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Sample records for early type stars

  1. Hα Monitoring of Early-Type Emission Line Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Steven P.; Boettcher, E.; Wilson, S.; Hosek, M.

    2011-05-01

    We have begun a narrowband imaging program to monitor Hα emission in early-type stars in young open clusters and associations. A minority of early-type stars, particularly Be stars, show Hα in emission due to extended atmospheres and non-equilibrium conditions. Emission features commonly vary irregularly over a range of timescales (Porter, J.M. & Rivinus, T., P.A.S.P. 115:1153-1170, 2003). Some of the brightest such stars, e.g. γ Cas, have been spectroscopically monitored for Hα variability to help constrain models of the unstable disk, but there is relatively little ongoing monitoring in samples including fainter stars (Peters, G., Be Star Newsletter 39:3, 2009). Our program uses matched 5nm-wide on-band (656nm) and off-band (645nm) filters, in conjunction with the Hopkins Observatory 0.6-m telescope and CCD camera. Aperture photometry is done on all early-type stars in each frame, and results expressed as on-band to off-band ratios. Though wavelength-dependent information is lost compared with spectroscopy, imaging allows us to observe much fainter (and therefore many more) objects. Observing young clusters, rather than individual target stars, allows us to record multiple known and candidate emission line stars per frame, and provides multiple "normal" reference stars of similar spectral type. Observations began in the summer of 2010. This project has the potential to produce significant amounts of raw data, so a semi-automated data reduction process has been developed, including astrometric and photometric tasks. Early results, including some preliminary light curves and recovery of known Be stars at least as faint as R=13.9, are presented. We gratefully acknowledge support for student research through an REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium from the National Science Foundation, and from the Division III Research Funding Committee of Williams College.

  2. Fundamental properties of nearby single early B-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, María-Fernanda; Przybilla, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    Aims: Fundamental parameters of a sample of 26 apparently slowly-rotating single early B-type stars in OB associations and in the field within a distance of ≲400 pc from the Sun are presented and compared to high-precision data from detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). Together with surface abundances for light elements the data are used to discuss the evolutionary status of the stars in context of the most recent Geneva grid of models for core hydrogen-burning stars in the mass-range ~6 to 18 M⊙ at metallicity Z = 0.014. Methods: The fundamental parameters are derived on the basis of accurate and precise atmospheric parameters determined earlier by us from non-LTE analyses of high-quality spectra of the sample stars, utilising the new Geneva stellar evolution models. Results: Evolutionary masses plus radii and luminosities are determined to better than typically 5%, 10%, and 20% uncertainty, respectively, facilitating the mass-radius and mass-luminosity relationships to be recovered for single core hydrogen-burning objects with a similar precision as derived from DEBs. Good agreement between evolutionary and spectroscopic masses is found. Absolute visual and bolometric magnitudes are derived to typically ~0.15-0.20 mag uncertainty. Metallicities are constrained to better than 15-20% uncertainty and tight constraints on evolutionary ages of the stars are provided. Overall, the spectroscopic distances and ages of individual sample stars agree with independently derived values for the host OB associations. Signatures of mixing with CN-cycled material are found in 1/3 of the sample stars. Typically, these are consistent with the amount predicted by the new Geneva models with rotation. The presence of magnetic fields appears to augment the mixing efficiency. In addition, a few objects are possibly the product of binary evolution. In particular, the unusual characteristics of τ Sco point to a blue straggler nature, due to a binary merger. Conclusions: The accuracy

  3. New insight into the physics of atmospheres of early type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The phenomenon of mass loss and stellar winds from hot stars are discussed. The mass loss rate of early type stars increases by about a factor of 100 to 1000 during their evolution. This seems incompatible with the radiation driven wind models and may require another explanation for the mass loss from early type stars. The winds of early type stars are strongly variable and the stars may go through active phases. Eclipses in binary systems by the stellar winds can be used to probe the winds. A few future IUE studies are suggested.

  4. EVIDENCE FOR GRANULATION IN EARLY A-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kallinger, Thomas; Matthews, Jaymie M.

    2010-03-01

    Stars with spectral types earlier than about F0 on (or close) to the main sequence have long been believed to lack observable surface convection, although evolutionary models of A-type stars do predict very thin surface convective zones. We present evidence for granulation in two {delta} Scuti stars of spectral type A2: HD 174936 and HD 50844. Recent analyses of space-based CoRoT data revealed up to some 1000 frequencies in the photometry of these stars. The frequencies were interpreted as individual pulsation modes. If true, there must be large numbers of nonradial modes of very high degree l which should suffermore » cancellation effects in disk-integrated photometry (even of high space-based precision). The p-mode interpretation of all the frequencies in HD 174936 and HD 50844 depends on the assumption of white (frequency-independent) noise. Our independent analyses of the data provide an alternative explanation: most of the peaks in the Fourier spectra are the signature of non-white granulation background noise, and less than about 100 of the frequencies are actual stellar p-modes in each star. We find granulation timescales which are consistent with scaling relations that describe cooler stars with known surface convection. If the granulation interpretation is correct, the hundreds of low-amplitude Fourier peaks reported in recent studies are falsely interpreted as independent pulsation modes and a significantly lower number of frequencies are associated with pulsation, consistent with only modes of low degree.« less

  5. Early-Type Galaxy Star Formation Histories in Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Graves, G.

    2014-01-01

    We use very high-S/N stacked spectra of ˜29,000 nearby quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to investigate variations in their star formation histories (SFHs) with environment at fixed position along and perpendicular to the Fundamental Plane (FP). We separate galaxies in the three-dimensional FP space defined by galaxy effective radius Re, central stellar velocity dispersion σ, and surface brightness residual from the FP, ΔIe. We use the SDSS group catalogue of Yang et al. to further separate galaxies into three categories by their “identities” within their respective dark matter halos: central “Brightest Group Galaxies” (BGGs); Satellites; and Isolateds (those which are “most massive” in a dark matter halo with no Satellites). Within each category, we construct high-S/N mean stacked spectra to determine mean singleburst ages, [Fe/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on the stellar population synthesis models of R. Schiavon. This allows us to study variations in the stellar population properties (SPPs) with local group environment at fixed structure (i.e., fixed position in FP-space). We find that the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are almost entirely determined by their structural parameters σ and ΔIe. Any variation with local group environment at fixed structure is only slight: Satellites have the oldest stellar populations, 0.02 dex older than BGGs and 0.04 dex older than Isolateds; BGGs have the highest Fe-enrichments, 0.01 dex higher than Isolateds and 0.02 dex higher than Satellites; there are no differences in Mg-enhancement between BGGs, Isolateds, and Satellites. Our observation that, to zeroth-order, the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are fully captured by their structures places important qualitative constraints on the degree to which late-time evolutionary processes (those which occur after a galaxy’s initial formation and main star-forming lifetime) can alter their SFHs/structures.

  6. Observations of Nonthermal Radio Emission from Early-type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, D. C.; Bieging, J. H.; Churchwell, E.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of a wider survey of radio emission from O, B, and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, five new stars whose radio emission is dominated by a nonthermal mechanism of unknown origin were discovered. From statistics of distance-limited samples of stars, it is estimated that the minimum fraction of stars which are nonthermal emitters is 25% for the OB stars and 10% for the WR stars. The characteristics of this new class of nonthermal radio emitter are investigated.

  7. Structural analysis of star-forming blue early-type galaxies. Merger-driven star formation in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Koshy

    2017-02-01

    Context. Star-forming blue early-type galaxies at low redshift can give insight to the stellar mass growth of L⋆ elliptical galaxies in the local Universe. Aims: We wish to understand the reason for star formation in these otherwise passively evolving red and dead stellar systems. The fuel for star formation can be acquired through recent accretion events such as mergers or flyby. The signatures of such events should be evident from a structural analysis of the galaxy image. Methods: We carried out structural analysis on SDSS r-band imaging data of 55 star-forming blue elliptical galaxies, derived the structural parameters, analysed the residuals from best-fit to surface brightness distribution, and constructed the galaxy scaling relations. Results: We found that star-forming blue early-type galaxies are bulge-dominated systems with axial ratio >0.5 and surface brightness profiles fitted by Sérsic profiles with index (n) mostly >2. Twenty-three galaxies are found to have n< 2; these could be hosting a disc component. The residual images of the 32 galaxy surface brightness profile fits show structural features indicative of recent interactions. The star-forming blue elliptical galaxies follow the Kormendy relation and show the characteristics of normal elliptical galaxies as far as structural analysis is concerned. There is a general trend for high-luminosity galaxies to display interaction signatures and high star formation rates. Conclusions: The star-forming population of blue early-type galaxies at low redshifts could be normal ellipticals that might have undergone a recent gas-rich minor merger event. The star formation in these galaxies will shut down once the recently acquired fuel is consumed, following which the galaxy will evolve to a normal early-type galaxy.

  8. Copernicus observations of the N v resonance doublet in 53 early-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, D. C.; Bohlin, R. C.; Savage, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    UV spectra in the wavelength interval 1170-1270 A are presented for 53 early-type stars ranging in spectral type from O6.5 V to B2.5 IV. The sample includes four Wolf-Rayet stars, seven known Oe-Be stars, and six galactic halo OB stars. A qualitative analysis of the stellar N v doublet reveals that: (1) N v is present in all stars hotter and more luminous than type B0 for the main sequence, B1 for giants, and B2 for supergiants; (2) shell components of N v and an unidentified absorption feature at 1230 A are present in about half of the stars; (3) the column density of N v is well correlated with bolometric luminosity over the spectral range O6 to B2; and (4) the ratio of emission to absorption equivalent width is a factor of 2 smaller in the main sequence stars than in supergiants, which suggests that the wind structure changes as a star evolves. For several stars, this ratio is too small to be explained by traditional wind models.

  9. The magnetic early B-type stars I: magnetometry and rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, M. E.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Bohlender, D.; Monin, D.; Sikora, J.; MiMeS Collaboration; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    The rotational and magnetic properties of many magnetic hot stars are poorly characterized, therefore the Magnetism in Massive Stars and Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars collaborations have collected extensive high-dispersion spectropolarimetric data sets of these targets. We present longitudinal magnetic field measurements for 52 early B-type stars (B5-B0), with which we attempt to determine their rotational periods Prot. Supplemented with high-resolution spectroscopy, low-resolution Dominion Astrophysical Observatory circular spectropolarimetry, and archival Hipparcos photometry, we determined Prot for 10 stars, leaving only five stars for which Prot could not be determined. Rotational ephemerides for 14 stars were refined via comparison of new to historical magnetic measurements. The distribution of Prot is very similar to that observed for the cooler Ap/Bp stars. We also measured v sin i and vmac for all stars. Comparison to non-magnetic stars shows that v sin i is much lower for magnetic stars, an expected consequence of magnetic braking. We also find evidence that vmac is lower for magnetic stars. Least-squares deconvolution profiles extracted using single-element masks revealed widespread, systematic discrepancies in between different elements: this effect is apparent only for chemically peculiar stars, suggesting it is a consequence of chemical spots. Sinusoidal fits to H line measurements (which should be minimally affected by chemical spots), yielded evidence of surface magnetic fields more complex than simple dipoles in six stars for which this has not previously been reported; however, in all six cases, the second- and third-order amplitudes are small relative to the first-order (dipolar) amplitudes.

  10. UBV and H. beta. photometry of faint early-type stars in Crux and Centaurus

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzio, J.C.; Feinstein, A.; Orsatti, A.M.

    1976-08-01

    UBV and H..beta.. photoelectric observations of faint early-type stars in a small region in Crux near the open cluster Hogg 15 and another in Centaurus are presented. The data suggest large absorption in Crux and small absorption in Centaurus. The spread in the distance moduli of the observed stars seems to be in agreement with the view that a spiral arm is seen tangentially near l = 305/sup 0/.

  11. Colliding winds from early-type stars in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Ian R.; Blondin, John M.; Pollock, A. M. T.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the wind and shock structure formed by the wind collision in early-type binary systems is examined by means of a 2D hydrodynamics code, which self-consistently accounts for radiative cooling, and represents a significant improvement over previous attempts to model these systems. The X-ray luminosity and spectra of the shock-heated region, accounting for wind attenuation and the influence of different abundances on the resultant level and spectra of X-ray emission are calculated. A variety of dynamical instabilities that are found to dominate the intershock region is examined. These instabilities are found to be particularly important when postshock material is able to cool. These instabilities disrupt the postshock flow and add a time variability of order 10 percent to the X-ray luminosity. The X-ray spectrum of these systems is found to vary with the nuclear abundances of winds. These theoretical models are used to study several massive binary systems, in particular V444 Cyg and HD 193793.

  12. The chemical abundance analysis of normal early A- and late B-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Ryabchikova, T.; Bagnulo, S.; Alecian, E.; Grunhut, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G.

    2009-09-01

    Context: Modern spectroscopy of early-type stars often aims at studying complex physical phenomena such as stellar pulsation, the peculiarity of the composition of the photosphere, chemical stratification, the presence of a magnetic field, and its interplay with the stellar atmosphere and the circumstellar environment. Comparatively less attention is paid to identifying and studying the “normal” A- and B-type stars and testing how the basic atomic parameters and standard spectral analysis allow one to fit the observations. By contrast, this kind of study is paramount for eventually allowing one to correctly quantify the impact of the various physical processes that occur inside the atmospheres of A- and B-type stars. Aims: We wish to establish whether the chemical composition of the solar photosphere can be regarded as a reference for early A- and late B-type stars. Methods: We have obtained optical high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of three slowly rotating early-type stars (HD 145788, 21 Peg and π Cet) that show no obvious sign of chemical peculiarity, and performed a very accurate LTE abundance analysis of up to 38 ions of 26 elements (for 21 Peg), using a vast amount of spectral lines visible in the spectral region covered by our spectra. Results: We provide an exhaustive description of the abundance characteristics of the three analysed stars with a critical review of the line parameters used to derive the abundances. We compiled a table of atomic data for more than 1100 measured lines that may be used in the future as a reference. The abundances we obtained for He, C, Al, S, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Sr, Y, and Zr are compatible with the solar ones derived with recent 3D radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of the solar photosphere. The abundances of the remaining studied elements show some degree of discrepancy compared to the solar photosphere. Those of N, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, and Nd may well be ascribed to non-LTE effects; for P, Cl, Sc and

  13. Solar-Type Stars with the Suppression of Convection at an Early Stage of Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshina, A. V.; Baturin, V. A.; Ayukov, S. V.; Gorshkov, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of a solar-mass star before and on the main sequence is analyzed in light of the diminished efficiency of convection in the first 500 Myr. A numerical simulation has been performed with the CESAM2k code. It is shown that the suppression of convection in the early stages of evolution leads to a somewhat higher lithium content than that predicted by the classical solar model. In addition, the star's effective temperature decreases. Ignoring this phenomenon may lead to errors in age and mass determinations for young stars (before the main sequence) from standard evolutionary tracks in the temperature-luminosity diagram. At a later stage of evolution, after 500 Myr, the efficiency of convection tends to the solar value. At this stage, the star's inner structure becomes classical; it does not depend on the previous history. On the contrary, the photospheric lithium abundance contains information about the star's past. In other words, there may exist main-sequence solar-mass stars of the same age (above 500 Myr), radius, and luminosity, yet with different photospheric lithium contents. The main results of this work add considerably to the popular method for determining the age of solar-type stars from lithium abundances.

  14. Chromospherically active stars. IV - HD 178450 = V478 Lyr: An early-type BY Draconis type binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the variable star HD 178450 = V478 Lyr is a chromospherically active G8 V single-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 2.130514 days. This star is characterized by strong UV emission features and a filled-in H-alpha absorption line which is variable in strength. Classified as an early-type BY Draconis system, it is similar to the BY Dra star HD 175742 = V775 Her. The unseen secondary of HD 178450 has a mass of about 0.3 solar masses and is believed to be an M2-M3 dwarf.

  15. The VLT-FLAMES survey of massive stars: mass loss and rotation of early-type stars in the SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokiem, M. R.; de Koter, A.; Evans, C. J.; Puls, J.; Smartt, S. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Najarro, F.; Villamariz, M. R.; Yoon, S.-C.

    2006-09-01

    We have studied the optical spectra of a sample of 31 O-and early B-type stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, 21 of which are associated with the young massive cluster NGC 346. Stellar parameters are determined using an automated fitting method (Mokiem et al. 2005, A&A, 441, 711), which combines the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND (Puls et al. 2005, A&A, 435, 669) with the genetic algorithm based optimisation routine PIKAIA (Charbonneau 1995, ApJS, 101, 309). Comparison with predictions of stellar evolution that account for stellar rotation does not result in a unique age, though most stars are best represented by an age of 1-3 Myr. The automated method allows for a detailed determination of the projected rotational velocities. The present day v_r sin i distribution of the 21 dwarf stars in our sample is consistent with an underlying rotational velocity (v_r) distribution that can be characterised by a mean velocity of about 160 - 190 km s-1 and an effective half width of 100 - 150 km s-1. The vr distribution must include a small percentage of slowly rotating stars. If predictions of the time evolution of the equatorial velocity for massive stars within the environment of the SMC are correct (Maeder & Meynet 2001, A&A, 373, 555), the young age of the cluster implies that this underlying distribution is representative for the initial rotational velocity distribution. The location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of the stars showing helium enrichment is in qualitative agreement with evolutionary tracks accounting for rotation, but not for those ignoring v_r. The mass loss rates of the SMC objects having luminosities of log L*/L⊙ ≳ 5.4 are in excellent agreement with predictions by Vink et al. (2001, A&A, 369, 574). However, for lower luminosity stars the winds are too weak to determine dot{M} accurately from the optical spectrum. Three targets were classifiedas Vz stars, two of which are located close to the theoretical zero-age main sequence. Three lower

  16. HD 66051: the first eclipsing binary hosting an early-type magnetic star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.; Johnston, C.; Alecian, E.; Wade, G. A.

    2018-05-01

    Early-type magnetic stars are rarely found in close binary systems. No such objects were known in eclipsing binaries prior to this study. Here we investigated the eclipsing, spectroscopic double-lined binary HD 66051, which exhibits out-of-eclipse photometric variations suggestive of surface brightness inhomogeneities typical of early-type magnetic stars. Using a new set of high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations, we discovered a weak magnetic field on the primary and found intrinsic, element-dependent variability in its spectral lines. The magnetic field structure of the primary is dominated by a nearly axisymmetric dipolar component with a polar field strength Bd ≈ 600 G and an inclination with respect to the rotation axis of βd = 13°. A weaker quadrupolar component is also likely to be present. We combined the radial velocity measurements derived from our spectra with archival optical photometry to determine fundamental masses (3.16 and 1.75 M⊙) and radii (2.78 and 1.39 R⊙) with a 1-3% precision. We also obtained a refined estimate of the effective temperatures (13000 and 9000 K) and studied chemical abundances for both components with the help of disentangled spectra. We demonstrate that the primary component of HD 66051 is a typical late-B magnetic chemically peculiar star with a non-uniform surface chemical abundance distribution. It is not an HgMn-type star as suggested by recent studies. The secondary is a metallic-line star showing neither a strong, global magnetic field nor intrinsic spectral variability. Fundamental parameters provided by our work for this interesting system open unique possibilities for probing interior structure, studying atomic diffusion, and constraining binary star evolution.

  17. The Lyman-Continuum Fluxes and Stellar Parameters of O and Early B-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacca, William D.; Garmany, Catherine D.; Shull, J. Michael

    1996-01-01

    Using the results of the most recent stellar atmosphere models applied to a sample of hot stars, we construct calibrations of effective temperature (T(sub eff)), and gravity (log(sub g)) with a spectral type and luminosity class for Galactic 0-type and early B-type stars. From the model results we also derive an empirical relation between the bolometric correction and T(sub eff) and log g. Using a sample of stars with known distances located in OB associations in the Galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud, we derive a new calibration of M(sub v) with spectral class. With these new calibrations and the stellar atmosphere models of Kurucz, we calculate the physical parameters and ionizing photon luminosities in the H(0) and He(0) continua for O and early B-type stars. We find substantial differences between our values of the Lyman- continuum luminosity and those reported in the literature. We also discuss the systematic discrepancy between O-type stellar masses derived from spectroscopic models and those derived from evolutionary tracks. Most likely, the cause of this 'mass discrepancy' lies primarily in the atmospheric models, which are plane parallel and hydrostatic and therefore do not account for an extended atmosphere and the velocity fields in a stellar wind. Finally, we present a new computation of the Lyman-continuum luminosity from 429 known O stars located within 2.5 kpc of the Sun. We find the total ionizing luminosity from this population ((Q(sub 0)(sup T(sub ot))) = 7.0 x 10(exp 51) photons/s) to be 47% larger than that determined using the Lyman continuum values tabulated by Panagia.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Magnetic early B-type stars. I. (Shultz+, 2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Bohlender, D.; Monin, D.; Sikora, J.; Mimes Collaboration; Binamics Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    Longitudinal magnetic field measurements of early B-type stars derived from 1) least-squares deconvolution profiles extracted from high-resolution spectropolarimetric data (ESPaDOnS, Narval, HARPSpol), using masks consisting of metallic lines, metallic + He lines, individual chemical elements, as well as single-line H measurements; and 2) from single-line low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations with dimaPol. (3 data files).

  19. Measurements of eight early-type stars angular diameters using VEGA/CHARA interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challouf, M.; Nardetto, N.; Mourard, D.; Aroui, H.; Delaa, O.

    2014-12-01

    The surface brightness color (SBC) relation is an important tool to derive the distance of extragalatic eclipsing binaries. We determined the uniform disc angular diameter of the eight following early-type stars using VEGA/CHARA interferometric observations: θ_{UD}[δ Cyg] = 0.766 ± 0.047 mas, θ_{UD}[γ Lyr] = 0.742& ± 0.010 mas, θ_{UD}[γ Ori] = 0.701 ± 0.005 mas, θ_{UD}[ζ Peg] = 0.539 ± 0.009 mas, θ_{UD}[λ Aql] = 0.529 ± 0.003 mas, θ_{UD}[ζ Per] = 0.531 ± 0.007 mas, θ_{UD}[ι Her] = 0.304 ± 0.010 mas and θ_{UD}[8 Cyg] = 0.229 ± 0.011 mas (by extending V-K range from -0.76 to 0.02) with typical precision of about 1.5%. By combining these data with previous angular diameter determinations available in the literature, Challouf et al. (2014) provide for the very first time a SBC relation for early-type stars (-1≤V-K≤0) with a precision of about 0.16 magnitude or 7% in term of angular diameter (when using this SBC relation to derive the angular diameter of early-type stars).

  20. Early type galaxies: Mapping out the two-dimensional space of galaxy star formation histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Genevieve J.

    Early type galaxies form a multi-parameter family, as evidenced by the two- dimensional (2-D) Fundamental Plane relationship. However, their star formation histories are often treated as a one-dimensional mass sequence. This dissertation presents a systematic study of the relationship between the multi- parameter structural properties of early type galaxies and their star formation histoires. We demonstrate that the stellar populations of early type galaxies span a 2-D space, which means that their star formation histories form a two- parameter family. This 2-D family is then mapped onto several familiar early type galaxy scaling relations, including the color-magnitude relation, the Fundamental Plane, and a cross-section through the Fundamental Plane. We find that the stellar population properties, and therefore the star formation histories of early type galaxies depend most strongly on galaxy velocity dispersion (s), rather than on luminosity ( L ), stellar mass ( M [low *] ), or dynamical mass ( M dyn ). Interestingly, stellar populations are independent of the radius ( R e ) of the galaxies. At fixed s, they show correlated residuals through the thickness of the Fundamental Plane (FP) in the surface-brightness ( I e ) dimension, such that low-surface-brightness galaxies are older, less metal-enriched, and more enhanced in Mg relative to Fe than their counterparts at the same s and R e on the FP midplane. Similarly, high- surface-brightness galaxies are younger, more metal-rich, and less Mg-enhanced than their counterparts on the FP midplane. These differences suggest that the duration of star formation varies through the thickness of the FP. If the dynamical mass-to-light ratios of early type galaxies ( M dyn /L ) were constant for all such galaxies, the FP would be equivalent to the plane predicted by the virial relation. However, the observed FP does not exactly match the virial plane. The FP is tilted from the virial plane, indicating that M dyn /L varies

  1. Two-dimensional models of fast rotating early-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Rotation has now become an unavoidable parameter of stellar models, but for most massive or intermediate-mass stars rotation is fast, at least of a significant fraction of the critical angular velocity. Current spherically symmetric models try to cope with this feature of the stars using various approximations, like for instance the so-called shellular rotation usually accompanied with a diffusion that is meant to represent the mixing induced by rotationally generated flows. Such approximations may be justified in the limit of slow rotation where anisotropies and associated flows are weak. However, when rotation is fast, say larger than 50% of the critical velocities the use of a spherically symmetric 1D-model is doubtful. This is not only because of the centrifugal flattening of the star, but also because of the flows that are induced by the baroclinic torque that naturally appears in the radiative envelope of an early-type (rotating) star. These flows face the cylindrical symmetry of the Coriolis force and the spheroidal symmetry of the effective gravity.In this talk I shall present the latest results of the ESTER project that has taken up the challenge of making two-dimensional (axisymmetric) models of stars rotating at any rotation rate. In particular, I will focus on main sequence massive and intermediate-mass stars. I'll show what should be expected in such stars as far as the differential rotation and the associated meridional circulation are concerned, notably the emergence of a Stewartson layer along the tangential cylinder of the core. I'll also indicate what may be inferred about the evolution of an intermediate-mass star at constant angular momentum and how Be stars may form. I shall finally give some comparisons between models and observations of the gravity darkening on some nearby fast rotators as it has been derived from interferometric observations. In passing, I'll also discuss how 2D models can help to recover the fundamental parameters of a star.

  2. An XMM Investigation of Non-Thermal Phenomena in the Winds of Early-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray emission from early-type stars is believed to arise from a stellar wind distribution of shocks. Hence, X-ray analyses of these stars must include the effects of stellar wind X-ray absorption, which, in general dominates the ISM absorption. Although the absorption cross sections for the wind and ISM are essentially identical above 1 keV, there is substantial differences below 1 keV. Typically, if one only uses ISM cross sections to obtain fits to X-ray spectra, the fits usually indicate a model deficiency at energies below 1 keV which is attributed to the large increase in ISM cross sections at these energies. This deficiency can be eliminated by using stellar wind absorption models with a fixed ISM component. Since all early-type stars have substantial X-ray emission below 1 keV, than inclusion of wind absorption has proven to be a critical component in fitting X-ray spectra at low energies, verifying that these X-rays are indeed arising from within the stellar wind.

  3. The peculiar, luminous early-type emission line stars of the Magellanic clouds: A preliminary taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.

    1982-01-01

    A sample of some 20 early type emission supergiants in the Magellanic clouds was observed with both the SWP and LWR low resolution mode of IUE. All stars have strong H-emission, some showing P-Cygni structure as well with HeI, HeII, FeII and other ions also showing strong emission. It is found that the stars fall into three distinct groups on the basis of the HeII/HeI and HeI/HI strengths: (1) HeII strong, HeI, HI; (2) HeII absent, HeI, HI strong; (3) HeI absent, HI, FeII, FeII, strong in addition to low excitation ions. The two most extreme emission line stars found in the Clouds S 134/LMC and S 18/SMC are discussed. Results for the 2200A feature in these supergiants, and evidence for shells around the most luminous stars in the clouds are also described.

  4. The star formation history of early-type galaxies as a function of mass and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, M. S.; Bressan, A.; Nikolic, B.; Alexander, P.; Annibali, F.; Rampazzo, R.

    2006-08-01

    Using the third data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we have rigorously defined a volume-limited sample of early-type galaxies in the redshift range 0.005 < z <= 0.1. We have defined the density of the local environment for each galaxy using a method which takes account of the redshift bias introduced by survey boundaries if traditional methods are used. At luminosities greater than our absolute r-band magnitude cut-off of -20.45, the mean density of environment shows no trend with redshift. We calculate the Lick indices for the entire sample and correct for aperture effects and velocity dispersion in a model-independent way. Although we find no dependence of redshift or luminosity on environment, we do find that the mean velocity dispersion, σ, of early-type galaxies in dense environments tends to be higher than in low-density environments. Taking account of this effect, we find that several indices show small but very significant trends with environment that are not the result of the correlation between indices and velocity dispersion. The statistical significance of the data is sufficiently high to reveal that models accounting only for α-enhancement struggle to produce a consistent picture of age and metallicity of the sample galaxies, whereas a model that also includes carbon enhancement fares much better. We find that early-type galaxies in the field are younger than those in environments typical of clusters but that neither metallicity, α-enhancement nor carbon enhancement are influenced by the environment. The youngest early-type galaxies in both field and cluster environments are those with the lowest σ. However, there is some evidence that the objects with the largest σ are slightly younger, especially in denser environments. Independent of environment both the metallicity and α-enhancement grow monotonically with σ. This suggests that the typical length of the star formation episodes which formed the stars of early-type galaxies

  5. New radio detections of early-type pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of VLA radio continuum observations of 13 early-type pre-main-sequence stars selected from the 1984 catalog of Finkenzeller and Mundt are presented. The stars HD 259431 and MWC 1080 were detected at 3.6 cm, while HD 200775 and TY CrA were detected at both 3.6 and 6 cm. The flux density of HD 200775 has a frequency dependence consistent with the behavior expected for free-free emission originating in a fully ionized wind. However, an observation in A configuration suggests that the source geometry may not be spherically symmetric. In contrast, the spectral index of TY CrA is negative with a flux behavior implying nonthermal emission. The physical mechanism responsible for the nonthermal emission has not yet been identified, although gyrosynchrotron and synchrotron processes cannot be ruled out.

  6. Spectral analysis of early-type stars using a genetic algorithm based fitting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokiem, M. R.; de Koter, A.; Puls, J.; Herrero, A.; Najarro, F.; Villamariz, M. R.

    2005-10-01

    We present the first automated fitting method for the quantitative spectroscopy of O- and early B-type stars with stellar winds. The method combines the non-LTE stellar atmosphere code fastwind from Puls et al. (2005, A&A, 435, 669) with the genetic algorithm based optimization routine pikaia from Charbonneau (1995, ApJS, 101, 309), allowing for a homogeneous analysis of upcoming large samples of early-type stars (e.g. Evans et al. 2005, A&A, 437, 467). In this first implementation we use continuum normalized optical hydrogen and helium lines to determine photospheric and wind parameters. We have assigned weights to these lines accounting for line blends with species not taken into account, lacking physics, and/or possible or potential problems in the model atmosphere code. We find the method to be robust, fast, and accurate. Using our method we analysed seven O-type stars in the young cluster Cyg OB2 and five other Galactic stars with high rotational velocities and/or low mass loss rates (including 10 Lac, ζ Oph, and τ Sco) that have been studied in detail with a previous version of fastwind. The fits are found to have a quality that is comparable or even better than produced by the classical “by eye” method. We define errorbars on the model parameters based on the maximum variations of these parameters in the models that cluster around the global optimum. Using this concept, for the investigated dataset we are able to recover mass-loss rates down to ~6 × 10-8~M⊙ yr-1 to within an error of a factor of two, ignoring possible systematic errors due to uncertainties in the continuum normalization. Comparison of our derived spectroscopic masses with those derived from stellar evolutionary models are in very good agreement, i.e. based on the limited sample that we have studied we do not find indications for a mass discrepancy. For three stars we find significantly higher surface gravities than previously reported. We identify this to be due to differences in

  7. Star formation in early-type galaxies: the role of stellar winds and kinematics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Silvia; Negri, Andrea; Ciotti, Luca

    2015-08-01

    Early-Type galaxies (ETGs) host a hot ISM produced mainly by stellar winds, and heated by Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) and the thermalization of stellar motions. Recent high resolution 2D hydrodynamical simulations (Negri et al. 2014) showed that ordered rotation in the stellar component alters significantly the evolution of the hot ISM, and results in the formation of a centrifugally supported cold equatorial disc. This agrees well with the recent evidence that approximately 50% of massive ETGs host significant quantities of cold gas (Morganti et al. 2006; Young et al. 2014), often in settled configurations, sharing the same kinematics of the stars. In particular, in a systematic investigation of the ATLAS3D sample, the most massive fast-rotating ETGs always have kinematically aligned gas, which suggests an internal origin for it, and molecular gas is detected only in fast rotators (Davis et al. 2011). The observed cold gas seems also to provide material for low level star formation (SF) activity (Combes et al. 2007, Davis et al. 2014). Interestingly, in the ATLAS3D sample, SF and young stellar populations are detected only in fast rotators (Sarzi et al. 2013). In a recent work we investigated whether and how SF takes place in the cold gas disc typically produced in rotating ETGs by our previous 2D simulations, by adding to them the possibility for the gas to form stars (Negri et al. 2015). We also inserted the injection of mass, momentum and energy appropriate for the newly (and continuously) forming stellar population. We found that subsequent generations of stars are formed, and that most of the extended and massive cold disc is consumed by this process, leaving at the present epoch cold gas masses that compare well with those observed. The mass in secondary generations of stars resides mostly in a disc, and could be related to a younger, more metal rich disky stellar component indeed observed in fast rotator ETGs (Cappellari et al. 2013). Most of the mass in

  8. A Grid of NLTE Line-blanketed Model Atmospheres of Early B-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, Thierry; Hubeny, Ivan

    2007-03-01

    We have constructed a comprehensive grid of 1540 metal line-blanketed, NLTE, plane-parallel, hydrostatic model atmospheres for the basic parameters appropriate to early B-type stars. The BSTAR2006 grid considers 16 values of effective temperatures, 15,000 K<=Teff<=30,000 K with 1000 K steps, 13 surface gravities, 1.75<=logg<=4.75 with 0.25 dex steps, six chemical compositions, and a microturbulent velocity of 2 km s-1. The lower limit of logg for a given effective temperature is set by an approximate location of the Eddington limit. The selected chemical compositions range from twice to one-tenth of the solar metallicity and metal-free. Additional model atmospheres for B supergiants (logg<=3.0) have been calculated with a higher microturbulent velocity (10 km s-1) and a surface composition that is enriched in helium and nitrogen and depleted in carbon. This new grid complements our earlier OSTAR2002 grid of O-type stars (our Paper I). The paper contains a description of the BSTAR2006 grid and some illustrative examples and comparisons. NLTE ionization fractions, bolometric corrections, radiative accelerations, and effective gravities are obtained over the parameter range covered by the grid. By extrapolating radiative accelerations, we have determined an improved estimate of the Eddington limit in absence of rotation between 55,000 and 15,000 K. The complete BSTAR2006 grid is available at the TLUSTY Web site.

  9. A Rare Early-type Star Revealed in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. J.; Hainich, R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Hamann, W.-R.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Todt, H.

    2012-07-01

    Sk 183 is the visually brightest star in the N90 nebula, a young star-forming region in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We present new optical spectroscopy from the Very Large Telescope which reveals Sk 183 to be one of the most massive O-type stars in the SMC. Classified as an O3-type dwarf on the basis of its nitrogen spectrum, the star also displays broadened He I absorption, which suggests a later type. We propose that Sk 183 has a composite spectrum and that it is similar to another star in the SMC, MPG 324. This brings the number of rare O2- and O3-type stars known in the whole of the SMC to a mere four. We estimate physical parameters for Sk 183 from analysis of its spectrum. For a single-star model, we estimate an effective temperature of 46 ± 2 kK, a low mass-loss rate of ~10-7 M ⊙ yr-1, and a spectroscopic mass of 46+9 -8 M ⊙ (for an adopted distance modulus of 18.7 mag to the young population in the SMC Wing). An illustrative binary model requires a slightly hotter temperature (~47.5 kK) for the primary component. In either scenario, Sk 183 is the earliest-type star known in N90 and will therefore be the dominant source of hydrogen-ionizing photons. This suggests Sk 183 is the primary influence on the star formation along the inner edge of the nebula.

  10. GHRS observations and theoretical modeling of early type stars in R136a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Koter, A.; Heap, S.; Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T.; Hutchings, J.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Maran, S.; Schmutz, W.

    1994-05-01

    We present the first spectroscopic observations of individual stars in R136a, the most dense part of the starburst cluster 30 Doradus in the LMC. Spectra of two stars are scheduled to be obtained with the GHRS on board the HST: R136a5, the brightest of the complex and R136a2, a Wolf-Rayet star of type WN. The 30 Doradus cluster is the only starburst region in which individual stars can be studied. Therefore, quantitative knowledge of the basic stellar parameters will yield valuable insight into the formation of massive stars in starbursts and into their subsequent evolution. Detailed modeling of the structure of the atmosphere and wind of these stars will also lead to a better understanding of the mechanism(s) that govern their dynamics. We present the first results of our detailed quantitative spectral analysis using state-of-the-art non-LTE model atmospheres for stars with extended and expanding atmospheres. The models are computed using the Improved-Sobolev Approximation wind code (ISA-WIND) of de Koter, Schmutz & Lamers (1993, A&A 277, 561), which has been extended to include C, N and Si. Our model computations are not based on the core-halo approximation, but use a unified treatment of the photosphere and wind. This approach is essential for Wolf-Rayet stars. Our synthetic spectra, dominated by the P Cygni profiles of the UV resonance lines, also account for the numerous weak metal lines of photospheric origin.

  11. Spiral-like star-forming patterns in CALIFA early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.; Vílchez, J. M.; Kehrig, C.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Breda, I.; Lehnert, M. D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Ziegler, B.; Dos Reis, S. N.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Bomans, D. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Walcher, C. J.; García-Benito, R.; Márquez, I.; Del Olmo, A.; Mollá, M.; Marino, R. A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Based on a combined analysis of SDSS imaging and CALIFA integral field spectroscopy data, we report on the detection of faint (24 <μr mag/□″< 26) star-forming spiral-arm-like features in the periphery of three nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). These features are of considerable interest because they document the still ongoing inside-out growth of some local ETGs and may add valuable observational insight into the origin and evolution of spiral structure in triaxial stellar systems. A characteristic property of the nebular component in the studied ETGs, classified I+, is a two-radial-zone structure, with the inner zone that displays faint (EW(Hα) ≃ 1 Å) low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) properties, and the outer one (3 Å type I+ ETGs with single-fiber spectroscopic data. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  12. Evidence for Different Disk Mass Distributions between Early- and Late-type Be Stars in the BeSOS Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Arcos, C.; Kanaan, S.; Curé, M.

    The circumstellar disk density distributions for a sample of 63 Be southern stars from the BeSOS survey were found by modeling their H α emission line profiles. These disk densities were used to compute disk masses and disk angular momenta for the sample. Average values for the disk mass are 3.4 × 10{sup −9} and 9.5 × 10{sup −10} M {sub ⋆} for early (B0–B3) and late (B4–B9) spectral types, respectively. We also find that the range of disk angular momentum relative to the star is (150–200) J {sub ⋆}/ M {sub ⋆} and (100–150) J {sub ⋆}/ M {submore » ⋆}, again for early- and late-type Be stars, respectively. The distributions of the disk mass and disk angular momentum are different between early- and late-type Be stars at a 1% level of significance. Finally, we construct the disk mass distribution for the BeSOS sample as a function of spectral type and compare it to the predictions of stellar evolutionary models with rapid rotation. The observed disk masses are typically larger than the theoretical predictions, although the observed spread in disk masses is typically large.« less

  13. The ATLAS3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-04-01

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive SSP-equivalent values of stellar age, metallicity, and alpha enhancement; and one based on spectral fitting to derive non-parametric star formation histories, mass-weighted average values of age, metallicity, and half-mass formation time-scales. Using homogeneously derived effective radii and dynamically determined galaxy masses, we present the distribution of stellar population parameters on the Mass Plane (MJAM, σe, R^maj_e), showing that at fixed mass, compact early-type galaxies are on average older, more metal-rich, and more alpha-enhanced than their larger counterparts. From non-parametric star formation histories, we find that the duration of star formation is systematically more extended in lower mass objects. Assuming that our sample represents most of the stellar content of today's local Universe, approximately 50 per cent of all stars formed within the first 2 Gyr following the big bang. Most of these stars reside today in the most massive galaxies (>1010.5 M⊙), which themselves formed 90 per cent of their stars by z ˜ 2. The lower mass objects, in contrast, have formed barely half their stars in this time interval. Stellar population properties are independent of environment over two orders of magnitude in local density, varying only with galaxy mass. In the highest density regions of our volume (dominated by the Virgo cluster), galaxies are older, alpha-enhanced, and have shorter star formation histories with respect to lower density regions.

  14. Long-orbital-period Prepolars Containing Early K-type Donor Stars. Bottleneck Accretion Mechanism in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovmassian, G.; González–Buitrago, D.; Zharikov, S.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Ivarsen, K. M.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    We studied two objects identified as cataclysmic variables (CVs) with periods exceeding the natural boundary for Roche-lobe-filling zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) secondary stars. We present observational results for V1082 Sgr with a 20.82 hr orbital period, an object that shows a low luminosity state when its flux is totally dominated by a chromospherically active K star with no signs of ongoing accretion. Frequent accretion shutoffs, together with characteristics of emission lines in a high state, indicate that this binary system is probably detached, and the accretion of matter on the magnetic white dwarf takes place through stellar wind from the active donor star via coupled magnetic fields. Its observational characteristics are surprisingly similar to V479 And, a 14.5 hr binary system. They both have early K-type stars as donor stars. We argue that, similar to the shorter-period prepolars containing M dwarfs, these are detached binaries with strong magnetic components. Their magnetic fields are coupled, allowing enhanced stellar wind from the K star to be captured and channeled through the bottleneck connecting the two stars onto the white dwarf’s magnetic pole, mimicking a magnetic CV. Hence, they become interactive binaries before they reach contact. This will help to explain an unexpected lack of systems possessing white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields among detached white+red dwarf systems.

  15. A survey of interstellar neutral potassium. I - Abundances and physical conditions in clouds toward 188 early-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffee, F. H., Jr.; White, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of interstellar absorption in the resonance doublet 7664, 7698 A of neutral potassium toward 188 early-type stars at a spectral resolution of 8 km/s are reported. The 7664 A line is successfully separated from nearly coincident telluric O2 absorption for all but a few of the 165 stars for which K I absorption is detected, making possible an abundance analysis by the doublet ratio method. The relationships between the potassium abundances and other atomic abundances, the abundance of molecular hydrogen, and interstellar reddening are investigated.

  16. RR Lyrae type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samus, N. N.

    Basic observational data on RR Lyrae type stars are reviewed. It is noted that these stars are used widely to investigate the structure and kinematics of the spherical and intermediate components of the Galaxy, with correct data on the absolute magnitude of these variables being decisive. Attention is given to the relationship between the orbit eccentricity and inclination of osculating RR Lyrae type stars in the Galaxy and their metallicity index.

  17. UIT Observations of Early-Type Galaxies and Analysis of the FUSE Spectrum of a Subdwarf B Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work covers Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) observations of early-type galaxies (155 nm) and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of a Galactic subdwarf B star (sdB). Early UV space astronomy missions revealed that early-type galaxies harbor a population of stars with effective temperatures greater than that of the main sequence turn-off (about 6,000 K) and UV emission that is very sensitive to characteristics of the stellar population. We present UV (155 nm) surface photometry and UV-B color profiles for 8 E and SO galaxies observed by UIT. Some objects have de Vaucouleurs surface brightness profiles, while others have disk-like profiles, but we find no other evidence for the presence of a disk or young, massive stars. There is a wide range of UV-B color gradients, but there is no correlation with metallicity gradients. SdB stars are the leading candidate UV emitters in old, high metallicity stellar populations (e.g., early-type galaxies). We observed the Galactic sdB star PG0749+658 with FUSE and derived abundances with the aim of constraining models of the heavy element distribution in sdB atmospheres. All of the elements measured are depleted with respect to solar, except for Cr and Mn, which are about solar, and Ni, which is enhanced. This work was supported in part by NASA grants NAG5-700 and NAG5-6403 to the University of Virginia and NAS5-32985 to Johns Hopkins University.

  18. Probing Minor-merger-driven Star Formation In Early-type Galaxies Using Spatially-resolved Spectro-photometric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, Sugata; Crockett, M.; Silk, J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Whitmore, B.; Windhorst, R.; Cappellari, M.; Bureau, M.; Davies, R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies that leverage the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectrum have revealed widespread recent star formation in early-type galaxies (ETGs), traditionally considered to be old, passively-evolving systems. This recent star formation builds 20% of the ETG stellar mass after z 1, driven by repeated minor mergers between ETGs and small, gas-rich satellites. We demonstrate how spatially-resolved studies, using a combination of high-resolution UV-optical imaging and integral-field spectroscopy (IFS), is a powerful tool to quantify the assembly history of individual ETGs and elucidate the poorly-understood minor-merger process. Using a combination of WFC3 UV-optical (2500-8200 angstroms) imaging and IFS from the SAURON project of the ETG NGC 4150, we show that this galaxy experienced a merger with mass ratio 1:15 around 0.9 Gyr ago, which formed 3% of its stellar mass and a young kinematically-decoupled core. A UV-optical analysis of its globular cluster system shows that the bulk of the stars locked up in these clusters likely formed 6-7 Gyrs in the past. We introduce a new HST-WFC3 programme, approved in Cycle 19, which will leverage similar UV-optical imaging of a representative sample of nearby ETGs from SAURON to study the recent star formation and its drivers in unprecedented detail and put definitive constraints on minor-merger-driven star formation in massive galaxies at late epochs.

  19. Is the Ratio of Observed X-ray Luminosity to Bolometric Luminosity in Early-type Stars Really a Constant?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    The observed X-ray emission from early-type stars can be explained by the recombination stellar wind model (or base coronal model). The model predicts that the true X-ray luminosity from the base coronal zone can be 10 to 1000 times greater than the observed X-ray luminosity. From the models, scaling laws were found for the true and observed X-ray luminosities. These scaling laws predict that the ratio of the observed X-ray luminosity to the bolometric luminosity is functionally dependent on several stellar parameters. When applied to several other O and B stars, it is found that the values of the predicted ratio agree very well with the observed values.

  20. Two-dimensional models of early-type fast rotating stars: the ESTER project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, Michel

    In this talk I present the latest results of the ESTER project that has taken up the challenge of building two dimensional (axisymmetric) models of stars rotating at any rotation rate. In particular, I focus on main sequence massive and intermediate mass stars. I show what should be expected in such stars as far as the differential rotation and the associated meridional circulation are concerned, notably the emergence of a Stewartson layer along the tangent cylinder of the core. I also indicate what may be inferred about the evolution of an intermediate-mass star at constant angular momentum and how Be stars may form. I finally give some comparisons between models and observations of the gravity darkening on some nearby fast rotators as it has been derived from interferometric observations. In passing, I also discuss how 2D models can help to recover the fundamental parameters of a star.

  1. uvbyβ photometry of early type open cluster and field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, G.

    2011-04-01

    Context. The β Cephei stars and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars are massive main sequence variables. The strength of their pulsational driving strongly depends on the opacity of iron-group elements. As many of those stars naturally occur in young open clusters, whose metallicities can be determined in several fundamental ways, it is logical to study the incidence of pulsation in several young open clusters. Aims: To provide the foundation for such an investigation, Strömgren-Crawford uvbyβ photometry of open cluster target stars was carried out to determine effective temperatures, luminosities, and therefore cluster memberships. Methods: In the course of three observing runs, uvbyβ photometry for 168 target stars was acquired and transformed into the standard system by measurements of 117 standard stars. The list of target stars also included some known cluster and field β Cephei stars, as well as β Cephei and SPB candidates that are targets of the asteroseismic part of the Kepler satellite mission. Results: The uvbyβ photometric results are presented. The data are shown to be on the standard system, and the properties of the target stars are discussed: 140 of these are indeed OB stars, a total of 101 targets lie within the β Cephei and/or SPB star instability strips, and each investigated cluster contains such potential pulsators. Conclusions: These measurements will be taken advantage of in a number of subsequent publications. Based on measurements obtained at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.Tables 3-6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/528/A148

  2. Empirical effective temperatures and bolometric corrections for early-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Code, A. D.; Bless, R. C.; Davis, J.; Brown, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    An empirical effective temperature for a star can be found by measuring its apparent angular diameter and absolute flux distribution. The angular diameters of 32 bright stars in the spectral range O5f to F8 have recently been measured with the stellar interferometer at Narrabri Observatory, and their absolute flux distributions have been found by combining observations of ultraviolet flux from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2) with ground-based photometry. In this paper, these data have been combined to derive empirical effective temperatures and bolometric corrections for these 32 stars.

  3. Nearby Early-type Galactic Nuclei at High Resolution: Dynamical Black Hole and Nuclear Star Cluster Mass Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dieu D.; Seth, Anil C.; Neumayer, Nadine; Kamann, Sebastian; Voggel, Karina T.; Cappellari, Michele; Picotti, Arianna; Nguyen, Phuong M.; Böker, Torsten; Debattista, Victor; Caldwell, Nelson; McDermid, Richard; Bastian, Nathan; Ahn, Christopher C.; Pechetti, Renuka

    2018-05-01

    We present a detailed study of the nuclear star clusters (NSCs) and massive black holes (BHs) of four of the nearest low-mass early-type galaxies: M32, NGC 205, NGC 5102, and NGC 5206. We measure the dynamical masses of both the BHs and NSCs in these galaxies using Gemini/NIFS or VLT/SINFONI stellar kinematics, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, and Jeans anisotropic models. We detect massive BHs in M32, NGC 5102, and NGC 5206, while in NGC 205, we find only an upper limit. These BH mass estimates are consistent with previous measurements in M32 and NGC 205, while those in NGC 5102 and NGC 5206 are estimated for the first time and both found to be <106 M ⊙. This adds to just a handful of galaxies with dynamically measured sub-million M ⊙ central BHs. Combining these BH detections with our recent work on NGC 404's BH, we find that 80% (4/5) of nearby, low-mass ({10}9{--}{10}10 M ⊙ {σ }\\star ∼ 20{--}70 km s‑1) early-type galaxies host BHs. Such a high occupation fraction suggests that the BH seeds formed in the early epoch of cosmic assembly likely resulted in abundant seeds, favoring a low-mass seed mechanism of the remnants, most likely from the first generation of massive stars. We find dynamical masses of the NSCs ranging from 2 to 73 × 106 M ⊙ and compare these masses to scaling relations for NSCs based primarily on photometric mass estimates. Color gradients suggest that younger stellar populations lie at the centers of the NSCs in three of the four galaxies (NGC 205, NGC 5102, and NGC 5206), while the morphology of two are complex and best fit with multiple morphological components (NGC 5102 and NGC 5206). The NSC kinematics show they are rotating, especially in M32 and NGC 5102 (V/{σ }\\star ∼ 0.7).

  4. The IUE Mega Campaign: Wind Variability and Rotation in Early-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, D.; Fullerton, A. W.; Nichols, J. S.; Owocki, S. P.; Prinja, R. K.; St-Louis, N.; Willis, A. J.; Altner, B.; Bolton, C. T.; Cassinelli, J. P.; hide

    1995-01-01

    Wind variability in OB stars may be ubiquitous and a connection between projected stellar rotation velocity and wind activity is well established. However, the origin of this connection is unknown. To probe the nature of the rotation connection, several of the attendees at the workshop on Instability and Variability of Hot-Star Winds drafted an IUE observing proposal. The goal of this program was to follow three stars for several rotations to determine whether the rotation connection is correlative or causal. The stars selected for monitoring all have rotation periods less than or equal to 5 days. They were HD 50896 (WN5), HD 64760 (BO.5 Ib), and HD 66811 (zeta Pup; 04 If(n)). During 16 days of nearly continuous observations in 1995 January (dubbed the 'MEGA' campaign), 444 high-dispersion IUE spectra of these stars were obtained. This Letter presents an overview of the results of the MEGA campaign and provides an introduction to the three following Letters, which discuss the results for each star.

  5. An ALMA view of star formation efficiency suppression in early-type galaxies after gas-rich minor mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Voort, Freeke; Davis, Timothy A.; Matsushita, Satoki; Rowlands, Kate; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Allison, James R.; Ting, Yuan-Sen; Sansom, Anne E.; van der Werf, Paul P.

    2018-05-01

    Gas-rich minor mergers contribute significantly to the gas reservoir of early-type galaxies (ETGs) at low redshift, yet the star formation efficiency (SFE; the star formation rate divided by the molecular gas mass) appears to be strongly suppressed following some of these events, in contrast to the more well-known merger-driven starbursts. We present observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of six ETGs, which have each recently undergone a gas-rich minor merger, as evidenced by their disturbed stellar morphologies. These galaxies were selected because they exhibit extremely low SFEs. We use the resolving power of ALMA to study the morphology and kinematics of the molecular gas. The majority of our galaxies exhibit spatial and kinematical irregularities, such as detached gas clouds, warps, and other asymmetries. These asymmetries support the interpretation that the suppression of the SFE is caused by dynamical effects stabilizing the gas against gravitational collapse. Through kinematic modelling we derive high velocity dispersions and Toomre Q stability parameters for the gas, but caution that such measurements in edge-on galaxies suffer from degeneracies. We estimate merger ages to be about 100 Myr based on the observed disturbances in the gas distribution. Furthermore, we determine that these galaxies lie, on average, two orders of magnitude below the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation for star-forming galaxies as well as below the relation for relaxed ETGs. We discuss potential dynamical processes responsible for this strong suppression of star formation surface density at fixed molecular gas surface density.

  6. Studies of early-type variable stars. XIV. Spectroscopic orbit and absolute parameters of HU Tauri.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Hill, G.; Hilditch, R. W.

    1995-09-01

    We present a new spectroscopic orbit for the Algol-type eclipsing binary system HU Tau (HD 29365, P=2.0563 days α(2000.0) = 04 38 15.80, δ= +20 41 05.3, V=5.87-6.8, B8V + G2). We find : m_1_ sin^3^i=4.17+/-0.09Msun_, m_2_ sin^3^i=1.07+/-0.025Msun_, (a_p_+a_s_)sin i=11.8 +/-0.1Rsun_, m_1_/m_2_=3.90+/-0.07. The spectroscopic orbit includes corrections for non-Keplerian effects derived from the solutions of the BV light curves of Ito (1988). We have been able to derive much improved absolute parameters for this system as follows: M_1_=4.43+/-0.09Msun_, M_2_=1.14+/-0.03Msun_, R _1_=2.57+/-0.03Rsun_, R _2_=4.21+/-0.03Rsun_, log(L_1_/Lsun_)= 2.09+/-0.15, log(L_2_/Lsun_)= 0.92+/-0.05. Comparison of HU Tau with non-conservative case B evolution models of De Greve (1993) suggests that the system evolved from an initial mass ratio <~0.5. However, the orbital period of HU Tau is more than 3 days shorter than any of the model systems, and the observed secondary luminosity of order 10 times less than a model star of the same mass during the slow mass transfer phase.

  7. The abundances of the elements in sharp-lined early type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    1992-01-01

    An International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observing strategy that has yielded co-added spectra with enhanced S/N ratios for several A and B stars was established. New observations by Roby and Adelman using the same technique were added two new Hg-Mn stars into this sample. A long-term study of elemental abundances in this uniform, high-quality set of IUE spectra for 13 stars was begun. The first stages of this project are reported: abundances for N, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. The study of the Fe-peak elements show that our data set can provide accurate abundances and that abundances obtained from UV and optical spectra often are in good agreement. The groundwork for selfconsistent abundance analyses of more exotic elements in our long term project was provided.

  8. Interstellar C IV and Si IV column densities toward early-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhweiler, F. C.; Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    Equivalent widths and deduced column densities of Si IV and C IV are examined for 18 early-type close binaries, and physical processes responsible for the origin of these ions in the interstellar medium are investigated. The available C IV/Si IV column density ratios typically lie within a narrow range from 0.8 to 4.5, and there is evidence that the column density of C IV is higher than that of N V along most lines of sight, suggesting that C IV is not formed in the same hot region as O VI. In addition, the existence of regions with a narrowly defined new temperature range around 50,000 deg K is indicated. The detection of the semitorrid gas of Bruhweiler, Kondo, and McCluskey (1978, 1979) is substantiated, and the relation of this gas to the observations of coronal gas in the galactic halo is discussed.

  9. The helium 10830 A line in early-type stars - An atlas of Fabry-Perot scans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meisel, D. D.; Frank, Z. A.; Packard, M. L.; Saunders, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    Representative profiles of He I 10830 A in 65 early-type (O6-A1) stars over a wide range of luminosity are presented. The atlas scans were obtained using the Vaughan Fabry-Perot interferometer on the C. E. K. Mees 0.6 m and KPNO 0.9 m telescopes and usually cover a range of plus or minus 15 A at 1 A resolution with sampling distances between 0.5 A and 2 A depending on the photometer integration time required to reach reasonable Poisson counting statistics. The majority of the scans show very shallow, broad features which do not agree with plane-parallel NLTE model atmosphere calculations of the 10830 line by Auer and Mihalas (1972). Difficulties connected with previous theoretical studies of this line are briefly discussed, and suggestions for possible future modifications to the theory are made.

  10. A survey of mass-loss effects in early-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Intermediate-resolution data obtained with the Copernicus satellite are surveyed in order to define the region in the H-R diagram where mass loss occurs. The survey includes 40 stars, providing good coverage of supergiants from O4 to A2 and main-sequence stars from O4 to B7 as well as spotty coverage of late O giants and intermediate to late B stars. The spectral transitions examined are primarily resonance lines of ions of abundant elements plus some lines arising from excited states (e.g., C III at 1175.7 A and Si IV at 1122.5 A). Observed P Cygni profiles are discussed along with interesting features of some individual profiles. The data are shown to indicate that mass-loss effects occur over a wide portion of the H-R diagram, that mass ejection generally occurs when the holometric magnitude is greater than -6.0, and that the mass-ejection rate is usually high enough to produce P Cygni profile whenever the N V feature at 1240 A is present in a spectrum.

  11. R associations. VI - The reddening law in dust clouds and the nature of early-type emission stars in nebulosity from a study of five associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, W.; Warner, J. W.; Miller, D. P.; Herzog, A.

    1982-01-01

    Positions, identification charts, UBVRIKLMN photometry and spectral types are given for stars, illuminating reflection nebulae that are visible on the POSS prints, which have been identified in five associations. With a ratio of total to selective extinction of 4.2, the reddening law applicable to the dust clouds in which the stars are embedded is steeper than normal. The five associations exhibit 18 early-type stars with circumstellar shells, of which those with spectral types earlier than B5 characteristically have weak IR excesses, in contrast to the strong excesses indicative of circumstellar dust, of later-type stars. Color-magnitude charts show a distribution lying above the ZAMS by up to about 2 mag for both the circumstellar shell stars and those classified as rapid rotators. It is suggested that (1) rapid rotation accounts for the scatter in the color-magnitude diagram, and (2) many of the nebulous early-type emission-line stars are rapid rotators rather than pre-main sequence objects.

  12. Evolution of X-ray activity of 1-3 Msun late-type stars in early post-main-sequence phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzolato, N.; Maggio, A.; Sciortino, S.

    2000-09-01

    We have investigated the variation of coronal X-ray emission during early post-main-sequence phases for a sample of 120 late-type stars within 100 pc, and with estimated masses in the range 1-3 Msun, based on Hipparcos parallaxes and recent evolutionary models. These stars were observed with the ROSAT/PSPC, and the data processed with the Palermo-CfA pipeline, including detection and evaluation of X-ray fluxes (or upper limits) by means of a wavelet transform algorithm. We have studied the evolutionary history of X-ray luminosity and surface flux for stars in selected mass ranges, including stars with inactive A-type progenitors on the main sequence and lower mass solar-type stars. Our stellar sample suggests a trend of increasing X-ray emission level with age for stars with masses M > 1.5 Msun, and a decline for lower-mass stars. A similar behavior holds for the average coronal temperature, which follows a power-law correlation with the X-ray luminosity, independently of their mass and evolutionary state. We have also studied the relationship between X-ray luminosity and surface rotation rate for stars in the same mass ranges, and how this relationships departs from the Lx ~ vrot2 law followed by main-sequence stars. Our results are interpreted in terms of a magnetic dynamo whose efficiency depends on the stellar evolutionary state through the mass-dependent changes of the stellar internal structure, including the properties of envelope convection and the internal rotation profile.

  13. Interpretation of the BRITE oscillation spectra of the early B-type stars: ν Eri and α Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, P.; Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, J.; Pamyatnykh, A.; Handler, G.; Pigulski, A.

    2017-09-01

    ν Eridani is a well known multiperiodic β Cephei pulsator which exhibits also the SPB (Slowly Pulsating B-type stars) type modes. Recent frequency analysis of the BRITE photometry of α Lupi showed that the star is also a hybrid β Cep/SPB pulsator, in which both high and low frequencies were detected. We construct complex seismic models in order to account for the observed frequency range, the values of the frequencies themselves and the non-adiabatic parameter f for the dominant mode. Our studies suggest that significant modifications of the opacity profile at the temperature range log{T}\\in (5.0-5.5) are necessary to fulfill all these requirements.

  14. Non-LTE, line-blanketed model atmospheres for late O- and early B-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, James A.; Morrison, Nancy D.; Anderson, Lawrence S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres to analyze the spectra of hot stars is reported. The stars analyzed are members of clusters and associations, have spectral types in the range O9-B2 and luminosity classes in the range III-IV, have slow to moderate rotation, and are photometrically constant. Sampled line opacities of iron-group elements were incorporated in the radiative transfer solution; solar abundances were assumed. Good to excellent agreement is obtained between the computed profiles and essentially all the line profiles used to fix the model, and reliable stellar parameters are derived. The synthetic M II 5581 equivalent widths agree well with the observed ones at the low end of the temperature range studied, but, above 25,000 K, the synthetic line is generally stronger than the observed line. The behavior of the observed equivalent widths of N II, N III, C II and C III lines as a function of Teff is studied. Most of the lines show much scatter, with no consistent trend that could indicate abundance differences from star to star.

  15. Evolution of solitary density waves in stellar winds of early-type stars: A simple explanation of discrete absorption component behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Klein, Larry; Altner, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    We model the evolution of a density shell propagating through the stellar wind of an early-type star, in order to investigate the effects of such shells on UV P Cygni line profiles. Unlike previous treatments, we solve the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations, using an explicit time-differencing scheme, and present a parametric study of the density, velocity, and temperature response. Under the assumed conditions, relatively large spatial scale, large-amplitude density shells propagate as stable waves through the supersonic portion of the wind. Their dynamical behavior appears to mimic propagating 'solitary waves,' and they are found to accelerate at the same rate as the underlying steady state stellar wind (i.e., the shell rides the wind). These hydrodynamically stable structures quantitatively reproduce the anomalous 'discrete absorption component' (DAC) behavior observed in the winds of luminous early-type stars, as illustrated by comparisons of model predictions to an extensive International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) time series of spectra of zeta Puppis (O4f). From these comparisons, we find no conclusive evidence indicative of DACs accelerating at a significantly slower rate than the underlying stellar wind, contrary to earlier reports. In addition, these density shells are found to be consistent within the constraints set by the IR observations. We conclude that the concept of propagating density shells should be seriously reconsidered as a possible explanation of the DAC phenomenon in early-type stars.

  16. B- and A-Type Stars in the Taurus-Auriga Star-Forming Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), t Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  17. High S/N Echelle spectroscopy in young stellar groups. II. Rotational velocities of early-type stars in SCO OB2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. G. A.; Verschueren, W.

    1997-03-01

    We investigate the rotational velocities of early-type stars in the Sco OB2 association. We measure v.sin(i) for 156 established and probable members of the association. The measurements are performed with three different techniques, which are in increasing order of expected v.sin(i): 1) converting the widths of spectral lines directly to v.sin(i), 2) comparing artificially broadened spectra of low v.sin(i) stars to the target spectrum, 3) comparing the HeI λ4026 line profile to theoretical models. The sample is extended with literature data for 47 established members of Sco OB2. Analysis of the v.sin(i) distributions shows that there are no significant differences between the subgroups of Sco OB2. We find that members of the binary population of Sco OB2 on the whole rotate more slowly than the single stars. In addition, we find that the B7-B9 single star members rotate significantly faster than their B0-B6 counterparts. We test various hypotheses for the distribution of v.sin(i) in the association. The results show that we cannot clearly exclude any form of random distribution of the direction and/or magnitude of the intrinsic rotational velocity vector. We also investigate the effects of rotation on colours in the Walraven photometric system. We show that positions of B7-B9 single dwarfs above the main sequence are a consequence of rotation. This establishes the influence of rotation on the Walraven colours, due primarily to surface gravity effects.

  18. Empirical ionization fractions in the winds and the determination of mass-loss rates for early-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Gathier, R.; Snow, T. P.

    1980-01-01

    From a study of the UV lines in the spectra of 25 stars from 04 to B1, the empirical relations between the mean density in the wind and the ionization fractions of O VI, N V, Si IV, and the excited C III (2p 3P0) level were derived. Using these empirical relations, a simple relation was derived between the mass-loss rate and the column density of any of these four ions. This relation can be used for a simple determination of the mass-loss rate from O4 to B1 stars.

  19. Present-day cosmic abundances. A comprehensive study of nearby early B-type stars and implications for stellar and Galactic evolution and interstellar dust models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M.-F.; Przybilla, N.

