900065927&hterms=manuel+cruz&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmanuel%2Bcruz"><span>21st <span class="hlt">century</span> <span class="hlt">early</span> mission concepts for Mars delivery and earth return</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cruz, Manuel I.; Ilgen, Marc R.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>In the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span>, the <span class="hlt">early</span> missions to Mars will entail unmanned Rover and Sample Return reconnaissance missions to be followed by manned exploration missions. High performance leverage technologies will be required to reach Mars and return to earth. This paper describes the mission concepts currently identified for these <span class="hlt">early</span> Mars missions. These concepts include requirements and capabilities for Mars and earth aerocapture, Mars surface operations and ascent, and Mars and earth rendezvous. Although the focus is on the unmanned missions, synergism with the manned missions is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006OcDyn..56..487W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006OcDyn..56..487W"><span>Brest sea level record: a time series construction back to the <span class="hlt">early</span> eighteenth <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wöppelmann, Guy; Pouvreau, Nicolas; Simon, Bernard</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p> rise during the last decade compared to the global estimations of about 1.8 mm/year over longer periods (Douglas, J Geophys Res 96:6981 6992, 1991). The onset of the relatively large global sea level trends observed in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> is an important question in the science of climate change. Our findings point out to an ‘inflexion point’ at around 1890, which is remarkably close to that in 1880 found in the Liverpool record by Woodworth ( Geophys Res Lett 26:1589 1592, 1999b).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RJMP...17..126M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RJMP...17..126M"><span>Tropical mathematics and the financial catastrophe of the 17th <span class="hlt">century</span>. Thermoeconomics of Russia in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maslov, V. P.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>In the paper, an example is presented concerning relationships (which cannot be neglected) between mathematics and other sciences. In particular, the relationship between the tropical mathematics and the humanitarian-economic catastrophe of 17th <span class="hlt">century</span> (related to slavery of Africans) is considered. The notion of critical state of economy of the 19th <span class="hlt">century</span> is introduced by using the refined Fisher equation. A correspondence principle for thermodynamics of fluids and economics of the 19th <span class="hlt">century</span> is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16033598','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16033598"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> untrained nursing staff in the Rockhampton district: a necessary evil?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Madsen, Wendy</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>This paper explores the role of untrained nursing staff within the nursing services of the Rockhampton region, Queensland, Australia, throughout the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. It details who these nurses were, where they worked and how their work was affected by factors such as legislation and social changes. Despite the increasing prevalence of trained nurses from the late 19th <span class="hlt">century</span>, nurses who had never undergone any formal training continued to gain work in hospitals, institutions and their local communities. This paper is an historical analysis of a wide range of primary source material relating to untrained nursing staff. The primary source material used related specifically to a limited geographical region in Australia. Untrained nursing staff primarily worked as private duty nurses at the beginning of the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. However, as the <span class="hlt">century</span> progressed, their opportunities to work as untrained nursing staff tended towards institutions dealing with the chronically ill and the aged. As a result of this transition, their profile altered from that of a married/widowed woman living at home with dependents to one who could live on-site at the institution with no dependents. Furthermore, the level of autonomy of the untrained nurse decreased dramatically throughout this period from being relatively independent to being under the control of a trained nurse within the institution. Consideration of the historical evolution of untrained nursing staff challenges some of the assumptions made about this category of nurse, assumptions that can affect current relationships between professional nurses and others who undertake nursing work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Outline+AND+Case+AND+Study+AND+Analysis&id=EJ925119','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Outline+AND+Case+AND+Study+AND+Analysis&id=EJ925119"><span>The Treatment of the Motion of a Simple Pendulum in Some <span class="hlt">Early</span> 18th <span class="hlt">Century</span> Newtonian Textbooks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gauld, Colin</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The treatment of pendulum motion in <span class="hlt">early</span> 18th <span class="hlt">century</span> Newtonian textbooks is quite different to what we find in today's physics textbooks and is based on presuppositions and mathematical techniques which are not widely used today. In spite of a desire to present Newton's new philosophy of nature as found in his "Principia" 18th <span class="hlt">century</span> textbook…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1537..155R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1537..155R"><span>The study of documentary photographs of the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> by the optical coherence microscopy method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryseva, Ekaterina; Zhukova, Ekaterina</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The wide field and spectral methods of optical coherence microscopy were used for extensive studying the photographs printed in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. Tomographic images (B-scans) of photo and paper materials are presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=area+AND+51&id=EJ934257','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=area+AND+51&id=EJ934257"><span>The Funding of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Care and Education Programmes in Sweden, 1845-1943</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Westberg, Johannes</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>What significance did donations, bequests, tuition fees and fund-raising events have for <span class="hlt">early</span> care and education programmes during the nineteenth and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>? Through an examination of 24 Swedish infant schools, day nurseries and free kindergartens, this article verifies that donations and bequests were essential for the economy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARB14003F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARB14003F"><span>Priestley's Shadow and Lavoisier's Influence: Electricity and Heat in the Late Eighteenth and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Nineteenth <span class="hlt">Centuries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, Amy</p> <p></p> <p>In the late eighteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>, Joseph Priestley argued that any complete theory of heat also had to explain electrical phenomena, which manifested many similar effects to heat. For example, sparking or heating a sample of trapped air caused a reduction in the volume of air and made the gas toxic to living organisms. Because of the complexity of electrical and thermal phenomena, Antoine Lavoisier did not address electrical action in his published works. Rather, he focused on those effects produced by heating alone. With the success of Lavoisier's caloric theory of heat, natural philosophers and chemists continued to debate the relationship between heat and electricity. In this presentation, I compare and contrast the fate of caloric in <span class="hlt">early-nineteenth-century</span> electrical studies via the work of two scientists: Humphry Davy in Britain and Robert Hare in America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27975208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27975208"><span>[Renal decapsulation for the treatment of anuria : A "forgotten" treatment from the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dräger, D L; Protzel, C; Hakenberg, O W</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, Harrison first performed renal decapsulation in anuric children with scarlet fever and observed improvement in renal function postoperatively. The pathophysiological explanation was seen in intraparenchymal renal pressure due to edema which was improved by surgical decapsulation. The technique of decapsulation was simple excision after incision and blunt dissection of the renal parenchyma. Renal decapsulation then became a procedure commonly used for many indications in inflammatory renal conditions; indications were renal angioneurosis, hydronephrosis, toxic, bacterial and chronic nephritis, renal abscess and even eclampsia. With the beginning of the antibiotic era, renal decapsulation became obsolete and has disappeared from the urological spectrum completely.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=america+AND+conservation&id=EJ1065401','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=america+AND+conservation&id=EJ1065401"><span>Mother Earth, Earth Mother: Gabriela Mistral as an <span class="hlt">Early</span> Ecofeminist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Finzer, Erin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Historians have noted that male bureaucrats and natural resource experts tended to dominate <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> national and hemispheric conservationist movements in Latin America, but a constellation of female activists, notable among them Gabriela Mistral, strengthened conservationism in the cultural sphere. Capitalizing on her leadership in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1017176.