    2012-03-01

    Context. Early B-type stars are ideal indicators for present-day cosmic abundances since they preserve their pristine abundances and typically do not migrate far beyond their birth environments over their short lifetimes, in contrast to older stars like the Sun. They are also unaffected by depletion onto dust grains, unlike the cold/warm interstellar medium (ISM) or H ii regions. Aims: A carefully selected sample of early B-type stars in OB associations and the field within the solar neighbourhood is studied comprehensively. Quantitative spectroscopy is used to characterise their atmospheric properties in a self-consistent way. Present-day abundances for the astrophysically most interesting chemical elements are derived in order to investigate whether a present-day cosmic abundance standard can be established. Methods: High-resolution and high-S/N FOCES, FEROS and ELODIE spectra of well-studied sharp-lined early B-type stars are analysed in non-LTE. Line-profile fits based on extensive model grids and an iterative analysis methodology are used to constrain stellar parameters and elemental abundances at high accuracy and precision. Atmospheric parameters are derived from the simultaneous establishment of independent indicators, from multiple ionization equilibria and the Stark-broadened hydrogen Balmer lines, and they are confirmed by reproduction of the stars' global spectral energy distributions. Results: Effective temperatures are constrained to 1-2% and surface gravities to less than 15% uncertainty, along with accurate rotational, micro- and macroturbulence velocities. Good agreement of the resulting spectroscopic parallaxes with those from the new reduction of the Hipparcos catalogue is obtained. Absolute values for abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe are determined to better than 25% uncertainty. The synthetic spectra match the observations reliably over almost the entire visual spectral range. Three sample stars, γ Ori, o Per and θ1 Ori D, are

  20. Inferring the star-formation histories of the most massive and passive early-type galaxies at z < 0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citro, Annalisa; Pozzetti, Lucia; Moresco, Michele; Cimatti, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Context. In the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological framework, massive galaxies are the end-points of the hierarchical evolution and are therefore key probes for understanding how the baryonic matter evolves within the dark matter halos. Aims: The aim of this work is to use the archaeological approach in order to infer the stellar population properties and star formation histories of the most massive (M > 1010.75 M⊙) and passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) at 0 < z < 0.3 (corresponding to a cosmic time interval of ~3.3 Gyr) based on stacked, high signal-to-noise (S/N), spectra extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our study is focused on the most passive ETGs in order to avoid the contamination of galaxies with residual star formation activity and extract the evolutionary information on the oldest envelope of the global galaxy population. Methods: Unlike most previous studies in this field, we did not rely on individual absorption features such as the Lick indices, but we used the information present in the full spectrum with the STARLIGHT public code, adopting different stellar population synthesis models. Successful tests have been performed to assess the reliability of STARLIGHT to retrieve the evolutionary properties of the ETG stellar populations such as the age, metallicity and star formation history. The results indicate that these properties can be derived with accuracy better than 10% at S/N ≳ 10-20, and also that the procedure of stacking galaxy spectra does not introduce significant biases into their retrieval. Results: Based on our spectral analysis, we found that the ETGs of our sample are very old systems - the most massive ones are almost as old as the Universe. The stellar metallicities are slightly supersolar, with a mean of Z ~ 0.027 ± 0.002 and Z ~ 0.029 ± 0.0015 (depending on the spectral synthesis models used for the fit) and do not depend on redshift. Dust extinction is very low, with a mean of AV ~ 0.08 ± 0.030 mag

  1. New CCD photometric investigation of the early-type overcontact binary BH Cen in the young star-forming Galactic cluster IC 2944

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Er-Gang; Qian, Sheng-Bang; Zejda, Miloslav; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jia

    2018-05-01

    BH Cen is a short-period early-type binary with a period of 0.792d in the extremely young star-forming cluster IC 2944. New multi-color CCD photometric light curves in U, B, V, R and I bands are presented and are analyzed by using the Wilson-Devinney code. It is detected that BH Cen is a high-mass-ratio overcontact binary with a fill-out factor of 46.4% and a mass ratio of 0.89. The derived orbital inclination i is 88.9 degrees, indicating that it is a totally eclipsing binary and the photometric parameters can be determined reliably. By adding new eclipse times, the orbital period changes in the binary are analyzed. It is confirmed that the period of BH Cen shows a long-term increase while it undergoes a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of A 3 = 0.024 d and a period of P 3 = 50.3 yr. The high mass ratio, overcontact configuration and long-term continuous increase in the orbital period all suggest that BH Cen is in the evolutionary state after the shortest-period stage of Case A mass transfer. The continuous increase in period can be explained by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of Ṁ 2 = 2.8 × 10‑6 M ⊙ per year. The cyclic change can be plausibly explained by the presence of a third body because both components in the BH Cen system are early-type stars. Its mass is determined to be no less than 2.2 M ⊙ at an orbital separation of about 32.5 AU. Since no third light was found during the photometric solution, it is possible that the third body may be a candidate for a compact object.

  2. Mass loss from solar-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, L.

    1985-01-01

    The present picture of mass loss from solar-type (low-mass) stars is described, with special emphasis on winds from pre-main-sequence stars. Attention is given to winds from T Tauri stars and to angular momentum loss. Prospects are good for further advances in our understanding of the powerful mass loss observed from young stars; ultraviolet spectra obtainable with the Space Telescope should provide better estimates of mass loss rates and a clearer picture of physical conditions in the envelopes of these stars. To understand the mass ejection from old, slowly rotating main-sequence stars, we will have to study the sun.

  3. Understand B-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    When observations of B stars made from space are added to observations made from the ground and the total body of observational information is confronted with theoretical expectations about B stars, it is clear that nonthermal phenomena occur in the atmospheres of B stars. The nature of these phenomena and what they imply about the physical state of a B star and how a B star evolves are examined using knowledge of the spectrum of a B star as a key to obtaining an understanding of what a B star is like. Three approaches to modeling stellar structure (atmospheres) are considered, the characteristic properties of a mantle, and B stars and evolution are discussed.

  4. The Development of STAR Early Literacy. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Renaissance Inst., Inc., Madison, WI.

    This report describes the development and testing of a computerized early literacy diagnostic assessment for students in prekindergarten to grade 3 that can measure skills across a variety of preliteracy and reading domains. The STAR Early Literacy assessment was developed by a team of more than 50 people, including literacy experts,…

  5. Early Results from NICER Observations of Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Ozel, Feryal; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Bult, Peter; Cackett, Ed; Chenevez, Jerome; Fabian, Andy; Guillot, Sebastien; Guver, Tolga; Homan, Jeroen; Keek, Laurens; Lamb, Frederick; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig B.; Miller, Jon M.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Wolff, Michael T.

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) offers significant new capabilities for the study of accreting neuton stars relative to previous X-ray missions including large effective area, low background, and greatly improved low-energy response. The NICER Burst and Accretion Working Group has designed a 2 Ms observation program to study a number of phenomena in accreting neutron stars including type-I X-ray bursts, superbursts, accretion-powered pulsations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and accretion disk reflection spectra. We present some early results from the first six months of the NICER mission.

  6. The evolution of surface magnetic fields in young solar-type stars II: the early main sequence (250-650 Myr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folsom, C. P.; Bouvier, J.; Petit, P.; Lèbre, A.; Amard, L.; Palacios, A.; Morin, J.; Donati, J.-F.; Vidotto, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    There is a large change in surface rotation rates of sun-like stars on the pre-main sequence and early main sequence. Since these stars have dynamo-driven magnetic fields, this implies a strong evolution of their magnetic properties over this time period. The spin-down of these stars is controlled by interactions between stellar and magnetic fields, thus magnetic evolution in turn plays an important role in rotational evolution. We present here the second part of a study investigating the evolution of large-scale surface magnetic fields in this critical time period. We observed stars in open clusters and stellar associations with known ages between 120 and 650 Myr, and used spectropolarimetry and Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize their large-scale magnetic field strength and geometry. We report 15 stars with magnetic detections here. These stars have masses from 0.8 to 0.95 M⊙, rotation periods from 0.326 to 10.6 d, and we find large-scale magnetic field strengths from 8.5 to 195 G with a wide range of geometries. We find a clear trend towards decreasing magnetic field strength with age, and a power law decrease in magnetic field strength with Rossby number. There is some tentative evidence for saturation of the large-scale magnetic field strength at Rossby numbers below 0.1, although the saturation point is not yet well defined. Comparing to younger classical T Tauri stars, we support the hypothesis that differences in internal structure produce large differences in observed magnetic fields, however for weak-lined T Tauri stars this is less clear.

  7. Metallicities and Nucleosynthesis Patterns in Early Generation Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, T.

    2004-05-01

    I review our present knowledge of the Metallicity Distribution Function of stars in the low-metallicity tail of the halo population of the Galaxy, and the variety of observed elemental signatures that might be associated with particular astrophysical origins in the early Universe. Such signatures include stars that exhibit (a) highly and mildly enhanced r-process element ratios, as compared to the solar ratios, (b) highly s-process enriched stars, (c) stars showing large enrichments of both the r- and and s-process elements, and (d) stars that are greatly enhanced in the light element species, such as CNO, and (in some cases) the alpha elements. Because the stars in which these characteristics are observed all have metallicity [Fe/H] ≤ -2.5, they are inferred to have formed no more than 0.5-1 Gyrs after the Big Bang, prior to the final assemblage of the Milky Way. As such, they provide our best available probes of the nature of early element producers, such as Type II SN and hypernovae, as well as binaries that included (now deceased) stars of intermediate (1.5 - 3 Mo) masses. I outline ongoing and future plans for dramatically accelerating the pace of discovery of these rare, but clearly important, objects. Partial support for this work has been received from NSF grants AST 00-98508 and AST 00-98549, and from JINA, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, an NSF Physics Frontier Center.

  8. Two spotted and magnetic early B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC 2264 discovered by MOST and ESPaDOnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Zwintz, K.; Castro, N.; Langer, N.; Lorenz, D.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Kuschnig, R.; Matthews, J. M.; Alecian, E.; Wade, G. A.; Barnes, T. G.; Thoul, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    Star clusters are known as superb tools for understanding stellar evolution. In a quest for understanding the physical origin of magnetism and chemical peculiarity in about 7% of the massive main-sequence stars, we analysed two of the ten brightest members of the ~10 Myr old Galactic open cluster NGC 2264, the early B-dwarfs HD 47887 and HD 47777. We find accurate rotation periods of 1.95 and 2.64 days, respectively, from MOST photometry. We obtained ESPaDOnS spectropolarimetric observations, through which we determined stellar parameters, detailed chemical surface abundances, projected rotational velocities, and the inclination angles of the rotation axis. Because we found only small (<5 km s-1) radial velocity variations, most likely caused by spots, we can rule out that HD 47887 and HD 47777 are close binaries. Finally, using the least-squares deconvolution technique, we found that both stars possess a large-scale magnetic field with an average longitudinal field strength of about 400 G. From a simultaneous fit of the stellar parameters we determine the evolutionary masses of HD 47887 and HD 47777 to be 9.4+0.6-0.7 M⊙ and 7.6+0.5-0.5 M⊙. Interestingly, HD 47777 shows a remarkable helium underabundance, typical of helium-weak chemically peculiar stars, while the abundances of HD 47887 are normal, which might imply that diffusion is operating in the lower mass star but not in the slightly more massive one. Furthermore, we argue that the rather slow rotation, as well as the lack of nitrogen enrichment in both stars, can be consistent with both the fossil and the binary hypothesis for the origin of the magnetic field. However, the presence of two magnetic and apparently single stars near the top of the cluster mass-function may speak in favour of the latter. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Microsatellite Systems Canada Inc. (MSCI), formerly part of Dynacon, Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for

  9. Centaurus X-3. [early x-ray binary star spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Cowley, A. P.; Crampton, D.; Van Paradus, J.; White, N. E.

    1979-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of Krzeminski's star at dispersions 25-60 A/mm are described. The primary is an evolved star of type O6-O8(f) with peculiarities, some of which are attributable to X-ray heating. Broad emission lines at 4640A (N III), 4686 A(He II) and H-alpha show self-absorption and do not originate entirely from the region near the X-ray star. The primary is not highly luminous (bolometric magnitude about -9) and does not show signs of an abnormally strong stellar wind. The X-ray source was 'on' at the time of optical observations. Orbital parameters are presented for the primary, which yield masses of 17 + or - 2 and 1.0 + or - 3 solar masses for the stars. The optical star is undermassive for its luminosity, as are other OB-star X-ray primaries. The rotation is probably synchronized with the orbital motion. The distance to Cen X-3 is estimated to be 10 + or - 1 kpc. Basic data for 12 early-type X-ray primaries are discussed briefly

  10. Nearby star cluster yields insights into early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    The nebula offers a unique opportunity for a close-up glimpse of the "firestorm" accompanying the birth of extremely massive stars, each blazing with the brilliance of 300,000 of our suns. Such galactic fireworks were much more common billions of years ago in the early universe, when most star formation took place. "This is giving us new insights into the physical mechanisms governing star formation in far away galaxies that existed long ago," says Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France), who headed the international team of astronomers who made the discovery using Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Because these stars are deficient in heavier elements, they also evolve much like the universe's earliest stars, which were made almost exclusively of the primordial elements hydrogen and helium that were created in the big bang. The Small Magellanic Cloud is a unique laboratory for studying star formation in the early universe since it is the closest and best seen galaxy containing so-called "metal-poor" first- and second -generation type stars. These observations show that massive stars may form in groups. "As a result, it is more likely some of these stars are members of double and multiple star systems," says Heydari-Malayeri. "The multiple systems will affect stellar evolution considerably by ejecting a great deal of matter into space." This furious rate of mass loss from these stars is evident in the Hubble picture, which reveals dramatic shapes sculpted in the nebula's wall of glowing gases by violent stellar winds and shock waves. "This implies a very turbulent environment typical of young star formation regions," Heydari-Malayeri adds. He believes one of the members of the cluster may be an extremely rare and short-lived class of super-hot star (50,000 degrees Kelvin) called a Wolf-Rayet. This star represents a violent, transitional phase in the final years of a massive star's existence - before it ultimately explodes as a supernova. "If

  11. The M-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hollis Ralph; Querci, Francois R.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor); Goldberg, Leo; Pecker, Jean-Claude

    1987-01-01

    The papers in this volume cover the following topics: (1) basic properties and photometric variability of M and related stars; (2) spectroscopy and nonthermal processes; (3) circumstellar radio molecular lines; (4) circumstellar shells, the formation of grains, and radiation transfer; (5) mass loss; (6) circumstellar chemistry; (7) thermal atmospheric models; (8) quasi-thermal models; (9) observations on the atmospheres of M dwarfs; and (1) theoretical work on M dwarfs.

  12. Multiplicity among Solar-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.; Kaderhandt, L.; Chen, Z.

    2017-02-01

    We present a multiplicity census for a volume-complete all-sky survey of 422 stars with distances less than 25 pc and primary main-sequence effective temperatures T eff ≥ 5300 K. Very similar to previous results that have been presented for various subsets of this survey, we confirm the positive correlation of the stellar multiplicities with primary mass. We find for the F- and G-type Population I stars that 58% are non-single and 21% are in triple or higher level systems. For the old intermediate-disk and Population II stars—virtually all of G type and less massive—even two out of three sources prove to be non-single. These numbers being lower limits because of the continuous flow of new discoveries, the unbiased survey clearly demonstrates that the standard case for solar-type field stars is a hydrogen-burning source with at least one ordinary or degenerate stellar companion, and a surprisingly large number of stars are organized in multiple systems. A principal consequence is that orbital evolution, including the formation of blue straggler stars, is a potentially important issue on all spatial scales and timescales for a significant percentage of the stellar systems, in particular among Population II stars. We discuss a number of recent observations of known or suspected companions in the local survey, including a new detection of a double-lined Ba-Bb subsystem to the visual binary HR 8635.

  13. Chandra Early Type Galaxy Atals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2017-08-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion, stripping and star formation and its quenching. We have systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. We produce the uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information and will make them accessible via a public web site. With 2D spectral infomation, we further discuss gas morphology, scaling relations, X-ray based mass profiles and their implications related to various physical mechanisms (e.g., stellar and AGN feedback).

  14. Fundamental Properties of O-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lanz, Thierry; Hubeny, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of high-resolution, far-ultraviolet HST STIS, FUSE, and optical spectra of 18 O stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Our analysis is based on the OSTAR2002 grid of NLTE metal-line-blanketed model atmospheres calculated with our code TLUSTY. We systematically explore and present the sensitivity of various UV and optical lines to different stellar parameters. We have obtained consistent fits of the UV and the optical spectrum to derive the effective temperature, surface gravity, surface composition, and microturbulent velocity of each star. Stellar radii, masses, and luminosities follow directly. For stars of the same spectral subtype, we find a general good agreement between effective temperature determinations obtained with TLUSTY, CMFGEN, and FASTWIND models, which are all lower than the standard T(sub eff) calibration of O stars. We propose a new calibration between the spectral type and effective temperature based on our results from UV metal lines, as well as optical hydrogen and helium lines. The lower effective temperatures translate into ionizing luminosities that are smaller by a factor of 3 compared to luminosities inferred from previous standard calibrations. The chemical composition analysis reveals that the surface of about 80% of the program stars is moderately to strongly enriched in nitrogen, while showing the original helium, carbon, and oxygen abundances. Our results support the new stellar evolution models that predict that the surface of fast rotating stars becomes nitrogen-rich during the main-sequence phase because of rotationally induced mixing. Enrichment factors are, however, larger than predicted by stellar evolution models. Most stars exhibit the "mass discrepancy" problem, which we interpret as a result of fast rotation that lowers the measured effective gravity. Nitrogen enrichment and low spectroscopic masses are therefore two manifestations of fast rotation. Our study thus emphasizes the importance

  15. Spectroscopy of late type giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaenhauer, A.; Thevenin, F.

    1984-06-01

    An attempt to calibrate broadband RGU colors of late type giant stars in terms of the physical parameters of the objects is reported. The parameters comprise the effective temperature, surface gravity and global metal abundance with respect to the sun. A selection of 21 giant star candidates in the Basel fields Plaut 1, Centaurus III and near HD 95540 were examined to obtain a two color plot. Attention is focused on the G-R color range 1.5-2.15 mag, i.e., spectral types K0-K5. A relationship between R and the metallicity is quantified and shown to have a correlation coefficient of 0.93. No correlation is found between metallicity and gravity or R and the effective temperature.

  16. Detection of atmospheric velocity fields in A-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, J. D.

    1998-10-01

    km s(-1) . No consistent fit to all lines can be found with a single model of the type used here. It is concluded (a) that classical LTE line synthesis is able to reproduce with considerable accuracy the line profiles of late B and early A stars with T_e above about 9500 K, but that the LTE model with depth-independent microturbulence provides a very poor approximation for cooler A stars, (b) that curve-of-growth microturbulent velocities in A stars are related to directly detectable atmospheric velocity fields, and (c) that the discrepancies between calculated and observed line profiles in stars with temperatures in the vicinity of 8000 K are so large that abundances derived mainly from saturated lines may well contain significant errors. As a by-product, laboratory gf values for Fe II between 3800 and 5300 Angstroms have been combined to form a set of data optimized for internal consistency of the gf values. Based on observations obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii, and with the 1.52-m telescope of the Observatoire de Haute Provence, operated by the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique of France.

  17. CONVECTION IN OBLATE SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junfeng; Liang, Chunlei; Miesch, Mark S.

    2016-10-10

    We present the first global 3D simulations of thermal convection in the oblate envelopes of rapidly rotating solar-type stars. This has been achieved by exploiting the capabilities of the new compressible high-order unstructured spectral difference (CHORUS) code. We consider rotation rates up to 85% of the critical (breakup) rotation rate, which yields an equatorial radius that is up to 17% larger than the polar radius. This substantial oblateness enhances the disparity between polar and equatorial modes of convection. We find that the convection redistributes the heat flux emitted from the outer surface, leading to an enhancement of the heat fluxmore » in the polar and equatorial regions. This finding implies that lower-mass stars with convective envelopes may not have darker equators as predicted by classical gravity darkening arguments. The vigorous high-latitude convection also establishes elongated axisymmetric circulation cells and zonal jets in the polar regions. Though the overall amplitude of the surface differential rotation, ΔΩ, is insensitive to the oblateness, the oblateness does limit the fractional kinetic energy contained in the differential rotation to no more than 61%. Furthermore, we argue that this level of differential rotation is not enough to have a significant impact on the oblateness of the star.« less

  18. On the relation between carbon star spectral types and colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Fay, T. D., Jr.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of 32 carbon stars are listed in a table, taking into account the spectral classes given by Yamashita (1966) and Richer (1971). The relations between spectral type and color for carbon stars appear consistent with the differences between Yamashita's and Richer's types if carbon star groups I-III lie on a decreasing boundary temperature sequence.

  19. Magnetic cycles and rotation periods of late-type stars from photometric time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez Mascareño, A.; Rebolo, R.; González Hernández, J. I.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We investigate the photometric modulation induced by magnetic activity cycles and study the relationship between rotation period and activity cycle(s) in late-type (FGKM) stars. Methods: We analysed light curves, spanning up to nine years, of 125 nearby stars provided by the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). The sample is mainly composed of low-activity, main-sequence late-A to mid-M-type stars. We performed a search for short (days) and long-term (years) periodic variations in the photometry. We modelled the light curves with combinations of sinusoids to measure the properties of these periodic signals. To provide a better statistical interpretation of our results, we complement our new results with results from previous similar works. Results: We have been able to measure long-term photometric cycles of 47 stars, out of which 39 have been derived with false alarm probabilities (FAP) of less than 0.1 per cent. Rotational modulation was also detected and rotational periods were measured in 36 stars. For 28 stars we have simultaneous measurements of activity cycles and rotational periods, 17 of which are M-type stars. We measured both photometric amplitudes and periods from sinusoidal fits. The measured cycle periods range from 2 to 14 yr with photometric amplitudes in the range of 5-20 mmag. We found that the distribution of cycle lengths for the different spectral types is similar, as the mean cycle is 9.5 yr for F-type stars, 6.7 yr for G-type stars, 8.5 yr for K-type stars, 6.0 yr for early M-type stars, and 7.1 yr for mid-M-type stars. On the other hand, the distribution of rotation periods is completely different, trending to longer periods for later type stars, from a mean rotation of 8.6 days for F-type stars to 85.4 days in mid-M-type stars. The amplitudes induced by magnetic cycles and rotation show a clear correlation. A trend of photometric amplitudes with rotation period is also outlined in the data. The amplitudes of the photometric variability

  20. A 30 kpc Chain of "Beads on a String" Star Formation between Two Merging Early Type Galaxies in the Core of a Strong-lensing Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Gladders, Michael D.; Baum, Stefi A.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Cooke, Kevin C.; Dahle, Håkon; Davis, Timothy A.; Florian, Michael; Rigby, Jane R.; Sharon, Keren; Soto, Emmaris; Wuyts, Eva

    2014-08-01

    New Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet and optical imaging of the strong-lensing galaxy cluster SDSS J1531+3414 (z = 0.335) reveals two centrally dominant elliptical galaxies participating in an ongoing major merger. The interaction is at least somewhat rich in cool gas, as the merger is associated with a complex network of 19 massive superclusters of young stars (or small tidal dwarf galaxies) separated by ~1 kpc in projection from one another, combining to an estimated total star formation rate of ~5 M ⊙ yr-1. The resolved young stellar superclusters are threaded by narrow Hα, [O II], and blue excess filaments arranged in a network spanning ~27 kpc across the two merging galaxies. This morphology is strongly reminiscent of the well-known "beads on a string" mode of star formation observed on kiloparsec scales in the arms of spiral galaxies, resonance rings, and in tidal tails between interacting galaxies. Nevertheless, the arrangement of this star formation relative to the nuclei of the two galaxies is difficult to interpret in a dynamical sense, as no known "beads on a string" systems associated with kiloparsec-scale tidal interactions exhibit such lopsided morphology relative to the merger participants. In this Letter, we present the images and follow-up spectroscopy and discuss possible physical interpretations for the unique arrangement of the young stellar clusters. While we suggest that this morphology is likely to be dynamically short-lived, a more quantitative understanding awaits necessary multiwavelength follow-up, including optical integral field spectroscopy, ALMA submillimeter interferometry, and Chandra X-ray imaging.

  1. Star cell type core configuration for structural sandwich materials

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A new pattern for cellular core material used in sandwich type structural materials. The new pattern involves star shaped cells intermixed with hexagonal shaped cells. The new patterned cellular core material includes star shaped cells interconnected at points thereof and having hexagonal shape cells positioned adjacent the star points. The new pattern allows more flexibility and can conform more easily to curved shapes.

  2. Review: Magnetic Fields of O-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Since 2002, strong, organized magnetic fields have been firmly detected at the surfaces of about 10 Galactic O-type stars. In this paper I will review the characteristics of the inferred fields of individual stars as well as the overall population. I will discuss the extension of the “magnetic desert,” first inferred among the A-type stars, to O stars up to 60 M⊙. I will discuss the interaction of the winds of the magnetic stars with the fields above their surfaces, generating complex “dynamical magnetosphere” structures detected in optical and UV lines, and in X-ray lines and continuum. Finally, I will discuss the detection of a small number of variable O stars in the LMC and SMC that exhibit spectral characteristics analogous to the known Galactic magnetic stars, and that almost certainly represent the first known examples of extragalactic magnetic stars.

  3. Dust disks around Vega-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, R.; Kruegel, E.; Kreysa, E.; Shustov, B.; Tutukov, A.

    1991-12-01

    This study presents 1300-micron observations of the circumstellar dust around Vega-type stars. A comparison of the new data (24-arcsec HPBW) for Alpha PsA, Tau-1 Eri and Epsilon Eri with previous measurements made at an angular resolution of 11-arcsec shows that the dust emission is extended. From measurements at different positions it is concluded that the circumstellar dust around Beta Pic does not exceed the size of the optical disk of 500 AU. A model for Beta Pic that fits optical as well as IR data is discussed. Finally, a scenario for the evolution of circumstellar grains is suggested where, on one side, the Poynting-Robertson effect removes the small particles and, on the other side, collisions lead to the formation of larger bodies. Time-dependent IR spectra in reasonable agreement with observations are presented.

  4. The Copernicus observations - Interstellar or circumstellar material. [UV spectra of early stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, G.; Strittmatter, P. A.; Williams, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that the sharp absorption lines observed in the ultraviolet spectra of early-type stars by the Copernicus satellite may be entirely accounted for by the circumstellar material in the H II regions and associated transition zones around the observed stars. If this interpretation is correct, the Copernicus results yield little information on the state of any interstellar (as opposed to circumstellar) gas and, in particular, shed little light on the degree of element depletion in interstellar space.

  5. Activity in X-ray-selected late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takalo, Leo O.; Nousek, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A spectroscopic study has been conducted of nine X-ray bright late-type stars selected from two Einstein X-ray surveys: the Columbia Astrophysical Laboratory Survey (five stars) and the CFA Medium Sensitivity Survey (MSS; four stars). Spectral classes were determined and radial and V sin(i) velocities were measured for the stars. Four of the Columbia Survey stars were found to be new RS CVn-type binaries. The fifth Columbia survey star was found to be an active G dwarf star without evidence for binarity. None of the four MSS stars were found to be either binaries or optically active stars. Activity in these stars was assessed by measuring the excess emission in H-alpha and the Ca II IRT (8498, 8542) lines in comparison with inactive stars of similar spectral types. A correlation was found between X-ray luminosity and V sin(i) and H-alpha line excess. The measured excess line emission in H-alpha was also correlated with V sin(i) but not with the IRT line excess.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral types of stars in Coalsack region (Vanas 1939)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanas, E.

    2010-11-01

    This table shows coordinates and identifications for 1930 stars in northern Cygnus ('Northern Coalsack' region) classified by Erik Vanas in an early spectral survey. In the source paper, the stars were identified by BD number (part I of the catalogue) and by approximate coordinates for fainter non-BD stars (part II of the catalogue). The spectral types were determined from scans of objective-prism plates (~260Å/mm). Accurate coordinates of the BD stars were derived mainly from the Tycho-2 catalogue. The non-BD stars had to be identified one-by-one from DSS images via SkyView, usually unambiguous, and coordinates found in VizieR. For the non-BD stars, the acronym [V39] was used. For pairs or crowded stars, 2MASS positions are sometimes used. Where the type applies to a near-equal double star, the coordinates are for the mid-point between the two stars (rounded to 1" precision), and the magnitude is for the combined light. The original Vanas photo-blue magnitudes are somewhat uncertain, probably including a color term. Instead standard V magnitudes from Tycho-2 or from the TASS MkIV survey (Cat. II/271) are supplied. The Vanas spectral types are formally on the 'Uppsala' system, which includes the strength of the CN band to distinguish dwarfs and giants among types later than G5. These are shown in modern MK notation. The scheme also includes a pseudo-luminosity class for hot stars based largely on the width of the Balmer lines. Since the He lines were not involved in the classification, the system loses resolution (or 'granularity') for types earlier than A0. There is also the danger at this dispersion of mistaking a late-B supergiant for an early-B dwarf. From consideration of his descriptions of the spectra, and also comparison with types from modern sources for the same stars, these 'Greek-lettered' types were transformed in modern notation as: * types 'A0μ' given as A0V * types 'A0σ' and 'A0σ+' given as B8 * types 'B{tau}-' given as B, and are mainly B3 to B

  7. DD 13 - A very young and heavily reddened early O star in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the Large Magellanic Cloud star DD 13, which is likely the major ionizing source of the nebula N159A. New optical spectroscopy and new estimates of the broadband photometric properties of DD 13 are obtained. A spectral type of O3-O6 V, E(B-V) = 0.64, and M(V) = -6.93 is found. The spectral type cannot be more precisely defined due to contamination of the spectral data by nebular emission, obliterating the important He I classification lines. These results, plus a published estimate of the Lyman continuum photon injection rate into N159A, suggest that DD 13 actually consists of about 2-4 young, early O stars still enshrouded by their natal dust cloud. The star DD 13 may be a younger example of the type of tight cluster represented by the LMC 'star' Sk-66 deg 41, recently revealed to be composed of six or more components.

  8. The TGAS HR diagram of S-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetye, Shreeya; van Eck, Sophie; Jorissen, Alain; van Winckel, Hans; Siess, Lionel

    2018-04-01

    S-type stars are late-type giants enhanced with s-process elements originating either from nucleosynthesis during the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) or from a pollution by a binary companion. The former are called intrinsic S stars, and the latter extrinsic S stars. The atmospheric parameters of S stars are more numerous than those of M-type giants (C/O ratio and s-process abundances affect the thermal structure and spectral synthesis), and hence they are more difficult to derive. Nevertheless, high-resolution spectroscopic data of S stars combined with the TGAS (Tycho-Gaia Astrometric solution) parallaxes were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, and luminosities. These parameters allow to locate the intrinsic and extrinsic S stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

  9. Hazardous Early Days In (and Beyond) the Habitable Zones Around Ultra-Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Joel

    Although a majority of stars in the solar neighborhood are of mid- to late-M type, the magnetically-induced coronal (X-ray) and chromospheric (UV, H-alpha) activity of such stars remain essentially unexplored for the important age range 10-100 Myr. Such information on high-energy processes associated with young M stars would provide much-needed constraints on models of the effects of stellar irradiation on the physics and chemistry of planet-forming disks and newborn planets. In addition, X-ray and UV observations of ultra-low-mass young stars can serve to probe the (presently ill-defined) spectral type boundary that determines which very low-mass objects will eventually become M stars -- as opposed to brown dwarfs (BDs) -- following their pre-main sequence evolutionary stages. Via ADAP support, we have developed the GALEX Nearby Young Star Search (GALNYSS), a search method that combines GALEX, 2MASS, WISE and proper motion catalog information to identify nearby, young, lowmass stars. We have applied this method to identify ~2000 candidate young (10-100 Myr), low-mass (M-type) stars within 150 pc. These GALNYSS-identified young star candidates are distributed over the entire GALEX-covered sky, and their spectral types peak in the M3-4 range; followup optical spectroscopic work is ongoing (Rodriguez et al. 2013, ApJ, 774, 101). We now propose an ADA program to determine the X-ray properties of representative stars among these GALNYSS candidates, so as to confirm their youth and investigate the early evolution of coronal activity near the low-mass star/BD boundary and the effects of such activity on planet formation. Specifically, we will exploit the presence in the HEASARC archives of XMM-Newton and (to a lesser extent) Chandra X-ray Observatory data for a few dozen GALNYSS candidates that have been observed serendipitously by one or both of these space observatories. The proposed ADA program will yield the full reduction and analysis of these as-yet unexplored data

  10. Star cell type core configuration for structural sandwich materials

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, R.M.

    1995-08-01

    A new pattern for cellular core material used in sandwich type structural materials is disclosed. The new pattern involves star shaped cells intermixed with hexagonal shaped cells. The new patterned cellular core material includes star shaped cells interconnected at points thereof and having hexagonal shape cells positioned adjacent the star points. The new pattern allows more flexibility and can conform more easily to curved shapes. 3 figs.

  11. Pulsation of late B-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, W. R.; Worek, T. F.; King, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Radial velocity observations of three of the brightest stars in the Pleiades, Alcyone, Maia and Taygeta, made during the course of one night, 25 October 1976, are discussed. All three stars were discovered to be pulsating with periods of a few hours. Analysis of all published radial velocities for each star, covering more than 70 years and approximately 100,000 cycles, has established the value of the periods to eight decimal places, and demonstrated constancy of the periods. However, amplitudes of the radial velocity variations change over long time intervals, and changes in spectral line intensities are observed in phase with the pulsation. All three stars may also be members of binary systems.

  12. NEARBY MASSIVE STAR CLUSTER YIELDS INSIGHTS INTO EARLY UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of young, ultra-bright stars nested in their embryonic cloud of glowing gases. The celestial maternity ward, called N81, is located 200,000 light-years away in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a small irregular satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. Hubble's exquisite resolution allows astronomers to pinpoint 50 separate stars tightly packed in the nebula's core within a 10 light-year diameter - slightly more than twice the distance between earth and the nearest star to our sun. The closest pair of stars is only 1/3 of a light-year apart (0.3 arcseconds in the sky). This furious rate of mass loss from these super-hot stars is evident in the Hubble picture that reveals dramatic shapes sculpted in the nebula's wall of glowing gases by violent stellar winds and shock waves. A pair of bright stars in the center of the nebula is pouring out most of the ultraviolet radiation to make the nebula glow. Just above them, a small dark knot is all that's left of the cold cloud of molecular hydrogen and dust the stars were born from. Dark absorption lanes of residual dust trisect the nebula. The nebula offers a unique opportunity for a close-up glimpse at the 'firestorm' accompanying the birth of extremely massive stars, each blazing with the brilliance of 300,000 of our suns. Such galactic fireworks were much more common billions of years ago in the early universe, when most star formation took place. The 'natural-color' view was assembled from separate images taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, in ultraviolet light and two narrow emission lines of ionized Hydrogen (H-alpha, H-beta). The picture was taken on September 4, 1997. Credit: Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France), NASA/ESA

  13. Five-Star Schools: Defining Quality in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…

  14. Spectroscopic observations of X-ray selected late type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takalo, L. O.

    1988-01-01

    A spectroscopic survey of nine X-ray selected late type stars was conducted. These stars are serendipitously discovered EINSTEIN X-ray sources, selected from two large x-ray surveys: the Columbia Astrophysical Laboratory survey (five stars) and the CFA Medium Sensitivity survey (four stars). Four of the Columbia survey stars were found to be short period binaries. The fifth was found to be an active single G dwarf. None of the Medium Sensitivity survey stars were found to be either binaries or active stars. Activity was measured by comparing the H-alpha and the CaII infrared triplet (8498, 8542) lines in these stars to the lines in inactive stars of similar spectral type. A correlation was found between the excess H-alpha lime emission and V sin(i) and between the excess H-alpha line emission and X-ray luminosity. No correlation was found between the infrared line emission and any other measured quantity.

  15. Rapidly rotating single late-type giants: New FK Comae stars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.

    1986-01-01

    A group of rapidly rotating single late-type giants was found from surveys of chromospherically active stars. These stars have V sin I's ranging from 6 to 46 km/sec, modest ultraviolet emission line fluxes, and strong H alpha absorption lines. Although certainly chromospherically active, their characteristics are much less extreme than those of FK Com and one or two other similar systems. One possible explanation for the newly identified systems is that they have evolved from stars similar to FK Com. The chromospheric activity and rotation of single giant stars like FK Com would be expected to decrease with time as they do in single dwarfs. Alternatively, this newly identified group may have evolved from single rapidly rotating A, or early F stars.

  16. BUILDING LATE-TYPE SPIRAL GALAXIES BY IN-SITU AND EX-SITU STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pillepich, Annalisa; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio

    We analyze the formation and evolution of the stellar components in ''Eris'', a 120 pc resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of a late-type spiral galaxy. The simulation includes the effects of a uniform UV background, a delayed-radiative-cooling scheme for supernova feedback, and a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold. It allows a detailed study of the relative contributions of ''in-situ'' (within the main host) and ''ex-situ'' (within satellite galaxies) star formation to each major Galactic component in a close Milky Way analog. We investigate these two star-formation channels as a function of galactocentric distance, along different lines ofmore » sight above and along the disk plane, and as a function of cosmic time. We find that: (1) approximately 70% of today's stars formed in-situ; (2) more than two thirds of the ex-situ stars formed within satellites after infall; (3) the majority of ex-situ stars are found today in the disk and in the bulge; (4) the stellar halo is dominated by ex-situ stars, whereas in-situ stars dominate the mass profile at distances ≲ 5 kpc from the center at high latitudes; and (5) approximately 25% of the inner, r ≲ 20 kpc, halo is composed of in-situ stars that have been displaced from their original birth sites during Eris' early assembly history.« less

  17. Einstein Observatory coronal temperatures of late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Collura, A.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented of a survey of the coronal temperatures of late-type stars using the Einstein Observatory IPC. The spectral analysis shows that the frequently found one- and two-temperature descriptions are mainly influenced by the SNR of the data and that models using continuous emission measure distributions can provide equally adequate and physically more meaningful and more plausible descriptions. Intrinsic differences in differential emission measure distributions are found for four groups of stars. M dwarfs generally show evidence for high-temperature gas in conjunction with lower-temperature material, while main-sequence stars of types F and G have the high-temperature component either absent or very weak. Very hot coronae without the lower-temperature component appearing in dwarf stars are evident in most of the giant stars studied. RS CVn systems show evidence for extremely hot coronae, sometimes with no accompanying lower-temperature material.

  18. Reionization of Hydrogen and Helium by Early Stars and Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Loeb, Abraham

    2003-04-01

    We compute the reionization histories of hydrogen and helium caused by the ionizing radiation fields produced by stars and quasars. For the quasars we use a model based on halo-merger rates that reproduces all known properties of the quasar luminosity function at high redshifts. The less constrained properties of the ionizing radiation produced by stars are modeled with two free parameters: (i) a transition redshift, ztran, above which the stellar population is dominated by massive, zero-metallicity stars and below which it is dominated by a Scalo mass function; and (ii) the product of the escape fraction of stellar ionizing photons from their host galaxies and the star formation efficiency, fescf*. We constrain the allowed range of these free parameters at high redshifts on the basis of the lack of the H I Gunn-Peterson trough at z<~6 and the upper limit on the total intergalactic optical depth for electron scattering, τes<0.18, from recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. We find that quasars ionize helium by a redshift z~4, but cannot reionize hydrogen by themselves before z~6. A major fraction of the allowed combinations of fescf* and ztran leads to an early peak in the ionized fraction because of the presence of metal-free stars at high redshifts. This sometimes results in two reionization epochs, namely, an early H II or He III overlap phase followed by recombination and a second overlap phase. Even if early overlap is not achieved, the peak in the visibility function for scattering of the CMB often coincides with the early ionization phase rather than with the actual reionization epoch. Consequently, τes does not correspond directly to the reionization redshift. We generically find values of τes>~7%, which should be detectable by the MAP satellite.

  19. The onset of chromospheric activity among the A- and F- type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Theodore; Landsman, Wayne

    1987-01-01

    IUE observations of C II lambda1335 and C IV lambda1549 and ground-based observations of He I lambda5876 have previously discovered intense levels of chromospheric activity among early F type stars. Virtually all F dwarfs show stronger chromospheric and transition region emission than do the cooler and more deeply convective dwarf stars like the Sun. The IUE spectra and those of He lambda5876 place the onset of stellar activity along the main sequence near a color B - V = 0.28, which corresponds approximately to spectral type FO and an effective temperature of 7300 K. However, existing X-ray observations of A and F stars suggest that coronal activity may reach a peak blueward of this high temperature boundary at B - V = 0.28 before vanishing among the early and mid A-type stars. Discussed are preliminary results of a new effort to refine the location of the high temperature boundary to chromospheric activity among A- and F- type stars, making use of low dispersion short-wavelength spectra from the IUE archives from which the strengths of C IV, C II, and Lyman alpha emission have been measured.

  20. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are locatedmore » in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10{sup 8-9} cm{sup –3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful

  1. Star Formation-Driven Winds in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, Matthew; Lundgren, Britt; Brammer, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the extent of star formation-driven winds from galaxies in the early universe is crucial for understanding of how galaxies evolve over cosmic time. Using WFC3/IR grism data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have measured the star formation rates and star formation rate surface densities of several hundred galaxies at redshift (z) = 1, when the universe was roughly half its present age. The galaxies we examine are also probed by background quasars, whose spectra provide information about the extent of metal-enriched gas in their halos. We use a computational pipeline to measure the density of the star formation in each galaxy and correlate these measurements with detections of Mg II absorption in nearby quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our preliminary results support a model in which galaxies with high SFR surface densities drive metal-enriched gas out of the disk and into these galaxies’ extended halos, where that gas is detected in the spectra of more distant quasars.

  2. The Formation and Early Evolution of Embedded Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter

    We propose to combine Spitzer, WISE, Herschel, and other archival spacecraft data with an existing ground- and space-based mm-wave to near-IR survey of molecular clouds over a large portion of the Milky Way, in order to systematically study the formation and early evolution of massive stars and star clusters, and provide new observational calibrations for a theoretical paradigm of this key astrophysical problem. Central Objectives: The Galactic Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars (CHaMP) is a large, unbiased, uniform, and panchromatic survey of massive star and cluster formation and early evolution, covering 20°x6° of the Galactic Plane. Its uniqueness lies in the comprehensive molecular spectroscopy of 303 massive dense clumps, which have also been included in several archival spacecraft surveys. Our objective is a systematic demographic analysis of massive star and cluster formation, one which has not been possible without knowledge of our CHaMP cloud sample, including all clouds with embedded clusters as well as those that have not yet formed massive stars. For proto-clusters deeply embedded within dense molecular clouds, analysis of these space-based data will: 1. Yield a complete census of Young Stellar Objects in each cluster. 2. Allow systematic measurements of embedded cluster properties: spectral energy distributions, luminosity functions, protostellar and disk fractions, and how these vary with cluster mass, age, and density. Combined with other, similarly complete and unbiased infrared and mm data, CHaMP's goals include: 3. A detailed comparison of the embedded stellar populations with their natal dense gas to derive extinction maps, star formation efficiencies and feedback effects, and the kinematics, physics, and chemistry of the gas in and around the clusters. 4. Tying the demographics, age spreads, and timescales of the clusters, based on pre-Main Sequence evolution, to that of the dense gas clumps and Giant Molecular Clouds. 5. A

  3. Trace for Differential Pencils on a Star-Type Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuan-Fu

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we consider the spectral problem for differential pencils on a star-type graph with a Kirchhoff-type condition in the internal vertex. The regularized trace formula of this operator is established with the contour integration method in complex analysis.

  4. Exploring new classification criteria for the earliest type stars: the 3400 Aregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, Nidia I.; Walborn, Nolan R.; Arias, Julia I.

    2002-02-01

    We propose spectroscopic observations of a sample of standard O2-O4 stars in the wavelength region containing the N IV 3479-83-85 Aand O IV 3381-85-3412 Alines, in order to analyze the behavior of these spectral features as a function of the spectral type. We aim to define new classification criteria for the hottest stars, evaluating these N IV and O IV lines near 3400 Aas possible temperature and luminosity discriminators. The former spectral class O3 has just been split into three different classes: O2, O3 and O3.5 (Walborn et al. 2001). The paucity of classification criteria at these types in the traditional wavelength domain (4000 - 4700 Å), makes clear the need to explore other spectral ranges in order to define additional constraints on the determination of spectral types and luminosity classes. The wavelength range around 3400 Ahas been observed in many faint, crowded early O-type stars by HST/FOS, the corresponding data being available from the HST archive. This enhances our interest in observing this spectral range in the classification standards for the early O-type stars in order to make these existing HST observations even more useful, allowing the determination of accurate spectral types for unknown objects from them, once the behavior of the new criteria in the standards has been charted.

  5. Investigating the Magnetospheres of Rapidly Rotating B-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, C. L.; Petit, V.; Nazé, Y.; Wade, G. A.; Townsend, R. H.; Owocki, S. P.; Cohen, D. H.; David-Uraz, A.; Shultz, M.

    2017-11-01

    Recent spectropolarimetric surveys of bright, hot stars have found that ~10% of OB-type stars contain strong (mostly dipolar) surface magnetic fields (~kG). The prominent paradigm describing the interaction between the stellar winds and the surface magnetic field is the magnetically confined wind shock (MCWS) model. In this model, the stellar wind plasma is forced to move along the closed field loops of the magnetic field, colliding at the magnetic equator, and creating a shock. As the shocked material cools radiatively it will emit X-rays. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in detecting and characterizing the hot wind material confined by the magnetic fields of these stars. Some B-type stars are found to have very short rotational periods. The effects of the rapid rotation on the X-ray production within the magnetosphere have yet to be explored in detail. The added centrifugal force due to rapid rotation is predicted to cause faster wind outflows along the field lines, leading to higher shock temperatures and harder X-rays. However, this is not observed in all rapidly rotating magnetic B-type stars. In order to address this from a theoretical point of view, we use the X-ray Analytical Dynamical Magnetosphere (XADM) model, originally developed for slow rotators, with an implementation of new rapid rotational physics. Using X-ray spectroscopy from ESA's XMM-Newton space telescope, we observed 5 rapidly rotating B-types stars to add to the previous list of observations. Comparing the observed X-ray luminosity and hardness ratio to that predicted by the XADM allows us to determine the role the added centrifugal force plays in the magnetospheric X-ray emission of these stars.

  6. Lyman alpha initiated winds in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, B. M.; Linsky, J. L.; Vanderhucht, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    The IUE survey of late-type stars revealed a sharp division in the HR diagram between stars with solar type spectra (chromosphere and transition region lines) and those with non-solar type spectra (only chromosphere lines). Models of both hot coronae and cool wind flows were calculated using stellar model chromospheres as starting points for stellar wind calculations in order to investigate the possibility of having a supersonic transition locus in the HR diagram dividing hot coronae from cool winds. From these models, it is concluded that the Lyman alpha flux may play an important role in determining the location of a stellar wind critical point. The interaction of Lyman alpha radiation pressure with Alfven waves in producing strong, low temperature stellar winds in the star Arcturus is examined.

  7. The Ages of Southern Solar-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Soderblom, David R.

    1993-12-01

    We report on a survey of chromospheric emission (CE) in a large sample of southern solar-type stars. To date, we have observed more than 700 stars within ~ 50 pc at the Ca II H and K lines, which can be used to measure stellar activity, and presumably age. This survey is intended to complement the long-term work continuing at Mount Wilson by Baliunas et al., with a combined goal to observe a volume-limited sample of 5000 F, G and K dwarfs. An important product of the Mount Wilson effort is the classic paper of Vaughan and Preston (1980) who reported on CE for a sample of 500 northern late-type dwarfs within 25 pc. They observed a bimodal distribution for 185 F and G dwarfs in which 75% of the stars had weak CE (as the Sun does), some active ones had high levels of CE, and very few had intermediate levels. This ``gap'' suggested that either the star formation rate has been non-uniform (so that stars with ages corresponding to moderate CE are missing from the solar neighborhood), or that the CE-age relation has several phases (so that stars spend little time in the phase corresponding to intermediate CE). At the present time, it is not possible to distinguish between these two explanations. A survey of CE among an independent sample with different instrumentation provides a means of ensuring that the Mount Wilson result was not a fluke of a modest sample or an artifact of instrumentation or data analysis. We find from our larger southern sample that the two populations of stars are again evident. Roughly 75% fall in the relatively inactive group, corresponding to ages greater than a few Gyr. We have also identified a few ( ~ 5%) very active, young, nearby stars that can be targeted for future in-depth study.

  8. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillo, F.; Sciortino, S.; Micela, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are used to measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars falling in the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-four detected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it is estimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to the X-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition to summarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant optical data, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process and analyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completeness and IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-ray emission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quite common in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless of luminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes less common, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.

  9. Boron Abundances in A and B-type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Boron abundances in A- and B-type stars may be a successful way to track evolutionary effects in these hot stars. The light elements - Li, Be, and B - are tracers of exposure to temperatures more moderate than those in which the H-burning CN-cycle operates. Thus, any exposure of surface stellar layers to deeper layers will affect these light element abundances. Li and Be are used in this role in investigations of evolutionary processes in cool stars, but are not observable in hotter stars. An investigation of boron, however, is possible through the B II 1362 A resonance line. We have gathered high resolution spectra from the IUE database of A- and B-type stars near 10 solar mass for which nitrogen abundances have been determined. The B II 1362 A line is blended throughout; the temperature range of this program, requiring spectrum syntheses to recover the boron abundances. For no star could we synthesize the 1362 A region using the meteoritic/solar boron abundance of log e (B) = 2.88; a lower boron abundance was necessary which may reflect evolutionary effects (e.g., mass loss or mixing near the main-sequence), the natal composition of the star forming regions, or a systematic error in the analyses (e.g., non-LTE effects). Regardless of the initial boron abundance, and despite the possibility of non-LTE effects, it seems clear that boron is severely depleted in some stars. It may be that the nitrogen and boron abundances are anticorrelated, as would be expected from mixing between the H-burning and outer stellar layers. If, as we suspect, a residue of boron is present in the A-type supergiants, we may exclude a scenario in which mixing occurs continuously between the surface and the deep layers operating the CN-cycle. Further exploitation of the B II 1362 A line as an indicator of the evolutionary status of A- and B-type stars will require a larger stellar sample to be observed with higher signal-to-noise as attainable with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  10. X-rays from Magnetic B-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Corinne; Petit, Véronique; Caballero-Nieves, Saida Maria; Nazé, Yaël; Owocki, Stan; Wade, Gregg; Cohen, David; Townsend, Richard; David-Uraz, Alexandre; Shultz, Matt

    2018-01-01

    Recent surveys have found that ~10% of OB-type stars host strong (~1kG), mostly dipolar magnetic fields. The prominent idea describing the interaction between the stellar winds and the magnetic field is the magnetically confined wind shock model. In this model, the ionized wind material is forced to move along the closed magnetic field loops and collides at the magnetic equator creating a shock. As the shocked material cools radiatively it will emit X-rays. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in detecting and characterizing the wind material confined by the magnetic fields of these stars. Some of these magnetic B-type stars are found to have very short rotational periods. The effects of the rapid rotation on the X-ray production within the magnetosphere have yet to be explored in detail. The added centrifugal force is predicted to cause faster wind outflows along the field lines, which could lead to higher shock temperatures and harder X-rays. However, this is not observed in all rapidly rotating magnetic B-type stars. In order to address this question from a theoretical point of view, we use the X-ray Analytical Dynamical Magnetosphere model, developed for slow rotators and implement the physics of rapid rotation. Using X-ray spectroscopy from ESA’s XMM-Newton space telescope, we observed 5 rapidly rotating B-types stars to add to the previous list of observations. Comparing the observed X-ray luminosity and hardness ratio to that predicted by the XADM allows us to determine the role an added centrifugal acceleration plays in the magnetospheres of these stars.

  11. Scattering linear polarization of late-type active stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakobchuk, T. M.; Berdyugina, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Many active stars are covered in spots, much more so than the Sun, as indicated by spectroscopic and photometric observations. It has been predicted that star spots induce non-zero intrinsic linear polarization by breaking the visible stellar disk symmetry. Although small, this effect might be useful for star spot studies, and it is particularly significant for a future polarimetric atmosphere characterization of exoplanets orbiting active host stars. Aims: Using models for a center-to-limb variation of the intensity and polarization in presence of continuum scattering and adopting a simplified two-temperature photosphere model, we aim to estimate the intrinsic linear polarization for late-type stars of different gravity, effective temperature, and spottedness. Methods: We developed a code that simulates various spot configurations or uses arbitrary surface maps, performs numerical disk integration, and builds Stokes parameter phase curves for a star over a rotation period for a selected wavelength. It allows estimating minimum and maximum polarization values for a given set of stellar parameters and spot coverages. Results: Based on assumptions about photosphere-to-spot temperature contrasts and spot size distributions, we calculate the linear polarization for late-type stars with Teff = 3500 K-6000 K, log g = 1.0-5.0, using the plane-parallel and spherical atmosphere models. Employing random spot surface distribution, we analyze the relation between spot coverage and polarization and determine the influence of different input parameters on results. Furthermore, we consider spot configurations with polar spots and active latitudes and longitudes.

  12. What Is Happening at Spectral Type F5 in Hyades F Stars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika; Robinson, Richard; Carpenter, Kenneth; Mena-Werth, Jose

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at a better understanding of the mechanisms heating the chromospheres, transition regions, and coronae of cool stars, we study ultraviolet, low-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra of Hyades main-sequence F stars. We study the B-V dependence(s) of the chromospheric and transition layer emission line fluxes and their dependences on rotational velocities. We find that the transition layer emission line fluxes and also those of strong chromospheric lines decrease steeply between B-V = 0.42 and 0.45, i.e., at spectral type F5, for which the rotational velocities also decrease steeply. The magnitude of the line-flux decrease increases for lines of ions with increasing degree of ionization. This shows that the line-flux decrease is not due to a change in the surface filling factor but rather due to a change of the relative importance of different heating mechanisms. For early F stars with B-V < 0.42 we find for the transition layer emission lines increasing fluxes for increasing v sin i, indicating magnetohydrodynamic heating. The v sin i dependence is strongest for the high-ionization lines. On the other hand, the low chromospheric lines show no dependence on v sin i, indicating acoustic shock heating for these layers. This also contributes to the heating of the transition layers. The Mg II and Ca II lines show decreasing fluxes for increasing v sin i, as long as v sin i is less than approx. 40 km/s. The coronal X-ray emission also decreases for increasing v sin i, except for v sin i larger than approx. 100 km/s. We have at present no explanation for this behavior. For late F stars the chromospheric lines show v sin i dependences similar to those observed for early F stars, again indicating acoustic heating for these layers. We were unable to determine the v sin i dependence of the transition layer lines because of too few single star targets. The decrease of emission line fluxes at the spectral type F5, with steeply

  13. The evolution of angular momentum among zero-age main-sequence solar-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David R.; Stauffer, John R.; Macgregor, Keith B.; Jones, Burton F.

    1993-01-01

    We consider a survey of rotation among F, G, and K dwarfs of the Pleiades in the context of other young clusters (Alpha Persei and the Hyades) and pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars (in Taurus-Auriga and Orion) in order to examine how the angular momentum of a star like the sun evolves during its early life on the main sequence. The rotation of PMS stars can be evolved into distributions like those seen in the young clusters if there is only modest, rotation-independent angular momentum loss prior to the ZAMS. Even then, the ultrafast rotators (UFRs, or ZAMS G and K dwarfs with v sin i equal to or greater than 30 km/s) must owe their extra angular momentum to their conditions of formation and to different angular momentum loss rates above a threshold velocity, for it is unlikely that these stars had angular momentum added as they neared the ZAMS, nor can a spread in ages within a cluster account for the range of rotation seen. Only a fraction of solar-type stars are thus capable of becoming UFRs, and it is not a phase that all stars experience. Simple scaling relations (like the Skumanich relation) applied to the observed surface rotation rates of young solar-type stars cannot reproduce the way in which the Pleiades evolve into the Hyades. We argue that invoking internal differential rotation in these ZAMS stars can explain several aspects of the observations and thus can provide a consistent picture of ZAMS angular momentum evolution.

  14. The Age Related Properties of Solar Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David

    1999-01-01

    The studies of lithium in solar-type stars in clusters of a wide range of ages has provided critical information on a tracer of convective processes, especially among very young stars. Our most recent work has been on a pre-main sequence cluster (NGC 2264) that took place after this grant expired, but was founded on it. The spread seen in Li in Zero-Age Main Sequence clusters like the Pleiades is huge and possibly related to rotation. No clear spread in seen in NGC 2264, so it does not have its origins in the conditions of formation but is instead a result of processes occurring during PMS evolution. Our observations of M67 were particularly interesting because this cluster is the same age as the Sun, i.e.,very old. Clear evidence was seen for a spread in Li there too, indicating that the spread seen in very young stars perpetuates itself into old age.

  15. Ultraviolet Observations of M-Type Symbiotic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalitsianos, Andrew G.

    The significant differences revealed in high dispersion short wavelength spectra of two M-type symbiotic stars RW Hya (gM2 + pec) and RX Pup (M5 + pec) observed previously with IUE emphasizes the need for high resolution observations of a wide range of similar objects. The anomalies observed in high excitation lines in RX Pup of He II, N III], N IV], O III], C III], C IV and Si III] that show split line profiles, multiple component Doppler displaced components, and broadened blue wing emission structure in N III] and N IV] suggest motion in circumstellar material. In contrast, high dispersion UV spectra of RW Hya reveal narrow high excitation emission lines that give no suggestion of macroscopic motions in the circumstellar gas. We wish to extend observations of a selected number of symbiotic stars observed previously but in low resolution, to high dispersion in order to determine if particular M-type symbiotic stars exhibit anomalies in their line profile. As such, symbiotic stars exhibiting velocity structure in emission lines may form a subset of objects that are characterized by mass motions in their circumstellar envelops that create high excitation emission. UV line and continuum emission from other M-type symbiotics may arise from mainly photo-excitation processes that results from the intense radiation field associated with the hot secondary companion.

  16. Circumstellar Disks Around Rapidly Rotating Be-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhami, Yamina

    2012-01-01

    Be stars are rapidly rotating B-type stars that eject large amounts of gaseous material into a circumstellar equatorial disk. The existence of this disk has been confirmed through the presence of several observational signatures such as the strong hydrogen emission lines, the IR flux excess, and the linear polarization detected from these systems. Here we report simultaneous near-IR interferometric and spectroscopic observations of circumstellar disks around Be stars obtained with the CHARA Array long baseline interferometer and the Mimir spectrograph at Lowell observatory. The goal of this project was to measure precise angular sizes and to characterize the fundamental geometrical and physical properties of the circumstellar disks. We were able to determine spatial extensions, inclinations, and position angles, as well as the gas density profile of the circumstellar disks using an elliptical Gaussian model and a physical thick disk model, and we show that the K-band interferometric angular sizes of the circumstellar disks are correlated with the H-alpha angular sizes. By combining the projected rotational velocity of the Be star with the disk inclination derived from interferometry, we provide estimates of the equatorial rotational velocities of these rapidly rotating Be stars.

  17. Central stars of planetary nebulae. II. New OB-type and emission-line stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.

    2011-07-01

    Context. There are more than 3000 confirmed and probably known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), but central star spectroscopic information is available for only 13% of them. Aims: We have undertaken a spectroscopic survey of the central stars in PNe to identify their spectral types. Methods: We performed spectroscopic observations at low resolution with the 2-m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. Results: We present the spectra of 46 central stars of PNe, most of them are OB-type and emission-line stars. Based on data collected at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina.The reduced spectra (FITS files) are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/531/A172

  18. The very high rotators in the late-B and early-A stars: Shell stars with Si IV and C IV features the case of HD 119921

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freireferrero, R.; Bruhweiler, Frederick C.; Grady, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Study of several stars in the late B and early A spectral types shows that very high rotators are associated with shell characteristics (sometimes not detected at all in the visible spectra) and also with C IV and some Si IV spectral absorption features which can be explained by circumstellar phenomena superimposed over stellar metallic blends. These particularities are evidenced by comparison with other spectra of low and high rotators in the same spectral range. HD 119921, a star with similar characteristics to the other ones of the sample, is given special attention. A possible scenario is suggested to explain the observed superionization features.

  19. Interferometric view of the circumstellar envelopes of northern FU Orionis-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehér, O.; Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Brinch, C.

    2017-11-01

    the observed envelopes enables us to set up an evolutionary sequence between the objects. We find their evolutionary state to range from early, embedded Class I stage to late, Class II-type objects with very-low-mass circumstellar material. We also find evidence of larger-scale circumstellar material influencing the detected spectral features in the environment of our targets. These results reinforce the idea of FU Orionis-type stars as representatives of a transitory stage between embedded Class I young stellar objects and classical T Tauri stars.

  20. Imaging the Hot Stellar Content of Early Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertola, Francesco

    1991-07-01

    WE PROPOSE TO IMAGE WITH THE FOC IN THE F/96 CONFIGURATION FIVE EARLY TYPE GALAXIES IN FOUR PASSBANDS CENTERED AT 1500 A, 2200 A, 2800 A AND 3400 A. WHEN COUPLED WITH PHOTOMETRY OBTAINED FROM THE GROUND OUR OBSERVATIONS WILL ALLOW US TO DERIVE COMPLETE SED OF THESE GALAXIES AS A FUNCTION OF THE DISTANCE FROM THE CENTER. THIS IS A KEY STEP TOWARDS THE UNDERSTANDING OF STELLAR POPULATIONS - IN PARTICULAR THE ONE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE UV EMISSION - IN EARLY TYPE GALAXIES AND WILL PROVIDE IMPORTANT INSIGHT IN THEIR FORMATION AND EVOLUTION. WE PLAN TO OBSERVE NGC 1399, NGC 2681, NGC 4552, NGC 5018 AND NGC 4627 WHICH SAMPLE A WIDE RANGE OF INTRINSIC PROPERTIES AS INDICATED BY PREVIOUS IUE OBSERVATIONS. FOR NGC 4627 THERE IS EVIDENCE OF ONGOING STAR FORMATION AND THE HST WILL BE ABLE TO SHOW THE CHARACTERISTIC CLUMPINESS. NGC 2681 HAD A STARBUST OF AGE GREATER THAN 1 GYR. NGC 4552 IS ONE OF THE MOST METAL RICH GALAXY KNOWN. NGC 1399 HAS THE SAME METALLICITY AND LUMINOSITY OF THE PREVIOUS GALAXY BUT IS A MUCH STRONGER X-RAY EMITTER. NGC 5018 IS A VERY GOOD CANDIDATE FOR ONGOING STAR FORMATION. WE BELIEVE IN THIS WAY WE CAN OBTAIN SED FOR THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL IMAGES OF EARLY TYPE GALAXIES FROM BROAD BAND IMAGING ALONE. THE CALIBRATION OF OUR FILTER SYSTEM WILL ALLOW US TO APPLY IT TO THE BIDIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL SAMPLE OF EARLY TYPE GALAXIES.

  1. Photospheres of hot stars. IV - Spectral type O4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohannan, Bruce; Abbott, David C.; Voels, Stephen A.; Hummer, David G.

    1990-01-01

    The basic stellar parameters of a supergiant (Zeta Pup) and two main-sequence stars, 9 Sgr and HD 46223, at spectral class O4 are determined using line profile analysis. The stellar parameters are determined by comparing high signal-to-noise hydrogen and helium line profiles with those from stellar atmosphere models which include the effect of radiation scattered back onto the photosphere from an overlying stellar wind, an effect referred to as wind blanketing. At spectral class O4, the inclusion of wind-blanketing in the model atmosphere reduces the effective temperature by an average of 10 percent. This shift in effective temperature is also reflected by shifts in several other stellar parameters relative to previous O4 spectral-type calibrations. It is also shown through the analysis of the two O4 V stars that scatter in spectral type calibrations is introduced by assuming that the observed line profile reflects the photospheric stellar parameters.

  2. Rotational velocities of A-type stars. IV. Evolution of rotational velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorec, J.; Royer, F.

    2012-01-01

    Context. In previous works of this series, we have shown that late B- and early A-type stars have genuine bimodal distributions of rotational velocities and that late A-type stars lack slow rotators. The distributions of the surface angular velocity ratio Ω/Ωcrit (Ωcrit is the critical angular velocity) have peculiar shapes according to spectral type groups, which can be caused by evolutionary properties. Aims: We aim to review the properties of these rotational velocity distributions in some detail as a function of stellar mass and age. Methods: We have gathered vsini for a sample of 2014 B6- to F2-type stars. We have determined the masses and ages for these objects with stellar evolution models. The (Teff,log L/L⊙)-parameters were determined from the uvby-β photometry and the HIPPARCOS parallaxes. Results: The velocity distributions show two regimes that depend on the stellar mass. Stars less massive than 2.5 M⊙ have a unimodal equatorial velocity distribution and show a monotonical acceleration with age on the main sequence (MS). Stars more massive have a bimodal equatorial velocity distribution. Contrarily to theoretical predictions, the equatorial velocities of stars from about 1.7 M⊙ to 3.2 M⊙ undergo a strong acceleration in the first third of the MS evolutionary phase, while in the last third of the MS they evolve roughly as if there were no angular momentum redistribution in the external stellar layers. The studied stars might start in the ZAMS not necessarily as rigid rotators, but with a total angular momentum lower than the critical one of rigid rotators. The stars seem to evolve as differential rotators all the way of their MS life span and the variation of the observed rotational velocities proceeds with characteristic time scales δt ≈ 0.2 tMS, where tMS is the time spent by a star in the MS. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  3. On a connection between supernova occurrence and tidal interaction in early type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochhar, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    There are three types of supernovae: two subtypes SNIa and Ib; and SNII. Late type galaxies produce all types of SN, whereas early types (E, SO, and non-Magellanic irregulars IO) have hosted only SNIa. The recently identified SNIb, like SNII, have massive stars as their progenitors. Reviving Oemler and Tinsley's (1979) suggestion that SNIa also come from short-lived stars, the author asserts that they need not occur in all early-type galaxies. SNIa occur only in those galaxies that have access to gas and can form stars in their main body. (SN in nuclear regions are a different matter altogether). In this model, SNIa are not associated with typical stellar population of E/SOs but with regions of localized star formation. Note that data on SNIa from spirals is already consistent with this model.

  4. Exploring X-ray Emission from Winds in Two Early B-type Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, John P.; Hole, Tabetha; Ignace, Richard; Oskinova, Lida

    2017-01-01

    The winds of the most massive (O-type) stars have been well studied, but less is known about the winds of early-type B stars, especially in binaries. Extending O-star wind theory to these smaller stars, we would expect them to emit X-rays, and when in a B-star binary system, the wind collision should emit additional X-rays. This combined X-ray flux from nearby B-star binary systems should be detectable with current telescopes. Yet X-ray observations of two such systems with the Chandra Observatory not only show far less emission than predicted, but also vary significantly from each other despite having very similar observed characteristics. We will present these observations, and our work applying the classic Castor, Abbott, and Klein (CAK) wind theory, combined with more recent analytical wind-shock models, attempting to reproduce this unexpected range of observations.

  5. Identifying Massive Runaway Stars by Detecting Infrared Bowshock Nebula: Four OB Stars and a New Massive Early-B Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorber, Rebecca L.; Rebecca L. Sorber, Henry A. Kobulnicky, Daniel A. Dale, Matthew S. Povich, William T. Chick, Heather N. Wernke, Julian E. Andrews, Stephan Munari, Grace M. Olivier, Danielle Schurhammer

    2016-01-01

    Though the main sequence evolution of OB type stars is relatively well known, the mass loss rates for these stars are still highly uncertain. Some OB stars are gravitationally ejected from their birth sites, traveling at speeds of 30 km/s or more which results in a prominent bowshock nebulae. We identified OB bowshock candidates at low Galactic latitudes by visual inspection of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22-micron images. Each candidate was observed using the Longslit Spectrograph at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO) 2.3 meter telescope. We present here the results from observing four such candidates, and all four are confirmed as early type stars: GO92.3191+0.0591 (B1V) (aka ALS11826), GO86.551014-1.0873935 (B2V; a probable short-period binary), G076.6921-2.4071 (B5V), and G075.5711-0.2558 (B0V) (aka HD 194303). These results enlarge the sample of candidate runaway massive stars hosting bowshocks and provide a promising sample of such objects for studying stellar mass loss. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation Grants AST-1063146 (REU), AST-1411851 (RUI), and AST-1412845.

  6. Star formation in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies and implications for the early evolution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.; Murray, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    Based upon the observed properties of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, we present important theoretical constraints on star formation in these systems. These constraints indicate that protoglobular cluster clouds had long dormant periods and a brief epoch of violent star formation. Collisions between protocluster clouds triggered fragmentation into individual stars. Most protocluster clouds dispersed into the Galactic halo during the star formation epoch. In contrast, the large spread in stellar metallicity in dwarf galaxies suggests that star formation in their pregenitors was self-regulated: we propose the protocluster clouds formed from thermal instability in the protogalactic clouds and show that a population of massive stars is needed to provide sufficient UV flux to prevent the collapsing protogalactic clouds from fragmenting into individual stars. Based upon these constraints, we propose a unified scenario to describe the early epochs of star formation in the Galactic halo as well as the thick and thin components of the Galactic disk.

  7. The young stellar population of IC 1613. III. New O-type stars unveiled by GTC-OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M.; Herrero, A.

    2013-03-01

    Context. Very low-metallicity massive stars are key to understanding the reionization epoch. Radiation-driven winds, chief agents in the evolution of massive stars, are consequently an important ingredient in our models of the early-Universe. Recent findings hint that the winds of massive stars with poorer metallicity than the SMC may be stronger than predicted by theory. Besides calling the paradigm of radiation-driven winds into question, this result would affect the calculated ionizing radiation and mechanical feedback of massive stars, as well as the role these objects play at different stages of the Universe. Aims: The field needs a systematic study of the winds of a large sample of very metal-poor massive stars. The sampling of spectral types is particularly poor in the very early types. This paper's goal is to increase the list of known O-type stars in the dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613, whose metallicity is lower than the SMC's roughly by a factor 2. Methods: Using the reddening-free Q pseudo-colour, evolutionary masses, and GALEX photometry, we built a list of very likely O-type stars. We obtained low-resolution (R ~ 1000) GTC-OSIRIS spectra for a fraction of them and performed spectral classification, the only way to unequivocally confirm candidate OB-stars. Results: We have discovered 8 new O-type stars in IC 1613, increasing the list of 7 known O-type stars in this galaxy by a factor of 2. The best quality spectra were analysed with the model atmosphere code FASTWIND to derive stellar parameters. We present the first spectral type - effective temperature scale for O-stars beyond the SMC. Conclusions: The target selection method is successful. From the pre-selected list of 13 OB star candidates, we have found 8 new O-stars and 4 early-B stars and provided a similar type for a formerly known early-O star. Further tests are needed, but the presented procedure can eventually make preliminary low-resolution spectroscopy to confirm candidates unnecessary. The

  8. Evolution of Cold Circumstellar Dust around Solar-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, John M.; Wolf, Sebastian; Schreyer, Katharina; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    We present submillimeter (Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 350 μm) and millimeter (Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope [SEST] 1.2 mm, Owens Valley Radio Observatory [OVRO] 3 mm) photometry for 127 solar-type stars from the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems Spitzer Legacy program that have masses between ~0.5 and 2.0 Msolar and ages from ~3 Myr to 3 Gyr. Continuum emission was detected toward four stars with a signal-to-noise ratio>=3: the classical T Tauri stars RX J1842.9-3532, RX J1852.3-3700, and PDS 66 with SEST, and the debris-disk system HD 107146 with OVRO. RX J1842.9-3532 and RX J1852.3-3700 are located in projection near the R CrA molecular cloud, with estimated ages of ~10 Myr (Neuhäuser et al.), whereas PDS 66 is a probable member of the ~20 Myr old Lower Centaurus-Crux subgroup of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association (Mamajek et al.). The continuum emission toward these three sources is unresolved at the 24" SEST resolution and likely originates from circumstellar accretion disks, each with estimated dust masses of ~5×10-5 Msolar. Analysis of the visibility data toward HD 107146 (age~80-200 Myr) indicates that the 3 mm continuum emission is centered on the star within the astrometric uncertainties and resolved with a Gaussian-fit FWHM size of (6.5"+/-1.4")×(4.2"+/-1.3"), or 185AU×120 AU. The results from our continuum survey are combined with published observations to quantify the evolution of dust mass with time by comparing the mass distributions for samples with different stellar ages. The frequency distribution of circumstellar dust masses around solar-type stars in the Taurus molecular cloud (age~2 Myr) is distinguished from that around 3-10 Myr and 10-30 Myr old stars at a significance level of ~1.5 and ~3 σ, respectively. These results suggest a decrease in the mass of dust contained in small dust grains and/or changes in the grain properties by stellar ages of 10-30 Myr, consistent with previous conclusions. Further

  9. Early-type objects in NGC 6611 and the Eagle Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martayan, C.; Floquet, M.; Hubert, A. M.; Neiner, C.; Frémat, Y.; Baade, D.; Fabregat, J.

    2008-10-01

    Aims: An important question about Be stars is whether they are born as such or whether they have become Be stars during their evolution. It is necessary to observe young clusters to answer this question. Methods: To this end, observations of stars in NGC 6611 and the star-formation region of Eagle Nebula were carried out with the ESO-WFI in slitless spectroscopic mode and at the VLT-GIRAFFE (R ≃ 6400-17 000). The targets for the GIRAFFE observations were pre-selected from the literature and our catalogue of emission-line stars based on the WFI study. GIRAFFE observations allowed us to study the population of the early-type stars accurately both with and without emission lines. For this study, we determined the fundamental parameters of OBA stars thanks to the GIRFIT code. We also studied the status of the objects (main sequence or pre-main sequence stars) by using IR data, membership probabilities, and location in HR diagrams. Results: The nature of the early-type stars with emission-line stars in NGC 6611 and its surrounding environment is derived. The slitless observations with the WFI clearly indicate a small number of emission-line stars in M16. We observed with GIRAFFE 101 OBA stars, among them 9 are emission-line stars with circumstellar emission in Hα. We found that W080 could be a new He-strong star, like W601. W301 is a possible classical Be star, W503 is a mass-transfer eclipsing binary with an accretion disk, and the other ones are possible Herbig Ae/Be stars. We also found that the rotational velocities of main sequence B stars are 18% lower than those of pre-main sequence B stars, in good agreement with theory about the evolution of rotational velocities. Combining adaptive optics, IR data, spectroscopy, and radial velocity indications, we found that 27% of the B-type stars are binaries. We also redetermined the age of NGC 6611 found equal to 1.2-1.8 Myears, in good agreement with the most recent determinations.

  10. Activity trends in young solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, J.; Jetsu, L.; Hackman, T.; Kajatkari, P.; Henry, G. W.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We study a sample of 21 young and active solar-type stars with spectral types ranging from late F to mid K and characterize the behaviour of their activity. Methods: We apply the continuous period search (CPS) time series analysis method on Johnson B- and V-band photometry of the sample stars, collected over a period of 16 to 27 years. Using the CPS method, we estimate the surface differential rotation and determine the existence and behaviour of active longitudes and activity cycles on the stars. We supplement the time series results by calculating new log R'HK = log F'HK/σTeff4 emission indices for the stars from high resolution spectroscopy. Results: The measurements of the photometric rotation period variations reveal a positive correlation between the relative differential rotation coefficient and the rotation period as k ∝ Prot1.36, but do not reveal any dependence of the differential rotation on the effective temperature of the stars. Secondary period searches reveal activity cycles in 18 of the stars and temporary or persistent active longitudes in 11 of them. The activity cycles fall into specific activity branches when examined in the log Prot/Pcyc vs. log Ro-1, where Ro-1 = 2Ωτc, or log Prot/Pcyc vs. log R'HK diagram. We find a new split into sub-branches within this diagram, indicating multiple simultaneously present cycle modes. Active longitudes appear to be present only on the more active stars. There is a sharp break at approximately log R'HK = -4.46 separating the less active stars with long-term axisymmetric spot distributions from the more active ones with non-axisymmetric configurations. In seven out of eleven of our stars with clearly detected long-term non-axisymmetric spot activity the estimated active longitude periods are significantly shorter than the mean photometric rotation periods. This systematic trend can be interpreted either as a sign of the active longitudes being sustained from a deeper level in the stellar interior

  11. Spectroscopic survey of Kepler stars - II. FIES/NOT observations of A- and F-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemczura, E.; Polińska, M.; Murphy, S. J.; Smalley, B.; Kołaczkowski, Z.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Lykke, J. M.; Triviño Hage, A.; Michalska, G.

    2017-09-01

    We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 28 A and 22 F stars in the Kepler field, observed using the Fibre-Fed Échelle Spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We provide spectral types, atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for 50 stars. Balmer, Fe I and Fe II lines were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities. We determined chemical abundances and projected rotational velocities using a spectrum synthesis technique. Effective temperatures calculated by spectral energy distribution fitting are in good agreement with those determined from the spectral line analysis. The stars analysed include chemically peculiar stars of the Am and λ Boo types, as well as stars with approximately solar chemical abundances. The wide distribution of projected rotational velocity, vsin I, is typical for A and F stars. The microturbulence velocities obtained are typical for stars in the observed temperature and surface gravity ranges. Moreover, we affirm the results of Niemczura et al. that Am stars do not have systematically higher microturbulent velocities than normal stars of the same temperature.

  12. Dating the Stars Next Door: Ages and Coronal X-Ray Activities of Local K-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katynski, Marcus; Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2016-01-01

    Age is one of the most difficult (but important) basic stellar physical property to determine. One possible means to estimate stellar age is from rotational period; it is known that as cool stars age, they lose angular momentum from magnetic braking and slow-down. Thus, good Rotation-Age relationships exist, which are calibrated with stars possessing reliable ages from: evolutionary tracks and/or memberships in clusters/moving groups or binary star systems. Further, ages of older stars can be estimated from (low) metal abundances and kinematics (high space motions). More recently, age determinations from asteroseismology are also becoming more reliable. Except for the many G, K, M stars in the Kepler/K2 fields, rotational periods are difficult to measure photometrically for older, less active stars since star spots and active regions are smaller & less prominent. Thus measuring the coronal X-ray activity of a star is an appealing alternative. Coronal X-ray emission is generated by the stellar dynamo, and so is directly related to the stars' rotation (and age). Measurement of X-ray fluxes (or upper limits) have been made for most of the nearby stars (within ~20 pc) with data available in the HEASARC archives. During the 1990's the ROSAT X-Ray Satellite carried out an all-sky survey of thousands of X-ray sources, including hundreds of nearby stars, producing a large archival database. Using these and other available X-ray data from XMM-Newton & Chandra, we explore the relation between coronal X-ray activity and stellar age of all stars within 10 pc (32.6 LY), with special emphasis on dK and early dM stars that make up ~85% of the sample. Here we report the progress made in determination the ages these nearby stars. We focused on nearby dK-stars, due to their long lifetimes (>20 Gyr) and habitable zones that lie ~0.5 -1.5 AU from their host stars. They appear to be ideal candidates for hosting potentially habitable planets, making them interesting targets. We present

  13. Herschel Spectroscopy of Early-type Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Lapham, Ryen Carl; Young, Lisa M.; Crocker, Alison, E-mail: ryen.lapham@student.nmt.edu, E-mail: lyoung@physics.nmt.edu, E-mail: crockera@reed.edu

    We present Herschel spectroscopy of atomic lines arising in photodissociation regions as well as ionization regions of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), focusing on the volume-limited Atlas3D sample. Our data include the [C ii], [O i], and [N ii] 122 and 205 μ m lines, along with ancillary data including CO and H i maps. We find that ETGs have [C ii]/FIR ratios slightly lower than spiral galaxies in the KINGFISH sample, and several ETGs have unusually large [N ii] 122/[C ii] ratios. The [N ii] 122/[C ii] ratio is correlated with UV colors and there is a strong anti-correlation ofmore » [C ii]/FIR with NUV-K seen in both spirals and ETGs, likely due to a softer radiation field with fewer photons available to ionize carbon and heat the gas. The correlation thus makes a [C ii] deficit in galaxies with redder stellar populations. The high [N ii] 122/[C ii] (and low [C ii]/FIR) line ratios could also be affected by the removal of much of the diffuse, low-density gas, which is consistent with the low H i/H{sub 2} ratios. [C ii] is now being used as a star-formation indicator, and we find that it is just as good for ETGs as in spirals. The [C ii]/CO ratios found are also similar to those found in spiral galaxies. Through the use of the [N ii] 205 μ m line, estimates of the percentage of [C ii] emission arising from ionized gas indicate that a significant portion could arise in ionized regions.« less

  14. J-type Carbon Stars: A Dominant Source of 14 N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Nan; Stephan, Thomas; Boehnke, Patrick; ...

    2017-07-21

    Here, we report Mo isotopic data of 27 new presolar SiC grains, including 12 14N-rich AB ( 14N/ 15N > 440, AB2) and 15 mainstream (MS) grains, and their correlated Sr and Ba isotope ratios when available. Direct comparison of the data for the MS grains, which came from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with large s-process isotope enhancements, with the AB2 grain data demonstrates that AB2 grains show near-solar isotopic compositions and lack s-process enhancements. The near-normal Sr, Mo, and Ba isotopic compositions of AB2 grains clearly exclude born-again AGB stars, where the intermediate neutron-capture process (i-process) takesmore » place, as their stellar source. On the other hand, low-mass CO novae and early R- and J-type carbon stars show 13C and 14N excesses but no s-process enhancements and are thus potential stellar sources of AB2 grains. And because both early R-type carbon stars and CO novae are rare objects, the abundant J-type carbon stars (10%–15% of all carbon stars) are thus likely to be a dominant source of AB2 grains.« less

  15. J-type Carbon Stars: A Dominant Source of {sup 14}N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Nan; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O’D.

    We report Mo isotopic data of 27 new presolar SiC grains, including 12 {sup 14}N-rich AB ({sup 14}N/{sup 15}N > 440, AB2) and 15 mainstream (MS) grains, and their correlated Sr and Ba isotope ratios when available. Direct comparison of the data for the MS grains, which came from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with large s -process isotope enhancements, with the AB2 grain data demonstrates that AB2 grains show near-solar isotopic compositions and lack s -process enhancements. The near-normal Sr, Mo, and Ba isotopic compositions of AB2 grains clearly exclude born-again AGB stars, where the intermediate neutron-capture processmore » ( i -process) takes place, as their stellar source. On the other hand, low-mass CO novae and early R- and J-type carbon stars show {sup 13}C and {sup 14}N excesses but no s -process enhancements and are thus potential stellar sources of AB2 grains. Because both early R-type carbon stars and CO novae are rare objects, the abundant J-type carbon stars (10%–15% of all carbon stars) are thus likely to be a dominant source of AB2 grains.« less

  16. J-type Carbon Stars: A Dominant Source of 14 N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Nan; Stephan, Thomas; Boehnke, Patrick

    Here, we report Mo isotopic data of 27 new presolar SiC grains, including 12 14N-rich AB ( 14N/ 15N > 440, AB2) and 15 mainstream (MS) grains, and their correlated Sr and Ba isotope ratios when available. Direct comparison of the data for the MS grains, which came from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with large s-process isotope enhancements, with the AB2 grain data demonstrates that AB2 grains show near-solar isotopic compositions and lack s-process enhancements. The near-normal Sr, Mo, and Ba isotopic compositions of AB2 grains clearly exclude born-again AGB stars, where the intermediate neutron-capture process (i-process) takesmore » place, as their stellar source. On the other hand, low-mass CO novae and early R- and J-type carbon stars show 13C and 14N excesses but no s-process enhancements and are thus potential stellar sources of AB2 grains. And because both early R-type carbon stars and CO novae are rare objects, the abundant J-type carbon stars (10%–15% of all carbon stars) are thus likely to be a dominant source of AB2 grains.« less

  17. J-type Carbon Stars: A Dominant Source of 14 N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Nan; Stephan, Thomas; Boehnke, Patrick

    We report Mo isotopic data of 27 new presolar SiC grains, including 12 N-14-rich AB (N-14/N-15 > 440, AB2) and 15 mainstream (MS) grains, and their correlated Sr and Ba isotope ratios when available. Direct comparison of the data for the MS grains, which came from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with large s-process isotope enhancements, with the AB2 grain data demonstrates that AB2 grains show near-solar isotopic compositions and lack s-process enhancements. The near-normal Sr, Mo, and Ba isotopic compositions of AB2 grains clearly exclude born-again AGB stars, where the intermediate neutron-capture process (i-process) takes place, as theirmore » stellar source. On the other hand, low-mass CO novae and early R-and J-type carbon stars show C-13 and N-14 excesses but no s-process enhancements and are thus potential stellar sources of AB2 grains. Because both early R-type carbon stars and CO novae are rare objects, the abundant J-type carbon stars (10%-15% of all carbon stars) are thus likely to be a dominant source of AB2 grains.« less

  18. Searching for the signatures of terrestrial planets in F-, G-type main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Hernández, J. I.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Sousa, S. G.; Israelian, G.; Santos, N. C.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Udry, S.

    2013-04-01

    Context. Detailed chemical abundances of volatile and refractory elements have been discussed in the context of terrestrial-planet formation during in past years. Aims: The HARPS-GTO high-precision planet-search program has provided an extensive database of stellar spectra, which we have inspected in order to select the best-quality spectra available for late type stars. We study the volatile-to-refractory abundance ratios to investigate their possible relation with the low-mass planetary formation. Methods: We present a fully differential chemical abundance analysis using high-quality HARPS and UVES spectra of 61 late F- and early G-type main-sequence stars, where 29 are planet hosts and 32 are stars without detected planets. Results: As for the previous sample of solar analogs, these stars slightly hotter than the Sun also provide very accurate Galactic chemical abundance trends in the metallicity range -0.3 < [Fe/H] < 0.4. Stars with and without planets show similar mean abundance ratios. Moreover, when removing the Galactic chemical evolution effects, these mean abundance ratios, Δ [X/Fe] SUN - STARS, against condensation temperature, tend to exhibit less steep trends with nearly zero or slightly negative slopes. We have also analyzed a subsample of 26 metal-rich stars, 13 with and 13 without known planets, with spectra at S/N ~ 850, on average, in the narrow metallicity range 0.04 < [Fe/H] < 0.19. We find the similar, although not equal, abundance pattern with negative slopes for both samples of stars with and without planets. Using stars at S/N ≥ 550 provides equally steep abundance trends with negative slopes for stars both with and without planets. We revisit the sample of solar analogs to study the abundance patterns of these stars, in particular, 8 stars hosting super-Earth-like planets. Among these stars having very low-mass planets, only four of them reveal clear increasing abundance trends versus condensation temperature. Conclusions: Finally, we

  19. Dynamical Model for Spindown of Solar-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Aditi; Kim, Eun-jin; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2016-12-01

    After their formation, stars slow down their rotation rates by the removal of angular momentum from their surfaces, e.g., via stellar winds. Explaining how this rotation of solar-type stars evolves in time is currently an interesting but difficult problem in astrophysics. Despite the complexity of the processes involved, a traditional model, where the removal of angular momentum by magnetic fields is prescribed, has provided a useful framework to understand observational relations between stellar rotation, age, and magnetic field strength. Here, for the first time, a spindown model is proposed where loss of angular momentum by magnetic fields evolves dynamically, instead of being prescibed kinematically. To this end, we evolve the stellar rotation and magnetic field simultaneously over stellar evolution time by extending our previous work on a dynamo model which incorporates nonlinear feedback mechanisms on rotation and magnetic fields. We show that our extended model reproduces key observations and is capable of explaining the presence of the two branches of (fast and slow rotating) stars which have different relations between rotation rate Ω versus time (age), magnetic field strength | B| versus rotation rate, and frequency of magnetic field {ω }{cyc} versus rotation rate. For fast rotating stars we find that: (I) there is an exponential spindown {{Ω }}\\propto {e}-1.35t, with t measured in Gyr; (II) magnetic activity saturates for higher rotation rate; (III) {ω }{cyc}\\propto {{{Ω }}}0.83. For slow rotating stars we find: (I) a power-law spindown {{Ω }}\\propto {t}-0.52; (II) that magnetic activity scales roughly linearly with rotation rate; (III) {ω }{cyc}\\propto {{{Ω }}}1.16. The results obtained from our investigations are in good agreement with observations. The Vaughan-Preston gap is consistently explained in our model by the shortest spindown timescale in this transition from fast to slow rotators. Our results highlight the importance of self

  20. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XII. Rotational velocities of the single O-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Sabín-Sanjulían, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Gräfener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, also known as the Tarantula nebula, is the nearest starburst region. It contains the richest population of massive stars in the Local Group, and it is thus the best possible laboratory to investigate open questions on the formation and evolution of massive stars. Aims: Using ground-based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to establish the (projected) rotational velocity distribution for a sample of 216 presumably single O-type stars in 30 Dor. The sample is large enough to obtain statistically significant information and to search for variations among subpopulations - in terms of spectral type, luminosity class, and spatial location - in the field of view. Methods: We measured projected rotational velocities, νesini, by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied to a set of isolated spectral lines. We also used an iterative deconvolution procedure to infer the probability density, P(νe), of the equatorial rotational velocity, νe. Results: The distribution of νesini shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 kms-1 and a high-velocity tail extending up to ~600 kms-1. This structure is also present in the inferred distribution P(νe) with around 80% of the sample having 0 < νe ≤ 300 kms-1 and the other 20% distributed in the high-velocity region. The presence of the low-velocity peak is consistent with what has been found in other studies for late O- and early B-type stars. Conclusions: Most of the stars in our sample rotate with a rate less than 20% of their break-up velocity. For the bulk of the sample, mass loss in a stellar wind and/or envelope expansion is not efficient enough to significantly spin down these stars within the first few Myr of evolution. If massive-star formation results in stars rotating at birth with a large portion of their break-up velocities, an

  1. Evolution of Planetary Nebulae with WR-type Central Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danehkar, Ashkbiz

    2014-04-01

    This thesis presents a study of the kinematics, physical conditions and chemical abundances for a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) with Wolf-Rayet (WR) and weak emission-line stars (wels), based on optical integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy obtained with the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) on the Australian National University 2.3 telescope at Siding Spring Observatory, and complemented by spectra from the literature. PNe surrounding WR-type stars constitute a particular study class for this study. A considerable fraction of currently well-identified central stars of PNe exhibit 'hydrogen-deficient' fast expanding atmospheres characterized by a large mass-loss rate. Most of them were classified as the carbon-sequence and a few of them as the nitrogen-sequence of the WR-type stars. What are less clear are the physical mechanisms and evolutionary paths that remove the hydrogen-rich outer layer from these degenerate cores, and transform it into a fast stellar wind. The aim of this thesis is to determine kinematic structure, density distribution, thermal structure and elemental abundances for a sample of PNe with different hydrogen-deficient central stars, which might provide clues about the origin and formation of their hydrogen-deficient stellar atmospheres. Hα and [N II] emission features have been used to determine kinematic structures. Based on spatially resolved observations of these emission lines, combined with archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging for compact PNe, morphological structures of these PNe have been determined. Comparing the velocity maps from the IFU spectrograph with those provided by morpho-kinematic models allowed disentangling of the different morphological components of most PNe, apart from the compact objects. The results indicate that these PNe have axisymmetric morphologies, either bipolar or elliptical. In many cases, the associated kinematic maps for PNe around hot WR-type stars also show the presence of so-called fast

  2. EUVE Right Angle Program Observations of Late-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, D. J.; Mathioudakis, M.; Drake, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    The EUVE Right Angle Program (RAP) obtains photometric data in four bands centered at ~ 100 Angstroms (Lexan/B), ~ 200 Angstroms (Al/Ti/C), ~ 400 Angstroms (Ti/Sb/Al), and ~ 550 Angstroms (Sn/SiO). RAP observations are up to 20 times more sensitive than the all-sky survey. We present RAP observations of the late-type stars: BD+03 301, BD+05 300, HR 1262, BD+23 635, BD+22 669, Melotte 25 VA 334, Melotte 25 1366, Melotte 25 59, Melotte 25 65, theta (1) Tau, V834 Tau, GJ 2037, BD-21 1074, GJ 205, RE J0532-030, GJ 9287A, HT Vir, BD+46 1944, Proxima Cen, alpha Cen A/B, HR 6094, CPD-48 10901, and HR 8883. We derive fluxes and emission measures from Lexan/B and Al/Ti/C count rates. The time variability of the sources has been examined. Most of the sources show no significant variability at the 99% confidence level. Flares were detected from the K3V star V834 Tau (HD 29697) and the K0 star BD+22 669. The BD+22 669 count rate at the peak of the flare is a factor of 10 higher than the quiescent count rate with a peak Lexan/B luminosity of 7.9 x 10(29) erg s(-1) . The V834 Tau flare was detected in both Lexan/B and Al/Ti/C bands. The peak luminosity of the flare is 1.6 x 10(29) erg s(-1) and 8 x 10(28) ergs s(-1) for Lexan/B and Al/Ti/C, respectively. This is a factor of 4.3 higher than the quiescent luminosity in Lexan/B, and a factor of 4.6 in Al/Ti/C\\@. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS5-29298.

  3. The ultraviolet variability of early-type supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underhill, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    Four early-type supergiants - HD 79186 (B5 Ia), HD 96919 (B9 Ia), HD 105056 (ON9.7 Iae), and HD 148379 (B2 Iae) - have been observed with the low-resolution spectrographs of IUE in the large aperture on 14 days. The behavior of the ultraviolet fluxes with time is studied. The light from all four stars seems to vary. Typically the dispersion about the mean magnitude at any wavelength corresponds to + or - 0.085, + or - 0.080, + or - 0.101, and + or - 0.106 mag, respectively. These amplitudes exceed the typical uncertainty in an IUE measurement of flux by about a factor of 3; they are somewhat larger than the variations known in the visible wavelength range. There are insufficient data to investigate periodicity in the observed light changes. The effective temperatures and angular diameters of the stars have been estimated using the present ultraviolet photometry, published UBV and uvby photometry, and the model-atmosphere fluxes reported by Kurucz in 1979. The program stars have dimensions typical for their spectral types. A brief discussion is given of possible causes of the variability of hot supergiants.

  4. IUE observations of solar-type stars in the Pleiades and the Hyades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Vilhu, Osmi; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive set of IUE observations of solar-type stars (spectral types F5-G5) in the Pleiades is presented. Spectra were obtained in January and August 1988 for both the transition region and chromospheric emission wavelength regions, respectively. Mg II fluxes were detected for two out of three Pleiades stars and C IV upper limits for two of these stars. Long-wavelength high-resolution spectra were also obtained for previously unobserved solar-type stars in the Hyades. With the inclusion of spectra of additional Hyades stars obtained from the IUE archives, surface fluxes and fractional luminosities for both clusters' solar-type stars are calculated; these values provide a better estimate for the Mg II saturation line for single stars.

  5. On the Evolution of O(He)-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Reindl, N.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.

    2012-01-01

    O(He) stars represent a small group of four very hot post-AGB stars whose atmospheres are composed of almost pure helium. Their evolution deviates from the hydrogen-deficient post-AGO evolutionary sequence of carbon-dominated stars like e.g. PG 1159 or Wolf- Rayet stars. While (very) late thermal pulse evolutionary models can explain the observed He/C/O abundances in these objects, they do not reproduce He-dominated surface abundances. Currently it seems most likely that the O(He) stars originate from a double helium white dwarf merger and so they could be the successors of the luminous helium-rich sdO-stars. An other possibility is that O(He)-stars could be successors of RCB or EHe stars.

  6. Observations of magnetic fields on solar-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcy, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Magnetic-field observations were carried out for 29 G and K main-sequence stars. The area covering-factors of magnetic regions tends to be greater in the K dwarfs than in the G dwarfs. However, no spectral-type dependence is found for the field strengths, contrary to predictions that pressure equilibrium with the ambient photospheric gas pressure would determine the surface field strengths. Coronal soft X-ray fluxes from the G and K dwarfs correlate well with the fraction of the stellar surface covered by magnetic regions. The dependence of coronal soft X-ray fluxes on photospheric field strengths is consistent with Stein's predicted generation-rates for Alfven waves. These dependences are inconsistent with the one dynamo model for which a specific prediction is offered. Finally, time variability of magnetic fields is seen on the two active stars that have been extensively monitored. Significant changes in magnetic fields are seen to occur on timescales as short as one day.

  7. A 30 kpc CHAIN OF ''BEADS ON A STRING'' STAR FORMATION BETWEEN TWO MERGING EARLY TYPE GALAXIES IN THE CORE OF A STRONG-LENSING GALAXY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Davis, Timothy A.; Gladders, Michael D.

    2014-08-01

    New Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet and optical imaging of the strong-lensing galaxy cluster SDSS J1531+3414 (z = 0.335) reveals two centrally dominant elliptical galaxies participating in an ongoing major merger. The interaction is at least somewhat rich in cool gas, as the merger is associated with a complex network of 19 massive superclusters of young stars (or small tidal dwarf galaxies) separated by ∼1 kpc in projection from one another, combining to an estimated total star formation rate of ∼5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The resolved young stellar superclusters are threaded by narrow Hα, [O II], and blue excess filaments arrangedmore » in a network spanning ∼27 kpc across the two merging galaxies. This morphology is strongly reminiscent of the well-known ''beads on a string'' mode of star formation observed on kiloparsec scales in the arms of spiral galaxies, resonance rings, and in tidal tails between interacting galaxies. Nevertheless, the arrangement of this star formation relative to the nuclei of the two galaxies is difficult to interpret in a dynamical sense, as no known ''beads on a string'' systems associated with kiloparsec-scale tidal interactions exhibit such lopsided morphology relative to the merger participants. In this Letter, we present the images and follow-up spectroscopy and discuss possible physical interpretations for the unique arrangement of the young stellar clusters. While we suggest that this morphology is likely to be dynamically short-lived, a more quantitative understanding awaits necessary multiwavelength follow-up, including optical integral field spectroscopy, ALMA submillimeter interferometry, and Chandra X-ray imaging.« less

  8. Photometric Variations of Solar-type Stars: Results of the Cloudcroft Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giampapa, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a synoptic program to search for the occurrence of photometric variability in solar type stars as seen in continuum band photometry are summarized. The survey disclosed the existence of photometric variability in solar type stars that is related to the presence of spots on the stellar surface. The observed variability detected in solar type stars is at enhanced levels compared to that observed for the Sun.

  9. Search for Type Ia supernova progenitors in open star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Subho

    2013-12-01

    Though Type Ia supernovae (henceforth SNae) are a primary tool in refining our understanding of cosmology and dark energy, controversies still abound regarding what the progenitors of these SNae are. The two main classes of possible Type Ia SN progenitors are: (1) the single-degenerate model, where a white dwarf (the remnant of a Sun-like star that has completed its life cycle) gravitationally accretes material from a close companion star, and (2) the double-degenerate model, involving the merger of two white dwarfs. In either case, the resulting SN explosion looks the same superficially. But some of the details of the SNae, perhaps including details critical to understanding dark energy, may depend sensitively on what the progenitors are. The goal of this thesis was to search for radial velocity variations in two candidate double degenerate systems. Firstly, I determined if either of these systems were bona fide double degenerates. I used the well-tested method of searching for radial velocity variations due to orbital motion as determined by changing Doppler shifts in their optical spectra. These data were obtained from time-series spectra of both candidate systems over several hours at the world's largest ground based optical telescope, the Keck Observatory in Hawaii. Secondly, I tested whether each confirmed binary system is of sufficient mass and sufficiently short orbital period to be progenitors of a future Type Ia SN. Binary white dwarfs that will merge to form Type IaSNae over a Hubble time have orbital periods less than six hours, which are easily detectable with these data. Type Ia SN progenitors must also have a mass near or above the Chandrasekhar limit of ~1.44 solar masses; the total mass of these systems can also be determined from our data. If one or both of these candidate systems had met both these criteria, the white dwarfs would have been the first definitive examples of the double degenerate class of Type Ia progenitors. This result, which we

  10. FLARES ON A-TYPE STARS: EVIDENCE FOR HEATING OF SOLAR CORONA BY NANOFLARES?

    SciTech Connect

    Švanda, Michal; Karlický, Marian, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz

    We analyzed the occurrence rates of flares on stars of spectral types K, G, F, and A, observed by Kepler . We found that the histogram of occurrence frequencies of stellar flares is systematically shifted toward a high-energy tail for A-type stars compared to stars of cooler spectral types. We extrapolated the fitted power laws toward flares with smaller energies (nanoflares) and made estimates for total energy flux to stellar atmospheres by flares. We found that, for A-type stars, the total energy flux density was at least four-times smaller than for G stars. We speculate that this deficit in energymore » supply may explain the lack of hot coronae on A-type stars. Our results indicate the importance of nanoflares for heating and formation of the solar corona.« less

  11. A survey for pulsations in A-type stars using SuperWASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2015-12-01

    "It is sound judgement to hope that in the not too distant future we shall be competent to understand so simple a thing as a star." - Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, The Internal Constitution of Stars, 1926 A survey of A-type stars is conducted with the SuperWASP archive in the search for pulsationally variable stars. Over 1.5 million stars are selected based on their (J-H) colour. Periodograms are calculated for light curves which have been extracted from the archive and cleaned of spurious points. Peaks which have amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude are identified in the periodograms. In total, 202 656 stars are identified to show variability in the range 5-300 c/d. Spectroscopic follow-up was obtained for 38 stars which showed high-frequency pulsations between 60 and 235 c/d, and a further object with variability at 636 c/d. In this sample, 13 were identified to be normal A-type δ Sct stars, 14 to be pulsating metallic-lined Am stars, 11 to be rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars, and one to be a subdwarf B variable star. The spectra were used not only to classify the stars, but to determine an effective temperature through Balmer line fitting. Hybrid stars have been identified in this study, which show pulsations in both the high- and low-overtone domains; an observation not predicted by theory. These stars are prime targets to perform follow-up observations, as a confirmed detection of this phenomenon will have significant impact on the theory of pulsations in A-type stars. The detected number of roAp stars has expanded the known number of this pulsator class by 22 per cent. Within these results both the hottest and coolest roAp star have been identified. Further to this, one object, KIC 7582608, was observed by the Kepler telescope for 4 yr, enabling a detailed frequency analysis. This analysis has identified significant frequency variations in this star, leading to the hypothesis that this is the first close binary star of its type. The observational

  12. The nature of the late B-type stars HD 67044 and HD 42035

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, R.; Gebran, M.; Royer, F.

    2016-04-01

    While monitoring a sample of apparently slowly rotating superficially normal bright late B and early A stars in the northern hemisphere, we have discovered that HD 67044 and HD 42035, hitherto classified as normal late B-type stars, are actually respectively a new chemically peculiar star and a new spectroscopic binary containing a very slow rotator HD 42035 S with ultra-sharp lines (v_{{e}}sin i= 3.7 km s^{-1}) and a fast rotator HD 42035 B with broad lines. The lines of Ti ii, Cr ii, Mn ii, Sr ii, Y ii, Zr ii and Ba ii are conspicuous features in the high resolution SOPHIE spectrum (R=75000) of HD 67044. The Hg ii line at 3983.93 Å is also present as a weak feature. The composite spectrum of HD 42035 is characterised by very sharp lines formed in HD 42035 S superimposed onto the shallow and broad lines of HD 42035 B. These very sharp lines are mostly due to light elements from C to Ni, the only heavy species definitely present are strontium and barium. Selected lines of 21 chemical elements from He up to Hg have been synthesized using model atmospheres computed with ATLAS9 and the spectrum synthesis code SYNSPEC48 including hyperfine structure of various isotopes when relevant. These synthetic spectra have been adjusted to high resolution high signal-to-noise spectra of HD 67044 and HD 42035 S in order to derive abundances of these key elements. HD 67044 is found to have distinct enhancements of Ti, Cr, Mn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba and Hg and underabundances in He, C, O, Ca and Sc which shows that this star is not a superficially normal late B-type star, but actually is a new CP star most likely of the HgMn type. HD 42035 S has provisional underabundances of the light elements from C to Ti and overabundances of heavier elements (except for Fe and Sr which are also underabundant) up to barium. These values are lower limits to the actual abundances as we cannot currently place properly the continuum of HD 42035 S. More accurate fundamental parameters and abundances for HD

  13. Physical properties and evolutionary time scales of disks around solar-type and intermediate mass stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Stephen E.; Edwards, Suzan

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations of circumstellar disks and their evolutionary timescales are reviewed. It is concluded that disks appear to be a natural outcome of the star-formation process. The disks surrounding young stars initially are massive, with optically thick structures comprised of gas and micron-sized grains. Disk masses are found to range from 0.01 to 0.2 solar masses for solar-type PMS stars, and from 0.01 to 6 solar masses for young, intermediate mass stars. Massive, optically thick accretion disks have accretion rates between 10 exp -8 and 10 exp -6 solar masses/yr for solar type PMS stars and between 10 exp -6 and 10 exp -4 solar masses/yr for intermediate stars. The results suggest that a significant fraction of the mass comprising the star may have passed through a circumstellar accretion disk.

  14. Testing the Wind-shock Paradigm for B-Type Star X-Ray Production with θ Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, T. F.; Petit, V.; Cohen, D.; Leutenegger, M.

    2017-11-01

    We present Chandra X-ray grating spectroscopy of the B0.2V star, θ Carina. θ Car is in a critical transition region between the latest O-type and earliest B-type stars, where some stars are observed to have UV-determined wind densities much lower than theoretically expected (e.g., Marcolino et al. 2009). In general, X-ray emission in this low-density wind regime should be less prominent than for O-stars (e.g., Martins et al. 2005), but observations suggest a higher than expected X-ray emission filling factor (Lucy 2012; Huenemoerder et al. 2012); if a larger fraction of the wind is shock-heated, it could explain the weak UV wind signature seen in weak wind stars, but this might severely challenge predictions of radiatively-driven wind theory. We measured the line widths of several He-, H-like and Fe ions and the f/i ratio of He-like ions in the X-ray spectrum, which improves upon the results from Nazé et al. (2008) (XMM-Newton RGS) with additional measurements (Chandra HETG) of Mgxi and Sixiii by further constraining the X-ray emission location. The f/i ratio is modified by the proximity to the UV-emitting stellar photosphere, and is therefore a diagnostic of the radial location of the X-ray emitting plasma. The measured widths of X-ray lines are narrow, <300 km s-1 and the f/i ratios place the X-rays relatively close to the surface, both implying θ Car is a weak wind star. The measured widths are also consistent with other later-type stars in the weak wind regime, β Cru (Cohen et al. 2008), for example, and are smaller on average than earlier weak wind stars such as μ Col (Huenemoerder et al. 2012). This could point to a spectral type divide, where one hypothesis, low density, works for early-B type stars and the other hypothesis, a larger fraction of shock-heated gas, explains weak winds in late-O type stars. Archival IUE data still needs to be analyzed to determine the mass loss rate and hydrodynamical simulations will be compared with observations to

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BCool survey of solar-type stars (Marsden+ 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, S. C.; Petit, P.; Jeffers, S. V.; Morin, J.; Fares, R.; Reiners, A.; Do Nascimento, J.-D., Jr.; Auriere, M.; Bouvier, J.; Carter, B. D.; Catala, C.; Dintrans, B.; Donati, J.-F.; Gastine, T.; Jardine, M.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Lanoux, J.; Lignieres, F.; Morgenthaler, A.; Ramirez-Velez, J. C.; Theado, S.; Van Grootel, V.; BCool Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The goal of the BCool spectropolarimetric survey is to observe as many of the bright (V<~9.0) solar-type stars as possible to further our understanding of the magnetic activity of cool stars. In this first paper, we present the spectropolarimetric snapshots of 170 solar-type stars that we have observed starting in 2006 until 2013 as part of the BCool survey. (5 data files).

  16. Evaluation of Delaware Stars for Early Success: Year 1 Report. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Tamargo, Jennifer; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2014-01-01

    Delaware was in the first group of states to receive a federal grant in 2012 to improve early care and education services and increase the number of infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children in high-quality programs. One component of the state's grant is a rigorous validation process for Delaware Stars for Early Success, a voluntary quality…

  17. The MiMeS survey of Magnetism in Massive Stars: magnetic analysis of the O-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunhut, J. H.; Wade, G. A.; Neiner, C.; Oksala, M. E.; Petit, V.; Alecian, E.; Bohlender, D. A.; Bouret, J.-C.; Henrichs, H. F.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Kochukhov, O.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    We present the analysis performed on spectropolarimetric data of 97 O-type targets included in the framework of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Survey. Mean least-squares deconvolved Stokes I and V line profiles were extracted for each observation, from which we measured the radial velocity, rotational and non-rotational broadening velocities, and longitudinal magnetic field Bℓ. The investigation of the Stokes I profiles led to the discovery of two new multiline spectroscopic systems (HD 46106, HD 204827) and confirmed the presence of a suspected companion in HD 37041. We present a modified strategy of the least-squares deconvolution technique aimed at optimizing the detection of magnetic signatures while minimizing the detection of spurious signatures in Stokes V. Using this analysis, we confirm the detection of a magnetic field in six targets previously reported as magnetic by the MiMeS collaboration (HD 108, HD 47129A2, HD 57682, HD 148937, CPD-28 2561, and NGC 1624-2), as well as report the presence of signal in Stokes V in three new magnetic candidates (HD 36486, HD 162978, and HD 199579). Overall, we find a magnetic incidence rate of 7 ± 3 per cent, for 108 individual O stars (including all O-type components part of multiline systems), with a median uncertainty of the Bℓ measurements of about 50 G. An inspection of the data reveals no obvious biases affecting the incidence rate or the preference for detecting magnetic signatures in the magnetic stars. Similar to A- and B-type stars, we find no link between the stars' physical properties (e.g. Teff, mass, and age) and the presence of a magnetic field. However, the Of?p stars represent a distinct class of magnetic O-type stars.

  18. What the Most Metal-poor Stars Tell Us About the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, Anna

    2008-05-01

    The chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the early Universe is a key topic in modern astrophysics. The most metal-poor Galactic halo stars are now frequently used in an attempt to reconstruct the onset of the chemical and dynamical formation processes of the Galaxy. These stars are an easily-accessible local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and can thus be used to carry out field-field cosmology. The discovery of two astrophysically very important metal-poor objects has recently lead to a significant advance in the field. One object is the most iron-poor star yet found (with [Fe/H]=-5.4). The other stars displays the strongest known overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements, such as uranium, and nucleo-chronometry yields a stellar age of 13 Gyr. Both stars already serve as benchmark objects for various theoretical studies with regard to nucleosynthesis processes in the early Galaxy. I will discuss how the abundance patterns of these and other metal-poor stars solidify and advance our understanding of the early Universe, and provide constraints on the nature of the first stars, as well as their explosion mechanisms and corresponding supernova nucleosynthesis yields. Large samples of these old objects are also employed to test theoretical predictions about the formation of the very first low-mass stars. In the near future, the combined power of near-field cosmology results with those of the next-generation facilities (e.g., MWA, JWST, GMT) may yield exceptional details about the formation processes of the first generations of stars and galaxies.

  19. On the Star Formation Rate, Initial Mass Function, and Hubble Type of Disk Galaxies and the Age of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer-Larsen, Jesper

    1996-01-01

    Evolutionary models for the disks of large disk galaxies, including effects of star formation, non-instantaneous gas recycling from stars, and infall of low-metallicity gas from the halo, have been calculated and compared with data for nearby, generally large disk galaxies on present disk star-formation rates (based on integrated Hα luminosities) as a function of disk gas fractions. The data were extracted from the work by Kennicutt, Tamblyn, & Congdon. The result of the comparison suggests that for disk galaxies the Hubble sequence is a disk age sequence, with early-type disks being the oldest and late types the youngest. Under the assumption of a minimum age of the Galactic disk of 10 Gyr, the mean age of Sa/Sab galaxies, and hence the age of the universe, is found to be at least 17±2 Gyr. It is furthermore found that the disk star-formation timescale is approximately independent of disk-galaxy type. Finally, it is found that the global initial mass function (IMF) in galactic disks is 2-3 times more weighted toward high-mass stars than the Scalo "best-fitting" model for the solar-neighborhood IMF. The more top-heavy model of Kennicutt provides a good fit to observation.

  20. The Origin of Dwarf Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloba, Elisa

    2012-10-01

    Abridge. We have conducted a spectrophotometric study of dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo cluster and in regions of lower density. We have found that these galaxies show many properties in common with late-type galaxies but not with more massive early-types (E/S0). The properties of the dEs in Virgo show gradients within the cluster. dEs in the outer parts of the Virgo cluster are kinematically supported by rotation, while those in the center are supported by the random motions of their stars (i.e. pressure supported). The rotationally supported dEs have disky isophotes and faint underlying spiral/irregular substructures, they also show younger ages than those pressure supported, which have boxy isophotes and are smooth and regular, without any substructure. We compare the position of these dEs with massive early-type galaxies in the Faber-Jackson and Fundamental Plane relations, and we find that, although there is no difference between the position of rotationally and pressure supported dEs, both deviate from the relations of massive early-type galaxies in the direction of dwarf spheroidal systems (dSphs). We have used their offset with respect to the Fundamental Plane of E/S0 galaxies to estimate their dark matter fraction. All the properties studied in this work agree with a ram pressure stripping scenario, where late-type galaxies infall into the cluster, their interaction with the intergalactic medium blows away their gas and, as a result, they are quenched in a small amount of time. However, those dEs in the center of the cluster seem to have been fully transformed leaving no trace of their possible spiral origin, thus, if that is the case, they must have experienced a more violent mechanism in combination with ram pressure stripping.

  1. Observations of Interstellar HI Toward Nearby Late-type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, W. B.; Henry, R. C.; Moos, H. W.; Linsky, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    High-disperson Copernicus and IUE observations of chromospheric Ly alpha emission are used to study the distribution of HI in the local interstellar medium. Interstellar parameters are derived toward 3 stars within 5 pc of the Sun, and upper limits are given for the Ly alpha flux from 9 other stars within 10 pc.

  2. Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelato, Hugo Vicente

    1999-01-01

    We will begin our study with a more or less superficial inspection of the "forest" of stars that we see in the skies. The first thing we notice is that, as sources of light, they are much weaker than the Sun. Second, their apparent colors vary; from a bluish-white in most of them to a reddish-yellow, which is rarer. There is also a third aspect, though it is not very obvious to the naked eye: most of the stars group themselves in small families of two, three or more members. A good example is the Alpha Centauri, the closest star to us, which, in fact, is a triple system of stars. Another is the group of 7 stars that make up the Pleiades, which will be discussed later on. In fact, almost half of the stars are double systems with only two members, called binary stars. Most of these double stars, though together, are separated by several astronomical units (one astronomical unit, AU, is the distance from Earth to the sun: see Chapter 1), and revolve around each other over periods of several years. And yet the revolutions of some binary stars, separated by much smaller distances, occur in only a few hours! These stars are so close to each other that they can share enveloping material. Often this exchange occurs in a somewhat violent manner. Local explosions may occur, expelling matter away from the system. In other binary systems, where one of the components is a very compact, dense star, companion material flows more calmly, making up a light disk around the compact star.

  3. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF METAL-POOR STARS FROM LAMOST: EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Liang

    2015-01-10

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capturemore » elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5 dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-processes may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data.« less

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC ORBITS FOR 15 LATE-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Willmarth, Daryl W.; Abt, Helmut A.; Fekel, Francis C.

    2016-08-01

    Spectroscopic orbital elements are determined for 15 stars with periods from 8 to 6528 days with six orbits computed for the first time. Improved astrometric orbits are computed for two stars and one new orbit is derived. Visual orbits were previously determined for four stars, four stars are members of multiple systems, and five stars have Hipparcos “G” designations or have been resolved by speckle interferometry. For the nine binaries with previous spectroscopic orbits, we determine improved or comparable elements. For HD 28271 and HD 200790, our spectroscopic results support the conclusions of previous authors that the large values of their massmore » functions and lack of detectable secondary spectrum argue for the secondary in each case being a pair of low-mass dwarfs. The orbits given here may be useful in combination with future interferometric and Gaia satellite observations.« less

  5. Searching for δ Scuti-type pulsation and characterising northern pre-main-sequence field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Fraile, D.; Rodríguez, E.; Amado, P. J.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars are objects evolving from the birthline to the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS). Given a mass range near the ZAMS, the temperatures and luminosities of PMS and main-sequence stars are very similar. Moreover, their evolutionary tracks intersect one another causing some ambiguity in the determination of their evolutionary status. In this context, the detection and study of pulsations in PMS stars is crucial for differentiating between both types of stars by obtaining information of their interiors via asteroseismic techniques. Aims: A photometric variability study of a sample of northern field stars, which previously classified as either PMS or Herbig Ae/Be objects, has been undertaken with the purpose of detecting δ Scuti-type pulsations. Determination of physical parameters for these stars has also been carried out to locate them on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and check the instability strip for this type of pulsators. Methods: Multichannel photomultiplier and CCD time series photometry in the uvby Strömgren and BVI Johnson bands were obtained during four consecutive years from 2007 to 2010. The light curves have been analysed, and a variability criterion has been established. Among the objects classified as variable stars, we have selected those which present periodicities above 4 d-1, which was established as the lowest limit for δ Scuti-type pulsations in this investigation. Finally, these variable stars have been placed in a colour-magnitude diagram using the physical parameters derived with the collected uvbyβ Strömgren-Crawford photometry. Results: Five PMS δ Scuti- and three probable β Cephei-type stars have been detected. Two additional PMS δ Scuti stars are also confirmed in this work. Moreover, three new δ Scuti- and two γ Doradus-type stars have been detected among the main-sequence objects used as comparison or check stars.

  6. Spots and activity of solar-type stars from Kepler observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savanov, I. S.; Dmitrienko, E. S.

    2017-05-01

    The spot coverages S for 2846 solar-type stars with effective temperatures from 5700 K to 5800 K and gravities from 4.4 to 4.5 have been measured. An analysis based on the MAST catalog, which presents photometric measurements obtained with the Kepler Space Telescope during Q9 is presented. The existence of two groups of solar-type stars, with S values between 0.001 and 0.007 and with S > 0.007, is inferred. The second group (active stars) contains 279 stars (about 10% of the total number of stars analyzed). The mean S parameter for the entire sample is 0.004, comparable to the mean spot coverage of the Sun. In general, the dependence of S on the rotation period for solar-type stars has characteristics similar to those found earlier for stars with exoplanets. For the vast majority of the stars in the sample, the activity is constant, and independent of age. The activity of the small number of active stars with S > 0.007 decreases with age. The age variations of the chromospheric activity index R'HK are compared to variations of the spot coverage S. The relations analyzed have common characteristic features. It is likely that both the spot activity level and the chromospheric activity level abruptly decrease for stars older than 4 billion yrs.

  7. A Close Hidden Stellar Companion to the SX Phe-Type Variable Star DW Psc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Wang, S.-M.; He, J.-J.; Zhou, X.; Jiang, L.-Q.

    2015-01-01

    DW Psc is a high-amplitude SX Phe-type variable with a period of pulsation of 0.05875 days. Using a few newly determined times of maximum light together with those collected from the literature, the changes in the observed-calculated (O-C) diagram are analyzed. It is discovered that the O-C curve of DW Psc shows a cyclic variation with a period of 6.08 years and a semi-amplitude of 0.0066 days. The periodic variation is analyzed for the light travel time effect, which is due to the presence of a stellar companion ({{M}2}sin i˜ 0.45(+/- 0.03) {{M}⊙ }). The two-component stars in the binary system are orbiting each other in an eccentric orbit (e ˜ 0.4) at an orbital separation of about 2.7(±0.3) AU. The detection of a close stellar companion to an SX Phe-type star supports the idea that SX Phe-type pulsating stars are blue stragglers that were formed from the merging of close binaries. The stellar companion has played an important role in the merging of the original binary by removing angular momentum from the central binary during early dynamical interaction or/and late dynamical evolution. After the more massive component in DW Psc evolves into a red giant, the cool close companion should help to remove the giant envelope via possible critical Roche-lobe overflow, and the system may be a progenitor of a cataclysmic variable. The detection of a close stellar companion to DW Psc makes it a very interesting system to study in the future.

  8. TRANSPORT BY MERIDIONAL CIRCULATIONS IN SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, T. S.; Brummell, N. H., E-mail: tsw25@soe.ucsc.edu

    2012-08-20

    Transport by meridional flows has significant consequences for stellar evolution, but is difficult to capture in global-scale numerical simulations because of the wide range of timescales involved. Stellar evolution models therefore usually adopt parameterizations for such transport based on idealized laminar or mean-field models. Unfortunately, recent attempts to model this transport in global simulations have produced results that are not consistent with any of these idealized models. In an effort to explain the discrepancies between global simulations and idealized models, here we use three-dimensional local Cartesian simulations of compressible convection to study the efficiency of transport by meridional flows belowmore » a convection zone in several parameter regimes of relevance to the Sun and solar-type stars. In these local simulations we are able to establish the correct ordering of dynamical timescales, although the separation of the timescales remains unrealistic. We find that, even though the generation of internal waves by convective overshoot produces a high degree of time dependence in the meridional flow field, the mean flow has the qualitative behavior predicted by laminar, 'balanced' models. In particular, we observe a progressive deepening, or 'burrowing', of the mean circulation if the local Eddington-Sweet timescale is shorter than the viscous diffusion timescale. Such burrowing is a robust prediction of laminar models in this parameter regime, but has never been observed in any previous numerical simulation. We argue that previous simulations therefore underestimate the transport by meridional flows.« less

  9. [A wavelet-transform-based method for the automatic detection of late-type stars].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-tian; Zhao, Rrui-zhen; Zhao, Yong-heng; Wu, Fu-chao

    2005-07-01

    The LAMOST project, the world largest sky survey project, urgently needs an automatic late-type stars detection system. However, to our knowledge, no effective methods for automatic late-type stars detection have been reported in the literature up to now. The present study work is intended to explore possible ways to deal with this issue. Here, by "late-type stars" we mean those stars with strong molecule absorption bands, including oxygen-rich M, L and T type stars and carbon-rich C stars. Based on experimental results, the authors find that after a wavelet transform with 5 scales on the late-type stars spectra, their frequency spectrum of the transformed coefficient on the 5th scale consistently manifests a unimodal distribution, and the energy of frequency spectrum is largely concentrated on a small neighborhood centered around the unique peak. However, for the spectra of other celestial bodies, the corresponding frequency spectrum is of multimodal and the energy of frequency spectrum is dispersible. Based on such a finding, the authors presented a wavelet-transform-based automatic late-type stars detection method. The proposed method is shown by extensive experiments to be practical and of good robustness.

  10. Stars of type MS with evidence of white dwarf companions. [IUE, Main Sequence (MS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peery, Benjamin F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A search for white dwarf companions of MS-type stars was conducted, using IUE. The overendowments of these stars in typical S-process nuclides suggest that they, like the Ba II stars, may owe their peculiar compositions to earlier mass transfer. Short-wavelength IUE spectra show striking emission line variability in HD35155, HD61913, and 4 Ori; HD35155 and 4 Ori show evidence of white dwarf companions.

  11. The stellar populations of nearby early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concannon, Kristi Dendy

    The recent completion of comprehensive photometric and spectroscopic galaxy surveys has revealed that early-type galaxies form a more heterogeneous family than previously thought. To better understand the star formation histories of early-type galaxies, we have obtained a set of high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for a sample of 180 nearby early-type galaxies with the FAST spectrograph and the 1.5m telescope at F. L. Whipple Observatory. The spectra cover the wavelength range 3500 5500 Å which allows the comparison of various Balmer lines, most importantly the higher order lines in the blue, and have a S/N ratio higher than that of previous samples, which makes it easier to investigate the intrinsic spread in the observed parameters. The data set contains galaxies in both the local field and Virgo cluster environment and spans the velocity dispersion range 50 < log σ < 250km s -1. In conjunction with recent improvements in population synthesis modeling, our data set enables us to investigate the star formation history of E/S0 galaxies as a function of mass (σ), environment, and to some extent morphology. We are able to probe the effects of age and metallicity on fundamental observable relations such as the Mg-σ relation, and show that there is a significant spread in age in such diagrams, at all log σ, such that their “uniformity” can not be interpreted as a homogeneous history for early-type galaxies. Analyzing the age and [Fe/H] distribution as a function of the galaxy mass, we find that an age-σ relation exists among galaxies in both the local field and the Virgo cluster, such that the lower log σ galaxies have younger luminosity-weighted mean ages. The age spread of the low σ galaxies suggests that essentially all of the low-mass galaxies contain young to intermediate age populations, whereas the spread in age of the high log σ galaxies (log σ >˜ 2.0) is much larger, with galaxies spanning the age range of 4 19 Gyr. Thus, rather

  12. The early-type strong emission-line supergiants of the Magellanic Clouds - A spectroscopic zoology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a spectroscopic survey of 21 early-type extreme emission line supergiants of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds using IUE and optical spectra are presented. The combined observations are discussed and the literature on each star in the sample is summarized. The classification procedures and the methods by which effective temperatures, bolometric magnitudes, and reddenings were assigned are discussed. The derived reddening values are given along with some results concerning anomalous reddening among the sample stars. The derived mass, luminosity, and radius for each star are presented, and the ultraviolet emission lines are described. Mass-loss rates are derived and discussed, and the implications of these observations for the evolution of the most massive stars in the Local Group are addressed.

  13. The Physical Properties and Effective Temperature Scale of O-Type Stars as a Function of Metallicity. I. A Sample of 20 Stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf P.; Puls, Joachim; Pauldrach, A. W. A.

    2004-06-01

    We have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based observations of a sample of 20 O-type stars in the LMC and SMC, including six of the hottest massive stars known (subtypes O2-O3) in the R136 cluster. In general, these data include (1) the HST UV spectra in order to measure the terminal velocities of the stellar winds, (2) high signal-to-noise, blue-optical data where the primary temperature- and gravity-sensitive photospheric lines are found, and (3) nebular-free Hα profiles, which provide the mass-loss rates. We find that the older (Faint Object Spectrograph) HST data of the R136 stars (which were obtained without the benefits of sky measurements) suffered from significant nebular emission, which would increase the derived mass-loss rates by factors of ~3, all other factors being equal. We also find several stars in the SMC for which the N III λλ4634, 4642 and He II λ4686 emission ``f'' characteristics do not appear to follow the same pattern as in Galactic stars. Since He II emission is due to the stellar wind (which will be weaker in SMC for stars of the same luminosity), while N III emission is a complex non-LTE (NLTE) effect affected mostly by temperature, it would not be surprising to find that these features do not correlate with each other or with luminosity in SMC stars in the same was as they do in Galactic stars, but theory does not provide a clean answer, and analysis of more stars (both SMC and Galactic) is needed to resolve this issue. The line-blanketed NLTE atmosphere code FASTWIND was then used to determine the physical parameters of this sample of stars. We find good agreement between the synthetic line profiles for the hydrogen, He I, and He II lines in the majority of the stars we analyzed; the three exceptions show evidence of being incipiently resolved spectroscopic binaries or otherwise spectral composites. One such system is apparently an O3 V+O3 V eclipsing binary, and a follow-up radial velocity study is planned to obtain

  14. A grid of MARCS model atmospheres for late-type stars. II. S stars and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eck, Sophie; Neyskens, Pieter; Jorissen, Alain; Plez, Bertrand; Edvardsson, Bengt; Eriksson, Kjell; Gustafsson, Bengt; Jørgensen, Uffe Gråe; Nordlund, Åke

    2017-05-01

    S-type stars are late-type giants whose atmospheres are enriched in carbon and s-process elements because of either extrinsic pollution by a binary companion or intrinsic nucleosynthesis and dredge-up on the thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch. A grid of MARCS model atmospheres has been computed for S stars, covering the range 2700 ≤ Teff(K) ≤ 4000, 0.50 ≤ C/O ≤ 0.99, 0 ≤ log g ≤ 5, [Fe/H] = 0., -0.5 dex, and [s/Fe] = 0, 1, and 2 dex (where the latter quantity refers to the global overabundance of s-process elements). The MARCS models make use of a new ZrO line list. Synthetic spectra computed from these models are used to derive photometric indices in the Johnson and Geneva systems, as well as TiO and ZrO band strengths. A method is proposed to select the model best matching any given S star, a non-trivial operation since the grid contains more than 3500 models covering a five-dimensional parameter space. The method is based on the comparison between observed and synthetic photometric indices and spectral band strengths, and has been applied on a vast subsample of the Henize sample of S stars. Our results confirm the old claim by Piccirillo (1980, MNRAS, 190, 441) that ZrO bands in warm S stars (Teff>3200 K) are not caused by the C/O ratio being close to unity, as traditionally believed, but rather by some Zr overabundance. The TiO and ZrO band strengths, combined with V-K and J-K photometric indices, are used to select Teff, C/O, [Fe/H] and [s/Fe]. The Geneva U-B1 and B2-V1 indices (or any equivalent) are good at selecting the gravity. The defining spectral features of dwarf S stars are outlined, but none is found among the Henize S stars. More generally, it is found that, at Teff = 3200 K, a change of C/O from 0.5 to 0.99 has a strong impact on V-K (2 mag). Conversely, a range of 2 mag in V-K corresponds to a 200 K shift along the (Teff, V-K) relationship (for a fixed C/O value). Hence, the use of a (Teff, V-K) calibration established for M

  15. Extended nebular emission in CALIFA early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.; Kehrig, C.; Vílchez, J. M.; Lehnert, M. D.

    2015-02-01

    The morphological, spectroscopic and kinematical properties of the warm interstellar medium ( wim ) in early-type galaxies (ETGs) hold key observational constraints to nuclear activity and the buildup history of these massive quiescent systems. High-quality integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data with a wide spectral and spatial coverage, such as those from the CALIFA survey, offer a precious opportunity for advancing our understanding in this respect. We use deep IFS data from CALIFA (califa.caha.es) to study the wim over the entire extent and optical spectral range of 32 nearby ETGs. We find that all ETGs in our sample show faint (Hα equivalent width EW(Hα)~0.5 ... 2 Å) extranuclear nebular emission extending out to >=2 Petrosian50 radii. Confirming and strengthening our conclusions in Papaderos et al. (2013, hereafter P13) we argue that ETGs span a broad continuous sequence with regard to the properties of their wim , and they can be roughly subdivided into two characteristic classes. The first one (type i) comprises ETGs with a nearly constant EW(Hα)~1-3 Å in their extranuclear component, in quantitative agreement with (even though, no proof for) the hypothesis of photoionization by the post-AGB stellar component being the main driver of extended wim emission. The second class (type ii) consists of virtually wim -evacuated ETGs with a large Lyman continuum (Ly c) photon escape fraction and a very low (<=0.5 Å) EW(Hα) in their nuclear zone. These two ETG classes appear indistinguishable from one another by their LINER-specific emission-line ratios. Additionally, here we extend the classification by P13 by the class i+ which stands for a subset of type i ETGs with low-level star-forming activity in contiguous spiral-arm like features in their outermost periphery. These faint features, together with traces of localized star formation in several type i&i+ systems point to a non-negligible contribution from young massive stars to the global ionizing photon

  16. On the Observation of Convection in Late Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez Ramió, H.; Régulo, C.; Roca Cortés, T.; Alonso, R.