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1017176.pdf"><span>"Old Poems Have Heart": Teenage Students Reading <span class="hlt">Early</span> Modern Poetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Naylor, Amanda</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The proposals for the revised National Curriculum in English suggest limiting the pre-<span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> poetry that GCSE pupils read to "representative Romantic poetry" (Department for Education [DFE], 2013, p. 4). This paper argues that poetry of the <span class="hlt">early</span> modern period is challenging and enriching study for adolescent pupils and that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20534581','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20534581"><span>Reconstructing <span class="hlt">early</span> 17th <span class="hlt">century</span> estuarine drought conditions from Jamestown oysters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harding, Juliana M; Spero, Howard J; Mann, Roger; Herbert, Gregory S; Sliko, Jennifer L</p> <p>2010-06-08</p> <p>Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were a central component of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem in 1607 when European settlers established Jamestown, VA, the first permanent English settlement in North America. These estuarine bivalves were an important food resource during the <span class="hlt">early</span> years of the James Fort (Jamestown) settlement while the colonists were struggling to survive in the face of inadequate supplies and a severe regional drought. Although oyster shells were discarded as trash after the oysters were eaten, the environmental and ecological data recorded in the bivalve geochemistry during shell deposition remain intact over <span class="hlt">centuries</span>, thereby providing a unique window into conditions during the earliest Jamestown years. We compare oxygen isotope data from these 17th <span class="hlt">century</span> oyster shells with modern shells to quantify and contrast estuarine salinity, season of oyster collection, and shell provenance during Jamestown colonization (1609-1616) and the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span>. Data show that oysters were collected during an extended drought between fall 1611 and summer 1612. The drought shifted the 14 psu isohaline above Jamestown Island, facilitating individual oyster growth and extension of oyster habitat upriver toward the colony, thereby enhancing local oyster food resources. Data from distinct well layers suggest that the colonists also obtained oysters from reefs near Chesapeake Bay to augment oyster resources near Jamestown Island. The oyster shell season of harvest reconstructions suggest that these data come from either a 1611 well with a very short useful period or an undocumented older well abandoned by late 1611.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+studies&pg=7&id=EJ1020259','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+studies&pg=7&id=EJ1020259"><span>Social Studies Teacher Education in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>: A Historical Inquiry into the Relationship between Teacher Preparation and Curriculum Reform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jacobs, Benjamin M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background/Context: The field of social studies education is hardly lacking in historical investigation. The historiography includes sweeping chronicles of longtime struggles over the curriculum as well as case studies of momentous eras, events, policies, trends, and people, with emphases on aims, subject matter, method, and much more. Curiously,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28547519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28547519"><span>Kurt Goldstein and his nonlocationist thoughts on aphasia-a pioneer of <span class="hlt">early</span> network theories at the beginning of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Joswig, Holger; Hildebrandt, Gerhard</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>In between Carl Wernicke's locationist aphasia concept from 1874 and Norman Geschwind's new connectionist model of human brain functions in 1965, little notice was taken of the historical debate on aphasia and brain plasticity. Interestingly, Kurt Goldstein made long-forgotten, but highly relevant remarks on the connectionist model and thereby served as an important connecting link between Wernicke and Geschwind. With the original contributions of Goldstein and contemporary authors, we analyzed the historical background of the aphasia debate in the time period between Wernicke and Geschwind, which still influences current aphasia concepts and neurosurgical practice of today.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA137633','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA137633"><span>A Computer Compatible System for the Categorization, Enumeration, and Retrieval of Nineteenth and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Archaeological Material Culture. Part 1. Codebook.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>in to material of manufacture and form, organized to segregate material, style, and manufacturing techniques of functional and chronological...a system for classifying arti- facts and artifact fragments according to material of manufacture as veil as form, organized to segregate material...style, and manufacturing tech- niques of functional and chronological significance. The codebook manual contains instructions for making critical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28029450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28029450"><span>Droughts of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> and <span class="hlt">early</span> twenty-first <span class="hlt">centuries</span>: Influences on the production of beef and forage in Kentucky, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Craft, Kortney E; Mahmood, Rezaul; King, Stephen A; Goodrich, Gregory; Yan, Jun</p> <p>2016-10-28</p> <p>Drought affects societies world-wide in many different ways. It is a natural hazard that is complex and not well understood and as a result, its impacts are often poorly documented. The purpose of this research is to quantify (in dollars) the impacts of drought on Kentucky's beef and forage (hay) production. Observations suggest that the most important droughts in Kentucky occurred in 1930-31, 1940-42, 1952-55, 1987-88, 1999-2000 and 2007. The total state revenue for these commodities were analyzed during these severe drought years and non-drought years. The research estimated revenue deficit from these severe droughts in Kentucky for these (beef and hay) agricultural commodities. This study is important to the general public as well as planners and policy makers. Proper documentation of drought impacts should help identify drought vulnerabilities and result in better risk management and mitigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26633910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26633910"><span>MINDING THEIR OWN BUSINESS: MARRIED WOMEN AND CREDIT IN <span class="hlt">EARLY</span> EIGHTEENTH-<span class="hlt">CENTURY</span> LONDON.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shepard, Alexandra</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Taking a micro-historical approach, this paper explores the business activities of Elizabeth Carter and Elizabeth Hatchett, two married women who operated together as pawnbrokers in London in the <span class="hlt">early</span> decades of the eighteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>. Based on a protracted inheritance dispute through which their extensive dealings come to light, the discussion assesses married women's lending and investment strategies in a burgeoning metropolitan economy; the networks through which women lenders operated; and the extent to which wives could sidestep the legal conventions of 'coverture' which restricted their ownership of moveable property. It is argued that the moneylending and asset management activities of women like Carter and Hatchett were an important part of married women's work that did not simply consolidate neighbourhood ties but that placed them at the heart of the <span class="hlt">early</span> modern economy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28155425','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28155425"><span>Hospitals of Rome in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Nineteenth <span class="hlt">Century</span>: The Apostolic Visit of 1825.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duffin, Jacalyn</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Pope Leo XII marked the 1825 Jubilee by visiting the hospitals of Rome. Italy was recovering from the French invasion that had disrupted social and religious structures. The Visitors investigated conditions, and recommended changes. By 1826, eight large hospitals were ordered to unite, but, three years later, the order was rescinded. Based on the Visit's mostly unexamined records in the Vatican Secret Archives, hospital registers, and minutes of the governing council held in the Archivio di Stato di Roma, this paper reconstructs the network of Rome's hospitals in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 19 th <span class="hlt">century</span>. It also compares Roman hospitals to its Parisian counterparts, especially with respect to governance and education. Finally, it examines the merger as an <span class="hlt">early</span> example of a practice that remains vibrant (if controversial) today.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26498767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26498767"><span>Neptunism and Transformism: Robert Jameson and other Evolutionary Theorists in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Nineteenth-<span class="hlt">Century</span> Scotland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jenkins, Bill</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This paper sheds new light on the prevalence of evolutionary ideas in Scotland in the <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> and establish what connections existed between the espousal of evolutionary theories and adherence to the directional history of the earth proposed by Abraham Gottlob Werner and his Scottish disciples. A possible connection between Wernerian geology and theories of the transmutation of species in Edinburgh in the period when Charles Darwin was a medical student in the city was suggested in an important 1991 paper by James Secord. This study aims to deepen our knowledge of this important episode in the history of evolutionary ideas and explore the relationship between these geological and evolutionary discourses. To do this it focuses on the circle of natural historians around Robert Jameson, Wernerian geologist and professor of natural history at the University of Edinburgh from 1804 to 1854. From the evidence gathered here there emerges a clear confirmation that the Wernerian model of geohistory facilitated the acceptance of evolutionary explanations of the history of life in <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> Scotland. As Edinburgh was at this time the most important center of medical education in the English-speaking world, this almost certainly influenced the reception and development of evolutionary ideas in the decades that followed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=292746','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=292746"><span>Protecting trees against virus diseases in the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span>: genetic engineering of Plum pox virus resistance - from concept to product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), was first recorded in Bulgaria during the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. Since that first report, the disease has progressively spread throughout Europe where it has infected over 100 million stone fruit trees. From Europe, sharka disease spread to Asia, A...