    2004-10-01

    Helioseismology of disk-integrated sunlight has shown that the background of the acoustic power spectrum is dominated by structures present in the solar convection zone (Pallé et al., 1995, Régulo et al., 2002). Moreover, using Harvey's model (Harvey et al., 1993) for granulation and supergranulation it has been possible to explain such solar background spectrum on physical grounds. The aim of this work is to establish if this background spectrum can be measured for stars other than the Sun. To evaluate such a possibility we have studied the power spectra of several Main Sequence (MS) stars observed for 54 nights using STARE telescope (Brown and Charbonneau, 1999). Although the observed spectra are dominated by the observing window, preliminary results are very promising since the spectra of F, G and K stars are clearly different from each other, as should be expected from theoretically predicted depths of the convection zones.

  17. Monitoring solar-type stars for luminosity variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, G. W.; Skiff, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1984, researchers have made more than 1500 differential photometric b (471 nm) and y (551 nm) measurements of three dozen solar-like lower main sequence stars whose chromospheric activity was previosly studied by O. C. Wilson. Here, researchers describe their methodology and the statistical tests used to distinguish intrinsic stellar variability from observational and instrument errors. The incidence of detected variability among the program and comparison stars is summarized. Among the 100 plus pairs of stars measured differentially, only a dozen were found that were unusually constant, with peak-to-peak amplitudes of seasonal mean brightness smaller than 0.3 percent (0.003 mag) over a two-to-three-year interval.

  18. Young stellar populations in early-type galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Louisa A.; Raychaudhury, Somak; Kabán, Ata

    2007-02-01

    We use a purely data-driven rectified factor analysis to identify early-type galaxies with recent star formation in Data Release 4 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Spectroscopic Catalogue. We compare the spectra and environment of these galaxies with those of `normal' early-type galaxies, and a sample of independently selected E+A galaxies. We calculate the projected local galaxy surface density from the nearest five and 10 neighbours (Σ5 and Σ10) for each galaxy in our sample, and find that the dependence on projected local density, of the properties of E+A galaxies, is not significantly different from that of early-type galaxies with young stellar populations, dropping off rapidly towards denser environments, and flattening off at densities <~0.1-0.3 Mpc-2. The dearth of E+A galaxies in dense environments confirms that E+A galaxies are most likely the products of galaxy-galaxy merging or interactions, rather than star-forming galaxies whose star formation has been quenched by processes unique to dense environments, such as ram-pressure stripping or galaxy harassment. We see a tentative peak in the number of E+A galaxies at Σ10 ~ 0.1-0.3 Mpc-2, which may represent the local galaxy density at which the rate of galaxy-galaxy merging or interaction rate peaks. Analysis of the spectra of our early-type galaxies with young stellar populations suggests that they have a stellar component dominated by F stars, ~1-4 Gyr old, together with a mature, metal-rich population characteristic of `typical' early-type galaxies. The young stars represent >~10 per cent of the stellar mass in these galaxies. This, together with the similarity of the environments in which this `E+F' population and the E+A galaxy sample are found, suggests that E+F galaxies used to be E+A galaxies, but have evolved by a further ~ one to a few Gyr. Our rectified factor analysis is sensitive enough to identify this hidden population, which allows us to study the global and intrinsic properties of early-type

  19. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  20. An Evaluation of the Early Alert (STAR) Program at Central Piedmont Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammon, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Central Piedmont Community College is exploring ways to help at-risk students achieve academic success by utilizing an early-alert system called Success Through Academic Reporting (STAR). All First-Time, Full-time Degree-seeking students (FFD) receive an opportunity for follow-up services that support a centralized strategy, which has the…

  1. AN M DWARF COMPANION TO AN F-TYPE STAR IN A YOUNG MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Eigmüller, Ph.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Erikson, A.

    2016-03-15

    Only a few well characterized very low-mass M dwarfs are known today. Our understanding of M dwarfs is vital as these are the most common stars in our solar neighborhood. We aim to characterize the properties of a rare F+dM stellar system for a better understanding of the low-mass end of the Hertzsprung–Russel diagram. We used photometric light curves and radial velocity follow-up measurements to study the binary. Spectroscopic analysis was used in combination with isochrone fitting to characterize the primary star. The primary star is an early F-type main-sequence star with a mass of (1.493 ± 0.073) M{sub ⊙}more » and a radius of (1.474 ± 0.040) R{sub ⊙}. The companion is an M dwarf with a mass of (0.188 ± 0.014) M{sub ⊙} and a radius of (0.234 ± 0.009) R{sub ⊙}. The orbital period is (1.35121 ± 0.00001) days. The secondary star is among the lowest-mass M dwarfs known to date. The binary has not reached a 1:1 spin–orbit synchronization. This indicates a young main-sequence binary with an age below ∼250 Myr. The mass–radius relation of both components are in agreement with this finding.« less

  2. Demography of SDSS Early-type Galaxies from the Perspective of Radial Color Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Jeong, H.; Oh, K.; Yi, S. K.; Ferreras, I.; Schawinski, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the radial g-r color gradients of early-type galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR6 in the redshift range 0.00 < z < 0.06. The majority of massive early-type galaxies show a negative color gradient (centers being redder). On the other hand, roughly 30 percent of the galaxies in this sample show positive color gradients (centers being bluer). These positive-gradient galaxies often show strong Hβ absorption line strengths and/or emission line ratios that are consistent with containing young stellar populations. Combining the optical data with Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV photometry, we find that all positive-gradient galaxies show blue UV-optical colors. This implies that the residual star formation in early-type galaxies is centrally concentrated. These positive-gradient galaxies tend to live in lower density regions. They are also a bit more likely to have a late-type companion galaxy, hinting at a possible role of interactions with a gas-rich companion. A simplistic population analysis shows that these positive color gradients are visible only for half a billion years after a star burst. Moreover, the positive-gradient galaxies occupy different regions in the fundamental planes from the outnumbering negative-gradient galaxies. However, the positions of the positive-gradient galaxies on the fundamental planes cannot be attributed to any reasonable amount of recent star formation alone but require substantially lower velocity dispersions to begin with. Our results based on the optical data are consistent with the residual star formation interpretation which was based on the GALEX UV data. A low-level residual star formation seems continuing in most of the less-massive early-type galaxies in their centers.

  3. A Search for Circumstellar Gas-Disk Variability in F-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Ally; Montgomery, Sharon Lynn; Welsh, Barry

    2018-01-01

    Over the past six years, short-term (night-to-night) variability in the CaII K-line (3933Å) absorption has been detected towards 22 rapidly-rotating A-type stars, all but four of them discovered by us. Most of these stars are young (age < 100 million years) and possess dusty debris disks as evidenced by their infrared excesses. The variability is thought to be due to kilometer-sized planetesimals (i.e., exocomets) that release gas during their catastrophic in-falls towards their central star. To expand the relatively small number of systems showing this type of variability, we conducted a search amongst nearby, rapidly-rotating, F-type stars. Here, we present high signal-to-noise, medium-resolution spectral observations of the CaII K-line absorption (R≈60,000) recorded towards seven F-type stars. Six of these stars were observed multiple times over the course of our seven-night run on the 2.1-meter Otto Struve Telescope (McDonald Observatory) during June 2017. The appearance or absence of similar short-lived, Doppler-shifted absorption in F-type stars serves as a test of our understanding of the underlying phenomena.

  4. A BCool survey of the magnetic fields of planet-hosting solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, M. W.; Marsden, S. C.; Carter, B. D.; Horner, J.; King, R.; Fares, R.; Jeffers, S. V.; Petit, P.; Vidotto, A. A.; Morin, J.; BCool Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We present a spectropolarimetric snapshot survey of solar-type planet-hosting stars. In addition to 14 planet-hosting stars observed as part of the BCool magnetic snapshot survey, we obtained magnetic observations of a further 19 planet-hosting solar-type stars in order to see if the presence of close-in planets had an effect on the measured surface magnetic field (|Bℓ|). Our results indicate that the magnetic activity of this sample is congruent with that of the overall BCool sample. The effects of the planetary systems on the magnetic activity of the parent star, if any, are too subtle to detect compared to the intrinsic dispersion and correlations with rotation, age and stellar activity proxies in our sample. Four of the 19 newly observed stars, two of which are subgiants, have unambiguously detected magnetic fields and are future targets for Zeeman-Doppler mapping.

  5. IRAS 17380 - 3031 - A new dusty late WC-type Wolf-Rayet star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Martin; van der Hucht, K. A.; Williams, P. M.; The, P. S.

    1991-09-01

    Infrared photometry is presented of IRAS 17380 - 3031 and of IRAS 18405 - 0448, two of the proposed candidates for late WC-type stars suggested by Vok and Cohen (1989). Systematic 12-micron flux-limited surveys of the complete IRAS low-resolution spectrometer (LSR) data base show that late-type WC (WCL) stars with circumstellar dust emission have unique midinfrared spectra, suggesting a novel method for detecting such stars. It is confirmed through optical spectroscopy that IRAS 17380 - 3031, a prime LRS-selected WCL candidate, is a very red WCL star. It is classified as WC8 - 9, with a probable distance of 3 + or - 1 kpc, and a total extinction of about 12.5 mag. The confirmation demonstrates the power of the LRS technique for discovery of dusty WCL stars with IRAS.

  6. A Survey of Ca II H and K Chromospheric Emission in Southern Solar-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Soderblom, David R.; Donahue, Robert A.; Baliunas, Sallie L.

    1996-01-01

    More than 800 southern stars within 50 pc have been observed for chromospheric emission in the cores of the Ca II H and K lines. Most of the sample targets were chosen to be G dwarfs on the basis of colors and spectral types. The bimodal distribution in stellar activity first noted in a sample of northern stars by Vaughan and Preston in 1980 is confirmed, and the percentage of active stars, about 30%, is remarkably consistent between the northern and southern surveys. This is especially compelling given that we have used an entirely different instrumental setup and stellar sample than used in the previous study. Comparisons to the Sun, a relatively inactive star, show that most nearby solar-type stars have a similar activity level, and presumably a similar age. We identify two additional subsamples of stars -- a very active group, and a very inactive group. The very active group may be made up of young stars near the Sun, accounting for only a few percent of the sample, and appears to be less than ~0.1 Gyr old. Included in this high-activity tail of the distribution, however, is a subset of very close binaries of the RS CVn or W UMa types. The remaining members of this population may be undetected close binaries or very young single stars. The very inactive group of stars, contributting ~5%--10% to the total sample, may be those caught in a Maunder Minimum type phase. If the observations of the survey stars are considered to be a sequence of snapshots of the Sun during its life, we might expect that the Sun will spend about 10% of the remainder of its main sequence life in a Maunder Minimum phase.

  7. The IACOB project . III. New observational clues to understand macroturbulent broadening in massive O- and B-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simón-Díaz, S.; Godart, M.; Castro, N.; Herrero, A.; Aerts, C.; Puls, J.; Telting, J.; Grassitelli, L.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The term macroturbulent broadening is commonly used to refer to a certain type of non-rotational broadening affecting the spectral line profiles of O- and B-type stars. It has been proposed to be a spectroscopic signature of the presence of stellar oscillations; however, we still lack a definitive confirmation of this hypothesis. Aims: We aim to provide new empirical clues about macroturbulent spectral line broadening in O- and B-type stars to evaluate its physical origin. Methods: We used high-resolution spectra of 430 stars with spectral types in the range O4 - B9 (all luminosity classes) compiled in the framework of the IACOB project. We characterized the line broadening of adequate diagnostic metal lines using a combined Fourier transform and goodness-of-fit technique. We performed a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the whole sample using automatic tools coupled with a huge grid of fastwind models to determine their effective temperatures and gravities. We also incorporated quantitative information about line asymmetries into our observational description of the characteristics of the line profiles, and performed a comparison of the shape and type of line-profile variability found in a small sample of O stars and B supergiants with still undefined pulsational properties and B main-sequence stars with variable line profiles owing to a well-identified type of stellar oscillations or to the presence of spots in the stellar surface. Results: We present a homogeneous and statistically significant overview of the (single snapshot) line-broadening properties of stars in the whole O and B star domain. We find empirical evidence of the existence of various types of non-rotational broadening agents acting in the realm of massive stars. Even though all these additional sources of line-broadening could be quoted and quantified as a macroturbulent broadening from a practical point of view, their physical origin can be different. Contrarily to the early- to

  8. Abundance profiling of extremely metal-poor stars and supernova properties in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi, E-mail: tominaga@konan-u.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto.nobuyuki@jaea.go.jp, E-mail: nomoto@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-04-20

    After the big bang nucleosynthesis, the first heavy element enrichment in the universe was made by a supernova (SN) explosion of a population (Pop) III star (Pop III SN). The abundance ratios of elements produced from Pop III SNe are recorded in abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. The observations of the increasing number of EMP stars have made it possible to statistically constrain the explosion properties of Pop III SNe. We present Pop III SN models whose nucleosynthesis yields well reproduce, individually, the abundance patterns of 48 such metal-poor stars as [Fe/H] ≲ – 3.5. We then derivemore » relations between the abundance ratios of EMP stars and certain explosion properties of Pop III SNe: the higher [(C + N)/Fe] and [(C + N)/Mg] ratios correspond to the smaller ejected Fe mass and the larger compact remnant mass, respectively. Using these relations, the distributions of the abundance ratios of EMP stars are converted to those of the explosion properties of Pop III SNe. Such distributions are compared with those of the explosion properties of present day SNe: the distribution of the ejected Fe mass of Pop III SNe has the same peak as that of the present day SNe but shows an extended tail down to ∼10{sup –2}-10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}, and the distribution of the mass of the compact remnant of Pop III SNe is as wide as that of the present-day, stellar-mass black holes. Our results demonstrate the importance of large samples of EMP stars obtained by ongoing and future EMP star surveys and subsequent high-dispersion spectroscopic observations in clarifying the nature of Pop III SNe in the early universe.« less

  9. Solution of the comoving-frame equation of transfer in spherically symmetric flows. V - Multilevel atoms. [in early star atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihalas, D.; Kunasz, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    The coupled radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations for multilevel ionic structures in the atmospheres of early-type stars are solved. Both lines and continua are treated consistently; the treatment is applicable throughout a transonic wind, and allows for the presence of background continuum sources and sinks in the transfer. An equivalent-two-level-atoms approach provides the solution for the equations. Calculations for simplified He (+)-like model atoms in parameterized isothermal wind models indicate that subordinate line profiles are sensitive to the assumed mass-loss rate, and to the assumed structure of the velocity law in the atmospheres.

  10. Non-LTE aluminium abundances in late-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlander, T.; Lind, K.

    2017-11-01

    Aims: Aluminium plays a key role in studies of the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy and of globular clusters. However, strong deviations from LTE (non-LTE) are known to significantly affect the inferred abundances in giant and metal-poor stars. Methods: We present non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modeling of aluminium using recent and accurate atomic data, in particular utilizing new transition rates for collisions with hydrogen atoms, without the need for any astrophysically calibrated parameters. For the first time, we perform 3D NLTE modeling of aluminium lines in the solar spectrum. We also compute and make available extensive grids of abundance corrections for lines in the optical and near-infrared using one-dimensional model atmospheres, and apply grids of precomputed departure coefficients to direct line synthesis for a set of benchmark stars with accurately known stellar parameters. Results: Our 3D NLTE modeling of the solar spectrum reproduces observed center-to-limb variations in the solar spectrum of the 7835 Å line as well as the mid-infrared photospheric emission line at 12.33 μm. We infer a 3D NLTE solar photospheric abundance of A(Al) = 6.43 ± 0.03, in exact agreement with the meteoritic abundance. We find that abundance corrections vary rapidly with stellar parameters; for the 3961 Å resonance line, corrections are positive and may be as large as +1 dex, while corrections for subordinate lines generally have positive sign for warm stars but negative for cool stars. Our modeling reproduces the observed line profiles of benchmark K-giants, and we find abundance corrections as large as -0.3 dex for Arcturus. Our analyses of four metal-poor benchmark stars yield consistent abundances between the 3961 Å resonance line and lines in the UV, optical and near-infrared regions. Finally, we discuss implications for the galactic chemical evolution of aluminium.

  11. Young, metal-enriched cores in early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster based on colour gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urich, Linda; Lisker, Thorsten; Janz, Joachim; van de Ven, Glenn; Leaman, Ryan; Boselli, Alessandro; Paudel, Sanjaya; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Peletier, Reynier F.; den Brok, Mark; Hensler, Gerhard; Toloba, Elisa; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Niemi, Sami-Matias

    2017-10-01

    Early-type dwarf galaxies are not simply featureless, old objects, but were found to be much more diverse, hosting substructures and a variety of stellar population properties. To explore the stellar content of faint early-type galaxies, and to investigate in particular those with recent central star formation, we study colours and colour gradients within one effective radius in optical (g - r) and near-infrared (I - H) bands for 120 Virgo cluster early-type galaxies with - 19 mag early-type galaxies. The metallicity gradients of these blue-cored early-type dwarf galaxies are, however, in the range of most normal faint early-type galaxies, which we find to have non-zero gradients with higher central metallicity. The blue central regions are consistent with star formation activity within the last few 100 Myr. We discuss whether these galaxies could be explained by environmental quenching of star formation in the outer galaxy regions while the inner star formation activity continued.

  12. Exploring simulated early star formation in the context of the ultrafaint dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Wise, John H.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are typically assumed to have simple, stellar populations with star formation ending at reionization. Yet as the observations of these galaxies continue to improve, their star formation histories (SFHs) are revealed to be more complicated than previously thought. In this paper, we study how star formation, chemical enrichment, and mixing proceed in small, dark matter haloes at early times using a high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. The goals are to inform the future use of analytic models and to explore observable properties of the simulated haloes in the context of UFD data. Specifically, we look at analytic approaches that might inform metal enrichment within and beyond small galaxies in the early Universe. We find that simple assumptions for modelling the extent of supernova-driven winds agree with the simulation on average, whereas inhomogeneous mixing and gas flows have a large effect on the spread in simulated stellar metallicities. In the context of the UFDs, this work demonstrates that simulations can form haloes with a complex SFH and a large spread in the metallicity distribution function within a few hundred Myr in the early Universe. In particular, bursty and continuous star formation are seen in the simulation and both scenarios have been argued from the data. Spreads in the simulated metallicities, however, remain too narrow and too metal-rich when compared to the UFDs. Future work is needed to help reduce these discrepancies and advance our interpretation of the data.

  13. Copious amounts of hot and cold dust orbiting the main sequence a-type stars HD 131488 and HD 121191

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.

    2013-11-20

    We report two new dramatically dusty main sequence stars: HD 131488 (A1 V) and HD 121191 (A8 V). HD 131488 is found to have substantial amounts of dust in its terrestrial planet zone (L {sub IR}/L {sub bol} ≈ 4 × 10{sup –3}), cooler dust farther out in its planetary system, and an unusual mid-infrared spectral feature. HD 121191 shows terrestrial planet zone dust (L {sub IR}/L {sub bol} ≈ 2.3 × 10{sup –3}), hints of cooler dust, and shares the unusual mid-infrared spectral shape identified in HD 131488. These two stars belong to sub-groups of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB associationmore » and have ages of ∼10 Myr. HD 131488 and HD 121191 are the dustiest main sequence A-type stars currently known. Early-type stars that host substantial inner planetary system dust are thus far found only within the age range of 5-20 Myr.« less

  14. The origin of dwarf early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloba, E.

    2013-05-01

    We have conducted a spectrophotometric study of dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo cluster and in regions of lower density. We have found that these galaxies show many properties in common with late-type galaxies but not with more massive early-types (E/S0). The properties of the dEs in Virgo show gradients within the cluster. dEs in the outer parts of the Virgo cluster are kinematically supported by rotation, while those in the center are supported by the random motions of their stars (i.e. pressure supported). The rotationally supported dEs have disky isophotes and faint underlying spiral/irregular substructures, they also show younger ages than those pressure supported, which have boxy isophotes and are smooth and regular, without any substructure. We compare the position of these dEs with massive early-type galaxies in the Faber-Jackson and Fundamental Plane relations, and we find that, although there is no difference between the position of rotationally and pressure supported dEs, both deviate from the relations of massive early-type galaxies in the direction of dwarf spheroidal systems (dSphs). We have used their offset with respect to the Fundamental Plane of E/S0 galaxies to estimate their dark matter fraction. All the properties studied in this work agree with a ram pressure stripping scenario, where late-type galaxies infall into the cluster, their interaction with the intergalactic medium blows away their gas and, as a result, they are quenched in a small amount of time. However, those dEs in the center of the cluster seem to have been fully transformed leaving no trace of their possible spiral origin, thus, if that is the case, they must have experienced a more violent mechanism in combination with ram pressure stripping, the open problem is that even galaxy harassment does not fully explain the observed properties for the pressure supported dEs in the center of the Virgo cluster.

  15. First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outside the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outsidethe Local Group Summary An international team led by ESO astronomer Marina Rejkuba [1] has discovered more than 1000 luminous red variable stars in the nearby elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) . Brightness changes and periods of these stars were measured accurately and reveal that they are mostly cool long-period variable stars of the so-called "Mira-type" . The observed variability is caused by stellar pulsation. This is the first time a detailed census of variable stars has been accomplished for a galaxy outside the Local Group of Galaxies (of which the Milky Way galaxy in which we live is a member). It also opens an entirely new window towards the detailed study of stellar content and evolution of giant elliptical galaxies . These massive objects are presumed to play a major role in the gravitational assembly of galaxy clusters in the Universe (especially during the early phases). This unprecedented research project is based on near-infrared observations obtained over more than three years with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory . PR Photo 14a/03 : Colour image of the peculiar galaxy Centaurus A . PR Photo 14b/03 : Location of the fields in Centaurus A, now studied. PR Photo 14c/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14d/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14e/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14f/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14g/03 : Light variation of six variable stars in Centaurus A PR Photo 14h/03 : Light variation of stars in Centaurus A (Animated GIF) PR Photo 14i/03 : Light curves of four variable stars in Centaurus A. Mira-type variable stars Among the stars that are visible in the sky to the unaided eye, roughly one out of three hundred (0.3%) displays brightness variations and is referred to by astronomers as a

  16. Statistical studies of superflares on G-, K-, M- type stars from Kepler data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notsu, Yuta; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Honda, Satoshi; Notsu, Shota; Namekata, Kosuke; Ikuta, Kai; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-05-01

    Flares are thought to be sudden releases of magnetic energy stored around starspots. Recent space high-precision photometry shows “superflares”, 10-104 times more energetic than the largest solar flares, occur on many G, K, M-type stars (e.g., Maehara+2012 Nature). Harmful UV/X-ray radiation and high-energy particles such as protons are caused by such superflares. This may suggest that exoplanet host stars have severe effects on the physical and chemical evolution of exoplanetary atmospheres (cf. Segura+2010 Astrobiology, Takahashi+2016 ApJL).We here present statistical properties of superflares on G, K, M-type stars on the basis of our analyses of Kepler photometric data (Maehara+2012 Nature, Shibayama+2013 ApJS, Notsu+2013 ApJ, Canderaresi+2014 ApJ, Maehara+2015 EPS, Maehara+2017 PASJ). We found more than 5000 superflares on 800 G, K, M-type main-sequence stars, and the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy (E) shows the power-law distribution with the index of -1.8 -1.9. This power-law distribution is consistent with that of solar flares.Flare frequency increases as stellar temperature decreases. As for M-type stars, energy of the largest flares is smaller compared with G,K-type stars, but more frequent “hazardous” flares for the habitable planets since the habitable zone around M-type stars is much smaller compared with G, K-type stars.Rotation period and starspot coverage can be estimated from the quasi-periodic brightness variation of the superflare stars. The intensity of Ca II 8542 line of superflare stars, which is measured from spectroscopic observations with Subaru Telescope, has a well correlation with the brightness variation amplitude (Notsu+2015a&b PASJ).Flare frequency has a correlation with rotation period, and this suggests young rapidly-rotating stars (like “young Sun”) have more severe impacts of flares on the planetary atmosphere (cf. Airapetian+2016 ApJL). Flare energy and frequency also depends

  17. Rosat detections of X-ray emission from young B-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Zinnecker, H.; Cruddace, R.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    We present first results of a series of pointings of the Rosat HRI at visual binaries consisting of a B-star with a later-type companion. The binaries selected for this study are very likely physical pairs. Dating of the B-type stars with respect to the zero-age main sequence, as well as spectroscopic observations of the late-type stars, provides evidence for the extreme youth of these systems with ages typically near or below 10 exp 8 yr. Surprisingly, the late-B component was in many cases detected as an X-ray source, in contrast to previous findings that X-ray emission among late-B field stars is rather uncommon.

  18. DEBRIS DISKS AROUND SOLAR-TYPE STARS: OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLEIADES WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Sierchio, J. M.; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.

    2010-04-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS observations at 24 {mu}m of 37 solar-type stars in the Pleiades and combine them with previous observations to obtain a sample of 71 stars. We report that 23 stars, or 32% +- 6.8%, have excesses at 24 {mu}m at least 10% above their photospheric emission. We compare our results with studies of debris disks in other open clusters and with a study of A stars to show that debris disks around solar-type stars at 115 Myr occur at nearly the same rate as around A-type stars. We analyze the effects of binarity and X-ray activity onmore » the excess flux. Stars with warm excesses tend not to be in equal-mass binary systems, possibly due to clearing of planetesimals by binary companions in similar orbits. We find that the apparent anti-correlations in the incidence of excess and both the rate of stellar rotation and also the level of activity as judged by X-ray emission are statistically weak.« less

  19. Abell 48 - a rare WN-type central star of a planetary nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todt, H.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Hamann, W.-R.; Buckley, D.; Crause, L.; Crawford, S. M.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Hettlage, C.; Hooper, E.; Husser, T.-O.; Kotze, P.; Loaring, N.; Nordsieck, K. H.; O'Donoghue, D.; Pickering, T.; Potter, S.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P.; Williams, T.; Wolf, M.

    2013-04-01

    A considerable fraction of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe) are hydrogen-deficient. Almost all of these H-deficient central stars (CSs) display spectra with strong carbon and helium lines. Most of them exhibit emission-line spectra resembling those of massive WC stars. Therefore these stars are classed as CSPNe of spectral type [WC]. Recently, quantitative spectral analysis of two emission-line CSs, PB 8 and IC 4663, revealed that these stars do not belong to the [WC] class. Instead PB 8 has been classified as [WN/WC] type and IC 4663 as [WN] type. In this work we report the spectroscopic identification of another rare [WN] star, the CS of Abell 48. We performed a spectral analysis of Abell 48 with the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) models for expanding atmospheres. We find that the expanding atmosphere of Abell 48 is mainly composed of helium (85 per cent by mass), hydrogen (10 per cent) and nitrogen (5 per cent). The residual hydrogen and the enhanced nitrogen abundance make this object different from the other [WN] star IC 4663. We discuss the possible origin of this atmospheric composition.

  20. Solar-type dynamo behaviour in fully convective stars without a tachocline.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nicholas J; Drake, Jeremy J

    2016-07-28

    In solar-type stars (with radiative cores and convective envelopes like our Sun), the magnetic field powers star spots, flares and other solar phenomena, as well as chromospheric and coronal emission at ultraviolet to X-ray wavelengths. The dynamo responsible for generating the field depends on the shearing of internal magnetic fields by differential rotation. The shearing has long been thought to take place in a boundary layer known as the tachocline between the radiative core and the convective envelope. Fully convective stars do not have a tachocline and their dynamo mechanism is expected to be very different, although its exact form and physical dependencies are not known. Here we report observations of four fully convective stars whose X-ray emission correlates with their rotation periods in the same way as in solar-type stars. As the X-ray activity-rotation relationship is a well-established proxy for the behaviour of the magnetic dynamo, these results imply that fully convective stars also operate a solar-type dynamo. The lack of a tachocline in fully convective stars therefore suggests that this is not a critical ingredient in the solar dynamo and supports models in which the dynamo originates throughout the convection zone.

  1. A VLA 3.6 centimeter survey of N-type carbon stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttermoser, Donald G.; Brown, Alexander

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented of a VLA-continuum survey of 7 N-type carbon stars at 3.6 cm. Evidence exists for hot plasma around such stars; the IUE satellite detected emission lines of singly ionized metals in the optically brightest carbon stars, which in solar-type stars indicate the existence of a chromosphere. In the past, these emission lines were used to constrain the lower portion of the archetypical chromospheric model of N-type carbon stars, that of TX Psc. Five of the survey stars are semiregular (1 SRa and 4 SRb) variables and two are irregular (Lb) variables. Upper limits of about 0.07 mJy are set of the SRb and Lb variables and the lone SRa (V Hya) was detected with a flux of 0.22 mJy. The upper limits for the six stars that are not detected indicate that the temperature in their winds is less than 10,000 K. Various scenarios for the emission from V Hya are proposed, and it is suggested that the radio continuum is shock-related (either due to pulsation or the suspected bipolar jet) and not due to a supposed accretion disk around an unseen companion.

  2. Magnifying the Early Episodes of Star Formation: Super Star Clusters at Cosmological Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzella, E.; Castellano, M.; Meneghetti, M.; Mercurio, A.; Caminha, G. B.; Cupani, G.; Calura, F.; Christensen, L.; Merlin, E.; Rosati, P.; Gronke, M.; Dijkstra, M.; Mignoli, M.; Gilli, R.; De Barros, S.; Caputi, K.; Grillo, C.; Balestra, I.; Cristiani, S.; Nonino, M.; Giallongo, E.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Bergamini, P.; Tozzi, P.

    2017-06-01

    We study the spectrophotometric properties of a highly magnified (μ ≃ 40{--}70) pair of stellar systems identified at z = 3.2222 behind the Hubble Frontier Field galaxy cluster MACS J0416. Five multiple images (out of six) have been spectroscopically confirmed by means of VLT/MUSE and VLT/X-Shooter observations. Each image includes two faint ({m}{UV}≃ 30.6), young (≲ 100 Myr), low-mass (< {10}7 {M}⊙ ), low-metallicity (12 + Log(O/H) ≃ 7.7, or 1/10 solar), and compact (30 pc effective radius) stellar systems separated by ≃ 300 pc after correcting for lensing amplification. We measured several rest-frame ultraviolet and optical narrow ({σ }v≲ 25 km s-1) high-ionization lines. These features may be the signature of very hot (T> {{50,000}} K) stars within dense stellar clusters, whose dynamical mass is likely dominated by the stellar component. Remarkably, the ultraviolet metal lines are not accompanied by Lyα emission (e.g., C IV/Lyα > 15), despite the fact that the Lyα line flux is expected to be 150 times brighter (inferred from the Hβ flux). A spatially offset, strongly magnified (μ > 50) Lyα emission with a spatial extent ≲ 7.6 kpc2 is instead identified 2 kpc away from the system. The origin of such a faint emission could be the result of fluorescent Lyα induced by a transverse leakage of ionizing radiation emerging from the stellar systems and/or may be associated with an underlying and barely detected object (with {m}{UV}> 34 de-lensed). This is the first confirmed metal-line emitter at such low-luminosity and redshift without Lyα emission—suggesting that, at least in some cases, a non-uniform covering factor of the neutral gas might hamper the Lyα detection. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory for Astronomical research in the southern hemisphere, under ESO programmes P095.A-0840, P095.A-0653, and P186.A-0798.

  3. IRAS 22150+6109 - a young B-type star with a large disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhozhay, Olga V.; Miroshnichenko, Anatoly S.; Kuratov, Kenesken S.; Zakhozhay, Vladimir A.; Khokhlov, Serik A.; Zharikov, Sergey V.; Manset, Nadine

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic analysis and spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling of the optical counterpart of the infrared source IRAS 22150+6109. The source was suggested to be a Herbig Be star located in the star-forming region L 1188. Absorption lines in the optical spectrum indicate a spectral type B3, while weak Balmer emission lines reflect the presence of a circumstellar gaseous disc. The star shows no excess radiation in the near-infrared spectral region and a strong excess in the far-infrared that we interpret as radiation from a large disc, the inner edge of which is located very far from the star (550 au) and does not attenuate its radiation. We conclude that IRAS 22150+6109 is an intermediate-mass star that is currently undergoing a short pre-main-sequence evolutionary stage.

  4. A New Binary Star System of EW Type in Draco: GSC 03905-01870

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barquin, S.

    2018-05-01

    Discovery of a new binary star system (GSC 03905-01870 = USNO-B1.0 1431-0327922 = UCAC4 716-059522) in the Draco constellation is presented. It was discovered during a search for previously unreported eclipsing binary stars through the ASAS-SN database. The shape of the light curve and its characteristics (period of 0.428988+-0.000001 d, amplitude of 0.34+-0.02 V Mag, primary minimum epoch HJD 2457994.2756+-0.0002) indicates that the new variable star is an eclipsing binary of W Ursae Majoris type. I registered this variable star in The International Variable Star Index (VSX), its AAVSO UID is 000-BMP-891.

  5. First detection of nonflare microwave emissions from the coronae of single late-type dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, D. E.; Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of a search for nonflare microwave radiation from the coronae of nearby late-type dwarf stars comparable to the sun: single stars without evidence for either a large wind or circumstellar envelope. The observing program consisted of flux measurements of six stars over a 24-h period with the VLA in the C configuration at a wavelength of 6 cm with 50 MHz bandwidth. Positive detections at 6 cm were made for Chi 1 Ori (0.6 mJy) and the flare star UV Cet (1.55 mJy), and upper limits were obtained for the stars Pi 1 UMa, Xi Boo A, 70 Oph A and Epsilon Eri. It is suggested that Chi 1 Ori, and possibly UV Cet, represent the first detected members of a new class of radio sources which are driven by gyroresonance emission, i.e. cyclotron emission from nonrelativistic Maxwellian electrons.

  6. The Abundances of the Iron Group Elements in Early B Stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C.

    FUSE observations of four sharp-lined early B main-sequence band stars in the Magellanic Clouds will be carried through to determine the abundances of the heavy elements, especially those of the Fe group. The FUSE spectral region contains numerous Fe III lines, including the resonance multiplet (UV1) near 1130 A that is excellent for abundance determinations and two strong multiplets of V III, an ion that does not produce measurable lines longward of 1200 A in metal-deficient stars. In addition there are several measurable lines from Cr III and Mn III. Although abundances of the Fe-peak elements are of interest because they are important for assessing opacities for stellar evolution calculations and the validity of theoretical calculations of explosive nucleosynthesis, ground-based studies do not yield this information because measurable lines from these species, except for a few Fe III lines, are found only in the UV spectral region. The abundances of heavy elements provide information on the production of such elements in previous generations of stars. From FUSE data obtained in Cycle 3 we are determining the abundances of the Fe group elements in two sharp-lined early B stars in the SMC (AV 304, a field star, and NGC346-637, a star in a mini-starburst cluster). This project will allow one to compare the abundances in AV 304 and NGC346-637 with those in the LMC and other regions in the SMC and look for asymmetry in heavy element production in the Magellanic Clouds.

  7. Early prediction of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes.

    PubMed

    Regnell, Simon E; Lernmark, Åke

    2017-08-01

    Underlying type 1 diabetes is a genetic aetiology dominated by the influence of specific HLA haplotypes involving primarily the class II DR-DQ region. In genetically predisposed children with the DR4-DQ8 haplotype, exogenous factors, yet to be identified, are thought to trigger an autoimmune reaction against insulin, signalled by insulin autoantibodies as the first autoantibody to appear. In children with the DR3-DQ2 haplotype, the triggering reaction is primarily against GAD signalled by GAD autoantibodies (GADA) as the first-appearing autoantibody. The incidence rate of insulin autoantibodies as the first-appearing autoantibody peaks during the first years of life and declines thereafter. The incidence rate of GADA as the first-appearing autoantibody peaks later but does not decline. The first autoantibody may variably be followed, in an apparently non-HLA-associated pathogenesis, by a second, third or fourth autoantibody. Although not all persons with a single type of autoantibody progress to diabetes, the presence of multiple autoantibodies seems invariably to be followed by loss of functional beta cell mass and eventually by dysglycaemia and symptoms. Infiltration of mononuclear cells in and around the islets appears to be a late phenomenon appearing in the multiple-autoantibody-positive with dysglycaemia. As our understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes advances, the improved capability for early prediction should guide new strategies for the prevention of type 1 diabetes.

  8. The components of mid- and far-infrared emission from S0 and early-type shell galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A., Jr.; Bally, John; Hacking, Perry

    1989-01-01

    The IRAS database has been used to study detections of about 150 early-type elliptical and S0 galaxies exhibiting a shell structure. No strong evidence for the expected enhancement of either star formation rates or heating of the interstellar medium is found. It is suggested that for some of the sample galaxies either a contribution from warm dust surrounding evolved stars or emission from an active nucleus may be significant.

  9. Reversal of Fortune: Increased Star Formation Efficiencies in the Early Histories of Dwarf Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madau, Piero; Weisz, Daniel R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-08-01

    On dwarf galaxy scales, the different shapes of the galaxy stellar mass function and the dark halo mass function require a star-formation efficiency (SFE) in these systems that is currently more than 1 dex lower than that of Milky Way-size halos. Here, we argue that this trend may actually be reversed at high redshift. Specifically, by combining the resolved star-formation histories of nearby isolated dwarfs with the simulated mass-growth rates of dark matter halos, we show that the assembly of these systems occurs in two phases: (1) an early, fast halo accretion phase with a rapidly deepening potential well, characterized by a high SFE; and (2) a late, slow halo accretion phase where, perhaps as a consequence of reionization, the SFE is low. Nearby dwarfs have more old stars than predicted by assuming a constant or decreasing SFE with redshift, a behavior that appears to deviate qualitatively from the trends seen among more massive systems. Taken at face value, the data suggest that at sufficiently early epochs, dwarf galaxy halos above the atomic cooling mass limit can be among the most efficient sites of star formation in the universe.

  10. Green Peas emit X-rays: Extreme Star Formation in Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Luminous compact galaxies (LCGs), Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs), and Lyman Break Analog galaxies (LBAs) are all used as proxies for star-forming galaxies in the early Universe (z ≥ 6). The X-ray emission from such galaxies has been found to be elevated compared to other star-forming galaxies in our local Universe. It has been suggested that this may be due to the lower metallicity seen in these proxies to high-redshift galaxies and the elevated X-ray emission may affect the heating and Reionization evolution of the early Universe. Our previous studies have suggested the existence of an LX-SFR-metallicity plane for all star-forming galaxies. We present these results in the context of our newest Joint Chandra/HST study containing the first X-ray detection of the Green Pea galaxies, a population of compact starburst galaxies discovered by volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo Project (Cardamone+2009). The galaxies were given the name Green Peas due to their compact size and green appearance in the gri composite images from SDSS. The green color is caused by a strong [OIII]λ5007Å emission line, an indicator of recent star formation. We observed a few of the most promising candidates with joint Chandra/HST observation and discuss our findings here.

  11. On Helium-Dominated Stellar Evolution: The Mysterious Role of the O(He)-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reindl, N.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Todt, H.

    2014-01-01

    Context. About a quarter of all post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are hydrogen-deficient. Stellar evolutionary models explain the carbon-dominated H-deficient stars by a (very) late thermal pulse scenario where the hydrogen-rich envelope is mixed with the helium-rich intershell layer. Depending on the particular time at which the final flash occurs, the entire hydrogen envelope may be burned. In contrast, helium-dominated post-AGB stars and their evolution are not yet understood. Aims. A small group of very hot, helium-dominated stars is formed by O(He)-type stars. A precise analysis of their photospheric abundances will establish constraints to their evolution. Methods. We performed a detailed spectral analysis of ultraviolet and optical spectra of four O(He) stars by means of state-of-the-art non-LTE model-atmosphere techniques. Results. We determined effective temperatures, surface gravities, and the abundances of H, He, C, N, O, F, Ne, Si, P, S, Ar, and Fe. By deriving upper limits for the mass-loss rates of the O(He) stars, we found that they do not exhibit enhanced mass-loss. The comparison with evolutionary models shows that the status of the O(He) stars remains uncertain. Their abundances match predictions of a double helium white dwarf (WD) merger scenario, suggesting that they might be the progeny of the compact and of the luminous helium-rich sdO-type stars. The existence of planetary nebulae that do not show helium enrichment around every other O(He) star precludes a merger origin for these stars. These stars must have formed in a different way, for instance via enhanced mass-loss during their post-AGB evolution or a merger within a common-envelope (CE) of a CO-WD and a red giant or AGB star. Conclusions. A helium-dominated stellar evolutionary sequence exists that may be fed by different types of mergers or CE scenarios. It appears likely that all these pass through the O(He) phase just before they become WDs.

  12. Theory of winds in late-type evolved and pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Recent observational results confirm that many of the physical processes which are known to occur in the Sun also occur among late-type stars in general. One such process is the continuous loss of mass from a star in the form of a wind. There now exists an abundance of either direct or circumstantial evidence which suggests that most (if not all) stars in the cool portion of the HR diagram possess winds. An attempt is made to assess the current state of theoretical understanding of mass loss from two distinctly different classes of late-type stars: the post-main-sequence giant/supergiant stars and the pre-main-sequence T Tauri stars. Toward this end, the observationally inferred properties of the wind associated with each of the two stellar classes under consideration are summarized and compared against the predictions of existing theoretical models. Although considerable progress has been made in attempting to identify the mechanisms responsible for mass loss from cool stars, many fundamental problems remain to be solved.

  13. The new Be-type star HD 147196 in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The, P. S.; Perez, M. R.; De Winter, D.; Van Den Ancker, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    The newly discovered hot-emission line star, HD 147196 in the Rho Oph dark cloud region was observed spectroscopically and photometrically and high and low resolution IUE spectra were obtained. The finding of Irvine (1990) that this relatively bright star show its H-alpha-line in emission is confirmed. Previous H-alpha-surveys of the Rho Oph star-forming region did not detect HD 147196 as an H-alpha-emission star, meaning that it must recently be very active and has perhaps transformed itself from a B-type star at shell phase to a Be-phase. The Mg II h + k resonance lines are in absorption and they appear to be interstellar in nature, which means that either the abundance of Mg in the extended atmosphere of the star is low or that the shell is not extended enough to produce emission lines of Mg II. Photometric observations of this B8 V type star do not show any variations during at least the years covered by our monitoring or any excess of NIR radiation in its spectral energy distribution up to the M-passband at 4.8 microns.

  14. A survey of TiOλ567 nm absorption in solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Fatemeh; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi

    2018-04-01

    Molecular absorption bands are estimators of stellar activity and spot cycles on magnetically active stars. We have previously introduced a new colour index that compares absorption strength of the titanium oxide (TiO) at 567 nm with nearby continuum. In this paper, we implement this index to measure long-term activity variations and the statistical properties of the index in a sample of 302 solar-type stars from the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet search Spectrograph planet search programme. The results indicate a pattern of change in star's activity, covers a range of periods from 2 yr up to 17 yr.

  15. Estimation of the state of solar activity type stars by virtual observations of CrAVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, A. A.; Shlyapnikov, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    The results of precosseing of negatives with direct images of the sky from CrAO glass library are presented in this work, which became a part of on-line archive of the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory (CrAVO). Based on the obtained data, the parameters of dwarf stars have been estimated, included in the catalog "Stars with solar-type activity" (GTSh10). The following matters are considered: searching methodology of negatives with positions of studied stars and with calculated limited magnitude; image viewing and reduction with the facilities of the International Virtual Observatory; the preliminary results of the photometry of studied objects.

  16. Detection of a Red Supergiant Progenitor Star of a Type II-Plateau Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smartt, Stephen J.; Maund, Justyn R.; Hendry, Margaret A.; Tout, Christopher A.; Gilmore, Gerard F.; Mattila, Seppo; Benn, Chris R.

    2004-01-01

    We present the discovery of a red supergiant star that exploded as supernova 2003gd in the nearby spiral galaxy M74. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Gemini Telescope imaged this galaxy 6 to 9 months before the supernova explosion, and subsequent HST images confirm the positional coincidence of the supernova with a single resolved star that is a red supergiant of 8+4-2 solar masses. This confirms both stellar evolution models and supernova theories predicting that cool red supergiants are the immediate progenitor stars of type II-plateau supernovae.

  17. Nucleosynthesis Predictions for Intermediate-Mass AGB Stars: Comparison to Observations of Type I Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; vanRaai, Mark A.; Lugaro, Maria; Sterling, Nicholas C.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.

    2008-01-01

    Type I planetary nebulae (PNe) have high He/H and N/O ratios and are thought to be descendants of stars with initial masses of approx. 3-8 Stellar Mass. These characteristics indicate that the progenitor stars experienced proton-capture nucleosynthesis at the base of the convective envelope, in addition to the slow neutron capture process operating in the He-shell (the s-process). We compare the predicted abundances of elements up to Sr from models of intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to measured abundances in Type I PNe. In particular, we compare predictions and observations for the light trans-iron elements Se and Kr, in order to constrain convective mixing and the s-process in these stars. A partial mixing zone is included in selected models to explore the effect of a C-13 pocket on the s-process yields. The solar-metallicity models produce enrichments of [(Se, Kr)/Fe] less than or approx. 0.6, consistent with Galactic Type I PNe where the observed enhancements are typically less than or approx. 0.3 dex, while lower metallicity models predict larger enrichments of C, N, Se, and Kr. O destruction occurs in the most massive models but it is not efficient enough to account for the greater than or approx. 0.3 dex O depletions observed in some Type I PNe. It is not possible to reach firm conclusions regarding the neutron source operating in massive AGB stars from Se and Kr abundances in Type I PNe; abundances for more s-process elements may help to distinguish between the two neutron sources. We predict that only the most massive (M grester than or approx.5 Stellar Mass) models would evolve into Type I PNe, indicating that extra-mixing processes are active in lower-mass stars (3-4 Stellar Mass), if these stars are to evolve into Type I PNe.

  18. EVIDENCE FOR A CONSTANT IMF IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES BASED ON THEIR X-RAY BINARY POPULATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, T. J.; Kundu, A.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Lehmer, B.; Maraston, C.

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having steeper IMFs. These steeper IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars and black holes. In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of black holes and neutron stars in early type galaxies based on the IMF variation required to reproduce the observed mass-to-light ratio trends with galaxy mass. We then test whether such variations are observed by studying the field low-mass X-ray binary populations (LMXBs) of nearby early-type galaxies. These binaries are field neutron stars or black holes accreting from a low-mass donor star. We specifically compare the number of field LMXBs per K-band light in a well-studied sample of elliptical galaxies, and use this result to distinguish between an invariant IMF and one that is Kroupa/Chabrier-like at low masses and steeper at high masses. We discuss how these observations constrain the possible forms of the IMF variations and how future Chandra observations can enable sharper tests of the IMF.

  19. Herschel-ATLAS: Dusty early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, K.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S.

    2015-03-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) are thought to be devoid of dust and star-formation, having formed most of their stars at early epochs. We present the detection of the dustiest ETGs in a large-area blind submillimetre survey with Herschel (H-ATLAS, Eales et al. 2010), where the lack of pre-selection in other bands makes it the first unbiased survey for cold dust in ETGs. The parent sample of 1087 H-ATLAS galaxies in this study have a >= 5σ detection at 250μm, a reliable optical counterpart to the submillimetre source (Smith et al. 2011) and a spectroscopic redshift from the GAMA survey (Driver et al. 2011). Additionally, we construct a control sample of 1052 optically selected galaxies undetected at 250μm and matched in stellar mass to the H-ATLAS parent sample to eliminate selection effects. ETGs were selected from both samples via visual classifications using SDSS images. Further details can be found in Rowlands et al. (2012). Physical parameters are derived for each galaxy using the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code of da Cunha, Charlot and Elbaz (2008), Smith et al. 2012, using an energy balance argument. We investigate the differences between the dusty ETGs and the general ETG population, and find that the H-ATLAS ETGs are more than an order of magnitude dustier than the control ETGs. The mean dust mass of the 42 H-ATLAS ETGs is 5.5 × 107M⊙ (comparable to the dust mass of spirals in our sample), whereas the dust mass of the 233 control ETGs inferred from stacking at optical positions on the 250μm map is (0.8 - 4.0) × 106M⊙ for 25-15 K dust. The average star-formation rate of the H-ATLAS ETGs is 1.0 dex higher than that of control ETGs, and the mean r-band light-weighted age of the H-ATLAS ETGs is 1.8 Gyr younger than the control ETGs. The rest-frame NUV - r colours of the H-ATLAS ETGs are 1.0 magnitudes bluer than the control ETGs, and some ETGs may be transitioning from the blue cloud to the red sequence. Some H-ATLAS ETGs

  20. The role of dust in mass loss from late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1986-01-01

    It is noted that, in almost all late-type stars with measured mass loss rates, there is sufficient momentum in the radiation to dominate the dynamics. The opacity of the material is sufficiently great to render radiation pressure important; the dust forms close enough to the central star for radiation pressure to account for the observed outflow velocities. Pulsations appear to be important in raising the material far enough above the photosphere for grains to condense.

  1. The abundance of HCN in circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars of different chemical type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöier, F. L.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, H.; Lindqvist, M.; Bieging, J. H.; Marvel, K. B.

    2013-02-01

    Aims: A multi-transition survey of HCN (sub-) millimeter line emission from a large sample of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of different chemical type is presented. The data are analysed and circumstellar HCN abundances are estimated. The sample stars span a large range of properties such as mass-loss rate and photospheric C/O-ratio. The analysis of the new data allows for more accurate estimates of the circumstellar HCN abundances and puts new constraints on chemical models. Methods: In order to constrain the circumstellar HCN abundance distribution a detailed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) excitation analysis, based on the Monte Carlo method, is performed. Effects of line overlaps and radiative excitation from dust grains are included. Results: The median values for the derived abundances of HCN (with respect to H2) are 3 × 10-5, 7 × 10-7 and 10-7 for carbon stars (25 stars), S-type AGB stars (19 stars) and M-type AGB stars (25 stars), respectively. The estimated sizes of the HCN envelopes are similar to those obtained in the case of SiO for the same sample of sources and agree well with previous results from interferometric observations, when these are available. Conclusions: We find that there is a clear dependence of the derived circumstellar HCN abundance on the C/O-ratio of the star, in that carbon stars have about two orders of magnitude higher abundances than M-type AGB stars, on average. The derived HCN abundances of the S-type AGB stars have a larger spread and typically fall in between those of the two other types, however, slightly closer to the values for the M-type AGB stars. For the M-type stars, the estimated abundances are much higher than what would be expected if HCN is formed in thermal equilibrium. However, the results are also in contrast to predictions from recent non-LTE chemical models, where very little difference is expected in the HCN abundances between the various types of AGB stars. This publication is based on data

  2. The Origin of B-type Runaway Stars: Non-LTE Abundances as a Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    McEvoy, Catherine M.; Dufton, Philip L.; Smoker, Jonathan V.

    There are two accepted mechanisms to explain the origin of runaway OB-type stars: the binary supernova (SN) scenario and the cluster ejection scenario. In the former, an SN explosion within a close binary ejects the secondary star, while in the latter close multibody interactions in a dense cluster cause one or more of the stars to be ejected from the region at high velocity. Both mechanisms have the potential to affect the surface composition of the runaway star. tlusty non-LTE model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine the atmospheric parameters and the C, N, Mg, and Si abundances formore » a sample of B-type runaways. These same analytical tools were used by Hunter et al. for their analysis of 50 B-type open-cluster Galactic stars (i.e., nonrunaways). Effective temperatures were deduced using the Si-ionization balance technique, surface gravities from Balmer line profiles, and microturbulent velocities derived using the Si spectrum. The runaways show no obvious abundance anomalies when compared with stars in the open clusters. The runaways do show a spread in composition that almost certainly reflects the Galactic abundance gradient and a range in the birthplaces of the runaways in the Galactic disk. Since the observed Galactic abundance gradients of C, N, Mg, and Si are of a similar magnitude, the abundance ratios (e.g., N/Mg) are as obtained essentially uniform across the sample.« less

  3. The OGLE Collection of Variable Stars. Classical, Type II, and Anomalous Cepheids toward the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soszyński, I.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Skowron, D. M.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Rybicki, K.; Jacyszyn-Dobrzeniecka, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a collection of classical, typeII, and anomalous Cepheids detected in the OGLE fields toward the Galactic center. The sample contains 87 classical Cepheids pulsating in one, two or three radial modes, 924 type II Cepheids divided into BL Her, W Vir, peculiar W Vir, and RV Tau stars, and 20 anomalous Cepheids - first such objects found in the Galactic bulge. Additionally, we upgrade the OGLE Collection of RR Lyr stars in the Galactic bulge by adding 828 newly identified variables. For all Cepheids and RRLyr stars, we publish time-series VI photometry obtained during the OGLE-IV project, from 2010 through 2017. We discuss basic properties of our classical pulsators: their spatial distribution, light curve morphology, period-luminosity relations, and position in the Petersen diagram. We present the most interesting individual objects in our collection: a typeII Cepheid with additional eclipsing modulation, WVir stars with the period doubling effect and the RVb phenomenon, a mode-switching RR Lyr star, and a triple-mode anomalous RRd star.

  4. Multiplicity At Early Stages Of Star Formation, Small Clusters. Observations Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Masao

    2017-07-01

    The SOLA (Soul of Lupus with ALMA) project is conducting comprehensive studies of the Lupus Molecular Clouds and their star formation processes covering 10-10^4 AU scale. Our goal is to exploit ALMA and other facilities over a wide wavelength range to establish a prototypical low-mass star forming scenario based on the Lupus region. In the presentation, we will focus on angular momentum in dense cores in a filament, molecular outflows from young stars, and Class 0/I binary survey in Lupus as well as overview of our projects. Our binary survey was conducted in ALMA cycle 2 and achieved at 0.2-0.3 arcsec resolution discovering new binary systems in Lupus. At the same time, we obtained EX Lup, EXor type burst source, data in ALMA Cycle 3.

  5. Multiplicity at Early Stages of Star Formation, Small Clusters. Observations Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Masao

    2017-06-01

    The SOLA (Soul of Lupus with ALMA) project is conducting comprehensive studies of the Lupus Molecular Clouds and their star formation processes covering 10-10^4 AU scale. Our goal is to exploit ALMA and other facilities over a wide wavelength range to establish a prototypical low-mass star forming scenario based on the Lupus region. In the presentation, we will focus on angular momentum in dense cores in a filament, molecular outflows from young stars, and Class 0/I binary survey in Lupus as well as overview of our projects. Our binary survey was conducted in ALMA cycle 2 and achieved at 0.2-0.3 arcsec resolution discovering new binary systems in Lupus. At the same time, we obtained EX Lup, EXor type burst source, data in ALMA Cycle 3.

  6. A catalog of M-type star candidates in the LAMOST data release 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jing; Lépine, Sébastien; Li, Jing; Chen, Li; Hou, Jinliang

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present a set of M-type star candidates selected from the LAMOST DR1. A discrimination method with the spectral index diagram is used to separate M giants and M dwarfs. Then, we have successfully assembled a set of M giants templates from M0 to M6, using the spectra identified from the LAMOST spectral database. After combining the M dwarf templates in Zhong et al. (2015a) and the new created M giant templates, we use the M-type spectral library to perform the template-fit method to classify and identify M-type stars in the LAMOST DR1. A catalog of M-type star candidates including 8639 M giants and 101690 M dwarfs/subdwarfs is provided. As an additional results, we also present other fundamental parameters like proper motion, photometry, radial velocity and spectroscopic distance.

  7. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the catalog of galactic O type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Catalog of Galactic O-Type Stars (Garmany, Conti and Chiosi 1982), a compilation from the literature of all O-type stars for which spectral types, luminosity classes and UBV photometry exist, contains 765 stars, for each of which designation (HD, DM, etc.), spectral type, V, B-V, cluster membership, Galactic coordinates, and source references are given. Derived values of absolute visual and bolometric magnitudes, and distances are included. The source reference should be consulted for additional details concerning the derived quantities. This description of the machine-readable version of the catalog seeks to enable users to read and process the data with a minimum of guesswork. A copy of this document should be distributed with any machine readable version of the catalog.

  8. Supermassive blackhole growth and the supernovae history in high-z early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte

    2015-08-01

    A large variety of feedback models, supported by many galaxy surveys, tentatively relate AGN to star formation by stimulation or quenching. However any accretion process from variable AGNs has never been observed to be turned on or off by star formation. We propose to follow the supernovae explosions through the star formation laws of early-type galaxies with the help of the galaxy evolution model Pégase.3. Applied to the continuous Spectral Energy Distribution, including Herschel data of two z=3.8 radio galaxies (4C41.17 and TN J2007-1316), the comparison with Supermassive BlackHole masses from SDSS opens a new interpretation of the AGN-starburst relation without any need of feedback (Rocca-Volmerange et al, 2015, 2013)

  9. Kepler Beyond Planets: Finding Exploding Stars (Type Felt Supernova)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-26

    This frame from an animation shows a kind of stellar explosion called a Fast-Evolving Luminous Transient. In this case, a giant star "burps" out a shell of gas and dust about a year before exploding. Most of the energy from the supernova turns into light when it hits this previously ejected material, resulting in a short, but brilliant burst of radiation. Stellar explosions forge and distribute materials that make up the world in which we live, and also hold clues to how fast the universe is expanding. By understanding supernovae, scientists can unlock mysteries that are key to what we are made of and the fate of our universe. But to get the full picture, scientists must observe supernovae from a variety of perspectives, especially in the first moments of the explosion. That's really difficult -- there's no telling when or where a supernova might happen next. An animation is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22351

  10. A Spectroscopic Orbit for the Late-type Be Star β CMi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulaney, Nicholas A.; Richardson, Noel D.; Gerhartz, Cody J.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Carciofi, Alex C.; Klement, Robert; Wang, Luqian; Morrison, Nancy D.; Bratcher, Allison D.; Greco, Jennifer J.; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K.; Lembryk, Ludwik; Oswald, Wayne L.; Trucks, Jesica L.

    2017-02-01

    The late-type Be star β CMi is remarkably stable compared to other Be stars that have been studied. This has led to a realistic model of the outflowing Be disk by Klement et al. These results showed that the disk is likely truncated at a finite radius from the star, which Klement et al. suggest is evidence for an unseen binary companion in orbit. Here we report on an analysis of the Ritter Observatory spectroscopic archive of β CMi to search for evidence of the elusive companion. We detect periodic Doppler shifts in the wings of the Hα line with a period of 170 days and an amplitude of 2.25 km s-1, consistent with a low-mass binary companion (M ≈ 0.42 M ⊙). We then compared small changes in the violet-to-red peak height changes (V/R) with the orbital motion. We find weak evidence that it does follow the orbital motion, as suggested by recent Be binary models by Panoglou et al. Our results, which are similar to those for several other Be stars, suggest that β CMi may be a product of binary evolution where Roche lobe overflow has spun up the current Be star, likely leaving a hot subdwarf or white dwarf in orbit around the star. Unfortunately, no direct sign of this companion star is found in the very limited archive of International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra.

  11. A Spectroscopic Orbit for the Late-type Be Star β CMi

    SciTech Connect

    Dulaney, Nicholas A.; Richardson, Noel D.; Gerhartz, Cody J.

    The late-type Be star β CMi is remarkably stable compared to other Be stars that have been studied. This has led to a realistic model of the outflowing Be disk by Klement et al. These results showed that the disk is likely truncated at a finite radius from the star, which Klement et al. suggest is evidence for an unseen binary companion in orbit. Here we report on an analysis of the Ritter Observatory spectroscopic archive of β CMi to search for evidence of the elusive companion. We detect periodic Doppler shifts in the wings of the H α linemore » with a period of 170 days and an amplitude of 2.25 km s{sup −1}, consistent with a low-mass binary companion ( M ≈ 0.42 M {sub ⊙}). We then compared small changes in the violet-to-red peak height changes ( V / R ) with the orbital motion. We find weak evidence that it does follow the orbital motion, as suggested by recent Be binary models by Panoglou et al. Our results, which are similar to those for several other Be stars, suggest that β CMi may be a product of binary evolution where Roche lobe overflow has spun up the current Be star, likely leaving a hot subdwarf or white dwarf in orbit around the star. Unfortunately, no direct sign of this companion star is found in the very limited archive of International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra.« less

  12. The TESIS Project: Revealing Massive Early-Type Galaxies at z > 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Braito, V.; Bender, R.; Drory, N.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.; Mannucci, F.; Maraston, C.

    How and when present-day massive early-type galaxies built up and what type of evolution has characterized their growth (star formation and/or merging) still remain open issues. The different competing scenarios of galaxy formation predict much different properties of early-type galaxies at z > 1. The "monolithic" collapse predicts that massive spheroids formed at high redshift (z > 2.5-3) and that their comoving density is constant at z < 2.5-3 since they evolve only in luminosity. On the contrary, in the hierarchical scenario massive spheroids are built up through subsequent mergers reaching their final masses at z < 1.5 [3,5]. As a consequence, massive systems are very rare at z > 1, their comoving density decreases from z = 0 to z ~ 1.5 and they should experience their last burst of star formation at z < 1.5, concurrent with the merging event(s) of their formation. These opposed predicted properties of early-types at z > 1 can be probed observationally once a well defined sample of massive early-types at z > 1 is available. We are constructing such a sample through a dedicated near-IR very low resolution (λ/Δλ≃50) spectroscopic survey (TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey, TESIS, [6]) of a complete sample of 30 bright (K < 18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs).

  13. The Type IIn Supernova SN 2010bt: The Explosion of a Star in Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Benetti, Stefano; Cappellaro, Enrico; Smith, Nathan; Kotak, Rubina; Turatto, Massimo; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Pignata, Giuliano; Fox, Ori D.; Galbany, Lluis; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Miluzio, Matteo; Monard, L. A. G.; Ergon, Mattias

    2018-06-01

    It is well known that massive stars (M > 8 M ⊙) evolve up to the collapse of the stellar core, resulting in most cases in a supernova (SN) explosion. Their heterogeneity is related mainly to different configurations of the progenitor star at the moment of the explosion and to their immediate environments. We present photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2010bt, which was classified as a Type IIn SN from a spectrum obtained soon after discovery and was observed extensively for about 2 months. After the seasonal interruption owing to its proximity to the Sun, the SN was below the detection threshold, indicative of a rapid luminosity decline. We can identify the likely progenitor with a very luminous star (log L/L ⊙ ≈ 7) through comparison of Hubble Space Telescope images of the host galaxy prior to explosion with those of the SN obtained after maximum light. Such a luminosity is not expected for a quiescent star, but rather for a massive star in an active phase. This progenitor candidate was later confirmed via images taken in 2015 (∼5 yr post-discovery), in which no bright point source was detected at the SN position. Given these results and the SN behavior, we conclude that SN 2010bt was likely a Type IIn SN and that its progenitor was a massive star that experienced an outburst shortly before the final explosion, leading to a dense H-rich circumstellar environment around the SN progenitor.

  14. An unbiased study of debris discs around A-type stars with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thureau, N. D.; Greaves, J. S.; Matthews, B. C.; Kennedy, G.; Phillips, N.; Booth, M.; Duchêne, G.; Horner, J.; Rodriguez, D. R.; Sibthorpe, B.; Wyatt, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Herschel DEBRIS (Disc Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre) survey brings us a unique perspective on the study of debris discs around main-sequence A-type stars. Bias-free by design, the survey offers a remarkable data set with which to investigate the cold disc properties. The statistical analysis of the 100 and 160 μm data for 86 main-sequence A stars yields a lower than previously found debris disc rate. Considering better than 3σ excess sources, we find a detection rate ≥24 ± 5 per cent at 100 μm which is similar to the debris disc rate around main-sequence F/G/K-spectral type stars. While the 100 and 160 μm excesses slowly decline with time, debris discs with large excesses are found around some of the oldest A stars in our sample, evidence that the debris phenomenon can survive throughout the length of the main sequence (˜1 Gyr). Debris discs are predominantly detected around the youngest and hottest stars in our sample. Stellar properties such as metallicity are found to have no effect on the debris disc incidence. Debris discs are found around A stars in single systems and multiple systems at similar rates. While tight and wide binaries (<1 and >100 au, respectively) host debris discs with a similar frequency and global properties, no intermediate separation debris systems were detected in our sample.

  15. Rotation and activity among solar-type stars of the Ursa Major Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David R.; Mayor, Michel

    1993-01-01

    We examine rotation and chromospheric activity among G and K dwarfs recently shown to be members of the Ursa Major Group (UMaG). Rotation periods for UMaG stars are smaller than for stars of the same colors in the Hyades, and by an amount corresponding to the Skumanich relation. Most UMaG stars have about the same level of Ca II and K emission, implying that they also have nearly uniform intrinsic rotation rates. That means that the diversity of rotation rates and levels of activity seen among solar-type stars in the Alpha Persei and Pleiades clusters has largely converged by the age of UMaG (0.3 Gyr).

  16. Determination of Li abundance in Solar type stars of intermediate brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amazo-Gómez, E. M.; Hernandez-Águila, B.; Dagostino, M. C.; Bertone, E.; de la Luz, V.

    2014-10-01

    The determination of the lithium abundance in stellar atmospheres is of fundamental importance in multiple contexts of contemporary astrophysics. On the one hand, the lithium present in stars with global sub-solar metal abundances provides a strong restriction on the abundance of this element as a result of primordial nucleo-synthesis. On the other hand, Li can be an age indicator for stars with convective envelopes. Additionally, Li abundance appears to be correlated with the presence of sub-stellar companions. We present preliminary results of a project aimed at determining the Li abundance in an extended sample of solar-like stars (spectral type G and luminosity class V) of intermediate brightness. High resolution spectroscopic data (R=65000) were obtained with the CanHiS echelle spectrograph on the 2.11m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. We report the equivalent widths of a first sub-sample of 33 stars.

  17. Photospheres of hot stars. III - Luminosity effects at spectral type 09.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voels, Stephen A.; Bohannan, Bruce; Abbott, David C.; Hummer, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen and helium line profiles with high signal-to-noise ratios were obtained for four stars of spectral type 09.5 (Alpha Cam, Xi Ori A, Delta Ori A,AE Aur) that form a sequence in luminosity: Ia, Ib, II, V. The basic stellar parameters of these stars are determined by fitting the observed line profiles of weak photospheric absorption lines with profiles from models which include the effect of radiation scattered back onto the photosphere from their stellar winds, an effect referred to as wind blanketing. For these stars, the inclusion of wind blanketing is significant only for the most luminous star, Alpha Cam, for which the effective temperature was shifted about -2000 K relative to an unblanketed model.

  18. Kepler Beyond Planets: Finding Exploding Stars (Type Ia Supernova from a White Dwarf Stealing Matter)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-26

    This frame from an animation shows a gigantic star exploding in a "core collapse" supernova. As atoms fuse inside the star, eventually the star can't support its own weight anymore. Gravity makes the star collapse on itself. Core collapse supernovae are called type Ib, Ic, or II depending on the chemical elements present. Stellar explosions forge and distribute materials that make up the world in which we live, and also hold clues to how fast the universe is expanding. By understanding supernovae, scientists can unlock mysteries that are key to what we are made of and the fate of our universe. But to get the full picture, scientists must observe supernovae from a variety of perspectives, especially in the first moments of the explosion. That's really difficult -- there's no telling when or where a supernova might happen next. An animation is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22352

  19. HR 6094: A Young, Solar-Type, Solar-Metallicity Barium Dwarf Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    1997-02-01

    The young solar-type star HR 6094 is found to be a barium dwarf, overabundant in the s-process elements as well as deficient in C. It is a member of the solar-metallicity, 0.3 Gyr old Ursa Major kinematical group. Measurements of radial velocity and ultraviolet flux do not support the attribution of such abundance anomalies to an unseen degenerate companion. A common proper motion, V = 10, DA white dwarf (WD), located 5360 AU away, however, strongly supports the explanation of the origin of this barium star by the process of mass transfer in a binary system, in which the secondary component accreted matter from the primary one (now the WD) when it was an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star self-enriched in the s-process elements. The membership in the UMa group of another s-process-rich and C-deficient star, HR 2047, suggests that these stars could have formed a multiple system in the past, which was disrupted by the mass-loss episode of the former AGB star. Their [C/Fe] deficiency could be explained by the action of the hot-bottomed envelope burning process in the late AGB, thereby reconverting it from a C-rich to an O-rich star, depleting C while enriching its envelope with Li and neutron capture elements. This is the first identification of the barium phenomenon in a near-zero-age star, besides being the first barium system in which the remnant of the late AGB star responsible for the heavy-element enrichment may have been directly spotted. Observations collected at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), Chile, and at the Observatório do Pico dos Dias, operated by the CNPq/Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil.

  20. STAR - Research Experiences at National Laboratory Facilities for Pre-Service and Early Career Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. M.; Rebar, B.; Buxner, S.

    2012-12-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides pre-service and beginning teachers the opportunity to develop identity as both teachers and researchers early in their careers. Founded and implemented by the Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) at California Polytechnic State University on behalf of the California State University (CSU) system, STAR provides cutting edge research experiences and career development for students affiliated with the CSU system. Over the past three summers, STAR has also partnered with the NSF Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program to include Noyce Scholars from across the country. Key experiences are one to three summers of paid research experience at federal research facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Anchoring beginning teachers in the research community enhances participant understanding of what it means to be both researchers and effective teachers. Since its inception in 2007, the STAR Program has partnered with 15 national lab facilities to provide 290 research experiences to 230 participants. Several of the 68 STAR Fellows participating in the program during Summer 2012 have submitted abstracts to the Fall AGU Meeting. Through continued partnership with the Noyce Scholar Program and contributions from outside funding sources, the CSU is committed to sustaining the STAR Program in its efforts to significantly impact teacher preparation. Evaluation results from the program continue to indicate program effectiveness in recruiting high quality science and math majors into the teaching profession and impacting their attitudes and beliefs towards the nature of science and teaching through inquiry. Additionally, surveys and interviews are being conducted of participants who are now teaching in the classroom as

  1. ACTIVITY ANALYSES FOR SOLAR-TYPE STARS OBSERVED WITH KEPLER. I. PROXIES OF MAGNETIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    He, Han; Wang, Huaning; Yun, Duo, E-mail: hehan@nao.cas.cn

    2015-11-15

    Light curves of solar-type stars often show gradual fluctuations due to rotational modulation by magnetic features (starspots and faculae) on stellar surfaces. Two quantitative measures of modulated light curves are employed as the proxies of magnetic activity for solar-type stars observed with Kepler telescope. The first is named autocorrelation index i{sub AC}, which describes the degree of periodicity of the light curve; the second is the effective fluctuation range of the light curve R{sub eff}, which reflects the depth of rotational modulation. The two measures are complementary and depict different aspects of magnetic activities on solar-type stars. By using themore » two proxies i{sub AC} and R{sub eff}, we analyzed activity properties of two carefully selected solar-type stars observed with Kepler (Kepler ID: 9766237 and 10864581), which have distinct rotational periods (14.7 versus 6.0 days). We also applied the two measures to the Sun for a comparative study. The result shows that both the measures can reveal cyclic activity variations (referred to as i{sub AC}-cycle and R{sub eff}-cycle) on the two Kepler stars and the Sun. For the Kepler star with the faster rotation rate, i{sub AC}-cycle and R{sub eff}-cycle are in the same phase, while for the Sun (slower rotator), they are in the opposite phase. By comparing the solar light curve with simultaneous photospheric magnetograms, it is identified that the magnetic feature that causes the periodic light curve during solar minima is the faculae of the enhanced network region, which can also be a candidate of magnetic features that dominate the periodic light curves on the two Kepler stars.« less

  2. IUE and Einstein survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars and the dividing line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, Bernhard M.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Maggio, A.; Vaiana, G. S.; Bennett, Jeffrey O.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on an IUE UV survey of 255 late-type G, K, and M stars, complementing the Maggio et al. (1990) Einstein X-ray survey of 380 late-type stars. The large data sample of X-ray and UV detections make it possible to examine the activity relationship between the X-ray and the UV emissions. The results confirm previous finding of a trend involving a steeply-dropping upper envelope of the transition region line fluxes, f(line)/f(V), as the dividing line is approached. This suggests that a sharp decrease in maximum activity accompanies the advancing spectral type, with the dividing line corresponding to this steep gradient region. The results confirm the rotation-activity connection for stars in this region of the H-R diagram.

  3. An IRAS-Based Search for New Dusty Late-Type WC Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin

    1995-01-01

    I have examined all Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data relevant to the 173 Galactic Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in an updated catalog, including the 13 stars newly discovered by Shara and coworkers. Using the W-R coordinates in these lists, I have examined the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC), the Faint Source Catalog, and the Faint Source Reject Catalog, and have generated one-dimensional spatial profiles, 'ADDSCANs', and two-dimensional full-resolution images, 'FRESCOS'. The goal was to assemble the best set of observed IRAS color indices for different W-R types, in particular for known dusty late-type WC Wolf-Rayet (WCL) objects. I have also unsuccessfully sought differences in IRAS colors and absolute magnitudes between single and binary W-R stars. The color indices for the entire ensemble of W-R stars define zones in the IRAS color-color ([12] - [25], [25] - [60])-plane. By searching the PSC for otherwise unassociated sources that satisfy these colors, I have identified potential new W-R candidates, perhaps too faint to have been recognized in previous optical searches. I have extracted these candidates' IRAS low-resolution spectrometer (LRS) data and compared the spectra with the highly characteristic LRS shape for known dusty WCL stars. The 13 surviving candidates must now be ex amined by optical spectroscopy. This work represents a much more rigorous and exhaustive version of the LRS study that identified IRAS 17380 - 3031 (WR98a) as the first new W-R (WC9) star discovered by IPAS. This search should have detected dusty WCL stars to a distance of 7.0 kpc from the Sun, for l is greater than 30 degrees, and to 2.9 kpc even in the innermost galaxy. For free-free-dominated W-R stars the corresponding distances are 2.5 and 1.0 kpc, respectively.

  4. An IRAS-based search for new Dusty Late-Type WC Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin

    1995-01-01

    I have examined all Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data relevant to the 173 Galactic Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in an updated catalog, including the 13 stars newly discovered by Shara and coworkers. Using the W-R coordinates in these lists, I have examined the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC), the Faint Source Catalog, and the Faint Source Reject Catalog, and have generated one-dimensional spatial profiles ('ADDSCANs') and two-dimensional full-resolution images ('FRESCOs'). The goal was to assemble the best set of observed IRAS color indices for different W-R types, in particular for known dusty late-type WC Wolf-Rayet (WCL) objects. I have also unsuccessfully sought differences in IRAS colors and absolute magnitudes between single and binary W-R stars. The color indices for the entire ensemble of W-R stars define zones in the IRAS color-color plane. By searching the PSC for otherwise unassociated sources that satisfy these colors, I have identified potential new W-R candidates, perhaps too faint to have been recognized in previous optical searches. I have extracted these candidates' IRAS low-resolution spectrometer (LRS) data and compared the spectra with the highly characteristic LRS shape for known dusty WCL stars. The 13 surviving candidates must now be examined by optical spectroscopy. This work represents a much more rigorous and exhaustive version of the LRS study that identified IRAS 17380 - 3031 (WR98a) as the first new W-R (WC9) star discovered by IRAS. This search should have detected dusty WCL stars to a distance of 7.0 kpc from the Sun, for the absolute value of l greater than 30 deg, and to 2.9 kpc even in the innermost Galaxy. For free-free-dominated W-R stars the corresponding distances are 2.5 and 1.0 kpc, respectively.

  5. A Be-type star with a black-hole companion.

    PubMed

    Casares, J; Negueruela, I; Ribó, M; Ribas, I; Paredes, J M; Herrero, A; Simón-Díaz, S

    2014-01-16

    Stellar-mass black holes have all been discovered through X-ray emission, which arises from the accretion of gas from their binary companions (this gas is either stripped from low-mass stars or supplied as winds from massive ones). Binary evolution models also predict the existence of black holes accreting from the equatorial envelope of rapidly spinning Be-type stars (stars of the Be type are hot blue irregular variables showing characteristic spectral emission lines of hydrogen). Of the approximately 80 Be X-ray binaries known in the Galaxy, however, only pulsating neutron stars have been found as companions. A black hole was formally allowed as a solution for the companion to the Be star MWC 656 (ref. 5; also known as HD 215227), although that conclusion was based on a single radial velocity curve of the Be star, a mistaken spectral classification and rough estimates of the inclination angle. Here we report observations of an accretion disk line mirroring the orbit of MWC 656. This, together with an improved radial velocity curve of the Be star through fitting sharp Fe II profiles from the equatorial disk, and a refined Be classification (to that of a B1.5-B2 III star), indicates that a black hole of 3.8 to 6.9 solar masses orbits MWC 656, the candidate counterpart of the γ-ray source AGL J2241+4454 (refs 5, 6). The black hole is X-ray quiescent and fed by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow giving a luminosity less than 1.6 × 10(-7) times the Eddington luminosity. This implies that Be binaries with black-hole companions are difficult to detect in conventional X-ray surveys.

  6. Early Emission from Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinak, Itay; Livne, Eli; Waxman, Eli

    2012-09-01

    A unique feature of deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) white dwarf explosion models of supernovae of type Ia is the presence of a strong shock wave propagating through the outer envelope. We consider the early emission expected in such models, which is produced by the expanding shock-heated outer part of the ejecta and precedes the emission driven by radioactive decay. We expand on earlier analyses by considering the modification of the pre-detonation density profile by the weak shocks generated during the deflagration phase, the time evolution of the opacity, and the deviation of the post-shock equation of state from that obtained for radiation pressure domination. A simple analytic model is presented and shown to provide an acceptable approximation to the results of one-dimensional numerical DDT simulations. Our analysis predicts a ~103 s long UV/optical flash with a luminosity of ~1 to ~3 × 1039 erg s-1. Lower luminosity corresponds to faster (turbulent) deflagration velocity. The luminosity of the UV flash is predicted to be strongly suppressed at t > t drop ~ 1 hr due to the deviation from pure radiation domination.

  7. Exploring the dusty star-formation in the early Universe using intensity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagache, Guilaine

    2018-05-01

    In the last decade, it has become clear that the dust-enshrouded star formation contributes significantly to early galaxy evolution. Detection of dust is therefore essential in determining the properties of galaxies in the high-redshift universe. This requires observations at the (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. Unfortunately, sensitivity and background confusion of single dish observations on the one hand, and mapping efficiency of interferometers on the other hand, pose unique challenges to observers. One promising route to overcome these difficulties is intensity mapping of fluctuations which exploits the confusion-limited regime and measures the collective light emission from all sources, including unresolved faint galaxies. We discuss in this contribution how 2D and 3D intensity mapping can measure the dusty star formation at high redshift, through the Cosmic Infrared Background (2D) and [CII] fine structure transition (3D) anisotropies.

  8. A Novel Method for Age Estimation in Solar-Type Stars Through GALEX FUV Magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kelly; Subramonian, Arjun; Smith, Graeme; Shouru Shieh

    2018-01-01

    Utilizing an inverse association known to exist between Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far ultraviolet (FUV) magnitudes and the chromospheric activity of F, G, and K dwarfs, we explored a method of age estimation in solar-type stars through GALEX FUV magnitudes. Sample solar-type star data were collected from refereed publications and filtered by B-V and absolute visual magnitude to ensure similarities in temperature and luminosity to the Sun. We determined FUV-B and calculated a residual index Q for all the stars, using the temperature-induced upper bound on FUV-B as the fiducial. Plotting current age estimates for the stars against Q, we discovered a strong and significant association between the variables. By applying a log-linear transformation to the data to produce a strong correlation between Q and loge Age, we confirmed the association between Q and age to be exponential. Thus, least-squares regression was used to generate an exponential model relating Q to age in solar-type stars, which can be used by astronomers. The Q-method of stellar age estimation is simple and more efficient than existing spectroscopic methods and has applications to galactic archaeology and stellar chemical composition analysis.

  9. A survey of stellar families: Multiplicity of solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Deepak

    I present the results of a comprehensive assessment of companions to 454 solar- type stars within 25 pc. New observational aspects of this work include surveys for (1) very close companions with long-baseline interferometry at the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array, (2) close companions with speckle interferometry, and (3) wide proper motion companions identified by blinking multi-epoch archival images. I have also obtained and included unpublished results from extensive radial velocity monitoring programs. The many sources utilized enable a thorough evaluation of stellar and brown dwarf companions. The results presented here include eight new companion discoveries, four of which are wide common proper motion pairs discovered by blinking archival images, and four more are from the spectroscopic data. The overall observed fractions of single, double, triple, and higher order systems are 57%±3%, 33%±2%, 8%±1%, and 3%±1%, respectively, counting all stellar and brown dwarf companions. The incompleteness analysis indicates that only a few undiscovered companions remain in this well-studied sample, showing that a majority of the solar-type stars are single. Bluer, more massive stars are more likely to have companions than redder, less massive ones. I confirm earlier expectations that more active stars are more likely to have companions. A preliminary, but important indication is that brown dwarfs, like planets, prefer stars with higher metallicity, tentatively suggesting that brown dwarfs may form like planets when they are companions to stars. The period distribution is unimodal and roughly Gaussian with peak and median values of about 300 years. The period-eccentricity relation shows a roughly flat distribution beyond the circularization limit of about 12 days. The mass- ratio distribution shows a clear discontinuity near a value of one, indicating a preference for twins, which are not confined to short orbital periods, suggesting that stars

  10. Analysis of Spectral-type A/B Stars in Five Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Ronald J.; Rafuil Islam, M.

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained low resolution (R = 1000) spectroscopy of N=68, spectral-type A/B stars in five nearby open star clusters using the McDonald Observatory, 2.1m telescope. The sample of blue stars in various clusters were selected to test our new technique for determining interstellar reddening and distances in areas where interstellar reddening is high. We use a Bayesian approach to find the posterior distribution for Teff, Logg and [Fe/H] from a combination of reddened, photometric colors and spectroscopic line strengths. We will present calibration results for this technique using open cluster star data with known reddening and distances. Preliminary results suggest our technique can produce both reddening and distance determinations to within 10% of cluster values. Our technique opens the possibility of determining distances for blue stars at low Galactic latitudes where extinction can be large and differential. We will also compare our stellar parameter determinations to previously reported MK spectral classifications and discuss the probability that some of our stars are not members of their reported clusters.

  11. On Iron Enrichment, Star Formation, and Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The nature of star formation and Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) in galaxies in the field and in rich galaxy clusters are contrasted by juxtaposing the buildup of heavy metals in the universe inferred from observed star formation and supernovae rate histories with data on the evolution of Fe abundances in the intracluster medium (ICM). Models for the chemical evolution of Fe in these environments are constructed, subject to observational constraints, for this purpose. While models with a mean delay for SNIa of 3 Gyr and standard initial mass function (IMF) are fully consistent with observations in the field, cluster Fe enrichment immediately tracked a rapid, top-heavy phase of star formation - although transport of Fe into the ICM may have been more prolonged and star formation likely continued beyond redshift 1. The means of this prompt enrichment consisted of SNII yielding greater than or equal to 0.1 solar mass per explosion (if the SNIa rate normalization is scaled down from its value in the field according to the relative number of candidate progenitor stars in the 3 - 8 solar mass range) and/or SNIa with short delay times originating during the rapid star formation epoch. Star formation is greater than 3 times more efficient in rich clusters than in the field, mitigating the overcooling problem in numerical cluster simulations. Both the fraction of baryons cycled through stars, and the fraction of the total present-day stellar mass in the form of stellar remnants, are substantially greater in clusters than in the field.

  12. Different regions of line formation in the envelope of the early emission line star HD 190073

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringuelet, A. E.; Rovira, M.; Cidale, L.; Sahade, J.

    1987-01-01

    A description is presented of the spectral features that characterize the spectrum of HD 190073 both in the photographic region (360-660 nm), and in the IUE UV (115-320 nm). A number of different types of profiles can be distinguished, and this seems to imply that many different 'broad' regions of line formation coexist in the extended envelope of the star, including regions with densities differing in several orders of magnitude.

  13. New visual companions of solar-type stars within 25 pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, R.; Fuhrmann, K.; Barr, A.; Pozo, F.; Westhues, C.; Hodapp, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of faint common-proper-motion companions to the nearby southern solar-type stars HD 43162, HD 67199, HD 114837, HD 114853, HD 129502, HD 165185, HD 197214 and HD 212330 from near-infrared imaging and astrometry. We also confirm the previously identified tertiary components around HD 165401 and HD 188088. Since the majority of these stars were already known as binaries, they ascend now to higher level systems. A particularly interesting case is the G6.5 V BY Dra-type variable HD 43162, which harbours two common-proper-motion companions at distances of 410 and 2740 au. Our limited study shows that the inventory of common-proper-motion companions around nearby bright stars is still not completely known.

  14. Contributions of late-type dwarf stars to the soft X-ray diffuse background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Snowden, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    Comprehensive calculations of the contribution of late-type dwarf stars to the soft X-ray diffuse background are presented. The mean X-ray luminosity as derived from optically and X-ray selected samples is examined, using the Bahcall-Soneira Galaxy model to describe the spatial distribution of stars and recent results on the X-ray spectra. The model calculations are compared with the Wisconsin sky maps in the C, M1, M2, I and J bands to assess the uncertainties of the calculations. Contributions of up to 10 percent to the M2 and I band background at high Galactic latitudes are found, while at low Galactic latitudes late-type stars contribute up to 40 percent of the background. However, a Galactic ridge as well as a relatively isotropic component still remains unexplained, even with the added contribution of the extrapolated high-energy power law.

  15. Instability, finite amplitude pulsation and mass-loss in models of massive OB-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Abhay Pratap; Glatzel, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    Variability and mass-loss are common phenomena in massive OB-type stars. It is argued that they are caused by violent strange mode instabilities identified in corresponding stellar models. We present a systematic linear stability analysis with respect to radial perturbations of massive OB-type stars with solar chemical composition and masses between 23 and 100 M⊙. For selected unstable stellar models, we perform non-linear simulations of the evolution of the instabilities into the non-linear regime. Finite amplitude pulsations with periods in the range between hours and 100 d are found to be the final result of the instabilities. The pulsations are associated with a mean acoustic luminosity which can be the origin of a pulsationally driven wind. Corresponding mass-loss rates lie in the range between 10-9 and 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 and may thus affect the evolution of massive stars.

  16. A Detailed Far-ultraviolet Spectral Atlas of O-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Myron A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a spectral atlas covering the wavelength interval 930-1188 Å for O2-O9.5 stars using Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer archival data. The stars selected for the atlas were drawn from three populations: Galactic main-sequence (classes III-V) stars, supergiants, and main-sequence stars in the Magellanic Clouds, which have low metallicities. For several of these stars, we have prepared FITS files comprised of pairs of merged spectra for user access via the Multimission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST). We chose spectra from the first population with spectral types O4, O5, O6, O7, O8, and O9.5 and used them to compile tables and figures with identifications of all possible atmospheric and interstellar medium lines in the region 949-1188 Å. Our identified line totals for these six representative spectra are 821 (500), 992 (663), 1077 (749), 1178 (847), 1359 (1001), and 1798 (1392) lines, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are the totals of lines formed in the atmospheres, according to spectral synthesis models. The total number of unique atmospheric identifications for the six main-sequence O-star template spectra is 1792, whereas the number of atmospheric lines in common to these spectra is 300. The number of identified lines decreases toward earlier types (increasing effective temperature), while the percentages of "missed" features (unknown lines not predicted from our spectral syntheses) drop from a high of 8% at type B0.2, from our recently published B-star far-UV atlas, to 1%-3% for type O spectra. The percentages of overpredicted lines are similar, despite their being much higher for B-star spectra. We discuss the statistics of line populations among the various elemental ionization states. Also, as an aid to users we list those isolated lines that can be used to determine stellar temperatures and the presence of possible chemical anomalies. Finally, we have prepared FITS files that give pairs of merged spectra for

  17. Change in the activity character of the coronae of low-mass stars of various spectral types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizamov, B. A.; Katsova, M. M.; Livshits, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    We study the dependence of the coronal activity index on the stellar rotation velocity. This question has been considered previously for 824 late-type stars on the basis of a consolidated catalogue of soft X-ray fluxes. We carry out a more refined analysis separately for G, K, and M dwarfs. Two modes of activity are clearly identified in them. The first is the saturation mode, is characteristic of young stars, and is virtually independent of their rotation. The second refers to the solar-type activity whose level strongly depends on the rotation period. We show that the transition from one mode to the other occurs at rotation periods of 1.1, 3.3, and 7.2 days for stars of spectral types G2, K4, and M3, respectively. In light of the discovery of superflares on G and K stars from the Kepler spacecraft, the question arises as to what distinguishes these objects from the remaining active late-type stars. We analyze the positions of superflare stars relative to the remaining stars observed by Kepler on the "amplitude of rotational brightness modulation (ARM)—rotation period" diagram. The ARM reflects the relative spots area on a star and characterizes the activity level in the entire atmosphere. G and K superflare stars are shown to be basically rapidly rotating young objects, but some of them belong to the stars with the solar type of activity.

  18. CARBON-TO-OXYGEN RATIOS IN M DWARFS AND SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Tadashi; Sorahana, Satoko, E-mail: tadashi.nakajima@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: sorahana@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    It has been suggested that high C/O ratios (>0.8) in circumstellar disks lead to the formation of carbon-dominated planets. Based on the expectation that elemental abundances in the stellar photospheres give the initial abundances in the circumstellar disks, the frequency distributions of C/O ratios of solar-type stars have been obtained by several groups. The results of these investigations are mixed. Some find C/O > 0.8 in more than 20% of stars, and C/O > 1.0 in more than 6%. Others find C/O > 0.8 in none of the sample stars. These works on solar-type stars are all differential abundance analysesmore » with respect to the Sun and depend on the adopted C/O ratio in the Sun. Recently, a method of molecular line spectroscopy of M dwarfs, in which carbon and oxygen abundances are derived respectively from CO and H{sub 2}O lines in the K band, has been developed. The resolution of the K- band spectrum is 20,000. Carbon and oxygen abundances of 46 M dwarfs have been obtained by this nondifferential abundance analysis. Carbon-to-oxygen ratios in M dwarfs derived by this method are more robust than those in solar-type stars derived from neutral carbon and oxygen lines in the visible spectra because of the difficulty in the treatment of oxygen lines. We have compared the frequency distribution of C/O distributions in M dwarfs with those of solar-type stars and have found that the low frequency of high-C/O ratios is preferred.« less

  19. A radial velocity survey of the Carina Nebula's O-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiminki, Megan M.; Smith, Nathan

    2018-06-01

    We have obtained multi-epoch observations of 31 O-type stars in the Carina Nebula using the CHIRON spectrograph on the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5-m telescope. We measure their radial velocities to 1-2 km s-1 precision and present new or updated orbital solutions for the binary systems HD 92607, HD 93576, HDE 303312, and HDE 305536. We also compile radial velocities from the literature for 32 additional O-type and evolved massive stars in the region. The combined data set shows a mean heliocentric radial velocity of 0.6 km s-1. We calculate a velocity dispersion of ≤9.1 km s-1, consistent with an unbound, substructured OB association. The Tr 14 cluster shows a marginally significant 5 km s-1 radial velocity offset from its neighbour Tr 16, but there are otherwise no correlations between stellar position and velocity. The O-type stars in Cr 228 and the South Pillars region have a lower velocity dispersion than the region as a whole, supporting a model of distributed massive star formation rather than migration from the central clusters. We compare our stellar velocities to the Carina Nebula's molecular gas and find that Tr 14 shows a close kinematic association with the Northern Cloud. In contrast, Tr 16 has accelerated the Southern Cloud by 10-15 km s-1, possibly triggering further massive star formation. The expansion of the surrounding H II region is not symmetric about the O-type stars in radial velocity space, indicating that the ionized gas is constrained by denser material on the far side.

  20. Type II Cepheids: evidence for Na-O anticorrelation for BL Her type stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtyukh, V.; Yegorova, I.; Andrievsky, S.; Korotin, S.; Saviane, I.; Lemasle, B.; Chekhonadskikh, F.; Belik, S.

    2018-06-01

    The chemical composition of 28 Population II Cepheids and one RR Lyrae variable has been studied using high-resolution spectra. The chemical composition of W Vir variable stars (with periods longer than 8 d) is typical for the halo and thick disc stars. However, the chemical composition of BL Her variables (with periods of 0.8-4 d) is drastically different, although it does not differ essentially from that of the stars belonging to globular clusters. In particular, the sodium overabundance ([Na/Fe] ≈ 0.4) is reported for most of these stars, and the Na-O anticorrelation is also possible. The evolutionary tracks for BL Her variables (with a progenitor mass value of 0.8 solar masses) indicate that mostly helium-overabundant stars (Y = 0.30-0.35) can fall into the instability strip region. We suppose that it is the helium overabundance that accounts not only for the existence of BL Her variable stars but also for the observed abnormalities in the chemical composition of this small group of pulsating variables.

  1. The evolution of the lithium abundances of solar-type stars. II - The Ursa Major Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David R.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Fedele, Stephen B.; Jones, Burton F.

    1993-01-01

    We draw upon a recent study of the membership of the Ursa Major Group (UMaG) to examine lithium among 0.3 Gyr old solar-type stars. For most G and K dwarfs, Li confirms the conclusions about membership in UMaG reached on the basis of kinematics and chromospheric activity. G and K dwarfs in UMaG have less Li than comparable stars in the Pleiades. This indicates that G and K dwarfs undergo Li depletion while they are on the main sequence, in addition to any pre-main-sequence depletion they may have experienced. Moreover, the Li abundances of the Pleiades K dwarfs cannot be attributed to main-sequence depletion alone, demonstrating that pre-main-sequence depletion of Li also takes place. The sun's Li abundance implies that the main-sequence mechanism becomes less effective with age. The hottest stars in UMaG have Li abundances like those of hot stars in the Pleiades and Hyades and in T Tauris, and the two genuine UMaG members with temperatures near Boesgaard's Li chasm have Li abundances consistent with that chasm developing fully by 0.3 Gyr for stars with UMaG's metallicity. We see differences in the abundance of Li between UMaG members of the same spectral types, indicating that a real spread in the lithium abundance exists within this group.

  2. The DARWIN target list: observational properties of the G-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiroa, C.; Fridlund, M.; Kaltenegger, L.

    2003-10-01

    DARWIN is aimed to search for terrestrial extrasolar planets and to detect biosignatures in the planet atmospheres, which will largely be influenced by the parent stars. This contribution presents a first approach to the knowledge of the observational properties of the DARWIN star candidates of G spectral type: variability, X-ray emission, stellar or planetary companions, photometric properties in the Johnson and Strömgren systems, metallicity, IR emission and rotational velocities. The information has been retrieved from different databases and catalogues. We find that some of the nearby Sun-like targets present activity in the form of variability or X-ray emission. Few of them show far-IR excesses suggesting dusty debris disks around the stars. Further, the metallicity and rotational velocity distributions agree well with the expectations for 'normal' Sun-like stars, with the exception of few stars. This kind of work - which will be refined and extended to other spectral types in the near future - and similar ones, in addition to the expected observational and theoretical progress in the exoplanetary field, will help to ellaborate more sophisticated criteria in order to optimize the final DARWIN target list. In addition, this activity provides useful information for the GENIE scientific goal of detecting and studying exo-zodiacal light.

  3. Water on the Early M Supergiant Stars α Orionis and μ Cephei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, T.

    2000-08-01

    We reanalyze the spectra of α Ori (M2 Iab) and μ Cep (M2 Ia) observed with the balloon-borne telescope Stratoscope II more than 35 years ago, and we confirm the presence of water in these early M supergiant stars. This identification was first proposed by the Stratoscope observers themselves (Woolf, Schwarzschild, and Rose in 1964; and Danielson, Woolf, and Gaustad in 1965), but this important discovery was overlooked for a long time without any follow-up observation. Consequently, this finding has so far had little influence on the theory of the atmosphere of red supergiant stars. A reason for this may be due to an early criticism by Wing and Spinrad, who suggested CN instead of H2O for the spectral features observed by Stratoscope II. This alternative proposition has more easily been accepted since CN has widely been observed from the Sun to red supergiants, while H2O has been observed only in very cool stars such as Mira variables. In fact, we confirm that the self-consistent photospheric model of the early M supergiants shows CN bands but no H2O band in the near-infrared. Nevertheless, we find that the contribution of CN is only minor and that H2O should be the dominant absorber for the 1.4 and 1.9 μm features on the Stratoscope spectra of α Ori and μ Cep, a conclusion opposite to that of Wing and Spinrad. The observed spectra can best be interpreted by the water gas with the column density of the order of 1020 cm-2 and temperature about 1500+/-500 K, but they cannot be originating in the photosphere. We suggest a possible presence of a gaseous component not as hot as the chromosphere but warmer than the cool expanding envelope. On the other hand, we notice that the mid-infrared pure-rotation lines of H2O recently discovered on Betelgeuse (α Ori) and Antares (α Sco) by Jennings and Sada may partly be originating in the photosphere, even though the larger part should again be nonphotospheric in origin. Thus, the presence of water possibly originating in

  4. Supernovae in Early-Type Galaxies: Directly Connecting Age and Metallicity with Type Ia Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Joseph S.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Caldwell, Nelson; Kirshner, Robert P.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Li, Weidong; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2008-10-01

    We have obtained optical spectra of 29 early-type (E/S0) galaxies that hosted Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We have measured absorption-line strengths and compared them to a grid of models to extract the relations between the supernova properties and the luminosity-weighted age/composition of the host galaxies. Such a direct measurement is a marked improvement over existing analyses that tend to rely on general correlations between the properties of stellar populations and morphology. We find a strong correlation suggesting that SNe Ia in galaxies whose populations have a characteristic age greater than 5 Gyr are ~1 mag fainter at Vmax than those found in galaxies with younger populations. We find that SN Ia distance residuals in the Hubble diagram are correlated with host-galaxy metal abundance with higher iron abundance galaxies hosting less-luminous supernovae. We thus conclude that the time since progenitor formation primarily determines the radioactive Ni production while progenitor metal abundance has a weaker influence on peak luminosity, but one not fully corrected by light-curve shape and color fitters. This result, particularly the secondary dependence on metallicity, has significant implications for the determination of the equation-of-state parameter, w = P/(ρ c2) , and could impact planning for future dark-energy missions such as JDEM. Assuming no selection effects in discovering SNe Ia in local early-type galaxies, we find a higher specific SN Ia rate in E/S0 galaxies with ages below 3 Gyr than in older hosts. The higher rate and brighter luminosities seen in the youngest E/S0 hosts may be a result of recent star formation and represents a tail of the "prompt" SN Ia progenitors.

  5. Driven neutron star collapse: Type I critical phenomena and the initial black hole mass distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Scott C.; Choptuik, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    We study the general relativistic collapse of neutron star (NS) models in spherical symmetry. Our initially stable models are driven to collapse by the addition of one of two things: an initially ingoing velocity profile, or a shell of minimally coupled, massless scalar field that falls onto the star. Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) solutions with an initially isentropic, gamma-law equation of state serve as our NS models. The initial values of the velocity profile's amplitude and the star's central density span a parameter space which we have surveyed extensively and which we find provides a rich picture of the possible end states of NS collapse. This parameter space survey elucidates the boundary between Type I and Type II critical behavior in perfect fluids which coincides, on the subcritical side, with the boundary between dispersed and bound end states. For our particular model, initial velocity amplitudes greater than 0.3 c are needed to probe the regime where arbitrarily small black holes can form. In addition, we investigate Type I behavior in our system by varying the initial amplitude of the initially imploding scalar field. In this case we find that the Type I critical solutions resemble TOV solutions on the 1-mode unstable branch of equilibrium solutions, and that the critical solutions' frequencies agree well with the fundamental mode frequencies of the unstable equilibria. Additionally, the critical solution's scaling exponent is shown to be well approximated by a linear function of the initial star's central density.

  6. Infrared spectra and interstellar reddening of anonymous type II OH/IR stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Hackwell, J. A.; Grasdalen, G. L.; Kleinmann, S. G.; Mason, S.

    1985-01-01

    Infrared positions and multicolor infrared photometry for a sample of type II OH/IR stars are reported. The infrared colors and 11.4-micron silicate optical depths of the confirmed sources in this group increase as a function of distance, suggesting that interstellar reddening must be taken into account in assessing their infrared energy distributions and physical characteristics.

  7. The Origin of Dwarf Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloba, Elisa; Boselli, A.; Gorgas, J.

    2013-01-01

    The physical mechanisms involved in the formation and evolution of dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) are not well understood yet. Whether these objects, that outnumber any other class of object in clusters, are the low luminosity extension of massive early-type galaxies, i.e. formed through similar processes, or are a different group of objects possibly formed through the transformation of low luminosity spiral galaxies, is still an open debate. Studying the kinematic properties of dEs is a powerful way to distinguish between these two scenarios. In my PhD, awarded with a Fulbright postdoctoral Fellowship and with the 2011 prize to the best Spanish PhD dissertation in Astronomy, we used this technique to make a spectrophotometric analysis of 18 dEs in the Virgo cluster. I found some differences for these dEs within the cluster. The dEs in the outer parts of Virgo have rotation curves with shapes and amplitudes similar to late-type galaxies of the same luminosity. They are rotationally supported, have disky isophotes, and younger ages than those dEs in the center of Virgo, which are pressure supported, often have boxy isophotes and are older. Ram pressure stripping, which removes the gas of galaxies leaving the stars untouched, explains the properties of the dEs located in the outskirts of Virgo. However, the dEs in the central cluster regions, which have lost their angular momentum, must have suffered a more violent transformation. A combination of ram pressure stripping and harassment is not enough to remove the rotation and the disky structures of these galaxies. I am conducting new analysis with 20 new dEs to throw some light in this direction. I also analysed the Faber-Jackson and the Fundamental Plane relations, and I found that dEs deviate from the trends of massive elliptical galaxies towards the position of dark matter dominated systems such as the dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way and M31. This indicates that dEs have a non-negligible dark matter

  8. Dust-obscured star-forming galaxies in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Stephen M.; Feng, Yu; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Lovell, Christopher C.; Thomas, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by recent observational constraints on dust reprocessed emission in star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 6 and above, we use the very large cosmological hydrodynamical simulation BLUETIDES to explore predictions for the amount of dust-obscured star formation in the early Universe (z > 8). BLUETIDES matches current observational constraints on both the UV luminosity function and galaxy stellar mass function and predicts that approximately 90 per cent of the star formation in high-mass (M* > 1010 M⊙) galaxies at z = 8 is already obscured by dust. The relationship between dust attenuation and stellar mass predicted by BLUETIDES is consistent with that observed at lower redshift. However, observations of several individual objects at z > 6 are discrepant with the predictions, though it is possible that their uncertainties may have been underestimated. We find that the predicted surface density of z ≥ 8 submm sources is below that accessible to current Herschel, SCUBA-2 and Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) submm surveys. However, as ALMA continues to accrue an additional surface area the population of z > 8 dust-obscured galaxies may become accessible in the near future.

  9. Oxygen-Sodium Anticorrelation in Field RR Lyr-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrievsky, S.; Korotin, S.; Lyashko, D.; Tsymbal, V.

    2017-06-01

    We have performed analysis of a large amount of the fields RR Lyr type stars spectra with the aim to derive NLTE oxygen and sodium abundances in our program stars. Fundamental parameters (Teff, log g, Vt) and metallicity were found using the method of the fitting between synthetic and observed spectra using the SME program which was developed by N. Piskunov and J. A. Valenti. As a result of this analysis anticorrelation between oxygen (O/H) and sodium (Na/H) abundances was found.

  10. The convective noise floor for the spectroscopic detection of low mass companions to solar type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Jennings, D. E.; Brault, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The threshold mass for the unambiguous spectroscopic detection of low mass companions to solar type stars is defined here as the time when the maximum acceleration in the stellar radial velocity due to the Doppler reflex of the companion exceeds the apparent acceleration produced by changes in convection. An apparent acceleration of 11 m/s/yr in integrated sunlight was measured using near infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. This drift in the apparent solar velocity is attributed to a lessening in the magnetic inhibition of granular convection as solar minimum approaches. The threshold mass for spectroscopic detection of companions to a one solar mass star is estimated at below one Jupiter mass.

  11. Mass loss in O-type stars - Parameters which affect it

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmany, C. D.; Conti, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Newly determined mass loss rates are presented for sixteen O-type stars in three open clusters. Combining the data with that already in the literature, no evidence is found that the rates are different in clusters with differing galactocentric distances and compositions, at least near the sun. There is still appreciable dispersion in the relationship between the mass loss rate and the stellar luminosity. It may be that the mass loss depends additionally on the stellar mass and/or radius, but these data cannot unequivocally indicate which physical dependence is correct. Evidence is found that a stellar wind increases as a massive star evolves from the zero-age main sequence.

  12. Coronal thermal structure and abundances of supermetal-rich solar-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S. (Principal Investigator); Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    This observation is for grating spectroscopy of Tau Boo, a late-type star with very high metallicity (about twice solar). Despite the extreme condition of high metallicity in the photosphere, the abundance ratios of the corona appear consistent with the general picture of a coronal abundance/activity relation. The target was obtained by XMM-Newton on 24 June 2003 for 71900 sec. The European PI Antonio Maggio is responsible for data reduction. Members of our team presented at the Cool Stars Workshop 13 held in Hamburg, Germany in July 2004 and conferred at that time on the publication of results. This project is complete except for the final publication.

  13. Ensemble asteroseismology of solar-type stars with the NASA Kepler mission.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, W J; Kjeldsen, H; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Basu, S; Miglio, A; Appourchaux, T; Bedding, T R; Elsworth, Y; García, R A; Gilliland, R L; Girardi, L; Houdek, G; Karoff, C; Kawaler, S D; Metcalfe, T S; Molenda-Żakowicz, J; Monteiro, M J P F G; Thompson, M J; Verner, G A; Ballot, J; Bonanno, A; Brandão, I M; Broomhall, A-M; Bruntt, H; Campante, T L; Corsaro, E; Creevey, O L; Doğan, G; Esch, L; Gai, N; Gaulme, P; Hale, S J; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Huber, D; Jiménez, A; Mathur, S; Mazumdar, A; Mosser, B; New, R; Pinsonneault, M H; Pricopi, D; Quirion, P-O; Régulo, C; Salabert, D; Serenelli, A M; Silva Aguirre, V; Sousa, S G; Stello, D; Stevens, I R; Suran, M D; Uytterhoeven, K; White, T R; Borucki, W J; Brown, T M; Jenkins, J M; Kinemuchi, K; Van Cleve, J; Klaus, T C

    2011-04-08

    In addition to its search for extrasolar planets, the NASA Kepler mission provides exquisite data on stellar oscillations. We report the detections of oscillations in 500 solar-type stars in the Kepler field of view, an ensemble that is large enough to allow statistical studies of intrinsic stellar properties (such as mass, radius, and age) and to test theories of stellar evolution. We find that the distribution of observed masses of these stars shows intriguing differences to predictions from models of synthetic stellar populations in the Galaxy.

  14. A spectrophotometric method for detecting substellar companions to late-type M stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetiker, Brian Glen

    The most common stars in the Galaxy are the main-sequence M stars, yet current techniques are not optimized for detecting companions around the lowest mass stars; those with spectral designations ranging from M6 to M10. Described in this study is a search for companions around such stars using two methods: a unique implementation of the transit method, and a newly designed differential spectrophotometric method. The TEP project focusses on the detection of transits of terrestrial sized and larger companions in the eclipsing binary system CM Draconis. The newly designed spectrophotometric technique combines the strengths of the spectroscopic and photometric methods, while minimizing their inherent weaknesses. This unique method relies on the placement of three narrow band optical filters on and around the Titanium Oxide (TiO) bandhead near 8420 Å, a feature commonly seen in the atmospheres of late M stars. One filter is placed on the slope of the bandhead feature, while the remaining two are located on the adjacent continuum portions of the star's spectrum. The companion-induced motion of the star results in a doppler shifting of the bandhead feature, which in turn causes a change in flux passing through the filter located on the slope of the TiO bandhead. The spectrophotometric method is optimized for detecting compact systems containing brown dwarfs and giant planets. Because of its low dispersion-high photon efficiency design, this method is well suited for surveying large numbers of faint M stars. A small scale survey has been implemented, producing a candidate brown dwarf class companion of the star WX UMa. Applying the spectrophotometric method to a larger scale survey for brown dwarf and giant planet companions, coupled with a photometric transit study addresses two key astronomical issues. By detecting or placing limits on compact late type M star systems, a discrimination among competing theories of planetary formation may be gained. Furthermore, searching

  15. Spectral Types and Wind Velocities for Massive Stars in R136

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostroem, K. A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Caballero-Nieves, S. M.; Walborn, N. R.; Crowther, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze spatially resolved, long-slit ultraviolet (UV) and optical stellar spectra of the compact starburst cluster R136 at the core of 30 Doradus. R136 is young and massive, making it an ideal place to study the upper end of the initial mass function. These spectra, taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, cover over 100 stars in the inner 4 arcseconds (1 parsec) of R136, a region which cannot be resolved with ground-based spectroscopy. In this poster we present both the UV and optical of over 20 of the brightest stars in R136, extracted with MULTISPEC, a tool written specifically for multiple objects in crowded fields. For each star we present an optical spectral type and a terminal wind velocity derived from the UV data

  16. New measurements of photospheric magnetic fields in late-type stars and emerging trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saar, S. H.; Linsky, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic fields of late-type stars are measured using the method of Saar et al. (1986). The method includes radiative transfer effects and compensation for line blending; the photospheric magnetic field parameters are derived by comparing observed and theoretical line profiles using an LTE code that includes line saturation and full Zeeman pattern. The preliminary mean active region magnetic field strengths (B) and surface area coverages for 20 stars are discussed. It is observed that there is a trend of increasing B towards the cooler dwarfs stars, and the linear correlation between B and the equipartition value of the magnetic field strength suggests that the photospheric gas pressure determines the photospheric magnetic field strengths. A tendency toward larger filling factors at larger stellar angular velocities is also detected.

  17. Cold CO Gas in the Envelopes of FU Orionis-type Young Eruptive Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Moór, A.

    FU Orionis-type objects (FUors) are young stellar objects experiencing large optical outbursts due to highly enhanced accretion from the circumstellar disk onto the star. FUors are often surrounded by massive envelopes, which play a significant role in the outburst mechanism. Conversely, the subsequent eruptions might gradually clear up the obscuring envelope material and drive the protostar on its way to become a disk-only T Tauri star. Here we present an APEX {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO survey of eight southern and equatorial FUors. We measure the mass of the gaseous material surrounding our targets, locate the source of the COmore » emission, and derive physical parameters for the envelopes and outflows, where detected. Our results support the evolutionary scenario where FUors represent a transition phase from envelope-surrounded protostars to classical T Tauri stars.« less

  18. Microwave emission from the coronae of late-type dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.; Gary, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    VLA microwave observations of 14 late-type dwarf and subgiant stars and binary systems are examined. In this extensive set of observations, four sources at 6 cm (Chi-1 Ori, UV Cet, YY Gem, and Wolf 630AB) were detected and low upper limits for the remaining stars were found. The microwave luminosities of the nondetected F-K dwarfs are as small as 0.01 those of the dMe stars. The detected emission is slowly variable in all cases and is consistent with gyroresonant emission from thermal electrons spiraling in magnetic fields of about 300 gauss if the source sizes are as large as R/R(asterisk) = 3-4. This would correspond to magnetic fields that are probably in the range 0.001-0.0001 gauss at the photospheric level. An alternative mechanism is gyrosynchrotron emission from a relatively small number of electrons with effective temperature.

  19. OBSERVATIONS OF HIERARCHICAL SOLAR-TYPE MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.

    2015-10-15

    Twenty multiple stellar systems with solar-type primaries were observed at high angular resolution using the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system at the 5 m Hale telescope. The goal was to complement the knowledge of hierarchical multiplicity in the solar neighborhood by confirming recent discoveries by the visible Robo-AO system with new near-infrared observations with PALM-3000. The physical status of most, but not all, of the new pairs is confirmed by photometry in the Ks band and new positional measurements. In addition, we resolved for the first time five close sub-systems: the known astrometric binary in HIP 17129AB, companions to the primariesmore » of HIP 33555, and HIP 118213, and the companions to the secondaries in HIP 25300 and HIP 101430. We place the components on a color–magnitude diagram and discuss each multiple system individually.« less

  20. Abundance Patterns in S-type AGB Stars: Setting Constraints on Nucleosynthesis and Stellar Evolution Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyskens, P.; van Eck, S.; Plez, B.; Goriely, S.; Siess, L.; Jorissen, A.

    2011-09-01

    During evolution on the AGB, stars of type S are the first to experience s-process nucleosynthesis and the third dredge-up, and therefore to exhibit s-process signatures in their atmospheres. Their high mass-loss rates (10-7 to 10-6 M⊙/year) make them major contributors to the AGB nucleosynthesis yields at solar metallicity. Precise abundance determinations in S stars are of the utmost importance for constraining e.g. the third dredge-up luminosity and efficiency (which has been only crudely parameterized in current nucleosynthetic models so far). Here, dedicated S-star model atmospheres are used to determine precise abundances of key s-process elements, and to set constraints on nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution models. Special interest is paid to technetium, an element with no stable isotopes. Its detection is considered the best signature that the star effectively populates the thermally-pulsing AGB phase of evolution. The derived Tc/Zr abundances are compared, as a function of the derived [Zr/Fe] overabundances, with AGB stellar model predictions. The [Zr/Fe] overabundances are in good agreement with model predictions, while the Tc/Zr abundances are slightly overpredicted. This discrepancy can help to set better constraints on nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution models of AGB stars.

  1. A combined multiwavelength VLA/ALMA/Chandra study unveils the complex magnetosphere of the B-type star HR5907

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Oskinova, L. M.; Ignace, R.; Buemi, C. S.; Umana, G.; Ingallinera, A.; Leone, F.; Phillips, N. M.; Agliozzo, C.; Todt, H.; Cerrigone, L.

    2018-05-01

    We present new radio/millimeter measurements of the hot magnetic star HR 5907 obtained with the VLA and ALMA interferometers. We find that HR 5907 is the most radio luminous early type star in the cm-mm band among those presently known. Its multi-wavelength radio light curves are strongly variable with an amplitude that increases with radio frequency. The radio emission can be explained by the populations of the non-thermal electrons accelerated in the current sheets on the outer border of the magnetosphere of this fast-rotating magnetic star. We classify HR 5907 as another member of the growing class of strongly magnetic fast-rotating hot stars where the gyro-synchrotron emission mechanism efficiently operates in their magnetospheres. The new radio observations of HR 5907 are combined with archival X-ray data to study the physical condition of its magnetosphere. The X-ray spectra of HR 5907 show tentative evidence for the presence of non-thermal spectral component. We suggest that non-thermal X-rays originate a stellar X-ray aurora due to streams of non-thermal electrons impacting on the stellar surface. Taking advantage of the relation between the spectral indices of the X-ray power-law spectrum and the non-thermal electron energy distributions, we perform 3-D modelling of the radio emission for HR 5907. The wavelength-dependent radio light curves probe magnetospheric layers at different heights above the stellar surface. A detailed comparison between simulated and observed radio light curves leads us to conclude that the stellar magnetic field of HR 5907 is likely non-dipolar, providing further indirect evidence of the complex magnetic field topology of HR 5907.

  2. Metallicity of solar-type stars with debris discs and planets⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Eiroa, C.; Villaver, E.; Montesinos, B.; Mora, A.

    2012-05-01

    Context. Around 16% of the solar-like stars in our neighbourhood show IR-excesses due to dusty debris discs and a fraction of them are known to host planets. Determining whether these stars follow any special trend in their properties is important to understand debris disc and planet formation. Aims: We aim to determine in a homogeneous way the metallicity of a sample of stars with known debris discs and planets. We attempt to identify trends related to debris discs and planets around solar-type stars. Methods: Our analysis includes the calculation of the fundamental stellar parameters Teff, log g, microturbulent velocity, and metallicity by applying the iron ionisation equilibrium conditions to several isolated Fe i and Fe ii lines. High-resolution échelle spectra (R ~ 57 000) from 2, 3 m class telescopes are used. Our derived metallicities are compared with other results in the literature, which finally allows us to extend the stellar samples in a consistent way. Results: The metallicity distributions of the different stellar samples suggest that there is a transition toward higher metallicities from stars with neither debris discs nor planets to stars hosting giant planets. Stars with debris discs and stars with neither debris nor planets follow a similar metallicity distribution, although the distribution of the first ones might be shifted towards higher metallicities. Stars with debris discs and planets have the same metallicity behaviour as stars hosting planets, irrespective of whether the planets are low-mass or gas giants. In the case of debris discs and giant planets, the planets are usually cool, - semimajor axis larger than 0.1 AU (20 out of 22 planets), even ≈65% have semimajor axis larger than 0.5 AU. The data also suggest that stars with debris discs and cool giant planets tend to have a low dust luminosity, and are among the less luminous debris discs known. We also find evidence of an anticorrelation between the luminosity of the dust and the

  3. Photometry and Classification of Stars around the Reflection Nebula NGC 7023 IN Cepheus. I. A Catalog of Magnitudes, Color Indices and Spectral Types of 1240 Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdanavičius, K.; Zdanavičius, J.; Straižys, V.; Kotovas, A.

    The catalog contains magnitudes and color indices of 1240 stars down to ˜ 16.7 mag in V measured in the seven-color Vilnius photometric system in the area of 1.5 square degrees around the reflection nebula NGC 7023 in Cepheus. For most of the stars spectral types determined from the photometric data are given. A large number of visual binaries with separations between 3'' and 10'' are identified using the DSS2 images.

  4. Early Results from Star Date: M83 - A Citizen Science Project to Age Date Star Clusters in the Southern Pinwheel Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heartley, Jeremy; Whitmore, B. C.; Blair, W. P.; Christian, C. A.; Donaldson, T.; Hammer, D.; Smith, S.; Viana, A.

    2014-01-01

    The M83 Citizen Science Project is a collaborative effort currently in development between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and Zooniverse under the guidance of Dr. Brad Whitmore as part of Cy 19 proposal 12513 (PI - Dr. William Blair). This unique citizen science project will allow users to analyze individual star clusters within The Southern Pinwheel Galaxy, M83. The project will show users color-composite images taken with Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ask them to estimate the age of the star cluster. Through a multistage process, the project will educate and familiarize the user with the appearance of each age category based on the presence and shape of H-alpha emission, degree of resolution of the individual stars, and color of the cluster. (Whitmore et al. 2011). Additionally, the project will involve the actual measurement of the star cluster and H-alpha cloud radii to be used for further assessment and reinforcement of age. The data from this project and the statistics it yields will quantify these ages which can then be used to inform the debate between universal and environmental models of star cluster formation and destruction in galaxies. The tentative launch date is December 2013, therefore early results should be available at the time of the conference.

  5. Spectroscopic and physical parameters of Galactic O-type stars. III. Mass discrepancy and rotational mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N.; Puls, J.; Langer, N.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Massive stars play a key role in the evolution of galaxies and our Universe. Aims: Our goal is to compare observed and predicted properties of single Galactic O stars to identify and constrain uncertain physical parameters and processes in stellar evolution and atmosphere models. Methods: We used a sample of 53 objects of all luminosity classes and with spectral types from O3 to O9.7. For 30 of these, we determined the main photospheric and wind parameters, including projected rotational rates accounting for macroturbulence, and He and N surface abundances, using optical spectroscopy and applying the model atmosphere code FASTWIND. For the remaining objects, similar data from the literature, based on analyses by means of the CMFGEN code, were used instead. The properties of our sample were then compared to published predictions based on two grids of single massive star evolution models that include rotationally induced mixing. Results: Any of the considered model grids face problem in simultaneously reproducing the stellar masses, equatorial gravities, surface abundances, and rotation rates of our sample stars. The spectroscopic masses derived for objects below 30 M⊙ tend to be smaller than the evolutionary ones, no matter which of the two grids have been used as a reference. While this result may indicate the need to improve the model atmosphere calculations (e.g. regarding the treatment of turbulent pressure), our analysis shows that the established mass problem cannot be fully explained in terms of inaccurate parameters obtained by quantitative spectroscopy or inadequate model values of Vrot on the zero age main sequence. Within each luminosity class, we find a close correlation of N surface abundance and luminosity, and a stronger N enrichment in more massive and evolved O stars. Additionally, we also find a correlation of the surface nitrogen and helium abundances. The large number of nitrogen-enriched stars above 30 M⊙ argues for rotationally

  6. Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Sand, David J.; Valenti, Stefano; Brown, Peter; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Kasen, Daniel; Arcavi, Iair; Azalee Bostroem, K.; Tartaglia, Leonardo; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Davis, Scott; Shahbandeh, Melissa; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.

    2017-08-01

    We present very early, high-cadence photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2017cbv. The light curve is unique in that it has a blue bump during the first five days of observations in the U, B, and g bands, which is clearly resolved given our photometric cadence of 5.7 hr during that time span. We model the light curve as the combination of early shocking of the supernova ejecta against a nondegenerate companion star plus a standard SN Ia component. Our best-fit model suggests the presence of a subgiant star 56 R ⊙ from the exploding white dwarf, although this number is highly model-dependent. While this model matches the optical light curve well, it overpredicts the observed flux in the ultraviolet bands. This may indicate that the shock is not a blackbody, perhaps because of line blanketing in the UV. Alternatively, it could point to another physical explanation for the optical blue bump, such as interaction with circumstellar material or an unusual nickel distribution. Early optical spectra of SN 2017cbv show strong carbon (C II λ6580) absorption up through day -13 with respect to maximum light, suggesting that the progenitor system contains a significant amount of unburned material. These early results on SN 2017cbv illustrate the power of early discovery and intense follow-up of nearby supernovae to resolve standing questions about the progenitor systems and explosion mechanisms of SNe Ia.

  7. Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis

    We present very early, high-cadence photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2017cbv. The light curve is unique in that it has a blue bump during the first five days of observations in the U , B , and g bands, which is clearly resolved given our photometric cadence of 5.7 hr during that time span. We model the light curve as the combination of early shocking of the supernova ejecta against a nondegenerate companion star plus a standard SN Ia component. Our best-fit model suggests the presence of a subgiant star 56 R {sub ☉} from the explodingmore » white dwarf, although this number is highly model-dependent. While this model matches the optical light curve well, it overpredicts the observed flux in the ultraviolet bands. This may indicate that the shock is not a blackbody, perhaps because of line blanketing in the UV. Alternatively, it could point to another physical explanation for the optical blue bump, such as interaction with circumstellar material or an unusual nickel distribution. Early optical spectra of SN 2017cbv show strong carbon (C ii λ 6580) absorption up through day −13 with respect to maximum light, suggesting that the progenitor system contains a significant amount of unburned material. These early results on SN 2017cbv illustrate the power of early discovery and intense follow-up of nearby supernovae to resolve standing questions about the progenitor systems and explosion mechanisms of SNe Ia.« less

  8. Testing Verlinde's emergent gravity in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Napolitano, N. R.; Valentijn, E. A.

    2018-01-01

    Emergent Gravity (EG) has been proposed to resolve the missing mass problem in galaxies, replacing the potential of dark matter (DM) by the effect of the entropy displacement of dark energy by baryonic matter. This apparent DM depends only on the baryonic mass distribution and the present-day value of the Hubble parameter. In this paper we test the EG proposition, formalized by Verlinde for a spherical and isolated mass distribution using the central dynamics (Sloan Digital Sky Survey velocity dispersion, σ) and the K-band light distribution in a sample of 4032 massive (M_{\\star }≳ 10^{10} M_{⊙}) and local early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the SPIDER datasample. Our results remain unaltered if we consider the sample of 750 roundest field galaxies. Using these observations we derive the predictions by EG for the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) and the initial mass function (IMF). We demonstrate that, consistently with a classical Newtonian framework with a DM halo component or alternative theories of gravity as MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), the central dynamics can be fitted if the IMF is assumed non-universal and systematically changing with σ. For the case of EG, we find lower, but still acceptable, stellar M/L if compared with the DM-based Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) model and with MOND, but pretty similar to adiabatically contracted DM haloes and with expectations from spectral gravity-sensitive features. If the strain caused by the entropy displacement would be not maximal, as adopted in the current formulation, then the dynamics of ETGs could be reproduced with larger M/L.

  9. Early-type galaxies in the Chandra cosmos survey

    SciTech Connect

    Civano, F.; Fabbiano, G.; Kim, D.-W.

    2014-07-20

    We study a sample of 69 X-ray detected early-type galaxies (ETGs), selected from the Chandra COSMOS survey, to explore the relation between the X-ray luminosity of hot gaseous halos (L{sub X,{sub gas}}) and the integrated stellar luminosity (L{sub K} ) of the galaxies, in a range of redshift extending out to z = 1.5. In the local universe, a tight, steep relationship has been established between these two quantities (L{sub X,gas}∼L{sub K}{sup 4.5}), suggesting the presence of largely virialized halos in X-ray luminous systems. We use well-established relations from the study of local universe ETGs, together with the expected evolutionmore » of the X-ray emission, to subtract the contribution of low-mass X-ray binary populations from the X-ray luminosity of our sample. Our selection minimizes the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), yielding a sample representative of normal passive COSMOS ETGs; therefore, the resulting luminosity should be representative of gaseous halos, although we cannot exclude other sources such as obscured AGNs or enhanced X-ray emission connected with embedded star formation in the higher-z galaxies. We find that most of the galaxies with estimated L{sub X} < 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1} and z < 0.55 follow the L{sub X,{sub gas}}-L{sub K} relation of local universe ETGs. For these galaxies, the gravitational mass can be estimated with a certain degree of confidence from the local virial relation. However, the more luminous (10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}« less

  10. Chromospheric Heating in Late-Type Stars: Evidence for Magnetic and Nonmagnetic Surface Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, Manfred

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate recent observational and theoretical results concerning the physics of chromospheric heating as inferred from IUE, HST-GHRS and ROSAT data. These results are discussed in conjunction with theoretical model calculations based on acoustic and magnetic heating to infer some conclusions about the magnetic and non-magnetic surface structure of cool luminous stars. I find that most types of stars may exhibit both magnetic and nonmagnetic structures. Candidates for pure nonmagnetic surface structure include M-type giants and super-giants. M-type supergiants are also ideal candidates for identifying direct links between the appearance of hot spots on the stellar surface (perhaps caused by large convective bubbles) and temporarily increased chromospheric heating and emission.

  11. A Copernicus survey of Mg II emission in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, E. J.; Oegerle, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of Mg II emission in late-type stars is examined using scan data obtained with the Copernicus satellite. The luminosity in the Mg II k emission line was found to be closely related to stellar absolute magnitude, leading to the suggestion that such correlation may be very useful for future UV observations. The stellar surface flux in the k line was observed to be roughly constant or to decrease slowly with later spectral type, a finding which is then used to show that the pressure at the top of the chromosphere decreases with later spectral type, in agreement with the conclusions by McClintock et al. (1975). An asymmetry in the Mg II k line was noticed to be present in the available data for the stars later than K2-K5.

  12. Revealing the origin of the cold ISM in massive early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. A.; Alatalo, K.; Bureau, M.; Young, L.; Blitz, L.; Crocker, A.; Bayet, E.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; Duc, P.-A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P.-Y.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.

    2013-07-01

    Recently, massive early-type galaxies have shed their red-and-dead moniker, thanks to the discovery that many host residual star formation. As part of the ATLAS-3D project, we have conducted a complete, volume-limited survey of the molecular gas in 260 local early-type galaxies with the IRAM-30m telescope and the CARMA interferometer, in an attempt to understand the fuel powering this star formation. We find that around 22% of early-type galaxies in the local volume host molecular gas reservoirs. This detection rate is independent of galaxy luminosity and environment. Here we focus on how kinematic misalignment measurements and gas-to-dust ratios can be used to put constraints on the origin of the cold ISM in these systems. The origin of the cold ISM seems to depend strongly on environment, with misaligned, dust poor gas (indicative of externally acquired material) being common in the field but completely absent in rich groups and in the Virgo cluster. Very massive galaxies also appear to be devoid of accreted gas. This suggests that in the field mergers and/or cold gas accretion dominate the gas supply, while in clusters internal secular processes become more important. This implies that environment has a strong impact on the cold gas properties of ETGs.

  13. Chemical characterization of the early evolutionary phases of high-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is a very complex process and up to date no comprehensive theory about it exists. This thesis studies the early stages of high-mass star-forming regions and employs astrochemistry as a tool to probe their different physical conditions. We split the evolutionary sequence into four observationally motivated stages that are based on a classification proposed in the literature. The sequence is characterized by an increase of the temperatures and densities that strongly influences the chemistry in the different stages. We observed a sample of 59 high-mass star-forming regions that cover the whole sequence and statistically characterized the chemical compositions of the different stages. We determined average column densities of 18 different molecular species and found generally increasing abundances with stage. We fitted them for each stage with a 1D model, such that the result of the best fit to the previous stage was used as new input for the following. This is a unique approach and allowed us to infer physical properties like the temperature and density structure and yielded a typical chemical lifetime for the high-mass star-formation process of 1e5 years. The 18 analyzed molecular species also included four deuterated molecules whose chemistry is particularly sensitive to thermal history and thus is a promising tool to infer chemical ages. We found decreasing trends of the D/H ratios with evolutionary stage for 3 of the 4 molecular species and that the D/H ratio depends more on the fraction of warm and cold gas than on the total amount of gas. That indicates different chemical pathways for the different molecules and confirms the potential use of deuterated species as chemical age indicators. In addition, we mapped a low-mass star forming region in order to study the cosmic ray ionization rate, which is an important parameter in chemical models. While in chemical models it is commonly fixed, we found that it ! strongly varies with

  14. Nuclear Phosphatidylinositol-Phosphate Type I Kinase α-Coupled Star-PAP Polyadenylation Regulates Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    A.P., Sudheesh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Star-PAP, a nuclear phosphatidylinositol (PI) signal-regulated poly(A) polymerase (PAP), couples with type I PI phosphate kinase α (PIPKIα) and controls gene expression. We show that Star-PAP and PIPKIα together regulate 3′-end processing and expression of pre-mRNAs encoding key anti-invasive factors (KISS1R, CDH1, NME1, CDH13, FEZ1, and WIF1) in breast cancer. Consistently, the endogenous Star-PAP level is negatively correlated with the cellular invasiveness of breast cancer cells. While silencing Star-PAP or PIPKIα increases cellular invasiveness in low-invasiveness MCF7 cells, Star-PAP overexpression decreases invasiveness in highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells in a cellular Star-PAP level-dependent manner. However, expression of the PIPKIα-noninteracting Star-PAP mutant or the phosphodeficient Star-PAP (S6A mutant) has no effect on cellular invasiveness. These results strongly indicate that PIPKIα interaction and Star-PAP S6 phosphorylation are required for Star-PAP-mediated regulation of cancer cell invasion and give specificity to target anti-invasive gene expression. Our study establishes Star-PAP–PIPKIα-mediated 3′-end processing as a key anti-invasive mechanism in breast cancer. PMID:29203642

  15. Nuclear Phosphatidylinositol-Phosphate Type I Kinase α-Coupled Star-PAP Polyadenylation Regulates Cell Invasion.

    PubMed

    A P, Sudheesh; Laishram, Rakesh S

    2018-03-01

    Star-PAP, a nuclear phosphatidylinositol (PI) signal-regulated poly(A) polymerase (PAP), couples with type I PI phosphate kinase α (PIPKIα) and controls gene expression. We show that Star-PAP and PIPKIα together regulate 3'-end processing and expression of pre-mRNAs encoding key anti-invasive factors ( KISS1R , CDH1 , NME1 , CDH13 , FEZ1 , and WIF1 ) in breast cancer. Consistently, the endogenous Star-PAP level is negatively correlated with the cellular invasiveness of breast cancer cells. While silencing Star-PAP or PIPKIα increases cellular invasiveness in low-invasiveness MCF7 cells, Star-PAP overexpression decreases invasiveness in highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells in a cellular Star-PAP level-dependent manner. However, expression of the PIPKIα-noninteracting Star-PAP mutant or the phosphodeficient Star-PAP (S6A mutant) has no effect on cellular invasiveness. These results strongly indicate that PIPKIα interaction and Star-PAP S6 phosphorylation are required for Star-PAP-mediated regulation of cancer cell invasion and give specificity to target anti-invasive gene expression. Our study establishes Star-PAP-PIPKIα-mediated 3'-end processing as a key anti-invasive mechanism in breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 A.P. and Laishram.