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=darwinism&pg=5&id=EJ807271','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=darwinism&pg=5&id=EJ807271"><span>Deweyan Darwinism for the Twenty-First <span class="hlt">Century</span>: Toward an Educational Method for Critical Democratic Engagement in the Era of the Institute of Education Sciences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Seltzer-Kelly, Deborah</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Our society's preoccupation with making educational policy and practice "scientific" is attested to by the stated mission of the Institute of Education Sciences: "to provide rigorous evidence on which to ground education practice and policy." <span class="hlt">Early</span> in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, John Dewey also advocated for a vision of education guided by science, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2226675B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2226675B"><span>The Nineteenth-<span class="hlt">Century</span> Revolution in Astronomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Batten, Alan Henry</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth <span class="hlt">centuries</span>, or to the two great revolutions of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> with what was known at the end, however, shows that <span class="hlt">century</span> to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the <span class="hlt">century</span>, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that <span class="hlt">century</span> look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27763407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27763407"><span>Empiricism and Rationalism in Nineteenth-<span class="hlt">Century</span> Histories of Philosophy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vanzo, Alberto</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which <span class="hlt">early</span> modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> because of the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German and British idealists. I argue that the narrative became standard at the turn of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. Among the factors that allowed it to become standard are its aptness to be adopted by philosophers of the most diverse persuasions, its simplicity and suitability for teaching.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.137....1J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.137....1J"><span>Annual minimum temperature variations in <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> in Punjab, Pakistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jahangir, Misbah; Maria Ali, Syeda; Khalid, Bushra</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is a key emerging threat to the global environment. It imposes long lasting impacts both at regional and national level. In the recent era, global warming and extreme temperatures have drawn great interest to the scientific community. As in a past <span class="hlt">century</span> considerable increase in global surface temperatures have been observed and predictions revealed that it will continue in the future. In this regard, current study mainly focused on analysis of regional climatic change (annual minimum temperature trends and its correlation with land surface temperatures in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> in Punjab) for a period of 1979-2013. The projected model data European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) has been used for eight Tehsils of Punjab i.e., annual minimum temperatures and annual seasonal temperatures. Trend analysis of annual minimum and annual seasonal temperature in (Khushab, Noorpur, Sargodha, Bhalwal, Sahiwal, Shahpur, Sillanwali and Chinoit) tehsils of Punjab was carried out by Regression analysis and Mann-Kendall test. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was used in comparison with Model data for the month of May from the years 2000, 2009 and 2010. Results showed that no significant trends were observed in annual minimum temperature. A significant change was observed in Noorpur, Bhalwal, Shahpur, Sillanwali, Sahiwal, Chinoit and Sargodha tehsils during spring season, which indicated that this particular season was a transient period of time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26318891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26318891"><span>Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858). A forgotten contributor to <span class="hlt">early</span> 19th <span class="hlt">century</span> neurology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walusinski, O</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Specialists of the history of hysteria know the name of Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858), but few realise the influence of this physician and surgeon from Lyon, a city in the southeastern part of France. Not only a clinician, he was also a neurophysiology researcher in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 19th <span class="hlt">century</span>. Along with his descriptions of meningoencephalitis, including hydrocephalus and meningoencephalitis, he elucidated the functioning of the vegetative nervous system and described its activity during emotional states. He also helped describe the different forms of epilepsy and sought to understand their aetiologies, working at the same time as the better-known Louis-Florentin Calmeil (1798-1895). We present a biography of this forgotten physician, a prolific writer, keen clinical observer and staunch devotee of a rigorous scientific approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296697"><span>Ancient DNA identification of <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Calvignac, Sébastien; Terme, Jean-Michel; Hensley, Shannon M; Jalinot, Pierre; Greenwood, Alex D; Hänni, Catherine</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>The molecular identification of proviruses from ancient tissues (and particularly from bones) remains a contentious issue. It can be expected that the copy number of proviruses will be low, which magnifies the risk of contamination with retroviruses from exogenous sources. To assess the feasibility of paleoretrovirological studies, we attempted to identify proviruses from <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> bones of museum specimens while following a strict ancient DNA methodology. Simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 sequences were successfully obtained and authenticated from a Chlorocebus pygerythrus specimen. This represents the first clear evidence that it will be possible to use museum specimens to better characterize simian and human T-tropic retrovirus genetic diversity and analyze their origin and evolution, in greater detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2775759','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2775759"><span>CHANGES in SKIN TANNING ATTITUDES Fashion Articles and Advertisements in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martin, Jo M.; Ghaferi, Jessica M.; Cummins, Deborah L.; Mamelak, Adam J.; Schmults, Chrys D.; Parikh, Mona; Speyer, Lark-Aeryn; Chuang, Alice; Richardson, Hazel V.; Stein, David</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Historical reviews suggest that tanning first became fashionable in the 1920s or 1930s. To quantitatively and qualitatively examine changes in tanning attitudes portrayed in the popular women's press during the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, we reviewed summer issues of Vogue and Harper's Bazaar for the years 1920, 1927, 1928, and 1929. We examined these issues for articles and advertisements promoting skin tanning or skin bleaching and protection. We found that articles and advertisements promoting the fashionable aspects of tanned skin were more numerous in 1928 and 1929 than in 1927 and 1920, whereas those promoting pale skin (by bleaching or protection) were less numerous. These findings demonstrate a clear shift in attitudes toward tanned skin during this period. PMID:19846688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846688"><span>Changes in skin tanning attitudes. Fashion articles and advertisements in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martin, Jo M; Ghaferi, Jessica M; Cummins, Deborah L; Mamelak, Adam J; Schmults, Chrys D; Parikh, Mona; Speyer, Lark-Aeryn; Chuang, Alice; Richardson, Hazel V; Stein, David; Liégeois, Nanette J</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Historical reviews suggest that tanning first became fashionable in the 1920s or 1930s. To quantitatively and qualitatively examine changes in tanning attitudes portrayed in the popular women's press during the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, we reviewed summer issues of Vogue and Harper's Bazaar for the years 1920, 1927, 1928, and 1929. We examined these issues for articles and advertisements promoting skin tanning or skin bleaching and protection. We found that articles and advertisements promoting the fashionable aspects of tanned skin were more numerous in 1928 and 1929 than in 1927 and 1920, whereas those promoting pale skin (by bleaching or protection) were less numerous. These findings demonstrate a clear shift in attitudes toward tanned skin during this period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Questionnaire+AND+Design&pg=4&id=ED570557','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Questionnaire+AND+Design&pg=4&id=ED570557"><span>Perceptions of Collegiate and <span class="hlt">Early</span>-Career Piano Teachers Regarding Master's Piano Pedagogy Degree Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cheng, Xiaoke</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>For pianists considering teaching as a career, progress has been made in the preparation of piano teachers in American colleges and universities beginning in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. These developments impacted the education of the piano teacher in colleges/universities as well as the added focus of piano-related journals and publications,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11618488','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11618488"><span>Soul sisters: the St. John and Raynard nurses in nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> London.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williamson, L</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This paper uses the archives of the St John's training institution for nurses and the Raynard Mission to determine the extent to which cultural images and specialised space defined and drove the nursing profession in nineteenth and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> London. Emphasis is placed upon image and rhetoric, both sacred and secular, and the way the two combined to define the 'ideal' Victorian woman and nursing in the nineteenth and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">centuries</span>, and the understanding and treatment of illness. Research to date suggests that through a process of rationalisation of biblical and socio-cultural rhetoric, a specialisation of space, symbolic and literal, abstract and real was created; this enabled women to work in a gendered enclave, the organisational structure and rhetoric of which paralleled that of nunneries or convents. And even as the 'secular' became dominant in medical attitudes and treatment, the 'sacred'aspect of nursing and the emphasis placed upon it as being a vocation remained strong.