  16. Biological damage of UV radiation in environments of F-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Satoko

    I investigate the general astrobiological significance of F-type main-sequence stars with special consideration to stellar evolutionary aspects due to nuclear evolution. DNA is taken as a proxy for carbon-based macromolecules following the assumption that exobiology is most likely based on hydrocarbons. The DNA action spectrum is utilized to represent the relative damage of the stellar UV radiation. Planetary atmospheric attenuation is taken into account in the form of parameterized attenuation functions. My work is motivated by previous studies indicating that the UV environment of solar-like stars is one of the most critical elements in determining the habitability of exoplanets and exomoons. It contributes further to the exploration of the exobiological suitability of stars that are hotter and emit much higher photospheric UV fluxes than the Sun. I found that the damage inflicted on DNA for planets at Earth-equivalent positions is between 2.5 and 7.1 times higher than for solar-like stars, and there are intricate relations for the time-dependence of damage during stellar main-sequence evolution. If atmospheric attenuation is included, however, less damage is obtained in alignment to the attenuation parameters. Also, the outer part of late F-type stars have similar UV conditions to Earth. Therefore, F-type circumstellar environments should not be excluded from candidates for habitable places on the grounds of higher stellar UV emission than the Sun. Besides the extensive theoretical component of this study, emphasis is furthermore placed on applications to observed planetary systems including CoRoT-3, WASP-14, HD 197286, HD 179949, upsilon And, and HD 86264.

  17. Zooming in on star formation in the brightest galaxies of the early Universe discovered with the Planck and Herschel satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canameras, Raoul

    2016-09-01

    Strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies offer an outstanding opportunity to characterize the most intensely star-forming galaxies in the high-redshift universe. In the most extreme cases, one can probe the mechanisms that underlie the intense star formation on the scales of individual star-forming regions. This requires very fortuitous gravitational lensing configurations offering magnification factors >>10, which are particularly rare toward the high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies. The Planck's Dusty GEMS (Gravitationally Enhanced subMillimeter Sources) sample contains eleven of the brightest high-redshift galaxies discovered with the Planck submillimeter all-sky survey, with flux densities between 300 and 1000 mJy at 350 microns, factors of a few brighter than the majority of lensed sources previously discovered with other surveys. Six of them are above the 90% completeness limit of the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS), suggesting that they are among the brightest high-redshift sources on the sky selected by their active star formation. This thesis comes within the framework of the extensive multi-wavelength follow-up programme designed to determine the overall properties of the high-redshift sources and to probe the lensing configurations. Firstly, to characterize the intervening lensing structures and calculate lensing models, I use optical and near/mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy. I deduce that our eleven GEMS are aligned with intervening matter overdensities at intermediate redshift, either massive isolated galaxies or galaxy groups and clusters. The foreground sources exhibit evolved stellar populations of a few giga years, characteristic of early-type galaxies. Moreover, the first detailed models of the light deflection toward the GEMS suggest magnification factors systematically >10, and >20 for some lines-of-sight. Secondly, we observe the GEMS in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter domains in order to characterize the background

  18. Open clusters. III. Fundamental parameters of B stars in NGC 6087, NGC 6250, NGC 6383, and NGC 6530 B-type stars with circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidelman, Y.; Cidale, L. S.; Zorec, J.; Panei, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Stellar physical properties of star clusters are poorly known and the cluster parameters are often very uncertain. Methods: Our goals are to perform a spectrophotometric study of the B star population in open clusters to derive accurate stellar parameters, search for the presence of circumstellar envelopes, and discuss the characteristics of these stars. The BCD spectrophotometric system is a powerful method to obtain stellar fundamental parameters from direct measurements of the Balmer discontinuity. To this end, we wrote the interactive code MIDE3700. The BCD parameters can also be used to infer the main properties of open clusters: distance modulus, color excess, and age. Furthermore, we inspected the Balmer discontinuity to provide evidence for the presence of circumstellar disks and identify Be star candidates. We used an additional set of high-resolution spectra in the Hα region to confirm the Be nature of these stars. Results: We provide Teff, log g, Mv, Mbol, and spectral types for a sample of 68 stars in the field of the open clusters NGC 6087, NGC 6250, NGC 6383, and NGC 6530, as well as the cluster distances, ages, and reddening. Then, based on a sample of 230 B stars in the direction of the 11 open clusters studied along this series of three papers, we report 6 new Be stars, 4 blue straggler candidates, and 15 B-type stars (called Bdd) with a double Balmer discontinuity, which indicates the presence of circumstellar envelopes. We discuss the distribution of the fraction of B, Be, and Bdd star cluster members per spectral subtype. The majority of the Be stars are dwarfs and present a maximum at the spectral type B2-B4 in young and intermediate-age open clusters (<40 Myr). Another maximum of Be stars is observed at the spectral type B6-B8 in open clusters older than 40 Myr, where the population of Bdd stars also becomes relevant. The Bdd stars seem to be in a passive emission phase. Conclusions: Our results support previous statements that the

  19. Brightness variations of the FUor-type eruptive star V346 Normae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Westhues, Ch.; Haas, M.

    2017-01-01

    Decades after the beginning of its FU Orionis-type outburst, V346 Nor unexpectedly underwent a fading event of ΔK = 4.6 mag around 2010. We obtained near-infrared observations and re-analyzed data from the VISTA/VVV survey to outline the brightness evolution. In our VLT/NaCO images, we discovered a halo of scattered light around V346 Nor with a size of about 0".04 (30 au). The VISTA data outlined a well-defined minimum in the light curve in late 2010/early 2011, and tentatively revealed a small-amplitude periodic modulation of 58 days. Our latest data points from 2016 demonstrate that the source is still brightening but has not yet reached the 2008 level. We used a simple accretion disk model with varying accretion rate and line-of-sight extinction to reproduce the observed near-infrared magnitudes and colors. We found that the flux changes of V346 Nor before 2008 were caused by a correlated change of extinction and accretion rate, while the minimum around 2010 was mostly due to decreasing accretion. The source reached a highest accretion rate of ≈ 10-4M⊙ yr-1 in 1992. A combination of accretion and extinction changes has been invoked in the literature to interpret the flux variations of certain embedded young eruptive stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 71.C-0526(A), 179.B-2002, and 381.C-0241(A).

  20. Discovery of starspots on Vega. First spectroscopic detection of surface structures on a normal A-type star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, T.; Holschneider, M.; Lignières, F.; Petit, P.; Rainer, M.; Paletou, F.; Wade, G.; Alecian, E.; Carfantan, H.; Blazère, A.; Mirouh, G. M.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The theoretically studied impact of rapid rotation on stellar evolution needs to be compared with these results of high-resolution spectroscopy-velocimetry observations. Early-type stars present a perfect laboratory for these studies. The prototype A0 star Vega has been extensively monitored in recent years in spectropolarimetry. A weak surface magnetic field was detected, implying that there might be a (still undetected) structured surface. First indications of the presence of small amplitude stellar radial velocity variations have been reported recently, but the confirmation and in-depth study with the highly stabilized spectrograph SOPHIE/OHP was required. Aims: The goal of this article is to present a thorough analysis of the line profile variations and associated estimators in the early-type standard star Vega (A0) in order to reveal potential activity tracers, exoplanet companions, and stellar oscillations. Methods: Vega was monitored in quasi-continuous high-resolution echelle spectroscopy with the highly stabilized velocimeter SOPHIE/OHP. A total of 2588 high signal-to-noise spectra was obtained during 34.7 h on five nights (2 to 6 of August 2012) in high-resolution mode at R = 75 000 and covering the visible domain from 3895-6270 Å. For each reduced spectrum, least square deconvolved equivalent photospheric profiles were calculated with a Teff = 9500 and log g = 4.0 spectral line mask. Several methods were applied to study the dynamic behaviour of the profile variations (evolution of radial velocity, bisectors, vspan, 2D profiles, amongst others). Results: We present the discovery of a spotted stellar surface on an A-type standard star (Vega) with very faint spot amplitudes ΔF/Fc ~ 5 × 10-4. A rotational modulation of spectral lines with a period of rotation P = 0.68 d has clearly been exhibited, unambiguously confirming the results of previous spectropolarimetric studies. Most of these brightness inhomogeneities seem to be located in lower

  1. A CCD Search for Variable Stars of Spectral Type B in the Northern Hemisphere Open Clusters. IX. NGC 457

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moździerski, D.; Pigulski, A.; Kopacki, G.; Kołaczkowski, Z.; Stęślicki, M.

    2014-06-01

    We present results of a BVIC variability survey in the young open cluster NGC 457 based on observations obtained during three separate runs spanning almost 20 years. In total, we found 79 variable stars, of which 66 are new. The BVIC photometry was transformed to the standard system and used to derive cluster parameters by means of isochrone fitting. The cluster is about 20 Myr old, the mean reddening amounts to about 0.48 mag in terms of the color excess E(B-V). Depending on the metallicity, the isochrone fitting yields a distance between 2.3 kpc and 2.9 kpc, which locates the cluster in the Perseus arm of the Galaxy. Using the complementary Hα photometry carried out in two seasons separated by over 10 years, we find that the cluster is very rich in Be stars. In total, 15 stars in the observed field of which 14 are cluster members showed Hα in emission either during our observations or in the past. Most of the Be stars vary in brightness on different time scales including short-period variability related most likely to g-mode pulsations. A single-epoch spectrum of NGC 457-6 shows that this Be star is presently in the shell phase. The inventory of variable stars in the observed field consists of a single β Cep-type star, NGC 457-8, 13 Be stars, 21 slowly pulsating B stars, seven δ Sct stars, one γ Dor star, 16 unclassified periodic stars, 8 eclipsing systems and a dozen of stars with irregular variability, of which six are also B-type stars. As many as 45 variable stars are of spectral type B which is the largest number in all open clusters presented in this series of papers. The most interesting is the discovery of a large group of slowly pulsating B stars which occupy the cluster main sequence in the range between V=11 mag and 14.5 mag, corresponding to spectral types B3 to B8. They all have very low amplitudes and about half show pulsations with frequencies higher than 3 d-1. We argue that these are most likely fast-rotating slowly pulsating B stars

  2. An asymptotic-giant-branch star in the progenitor system of a type Ia supernova.

    PubMed

    Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, M M; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Maza, José; González, L E; Roth, Miguel; Krisciunas, Kevin; Morrell, Nidia; Green, E M; Persson, S E; McCarthy, P J

    2003-08-07

    Stars that explode as supernovae come in two main classes. A type Ia supernova is recognized by the absence of hydrogen and the presence of elements such as silicon and sulphur in its spectrum; this class of supernova is thought to produce the majority of iron-peak elements in the Universe. They are also used as precise 'standard candles' to measure the distances to galaxies. While there is general agreement that a type Ia supernova is produced by an exploding white dwarf star, no progenitor system has ever been directly observed. Significant effort has gone into searching for circumstellar material to help discriminate between the possible kinds of progenitor systems, but no such material has hitherto been found associated with a type Ia supernova. Here we report the presence of strong hydrogen emission associated with the type Ia supernova SN2002ic, indicating the presence of large amounts of circumstellar material. We infer from this that the progenitor system contained a massive asymptotic-giant-branch star that lost several solar masses of hydrogen-rich gas before the supernova explosion.

  3. Estimates of the atmospheric parameters of M-type stars: a machine-learning perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarro, L. M.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Bello-García, A.; González-Marcos, A.; Solano, E.

    2018-05-01

    Estimating the atmospheric parameters of M-type stars has been a difficult task due to the lack of simple diagnostics in the stellar spectra. We aim at uncovering good sets of predictive features of stellar atmospheric parameters (Teff, log (g), [M/H]) in spectra of M-type stars. We define two types of potential features (equivalent widths and integrated flux ratios) able to explain the atmospheric physical parameters. We search the space of feature sets using a genetic algorithm that evaluates solutions by their prediction performance in the framework of the BT-Settl library of stellar spectra. Thereafter, we construct eight regression models using different machine-learning techniques and compare their performances with those obtained using the classical χ2 approach and independent component analysis (ICA) coefficients. Finally, we validate the various alternatives using two sets of real spectra from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Dwarf Archives collections. We find that the cross-validation errors are poor measures of the performance of regression models in the context of physical parameter prediction in M-type stars. For R ˜ 2000 spectra with signal-to-noise ratios typical of the IRTF and Dwarf Archives, feature selection with genetic algorithms or alternative techniques produces only marginal advantages with respect to representation spaces that are unconstrained in wavelength (full spectrum or ICA). We make available the atmospheric parameters for the two collections of observed spectra as online material.

  4. The ATLAS3D project - XXVII. Cold gas and the colours and ages of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Lisa M.; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2014-11-01

    We present a study of the cold gas contents of the ATLAS3D early-type galaxies, in the context of their optical colours, near-ultraviolet colours and Hβ absorption line strengths. Early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies are not as gas poor as previously thought, and at least 40 per cent of local early-type galaxies are now known to contain molecular and/or atomic gas. This cold gas offers the opportunity to study recent galaxy evolution through the processes of cold gas acquisition, consumption (star formation) and removal. Molecular and atomic gas detection rates range from 10 to 34 per cent in red sequence early-type galaxies, depending on how the red sequence is defined, and from 50 to 70 per cent in blue early-type galaxies. Notably, massive red sequence early-type galaxies (stellar masses >5 × 1010 M⊙, derived from dynamical models) are found to have H I masses up to M(H I)/M* ˜ 0.06 and H2 masses up to M(H2)/M* ˜ 0.01. Some 20 per cent of all massive early-type galaxies may have retained atomic and/or molecular gas through their transition to the red sequence. However, kinematic and metallicity signatures of external gas accretion (either from satellite galaxies or the intergalactic medium) are also common, particularly at stellar masses ≤5 × 1010 M⊙, where such signatures are found in ˜50 per cent of H2-rich early-type galaxies. Our data are thus consistent with a scenario in which fast rotator early-type galaxies are quenched former spiral galaxies which have undergone some bulge growth processes, and in addition, some of them also experience cold gas accretion which can initiate a period of modest star formation activity. We discuss implications for the interpretation of colour-magnitude diagrams.

  5. Magnetic braking in young late-type stars. The effect of polar spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aibéo, A.; Ferreira, J. M.; Lima, J. J. G.

    2007-10-01

    Context: The existence of rapidly rotating cool stars in young clusters implies a reduction of angular momentum loss rate for a certain period of the star's early life. Recently, the concentration of magnetic flux near the poles of these stars has been proposed as an alternative mechanism to dynamo saturation in order to explain the saturation of angular momentum loss. Aims: In this work we study the effect of magnetic surface flux distribution on the coronal field topology and angular momentum loss rate. We investigate if magnetic flux concentration towards the pole is a reasonable alternative to dynamo saturation. Methods: We construct a 1D wind model and also apply a 2-D self-similar analytical model, to evaluate how the surface field distribution affects the angular momentum loss of the rotating star. Results: From the 1D model we find that, in a magnetically dominated low corona, the concentrated polar surface field rapidly expands to regions of low magnetic pressure resulting in a coronal field with small latitudinal variation. We also find that the angular momentum loss rate due to a uniform field or a concentrated field with equal total magnetic flux is very similar. From the 2D wind model we show that there are several relevant factors to take into account when studying the angular momentum loss from a star. In particular, we show that the inclusion of force balance across the field in a wind model is fundamental if realistic conclusions are to be drawn from the effect of non-uniform surface field distribution on magnetic braking. This model predicts that a magnetic field concentrated at high latitudes leads to larger Alfvén radii and larger braking rates than a smoother field distribution. Conclusions: From the results obtained, we argue that the magnetic surface field distribution towards the pole does not directly limit the braking efficiency of the wind.

  6. Systematic variation of the stellar initial mass function in early-type galaxies.

    PubMed

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2012-04-25

    Much of our knowledge of galaxies comes from analysing the radiation emitted by their stars, which depends on the present number of each type of star in the galaxy. The present number depends on the stellar initial mass function (IMF), which describes the distribution of stellar masses when the population formed, and knowledge of it is critical to almost every aspect of galaxy evolution. More than 50 years after the first IMF determination, no consensus has emerged on whether it is universal among different types of galaxies. Previous studies indicated that the IMF and the dark matter fraction in galaxy centres cannot both be universal, but they could not convincingly discriminate between the two possibilities. Only recently were indications found that massive elliptical galaxies may not have the same IMF as the Milky Way. Here we report a study of the two-dimensional stellar kinematics for the large representative ATLAS(3D) sample of nearby early-type galaxies spanning two orders of magnitude in stellar mass, using detailed dynamical models. We find a strong systematic variation in IMF in early-type galaxies as a function of their stellar mass-to-light ratios, producing differences of a factor of up to three in galactic stellar mass. This implies that a galaxy's IMF depends intimately on the galaxy's formation history.

  7. Sizing up the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.

    For the main part of this dissertation, I have executed a survey of nearby, main sequence A, F, and G-type stars with the CHARA Array, successfully measuring the angular diameters of forty-four stars to better than 4% accuracy. The results of these observations also yield empirical determinations of stellar linear radii and effective temperatures for the stars observed. In addition, these CHARA-determined temperatures, radii, and luminosities are fit to Yonsei-Yale isochrones to constrain the masses and ages of the stars. These quantities are compared to the results found in Allende Prieto & Lambert (1999), Holmberg et al. (2007), and Takeda (2007), who indirectly determine these same properties by fitting models to observed photometry. I find that for most cases, the models underestimate the radius of the star by ~ 12%, while in turn they overestimate the effective temperature by ~ 1.5-4%, when compared to my directly measured values, with no apparent correlation to the star's metallicity or color index. These overestimated temperatures and underestimated radii in these works appear to cause an additional offset in the star's surface gravity measurements, which consequently yield higher masses and younger ages, in particular for stars with masses greater than ~ 1.3 [Special characters omitted.] . Alternatively, these quantities I measure are also compared to direct measurements from a large sample of eclipsing binary stars in Andersen (1991), and excellent agreement is seen within both data sets. Finally, a multi-parameter solution is found to fit color-temperature-metallicity values of the stars in this sample to provide a new calibration of the effective temperature scale for these types of stars. Published work in the field of stellar interferometry and optical spectroscopy of early-type stars are presented in Appendix D and E, respectively. INDEX WORDS: Interferometry, Infrared, Stellar Astronomy, Fundamental Properties, Effective Temperatures, Stellar Radii

  8. Numerical Generation of Double Star Images for Different Types of Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Ademir

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the modeling of stellar images using diffraction theory applied to different types of telescope masks. The masks are projected by secondary mirror holder vanes (such as the spider type) or holes on the primary mirror which result in different configurations of single stellar images. Using Fast Fourier Transform, the image of binary stars with different magnitudes is calculated. Given the numerical results obtained, a discussion is presented on the best secondary vane configurations and on the effect of obstruction types for the separation of binary pairs with different magnitudes.

  9. Photospheric carbon and oxygen abundances of F-G type stars in the Pleiades cluster*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Osamu; Honda, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    In order to investigate the carbon-to-oxygen ratio of the young open cluster M 45 (Pleiades), the C and O abundances of 32 selected F-G type dwarfs (in the effective temperature range of Teff ˜ 5800-7600 K and projected rotational velocity range of vesin i ˜ 10-110 km s-1) belonging to this cluster were determined by applying the synthetic spectrum-fitting technique to C i 5380 and O i 6156-8 lines. The non-local thermodynamical equilibrium corrections for these C i and O i lines were found to be practically negligible (less than a few hundredths dex).The resulting C and O abundances (along with the Fe abundance) turned out nearly uniform without any systematic dependence upon Teff or vesin i. We found, however, in spite of almost solar Fe abundance ([Fe/H] ˜ 0), carbon turned out to be slightly subsolar ([C/H] ˜ -0.1) while that of oxygen was slightly supersolar ([O/H] ˜ +0.1). This leads to a conclusion that the [C/O] ratio was moderately subsolar (˜ -0.2) in the primordial gas from which these Pleiades stars were formed ˜ 120-130 Myr ago. Interestingly, similarly young B-type stars are reported to show just the same result ([C/O] ˜ -0.2), while rather aged (˜ 1-10 Gyr) field F-G stars of near-solar metallicity yield almost the solar value ([C/O] ˜ 0) on average. Such a difference in the C/O ratio between two star groups of distinctly different ages may be explained as a consequence of the orbit migration mechanism which Galactic stars may undergo over a long time.

  10. Spectral Analysis of the O(He)-Type Central Stars of the Planetary Nebulae K 1-27 and LoTr 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reindl, N.; Ringat, E.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The four known O(He) stars are the only amongst the hottest post-AGB stars whose atmospheres are composed of almost pure helium. Thus, their evolution deviates from the hydrogen-defiCient post-AGB evolutionary sequence of carbon-dominated stars like e.g. PG 1159 stars. The origin of the O(He) stars is still not explained. They might be either post-early AGB stars or the progeny of R Coronae Borealis stars. We present preliminary results of a non-LTE spectral analysis based on FUSE and HST/COS observations.

  11. Early spectra of the gravitational wave source GW170817: Evolution of a neutron star merger.

    PubMed

    Shappee, B J; Simon, J D; Drout, M R; Piro, A L; Morrell, N; Prieto, J L; Kasen, D; Holoien, T W-S; Kollmeier, J A; Kelson, D D; Coulter, D A; Foley, R J; Kilpatrick, C D; Siebert, M R; Madore, B F; Murguia-Berthier, A; Pan, Y-C; Prochaska, J X; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rest, A; Adams, C; Alatalo, K; Bañados, E; Baughman, J; Bernstein, R A; Bitsakis, T; Boutsia, K; Bravo, J R; Di Mille, F; Higgs, C R; Ji, A P; Maravelias, G; Marshall, J L; Placco, V M; Prieto, G; Wan, Z

    2017-12-22

    On 17 August 2017, Swope Supernova Survey 2017a (SSS17a) was discovered as the optical counterpart of the binary neutron star gravitational wave event GW170817. We report time-series spectroscopy of SSS17a from 11.75 hours until 8.5 days after the merger. Over the first hour of observations, the ejecta rapidly expanded and cooled. Applying blackbody fits to the spectra, we measured the photosphere cooling from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] kelvin, and determined a photospheric velocity of roughly 30% of the speed of light. The spectra of SSS17a began displaying broad features after 1.46 days and evolved qualitatively over each subsequent day, with distinct blue (early-time) and red (late-time) components. The late-time component is consistent with theoretical models of r-process-enriched neutron star ejecta, whereas the blue component requires high-velocity, lanthanide-free material. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Measurements of the Stellar Wind Strengths of Planet-Hosting G- and K-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, Eric; Redfield, S.; Wood, B.; Linsky, J.; Mueller, H. R.

    2014-01-01

    Voyager 1 has recently crossed the heliosphere, where the solar wind meets the material of the interstellar medium. With line of sight spectral information provided by the STIS on Hubble, the analogous boundary around other stars, which is known as an astrosphere, can be detected. We are conducting a thorough analysis of MgII, FeII, DI, and HI Lyman-alpha absorption along the lines of sight to a sample of nearby K and G stars in order to obtain and use astrospheric detections to estimate stellar wind strengths, and to study their effects upon exoplanetary atmospheres. Each astrospheric measurement is obtained by careful examination and reconstruction of the Lyman-alpha emission feature, which ultimately provides an estimate of the neutral hydrogen column density associated with a star’s astrosphere. The amount of neutral hydrogen in that region is highly dependent on the stellar wind strength of the host star, and is one of the scant few methods available today for measuring that quantity. If stellar winds are strong enough, they can be responsible for stripping a nearby planet of its atmosphere, as was potentially the case with Mars and our Sun approximately 4 billion years ago. Increasing the sample size of measurements of stellar wind strengths for K and G type stars will allow for us to more accurately determine the influence of solar-type host stars on their respective exoplanetary systems. Included in our sample are the stars HD9826 and HD192310, which both have confirmed exoplanets in orbit. This project includes the reconstructions of the Lyman-alpha emission feature along the lines of sight to a sample of nearby stars, with a determination of whether or not astrospheric or heliospheric absorption is detected in each instance, with hydrogen column densities for positive detections. We would like to acknowledge NASA HST Grant GO-12475 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in

  13. Photometry and Blazhko Effect in RR Lyr Type Star DM Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udovichenko, S. N.; Dubovsky, P. A.; Kudzej, I.

    2010-12-01

    The photometric CCD observations for RR Lyr type star DM Cyg in Astronomical stations near Odessa(Ukraine) and Kolonica(Slovakia) in 2008 and near Odessa in 2009 have been carried out. The light curves in V system were obtained and the frequency Fourier analyse was performed. From Fourier spectra of the light curves 18 frequencies were identified. The weak Blazhko effect was detected.

  14. Effect of atomic parameters on determination of aluminium abundance in atmospheres of late-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzhevitski, V. S.; Shimanskaya, N. N.; Shimansky, V. V.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.

    2014-04-01

    We study the effect of the photoionization cross sections for the ground state of Al I on the inferred aluminium abundance in stellar atmospheres. We match the theoretical and observed line profiles of the resonance λλ 3944.01, 3961.52 Å and subordinate λλ 6696.03, 6698.68 Å doublets in high-resolution spectra of the metal-poor solar-type stars HD22879 and HD201889. We determine the parameters of these stars from their photometric and spectroscopic data. Our computations show that the profiles can be matched and a single aluminium abundance inferred simultaneously from both groups of spectral lines only with low photoionization cross sections (about 10-12 Mb). Larger cross sections (about 58-65 Mb) make such fits impossible. We therefore conclude that small photoionization cross sections should be preferred for the determination of aluminium abundances in metal-poor stars. We redetermine the aluminium abundances in the atmospheres of halo stars. The resulting abundances prove to be lower by 0.1-0.15 dex than our earlier determinations which does not affect the conclusions based on our earlier estimates. In particular, the NLTE [Al/Fe]-[Fe/H] dependence, on the whole, agrees only qualitatively with the results of theoretical predictions. Therefore further refinement of the theory of nuclear synthesis of aluminium in the process of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy remains a task of current importance.

  15. A collisional model for the formation of ripples in early-type disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallin, John F.; Struck-Marcell, Curtis

    1988-01-01

    Restricted three-body calculations of high-inclination low-impact-parameter encounters between a disk galaxy and its companion are used to demonstrate that the shell-like ripples noted in a number of disk galaxies are also collisional artifacts. It is suggested that some of the ripples may be the results of internal oscillations following such encounters. It is assumed that the target is an early-type disk with a sufficiently low gas fraction that recent star formation does not dominate the appearance of the disturbed disk.

  16. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. VIII. Multiplicity properties of the O-type star population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dunstall, P. R.; Evans, C. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Taylor, W. D.; Walborn, N. R.; Clark, J. S.; Crowther, P. A.; Herrero, A.; Gieles, M.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud is our closest view of a starburst region and is the ideal environment to investigate important questions regarding the formation, evolution and final fate of the most massive stars. Aims: We analyze the multiplicity properties of the massive O-type star population observed through multi-epoch spectroscopy in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. With 360 O-type stars, this is the largest homogeneous sample of massive stars analyzed to date. Methods: We use multi-epoch spectroscopy and variability analysis to identify spectroscopic binaries. We also use a Monte-Carlo method to correct for observational biases. By modeling simultaneously the observed binary fraction, the distributions of the amplitudes of the radial velocity variations and the distribution of the time scales of these variations, we constrain the intrinsic current binary fraction and period and mass-ratio distributions. Results: We observe a spectroscopic binary fraction of 0.35 ± 0.03, which corresponds to the fraction of objects displaying statistically significant radial velocity variations with an amplitude of at least 20 km s-1. We compute the intrinsic binary fraction to be 0.51 ± 0.04. We adopt power-laws to describe the intrinsic period and mass-ratio distributions: f(log 10P/d) ~ (log 10P/d)π (with log 10P/d in the range 0.15-3.5) and f(q) ~ qκ with 0.1 ≤ q = M2/M1 ≤ 1.0. The power-law indexes that best reproduce the observed quantities are π = -0.45 ± 0.30 and κ = -1.0 ± 0.4. The period distribution that we obtain thus favours shorter period systems compared to an Öpik law (π = 0). The mass ratio distribution is slightly skewed towards low mass ratio systems but remains incompatible with a random sampling of a classical mass function (κ = -2.35). The binary fraction seems mostly uniform across the field of view and independent of the spectral types and luminosity classes. The binary fraction in the outer

  17. A CCD Search for Variable Stars of Spectral Type B in the Northern Hemisphere Open Clusters. VII. NGC 1502

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalska, G.; Pigulski, A.; Stęlicki, M.; Narwid, A.

    2009-12-01

    We present results of variability search in the field of the young open cluster NGC 1502. Eight variable stars were discovered. Of six other stars in the observed field that were suspected for variability, we confirm variability of two, including one β Cep star, NGC 1502-26. The remaining four suspects were found to be constant in our photometry. In addition, UBVIC photometry of the well-known massive eclipsing binary SZ Cam was obtained. The new variable stars include: two eclipsing binaries of which one is a relatively bright detached system with an EA-type light curve, an α2 CVn-type variable, an SPB candidate, a field RR Lyr star and three other variables showing variability of unknown origin. The variability of two of them is probably related to their emission in Hα, which has been measured by means of the α index obtained for 57 stars brighter than V≍16 mag in the central part of the observed field. Four other non-variable stars with emission in Hα were also found. Additionally, we provide VIC photometry for stars down to V=17 mag and UB photometry for about 50 brightest stars in the observed field. We also show that the 10 Myr isochrone fits very well the observed color-magnitude diagram if a distance of 1 kpc and mean reddening, E(V-IC)=0.9 mag are adopted.

  18. Towards accurate radial velocities from early type spectra in the framework of an ESO key programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschueren, Werner; David, M.; Hensberge, Herman

    In order to elucidate the internal kinematics in very young stellar groups, a dedicated machinery was set up, which made it possible to proceed from actual observations to reductions and correlation analysis to the ultimate derivation of early-type stellar radial velocities (RVs) with the requisite precision. The following ingredients are found to be essential to obtain RVs of early-type stars at the 1-km/s level of precision: high-resolution, high-S/N spectra covering a large wavelength range; maximal reduction of observational errors and the use of optimal reduction procedures; the intelligent use of a versatile cross-correlation package; and comparison of velocities derived from different regions of the spectrum in order to detect systematic mismatches between object and template spectrum in some of the lines.

  19. PLANET OCCURRENCE WITHIN 0.25 AU OF SOLAR-TYPE STARS FROM KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Bryson, Stephen T.

    We report the distribution of planets as a function of planet radius, orbital period, and stellar effective temperature for orbital periods less than 50 days around solar-type (GK) stars. These results are based on the 1235 planets (formally 'planet candidates') from the Kepler mission that include a nearly complete set of detected planets as small as 2 R{sub Circled-Plus }. For each of the 156,000 target stars, we assess the detectability of planets as a function of planet radius, R{sub p}, and orbital period, P, using a measure of the detection efficiency for each star. We also correct for themore » geometric probability of transit, R{sub *}/a. We consider first Kepler target stars within the 'solar subset' having T{sub eff} = 4100-6100 K, log g 4.0-4.9, and Kepler magnitude Kp < 15 mag, i.e., bright, main-sequence GK stars. We include only those stars having photometric noise low enough to permit detection of planets down to 2 R{sub Circled-Plus }. We count planets in small domains of R{sub p} and P and divide by the included target stars to calculate planet occurrence in each domain. The resulting occurrence of planets varies by more than three orders of magnitude in the radius-orbital period plane and increases substantially down to the smallest radius (2 R{sub Circled-Plus }) and out to the longest orbital period (50 days, {approx}0.25 AU) in our study. For P < 50 days, the distribution of planet radii is given by a power law, df/dlog R = k{sub R}R{sup {alpha}} with k{sub R} = 2.9{sup +0.5}{sub -0.4}, {alpha} = -1.92 {+-} 0.11, and R {identical_to} R{sub p}/R{sub Circled-Plus }. This rapid increase in planet occurrence with decreasing planet size agrees with the prediction of core-accretion formation but disagrees with population synthesis models that predict a desert at super-Earth and Neptune sizes for close-in orbits. Planets with orbital periods shorter than 2 days are extremely rare; for R{sub p} > 2 R{sub Circled-Plus} we measure an occurrence of less

  20. The Evolution of Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S. Josephine

    1993-04-01

    stars (^13C-rich carbon stars) have been suggested to be transition objects between M-type stars and C-type stars. An optical spectroscopic study of these silicate carbon stars was performed at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria in 1991. CCGCS 1653, CCGCS 4222, CCGCS 4923 and CCGCS 5848 have been confirmed to be J stars. CCGCS 1158 and CCGCS 4729 are provisionally identified as J stars. A preliminary spectral analysis has also been carried out. Model calculations are presented on the evolution from the visual carbon stars to infrared carbon stars, and on the evolution of infrared carbon stars. A new empirical opacity function for the SiC grain is derived based on the LRS spectra of a selected sample of infrared carbon stars. A two-shell model has been developed with an oxygen-rich detached shell and a newly-forming SiC dust shell. The energy distributions of ~110 transition objects which are late-stage visual carbon stars or early-stage infrared carbon stars are fitted with this Interrupted Mass Loss Model. Furthermore, the model tracks successfully explain the "C" shaped distribution of the transition objects in the IRAS 12 microns/25 microns/60 microns colour-colour diagram. The energy distributions of ~150 infrared carbon stars are also matched with a radiative transfer dust shell model using only SiC dust. The colour evolution of infrared carbon stars can be explained with a continuous increase in mass loss rate on the AGB. An evolutionary scenario of AGB stars is suggested. There is a branching of M-type and C-type stars on the AGB with each branch evolving independently to the planetary nebula stage. The initial mass of the star in the main sequence may be the factor that determines which branch the star will follow. (SECTION: Dissertation Abstracts)

  1. NuSTAR Reveals Extreme Absorption in z < 0.5 Type 2 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.; Assef, R. J.; Aird, J.; Annuar, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Del Moro, A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S. M.; Luo, B.; Puccetti, S.; Stern, D.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-08-01

    The intrinsic column density (NH) distribution of quasars is poorly known. At the high obscuration end of the quasar population and for redshifts z < 1, the X-ray spectra can only be reliably characterized using broad-band measurements that extend to energies above 10 keV. Using the hard X-ray observatory NuSTAR, along with archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data, we study the broad-band X-ray spectra of nine optically selected (from the SDSS), candidate Compton-thick (NH > 1.5 × 1024 cm-2) type 2 quasars (CTQSO2s); five new NuSTAR observations are reported herein, and four have been previously published. The candidate CTQSO2s lie at z < 0.5, have observed [O iii] luminosities in the range 8.4\\lt {log}({L}[{{O} {{III}}]}/{L}⊙ )\\lt 9.6, and show evidence for extreme, Compton-thick absorption when indirect absorption diagnostics are considered. Among the nine candidate CTQSO2s, five are detected by NuSTAR in the high-energy (8-24 keV) band: two are weakly detected at the ≈3σ confidence level and three are strongly detected with sufficient counts for spectral modeling (≳90 net source counts at 8-24 keV). For these NuSTAR-detected sources direct (i.e., X-ray spectral) constraints on the intrinsic active galactic nucleus properties are feasible, and we measure column densities ≈2.5-1600 times higher and intrinsic (unabsorbed) X-ray luminosities ≈10-70 times higher than pre-NuSTAR constraints from Chandra and XMM-Newton. Assuming the NuSTAR-detected type 2 quasars are representative of other Compton-thick candidates, we make a correction to the NH distribution for optically selected type 2 quasars as measured by Chandra and XMM-Newton for 39 objects. With this approach, we predict a Compton-thick fraction of {f}{CT}={36}-12+14 %, although higher fractions (up to 76%) are possible if indirect absorption diagnostics are assumed to be reliable.

  2. A STATISTICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PLANET POPULATION AROUND KEPLER SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Silburt, Ari; Wu, Yanqin; Gaidos, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Using the cumulative catalog of planets detected by the NASA Kepler mission, we reconstruct the intrinsic occurrence of Earth- to Neptune-size (1-4 R {sub ⊕}) planets and their distributions with radius and orbital period. We analyze 76,711 solar-type (0.8 < R {sub *}/R {sub ☉} < 1.2) stars with 430 planets on 20-200 day orbits, excluding close-in planets that may have been affected by the proximity to the host star. Our analysis considers errors in planet radii and includes an ''iterative simulation'' technique that does not bin the data. We find a radius distribution that peaks at 2-2.8 Earth radii, with lowermore » numbers of smaller and larger planets. These planets are uniformly distributed with logarithmic period, and the mean number of such planets per star is 0.46 ± 0.03. The occurrence is ∼0.66 if planets interior to 20 days are included. We estimate the occurrence of Earth-size planets in the ''habitable zone'' (defined as 1-2 R {sub ⊕}, 0.99-1.7 AU for solar-twin stars) as 6.4{sub −1.1}{sup +3.4}%. Our results largely agree with those of Petigura et al., although we find a higher occurrence of 2.8-4 Earth-radii planets. The reasons for this excess are the inclusion of errors in planet radius, updated Huber et al. stellar parameters, and also the exclusion of planets that may have been affected by proximity to the host star.« less

  3. The wind of the M-type AGB star RT Virginis probed by VLTI/MIDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacuto, S.; Ramstedt, S.; Höfner, S.; Olofsson, H.; Bladh, S.; Eriksson, K.; Aringer, B.; Klotz, D.; Maercker, M.

    2013-03-01

    Aims: We study the circumstellar environment of the M-type AGB star RT Vir using mid-infrared high spatial resolution observations from the ESO-VLTI focal instrument MIDI. The aim of this study is to provide observational constraints on theoretical prediction that the winds of M-type AGB objects can be driven by photon scattering on iron-free silicate grains located in the close environment (about 2 to 3 stellar radii) of the star. Methods: We interpreted spectro-interferometric data, first using wavelength-dependent geometric models. We then used a self-consistent dynamic model atmosphere containing a time-dependent description of grain growth for pure forsterite dust particles to reproduce the photometric, spectrometric, and interferometric measurements of RT Vir. Since the hydrodynamic computation needs stellar parameters as input, a considerable effort was first made to determine these parameters. Results: MIDI differential phases reveal the presence of an asymmetry in the stellar vicinity. Results from the geometrical modeling give us clues to the presence of aluminum and silicate dust in the close circumstellar environment (<5 stellar radii). Comparison between spectro-interferometric data and a self-consistent dust-driven wind model reveals that silicate dust has to be present in the region between 2 to 3 stellar radii to reproduce the 59 and 63 m baseline visibility measurements around 9.8 μm. This gives additional observational evidence in favor of winds driven by photon scattering on iron-free silicate grains located in the close vicinity of an M-type star. However, other sources of opacity are clearly missing to reproduce the 10-13 μm visibility measurements for all baselines. Conclusions: This study is a first attempt to understand the wind mechanism of M-type AGB stars by comparing photometric, spectrometric, and interferometric measurements with state-of-the-art, self-consistent dust-driven wind models. The agreement of the dynamic model atmosphere

  4. The evolution of the lithium abundances of solar-type stars. III - The Pleiades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David R.; Jones, Burton F.; Balachandran, Suchitra; Stauffer, John R.; Duncan, Douglas K.; Fedele, Stephen B.; Hudon, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    New measurements of lithium in more than 100 Pleiades F, G, and K dwarfs are reported. Abundances are determined from spectrum synthesis fits to the data as well as from use of new covers of growth from the Li 6708-A feature. It is argued that most Late-F and early-G dwarfs in the Pleiades are consistent with the tight N(Li) vs mass relation seen in the Hyades in the same mass range. Most Li-rich stars have abundances at or near the primordial level for Population I, and none exceed that level by a significant amount. At any given color the stars that rotate fast have the most Li and have the strongest chromospheric activity. Ways in which an apparent spread in N(Li) could arise from an intrinsically tight n(Li)-mass relation are considered, and it is concluded that the spread is probably real and is not an artifact of line formation conditions or inhomogeneous atmospheres on the stars.

  5. Activity Analyses for Solar-type Stars Observed with Kepler. II. Magnetic Feature versus Flare Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Han; Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Mei; Mehrabi, Ahmad; Yan, Yan; Yun, Duo

    2018-05-01

    The light curves of solar-type stars present both periodic fluctuation and flare spikes. The gradual periodic fluctuation is interpreted as the rotational modulation of magnetic features on the stellar surface and is used to deduce magnetic feature activity properties. The flare spikes in light curves are used to derive flare activity properties. In this paper, we analyze the light curve data of three solar-type stars (KIC 6034120, KIC 3118883, and KIC 10528093) observed with Kepler space telescope and investigate the relationship between their magnetic feature activities and flare activities. The analysis shows that: (1) both the magnetic feature activity and the flare activity exhibit long-term variations as the Sun does; (2) unlike the Sun, the long-term variations of magnetic feature activity and flare activity are not in phase with each other; (3) the analysis of star KIC 6034120 suggests that the long-term variations of magnetic feature activity and flare activity have a similar cycle length. Our analysis and results indicate that the magnetic features that dominate rotational modulation and the flares possibly have different source regions, although they may be influenced by the magnetic field generated through a same dynamo process.

  6. A search for spectroscopic binaries among the runaway O type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Numerous radial velocity measurements of medium dispersion were made for the 10 brighter stars given in Stone's list of very probable O type runaways. All plates were measured with the KPNO PDS microdensitometer, and a new iterative reductional analysis was used to derive plate velocities, which are estimated to be 1.6 times more accurate internally than those found by using the traditional method. Of thse stars, psi Per, alpha Cam, HD 188209, and 26 Cep are identified as probable velocity variables, while 9 Sge, lambda Cep, and HD 218915 are classed as possible variables. If the source of this variability is Keplerian rather than atmospheric, which cannot be established unequivocally from the observations of this paper, psi Per could be a spectroscopic binary with a black hole companion, and at least 1.2 solar mass. The detection of runaway binary systems from radial velocity measurements is discussed.

  7. A spectroscopy study of nearby late-type stars, possible members of stellar kinematic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R. M.; Eiroa, C.; Montes, D.; Montesinos, B.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Nearby late-type stars are excellent targets for seeking young objects in stellar associations and moving groups. The origin of these structures is still misunderstood, and lists of moving group members often change with time and also from author to author. Most members of these groups have been identified by means of kinematic criteria, leading to an important contamination of previous lists by old field stars. Aims: We attempt to identify unambiguous moving group members among a sample of nearby-late type stars by studying their kinematics, lithium abundance, chromospheric activity, and other age-related properties. Methods: High-resolution echelle spectra (R ~ 57 000) of a sample of nearby late-type stars are used to derive accurate radial velocities that are combined with the precise Hipparcos parallaxes and proper motions to compute galactic-spatial velocity components. Stars are classified as possible members of the classical moving groups according to their kinematics. The spectra are also used to study several age-related properties for young late-type stars, i.e., the equivalent width of the lithium Li i 6707.8 Å line or the R'HK index. Additional information like X-ray fluxes from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey or the presence of debris discs is also taken into account. The different age estimators are compared and the moving group membership of the kinematically selected candidates are discussed. Results: From a total list of 405 nearby stars, 102 have been classified as moving group candidates according to their kinematics. i.e., only ~25.2% of the sample. The number reduces when age estimates are considered, and only 26 moving group candidates (25.5% of the 102 candidates) have ages in agreement with the star having the same age as an MG member. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andaluc

  8. Low-mass galaxy assembly in simulations: regulation of early star formation by radiation from massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Klypin, Anatoly; Colín, Pedro; Ceverino, Daniel; Arraki, Kenza S.; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent success in forming realistic present-day galaxies, simulations still form the bulk of their stars earlier than observations indicate. We investigate the process of stellar mass assembly in low-mass field galaxies, a dwarf and a typical spiral, focusing on the effects of radiation from young stellar clusters on the star formation (SF) histories. We implement a novel model of SF with a deterministic low efficiency per free-fall time, as observed in molecular clouds. Stellar feedback is based on observations of star-forming regions, and includes radiation pressure from massive stars, photoheating in H II regions, supernovae and stellar winds. We find that stellar radiation has a strong effect on the formation of low-mass galaxies, especially at z > 1, where it efficiently suppresses SF by dispersing cold and dense gas, preventing runaway growth of the stellar component. This behaviour is evident in a variety of observations but had so far eluded analytical and numerical models without radiation feedback. Compared to supernovae alone, radiation feedback reduces the SF rate by a factor of ˜100 at z ≲ 2, yielding rising SF histories which reproduce recent observations of Local Group dwarfs. Stellar radiation also produces bulgeless spiral galaxies and may be responsible for excess thickening of the stellar disc. The galaxies also feature rotation curves and baryon fractions in excellent agreement with current data. Lastly, the dwarf galaxy shows a very slow reduction of the central dark matter density caused by radiation feedback over the last ˜7 Gyr of cosmic evolution.

  9. Empirical mass-loss rates for 25 O and early B stars, derived from Copernicus observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gathier, R.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Snow, T. P.

    1981-01-01

    Ultraviolet line profiles are fitted with theoretical line profiles in the cases of 25 stars covering a spectral type range from O4 to B1, including all luminosity classes. Ion column densities are compared for the determination of wind ionization, and it is found that the O VI/N V ratio is dependent on the mean density of the wind and not on effective temperature value, while the Si IV/N V ratio is temperature-dependent. The column densities are used to derive a mass-loss rate parameter that is empirically correlated against the mass-loss rate by means of standard stars with well-determined rates from IR or radio data. The empirical mass-loss rates obtained are compared with those derived by others and found to vary by as much as a factor of 10, which is shown to be due to uncertainties or errors in the ionization fractions of models used for wind ionization balance prediction.

  10. Embedded Filaments in IRAS 05463+2652: Early Stage of Fragmentation and Star Formation Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Devaraj, R.; Baug, T.; Ojha, D. K.

    2017-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength data analysis of IRAS 05463+2652 (hereafter I05463+2652) to study star formation mechanisms. A shell-like structure around I05463+2652 is evident in the Herschel column density map, which is not associated with any ionized emission. Based on the Herschel submillimeter images, several parsec-scale filaments (including two elongated filaments, “s-fl” and “nw-fl” having lengths of ˜6.4 and ˜8.8 pc, respectively) are investigated in the I05463+2652 site. The Herschel temperature map depicts all these features in a temperature range of ˜11-13 K. 39 clumps are identified and have masses between ˜ 70{--}945 {M}⊙ . The majority of clumps (having {M}{clump}≳ 300 {M}⊙ ) are distributed toward the shell-like structure. 175 young stellar objects (YSOs) are selected using the photometric 1-5 μm data and a majority of these YSOs are distributed toward the four areas of high column density (≳ 5× {10}21 cm-2 A V ˜ 5.3 mag) in the shell-like structure, where massive clumps and a spatial association with filament(s) are also observed. The knowledge of observed masses per unit length of elongated filaments and critical mass length reveals that they are supercritical. The filament “nw-fl” is fragmented into five clumps (having {M}{clump}˜ 100{--}545 {M}⊙ ) and contains noticeable YSOs, while the other filament “s-fl” is fragmented into two clumps (having {M}{clump}˜ 170{--}215 {M}⊙ ) without YSOs. Together, these observational results favor the role of filaments in the star formation process in I05480+2545. This study also reveals the filament “s-fl,” containing two starless clumps, at an early stage of fragmentation.

  11. Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters: implications for early self-enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieles, Mark; Charbonnel, Corinne; Krause, Martin G. H.; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Agertz, Oscar; Lamers, Henny J. G. L. M.; Bastian, Nathan; Gualandris, Alessia; Zocchi, Alice; Petts, James A.

    2018-04-01

    We present a model for the concurrent formation of globular clusters (GCs) and supermassive stars (SMSs, ≳ 103 M⊙) to address the origin of the HeCNONaMgAl abundance anomalies in GCs. GCs form in converging gas flows and accumulate low-angular momentum gas, which accretes onto protostars. This leads to an adiabatic contraction of the cluster and an increase of the stellar collision rate. A SMS can form via runaway collisions if the cluster reaches sufficiently high density before two-body relaxation halts the contraction. This condition is met if the number of stars ≳ 106 and the gas accretion rate ≳ 105 M⊙/Myr, reminiscent of GC formation in high gas-density environments, such as - but not restricted to - the early Universe. The strong SMS wind mixes with the inflowing pristine gas, such that the protostars accrete diluted hot-hydrogen burning yields of the SMS. Because of continuous rejuvenation, the amount of processed material liberated by the SMS can be an order of magnitude higher than its maximum mass. This `conveyor-belt' production of hot-hydrogen burning products provides a solution to the mass budget problem that plagues other scenarios. Additionally, the liberated material is mildly enriched in helium and relatively rich in other hot-hydrogen burning products, in agreement with abundances of GCs today. Finally, we find a super-linear scaling between the amount of processed material and cluster mass, providing an explanation for the observed increase of the fraction of processed material with GC mass. We discuss open questions of this new GC enrichment scenario and propose observational tests.

  12. The Abundances of the Fe Group Elements in Early B Stars in the Magellanic Clouds and Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Adelman, Saul J.

    2016-01-01

    The abundances of three Fe Group elements (V, Cr, and Fe) in 9 early main-sequence band B stars in the LMC, 7 in the SMC , and two in the Magellanic Bridge have been determined from archival FUSE observations and the Hubeny/Lanz NLTE programs TLUSTY/SYNSPEC. Lines from the Fe group elements, except for a few weak multiplets of Fe III, are not observable in the optical spectral region. The best set of lines in the FUSE spectral region are Fe III (UV1), V III 1150 Å, and Cr III 1137 Å. The abundances of these elements in early B stars are a marker for recent SNe Ia activity, as a single exploding white dwarf can deliver 0.5 solar masses of Ni-56 that decays into Fe to the ISM. The Fe group abundances in an older population of stars primarily reflect SNe II activity, in which a single explosion delivers only 0.07 solar masses of Ni-56 to the ISM (the rest remains trapped in the neutron star). The abundances of the Fe group elements in early B stars not only track SNe Ia activity but are also important for computing evolutionary tracks for massive stars. In general, the Fe abundance relative to the sun's value is comparable to the mean abundances for the lighter elements in the Clouds/Bridge but the values of [V,Cr/Fe]sun are smaller. This presentation will discuss the spatial distribution of the Fe Group elements in the Magellanic Clouds, and compare it with our galaxy in which the abundance of Fe declines with radial distance from the center. Support from NASA grants NAG5-13212, NNX10AD66G, STScI HST-GO-13346.22, and USC's Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  13. Heavy element synthesis in the oldest stars and the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Cowan, John J; Sneden, Christopher

    2006-04-27

    The first stars in the Universe were probably quite different from those born today. Composed almost entirely of hydrogen and helium (plus a tiny trace of lithium), they lacked the heavier elements that determine the formation and evolution of younger stars. Although we cannot observe the very first stars--they died long ago in supernovae explosions--they created heavy elements that were incorporated into the next generation. Here we describe how observations of heavy elements in the oldest surviving stars in our Galaxy's halo help us understand the nature of the first stars--those responsible for the chemical enrichment of our Galaxy and Universe.

  14. Evaluating Possible Heating Mechanisms Using the Transition Region Line Profiles of Late-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    Our analysis of high-resolution Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) spectra of late-type stars shows that the Si IV and C IV lines formed near 10(exp 5) K can be decomposed into the sum of two Gaussians, a broad component and a narrow component. We find that the flux contribution of the broad components is correlated with both the C IV and X-ray surface fluxes. For main-sequence stars, the widths of the narrow components suggest subsonic nonthermal velocities, and there appears to be a tight correlation between these nonthermal velocities and stellar surface gravity [xi(sub nc) varies as g(sup (-.68 +/-.07))]. For evolved stars with lower surface gravities, the nonthermal velocities suggested by the narrow components are at or just above the sound speed. Nonthermal velocities computed from the widths of the broad components are always highly supersonic. We propose that the broad components are diagnostics for microflare heating. Turbulent dissipation and Alfven waves are both viable candidates for the narrow component heating mechanism. A solar analog for the broad components might be the 'explosive events' detected by the High-Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) experiment. The broad component we observe for the Si IV lambda 1394 line of alpha Cen A, a star that is nearly identical to the Sun, has a FWHM of 109 +/- 10 km/s and is blueshifted by 9 +/- 3 km/s relative to the narrow component. Both of these properties are consistent with the properties of the solar explosive events. However, the alpha Cen A broad component accounts for 25% +/- 4% of the total Si IV line flux, while solar explosive events are currently thought to account for no more than 5% of the Sun's total transition region emission. This discrepancy must be resolved before the connection between broad components and explosive events can be positively established. In addition to our analysis of the Si IV and C IV lines of many stars, we also provide a more thorough analysis of all

  15. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Spatially resolved star formation histories in galaxies as a function of galaxy mass and type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, D.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; Westfall, K.; Etherington, J.; Riffel, R.; Mallmann, N. D.; Zheng, Z.; Argudo-Fernández, M.; Lian, J.; Bershady, M.; Bundy, K.; Drory, N.; Law, D.; Yan, R.; Wake, D.; Weijmans, A.; Bizyaev, D.; Brownstein, J.; Lane, R. R.; Maiolino, R.; Masters, K.; Merrifield, M.; Nitschelm, C.; Pan, K.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Schneider, D. P.

    2017-04-01

    We study the internal gradients of stellar population properties within 1.5 Re for a representative sample of 721 galaxies, with stellar masses ranging between 109 M⊙ and 1011.5 M⊙ from the SDSS-IV MaNGA Integral-Field-Unit survey. Through the use of our full spectral fitting code firefly, we derive light- and mass-weighted stellar population properties and their radial gradients, as well as full star formation and metal enrichment histories. We also quantify the impact that different stellar population models and full spectral fitting routines have on the derived stellar population properties and the radial gradient measurements. In our analysis, we find that age gradients tend to be shallow for both early-type and late-type galaxies. Mass-weighted age gradients of early-types arepositive (˜0.09 dex/Re) pointing to 'outside-in' progression of star formation, while late-type galaxies have negative light-weighted age gradients (˜-0.11 dex/Re), suggesting an 'inside-out' formation of discs. We detect negative metallicity gradients in both early- and late-type galaxies, but these are significantly steeper in late-types, suggesting that the radial dependence of chemical enrichment processes and the effect of gas inflow and metal transport are far more pronounced in discs. Metallicity gradients of both morphological classes correlate with galaxy mass, with negative metallicity gradients becoming steeper with increasing galaxy mass. The correlation with mass is stronger for late-type galaxies, with a slope of d(∇[Z/H])/d(log M) ˜ -0.2 ± 0.05 , compared to d(∇[Z/H])/d(log M) ˜ -0.05 ± 0.05 for early-types. This result suggests that the merger history plays a relatively small role in shaping metallicity gradients of galaxies.

  16. Pulsational mode-typing in line profile variables. I - Four Beta Cephei stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campos, A. J.; Smith, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed variations of line profiles in the Beta Cephei-type variable stars Gamma Pegasi, Beta Cephei, Delta Ceti and Sigma Scorpii are modeled throughout their pulsation cycles in order to classify the dominant pulsation mode as radial or nonradial. High-dispersion Reticon observations of the variables were obtained for the Si III line at 4567 A, and line profiles broadened by radial or nonradial pulsations, rotation and radial-tangential macroturbulence were calculated based on a model atmosphere. It is found that only a radial pulsation mode can reproduce the radial velocity amplitude, changes in line asymmetry and uniform line width observed in all four stars. Results are in agreement with the color-to-light arguments of Stamford and Watson (1978), and suggest that radial pulsation plays the dominant role in the observed variations in most Beta Cephei stars. Evidence for shocks or moving shells is also found in visual line data for Sigma Scorpii and an ultraviolet line of Beta Cephei, together with evidence of smooth, secular period changes in Beta Cephei and Delta Ceti.

  17. Winds from Luminous Late-Type Stars: II. Broadband Frequency Distribution of Alfven Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Airapetian, V.; Carpenter, K. G.; Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present the numerical simulations of winds from evolved giant stars using a fully non-linear, time dependent 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. This study extends our previous fully non-linear MHD wind simulations to include a broadband frequency spectrum of Alfven waves that drive winds from red giant stars. We calculated four Alfven wind models that cover the whole range of Alfven wave frequency spectrum to characterize the role of freely propagated and reflected Alfven waves in the gravitationally stratified atmosphere of a late-type giant star. Our simulations demonstrate that, unlike linear Alfven wave-driven wind models, a stellar wind model based on plasma acceleration due to broadband non-linear Alfven waves, can consistently reproduce the wide range of observed radial velocity profiles of the winds, their terminal velocities and the observed mass loss rates. Comparison of the calculated mass loss rates with the empirically determined mass loss rate for alpha Tau suggests an anisotropic and time-dependent nature of stellar winds from evolved giants.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen abundances in F- and G-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, R. E. S.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen abundances have been obtained for a sample of 11-F- and G-type dwarfs covering a range in Fe/H abundance ratio from -0.8 to +0.3. Model atmospheres, which included the effects of convection and line blanketing, were used to calculate synthetic spectra of the CH, CN, and NH molecular bands. Effective oscillator strengths for the bands studied were found by matching synthetic spectra calculated from a model solar atmosphere with the observed solar bands. Many of the metal-poor stars, and particularly the high-velocity stars, were found to have substantial nitrogen over-deficiencies, suggesting that N is manufactured mostly in a secondary manner. The carbon-to-iron ratios were similar to the solar ratio, although there may be slight C over-deficiencies in metal-poor stars. However, the variation in C/Fe is not as marked as that found recently by Hearnshaw (1974). A comprehensive discussion of the theoretical errors is given, and some applications to Galactic evolution are noted.

  19. The helium star donor channel for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Meng, X.; Chen, X.; Han, Z.

    2009-05-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play an important role in astrophysics, especially in the study of cosmic evolution. Several progenitor models for SNe Ia have been proposed in the past. In this paper we carry out a detailed study of the He star donor channel, in which a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) accretes material from a He main-sequence star or a He subgiant to increase its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass. Employing Eggleton's stellar evolution code with an optically thick wind assumption, and adopting the prescription of Kato & Hachisu for the mass accumulation efficiency of the He-shell flashes on to the WDs, we performed binary evolution calculations for about 2600 close WD binary systems. According to these calculations, we mapped out the initial parameters for SNe Ia in the orbital period-secondary mass (logPi - Mi2) plane for various WD masses from this channel. The study shows that the He star donor channel is noteworthy for producing SNe Ia (~1.2 × 10-3yr-1 in our Galaxy), and that the progenitors from this channel may appear as supersoft X-ray sources. Importantly, this channel can explain SNe Ia with short delay times (<~108yr), which is consistent with the recent observational implications of young populations of SN Ia progenitors.

  20. Spectra of late type dwarf stars of known abundance for stellar population models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnell, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The project consisted of two parts. The first was to obtain new low-dispersion, long-wavelength, high S/N IUE spectra of F-G-K dwarf stars with previously determined abundances, temperatures, and gravities. To insure high quality, the spectra are either trailed, or multiple exposures are taken within the large aperture. Second, the spectra are assembled into a library which combines the new data with existing IUE Archive data to yield mean spectral energy distributions for each important type of star. My principal responsibility is the construction and maintenance of this UV spectral library. It covers the spectral range 1200-3200A and is maintained in two parts: a version including complete wavelength coverage at the full spectral resolution of the Low Resolution cameras; and a selected bandpass version, consisting of the mean flux in pre-selected 20A bands. These bands are centered on spectral features or continuum regions of special utility - e.g. the C IV lambda 1550 or Mg II lambda 2800 feature. In the middle-UV region, special emphasis is given to those features (including continuum 'breaks') which are most useful in the study of F-G-K star spectra in the integrated light of old stellar populations.

  1. ALE OF TWO CLUSTERS YIELDS SECRETS OF STAR BIRTH IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image shows rich detail, previously only seen in neighboring star birth regions, in a pair of star clusters 166,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), in the southern constellation Doradus. The field of view is 130 light-years across and was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. HST's unique capabilities -- ultraviolet sensitivity, ability to see faint stars, and high resolution -- have been utilized fully to identify three separate populations in this concentration of nearly 10,000 stars down to the 25th magnitude (more that twice as many as can be seen over the entire sky with the naked eye on a clear night on Earth). The field of view is only 130 light-years across. Previous observations with ground-based telescopes resolve less than 1,000 stars in the same region. About 60 percent of the stars belong to the dominant yellow cluster called NGC 1850, which is estimated to be 50 million years old. A scattering of white stars in the image are massive stars that are only about 4 million years old and represent about 20 percent of the stars in the image. (The remainder are field stars in the LMC.) Besides being much younger, the white stars are much more loosely distributed than the yellow cluster. The significant difference between the two cluster ages suggests these are two separate star groups that lie along the same line of sight. The younger, more open cluster probably lies 200 light-years beyond the older cluster. If it were in the foreground, then dust contained in the white cluster would obscure stars in the older yellow cluster. To observe two well-defined star populations separated by such a small gap of space is unusual. This juxtaposition suggests that supernova explosions in the older cluster might have triggered the birth of the younger cluster. This color composite image is assembled from exposures taken in ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared light. Yellow stars correspond to Main

  2. Extended main sequence turnoffs in intermediate-age star clusters: a correlation between turnoff width and early escape velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Kalirai, Jason S.

    2014-12-10

    We present a color-magnitude diagram analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a mass-limited sample of 18 intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr old) star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, including eight clusters for which new data were obtained. We find that all star clusters in our sample feature extended main-sequence turnoff (eMSTO) regions that are wider than can be accounted for by a simple stellar population (including unresolved binary stars). FWHM widths of the MSTOs indicate age spreads of 200-550 Myr. We evaluate the dynamical evolution of clusters with and without initial mass segregation. Our main results are (1) the fractionmore » of red clump (RC) stars in secondary RCs in eMSTO clusters scales with the fraction of MSTO stars having pseudo-ages of ≲1.35 Gyr; (2) the width of the pseudo-age distributions of eMSTO clusters is correlated with their central escape velocity v {sub esc}, both currently and at an age of 10 Myr. We find that these two results are unlikely to be reproduced by the effects of interactive binary stars or a range of stellar rotation velocities. We therefore argue that the eMSTO phenomenon is mainly caused by extended star formation within the clusters; and (3) we find that v {sub esc} ≥ 15 km s{sup –1} out to ages of at least 100 Myr for all clusters featuring eMSTOs, and v {sub esc} ≤ 12 km s{sup –1} at all ages for two lower-mass clusters in the same age range that do not show eMSTOs. We argue that eMSTOs only occur for clusters whose early escape velocities are higher than the wind velocities of stars that provide material from which second-generation stars can form. The threshold of 12-15 km s{sup –1} is consistent with wind velocities of intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch stars and massive binary stars in the literature.« less

  3. Discovery of Peculiar Periodic Spectral Modulations in a Small Fraction of Solar-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borra, Ermanno F.; Trottier, Eric

    2016-11-01

    A Fourier transform analysis of 2.5 million spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey was carried out to detect periodic spectral modulations. Signals having the same period were found in only 234 stars overwhelmingly in the F2 to K1 spectral range. The signals cannot be caused by instrumental or data analysis effects because they are present in only a very small fraction of stars within a narrow spectral range and because signal-to-noise ratio considerations predict that the signal should mostly be detected in the brightest objects, while this is not the case. We consider several possibilities, such as rotational transitions in molecules, rapid pulsations, Fourier transform of spectral lines, and signals generated by extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). They cannot be generated by molecules or rapid pulsations. It is highly unlikely that they come from the Fourier transform of spectral lines because too many strong lines located at nearly periodic frequencies are needed. Finally, we consider the possibility, predicted in a previous published paper, that the signals are caused by light pulses generated by ETI to makes us aware of their existence. We find that the detected signals have exactly the shape of an ETI signal predicted in the previous publication and are therefore in agreement with this hypothesis. The fact that they are only found in a very small fraction of stars within a narrow spectral range centered near the spectral type of the Sun is also in agreement with the ETI hypothesis. However, at this stage, this hypothesis needs to be confirmed with further work. Although unlikely, there is also a possibility that the signals are due to highly peculiar chemical compositions in a small fraction of galactic halo stars.