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=little+AND+girl&pg=2&id=EJ959231','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=little+AND+girl&pg=2&id=EJ959231"><span>Resisting Conformity: Anglican Mission Women and the Schooling of Girls in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Nineteenth-<span class="hlt">Century</span> West Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leach, Fiona</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The origins of modern schooling in <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> Africa have been poorly researched. Moreover, histories of education in Africa have focused largely on the education of boys. Little attention has been paid to girls' schooling or to the missionary women who sought to construct a new feminine Christian identity for African girls. In the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Use+AND+technology+AND+war&pg=2&id=EJ1037942','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Use+AND+technology+AND+war&pg=2&id=EJ1037942"><span>Representations of Technology in the "Technical Stories" for Children of Otto Witt, <span class="hlt">Early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span> Swedish Technology Educator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Axell, Cecilia; Hallström, Jonas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=boat&pg=3&id=EJ876286','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=boat&pg=3&id=EJ876286"><span>Missing the Boat with Technology Usage in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood Settings: A 21st <span class="hlt">Century</span> View of Developmentally Appropriate Practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parette, Howard P.; Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Blum, Craig</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Technology use permeates virtually all aspects of twenty-first <span class="hlt">century</span> society, though its integration in <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood settings and recognition as a developmentally appropriate practice remains problematic. A position is taken that education professionals may be "missing the boat" by not embracing technology usage as a developmentally…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26399074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26399074"><span>[THE IMPROVEMENT OF CITIES AND SANITARY CONTROL IN RUSSIA IN LATE XIX--<span class="hlt">EARLY</span> XX <span class="hlt">CENTURIES</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sherstneva, E V</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The article considers activity of municipal self-governments of Russia concerning support of sanitary epidemiological well-being of cities in the late XIX--<span class="hlt">early</span> XX <span class="hlt">centuries</span>. The acuteness of problem of sanitary conditions of urban settlements particularly became visible in post-reform period due to increasing of number of urban population, alteration of setup and rhythm of life in cities, appearance of new forms of worker's daily chores. Al this, against the background of underdevelopment of communal sphere aggravated epidemiological situation in cities. The impulse to improvement and development of sanitary control was made by the city regulations of 1870 presenting to town authorities the right to deal with sanitary issues. The significant input into improvement of cities was made first of all at the expense of construction of water supplies and sewerage and support of sanitary control of these spheres of municipal economy. Under town councils of many cities the sanitary commissions were organized to support permanent sanitary control in town. The development of town sanitation followed the way of specialization. The housing and communal, trade and food, school and sanitary and sanitary and veterinary control were organized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3929670','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3929670"><span>NIH research funding and <span class="hlt">early</span> career physician scientists: continuing challenges in the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garrison, Howard H.; Deschamps, Anne M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Physician scientists (researchers with either M.D. or M.D.-Ph.D. degrees) have the unique potential to combine clinical perspectives with scientific insight, and their participation in biomedical research has long been an important topic for policymakers and educators. Given the recent changes in the research environment, an update and extension of earlier studies of this population was needed. Our findings show that physician scientists are less likely to take a major role in biomedical research than they were in the past. The number of physician scientists receiving postdoctoral research training and career development awards is at an all-time low. Physician scientists today, on average, receive their first major research award (R01 equivalent) at a later age than in the 1980s. The number of first-time R01-equivalent awards to physicians is at the same level as it was 30 yr ago, but physicians now represent a smaller percentage of the grant recipients. The long-term decline in the number of physicians entering research careers was temporarily halted during the period of substantial U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) budget growth (1998–2003). These gains are lost, however, in the subsequent years when NIH budgets failed to keep pace with rising costs.— Garrison, H. H., Deschamps, A. M. NIH research funding and <span class="hlt">early</span> career physician scientists: continuing challenges in the 21st <span class="hlt">century</span>. PMID:24297696</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012icha.book...12B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012icha.book...12B"><span>The mid 19th and <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span> Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonifácio, Vitor</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26ES..107a2045Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26ES..107a2045Z"><span>Impact of climate changes on population vital activities in Russia in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zolotokrylin, A. N.; Vinogradova, V. V.; Titkova, T. B.; Cherenkova, E. A.; Bokuchava, D. D.; Sokolov, I. A.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Babina, E. D.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The study substantiates the approach to the assessment of impact of climate change on vital activities of population in Russia in the face of increasing climate extremes. The obtained results reveal the occurrence of the essential climate extreme events over the period 1991-2013 in Russia that are vital for population activities. Annual amounts of interdiurnal temperature differences and pressure were calculated. Propagation of heat and cold waves, trends and frequencies of daily precipitation extremes were evaluated. The map “Zoning the territory of the Russian Federation by natural living conditions of the population” adapted for modern climate (2001-2010), illustrates the climate changes in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span>. The modern warming of climate has led to a significant easing of discomfort in the territory of Russia. The steady decline of the absolutely unfavorable zone resulted from the expansion of less unfavorable areas is observed, especially in the Northern and Arctic regions. In the south the boundary of unfavorable territories shifts toward the north. It results in the expansion of the conditionally unfavorable area in West Siberia and in the south of East Siberia. In European Russia the favorable area expands and shifts far to the northern regions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23278189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23278189"><span>The <span class="hlt">early</span> modern kidney--nephrology in and about the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>. Part 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eknoyan, Garabed</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The 19th <span class="hlt">century</span> was a period of momentous scientific discoveries, technological achievements, and societal changes. A beneficiary of these revolutionary upheavals was medical empiricism that supplanted the rationalism of the past giving rise to <span class="hlt">early</span> modern scientific medicine. Continued reliance on sensory data now magnified by technical advances generated new medical information that could be quantified with increasing precision, verified by repeated experimentation, and validated by statistical analysis. The institutionalization and integration of these methodologies into medical education were a defining step that assured their progress and perpetuation. Major advances were made in the nosography of diseases of the kidney, notably that of the diagnosis of progressive kidney disease from the presence of albuminuria by Richard Bright (1789-1858); and of renal structure and function, notably the demonstration of the continuity of the glomerular capsule with the tubular basement membrane by William Bowman (1816-1892), and the arguments for hemodynamic physical forces mediated glomerular filtration by Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) and for active tubular transport by Rudolf Heidenhain (1834-1897). Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated. The kidney continued to be considered a tubular secretory organ and its pathology attributed to injury of the interstitium (interstitial nephritis) or tubules (parenchymatous nephritis). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GPC...165..137V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GPC...165..137V"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> spatially detailed elevation changes of Jammu and Kashmir glaciers (Karakoram-Himalaya)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vijay, Saurabh; Braun, Matthias</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>Although a number of studies indicate the regional heterogeneity of the glacier elevation and mass changes in high-mountain Asia in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span>, little is known about these changes with high spatial detail for some of the regions. In this study we present respective glacier elevation and mass change estimates in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir (JK) for the period 2000-2012. Our estimates are based on the interferometric analysis of SRTM DEM and the bistatic TanDEM-X data. On an average the JK East (Karakoram) glaciers showed less negative elevation changes (- 0.19 ± 0.22 m yr-1) compared to the JK West (Himalaya) glaciers (- 0.50 ± 0.28 m yr-1). This agrees very well with previous studies that show a transition from larger changes in the western Himalaya to a steady-state situation in the Karakoram. We observe distinct elevation change patterns on a glacier scale that is most likely linked to debris insulation and the enhanced ice melting due to supraglacial lakes, ponds and ice cliffs. We also found 16 surge-type glaciers in the JK East which were not documented before. In total, 25 glaciers surged and 4 others appeared to be in a quiescent phase in the observation period. Our results also reveal that the glacier-averaged elevation change rates of surge-type and non surge-type glaciers in the JK East region are not significantly different.