  4. The kinematic properties of dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Peletier, R. F.; Gorgas, J.

    2011-11-01

    We present new medium resolution kinematic data for a sample of 21 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) mainly in the Virgo cluster. These data are used to study the origin of dEs inhabiting clusters. Within them we detect two populations: half of the sample (52%) are rotationally supported and the other half are pressure supported. We also find that the rotationally supported dEs are located in the outer parts of the cluster, present disky morphological shapes and are younger than those pressure supported that are concentrated in the core of the cluster without any underlying structures. Our analysis reveals that the rotationally supported objects have rotation curves similarly shaped to those of star forming galaxies of similar luminosities and follow the Tully-Fisher relation. This is expected if dEs are the descendant of low luminosity star forming systems which recently entered the cluster and lost their gas due to a ram pressure stripping event, quenching their star formation activity and transforming them into quiescent systems, but conserving their angular momentum.

  5. Chasing discs around O-type (proto)stars: Evidence from ALMA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaroni, R.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Beltrán, M. T.; Johnston, K. G.; Maud, L. T.; Moscadelli, L.; Mottram, J. C.; Ahmadi, A.; Allen, V.; Beuther, H.; Csengeri, T.; Etoka, S.; Fuller, G. A.; Galli, D.; Galván-Madrid, R.; Goddi, C.; Henning, T.; Hoare, M. G.; Klaassen, P. D.; Kuiper, R.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Lumsden, S.; Peters, T.; Rivilla, V. M.; Schilke, P.; Testi, L.; van der Tak, F.; Vig, S.; Walmsley, C. M.; Zinnecker, H.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Circumstellar discs around massive stars could mediate the accretion onto the star from the infalling envelope, and could minimize the effects of radiation pressure. Despite such a crucial role, only a few convincing candidates have been provided for discs around deeply embedded O-type (proto)stars. Aims: In order to establish whether disc-mediated accretion is the formation mechanism for the most massive stars, we have searched for circumstellar, rotating discs around a limited sample of six luminous (>105L⊙) young stellar objects. These objects were selected on the basis of their IR and radio properties in order to maximize the likelihood of association with disc+jet systems. Methods: We used ALMA with 0.̋2 resolution to observe a large number of molecular lines typical of hot molecular cores. In this paper we limit our analysis to two disc tracers (methyl cyanide, CH3CN, and its isotopologue, 13CH3CN), and an outflow tracer (silicon monoxide, SiO). Results: We reveal many cores, although their number depends dramatically on the target. We focus on the cores that present prominent molecular line emission. In six of these a velocity gradient is seen across the core,three of which show evidence of Keplerian-like rotation. The SiO data reveal clear but poorly collimated bipolar outflow signatures towards two objects only. This can be explained if real jets are rare (perhaps short-lived) in very massive objects and/or if stellar multiplicity significantly affects the outflow structure.For all cores with velocity gradients, the velocity field is analysed through position-velocity plots to establish whether the gas is undergoing rotation with νrot ∝ R- α, as expected for Keplerian-like discs. Conclusions: Our results suggest that in three objects we are observing rotation in circumstellar discs, with three more tentative cases, and one core where no evidence for rotation is found. In all cases but one, we find that the gas mass is less than the mass of

  6. Stellar population of the superbubble N 206 in the LMC. I. Analysis of the Of-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Varsha; Hainich, R.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Shenar, T.; Sander, A. A. C.; Todt, H.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Massive stars severely influence their environment by their strong ionizing radiation and by the momentum and kinetic energy input provided by their stellar winds and supernovae. Quantitative analyses of massive stars are required to understand how their feedback creates and shapes large scale structures of the interstellar medium. The giant H II region N 206 in the Large Magellanic Cloud contains an OB association that powers a superbubble filled with hot X-ray emitting gas, serving as an ideal laboratory in this context. Aims: We aim to estimate stellar and wind parameters of all OB stars in N 206 by means of quantitative spectroscopic analyses. In this first paper, we focus on the nine Of-type stars located in this region. We determine their ionizing flux and wind mechanical energy. The analysis of nitrogen abundances in our sample probes rotational mixing. Methods: We obtained optical spectra with the multi-object spectrograph FLAMES at the ESO-VLT. When possible, the optical spectroscopy was complemented by UV spectra from the HST, IUE, and FUSE archives. Detailed spectral classifications are presented for our sample Of-type stars. For the quantitative spectroscopic analysis we used the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet model atmosphere code. We determined the physical parameters and nitrogen abundances of our sample stars by fitting synthetic spectra to the observations. Results: The stellar and wind parameters of nine Of-type stars, which are largely derived from spectral analysis are used to construct wind momentum - luminosity relationship. We find that our sample follows a relation close to the theoretical prediction, assuming clumped winds. The most massive star in the N 206 association is an Of supergiant that has a very high mass-loss rate. Two objects in our sample reveal composite spectra, showing that the Of primaries have companions of late O subtype. All stars in our sample have an evolutionary age of less than 4 million yr, with the O2-type star being

  7. Revision of the Phenomenological Characteristics of the Algol-Type Stars Using the Nav Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, M. G.; Andronov, I. L.; Chinarova, L. L.

    Phenomenological characteristics of the sample of the Algol-type stars are revised using a recently developed NAV ("New Algol Variable") algorithm (2012Ap.....55..536A, 2012arXiv 1212.6707A) and compared to that obtained using common methods of Trigonometric Polynomial Fit (TP) or local Algebraic Polynomial (A) fit of a fixed or (alternately) statistically optimal degree (1994OAP.....7...49A, 2003ASPC..292..391A). The computer program NAV is introduced, which allows to determine the best fit with 7 "linear" and 5 "nonlinear" parameters and their error estimates. The number of parameters is much smaller than for the TP fit (typically 20-40, depending on the width of the eclipse, and is much smaller (5-20) for the W UMa and β Lyrae-type stars. This causes more smooth approximation taking into account the reflection and ellipsoidal effects (TP2) and generally different shapes of the primary and secondary eclipses. An application of the method to two-color CCD photometry to the recently discovered eclipsing variable 2MASS J18024395 + 4003309 = VSX J180243.9 +400331 (2015JASS...32..101A) allowed to make estimates of the physical parameters of the binary system based on the phenomenological parameters of the light curve. The phenomenological parameters of the light curves were determined for the sample of newly discovered EA and EW-type stars (VSX J223429.3+552903, VSX J223421.4+553013, VSX J223416.2+553424, USNO-B1.0 1347-0483658, UCAC3-191-085589, VSX J180755.6+074711= UCAC3 196-166827). Despite we have used original observations published by the discoverers, the accuracy estimates of the period using the NAV method are typically better than the original ones.

  8. The Evolution and Physical Parameters of WN3/O3s: A New Type of Wolf-Rayet Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip; Hillier, D. John; Morrell, Nidia

    2017-05-01

    As part of a search for Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the Magellanic Clouds, we have discovered a new type of WR star in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These stars have both strong emission lines, as well as He II and Balmer absorption lines and spectroscopically resemble a WN3 and O3V binary pair. However, they are visually too faint to be WN3+O3V binary systems. We have found nine of these WN3/O3s, making up ˜6% of the population of LMC WRs. Using cmfgen, we have successfully modeled their spectra as single stars and have compared the physical parameters with those of more typical LMC WNs. Their temperatures are around 100,000 K, a bit hotter than the majority of WN stars (by around 10,000 K), though a few hotter WNs are known. The abundances are what you would expect for CNO equilibrium. However, most anomalous are their mass-loss rates, which are more like that of an O-type star than a WN star. While their evolutionary status is uncertain, their low mass-loss rates and wind velocities suggest that they are not products of homogeneous evolution. It is possible instead that these stars represent an intermediate stage between O stars and WNs. Since WN3/O3 stars are unknown in the Milky Way, we suspect that their formation depends upon metallicity, and we are investigating this further by a deep survey in M33, which possesses a metallicity gradient. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. It is additionally based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations were associated with program GO-13780.

  9. The Evolution and Physical Parameters of WN3/O3s: A New Type of Wolf–Rayet Star

    SciTech Connect

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip; Hillier, D. John

    As part of a search for Wolf–Rayet (WR) stars in the Magellanic Clouds, we have discovered a new type of WR star in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These stars have both strong emission lines, as well as He ii and Balmer absorption lines and spectroscopically resemble a WN3 and O3V binary pair. However, they are visually too faint to be WN3+O3V binary systems. We have found nine of these WN3/O3s, making up ∼6% of the population of LMC WRs. Using cmfgen, we have successfully modeled their spectra as single stars and have compared the physical parameters with those ofmore » more typical LMC WNs. Their temperatures are around 100,000 K, a bit hotter than the majority of WN stars (by around 10,000 K), though a few hotter WNs are known. The abundances are what you would expect for CNO equilibrium. However, most anomalous are their mass-loss rates, which are more like that of an O-type star than a WN star. While their evolutionary status is uncertain, their low mass-loss rates and wind velocities suggest that they are not products of homogeneous evolution. It is possible instead that these stars represent an intermediate stage between O stars and WNs. Since WN3/O3 stars are unknown in the Milky Way, we suspect that their formation depends upon metallicity, and we are investigating this further by a deep survey in M33, which possesses a metallicity gradient.« less

  10. X-ray variability of Pleiades late-type stars as observed with the ROSAT-PSPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, A.; Micela, G.; Peres, G.; Sciortino, S.

    2003-08-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of X-ray variability of the late-type (dF7-dM) Pleiades stars, detected in all ROSAT-PSPC observations; X-ray variations on short (hours) and medium (months) time scales have been explored. We have grouped the stars in two samples: 89 observations of 42 distinct dF7-dK2 stars and 108 observations of 61 dK3-dM stars. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test applied on all X-ray photon time series show that the percentage of cases of significant variability is quite similar on both samples, suggesting that the presence of variability does not depend on mass for the time scales and mass range explored. The comparison between the Time X-ray Amplitude Distribution functions (XAD) of the set of dF7-dK2 and of the dK3-dM show that, on short time scales, dK3-dM stars show larger variations than dF7-dK2. A subsample of eleven dF7-dK2 and eleven dK3-dM Pleiades stars allows the study of variability on longer time scales: we found that variability on medium - long time scales is relatively more common among dF7-dK2 stars than among dK3-dM ones. For both dF7-dK2 Pleiades stars and dF7-dK2 field stars, the variability on short time scales depends on Lx while this dependence has not been observed among dK3-dM stars. It may be that the variability among dK3-dM stars is dominated by flares that have a similar luminosity distribution for stars of different Lx, while flaring distribution in dF7-dK2 stars may depend on X-ray luminosity. The lowest mass stars show significant rapid variability (flares?) and no evidence of rotation modulation or cycles. On the contrary, dF7-dK2 Pleiades stars show both rapid variability and variations on longer time scales, likely associated with rotational modulation or cycles.

  11. The sensitivity of harassment to orbit: mass loss from early-type dwarfs in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Beasley, M. A.; Candlish, G. N.; Gibson, B. K.; Puzia, T. H.; Janz, J.; Knebe, A.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Lisker, T.; Hensler, G.; Fellhauer, M.; Ferrarese, L.; Yi, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    We conduct a comprehensive numerical study of the orbital dependence of harassment on early-type dwarfs consisting of 168 different orbits within a realistic, Virgo-like cluster, varying in eccentricity and pericentre distance. We find harassment is only effective at stripping stars or truncating their stellar discs for orbits that enter deep into the cluster core. Comparing to the orbital distribution in cosmological simulations, we find that the majority of the orbits (more than three quarters) result in no stellar mass loss. We also study the effects on the radial profiles of the globular cluster systems of early-type dwarfs. We find these are significantly altered only if harassment is very strong. This suggests that perhaps most early-type dwarfs in clusters such as Virgo have not suffered any tidal stripping of stars or globular clusters due to harassment, as these components are safely embedded deep within their dark matter halo. We demonstrate that this result is actually consistent with an earlier study of harassment of dwarf galaxies, despite the apparent contradiction. Those few dwarf models that do suffer stellar stripping are found out to the virial radius of the cluster at redshift = 0, which mixes them in with less strongly harassed galaxies. However when placed on phase-space diagrams, strongly harassed galaxies are found offset to lower velocities compared to weakly harassed galaxies. This remains true in a cosmological simulation, even when haloes have a wide range of masses and concentrations. Thus phase-space diagrams may be a useful tool for determining the relative likelihood that galaxies have been strongly or weakly harassed.

  12. A KEPLERIAN-LIKE DISK AROUND THE FORMING O-TYPE STAR AFGL 4176

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Katharine G.; Hoare, Melvin G.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array line and continuum observations at 1.2 mm with ∼0.″3 resolution that uncover a Keplerian-like disk around the forming O-type star AFGL 4176. The continuum emission from the disk at 1.21 mm (source mm1) has a deconvolved size of 870 ± 110 AU × 330 ± 300 AU and arises from a structure ∼8 M{sub ⊙} in mass, calculated assuming a dust temperature of 190 K. The first-moment maps, pixel-to-pixel line modeling, assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and position–velocity diagrams of the CH{sub 3}CN J = 13–12 K-line emission all show a velocity gradient alongmore » the major axis of the source, coupled with an increase in velocity at small radii, consistent with Keplerian-like rotation. The LTE line modeling shows that where CH{sub 3}CN J = 13–12 is excited, the temperatures in the disk range from ∼70 to at least 300 K and that the H{sub 2} column density peaks at 2.8 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup −2}. In addition, we present Atacama Pathfinder Experiment {sup 12}CO observations that show a large-scale outflow from AFGL 4176 perpendicular to the major axis of mm1, supporting the disk interpretation. Finally, we present a radiative transfer model of a Keplerian disk surrounding an O7 star, with a disk mass and radius of 12 M{sub ⊙} and 2000 AU that reproduces the line and continuum data, further supporting our conclusion that our observations have uncovered a Keplerian-like disk around an O-type star.« less

  13. The AMBRE project: Parameterisation of FGK-type stars from the ESO:HARPS archived spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascale, M.; Worley, C. C.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Hill, V.; Bijaoui, A.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The AMBRE project is a collaboration between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA). It has been established to determine the stellar atmospheric parameters of the archived spectra of four ESO spectrographs. Aims: The analysis of the ESO:HARPS archived spectra for the determination of their atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, global metallicities, and abundance of α-elements over iron) is presented. The sample being analysed (AMBRE:HARPS) covers the period from 2003 to 2010 and is comprised of 126 688 scientific spectra corresponding to ~17 218 different stars. Methods: For the analysis of the AMBRE:HARPS spectral sample, the automated pipeline developed for the analysis of the AMBRE:FEROS archived spectra has been adapted to the characteristics of the HARPS spectra. Within the pipeline, the stellar parameters are determined by the MATISSE algorithm, which has been developed at OCA for the analysis of large samples of stellar spectra in the framework of galactic archaeology. In the present application, MATISSE uses the AMBRE grid of synthetic spectra, which covers FGKM-type stars for a range of gravities and metallicities. Results: We first determined the radial velocity and its associated error for the ~15% of the AMBRE:HARPS spectra, for which this velocity had not been derived by the ESO:HARPS reduction pipeline. The stellar atmospheric parameters and the associated chemical index [α/Fe] with their associated errors have then been estimated for all the spectra of the AMBRE:HARPS archived sample. Based on key quality criteria, we accepted and delivered the parameterisation of 93 116 (74% of the total sample) spectra to ESO. These spectra correspond to ~10 706 stars; each are observed between one and several hundred times. This automatic parameterisation of the AMBRE:HARPS spectra shows that the large majority of these stars are cool main-sequence dwarfs with metallicities

  14. Detection of Neutral Phosphorus in the Near-ultraviolet Spectra of Late-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Jacobson, Heather R.; Thanathibodee, Thanawuth; Frebel, Anna; Toller, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    We report the detection of several absorption lines of neutral phosphorus (P, Z = 15) in archival near-ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We derive phosphorus abundances or interesting upper limits in 14 late-type stars with metallicities spanning -3.8 < [Fe/H] <-0.1. Previously, phosphorus had only been studied in Galactic stars with -1.0 < [Fe/H] <+0.3. Iron lines reveal abundance offsets between the optical and ultraviolet regions, and we discuss and apply a correction factor to account for this offset. In stars with [Fe/H] >-1.0, the [P/Fe] ratio decreases toward the solar value with increasing metallicity, in agreement with previous observational studies. In stars with [Fe/H] <-1.0, lang[P/Fe]rang = +0.04 ± 0.10, which overlaps with the [P/Fe] ratios found in several high-redshift damped Lyman-α systems. This behavior hints at a primary origin in massive stars. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This work is supported through program AR-13246 and is based on observations associated with programs GO-7348, GO-7433, GO-8197, GO-9048, GO-9049, GO-9455, GO-9804, GO-12268, GO-12554, and GO-12976. Portions of this work are based on data obtained from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Science Archive Facility. These data are associated with Programs 065.L-0507(A), 067.D-0439(A), 072.B-0179(A), 074.C-0364(A), 076.B-0055(A), and 266.D-5655(A). Portions of this research have also made use of the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA), which is operated by the W.M. Keck Observatory and the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. These data are associated with Programs H2aH (P.I: Boesgaard), H5aH (P.I: Stephens), and H47a

  15. Time-resolved multicolour photometry of bright B-type variable stars in Scorpius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, G.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.

    2013-09-01

    Context. The first two of a total of six nano-satellites that will constitute the BRITE-Constellation space photometry mission have recently been launched successfully. Aims: In preparation for this project, we carried out time-resolved colour photometry in a field that is an excellent candidate for BRITE measurements from space. Methods: We acquired 117 h of Strömgren uvy data during 19 nights. Our targets comprised the β Cephei stars κ and λ Sco, the eclipsing binary μ1 Sco, and the variable super/hypergiant ζ1 Sco. Results: For κ Sco, a photometric mode identification in combination with results from the spectroscopic literature suggests a dominant (l,m) = (1, -1) β Cephei-type pulsation mode of the primary star. The longer period of the star may be a rotational variation or a g-mode pulsation. For λ Sco, we recover the known dominant β Cephei pulsation, a longer-period variation, and observed part of an eclipse. Lack of ultraviolet data precludes mode identification for this star. We noticed that the spectroscopic orbital ephemeris of the closer pair in this triple system is inconsistent with eclipse timings and propose a refined value for the orbital period of the closer pair of 5.95189 ± 0.00003 d. We also argue that the components of the λ Sco system are some 30% more massive than previously thought. The binary light curve solution of μ1 Sco requires inclusion of the irradiation effect to explain the u light curve, and the system could show additional low amplitude variations on top of the orbital light changes. ζ1 Sco shows long-term variability on a time scale of at least two weeks that we prefer to interpret in terms of a variable wind or strange mode pulsations. Based on observations carried out at the South African Astronomical ObservatoryReduced time series for all stars are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A1

  16. The molecular cloud content of early type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiklind, Tommy; Henkel, Christian

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the CO content of early type galaxies led to 24 new detections, mostly lenticular galaxies. The galaxies, which are situated in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, were selected as being far-IR luminous compared to their blue luminosity, and situated at distances less than about 50 Mpc (H sub o=100 km/s Mpc(-1). Results for some early galaxies (NGC 404, NGC 3593 and NGC 4369 are given.

  17. The Abundances of the Fe Group Elements in Early B Stars in the Magellanic Clouds and Our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine Joan; Adelman, Saul Joseph

    2015-08-01

    The abundances of the Fe-peak elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) are of interest as they are important for assessing opacities for stellar evolution calculations, confirming theoretical calculations of explosive nucleosynthesis, and inferring the past history of supernova activity in a galaxy. FUSE FUV spectra of early B stars in the LMC and SMC and HST/STIS FUV/NUV spectra of nearby B stars in our galaxy are analyzed with the Hubeny/Lanz programs TLUSTY/SYNSPEC to determine abundance for the Fe group elements and produce a map of these abundances in the Magellanic Clouds (MC) and Magellanic Bridge (MB). Except for four weak multiplets of Fe III there are no measurable lines from the Fe group in the optical region. The Fe group species found in the FUV spectra of early B stars are primarily in the second stage of ionization. The best set of lines in the FUSE spectral region are Fe III (UV1), V III 1150 Å, and Cr III 1137 Å. Analysis of the galactic B stars provides a good assessment of the reliability of the atomic parameters that are used for the MC calculations. Twenty-two early B stars in the MC and MB and five in our galaxy were analyzed. In general the Fe group abundances range from solar to slightly below solar in our region of the galaxy. But in the MCs the abundances of V, Cr, and Fe tend to be significantly lower than the mean metal abundances for the galaxy. Maps of the Fe group abundances and their variations in the LMC and SMC, tracers of recent enrichment of the ISM from supernova activity, are shown. Support from NASA grants NAG5-13212, NNX10AD66G, STScI HST-GO-13346.22, and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  18. Timing the formation and assembly of early-type galaxies via spatially resolved stellar populations analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; La Barbera, Francesco; Yıldırım, Akın; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-04-01

    To investigate star formation and assembly processes of massive galaxies, we present here a spatially resolved stellar population analysis of a sample of 45 elliptical galaxies (Es) selected from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. We find rather flat age and [Mg/Fe] radial gradients, weakly dependent on the effective velocity dispersion of the galaxy within half-light radius. However, our analysis shows that metallicity gradients become steeper with increasing galaxy velocity dispersion. In addition, we have homogeneously compared the stellar population gradients of our sample of Es to a sample of nearby relic galaxies, i.e. local remnants of the high-z population of red nuggets. This comparison indicates that, first, the cores of present-day massive galaxies were likely formed in gas-rich, rapid star formation events at high redshift (z ≳ 2). This led to radial metallicity variations steeper than observed in the local Universe, and positive [Mg/Fe] gradients. Secondly, our analysis also suggests that a later sequence of minor dry mergers, populating the outskirts of early-type galaxies (ETGs), flattened the pristine [Mg/Fe] and metallicity gradients. Finally, we find a tight age-[Mg/Fe] relation, supporting that the duration of the star formation is the main driver of the [Mg/Fe] enhancement in massive ETGs. However, the star formation time-scale alone is not able to fully explain our [Mg/Fe] measurements. Interestingly, our results match the expected effect that a variable stellar initial mass function would have on the [Mg/Fe] ratio.

  19. Spectroscopic monitoring of bright A-F type candidate hybrid stars discovered by the Kepler mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampens, Patricia; Frémat, Y.; Vermeylen, Lore; De Cat, Peter; Dumortier, Louis; Sódor, Ádám; Sharka, Marek; Bognár, Zsófia

    2018-04-01

    We report on a study of 250 optical spectra for 50 bright A/F-type candidate hybrid pulsating stars from the Kepler field. Most of the spectra have been collected with the high-resolution spectrograph HERMES attached to the Mercator telescope, La Palma. We determined the radial velocities (RVs), projected rotational velocities, fundamental atmospheric parameters and provide a classification based on the appearance of the cross-correlation profiles and the behaviour of the RVs with time in order to find true hybrid pulsators. Additionally, we also detected new spectroscopic binary and multiple systems in our sample and determined the fraction of spectroscopic systems. In order to be able to extend this investigation to the fainter A-F type candidate hybrid stars, various high-quality spectra collected with 3-4 m sized telescopes suitably equipped with a high-resolution spectrograph and furthermore located in the Northern hemisphere would be ideal. This programme could be done using the new instruments installed at the Devasthal Observatory.

  20. IDENTIFYING NEARBY, YOUNG, LATE-TYPE STARS BY MEANS OF THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Adam; Song, Inseok; Melis, Carl

    2012-10-01

    It has recently been shown that a significant fraction of late-type members of nearby, very young associations (age {approx}<10 Myr) display excess emission at mid-IR wavelengths indicative of dusty circumstellar disks. We demonstrate that the detection of mid-IR excess emission can be utilized to identify new nearby, young, late-type stars including two definite new members ('TWA 33' and 'TWA 34') of the TW Hydrae Association (TWA). Both new TWA members display mid-IR excess emission in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer catalog and they show proper motion and youthful spectroscopic characteristics-namely, H{alpha} emission, strong lithium absorption, and low surface gravity featuresmore » consistent with known TWA members. We also detect mid-IR excess-the first unambiguous evidence of a dusty circumstellar disk-around a previously identified UV-bright, young, accreting star (2M1337) that is a likely member of the Lower-Centaurus Crux region of the Scorpius-Centaurus Complex.« less

  1. First ultraviolet observations of the transition regions of X-ray bright solar-type stars in the Pleiades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillault, J.-P.; Vilhu, O.; Linsky, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from A UV study of the transition regions of two X-ray-bright solar-type stars from the Pleiades, in an attempt to extend the main sequence age baseline for the transition-region activity-age relation over more than two orders of magnitude. However, no emission lines were detected from either star; the upper limits to the fluxes are consistent with previously determined saturation levels, but do not help to further constrain evolutionary models.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Far-UV spectral atlas of O-type stars (Smith, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a spectral atlas covering the wavelength interval 930-1188Å for O2-O9.5 stars using Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer archival data. The stars selected for the atlas were drawn from three populations: Galactic main-sequence (classes III-V) stars, supergiants, and main-sequence stars in the Magellanic Clouds, which have low metallicities. For several of these stars, we have prepared FITS files comprised of pairs of merged spectra for user access via the Multimission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST). We chose spectra from the first population with spectral types O4, O5, O6, O7, O8, and O9.5 and used them to compile tables and figures with identifications of all possible atmospheric and interstellar medium lines in the region 949-1188Å. Our identified line totals for these six representative spectra are 821 (500), 992 (663), 1077 (749), 1178 (847), 1359 (1001), and 1798 (1392) lines, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are the totals of lines formed in the atmospheres, according to spectral synthesis models. The total number of unique atmospheric identifications for the six main-sequence O-star template spectra is 1792, whereas the number of atmospheric lines in common to these spectra is 300. The number of identified lines decreases toward earlier types (increasing effective temperature), while the percentages of "missed" features (unknown lines not predicted from our spectral syntheses) drop from a high of 8% at type B0.2, from our recently published B-star far-UV atlas (Cat. J/ApJS/186/175), to 1%-3% for type O spectra. The percentages of overpredicted lines are similar, despite their being much higher for B-star spectra. (4 data files).

  3. Formaldehyde in Absorption: Tracing Molecular Gas in Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollhopf, Niklaus M.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs) have been long-classified as the red, ellipsoidal branch of the classic Hubble tuning fork diagram of galactic structure. In part with this classification, ETGs are thought to be molecular and atomic gas-poor with little to no recent star formation. However, recent efforts have questioned this ingrained classification. Most notably, the ATLAS3D survey of 260 ETGs within ~40 Mpc found 22% contain CO, a common tracer for molecular gas. The presence of cold molecular gas also implies the possibility for current star formation within these galaxies. Simulations do not accurately predict the recent observations and further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms of ETGs.CO traces molecular gas starting at densities of ~102 cm-3, which makes it a good tracer of bulk molecular gas, but does little to constrain the possible locations of star formation within the cores of dense molecular gas clouds. Formaldehyde (H2CO) traces molecular gas on the order of ~104 cm-3, providing a further constraint on the location of star-forming gas, while being simple enough to possibly be abundant in gas-poor ETGs. In cold molecular clouds at or above ~104 cm-3 densities, the structure of formaldehyde enables a phenomenon in which rotational transitions have excitation temperatures driven below the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), ~2.7 K. Because the CMB radiates isotropically, formaldehyde can be observed in absorption, independent of distance, as a tracer of moderately-dense molecular clouds and star formation.This novel observation technique of formaldehyde was incorporated for observations of twelve CO-detected ETGs from the ATLAS3D sample, including NGC 4710 and PGC 8815, to investigate the presence of cold molecular gas, and possible star formation, in ETGs. We present images from the Very Large Array, used in its C-array configuration, of the J = 11,0 - 11,1 transition of formaldehyde towards these sources. We report our

  4. The Dramatic Size and Kinematic Evolution of Massive Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapi, A.; Pantoni, L.; Zanisi, L.; Shi, J.; Mancuso, C.; Massardi, M.; Shankar, F.; Bressan, A.; Danese, L.

    2018-04-01

    We aim to provide a holistic view on the typical size and kinematic evolution of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) that encompasses their high-z star-forming progenitors, their high-z quiescent counterparts, and their configurations in the local Universe. Our investigation covers the main processes playing a relevant role in the cosmic evolution of ETGs. Specifically, their early fast evolution comprises biased collapse of the low angular momentum gaseous baryons located in the inner regions of the host dark matter halo; cooling, fragmentation, and infall of the gas down to the radius set by the centrifugal barrier; further rapid compaction via clump/gas migration toward the galaxy center, where strong heavily dust-enshrouded star formation takes place and most of the stellar mass is accumulated; and ejection of substantial gas amount from the inner regions by feedback processes, which causes a dramatic puffing-up of the stellar component. In the late slow evolution, passive aging of stellar populations and mass additions by dry merger events occur. We describe these processes relying on prescriptions inspired by basic physical arguments and by numerical simulations to derive new analytical estimates of the relevant sizes, timescales, and kinematic properties for individual galaxies along their evolution. Then we obtain quantitative results as a function of galaxy mass and redshift, and compare them to recent observational constraints on half-light size R e , on the ratio v/σ between rotation velocity and velocity dispersion (for gas and stars) and on the specific angular momentum j ⋆ of the stellar component; we find good consistency with the available multiband data in average values and dispersion, both for local ETGs and for their z ∼ 1–2 star-forming and quiescent progenitors. The outcomes of our analysis can provide hints to gauge sub-grid recipes implemented in simulations, to tune numerical experiments focused on specific processes, and to plan

  5. A Lithium Abundance Study of Solar-type Stars in Blanco 1 using the 2.1m McDonald Telescope: Developing Undergraduate Research Experiences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargile, Phillip; James, D. J.; Villalon, K.; Girgenti, S.; Mermilliod, J.

    2007-12-01

    We present a new catalog of lithium equivalent widths for 20 solar-type stars in the young (60-100 Myr), nearby (250 pc) open cluster Blanco 1, measured from high-resolution spectra (R 30,000), taken during an observing run on the 2.1m telescope at McDonald Observatory. These new lithium data, coupled with the 20 or so extant measurements in the literature, are used in combination with the results of a recently completed standardized BVIc CCD survey, and corresponding 2MASS near-infrared colors, to derive precise lithium abundances for solar-type stars in Blanco 1. Comparing these new results with the existing lithium dataset for other open clusters, we investigate the mass- and age-dependent lithium depletion distribution among early-epoch (< 1Gyr) solar-type stars, and specifically, the lithium abundance scatter as a function of mass in Blanco 1. Our scientific project is highly synergystic with a pedagogical philosophy. We have instituted a program whereby undergraduate students - typically majoring in Liberal Arts and performing an independent study in Astronomy - receive hands-on research experience observing with the 2.1m telescope at the McDonald Observatory. After their observing run, these undergraduates take part in the reduction and analysis of the acquired spectra, and their research experience typically culminates in writing an undergraduate thesis and/or giving a professional seminar to the Astronomy group at Vanderbilt University.

  6. Modeling Type II-P/II-L Supernovae Interacting with Recent Episodic Mass Ejections from Their Presupernova Stars with MESA and SNEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sanskriti; Ray, Alak

    2017-12-01

    We show how dense, compact, discrete shells of circumstellar gas immediately outside of red supergiants affect the optical light curves of Type II-P/II-L supernovae (SNe), using the example of SN 2013ej. Earlier efforts in the literature had used an artificial circumstellar medium (CSM) stitched to the surface of an evolved star that had not gone through a phase of late-stage heavy mass loss, which, in essence, is the original source of the CSM. In contrast, we allow enhanced mass-loss rate from the modeled star during the 16O and 28Si burning stages and construct the CSM from the resulting mass-loss history in a self-consistent way. Once such evolved pre-SN stars are exploded, we find that the models with early interaction between the shock and the dense CSM reproduce light curves far better than those without that mass loss and, hence, having no nearby dense CSM. The required explosion energy for the progenitors with a dense CSM is reduced by almost a factor of two compared to those without the CSM. Our model, with a more realistic CSM profile and presupernova and explosion parameters, fits observed data much better throughout the rise, plateau, and radioactive tail phases as compared to previous studies. This points to an intermediate class of supernovae between Type II-P/II-L and Type II-n SNe with the characteristics of simultaneous UV and optical peak, slow decline after peak, and a longer plateau.

  7. Determination of the axial rotation rate using apsidal motion for early-type eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullin, Kh. F.; Khaliullina, A. I.

    2007-11-01

    Because the modern theory of stellar structure and evolution has a sound observational basis, we can consider that the apsidal parameters k2 computed in terms of this theory correctly reflect the radial density distribution in stars of different masses and spectral types. This allows us to address the problem of apsidal motion in close binary systems in a new way. Unlike the traditional approach, in this paper we use the observed apsidal periods Uobs to estimate the angular axial velocities of components, ωr, at fixed model values of k2. We use this approach to analyse the observational data for 28 eclipsing systems with known Uobs and early-type primaries (M >= 1.6 Msolar or Te >= 6000 K). We measure the age of the system in units of the synchronization time, t/tsyn. Our analysis yielded the following results. (i) There is a clear correlation between ωr/ωsyn and t/tsyn: the younger a star, the higher the angular velocity of its axial rotation in units of ωsyn, the angular velocity at pseudo-synchronization. This correlation is more significant and obvious if the synchronization time, tsyn, is computed in terms of the Zahn theory. (ii) This observational fact implies that the synchronization of early-type components in close binary systems continues on the main sequence. The synchronization times for the inner layers of the components (i.e. those that are responsible for apsidal motion) are about 1.6 and 3.1 dex longer than those predicted by the theories of Zahn and Tassoul, respectively. The average initial angular velocities (for the zero-age main sequence) are equal to ω0/ωsyn ~ 2.0. The dependence of the parameter E2 on stellar mass probably needs to be refined in the Zahn theory. (iii) Some components of the eclipsing systems of the sample studied show radially differential axial rotation. This is consistent with the Zahn theory, which predicts that the synchronization starts at the surface, where radiative damping of dynamical tides occurs, and

  8. Age Dating Merger Events in Early Type Galaxies via the Detection of AGB Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothun, G.

    2005-01-01

    A thorough statistical analysis of the J-H vs. H-K color plane of all detected early type galaxies in the 2MASS catalog with velocities less than 5000 km/s has been performed. This all sky survey is not sensitive to one particular galactic environment and therefore a representative range of early type galaxy environments have been sampled. Virtually all N-body simulation so major mergers produces a central starburst due to rapid collection of gas. This central starburst is of sufficient amplitude to change the stellar population in the central regions of the galaxy. Intermediate age populations are given away by the presence of AGB stars which will drive the central colors redder in H-K relative to the J- H baseline. This color anomaly has a lifetime of 2-5 billion years depending on the amplitude of the initial starburst Employing this technique on the entire 2MASS sample (several hundred galaxies) reveals that the AGB signature occurs less than 1% of the time. This is a straightforward indication that virtually all nearby early type galaxies have not had a major merger occur within the last few billion years.

  9. Asteroseismic modelling of the solar-type subgiant star β Hydri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, I. M.; Doğan, G.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cunha, M. S.; Bedding, T. R.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Kjeldsen, H.; Bruntt, H.; Arentoft, T.

    2011-03-01

    Context. Comparing models and data of pulsating stars is a powerful way to understand the stellar structure better. Moreover, such comparisons are necessary to make improvements to the physics of the stellar models, since they do not yet perfectly represent either the interior or especially the surface layers of stars. Because β Hydri is an evolved solar-type pulsator with mixed modes in its frequency spectrum, it is very interesting for asteroseismic studies. Aims: The goal of the present work is to search for a representative model of the solar-type star β Hydri, based on up-to-date non-seismic and seismic data. Methods: We present a revised list of frequencies for 33 modes, which we produced by analysing the power spectrum of the published observations again using a new weighting scheme that minimises the daily sidelobes. We ran several grids of evolutionary models with different input parameters and different physics, using the stellar evolutionary code ASTEC. For the models that are inside the observed error box of β Hydri, we computed their frequencies with the pulsation code ADIPLS. We used two approaches to find the model that oscillates with the frequencies that are closest to the observed frequencies of β Hydri: (i) we assume that the best model is the one that reproduces the star's interior based on the radial oscillation frequencies alone, to which we have applied the correction for the near-surface effects; (ii) we assume that the best model is the one that produces the lowest value of the chi-square (χ2), i.e. that minimises the difference between the observed frequencies of all available modes and the model predictions, after all model frequencies are corrected for near-surface effects. Results: We show that after applying a correction for near-surface effects to the frequencies of the best models, we can reproduce the observed modes well, including those that have mixed mode character. The model that gives the lowest value of the χ2 is a post

  10. Tracing early evolutionary stages of high-mass star formation with molecular lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marseille, M. G.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Despite its major role in the evolution of the interstellar medium, the formation of high-mass stars (M ≥ 10 M_⊙) remains poorly understood. Two types of massive star cluster precursors, the so-called massive dense cores (MDCs), have been observed, which differ in terms of their mid-infrared brightness. The origin of this difference has not yet been established and may be the result of evolution, density, geometry differences, or a combination of these. Aims: We compare several molecular tracers of physical conditions (hot cores, shocks) observed in a sample of mid-IR weakly emitting MDCs with previous results obtained in a sample of exclusively mid-IR bright MDCs. We attempt to understand the differences between these two types of object. Methods: We present single-dish observations of HDO, H_218O, SO2, and CH3OH lines at λ = 1.3-3.5 mm. We study line profiles and estimate abundances of these molecules, and use a partial correlation method to search for trends in the results. Results: The detection rates of thermal emission lines are found to be very similar for both mid-IR quiet and bright objects. The abundances of H2O, HDO (10-13 to 10-9 in the cold outer envelopes), SO2 and CH3OH differ from source to source but independently of their mid-IR flux. In contrast, the methanol class I maser emission, a tracer of outflow shocks, is found to be strongly anti-correlated with the 12 μm source brightnesses. Conclusions: The enhancement of the methanol maser emission in mid-IR quiet MDCs may be indicative of a more embedded nature. Since total masses are similar between the two samples, we suggest that the matter distribution is spherical around mid-IR quiet sources but flattened around mid-IR bright ones. In contrast, water emission is associated with objects containing a hot molecular core, irrespective of their mid-IR brightness. These results indicate that the mid-IR brightness of MDCs is an indicator of their evolutionary stage.

  11. Spectroscopic determination of photospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 6 K-type stars^

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affer, L.; Micela, G.; Morel, T.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Favata, F.

    2005-04-01

    High resolution, high -S/N- ratio optical spectra have been obtained for a sample of 6 K-type dwarf and subgiant stars, and have been analysed with three different LTE methods in order to derive detailed photospheric parameters and abundances and to compare the characteristics of analysis techniques. The results have been compared with the aim of determining the most robust method to perform complete spectroscopic analyses of K-type stars, and in this perspective the present work must be considered as a pilot study. In this context we have determined the abundance ratios with respect to iron of several elements. In the first method the photospheric parameters (T_eff, log g, and ξ) and metal abundances are derived using measured equivalent widths and Kurucz LTE model atmospheres as input for the MOOG software code. The analysis proceeds in an iterative way, and relies on the excitation equilibrium of the ion{Fe}{i} lines for determining the effective temperature and microturbulence, and on the ionization equilibrium of the ion{Fe}{i} and ion{Fe}{ii} lines for determining the surface gravity and the metallicity. The second method follows a similar approach, but discards the ion{Fe}{i} low excitation potential transitions (which are potentially affected by non-LTE effects) from the initial line list, and relies on the B-V colour index to determine the temperature. The third method relies on the detailed fitting of the 6162 Å ion{Ca}{i} line to derive the surface gravity, using the same restricted line list as the second method. Methods 1 and 3 give consistent results for the program stars; in particular the comparison between the results obtained shows that the ion{Fe}{i} low-excitation potential transitions do not appear significantly affected by non-LTE effects (at least for the subgiant stars), as suggested by the good agreement of the atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances derived. The second method leads to systematically lower T_eff and log g values

  12. Wolf-Rayet stars of type WN/WC and mixing processes during core helium burning of massive stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, N.

    1991-01-01

    Consequences of the recent finding that most WN/WC spectra probably originate from individual Wolf-Rayet stars for the internal structure of massive stars are discussed. Numerical models including the effect of slow-down or prevention of convective mixing due to molecular weight gradients are presented, in which a transition layer with a composition mixture of H- and He-burning ashes is formed above the convective He-burning core. These models are able to qualitatively account for the observed WN/WC frequency and agree quantitatively with the only WN/WC-composition determination so far. It is argued that the same transition layer may be responsible for the final blue loop which the SN 1987 A progenitor performed some 10,000 yr before explosion. These results indicate that composition barriers may be efficient in restricting convection during central helium burning, in contrast to computations relying on the Schwarzschild criterion for convection, with or without overshooting.

  13. Know the Star, Know the Planet. III. Discovery of the Late-Type Companions to Two Exoplanet Host Stars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-04

    the second confirmed quadruple system known to host an exoplanet. HD 2638 hosts a hot Jupiter and the discovery of a new companion strengthens the...connection between hot Jupiters and binary stars. We place the systems on a color–magnitude diagram and derive masses for the companions which turn out to...system. Naoz et al. (2012) found that it can account for about 30% of the observed hot Jupiter planets, which matches well with the projected spin–orbit

  14. Long-term Spectroscopic and Photometric Monitoring of Bright Interacting Algol-type Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Phillip A.

    2018-01-01

    Binary stars have long been used as natural laboratories for studying such fundamental stellar properties as mass. Interacting binaries allow us to examine more complicated aspects such as mass flow between stars, accretion processes, magnetic fields, and stellar mergers. Algol-type interacting binary stars -- consisting of a cool giant or sub-giant donating mass to a much hotter, less evolved, and more massive main-sequence companion -- undergo steady mass transfer and have been used to measure mass transfer rates and to test stellar evolution theories. The method of back-projection Doppler tomography has also been applied to interacting Algols and has produced indirect velocity-space images of the accretion structures (gas streams, accretion disks, etc.) derived from spectroscopic observations of hydrogen and helium emission lines. The accretion structures in several Algol systems have actually been observed to change between disk-like states and stream-like states on timescales as short as several orbital cycles (Richards et al., 2014). Presented here are the first results from a project aimed at studying bright interacting Algol systems with simultaneous mid-resolution (11,000

  15. On the rates of type Ia supernovae originating from white dwarf collisions in quadruple star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the evolution of stellar hierarchical quadruple systems in the 2+2 (two binaries orbiting each other's barycentre) and 3+1 (triple orbited by a fourth star) configurations. In our simulations, we take into account the effects of secular dynamical evolution, stellar evolution, tidal evolution and encounters with passing stars. We focus on type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) driven by collisions of carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs). Such collisions can arise from several channels: (1) collisions due to extremely high eccentricities induced by secular evolution, (2) collisions following a dynamical instability of the system, and (3) collisions driven by semisecular evolution. The systems considered here have initially wide inner orbits, with initial semilatus recti larger than 12 {au}, implying no interaction if the orbits were isolated. However, taking into account dynamical evolution, we find that ≈0.4 (≈0.6) of 2+2 (3+1) systems interact. In particular, Roche Lobe overflow can be triggered possibly in highly eccentric orbits, dynamical instability can ensue due to mass-loss-driven orbital expansion or secular evolution, or a semisecular regime can be entered. We compute the delay-time distributions (DTDs) of collision-induced SNe Ia, and find that they are flatter compared to the observed DTD. Moreover, our combined SNe Ia rates are (3.7± 0.7) × 10^{-6} M_⊙^{-1} and (1.3± 0.2) × 10^{-6} M_⊙^{-1} for 2+2 and 3+1 systems, respectively, three orders of magnitude lower compared to the observed rate, of order 10^{-3} M_⊙^{-1}. The low rates can be ascribed to interactions before the stars evolve to CO WDs. However, our results are lower limits given that we considered a subset of quadruple systems.

  16. On the rates of Type Ia supernovae originating from white dwarf collisions in quadruple star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2018-07-01

    We consider the evolution of stellar hierarchical quadruple systems in the 2+2 (two binaries orbiting each other's barycentre) and 3+1 (triple orbited by a fourth star) configurations. In our simulations, we take into account the effects of secular dynamical evolution, stellar evolution, tidal evolution, and encounters with passing stars. We focus on Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) driven by collisions of carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs). Such collisions can arise from several channels: (1) collisions due to extremely high eccentricities induced by secular evolution, (2) collisions following a dynamical instability of the system, and (3) collisions driven by semisecular evolution. The systems considered here have initially wide inner orbits, with initial semilatus recti larger than 12 au, implying no interaction if the orbits were isolated. However, taking into account dynamical evolution, we find that ≈0.4 (≈0.6) of 2+2 (3+1) systems interact. In particular, Roche lobe overflow can be triggered possibly in highly eccentric orbits, dynamical instability can ensue due to mass-loss-driven orbital expansion or secular evolution, or a semisecular regime can be entered. We compute the delay-time distributions (DTDs) of collision-induced SNe Ia, and find that they are flatter compared to the observed DTD. Moreover, our combined SNe Ia rates are (3.7± 0.7) × 10^{-6} M_{⊙}^{-1} and (1.3± 0.2) × 10^{-6} M_{⊙}^{-1} for 2+2 and 3+1 systems, respectively, three orders of magnitude lower compared to the observed rate, of the order of 10^{-3} M_{⊙}^{-1}. The low rates can be ascribed to interactions before the stars evolve to CO WDs. However, our results are lower limits given that we considered a subset of quadruple systems.

  17. Einstein Observatory survey of X-ray emission from solar-type stars - The late F and G dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggio, A.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Majer, P.; Bookbinder, J.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a volume-limited X-ray survey of stars of luminosity classes IV and V in the spectral range F7-G9 observed with the Einstein Observatory are presented. Using survival analysis techniques, the stellar X-ray luminosity function in the 0.15-4.0 keV energy band for both single and multiple sources. It is shown that the difference in X-ray luminosity between these two classes of sources is consistent with the superposition of individual components in multiple-component systems, whose X-ray properties are similar to those of the single-component sources. The X-ray emission of the stars in our sample is well correlated with their chromospheric CA II H-K line emission and with their projected equatorial rotational velocity. Comparison of the X-ray luminosity function constructed for the sample of the dG stars of the local population with the corresponding functions derived elsewhere for the Hyades, the Pleiades, and the Orion Ic open cluster confirms that the level of X-ray emission decreases with stellar age.

  18. Evolution of Late-type Galaxies in a Cluster Environment: Effects of High-speed Multiple Encounters with Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jeong-Sun; Park, Changbom; Banerjee, Arunima; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2018-04-01

    Late-type galaxies falling into a cluster would evolve being influenced by the interactions with both the cluster and the nearby cluster member galaxies. Most numerical studies, however, tend to focus on the effects of the former with little work done on those of the latter. We thus perform a numerical study on the evolution of a late-type galaxy interacting with neighboring early-type galaxies at high speed using hydrodynamic simulations. Based on the information obtained from the Coma cluster, we set up the simulations for the case where a Milky Way–like late-type galaxy experiences six consecutive collisions with twice as massive early-type galaxies having hot gas in their halos at the closest approach distances of 15–65 h ‑1 kpc at the relative velocities of 1500–1600 km s‑1. Our simulations show that the evolution of the late-type galaxy can be significantly affected by the accumulated effects of the high-speed multiple collisions with the early-type galaxies, such as on cold gas content and star formation activity of the late-type galaxy, particularly through the hydrodynamic interactions between cold disk and hot gas halos. We find that the late-type galaxy can lose most of its cold gas after the six collisions and have more star formation activity during the collisions. By comparing our simulation results with those of galaxy–cluster interactions, we claim that the role of the galaxy–galaxy interactions on the evolution of late-type galaxies in clusters could be comparable with that of the galaxy–cluster interactions, depending on the dynamical history.

  19. Star-type oscillatory networks with generic Kuramoto-type coupling: A model for "Japanese drums synchrony"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Vladimir; Pikovsky, Arkady; Macau, Elbert E. N.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze star-type networks of phase oscillators by virtue of two methods. For identical oscillators we adopt the Watanabe-Strogatz approach, which gives full analytical description of states, rotating with constant frequency. For nonidentical oscillators, such states can be obtained by virtue of the self-consistent approach in a parametric form. In this case stability analysis cannot be performed, however with the help of direct numerical simulations we show which solutions are stable and which not. We consider this system as a model for a drum orchestra, where we assume that the drummers follow the signal of the leader without listening to each other and the coupling parameters are determined by a geometrical organization of the orchestra.

  20. Selective Attention in Early Dementia of Alzheimer Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Duque, Diego; Black, Sandra E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored possible deficits in selective attention brought about by Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DAT). In three experiments, we tested patients with early DAT, healthy elderly, and young adults under low memory demands to assess perceptual filtering, conflict resolution, and set switching abilities. We found no evidence of impaired…

  1. Lithium abundances among solar-type pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Karen M.; Wilkin, Francis P.; Strom, Stephen E.; Seaman, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of Li I 6707 A line strengths were carried out for two samples of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars (L 1641 and Taurus-Auriga), and the Li abundances estimated for PMS stars are compared with those deduced from observations of Li line strengths for main-sequence stars in the Alpha Persei cluster. It was found that the maximum Li abundances among the PMS stars with solar mass values greater than 1.0 exceed the maximum abundances for Alpha Per stars by at least 0.3 dex. Some PMS stars, including few apparently young stars, showed large (greater than 1.0 dex) Li depletion, and some apparently old PMS stars showed little or no depletion.

  2. X ray observations of late-type stars using the ROSAT all-sky survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Fleming, Thomas A.

    1992-03-01

    The ROSAT mission made the first x ray survey of the entire sky using an imaging detector. Although ROSAT is a joint NASA/German project and involves direct American participation during its second phase of pointed observations, the all-sky survey remains the sole property of the German investigators. NASA grant represented the first use of ROSAT data analysis funds to support direct American participation in the ROSAT all-sky survey. The project involved a collaborative agreement between the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) and the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) where JILA supplied MPE with a post-doctoral research associate with experience in the field of stellar (coronal) x ray emission to work within their ROSAT group. In return, members of the cool star research group at JILA were given the opportunity to collaborate on projects involving ROSAT all-sky survey data. Both sides have benefitted (and still benefit) from this arrangement since MPE suffers from a shortage of researchers who are interested in x ray emission from 'normal' stars and white dwarfs. MPE has also drawn upon experience in optical identification of x ray sources from the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey in planning their own identification strategies for the ROSAT all-sky survey. The JILA cool stars group has benefitted since access to all-sky survey data has expanded the scope of their already extensive research programs involving multiwavelength observations of late-type stars. ROSAT was successfully launched on 1 June 1990 and conducted the bulk of the survey from 30 July 1990 to 25 January 1991. Data gaps in the survey have subsequently been made up. At the time of this writing (February 1992), the survey data have been processed once with the Standard Analysis Software System (SASS). A second processing will soon begin with improvements made to the SASS to correct errors and bugs found while carrying out scientific projects with data

  3. X ray observations of late-type stars using the ROSAT all-sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Fleming, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    The ROSAT mission made the first x ray survey of the entire sky using an imaging detector. Although ROSAT is a joint NASA/German project and involves direct American participation during its second phase of pointed observations, the all-sky survey remains the sole property of the German investigators. NASA grant represented the first use of ROSAT data analysis funds to support direct American participation in the ROSAT all-sky survey. The project involved a collaborative agreement between the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) and the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) where JILA supplied MPE with a post-doctoral research associate with experience in the field of stellar (coronal) x ray emission to work within their ROSAT group. In return, members of the cool star research group at JILA were given the opportunity to collaborate on projects involving ROSAT all-sky survey data. Both sides have benefitted (and still benefit) from this arrangement since MPE suffers from a shortage of researchers who are interested in x ray emission from 'normal' stars and white dwarfs. MPE has also drawn upon experience in optical identification of x ray sources from the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey in planning their own identification strategies for the ROSAT all-sky survey. The JILA cool stars group has benefitted since access to all-sky survey data has expanded the scope of their already extensive research programs involving multiwavelength observations of late-type stars. ROSAT was successfully launched on 1 June 1990 and conducted the bulk of the survey from 30 July 1990 to 25 January 1991. Data gaps in the survey have subsequently been made up. At the time of this writing (February 1992), the survey data have been processed once with the Standard Analysis Software System (SASS). A second processing will soon begin with improvements made to the SASS to correct errors and bugs found while carrying out scientific projects with data

  4. BD-22deg3467, a DAO-type Star Exciting the Nebula Abell 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, M.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Koppen, J.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral analyses of hot, compact stars with non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) model-atmosphere techniques allow the precise determination of photospheric parameters such as the effective temperature (T(sub eff)), the surface gravity (log g), and the chemical composition. The derived photospheric metal abundances are crucial constraints for stellar evolutionary theory. Aims. Previous spectral analyses of the exciting star of the nebula A35, BD-22deg3467, were based on He+C+N+O+Si+Fe models only. For our analysis, we use state-of-the-art fully metal-line blanketed NLTE model atmospheres that consider opacities of 23 elements from hydrogen to nickel. We aim to identify all observed lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of BD-22deg3467 and to determine the abundances of the respective species precisely. Methods. For the analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) far-ultraviolet (FUSE) and UV (HST/STIS) observations, we combined stellar-atmosphere models and interstellar line-absorption models to fully reproduce the entire observed UV spectrum. Results. The best agreement with the UV observation of BD-22deg3467 is achieved at T(sub eff) = 80 +/- 10 kK and log g = 7.2 +/- 0.3. While T(sub eff) of previous analyses is verified, log g is significantly lower. We re-analyzed lines of silicon and iron (1/100 and about solar abundances, respectively) and for the first time in this star identified argon, chromium, manganese, cobalt, and nickel and determined abundances of 12, 70, 35, 150, and 5 times solar, respectively. Our results partially agree with predictions of diffusion models for DA-type white dwarfs. A combination of photospheric and interstellar line-absorption models reproduces more than 90% of the observed absorption features. The stellar mass is M approx. 0.48 Solar Mass. Conclusions. BD.22.3467 may not have been massive enough to ascend the asymptotic giant branch and may have evolved directly from the extended horizontal branch

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer solar-type stars list (Meyer+, 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M. R.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Backman, D.; Beckwith, S.; Bouwman, J.; Brooke, T.; Carpenter, J.; Cohen, M.; Cortes, S.; Crockett, N.; Gorti, U.; Henning, T.; Hines, D.; Hollenbach, D.; Kim, J. S.; Lunine, J.; Malhotra, R.; Mamajek, E.; Metchev, S.; Moro-Martin, A.; Morris, P.; Najita, J.; Padgett, D.; Pascucci, I.; Rodmann, J.; Schlingman, W.; Silverstone, M.; Soderblom, D.; Stauffer, J.; Stobie, E.; Strom, S.; Watson, D.; Weidenschilling, S.; Wolf, S.; Young, E.

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of the Spitzer Legacy Program, Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems, that was proposed in 2000, begun in 2001, and executed aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope between 2003 and 2006. This program exploits the sensitivity of Spitzer to carry out mid-infrared spectrophotometric observations of solar-type stars. With a sample of 328 stars ranging in age from 3Myr to 3Gyr, we trace the evolution of circumstellar gas and dust from primordial planet-building stages in young circumstellar disks through to older collisionally generated debris disks. When completed, our program will help define the timescales over which terrestrial and gas giant planets are built, constrain the frequency of planetesimal collisions as a function of time, and establish the diversity of mature planetary architectures. In addition to the observational program, we have coordinated a concomitant theoretical effort aimed at understanding the dynamics of circumstellar dust with and without the effects of embedded planets, dust spectral energy distributions, and atomic and molecular gas line emission. Together with the observations, these efforts will provide an astronomical context for understanding whether our solar system and its habitable planets a common or a rare circumstance. Additional information about the FEPS project can be found on the team Web site. (4 data files).

  6. Non-LTE Line-Blanketed Model Atmospheres of B-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, T.; Hubeny, I.

    2005-12-01

    We present an extension of our OSTAR2002 grid of NLTE model atmospheres to B-type stars. We have calculated over 1,300 metal line-blanketed, NLTE, plane-parallel, hydrostatic model atmospheres for the basic parameters appropriate to B stars. The grid covers 16 effective temperatures from 15,000 to 30,000 K, with 1000 K steps, 13 surface gravities, log g≤ 4.75 down to the Eddington limit, and 5 compositions (2, 1, 0.5, 0.2, and 0.1 times solar). We have adopted a microturbulent velocity of 2 km/s for all models. In the lower surface gravity range (log g≤ 3.0), we supplemented the main grid with additional model atmospheres accounting for higher microtutbulent velocity (10 km/s) and for alterated surface composition (He and N-rich, C-deficient), as observed in B supergiants. The models incorporate basically all known atomic levels of 46 ions of H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, S, and Fe, which are grouped into 1127 superlevels. Models and spectra will be available at our Web site, http://nova.astro.umd.edu.

  7. Lunar occultations of Aldebaran and other late-type stars observed from Devasthal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richichi, A.; Sharma, S.; Pandey, A. K.; Pandey, R.; Sinha, T.; Norharizan, M. D.

    2018-02-01

    We report on lunar occultations of Aldebaran (α Tau) and other ten, mostly late-type, stars observed with the Devasthal 1.3-m telescope. We derive a detailed brightness profile for Aldebaran, confirming the presence of asymmetries already recently described in a related work. We test the origin of such asymmetries by means of simulations of the effect of scintillation on the reconstructed profiles. We also derive angular diameters for two M giants, Z Cnc and SAO 161635, which we discuss in the context of previous determinations. We find first-time companions around two other stars, SAO 161665 and WZ Psc, and we detect one more previously known binary, SAO 94060. This is the first systematic effort to observe lunar occultations events at this facility, and demonstrates the capability to carry out milliarcsecond-level investigations on sources down to ≈ 9 mag. We plan to continue this routine program in the coming years, eventually utilizing also the 3.6 m DOT telescope recently erected at Devasthal for deeper sensitivity and higher accuracy.

  8. Star-spot distributions and chromospheric activity on the RS CVn type eclipsing binary SV Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şenavcı, H. V.; Bahar, E.; Montes, D.; Zola, S.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Frasca, A.; Işık, E.; Yörükoǧlu, O.

    2018-06-01

    Using a time series of high-resolution spectra and high-quality multi-colour photometry, we reconstruct surface maps of the primary component of the RS CVn type rapidly rotating eclipsing binary, SV Cam (F9V + K4V). We measure a mass ratio, q, of 0.641(2) using our highest quality spectra and obtain surface brightness maps of the primary component, which exhibit predominantly high-latitude spots located between 60° - 70° latitudes with a mean filling factor of ˜35%. This is also indicated by the R-band light curve inversion, subjected to rigourous numerical tests. The spectral subtraction of the Hα line reveals strong activity of the secondary component. The excess Hα absorption detected near the secondary minimum hints to the presence of cool material partially obscuring the primary star. The flux ratios of Ca II IRT excess emission indicate that the contribution of chromospheric plage regions associated with star-spots is dominant, even during the passage of the filament-like absorption feature.

  9. A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ji-An; Doi, Mamoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Ken'Ichi; Yasuda, Naoki; Jha, Saurabh W.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ivezić, Željko; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Ashall, Christopher; Mould, Jeremy; Baade, Dietrich; Suzuki, Nao; Connolly, Andrew J.; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Yoachim, Peter; Jones, David; Furusawa, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Type Ia supernovae arise from the thermonuclear explosion of white-dwarf stars that have cores of carbon and oxygen. The uniformity of their light curves makes these supernovae powerful cosmological distance indicators, but there have long been debates about exactly how their explosion is triggered and what kind of companion stars are involved. For example, the recent detection of the early ultraviolet pulse of a peculiar, subluminous type Ia supernova has been claimed as evidence for an interaction between a red-giant or a main-sequence companion and ejecta from a white-dwarf explosion. Here we report observations of a prominent but red optical flash that appears about half a day after the explosion of a type Ia supernova. This supernova shows hybrid features of different supernova subclasses, namely a light curve that is typical of normal-brightness supernovae, but with strong titanium absorption, which is commonly seen in the spectra of subluminous ones. We argue that this early flash does not occur through previously suggested mechanisms such as the companion-ejecta interaction. Instead, our simulations show that it could occur through detonation of a thin helium shell either on a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, or on a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf merging with a less-massive white dwarf. Our finding provides evidence that one branch of previously proposed explosion models—the helium-ignition branch—does exist in nature, and that such a model may account for the explosions of white dwarfs in a mass range wider than previously supposed.

  10. A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ji-An; Doi, Mamoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Yasuda, Naoki; Jha, Saurabh W; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ivezić, Željko; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; Mazzali, Paolo A; Ashall, Christopher; Mould, Jeremy; Baade, Dietrich; Suzuki, Nao; Connolly, Andrew J; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Yoachim, Peter; Jones, David; Furusawa, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2017-10-04

    Type Ia supernovae arise from the thermonuclear explosion of white-dwarf stars that have cores of carbon and oxygen. The uniformity of their light curves makes these supernovae powerful cosmological distance indicators, but there have long been debates about exactly how their explosion is triggered and what kind of companion stars are involved. For example, the recent detection of the early ultraviolet pulse of a peculiar, subluminous type Ia supernova has been claimed as evidence for an interaction between a red-giant or a main-sequence companion and ejecta from a white-dwarf explosion. Here we report observations of a prominent but red optical flash that appears about half a day after the explosion of a type Ia supernova. This supernova shows hybrid features of different supernova subclasses, namely a light curve that is typical of normal-brightness supernovae, but with strong titanium absorption, which is commonly seen in the spectra of subluminous ones. We argue that this early flash does not occur through previously suggested mechanisms such as the companion-ejecta interaction. Instead, our simulations show that it could occur through detonation of a thin helium shell either on a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, or on a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf merging with a less-massive white dwarf. Our finding provides evidence that one branch of previously proposed explosion models-the helium-ignition branch-does exist in nature, and that such a model may account for the explosions of white dwarfs in a mass range wider than previously supposed.

  11. Evolution of the early-type galaxy fraction in clusters since z = 0.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, L.; Clowe, D.; Desai, V.; Dalcanton, J. J.; von der Linden, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; White, S. D. M.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; De Lucia, G.; Halliday, C.; Jablonka, P.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Saglia, R. P.; Pelló, R.; Rudnick, G. H.; Zaritsky, D.

    2009-12-01

    We study the morphological content of a large sample of high-redshift clusters to determine its dependence on cluster mass and redshift. Quantitative morphologies are based on PSF-convolved, 2D bulge+disk decompositions of cluster and field galaxies on deep Very Large Telescope FORS2 images of eighteen, optically-selected galaxy clusters at 0.45 < z < 0.80 observed as part of the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (“EDisCS”). Morphological content is characterized by the early-type galaxy fraction f_et, and early-type galaxies are objectively selected based on their bulge fraction and image smoothness. This quantitative selection is equivalent to selecting galaxies visually classified as E or S0. Changes in early-type fractions as a function of cluster velocity dispersion, redshift and star-formation activity are studied. A set of 158 clusters extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is analyzed exactly as the distant EDisCS sample to provide a robust local comparison. We also compare our results to a set of clusters from the Millennium Simulation. Our main results are: (1) the early-type fractions of the SDSS and EDisCS clusters exhibit no clear trend as a function of cluster velocity dispersion. (2) Mid-z EDisCS clusters around σ = 500 km s-1 have f_et ≃ 0.5 whereas high-z EDisCS clusters have f_et ≃ 0.4. This represents a ~25% increase over a time interval of 2 Gyr. (3) There is a marked difference in the morphological content of EDisCS and SDSS clusters. None of the EDisCS clusters have early-type galaxy fractions greater than 0.6 whereas half of the SDSS clusters lie above this value. This difference is seen in clusters of all velocity dispersions. (4) There is a strong and clear correlation between morphology and star formation activity in SDSS and EDisCS clusters in the sense that decreasing fractions of [OII] emitters are tracked by increasing early-type fractions. This correlation holds independent of cluster velocity dispersion and redshift even

  12. Identifying the progenitors of present-day early-type galaxies in observational surveys: correcting `progenitor bias' using the Horizon-AGN simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.; Kaviraj, S.; Devriendt, J. E. G.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Laigle, C.

    2018-03-01

    As endpoints of the hierarchical mass-assembly process, the stellar populations of local early-type galaxies encode the assembly history of galaxies over cosmic time. We use Horizon-AGN, a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, to study the merger histories of local early-type galaxies and track how the morphological mix of their progenitors evolves over time. We provide a framework for alleviating `progenitor bias' - the bias that occurs if one uses only early-type galaxies to study the progenitor population. Early types attain their final morphology at relatively early epochs - by z ˜ 1, around 60 per cent of today's early types have had their last significant merger. At all redshifts, the majority of mergers have one late-type progenitor, with late-late mergers dominating at z > 1.5 and early-early mergers becoming significant only at z < 0.5. Progenitor bias is severe at all but the lowest redshifts - e.g. at z ˜ 0.6, less than 50 per cent of the stellar mass in today's early types is actually in progenitors with early-type morphology, while, at z ˜ 2, studying only early types misses almost all (80 per cent) of the stellar mass that eventually ends up in local early-type systems. At high redshift, almost all massive late-type galaxies, regardless of their local environment or star formation rate, are progenitors of local early-type galaxies, as are lower mass (M⋆ < 1010.5 M_{⊙}) late-types as long as they reside in high-density environments. In this new era of large observational surveys (e.g. LSST, JWST), this study provides a framework for studying how today's early-type galaxies have been built up over cosmic time.