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4213435','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4213435"><span>Defining a discovery: priority and methodological controversy in <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> anatomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berkowitz, Carin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>, Charles Bell and François Magendie engaged in a decades-long priority dispute over the discovery of the roots of motor and sensory nerves. The constantly recalibrated arguments of its participants illuminate changes in the life sciences during that period. When Bell first wrote about the nerves in 1811, surgeon-anatomists ran small schools out of their homes, natural theology was in vogue, exchanges between British and French medical practitioners were limited by the Napoleonic Wars, and British practitioners typically rejected experimental physiology and vivisection. By the end of Magendie's career, medical science was produced in the laboratory, taught through artfully produced performances of the sort at which Magendie excelled, and disseminated through journals. It is not entirely clear which historical character, Bell or Magendie, ‘won’ the dispute, nor that they even had clear and consistent positions in it, but what is clear is that one style of science had won out over the other, and over the course of the dispute, pedagogy lost pride of place in medical science. PMID:27494015</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1161W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1161W"><span>The <span class="hlt">early</span> vs the late 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warming: The role of energy and aerosol fluxes in reanalysis driven datasets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wegmann, Martin; Broennimann, Stefan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>During the last two decades, the Arctic was put into the scientific focus as one of the most impacted regions worldwide concerning anthropogenic global warming. However, the warming between 1920 and 1940 proofs the importance of internal variability on yearly and decadal scale. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the role of external and internal forcings on the Arctic climate attribute process and causes leading to changes in the Arctic climate regime (Serreze & Barry 2009). Although much research effort was spent to understand the links and influences of and on the Arctic climate, there is still a need for further insights concerning this topic. Especially the results and discussion about anthropogenic global warming and Arctic amplification put the Arctic into the public and academic focus (Serreze & Barry 2011). However, the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> Arctic warming, although discovered immediately, was scientifically forgotten until recently (Delworth & Knutson 2000, Bengtsson et al 2004, Grant et al 2009, Bekryaev et al 2010). The comparison of this earlier Arctic warming and the recent warming period grants a chance to deepen knowledge about the drivers of Arctic climate and can be used to evaluate the anthropogenic impact. The authors use the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Reanalysis (20CR) dataset and a nudged, reanalysis-driven Aerosol Global Circulation Model (A-GCM) to investigate the impact of atmospheric energy and aerosol fluxes into the Arctic during the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>. The 20CR dataset covers the period of 1871 - 2010 with a temporal resolution of 6hr and a spatial resolution of 2° x 2°. For the first time, this dataset (and ist 56 ensemble member) is used to compute the atmospheric energy flux, consisting of sensble heat, latent heat, potential energy and kinetic energy. The values are integrated around 70° N and between 1000 - 100 hPa. Aerosol fluxes for the same domain but for the years 1957 - 2000 are calculated based on the A-GCM nudged to the ECMWF</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23928824','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23928824"><span>A brief history of the changing occupations and demographics of coleopterists from the 18th through the 20th <span class="hlt">century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elias, Scott A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Systematic entomology flourished as a branch of Natural History from the 1750s to the end of the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>. During this interval, the "era of Heroic Entomology," the majority of workers in the field were dedicated amateurs. This article traces the demographic and occupational shifts in entomology through this 150-year interval and into the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. The survey is based on entomologists who studied beetles (Coleoptera), and who named sufficient numbers of species to have their own names abbreviated by subsequent taxonomists. In the eighteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>, 27 entomologists achieved this level of prominence, of whom 37% were academics, 19% were doctors, 11% had private incomes, 19% were clergymen, and 8% were government officials. Many of those with private incomes were members of the European aristocracy, and all but one were European men. The nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> list included 192 entomologists, of whom 17% were academics, 16% were museum curators, 2% were school teachers, 15% were doctors, 6% were military men, 7% were merchants, 2% were government entomologists, 6% had private incomes, 5% were clergymen, 5% were government officials, and 4% were lawyers. The demographics of entomology shifted dramatically in the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>. Whereas many of the noteworthy entomologists of the eighteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> were German, Swedish, or French, in the nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>, many more European countries are represented, and almost one-fifth of the noteworthy entomologists were from the United States. The nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> list, like the eighteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> list, contains no women. By the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, 63% of 178 noteworthy systematic entomologists were paid professionals, teaching entomology courses in universities, or studying insect taxonomy in museums and government-sponsored laboratories. Only one person on the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> list had a private income, but women (ten individuals) were included on the list for the first time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JAHH...21...29L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JAHH...21...29L"><span>White supremacism and Islamic astronomy in history of astronomy texts from the eighteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> to the present day</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lockard, Joe</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>This paper reviews manifestations of racism in European and American histories of Arab and Persian astronomy from the eighteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> to the present day. Its first section discusses representation of Islamic astronomy from Adam Smith to late Victorian writers, particularly tracing ideas of Arab unoriginality and scientific incapacity. The second section first relates the appearance of scientific racism in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> historiography of astronomy, then how the rise of scientifically and linguistically competent scholarship in the latter <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> provided much-improved information on Islamic achievements in astronomy. The paper’s conclusion underlines the importance of avoiding ethnic supremacism and integrating research on Islamic astronomy into teaching and publishing on the history of astronomy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OcScD..11...47M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OcScD..11...47M"><span>Possible signals of poleward surface ocean heat transport, of Arctic basal ice melt, and of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> solar maximum in the 1904-2012 Isle of Man daily timeseries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matthews, J. B.; Matthews, J. B. R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This is the second of two papers on observational timeseries of top of ocean heat capture. The first reports hourly and daily meridional central tropical Pacific top 3 m timeseries showing high Southern Hemisphere evaporation (2.67 m yr-1) and Northern Hemisphere trapped heat (12 MJ m-2 day-1). We suggested that wind drift/geostrophic stratified gyre circulation transported warm water to the Arctic and led to three phases of Arctic basal ice melt and fluxes of brackish nutrient-rich waters to north Atlantic on centennial timescales. Here we examine daily top metre 1904-2012 timeseries at Isle of Man west coast ~54° N for evidence of tropical and polar surface waters. We compare these to Central England (CET) daily land-air temperatures and to Arctic floating ice heat content and extent. We find three phases of ocean surface heating consistent with basal icemelt buffering greenhouse gas warming until a regime shift post-1986 led to the modern surface temperature rise of ~1 °C in 20 yr. Three phases were: warming +0.018 °C yr-1 from 1904-1939, slight cooling -0.002 °C yr-11940-86 and strong warming +0.037 °C yr-1 1986-2012. For the same periods CET land-air showed: warming +0.015 °C yr-1, slight cooling -0.004 °C yr-1, about half SST warming at +0.018 °C yr-1. The mid-<span class="hlt">century</span> cooling and a 1959/1963 hot/cold event is consistent with sunspot/solar radiation maximum 1923-2008 leading to record volumes of Arctic ice meltwater and runoff that peaked in 1962/3 British Isles extreme cold winter. The warming Arctic resulted in wind regime and surface water regime shifts post 1986. This coincides with the onset of rapid Arctic annual ice melt. Continued heat imbalance is likely to lead to tidewater glacier basal icemelt and future sealevel rise after remaining relatively stable over 4000 yr. Our work needs confirmation by further fieldwork concentrating on the dynamics and thermodynamics of ocean top 3 m that controls the 93 % anthropogenic global warming in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.C53B0576B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.C53B0576B"><span>A Coupled Ocean-Iceberg Model Over The 20th <span class="hlt">Century</span>: Iceberg Flux At 48°N As A Proxy For Greenland Iceberg Discharge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bigg, G. R.; Wilton, D.; Hanna, E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Grant R. Bigg1 , David J. Wilton1 and Edward Hanna1 1Department of Geography, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN We have used a coupled ocean-iceberg model, the Fine Resolution Greenland and Labrador ocean model [1], to study the variation in, and trajectory of, icebergs over the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, focusing particularly on Greenland and surrounding areas. The model is forced with daily heat, freshwater and wind fluxes derived from the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Reanalysis Project [2]. We use the observed iceberg flux at 48°N off Newfoundland (I48N) from 1900 to 2008 [3] to assess the iceberg component of the model. Model I48N is calculated with both a variable and constant annual calving rate. The results show that ocean and atmosphere changes alone do not account for the variation in observed I48N and suggests that this series can be used as a proxy for iceberg discharge from west Greenland tidewater glaciers. The implication of this proxy is that there is significant interannual variability in Greenland iceberg discharge over the whole <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. Our model results suggest that in the <span class="hlt">early</span> decades of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> I48N was dominated by icebergs originating from south Greenland (below latitude 65°N) with west Greenland becoming the main source of I48N from the late 1930s onwards. Modeled icebergs from the east of Greenland very rarely reach 48°N. We also present results from the ocean model showing the variation of ocean transport fluxes over the course of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> and <span class="hlt">early</span> twenty first <span class="hlt">century</span>. References 1. M. R. Wadley, and G. R. Bigg, (2002), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 2187-2203 2. G. P. Compo, et al. (2011), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28 3. D. L. Murphy (2011) http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/?pageName=IIPIcebergCounts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15648115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15648115"><span>[Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 19th <span class="hlt">century</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Walter</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and <span class="hlt">early</span> 30-ies of the 19th <span class="hlt">century</span> and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hygiene&pg=5&id=EJ1061857','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hygiene&pg=5&id=EJ1061857"><span>The Influence of the School Hygiene and Paedology Movement on the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Development of Special Education in Greece, 1900-1940: The Leading Role of Emmanuel Lambadarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anastasiou, Dimitris; Iliadou-Tachou, Sophia; Harisi, Antonia</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study focuses on the contribution of Emmanuel Lambadarios to special education in Greece in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>. It examines Lambadarios's involvement in special education, culminating in the establishment of the "Model Special School of Athens" (PESA), the first public special education school for children with intellectual…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24113552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24113552"><span>[History of leprosy in Reunion Island from the beginning of the 18th <span class="hlt">century</span> until today].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gaüzere, B A; Aubry, P</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article traces the history of leprosy in Reunion from the <span class="hlt">early</span> eighteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>, which long paralleled the slave trace. Lepers were confined to a lazaretto and treated with herbs. Father Raimbault, "doctor" and chaplain of the lepers in the middle of the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>, is still honored today. The improvement in living standards and the use of sulfones finally resulted in the control of leprosy. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2011, an average of three new cases per year were detected among a population of 800,000 inhabitants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159467','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159467"><span>A <span class="hlt">century</span> of induced earthquakes in Oklahoma?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hough, Susan E.; Page, Morgan T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Seismicity rates have increased sharply since 2009 in the central and eastern United States, with especially high rates of activity in the state of Oklahoma. Growing evidence indicates that many of these events are induced, primarily by injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells. The upsurge in activity has raised two questions: What is the background rate of tectonic earthquakes in Oklahoma? How much has the rate varied throughout historical and <span class="hlt">early</span> instrumental times? In this article, we show that (1) seismicity rates since 2009 surpass previously observed rates throughout the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span>; (2) several lines of evidence suggest that most of the significant earthquakes in Oklahoma during the <span class="hlt">twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> were likely induced by oil production activities, as they exhibit statistically significant temporal and spatial correspondence with disposal wells, and intensity measurements for the 1952 El Reno earthquake and possibly the 1956 Tulsa County earthquake follow the pattern observed in other induced earthquakes; and (3) there is evidence for a low level of tectonic seismicity in southeastern Oklahoma associated with the Ouachita structural belt. The 22 October 1882 Choctaw Nation earthquake, for which we estimate Mw 4.8, occurred in this zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033245','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033245"><span>Late nineteenth to <span class="hlt">early</span> twenty-first <span class="hlt">century</span> behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Molnia, B.F.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Alaska's climate is changing and one of the most significant indications of this change has been the late 19th to <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document that air temperatures throughout Alaska have been increasing for many decades. Since the mid-20th <span class="hlt">century</span>, the average change is an increase of ?????2.0????C. In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of response of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior of hundreds of glaciers located in the eleven Alaskan mountain ranges and three island areas that currently support glaciers. Data analyzed included maps, historical observations, thousands of ground-and-aerial photographs and satellite images, and vegetation proxy data. Results were synthesized to determine changes in length and area of individual glaciers. Alaskan ground photography dates from 1883, aerial photography dates from 1926, and satellite photography and imagery dates from the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1960s. Unfortunately, very few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of ?????1500??m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have an uninterrupted history of continuous post-Little-Ice-Age retreat that spans more than 250??years. Others are characterized by multiple late 19th to <span class="hlt">early</span> 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> fluctuations. Today, retreating and/or thinning glaciers represent more than 98% of the glaciers examined. However, in the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains, Chugach Mountains, and the Aleutian Range more than a dozen glaciers are currently advancing and thickening. Many currently advancing glaciers are or were formerly tidewater glaciers. Some of these glaciers have been expanding for more than two <span class="hlt">centuries</span>. This presentation documents the post-Little-Ice-Age behavior and variability of the response of many Alaskan glaciers to changing regional climate. ?? 2006.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002556','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002556"><span>Improved Rainfall Estimates and Predictions for 21st <span class="hlt">Century</span> Drought <span class="hlt">Early</span> Warning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Funk, Chris; Peterson, Pete; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Husak, Gregory; Landsfeld, Marty; Hoell, Andrew; Pedreros, Diego; Roberts, J. B.; Robertson, F. R.; Tadesse, Tsegae; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20150002556'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20150002556_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20150002556_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20150002556_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20150002556_hide"></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>As temperatures increase, the onset and severity of droughts is likely to become more intense. Improved tools for understanding, monitoring and predicting droughts will be a key component of 21st <span class="hlt">century</span> climate adaption. The best drought monitoring systems will bring together accurate precipitation estimates with skillful climate and weather forecasts. Such systems combine the predictive power inherent in the current land surface state with the predictive power inherent in low frequency ocean-atmosphere dynamics. To this end, researchers at the Climate Hazards Group (CHG), in collaboration with partners at the USGS and NASA, have developed i) a long (1981-present) quasi-global (50degS-50degN, 180degW-180degE) high resolution (0.05deg) homogenous precipitation data set designed specifically for drought monitoring, ii) tools for understanding and predicting East African boreal spring droughts, and iii) an integrated land surface modeling (LSM) system that combines rainfall observations and predictions to provide effective drought <span class="hlt">early</span> warning. This talk briefly describes these three components. Component 1: CHIRPS The Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS), blends station data with geostationary satellite observations to provide global near real time daily, pentadal and monthly precipitation estimates. We describe the CHIRPS algorithm and compare CHIRPS and other estimates to validation data. The CHIRPS is shown to have high correlation, low systematic errors (bias) and low mean absolute errors. Component 2: Hybrid statistical-dynamic forecast strategies East African droughts have increased in frequency, but become more predictable as Indo- Pacific SST gradients and Walker circulation disruptions intensify. We describe hybrid statistical-dynamic forecast strategies that are far superior to the raw output of coupled forecast models. These forecasts can be translated into probabilities that can be used to generate bootstrapped ensembles</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AcHA....3...93H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AcHA....3...93H"><span>Astrometry and <span class="hlt">early</span> astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th <span class="hlt">century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Habison, Peter</p> <p></p> <p>The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th <span class="hlt">century</span>. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for <span class="hlt">early</span> astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3547447','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3547447"><span>The adolescence of a thirteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> visionary nun.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kroll, J; De Ganck, R</p> <p>1986-11-01</p> <p>Among the most notable features of the religious revival in western Europe in the <span class="hlt">early</span> thirteenth <span class="hlt">century</span> was the development of mysticism among the nuns and religious women of the lowlands. As scholarly attention becomes increasingly focused on this group of remarkable women, the question arises whether a psychiatric viewpoint has something of value to offer to the understanding of such individuals and the culture in which they struggled. The methodological and intellectual problems inherent in examining the life of a thirteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> mystic with a <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> empirical frame of reference are illustrated in this study of the adolescence of Beatrice of Nazareth. Beatrice's stormy asceticism, ecstatic states and mood swings lend themselves to potentially competing hypotheses regarding the spiritual and psychopathological significance of her adolescent development and eventual life-course. Common grounds for reconciling these alternative models are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2969J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2969J"><span>The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> Landscape Paintings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th <span class="hlt">century</span>, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th <span class="hlt">century</span> groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th <span class="hlt">century</span> landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018814','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018814"><span>Evidence of active dune sand on the Great Plains in the 19th <span class="hlt">century</span> from accounts of <span class="hlt">early</span> explorers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Muhs, D.R.; Holliday, V.T.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Dune fields are found in several areas of the Great Plains, and though mostly stabilised today, the accounts of <span class="hlt">early</span> explorers show that they were more mobile in the last <span class="hlt">century</span>. Using an index of dune mobility and tree ring data, it is found that these periods of mobility were related to temperature-induced drought, the high temperatures increasing evapotranspiration. Explorers also record that rivers upwind of these dune fields had shallow braided channels in the 19th <span class="hlt">century</span>, and these would have supplied further aeolian sand. It is concluded that these dunes are extremely susceptible to climate change and that it may not need global warming to increase their mobility again. -K.Clayton</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12085544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12085544"><span>Botany on a plate. Pleasure and the power of pictures in promoting <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> scientific knowledge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Secord, Anne</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> Britain the use of pictures in introducing novices to the study of science was contentious, leading to debates over the ways in which words and images constituted knowledge and over the role of pleasure in intellectual pursuits. While recent studies have stressed visual representation as a critical element of science and considered its relation to the written word in conveying information, this essay explores the nineteenth-<span class="hlt">century</span> preoccupation with the mind and mental faculties in relation to corporeal responses to explain concerns over the role of images and the process of recognition. By considering illustration in this way, it argues that popular botany was defined by many expert naturalists as the means by which private individuals could best be encouraged to extend their aesthetic appreciation and love of plants to an active and participatory pursuit of science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29629627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29629627"><span>Robert Hare's Theory of Galvanism: A Study of Heat and Electricity in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Nineteenth-<span class="hlt">Century</span> American Chemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fisher, Amy</p> <p>2018-04-09</p> <p>As a professor of chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, Robert Hare actively shaped <span class="hlt">early</span> American science. He participated in a large network of scholars, including Joseph Henry, François Arago, and Jacob Berzelius, and experimented with and wrote extensively about electricity and its associated chemical and thermal phenomena. In the <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth <span class="hlt">century</span>, prominent chemists such as Berzelius and Humphry Davy proclaimed that a revolution had occurred in chemistry through electrical research. Examining Robert Hare's contributions to this discourse, this paper analyzes how Hare's study of electricity and the caloric theory of heat led him to propose a new theory of galvanism. It also examines the reception of Hare's work in America and Great Britain, highlighting the contributions of <span class="hlt">early</span> American chemists to the development of electrochemistry.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080033571','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080033571"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Moon: The Evolution of Lunar Science, 1955 - 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Templeton, T. C.; Kinney, A. L.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Here we discuss thc bibliographic record of Lunar Science as published in refereed journals from 1955 to 2002. New tools in bibliometrics, i.e. the study of publications and citations, reveal the structure of this scientific field by measuring and visualizing connections between published papers. This approach is especially powerful when applied to a well defined field such as Lunar Science, which is strongly affected by policy and the actions resulting from policy, most obviously gathering samples from the Moon. This poster presents some results obtained by processing a dataset of lunar science bibliographic records through a bibliographic visualization program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=albert+camus&pg=2&id=ED085724','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=albert+camus&pg=2&id=ED085724"><span>Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Views Seies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bree, Germaine, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Germaine Bree, Nicola Chairmonte, Serge Doubrovsky, Justin O'Brien, Wilfrid Sheed, Roger Quilliot, Thomas L. Hanna, Bernard C. Murchland, Henri Peyre, S. Beynon John, Rachel Bespaloff, Jean-Paul Sartre, Robert Champigny,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=albert+camus&pg=3&id=ED085711','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=albert+camus&pg=3&id=ED085711"><span>Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Views Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gray, Ronald, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=much+AND+share+AND+third&pg=2&id=EJ870060','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=much+AND+share+AND+third&pg=2&id=EJ870060"><span>Higher Education and UK Elite Formation in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Williams, Gareth; Filippakou, Ourania</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study examines the proposition that mass higher education is, in practice, less a network of more or less homogeneous activities than a series of concentric circles in which elite institutions remain at the centre, but are surrounded by increasingly wide bands of universities and colleges, that are less and less likely to set graduates on the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=w.+AND+b.+AND+lawrence&pg=3&id=ED086984','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=w.+AND+b.+AND+lawrence&pg=3&id=ED086984"><span>Homer: A Collection of Critical Essays. <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Views Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Steiner, George, Ed.; Fagles, Robert, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by George Steiner, Leo Tolstoy, Ezra Pound, Erich Auerbach, Edwin Muir, Cedric H. Whitman, Albert B. Lord, W. H. Auden, Ernst Bloch, Georg Lukacs, C. Day Lewis, Gabriel Germain, Franz Kafka, Rachel Bespaloff, Robert…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=US+AND+fertility+AND+rates&pg=5&id=ED216439','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=US+AND+fertility+AND+rates&pg=5&id=ED216439"><span>Demography in the United States: Some <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Myths.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Egbert, Robert L.