  13. Towards a better understanding of the evolution of Wolf-Rayet stars and Type Ib/Ic supernova progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sung-Chul

    2017-10-01

    Hydrogen-deficient Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are potential candidates of Type Ib/Ic supernova (SN Ib/Ic) progenitors and their evolution is governed by mass-loss. Stellar evolution models with the most popular prescription for WR mass-loss rates given by Nugis & Lamers have difficulties in explaining the luminosity distribution of WR stars of WC and WO types and the SN Ic progenitor properties. Here, we suggest some improvements in the WR mass-loss rate prescription and discuss its implications for the evolution of WR stars and SN Ib/Ic progenitors. Recent studies on Galactic WR stars clearly indicate that the mass-loss rates of WC stars are systematically higher than those of WNE stars for a given luminosity. The luminosity and initial metallicity dependences of WNE mass-loss rates are also significantly different from those of WC stars. These factors have not been adequately considered together in previous stellar evolution models. We also find that an overall increase of WR mass-loss rates by about 60 per cent compared to the empirical values obtained with a clumping factor of 10 is needed to explain the most faint WC/WO stars. This moderate increase with our new WR mass-loss rate prescription results in SN Ib/Ic progenitor models more consistent with observations than those given by the Nugis & Lamers prescription. In particular, our new models predict that the properties of SN Ib and SN Ic progenitors are distinctively different, rather than they form a continuous sequence.

  14. How bright planets became dim stars: planetary speculations in John Herschel's double star astronomy.

    PubMed

    Case, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Previous research on the origins of double star astronomy in the early nineteenth century emphasized the role mathematical methods and instrumentation played in motivating early observations of these objects. The work of the British astronomer John Herschel, however, shows that questions regarding the physical nature of double stars were also important. In particular, an analysis of John Herschel's early work on double stars illustrates the way in which speculations regarding these objects were shaped by assumptions of the properties of stars themselves. For Herschel, a major consideration in double star astronomy was distinguishing between types of double stars. Optical doubles were useful in determining parallax while binary doubles were not. In practice, classification of a specific double star pair into one of these categories was based on the assumption that stars were of approximately the same luminosity and thus differences in relative brightness between stars were caused by difference in distances. Such assumptions, though ultimately abandoned, would lead Herschel in the 1830s to advance the possibility that the dim companion stars in certain double star pairs were not stars at all but in fact planets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How bright planets became dim stars: planetary speculations in John Herschel's double star astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, S.

    2014-03-01

    Previous research on the origins of double star astronomy in the early nineteenth century emphasized the role mathematical methods and instrumentation played in motivating early observations of these objects. The work of the British astronomer John Herschel, however, shows that questions regarding the physical nature of double stars were also important. In particular, an analysis of John Herschel's early work on double stars illustrates the way in which speculations regarding these objects were shaped by assumptions of the properties of stars themselves. For Herschel, a major consideration in double star astronomy was distinguishing between types of double stars. Optical doubles were useful in determining parallax while binary doubles were not. In practice, classification of a specific double star pair into one of these categories was based on the assumption that stars were of approximately the same luminosity and thus differences in relative brightness between stars were caused by difference in distances. Such assumptions, though ultimately abandoned, would lead Herschel in the 1830s to advance the possibility that the dim companion stars in certain double star pairs were not stars at all but in fact planets.

  16. Neutron-captures in Low Mass Stars and the Early Solar System Record of Short-lived Radioactivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busso, Maurizio; Vescovi, Diego; Trippella, Oscar; Palmerini, Sara; Cristallo, Sergio; Piersanti, Luciano

    2018-01-01

    Noticeable improvements were recently introduced in the modelling of n-capture nucleosynthesis in the advanced evolutionary stages of giant stars (Asymptotic Giant Branch, or AGB, stars). Two such improvements are closely linked together and concern the introduction of non-parameterized, physical models for extended mixing processes and the adoption of accurate reaction rates for H- and He-burning reactions, including the one for the main neutron source 13C(α,n)16O. These improvements profited of a longstanding collaboration between stellar physicists and C. Spitaleri's team and of his seminal work both as a leader in the Nuclear Astrophysics scenario and as a talent-scout in the recruitment of young researchers in the field. We present an example of the innovative results that can be obtained thanks to the novelties introduced, by estimating the contributions from a nearby AGB star to the synthesis of short-lived (t1/2 ≤ 10 Myr) radioactive nuclei which were alive in early Solar System condensates. We find that the scenario indicating an AGB star as the source of such radioactivities, discussed for many years by researchers in this field, appears now to be no longer viable, when the mentioned improvements of AGB models and nuclear parameters are considered.

  17. The Abundances of the Fe Group Elements in Three Early B Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, G. J.; Adelman, S. J.

    2005-12-01

    The photospheric abundances of V, Cr, and Fe have been determined for three sharp-lined early B stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud using FUV spectra obtained from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and the Kurucz LTE model atmosphere/spectrum synthesis codes ATLAS9/SYNTHE. The program stars include NGC1818/D1, NGC2004/B15, and NGC2004/B30 (star designations are from Robertson 1974, A&AS, 15, 261). The calculations were carried through with model parameters close to those adopted by Korn et al. (2000, A&A, 353, 655). Values of Teff, log g, ξ T, and v sin I are 25000/4.0/0/30, 20000/3.1/6/25, and 23500/3.3/14/30 for NGC1818/D1, NGC2004/B15, and NGC2004/B30, respectively. The abundances quoted below are in sequence for the latter stars. The vanadium abundances, [V/H], determined from V III λ λ 1150,1152 (UV 2), are -0.6, -0.9, and -0.9 dex. Cr was determined from Cr III λ λ 1118,1136. Values of -0.5, -0.8, and -0.7 dex were found. Uncertainties in the V and Cr abundances are ˜0.3 dex. The Fe abundance is primarily from 7 lines of Fe III (UV 1) in the region λ λ 1122-32. Values are -0.8±0.3, ˜-1.1, and -0.4±0.3. Since there is no evidence for N enhancement in the program stars ([N/H] ˜ -0.9, -1.0, and -0.6 from the N III doublet at 1183,1184 Å) the photospheric abundances have probably not been altered by mixing of processed material from the star's interior and the derived abundances represent pristine values for the two young clusters in the LMC. It should be noted that the N and Fe abundances derived for NGC1818/D1 are about 0.5 dex lower than those determined by Korn et al. from much weaker optical lines. We will discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy. The generally low abundances for the Fe group elements in these young cluster B stars imply that supernova activity has been minimal in the regions of the LMC in which the stars were formed. GJP appreciates support from NASA grant NAG5-13212.

  18. A survey of the properties of early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Roberts, M. S.; Hogg, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    A compilation of the properties of elliptical and early disk galaxies was completed. In addition to material from the literature, such as Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) fluxes, the compilation includes recent measurements of HI and CO, as well as a review of the x ray properties by Forman and Jones. The data are used to evaluate the gas content of early systems and to search for correlations with x ray emission. The interstellar medium in early-type galaxies is generally dominated by hot interstellar gas (T approx. 10 to the 7th power K; c.f. the review by Fabbiano 1989 and references therein). In addition, a significant fraction of these galaxies show infrared emission (Knapp, et al., 1989), optical emission lines, and visible dust. Sensitive studies in HI and CO of a number of these galaxies have been completed recently, resulting in several detections, particularly of the later types. Researchers wish to understand the connection among these different forms of the interstellar medium, and to examine the theoretical picture of the fate of the hot gas. To do so, they compiled observations of several forms of interstellar matter for a well-defined sample of early-type galaxies. Here they present a statistical analysis of this data base and discuss the implications of the results.

  19. A magnetic study of spotted UV Ceti flare stars and related late-type dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, S. S.

    1980-09-01

    A multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer has been used to investigate the magnetic nature of the spotted UV Ceti flare stars. Magnetic observations were obtained on a sample of 19 program objects, of which 5 were currently spotted dKe-dMe stars, 7 were normal dK-dM stars, 7 were UV Ceti flare stars, and 1 was a possible post-T Tauri star. Contrary to most previously published observations and theoretical expectations, no magnetic fields were detected on any of these objects from either the absorption lines or the H-alpha emission line down to an observational uncertainty level of 100-160 gauss (standard deviation).

  20. Evolved Late-Type Star FUV Spectra: Mass Loss and Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2005-01-01

    This proposal was for a detailed analysis of the far ultraviolet (FUV) photoionizing radiation that provides crucial input physics for mass loss studies, e.g., observations of the flux below 10448, allow us to constrain the Ca II/Ca III balance and make significant progress beyond previous optical studies on stellar mass loss and circumstellar photochemistry. Our targets selection provided good spectral-type coverage required to help unravel the Ca II/Ca III balance as the mass-loss rates increase by over three orders of magnitude from K5 III to M5 III. We also explored the relationship between the FUV radiation field and other UV diagnostics to allow us to empirically estimate the FUV radiation field for the vast majority of stars which are too faint to be observed with FUSE, and to improve upon their uncertain mass-loss rates.

  1. Kepler Beyond Planets: Finding Exploding Stars (Type Ia Supernova from a White Dwarf Merger)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-26

    This frame from an animation shows the merger of two white dwarfs. A white dwarf is an extremely dense remnant of a star that can no longer burn nuclear fuel at its core. This is another way that a "type Ia" supernova occurs. Stellar explosions forge and distribute materials that make up the world in which we live, and also hold clues to how fast the universe is expanding. By understanding supernovae, scientists can unlock mysteries that are key to what we are made of and the fate of our universe. But to get the full picture, scientists must observe supernovae from a variety of perspectives, especially in the first moments of the explosion. That's really difficult -- there's no telling when or where a supernova might happen next. An animation is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22353

  2. Mg II Spectral Atlas and Flux Catalog for Late-Type Stars in the Hyades Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    In the course of a long-running IUE Guest Observer program, UV spectral images were obtained for more than 60 late-type members of the Hyades Cluster in order to investigate their chromospheric emissions. The emission line fluxes extracted from those observations were used to study the dependence of stellar dynamo activity upon age and rotation (IUE Observations of Rapidly Rotating Low-Mass Stars in Young Clusters: The Relation between Chromospheric Activity and Rotation). However, the details of those measurements, including a tabulation of the line fluxes, were never published. The purpose of the investigation summarized here was to extract all of the existing Hyades long-wavelength Mg II spectra in the IUE public archives in order to survey UV chromospheric emission in the cluster, thereby providing a consistent dataset for statistical and correlative studies of the relationship between stellar dynamo activity, rotation, and age over a broad range in mass.

  3. The hELENa project - II. Abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies: from dwarfs to giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sybilska, A.; Kuntschner, H.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Peletier, R. F.; Lisker, T.

    2018-06-01

    In this second paper of The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) series we study [Mg/Fe] abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies (ETGs) observed with the Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae integral field unit, spanning a wide range in mass and local environment densities: 20 low-mass early types (dEs) of Sybilska et al. and 258 massive early types (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D project, all homogeneously reduced and analysed. We show that the [Mg/Fe] ratios scale with velocity dispersion (σ) at fixed [Fe/H] and that they evolve with [Fe/H] along similar paths for all early types, grouped in bins of increasing local and global σ, as well as the second velocity moment Vrms, indicating a common inside-out formation pattern. We then place our dEs on the [Mg/Fe] versus [Fe/H] diagram of Local Group galaxies and show that dEs occupy the same region and show a similar trend line slope in the diagram as the high-metallicity stars of the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. This finding extends the similar trend found for dwarf spheroidal versus dwarf irregular galaxies and supports the notion that dEs have evolved from late-type galaxies that have lost their gas at a point of their evolution, which likely coincided with them entering denser environments.

  4. Asteroseismic modelling of solar-type stars: internal systematics from input physics and surface correction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsamba, B.; Campante, T. L.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Rendle, B. M.; Reese, D. R.; Verma, K.

    2018-04-01

    Asteroseismic forward modelling techniques are being used to determine fundamental properties (e.g. mass, radius, and age) of solar-type stars. The need to take into account all possible sources of error is of paramount importance towards a robust determination of stellar properties. We present a study of 34 solar-type stars for which high signal-to-noise asteroseismic data is available from multi-year Kepler photometry. We explore the internal systematics on the stellar properties, that is, associated with the uncertainty in the input physics used to construct the stellar models. In particular, we explore the systematics arising from: (i) the inclusion of the diffusion of helium and heavy elements; and (ii) the uncertainty in solar metallicity mixture. We also assess the systematics arising from (iii) different surface correction methods used in optimisation/fitting procedures. The systematics arising from comparing results of models with and without diffusion are found to be 0.5%, 0.8%, 2.1%, and 16% in mean density, radius, mass, and age, respectively. The internal systematics in age are significantly larger than the statistical uncertainties. We find the internal systematics resulting from the uncertainty in solar metallicity mixture to be 0.7% in mean density, 0.5% in radius, 1.4% in mass, and 6.7% in age. The surface correction method by Sonoi et al. and Ball & Gizon's two-term correction produce the lowest internal systematics among the different correction methods, namely, ˜1%, ˜1%, ˜2%, and ˜8% in mean density, radius, mass, and age, respectively. Stellar masses obtained using the surface correction methods by Kjeldsen et al. and Ball & Gizon's one-term correction are systematically higher than those obtained using frequency ratios.

  5. Asteroseismic modelling of solar-type stars: internal systematics from input physics and surface correction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsamba, B.; Campante, T. L.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Rendle, B. M.; Reese, D. R.; Verma, K.

    2018-07-01

    Asteroseismic forward modelling techniques are being used to determine fundamental properties (e.g. mass, radius, and age) of solar-type stars. The need to take into account all possible sources of error is of paramount importance towards a robust determination of stellar properties. We present a study of 34 solar-type stars for which high signal-to-noise asteroseismic data are available from multiyear Kepler photometry. We explore the internal systematics on the stellar properties, that is associated with the uncertainty in the input physics used to construct the stellar models. In particular, we explore the systematics arising from (i) the inclusion of the diffusion of helium and heavy elements; (ii) the uncertainty in solar metallicity mixture; and (iii) different surface correction methods used in optimization/fitting procedures. The systematics arising from comparing results of models with and without diffusion are found to be 0.5 per cent, 0.8 per cent, 2.1 per cent, and 16 per cent in mean density, radius, mass, and age, respectively. The internal systematics in age are significantly larger than the statistical uncertainties. We find the internal systematics resulting from the uncertainty in solar metallicity mixture to be 0.7 per cent in mean density, 0.5 per cent in radius, 1.4 per cent in mass, and 6.7 per cent in age. The surface correction method by Sonoi et al. and Ball & Gizon's two-term correction produce the lowest internal systematics among the different correction methods, namely, ˜1 per cent, ˜1 per cent, ˜2 per cent, and ˜8 per cent in mean density, radius, mass, and age, respectively. Stellar masses obtained using the surface correction methods by Kjeldsen et al. and Ball & Gizon's one-term correction are systematically higher than those obtained using frequency ratios.

  6. Detailed modelling of the circumstellar molecular line emission of the S-type AGB star W Aquilae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovich, T.; Bergman, P.; Justtanont, K.; Lombaert, R.; Maercker, M.; Olofsson, H.; Ramstedt, S.; Royer, P.

    2014-09-01

    Context. S-type AGB stars have a C/O ratio which suggests that they are transition objects between oxygen-rich M-type stars and carbon-rich C-type stars. As such, their circumstellar compositions of gas and dust are thought to be sensitive to their precise C/O ratio, and it is therefore of particular interest to examine their circumstellar properties. Aims: We present new Herschel HIFI and PACS sub-millimetre and far-infrared line observations of several molecular species towards the S-type AGB star W Aql. We use these observations, which probe a wide range of gas temperatures, to constrain the circumstellar properties of W Aql, including mass-loss rate and molecular abundances. Methods: We used radiative transfer codes to model the circumstellar dust and molecular line emission to determine circumstellar properties and molecular abundances. We assumed a spherically symmetric envelope formed by a constant mass-loss rate driven by an accelerating wind. Our model includes fully integrated H2O line cooling as part of the solution of the energy balance. Results: We detect circumstellar molecular lines from CO, H2O, SiO, HCN, and, for the first time in an S-type AGB star, NH3. The radiative transfer calculations result in an estimated mass-loss rate for W Aql of 4.0 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 based on the 12CO lines. The estimated 12CO/13CO ratio is 29, which is in line with ratios previously derived for S-type AGB stars. We find an H2O abundance of 1.5 × 10-5, which is intermediate to the abundances expected for M and C stars, and an ortho/para ratio for H2O that is consistent with formation at warm temperatures. We find an HCN abundance of 3 × 10-6, and, although no CN lines are detected using HIFI, we are able to put some constraints on the abundance, 6 × 10-6, and distribution of CN in W Aql's circumstellar envelopeusing ground-based data. We find an SiO abundance of 3 × 10-6, and an NH3 abundance of 1.7 × 10-5, confined to a small envelope. If we include uncertainties

  7. The boron-to-beryllium ratio in halo stars - A signature of cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Schramm, D. N.; Olive, K. A.; Fields, B.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) spallation production of Li, Be, and B in the early Galaxy with particular attention to the uncertainties in the predictions of this model. The observed correlation between the Be abundance and the metallicity in metal-poor Population II stars requires that Be was synthesized in the early Galaxy. We show that the observations and such Population II GCR synthesis of Be are quantitatively consistent with the big bang nucleosynthesis production of Li-7. We find that there is a nearly model independent lower bound to B/Be of about 7 for GCR synthesis. Recent measurements of B/Be about 10 in HD 140283 are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Population II GCR nucleosynthesis. Measurements of the boron abundance in additional metal-poor halo stars is a key diagnostic of the GCR spallation mechanism. We also show that Population II GCR synthesis can produce amounts of Li-6 which may be observed in the hottest halo stars.

  8. IUE observations of two late-type stars Bx Mon (M + pec) and TV Gem (M1 Iab)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalitsianos, A. G.; Hobbs, R. W.; Kafatos, M.

    1981-01-01

    The IUE observations of two late type stars BX Mon and TV Gem that reveal the emission properties in the ultraviolet of subluminous companions are discussed. Analysis of the continuum emission observed from BX Mon suggests the companion, is a middle A III star. High excitation emission lines observed between 1200 A and 2000 A that generally do not typify emission observed in either late M type variables or A type stars are also detected. It is suggested that these strong high excitation lines arise in a large volume of gas heated by nonradiation processes that could be the result of tidal interaction and mass exchange in the binary system. In contrast to stars such as BX Mon, the luminous M1 supergiant TV Gem shows unexpected intense UV continuum throughout the sensitivity range of IUE. The UV spectrum of TV Gem is characterized by intense continuum with broad absorption features detected in the short wavelength range. The analysis shows that the companion could be a B9 or A1 III-IV star. Alternate suggestions are presented for explaining the UV continuum in terms of an accretion disk in association with TV Gem.

  9. Demise of faint satellites around isolated early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Hyunbae; Lee, Jong Chul

    2018-02-01

    The hierarchical galaxy formation scenario in the Cold Dark Matter cosmology with a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ and geometrically flat space (ΛCDM) has been very successful in explaining the large-scale distribution of galaxies. However, there have been claims that ΛCDM over-predicts the number of satellite galaxies associated with massive galaxies compared with observations—the missing satellite galaxy problem1-3. Isolated groups of galaxies hosted by passively evolving massive early-type galaxies are ideal laboratories for identifying the missing physics in the current theory4-11. Here, we report—based on a deep spectroscopic survey—that isolated massive and passive early-type galaxies without any signs of recent wet mergers or accretion episodes have almost no satellite galaxies fainter than the r-band absolute magnitude of about Mr = -14. If only early-type satellites are used, the cutoff is at the somewhat brighter magnitude of about Mr = -15. Such a cutoff has not been found in other nearby satellite galaxy systems hosted by late-type galaxies or those with merger features. Various physical properties of satellites depend strongly on the host-centric distance. Our observations indicate that the satellite galaxy luminosity function is largely determined by the interaction of satellites with the environment provided by their host.

  10. Cooling flows and X-ray emission in early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarazin, Craig L.

    1990-01-01

    The X-ray properties of normal early-type galaxies and the limited theoretical understanding of the physics of the hot interstellar medium in these galaxies are reviewed. A number of simple arguments about the physical state of the gas are given. Steady-state cooling flow models for these galaxies are presented, and their time-dependent evolution is discussed. The X-ray emission found in early-type galaxies indicates that they contain significant amounts of hot interstellar gas, and that they are not the gas-poor systems they were previously thought to be. In the brighter X-ray galaxies, the amounts of hot gas observed are consistent with those expected given the present rates of stellar mass loss. The required rates of heating of the gas are consistent with those expected from the motions of gas-losing stars and supernovae. The X-ray observations are generally more consistent with a lower rate of Type I supernovae than was previously thought.

  11. The Local ISM and its Interaction with the Winds of Nearby Late-type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1998-01-01

    the collision is supersonic and that there should therefore be a bow shock outside the heliopause in the upwind direction. Finally, we estimate stellar wind pressures (P sub wind) from the measured hydrogen-wall column densities. These estimates represent the first empirical measurements of wind properties for late-type main-sequence stars. The wind pressures appear to be correlated with stellar X-ray surface fluxes, F(x), in a manner consistent with the relation P(wind) varies as F(x)(exp -1/2), a relation that is also consistent with the variations of P(sub wind) and F(sub x) observed during the solar activity cycle. If this relation can in fact be generalized to solar-like stars, as is suggested by our data, then it is possible to estimate stellar wind properties simply by measuring stellar X-rays. One implication of this is that stellar wind pressures and mass-loss rates are then predicted to increase with time, since F(sub x) is known to decrease with stellar age.

  12. Early-type galaxy archeology: Ages, abundance ratios, and effective temperatures from full-spectrum fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Graves, Genevieve J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2014-01-01

    The stellar populations of galaxies hold vital clues to their formation histories. In this paper we present results based on modeling stacked spectra of early-type galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a function of velocity dispersion, σ, from 90 km s{sup –1} to 300 km s{sup –1}. The spectra are of extremely high quality, with typical signal-to-noise ratio of 1000 Å{sup –1}, and a wavelength coverage of 4000 Å –8800 Å. Our population synthesis model includes variation in 16 elements from C to Ba, a two-component star formation history, the shift in effective temperature, Δ T {submore » eff}, of the stars with respect to a solar metallicity isochrone, and the stellar initial mass function, among other parameters. In our approach we fit the full optical spectra rather than a select number of spectral indices and are able to, for the first time, measure the abundances of the elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni from the integrated light of distant galaxies. Our main results are as follows: (1) light-weighted stellar ages range from 6-12 Gyr from low to high σ; (2) [Fe/H] varies by less than 0.1 dex across the entire sample; (3) Mg closely tracks O, and both increase from ≈0.0 at low σ to ∼0.25 at high σ; Si and Ti show a shallower rise with σ, and Ca tracks Fe rather than O; (4) the iron peak elements V, Cr, Mn, and Ni track Fe, while Co tracks O, suggesting that Co forms primarily in massive stars; (5) C and N track O over the full sample and [C/Fe] and [N/Fe] exceed 0.2 at high σ; and (6) the variation in Δ T {sub eff} with total metallicity closely follows theoretical predictions based on stellar evolution theory. This last result is significant because it implies that we are robustly solving not only for the detailed abundance patterns but also the detailed temperature distributions (i.e., isochrones) of the stars in these galaxies. A variety of tests reveal that the systematic uncertainties in our measurements are probably 0

  13. Sublimation of icy planetesimals and the delivery of water to the habitable zone around solar type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, Adrián; López, María Cristina

    2018-06-01

    We present a semi analytic model to evaluate the delivery of water to the habitable zone around a solar type star carried by icy planetesimals born beyond the snow line. The model includes sublimation of ice, gas drag and scattering by an outer giant planet located near the snow line. The sublimation model is general and could be applicable to planetary synthesis models or N-Body simulations of the formation of planetary systems. We perform a short series of simulations to asses the potential relevance of sublimation of volatiles in the process of delivery of water to the inner regions of a planetary system during early stages of its formation. We could anticipate that erosion by sublimation would prevent the arrival of much water to the habitable zone of protoplanetary disks in the form of icy planetesimals. Close encounters with a massive planet orbiting near the outer edge of the snow line could make possible for planetesimals to reach the habitable zone somewhat less eroded. However, only large planetesimals could provide appreciable amounts of water. Massive disks and sharp gas surface density profiles favor icy planetesimals to reach inner regions of a protoplanetary disk.

  14. Einstein Observatory magnitude-limited X-ray survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggio, A.; Vaiana, G. S.; Haisch, B. M.; Stern, R. A.; Bookbinder, J.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of an extensive X-ray survey of 380 giant and supergiant stars of spectral types from F to M, carried out with the Einstein Observatory. It was found that the observed F giants or subgiants (slightly evolved stars with a mass M less than about 2 solar masses) are X-ray emitters at the same level of main-sequence stars of similar spectral type. The G giants show a range of emissions more than 3 orders of magnitude wide; some single G giants exist with X-ray luminosities comparable to RS CVn systems, while some nearby large G giants have upper limits on the X-ray emission below typical solar values. The K giants have an observed X-ray emission level significantly lower than F and F giants. None of the 29 M giants were detected, except for one spectroscopic binary.

  15. A Deep NuSTAR Survey of M31: Compact object types in our Nearest Neighbor Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Wik, Daniel R.; Yukita, Mihoko; Ptak, Andrew; Venters, Tonia M.; Lehmer, Bret; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Zezas, Andreas; Harrison, Fiona; Stern, Daniel; Williams, Benjamin F.; Vulic, Neven

    2017-08-01

    X-ray binaries (XRBs) trace young and old stellar populations in galaxies, and thus star formation rate and star formation history/stellar mass. X-ray emission from XRBs may be responsible for significant amounts of heating of the early Intergalactic Medium at Cosmic Dawn and may also play a significant role in reionization. Until recently, the E>10 keV (hard X-ray) emission from these populations could only be studied for XRBs in our own galaxy, where it is often difficult to measure accurate distances and thus luminosities. We have observed M31 in 4 NuSTAR fields for a total exposure of 1.4 Ms, covering the young stellar population in a swath of the disk (within the footprint of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) Survey) and older populations in the bulge. We detected more than 100 sources in the 4-25 keV band, where hard band (12-25 keV) emission has allowed us to discriminate between black holes and neutron stars in different accretion states. The luminosity function of the hard band detected sources are compared to Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL-derived luminosity functions of the Milky Way population, which reveals an excess of luminous sources in M31 when correcting for star formation rate and stellar mass.

  16. UV SEDs of early-type cluster galaxies: a new look at the UV upturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S. S.; Bremer, M. N.; Phillipps, S.; De Propris, R.

    2018-05-01

    Using GALEX, Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT), and optical photometry, we explore the prevalence and strength of the Ultraviolet (UV) upturn in the spectra of quiescent early-type galaxies in several nearby clusters. Even for galaxies with completely passive optical colours, there is a large spread in vacuum UV colour consistent with almost all having some UV upturn component. Combining GALEX and UVOT data below 3000 Å, we generate for the first time comparatively detailed UV spectral energy distributions for Coma cluster galaxies. Fitting the UV upturn component with a blackbody, 26 of these show a range of characteristic temperatures (10 000-21 000K) for the UV upturn population. Assuming a single temperature to explain GALEX-optical colours could underestimate the fraction of galaxies with UV upturns and mis-classify some as systems with residual star formation. The UV upturn phenomenon is not an exclusive feature found only in giant galaxies; we identify galaxies with similar (or even bluer) FUV - V colours to the giants with upturns over a range of fainter luminosities. The temperature and strength of the UV upturn are correlated with galaxy mass. Under the plausible hypothesis that the sources of the UV upturn are blue horizontal branch stars, the most likely mechanism for this is the presence of a substantial (between 4 per cent and 20 per cent) Helium-rich (Y > 0.3) population of stars in these galaxies, potentially formed at z ˜ 4 and certainly at z > 2; this plausibly sets a lower limit of {˜ } {0.3- 0.8} × 10^{10} M⊙ to the in situ stellar mass of ˜L* galaxies at this redshift.

  17. The close circumstellar environment of the semi-regular S-type star π 1 Gruis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacuto, S.; Jorissen, A.; Cruzalèbes, P.; Chesneau, O.; Ohnaka, K.; Quirrenbach, A.; Lopez, B.

    2008-05-01

    Aims: We study the close circumstellar environment of the nearby S-type star π1 Gruis using high spatial-resolution, mid-infrared observations from the ESO/VLTI. Methods: Spectra and visibilities were obtained with the MIDI interferometer on the VLT Auxiliary Telescopes. The cool M5III giant β Gruis was used as bright primary calibrator, and a dedicated spectro-interferometric study was undertaken to determine its angular diameter accurately. The MIDI measurements were fitted with the 1D numerical radiative transfer code DUSTY to determine the dust shell parameters of π1 Gruis. Taking into account the low spatial extension of the model in the 8-9 μm spectral band for the smallest projected baselines, we consider the possibility of a supplementary molecular shell. Results: The MIDI visibility and phase data are mostly dominated by the spherical 21 mas (694 R_⊙) central star, while the extended dusty environment is over-resolved even with the shortest baselines. No obvious departure from spherical symmetry is found on the milliarcsecond scale. The spectro-interferometric observations are well-fitted by an optically thin (τ_dust<0.01 in the N band) dust shell that is located at about 14 stellar radii with a typical temperature of 700 K and composed of 70% silicate and 30% of amorphous alumina grains. An optically thin (τ_mol<0.1 in the N band) H{2}O + SiO molecular shell extending from the photosphere of the star up to 4.4 stellar radii with a typical temperature of 1000 K is added to the model to improve the fit in the 8-9 μm spectral band. We discuss the probable binary origin of asymmetries as revealed by millimetric observations. Based on observations made with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer at Paranal Observatory under programs 077.D-0294(D/E/F). Reduced visibilities and differential phases are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/482/561

  18. An absence of ex-companion stars in the type Ia supernova remnant SNR 0509-67.5.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Bradley E; Pagnotta, Ashley

    2012-01-11

    A type Ia supernova is thought to begin with the explosion of a white dwarf star. The explosion could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs (a 'double-degenerate' origin), or by mass transfer from a companion star (the 'single-degenerate' path). The identity of the progenitor is still controversial; for example, a recent argument against the single-degenerate origin has been widely rejected. One way to distinguish between the double- and single-degenerate progenitors is to look at the centre of a known type Ia supernova remnant to see whether any former companion star is present. A likely ex-companion star for the progenitor of the supernova observed by Tycho Brahe has been identified, but that claim is still controversial. Here we report that the central region of the supernova remnant SNR 0509-67.5 (the site of a type Ia supernova 400 ± 50 years ago, based on its light echo) in the Large Magellanic Cloud contains no ex-companion star to a visual magnitude limit of 26.9 (an absolute magnitude of M(V) = +8.4) within a region of radius 1.43 arcseconds. (This corresponds to the 3σ maximum distance to which a companion could have been 'kicked' by the explosion.) This lack of any ex-companion star to deep limits rules out all published single-degenerate models for this supernova. The only remaining possibility is that the progenitor of this particular type Ia supernova was a double-degenerate system.

  19. Hair follicle characteristics as early marker of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J Jaime; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Tapia, Jose Carlos; Gastanadui-Gonzalez, Maria Gabriela; Roman-Carpio, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM2) includes a continuum of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia that causes several chronic long-term complications such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, and neuropathy. The hair follicle could reveal signs of early vascular impairment, yet its relationship to early metabolic injuries has been largely ignored. We propose that in earlier stages of the continuum of DM2-related metabolic disorders, a group of susceptible patients who do not yet meet the diagnostic criteria to be considered as persons with DM2 may present chronic vascular impairment and end organ damage, including hair follicle damage, which can be evaluated to identify an early risk marker. This hypothesis is based in the association found between insulin resistance and alopecia in non-diabetic persons, and the hair loss on the lower limbs as a manifestation of long-term peripheral arterial disease among subjects with DM2. In order to test this hypothesis, studies are required to evaluate if hair follicle characteristics are related to and can predict hyperglycemic complications, and if they do so, which feature of the hair follicle, such as hair growth, best characterizes such DM2-related conditions. If this hypothesis were proven to be true, significant advances towards a personalized approach for early prevention strategies and management of DM2 would be made. By focusing on the hair follicles, early stages of metabolic-related organ damage could be identified using non-invasive low-cost techniques. In so doing, this approach could provide early identification of DM2-susceptible individuals and lead to the early initiation of adequate primary prevention strategies to reduce or avoid the onset of large internal organ damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HAIR FOLLICLE CHARACTERISTICS AS EARLY MARKER OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Tapia, Jose Carlos; Gastanadui-Gonzalez, Maria Gabriela; Roman-Carpio, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM2) includes a continuum of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia that causes several chronic long-term complications such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, and neuropathy. The hair follicle could reveal signs of early vascular impairment, yet its relationship to early metabolic injuries has been largely ignored. We propose that in earlier stages of the continuum of DM2-related metabolic disorders, a group of susceptible patients who do not yet meet the diagnostic criteria to be considered as persons with DM2 may present chronic vascular impairment and end organ damage, including hair follicle damage, which can be evaluated to identify an early risk marker. This hypothesis is based in the association found between insulin resistance and alopecia in non-diabetic persons, and the hair loss on the lower limbs as a manifestation of long-term peripheral arterial disease among subjects with DM2. In order to test this hypothesis, studies are required to evaluate if hair follicle characteristics are related to and can predict hyperglycemic complications, and if they do so, which feature of the hair follicle, such as hair growth, best characterizes such DM2-related conditions. If this hypothesis were proven to be true, significant advances towards a personalized approach for early prevention strategies and management of DM2 would be made. By focusing on the hair follicles, early stages of metabolic-related organ damage could be identified using non-invasive low-cost techniques. In so doing, this approach could provide early identification of DM2-susceptible individuals and lead to the early initiation of adequate primary prevention strategies to reduce or avoid the onset of large internal organ damage. PMID:27692164

  1. Water isotopologues in the circumstellar envelopes of M-type AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovich, T.; Lombaert, R.; Decin, L.; Karakas, A.; Maercker, M.; Olofsson, H.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: In this study we intend to examine rotational emission lines of two isotopologues of water: H217O and H218O. By determining the abundances of these molecules, we aim to use the derived isotopologue - and hence oxygen isotope - ratios to put constraints on the masses of a sample of M-type AGB stars that have not been classified as OH/IR stars. Methods: We have used detailed radiative transfer analysis based on the accelerated lambda iteration method to model the circumstellar molecular line emission of H217O and H218O for IK Tau, R Dor, W Hya, and R Cas. The emission lines used to constrain our models came from Herschel/HIFI and Herschel/PACS observations and are all optically thick, meaning that full radiative transfer analysis is the only viable method of estimating molecular abundance ratios. Results: We find generally low values of the 17O/18O ratio for our sample, ranging from 0.15 to 0.69. This correlates with relatively low initial masses, in the range 1.0 to 1.5 M⊙ for each source, based on stellar evolutionary models. We also find ortho-to-para ratios close to 3, which are expected from warm formation predictions. Conclusions: The 17O/18O ratios found for this sample are at the lower end of the range predicted by stellar evolutionary models, indicating that the sample chosen had relatively low initial masses. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  2. Probing the chemical environments of early star formation: A multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Emily Elizabeth

    Chemical compositions of prestellar and protostellar environments in the dense interstellar medium are best quantified using a multidisciplinary approach. For my dissertation, I completed two projects to measure molecular abundances during the earliest phases of star formation. The first project investigates gas phase CO depletion in molecular cloud cores, the progenitors of star systems, using infrared photometry and molecular line spectroscopy at radio wavelengths. Hydrogenation of CO depleted onto dust is an important first step toward building complex organic molecules. The second project constrains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundances toward young stellar objects (YSO). Band strengths measured from laboratory spectroscopy of pyrene/water ice mixtures were applied to estimate abundances from features attributed to PAHs in observational YSO spectra. PAHs represent a distinct but important component of interstellar organic material that is widely observed but not well quantified in star-forming regions.

  3. Ghostly Halos in Dwarf Galaxies: a probe of star formation in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hoyoung; Ricotti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We carry out numerical simulations to characterize the size, stellar mass, and stellar mass surface density of extended stellar halos in dwarf galaxies as a function of dark matter halo mass. We expect that for galaxies smaller than a critical value, these ghostly halos will not exist because the smaller galactic subunits that build it up, do not form any stars. The detection of ghostly halos around isolated dwarf galaxies is a sensitive test of the efficiency of star formation in the first galaxies and of whether ultra-faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way are fossils of the first galaxies.

  4. Multi-Filter Photometric Analysis of Three β Lyrae-type Eclipsing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, T.; Hahs, G.; Gokhale, V.

    2015-12-01

    We present light curve analysis of three variable stars, ASAS J105855+1722.2, NSVS 5066754, and NSVS 9091101. These objects are selected from a list of β- Lyrae candidates published by Hoffman et al. (2008). Light curves are generated using data collected at the the 31-inch NURO telescope at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona in three filters: Bessell B, V, and R. Additional observations were made using the 14-inch Meade telescope at the Truman State Observatory in Kirksville, Missouri using Baader R, G, and B filters. In this paper, we present the light curves for these three objects and generate a truncated eight-term Fourier fit to these light curves. We use the Fourier coefficients from this fit to confirm ASAS J105855+1722.2 and NSVS 5066754 as β Lyrae type systems, and NSVS 9091101 to possibly be a RR Lyrae-type system. We measure the O'Connell effect observed in two of these systems (ASAS J105855+1722.2 and NSVS 5066754), and quantify this effect by calculating the "Light Curve Asymmetry" (LCA) and the "O'Connell Effect Ratio" (OER).

  5. Continued Kinematic and Photometric Investigations of Hierarchical Solar-type Multiple Star Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Marinan, Anne D.; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2017-03-01

    We observed 15 of the solar-type binaries within 67 pc of the Sun previously observed by the Robo-AO system in the visible, with the PHARO near-infrared camera and the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system on the 5 m Hale telescope. The physical status of the binaries is confirmed through common proper motion and detection of orbital motion. In the process, we detected a new candidate companion to HIP 95309. We also resolved the primary of HIP 110626 into a close binary, making that system a triple. These detections increase the completeness of the multiplicity survey of the solar-type stars within 67more » pc of the Sun. Combining our observations of HIP 103455 with archival astrometric measurements and RV measurements, we are able to compute the first orbit of HIP 103455, showing that the binary has a 68 year period. We place the components on a color–magnitude diagram and discuss each multiple system individually.« less

  6. A SETI Search of Nearby Solar-Type Stars at the 203-GHz Positronium Hyperfine Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.; DeBoer, David R.

    1994-01-01

    The development of advanced millimeter-wave technology has made it possible to construct low-noise receivers and high-power transmitters comparable to those available at much lower frequencies. This technology, plus certain physical characteristics of the millimeter-wave spectrum, suggests possible advantages for use of this wavelength range for interstellar communications. As a result, a Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence(SETI) type search has been conducted for narrow-bandwidth signals at frequencies near the positronium hyperfine spectral line (203.385 GHz), a potential natural reference frequency. A total of 40 solar-type stars within 23 parsecs were observed, in addition to three locations near the galactic center. No detections were made at the detection threshold of 2.3 x 10(exp -19) W/sq m in each of two orthogonal linear polarizations Future observations will be made with a higher resolution Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyzer (FFTSA), which should improve sensitivity by an order of magnitude and reduce required observing time.

  7. Nucleosynthesis Predictions for Intermediate-Mass Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Comparison to Observations of Type I Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; van Raai, Mark A.; Lugaro, Maria; Sterling, N. C.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.

    2009-01-01

    Type I planetary nebulae (PNe) have high He/H and N/O ratios and are thought to be descendants of stars with initial masses of ~3-8 M sun. These characteristics indicate that the progenitor stars experienced proton-capture nucleosynthesis at the base of the convective envelope, in addition to the slow neutron capture process operating in the He-shell (the s-process). We compare the predicted abundances of elements up to Sr from models of intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to measured abundances in Type I PNe. In particular, we compare predictions and observations for the light trans-iron elements Se and Kr, in order to constrain convective mixing and the s-process in these stars. A partial mixing zone is included in selected models to explore the effect of a 13C pocket on the s-process yields. The solar-metallicity models produce enrichments of [(Se, Kr)/Fe] lsim0.6, consistent with Galactic Type I PNe where the observed enhancements are typically lsim0.3 dex, while lower metallicity models predict larger enrichments of C, N, Se, and Kr. O destruction occurs in the most massive models but it is not efficient enough to account for the gsim0.3 dex O depletions observed in some Type I PNe. It is not possible to reach firm conclusions regarding the neutron source operating in massive AGB stars from Se and Kr abundances in Type I PNe; abundances for more s-process elements may help to distinguish between the two neutron sources. We predict that only the most massive (M gsim 5 M sun) models would evolve into Type I PNe, indicating that extra-mixing processes are active in lower-mass stars (3-4 M sun), if these stars are to evolve into Type I PNe. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral types of stars in CoRoT fields (Sebastian+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, D.; Guenther, E. W.; Schaffenroth, V.; Gandolfi, D.; Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Deleuil, M.; Moutou, C.

    2012-03-01

    Spectroscopic classification for 2950 O-, B-, and A-type stars in the CoRoT-fields IRa01, LRa01, and LRa02. Stars are named by their CoRoT-identifier and Coordinates are given. The visual magnitudes were obtained with the Wide Field Camera filter-system of the Isaac Newton Telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma and can be converted into Landolt standards, as shown in Deleuil et al. (2009AJ....138..649D). (1 data file).

  9. Glutaric aciduria type 1--importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Afroze, Bushra; Yunus, Zabedah Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 is a rare inherited organic academia. Untreated patients characteristically develop dystonia secondary to striatal injury during early childhood, which results in high morbidity and mortality. In patients diagnosed during neonatal period, striatal injury can be prevented by metabolic treatment including low lysine diet, carnitine supplementation and aggressive emergency treatment during acute episode of inter current illnesses. However, after the onset of neurological damage initiation of treatment is generally not effective. Therefore; glutaric aciduria type 1 is included in newborn screening panel for inherited metabolic diseases in many countries. We describe two children in a family with glutaric aciduria type 1 and their different long term outcomes. The first child was diagnosed late leading to severe neurological damage. The second child was diagnosed in the neonatal period as a result of selective high-risk screening and was treated appropriately giving a normal growth.

  10. AGN feedback in action? - outflows and star formation in type 2 AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jong-Hak

    2017-01-01

    We present the statistical constraints on the ionized gas outflows and their connection to star formation, using a large sample of ~110,000 AGNs and star-forming galaxies at z < 0.3. First, we find a dramatic difference of the outflow signatures between AGNs and star-forming galaxies based on the [OIII] emission line kinematics. While the [OIII] velocity and velocity dispersion of star forming galaxies can be entirely accounted by the gravitational potential of host galaxies, AGNs clearly show non-gravitational kinematics, which is comparable to or stronger than the virial motion caused by the gravitational potential. Second, the distribution in the [OIII] velocity - velocity dispersion diagram dramatically expands toward large values with increasing AGN luminosity, implying that the outflows are AGN-driven. Third, the fraction of AGNs with a signature of outflow kinematics, steeply increases with AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. In particular, the majority of luminous AGNs presents strong non-gravitational kinematics in the [OIII] profile. Interestingly, we find that the specific star formation of non-outflow AGNs is much lower than that of strong outflow AGNs, while the star formation rate of strong outflow AGNs is comparable to that of star forming galaxies. We interpret this trend as a delayed AGN feedback as it takes dynamical time for the outflows to suppress star formation in galactic scales.

  11. Relationship between optical and X-ray properties of O-type stars surveyed with the Einstein Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Ramella, M.; Morossi, C.

    1990-01-01

    An X-ray luminosity function is derived for a representative volume-limited sample of O-type stars selected from the catalog of Galactic O stars surveyed with the Einstein Observatory. It was found that, for the stars of this sample which is ten times larger than any previously analyzed, the level of X-ray emission is strongly correlated with bolometric luminosity, confirming previous findings of an Lx-L(bol) relationship (e.g., Harnden et al., 1979; Pallavicini et al., 1981). Correlations between the Lx and the mass loss rate with the wind terminal velocity or with the rotation rate were weak. However, there was a strong correlation with wind momentum flux as well as with the wind kinetic energy flux.

  12. The Outer Halos of Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Ortwin; Arnaboldi, Magda; Longobardi, Alessia

    2015-04-01

    The outer halos of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) are dark matter dominated and may have formed by accretion of smaller systems during galaxy evolution. Here a brief report is given of some recent work on the kinematics, angular momentum, and mass distributions of simulated ETG halos, and of corresponding properties of observed halos measured with planetary nebulae (PNe) as tracers. In the outermost regions of the Virgo-central galaxy M87, the PN data show that the stellar halo and the co-spatial intracluster light are distinct kinematic components.

  13. Weak and Compact Radio Emission in Early High-Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosero, Viviana; P. Hofner, M. Claussen, S. Kurtz, R. Cesaroni, E. D. Araya, C. Carrasco-González, L. F. Rodríguez, K. M. Menten, F. Wyrowski, L. Loinard, S. P. Ellingsen

    2018-01-01

    High-mass protostars are difficult to detect: they have short evolutionary timescales, they tend to be located at large distances, and they are usually embedded within complicated cluster environments. In this work, we aimed to identify and analyze candidates at the earliest stages of high-mass star formation, where only low-level (< 1 mJy) radio emission is expected. We used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to achieve one of the most sensitive (image RMS < 3 -- 10 μJy/beam) centimeter continuum surveys towards high-mass star forming regions to date, with observations at 1.3 and 6 cm and an angular resolution < 0.5". The sample is composed of cold molecular clumps with and without infrared sources (CMC--IRs and CMCs, respectively) and hot molecular cores (HMCs), covering a wide range of parameters such as bolometric luminosity and distance. We detected 70 radio continuum sources that are associated with dust clumps, most of which are weak and compact. We detected centimeter wavelength sources in 100% of our HMCs, which is a higher fraction than previously expected and suggests that radio continuum may be detectable at weak levels in all HMCs. The lack of radio detections for some objects in the sample (including most CMCs) contributes strong evidence that these are prestellar clumps, providing interesting constraints and ideal follow up candidates for studies of the earliest stages of high-mass stars. Our results show further evidence for an evolutionary sequence in the formation of high-mass stars, from starless cores (i.e., CMCs) to relatively more evolved ones (i.e., HMCs). Many of our detections have morphologies and other observational parameters that resemble collimated ionized jets, which is highly relevant for recent theoretical models based on core accretion that predict that the first stages of ionization from high-mass stars are in the form of jets. Additionally, we found that properties of ionized jets from low and high-mass stars are extremely well

  14. H-α profile of M-type red giant stars by using astronomical spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadon, Mohd Hafiz Mohd; Zainuddin, Mohd Zambri

    2013-05-01

    The technique of spectroscopy in astronomy is a research or a method which uses spectrum lines emitted by a body that emit electromagnetic ray. These lines will be used to determine the characteristics of any celestial body and one of the most dominant lines is H-α line. The research has been using 20RC Carbon Truss Ritchey-Chrétien telescope, SBIG Self Guided Spectrograph (SGS) with high resolution camera Couple-Charged Device CCD ST-7E. Since H-α line is to be found at 6562.817 Å, neon lamp is being used as calibration because of the obvious lines of this element is in the higher range of visible wavelength, from 5800 to 7500 Å. The software: TheSky and CCDSoft are being used for collecting and analyzing observed data while IRAF which being installed on LINUX interface are used to process the collected data. The data were processed to measure the full width half maximum (FHWM) and equivalent width (EW) for H-α line for each star. Seven M-type red giants that have been chosen are HD 80493, HD 148478, HD 39801, HD 112300, HD 101153, HD 156014 and HD 148783.

  15. The early dynamical evolution of star clusters near the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, So-Myoung; Goodwin, Simon P.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2018-07-01

    We examine the dynamical evolution of both Plummer sphere and substructured (fractal) star-forming regions in Galactic Centre (GC) strong tidal fields to see what initial conditions could give rise to an Arches-like massive star cluster by ˜2 Myr. We find that any initial distribution has to be contained within its initial tidal radius to survive, which sets a lower limit of the initial density of the Arches of ˜600 M⊙ pc-3 if the Arches is at 30 pc from the GC, or ˜200 M⊙ pc-3 if the Arches is at 100 pc from the GC. Plummer spheres that survive change little other than to dynamically mass segregate, but initially fractal distributions rapidly erase substructure, dynamically mass segregate and by 2 Myr look extremely similar to initial Plummer spheres, therefore it is almost impossible to determine the initial conditions of clusters in strong tidal fields.

  16. The early dynamical evolution of star clusters near the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, So-Myoung; Goodwin, Simon P.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2018-04-01

    We examine the dynamical evolution of both Plummer sphere and substructured (fractal) star forming regions in Galactic Centre (GC) strong tidal fields to see what initial conditions could give rise to an Arches-like massive star cluster by ˜2 Myr. We find that any initial distribution has to be contained within its initial tidal radius to survive, which sets a lower limit of the initial density of the Arches of ˜ 600 M⊙ pc-3 if the Arches is at 30 pc from the GC, or ˜ 200 M⊙ pc-3 if the Arches is at 100 pc from the GC. Plummer spheres that survive change little other than to dynamically mass segregate, but initially fractal distributions rapidly erase substructure, dynamically mass segregate and by 2 Myr look extremely similar to initial Plummer spheres, therefore it is almost impossible to determine the initial conditions of clusters in strong tidal fields.

  17. Early-20th-century visual observations of M13 variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, W.; Barnard, E. E.

    2016-08-01

    In 1900 E. E. Barnard published 37 visual observations of Variable 2 (V2) in the globular clustter M13 made in 1899 and 1900. A review of Barnard's notebooks revealed he made many additional brightness estimates up to 1911, and he had also recorded the variations of V1 starting in 1904. These data provide the earliest-epoch light curves for these stars and thus are useful for studying their period changes. This paper presents Barnard's observations of the M13 variables along with their derived heliocentric Julian Dates and approximate V magnitudes. These include 231 unpublished observations of V2 and 94 of V1. How these data will be of value for determing period changes by these stars is described.

  18. Radial-velocity measures and the existence of astrophysical binaries in late-type dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.; Meredith, R.

    1986-01-01

    Radial velocities with errors of 1-2 km/s are presented based on CCD scans obtained with the Kitt Peak National Observatory coude feed telescope between 1982 and 1985 of 48 dK-M stars that lack Balmer emission. Comparison with Gliese's (1969) values shows only two stars to be spectroscopic binary candidates with small velocity amplitudes. No evidence for any short period (less than 10 days) binaries is found, supporting the conclusions of Young et al. (1986) that there are no astrophysical binaries among these chromosherically inactive dM stars.

  19. Environmental Effects on the Metallicities of Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christine; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    We completed and published two papers in the Astrophysical Journal based on research from grant. In the first paper we analyzed nine X-ray-bright Virgo early-type galaxies observed by both ASCA and ROSAT. Through spatially resolved spectroscopy, we determined the radial temperature profiles and abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe for six galaxies. The temperature profiles are consistent with isothermal temperatures outside of cooler regions at the galaxies' centers. We present new evidence for iron abundance gradients in NGC 4472 and NGC 4649 and confirm the previous results on NGC 4636. Mg and Si abundance gradients on average are flatter than those of iron and correspond to an underabundance of α-process elements at high Fe values, while at low iron the element ratios favor enrichment by Type II supernovae (SNe). We explain the observed trend using the metallicity dependence of SN Ia metal production and present constraints on the available theoretical modeling for low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia. In the second paper We analyzed nine X-ray-bright Virgo early-type galaxies observed by both ASCA and ROSAT. Through spatially resolved spectroscopy, we determined the radial temperature profiles and abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe for six galaxies. The temperature profiles are consistent with isothermal temperatures outside of cooler regions at the galaxies' centers. We present new evidence for iron abundance gradients in NGC 4472 and NGC 4649 and confirm the previous results on NGC 4636. Mg and Si abundance gradients on average are flatter than those of iron and correspond to an underabundance of α-process elements at high Fe values, while at low iron the element ratios favor enrichment by Type I1 supernovae (SNe). We explain the observed trend using the metallicity dependence of SN Ia metal production and present constraints on the available theoretical modeling for low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia.

  20. Analysis of the Einstein sample of early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, Paul B.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1993-01-01

    The EINSTEIN galaxy catalog contains x-ray data for 148 early-type (E and SO) galaxies. A detailed analysis of the global properties of this sample are studied. By comparing the x-ray properties with other tracers of the ISM, as well as with observables related to the stellar dynamics and populations of the sample, we expect to determine more clearly the physical relationships that determine the evolution of early-type galaxies. Previous studies with smaller samples have explored the relationships between x-ray luminosity (L(sub x)) and luminosities in other bands. Using our larger sample and the statistical techniques of survival analysis, a number of these earlier analyses were repeated. For our full sample, a strong statistical correlation is found between L(sub X) and L(sub B) (the probability that the null hypothesis is upheld is P less than 10(exp -4) from a variety of rank correlation tests. Regressions with several algorithms yield consistent results.

  1. Cooking up the First Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-10

    Scientists are simulating how the very first stars in our universe were born. The stars we see today formed out of collapsing clouds of gas and dust. In the very early universe, however, the stars had fewer ingredients available.

  2. The onset of galactic winds in early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christine

    1992-01-01

    We completed the spectral analysis of 31 early-type galaxies to investigate whether their x-ray emission was predominantly due to thermal bremsstrahlung from a hot gaseous corona or emission from discrete, galactic sources such as x-ray binaries. If a corona dominates the x-ray emission, its spectra is expected to be relatively cool (0.5 - 1 keV) compared to the harder emission associated with x-ray binaries in our galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds and M31. While it is generally accepted that the x-ray emission in luminous E and S0 galaxies arises from hot coronae, the status of hot gas in lower luminosity (and hence lower mass) galaxies is less clear. Calculations show that, for a given supernova rate, a critical galaxy luminosity (mass) exists below which the gas cannot be gravitationally confined and a galactic wind is predicted to be effective in expelling gas from the galaxy. Since significant mass (a dark halo) is required to hold a hot, gaseous corona around a galaxy, we expect that the faintest, smallest galaxies will not have a hot corona, but their x-ray emission will be dominated by galactic sources or by an active galactic nuclei. In the sample we tested which spanned the absolute magnitude range from -21.5 to -19.5, we found that except for two galaxies whose x-ray emission was dominated by an active nucleus, that the others were consistent with emission from hot gas. We also found that there is a correlation between gas temperature and galaxy magnitude (mass), such that the brighter, more luminous galaxies have hotter gas temperatures. Thus even at relatively faint magnitudes, the dominant emission from early-type galaxies appears to be hot gas. We also carried out an investigation of the x-ray surface brightness distribution of the x-ray emission for about 100 early type galaxies to determine whether the x-ray emission from galaxies are extended. Extended x-ray emission is expected if the emission is due to a hot gaseous corona. We determined the ratio

  3. Eclipses and dust formation by WC9 type Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Visual photometry of 16 WC8-9 dust-making Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars during 2001-2009 was extracted from the All-Sky Automated Survey All Star Catalogue (ASAS-3) to search for eclipses attributable to extinction by dust formed in clumps in our line of sight. Data for a comparable number of dust-free WC6-9 stars were also examined to help characterize the data set. Frequent eclipses were observed from WR 104, and several from WR 106, extending the 1994-2001 studies by Kato et al., but not supporting their phasing the variations in WR 104 with its `pinwheel' rotation period. Only four other stars showed eclipses, WR 50 (one of the dust-free stars), WR 69, WR 95 and WR 117, and there may have been an eclipse by WR 121, which had shown two eclipses in the past. No dust eclipses were shown by the `historic' eclipsers WR 103 and WR 113. The atmospheric eclipses of the latter were observed but the suggestion by David-Uraz et al. that dust may be partly responsible for these is not supported. Despite its frequent eclipses, there is no evidence in the infrared images of WR 104 for dust made in its eclipses, demonstrating that any dust formed in this process is not a significant contributor to its circumstellar dust cloud and suggesting that the same applies to the other stars showing fewer eclipses.

  4. Atomic and molecular hydrogen in the circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of atomic and molecular hydrogen in the expanding circumstellar envelopes of cool evolved stars is discussed. The main concern is to evaluate the effects of photodestruction of H2 by galactic UV radiation, including shielding of the radiation by H2 itself and by dust in the envelope. One of the most important parameters is the H/H2 ratio which is frozen out in the upper atmosphere of the star. For stars with photospheric temperatures greater than about 2500 K, atmospheric models suggest that the outflowing hydrogen is mainly atomic, whereas cooler stars should be substantially molecular. In the latter case, photodissociation of H2 and heavy molecules contribute to the atomic hydrogen content of the outer envelope. The presented estimates indicate that atomic hydrogen is almost at the limit of detection in the C-rich star IRC + 10216, and may be detectable in warmer stars. Failure to detect it would have important implications for the general understanding of circumstellar envelopes.

  5. A survey of Mg II h and k emission in near-solar type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer measurements of Mg II h and k emission fluxes are presented for 30 F and G stars that are on or near the main sequence and compared with Wilson's measurements of the Ca II H and K fluxes in these stars. The survey includes a large proportion of stars with very low chromospheric activity as well as 111 Tau, X(1) Ori and other examples of strong chromospheric emission. Emission cores are presented in all of the stars observed. A sharp lower limit to the flux in the cores of the k lines implies the existence of a minimum level of chromospheric activity in which the k line flux is a constant fraction of stellar luminosity. Reduction of Wilson's values to absolute fluxes produces a close correlation between Mg and Ca strength with possibly some dependence on color. For the most active stars, the Mg k and Ca fluxes are consistent with the presence of solar plage covering up to one half of the stellar surface. However, the ratio of k to h in these stars is much less than this simple interpretation predicts.

  6. Analysis of flares in the chromosphere and corona of main- and pre-main-sequence M-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Chacón, I.

    2015-11-01

    This Ph.D. Thesis revolves around flares on main- and pre-main-sequence M-type stars. We use observations in different wavelength ranges with the aim of analysing the effects of flares at different layers of stellar atmospheres. In particular, optical and X-ray observations are used so that we can study how flares affect, respectively, the chromosphere and the corona of stars. In the optical range we carry out a high temporal resolution spectroscopic monitoring of UV Ceti-type stars aimed at detecting non-white-light flares (the most typical kind of solar flares) in stars other than the Sun. With these data we confirm that non-white-light flares are a frequent phenomenon in UV Ceti-type stars, as observed in the Sun. We study and interpret the behaviour of different chromospheric lines during the flares detected on AD Leo. By using a simplified slab model of flares (Jevremović et al. 1998), we are able to determine the physical parameters of the chromospheric flaring plasma (electron density and electron temperature), the temperature of the underlying source, and the surface area covered by the flaring plasma. We also search for possible relationships between the physical parameters of the flaring plasma and other properties such as the flare duration, area, maximum flux and released energy. This work considerably extends the existing sample of stellar flares analysed with good quality spectroscopy in the optical range. In X-rays we take advantage of the great sensitivity, wide energy range, high energy resolution, and continuous time coverage of the EPIC detectors - on-board the XMMNewton satellite - in order to perform time-resolved spectral analysis of coronal flares. In particular, in the UV Ceti-type star CC Eri we study two flares that are weaker than those typically reported in the literature (allowing us to speculate about the role of flares as heating agents of stellar atmospheres); while in the pre-main-sequence M-type star TWA 11B (with no signatures of

  7. THE EFFECT OF SECOND-GENERATION POPULATIONS ON THE INTEGRATED COLORS OF METAL-RICH GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chul; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2013-05-20

    The mean color of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies is in general bluer than the integrated color of halo field stars in host galaxies. Metal-rich GCs often appear more associated with field stars than metal-poor GCs, yet show bluer colors than their host galaxy light. Motivated by the discovery of multiple stellar populations in Milky Way GCs, we present a new scenario in which the presence of second-generation (SG) stars in GCs is responsible for the color discrepancy between metal-rich GCs and field stars. The model assumes that the SG populations have an enhanced helium abundance as evidenced bymore » observations, and it gives a good explanation of the bluer optical colors of metal-rich GCs than field stars as well as strong Balmer lines and blue UV colors of metal-rich GCs. Ours may be complementary to the recent scenario suggesting the difference in stellar mass functions (MFs) as an origin for the GC-to-star color offset. A quantitative comparison is given between the SG and MF models.« less

  8. A Search for Transiting Neptune-Mass Extrasolar Planets in High-Precision Photometry of Solar-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Stephen M.; Gillman, Amelie r.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2005-01-01

    Tennessee State University operates several automatic photometric telescopes (APTs) at Fairborn Observatory in southern Arizona. Four 0.8 m APTs have been dedicated to measuring subtle luminosity variations that accompany magnetic cycles in solar-type stars. Over 1000 program and comparison stars have been observed every clear night in this program for up to 12 years with a precision of approximately 0.0015 mag for a single observation. We have developed a transit-search algorithm, based on fitting a computed transit template for each trial period, and have used it to search our photometric database for transits of unknown companions. Extensive simulations with the APT data have shown that we can reliably recover transits with periods under 10 days as long as the transits have a depth of at least 0.0024 mag, or about 1.6 times the scatter in the photometric observations. Thus, due to our high photometric precision, we are sensitive to transits of possible short-period Neptune-mass planets that likely would have escaped detection by current radial velocity techniques. Our search of the APT data sets for 1087 program and comparison stars revealed no new transiting planets. However, the detection of several unknown grazing eclipsing binaries from among our comparison stars, with eclipse depths of only a few millimags, illustrates the success of our technique. We have used this negative result to place limits on the frequency of Neptune-mass planets in close orbits around solar-type stars in the Sun's vicinity.

  9. The Environment and Outflow of the G-type T Tauri Star SU Aur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, C.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Clampin, M.; Padgett, D.; Woodgate, B.; Henning, T.; Grinin, V.; Quirrenbach, A.; Stecklum, B.; Sitko, M.; Biggs, J.

    2001-12-01

    We present HST/STIS white light coronagraphic imaging data for the optically bright, classical T Tauri star, SU Aur. Previous optical imagery has detected "cometary" nebulosity beginning north of the star and wrapping around to the west and ultimately south (Nakajima & Golimowski 1995). The STIS data demonstrate that this nebulosity consists of a fan of nebulosity similar to that seen around R CrA, with wisp and clump structure down to the resolution limit of the telescope. This nebulosity has an opening angle of 70 degrees and a vertical extent of at least 12.2" (1842 AU at d=151 pc). The fan is visible in WFPC2 V, R, and I images, in addition to the STIS broad-band (0.2-1.0 micron) data, indicating detection of reflection nebulosity. A distinctive feature of the HST imagery of SU Aur is the presence of radial streamers seen at V and in the STIS data. The central streamer, which roughly bisects the fan of nebulosity, extends at least 8" (1200 AU) from the star at PA=295+/-1 degrees. The STIS data demonstrate that this feature is accompanied, on the opposite side of the star, by a string of bow-shaped nebulosities, extending 7.3" (1100 AU) from the star at PA=114+/-1 degrees. We interpret the fan of nebulosity as arising from the walls of a partially exposed outflow cavity. The scale and morphology of the central streamer and the PA=114 string of knots are consistent with the appearance of bipolar outflows as seen by STIS. SU Aur is a 4 Myr old (de Warf et al. 1998), 1.9+/-0.1 solar mass star. The bipolar outflow reported here is the second collimated outflow detected in association with an isolated, several million year old intermediate-mass star. Given the small number of coronagraphically imaged intermediate-mass stars, this result indicates that collimated outflows, similar to those routinely detected in association with lower mass T Tauri stars, appear to be common among their higher mass analogs and to persist for much of the star's pre-main sequence lifetime

  10. The early stages of massive star formation: tracing the physical and chemical conditions in hot cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcutt, Hannah

    2015-04-01

    Molecules are essential to the formation of stars, by allowing radiation to escape the cloud and cooling to occur. Over 180 molecules have been detected in interstellar environments, ranging from comets to interstellar clouds. Their spectra are useful probes of the conditions in which these molecules form. Comparison of rest frequencies to observed frequencies can provide information about the velocity of gas and indicate physical structures. The density, temperature, and excitation conditions of gas can be determined directly from the spectra of molecules. Furthermore, by taking a chemical inventory of a particular object, one can gain an understanding of the chemical processes occurring within a cloud. The class of molecules known as complex molecules (>6 atoms), are of particular interest when probing the conditions in massive starforming environments, as they are observed to trace a more compact region than smaller molecules. This thesis details the work of my PhD, to explore how complex molecules can be used to trace the physical and chemical conditions in hot cores (HCs), one of the earliest stages of massive star formation. This work combines both the observations and chemical modelling of several different massive star-forming regions. We identify molecular transitions observed in the spectra of these regions, and calculate column densities and rotation temperatures of these molecules (Chapters 2 and 3). In Chapter 4, we chemically model the HCs, and perform a comparison between observational column densities and chemical modelling column densities. In Chapter 5, we look at the abundance ratio of three isomers, acetic acid, glycolaldehyde, and methyl formate, to ascertain whether this ratio can be used as an indicator of HC evolution. Finally, we explore the chemistry of the HC IRAS 17233-3606, to identify emission features in the spectra, and determine column densities and rotation temperatures of the detected molecules.

  11. Relations between broad