</p> <p></p> <p>Five demographic myths related to education pose dangers to educational planning and thinking. The first myth says the return of service personnel after World War II caused the baby boom. Actually the baby boom began in 1939 and was not related to service personnel. The second myth claims the Great Depression decreased the birth and fertility…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=blackstone&pg=2&id=ED084525','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=blackstone&pg=2&id=ED084525"><span>Byron: A Collection of Critical Essays. <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Views Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>West, Paul, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by G. Wilson Knight, Bernard Blackstone, Mario Praz, Paul West, Guy Steffan, F. R. Leavis, W. W. Robson, Helen Gardner, George M. Ridenour, Edmund Wilson, Gilbert Highet, Bertrand Russell, and John Wain--all dealing with the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12290154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12290154"><span>Population and society in <span class="hlt">twentieth-century</span> Southeast Asia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hirschman, C</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>The historical demographic analysis in this article is a revision of a paper presented at the Conference of the Northwest Regional Consortium for Southeast Asian Studies in 1988 at the University of Oregon. The author takes the view that fertility has remained high in the Southeast Asian region due to the dynamics of colonialism and the reinforcement of traditional society. Industrialization, urbanization, and advancing education was not favored by colonial policy. The shift to planting cash crops was labor-intensive work which reinforced large families. The fertility decline after the 1960s is attributed to population pressure and the lower limits of land and production per family. Incentives for smaller families are identified as the expansion of mass education, increased consumer aspirations, and opportunities for modern sector employment. The impact of population growth is viewed as multidimensional and indicative of the conflicts between resources, obligations, and aspirations. The historical record in Southeast Asia reveals a population shortage and the risk of losing the minimum supply of labor necessary for a subsistence economy. Traditional local authorities were in need of men for waging war and producing an economic surplus. Colonial administrators imported cheap labor. As mortality declined and population increased, the societal response was migration, usually to frontier areas. New zones of wet rice production were created in lower Burma, central Siam, and Cochin China due to increased demand. Other survival strategies are identified as infinite land subdivision and multiple job holding in the off-season. Densely populated areas appeared to have lower fertility. Over the past 20 years the strategy appears to have been lower fertility coupled with acceptance of family planning, higher female educational attainment, and higher age at marriage. Southeast Asian patterns are considered indicative of the impact of wars, crises, and economic change on demographic processes and of the demographic impact of changes in population size, density, and structure on social, political, and economic outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rene+AND+41&id=ED085720','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rene+AND+41&id=ED085720"><span>Sartre: A Collection of Critical Essays. <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Views Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kern, Edith, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Edith Kern, Claude-Edmonde Magny, Henri Peyre, Kenneth Douglas, Edmund Wilson, Theophil Spoerri, Jacques Guicharnaud, Eric Bentley, Robert Champigny, Oreste F. Pucciani, Frederic Jameson, Rene Girard, Guido…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=otto+AND+von+AND+bismarck&id=EJ540249','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=otto+AND+von+AND+bismarck&id=EJ540249"><span>The Great War and the Shaping of the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Baggett, Blaine; And Others</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Traces the convoluted alliances and diplomatic blundering that resulted in World War I. Places a large degree of the blame on Kaiser Wilhelm II who almost singlehandedly dismantled or ruptured the alliances and treaties of imperial chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Includes photos, paintings, and diary entries. (MJP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=esslin&id=ED083636','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=esslin&id=ED083636"><span>Brecht: A Collection of Critical Essays. <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Views Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Demetz, Peter, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Sergey Tretiakov, Hearings of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, Hannah Arendt, Eric Bentley, Oscar Budel, Ernst Schumacher, I. Fradkin, Hans Egon Holthusen, Gunter Rohrmoser, Walter H. Sokol, Franz Norbert…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=kaufmann&pg=2&id=ED086972','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=kaufmann&pg=2&id=ED086972"><span>Dryden: A Collection of Critical Essays. <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Views Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schilling, Bernard N., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Bernard Schilling, T. S. Eliot, Louis I. Bredvold, James M. Osborn, Reuben A. Brower, Edwin Morgan, Earl Wasserman, R. J. Kaufmann, Moody E. Prior, Earl W. Miner, Edward N. Hooker, E. M. W. Tillyard, John Hollander,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Thorndike&pg=7&id=EJ347088','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Thorndike&pg=7&id=EJ347088"><span>The Five Most Significant Curriculum Events in the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tyler, Ralph W.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Ralph W. Tyler reviews five significant events in the field of curriculum development: (1) work of Edward Thorndike, (2) John Dewey's monograph on interest and effort in education, (3) the 26th yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, (4) the formation of the Society for Curriculum Study in 1930, and (5) curriculum experiments…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sigmund+AND+freud&pg=5&id=ED085712','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sigmund+AND+freud&pg=5&id=ED085712"><span>Dostoevsky: A Collection of Critical Essays. <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Views Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wellek, Rene, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Rene Wellek, Philip Rahv, Murray Krieger, Irving Howe, Eliseo Vivas, D. H. Lawrence, Sigmund Freud, Dmitri Chizhevsky, V. V. Zenkovsky, Georg Lukacs, and Derek Traversi--all dealing with the biography and literary work of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4517277','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4517277"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">century</span> surge of excess adult male mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Finch, Caleb E.; Crimmins, Eileen M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Using historical data from 1,763 birth cohorts from 1800 to 1935 in 13 developed countries, we show that what is now seen as normal—a large excess of female life expectancy in adulthood—is a demographic phenomenon that emerged among people born in the late 1800s. We show that excess adult male mortality is clearly rooted in specific age groups, 50–70, and that the sex asymmetry emerged in cohorts born after 1880 when male:female mortality ratios increased by as much as 50% from a baseline of about 1.1. Heart disease is the main condition associated with increased excess male mortality for those born after 1900. We further show that smoking-attributable deaths account for about 30% of excess male mortality at ages 50–70 for cohorts born in 1900–1935. However, after accounting for smoking, substantial excess male mortality at ages 50–70 remained, particularly from cardiovascular disease. The greater male vulnerability to cardiovascular conditions emerged with the reduction in infectious mortality and changes in health-related behaviors. PMID:26150507</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA432292','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA432292"><span>Races at War: Nationalism and Genocide in <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>originated concept. The British naturalist Francis Galton created the term “eugenics” in 1881. It was described by the American eugenics proponent Charles...been used in Poland already. A test gas chamber was constructed at Fort VII at Poznan, and in November and December 1939...carbon monoxide and an agent similar to Zyklon B were tested . Carbon monoxide was found to be more effective. Fort VII was not suitably located to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=visual+AND+poetry&pg=2&id=EJ776189','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=visual+AND+poetry&pg=2&id=EJ776189"><span>Deaf Cultural Production in <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Madrid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fraser, Benjamin R.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article chronicles the recent processes of identity formation among deaf people in Spain, both analyzing Spanish-language poetry published in the journal Faro del Silencio and outlining new directions for research of Deaf culture in Spain in terms of film, theater, visual poetry. It draws attention to the significant connections between the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spanish&pg=6&id=EJ1161778','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spanish&pg=6&id=EJ1161778"><span>Women, University and Science in <span class="hlt">Twentieth-Century</span> Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Canales, Antonio Fco.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>This article aims to question the widely accepted idea that female university students in Spain have, in the past, tended to opt for degrees in the field of humanities. Based on an analysis of the official statistics that are currently available, the paper demonstrates that Spanish female university students showed a clear preference for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Internet+marketing%22&pg=3&id=EJ561503','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Internet+marketing%22&pg=3&id=EJ561503"><span>Internet: The Marketing Challenge of the <span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Herbig, Paul; Hale, Brian</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Previously thought to be above commercial activity, the Internet is proving to be an outstanding marketing tool. This article examines linkage via World Wide Web, electronic mail, and news groups; argues that a home page is vital for the success of any business today; and tries to assess the impact of the Internet on the discipline of marketing.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED051020.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED051020.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Twentieth</span> <span class="hlt">Century</span> United States History. Grades 11 and 12.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zinkievich, Noel; Beard, David</p> <p></p> <p>This course outline for grades 11 and 12 presents a topical approach to history instruction with emphasis on the post-World War II era. A statement of general objectives is given and these 22 relevant topics are suggested for study: 1) Radicalism in America, 2) Antiwar Movements, 3) Civil Liberties, 4) Politics of Religion, 5) Black Nationalism,…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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