Science.gov

Sample records for early universe cosmology

  1. Cosmology and the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Abhigna

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning the universe was in a hot dense state nearly 13.8 billion years ago. The thermal history of the universe was traced back to an era when the temperature was about 1012K. At this early time, the universe was filled with particles-mostly photons and leptons- whose interactions are hopefully weak enough to allow this medium to be treated as a more or less ideal gas. However, if we look back a little further, into the first 0.0001 second of cosmic history when the temperature was above 1012K. At such temperatures, there will be present in thermal equilibrium copious numbers of strongly interacting particles-mostly masons and baryons-with a mean interparticle distance less than a Compton wavelength. These particles will be in a state of continual mutual interaction, and cannot reasonably be expected to obey any simple equation of state. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10-36seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10-33and 10-32seconds. Matter and energy created in this time. Right after that space expanded exponentially with enormous rate of 74.3 +/-2.1Km per second per Mpc. Undergraduate student and researcher of the string theory, quantum gravity, cosmology and quantum biology.

  2. Viscous cosmology for early- and late-time universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Iver; Grøn, Øyvind; de Haro, Jaume; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    From a hydrodynamicist’s point of view the inclusion of viscosity concepts in the macroscopic theory of the cosmic fluid would appear most natural, as an ideal fluid is after all an abstraction (exluding special cases such as superconductivity). Making use of modern observational results for the Hubble parameter plus standard Friedmann formalism, we may extrapolate the description of the universe back in time up to the inflationary era, or we may go to the opposite extreme and analyze the probable ultimate fate of the universe. In this review, we discuss a variety of topics in cosmology when it is enlarged in order to contain a bulk viscosity. Various forms of this viscosity, when expressed in terms of the fluid density or the Hubble parameter, are discussed. Furthermore, we consider homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous equations of state. We investigate viscous cosmology in the early universe, examining the viscosity effects on the various inflationary observables. Additionally, we study viscous cosmology in the late universe, containing current acceleration and the possible future singularities, and we investigate how one may even unify inflationary and late-time acceleration. Finally, we analyze the viscosity-induced crossing through the quintessence-phantom divide, we examine the realization of viscosity-driven cosmological bounces, and we briefly discuss how the Cardy-Verlinde formula is affected by viscosity.

  3. Cosmological Simulations with Molecular Astrochemistry: Water in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Brandon K.; Smidt, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Water is required for the rise of life as we know it throughout the universe, but its origin and the circumstances of its first appearance remain a mystery. The abundance of deuterated water in solar system bodies cannot be explained if all the water in the solar system were created in the protoplanetary disk (Cleeves et al. 2014), suggesting that as much of half of Earth’s water predates the Sun. Water has been observed as early as one sixth the current universe’s age in MG J0414+0534 (Imprellizzeri et al. 2008). It was recently shown that water could, in principle, appear in hot halos barely enriched with heavy elements such as oxygen and carbon (Bialy et al. 2015). So far, no self-consistent calculation of cosmology physics carried out in line with a large chemical reaction network has been carried out to study the first sites of water formation in the universe. We present initial results the first such series of cosmological calculations with a 26 species low metallicity molecular chemical reaction network with Enzo (Bryan et al. 2014) to understand the role of hydrodynamics and radiative feedback on molecule formation in the early universe and to shed light on the cosmological history of this life-giving substance.

  4. Early universe cosmology, effective supergravity, and invariants of algebraic forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Kuver

    2015-09-01

    The presence of light scalars can have profound effects on early universe cosmology, influencing its thermal history as well as paradigms like inflation and baryogenesis. Effective supergravity provides a framework to make quantifiable, model-independent studies of these effects. The Riemannian curvature of the Kähler manifold spanned by scalars belonging to chiral superfields, evaluated along supersymmetry breaking directions, provides an order parameter (in the sense that it must necessarily take certain values) for phenomena as diverse as slow roll modular inflation, nonthermal cosmological histories, and the viability of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. Within certain classes of UV completions, the order parameter for theories with n scalar moduli is conjectured to be related to invariants of n -ary cubic forms (for example, for models with three moduli, the order parameter is given by a function on the ring of invariants spanned by the Aronhold invariants). Within these completions, and under the caveats spelled out, this may provide an avenue to obtain necessary conditions for the above phenomena that are in principle calculable given nothing but the intersection numbers of a Calabi-Yau compactification geometry. As an additional result, abstract relations between holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvatures are utilized to constrain Affleck-Dine baryogenesis on a wide class of Kähler geometries.

  5. Anisotropic, nonsingular early universe model leading to a realistic cosmology

    SciT

    Dechant, Pierre-Philippe; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Hobson, Michael P.

    2009-02-15

    We present a novel cosmological model in which scalar field matter in a biaxial Bianchi IX geometry leads to a nonsingular 'pancaking' solution: the hypersurface volume goes to zero instantaneously at the 'big bang', but all physical quantities, such as curvature invariants and the matter energy density remain finite, and continue smoothly through the big bang. We demonstrate that there exist geodesics extending through the big bang, but that there are also incomplete geodesics that spiral infinitely around a topologically closed spatial dimension at the big bang, rendering it, at worst, a quasiregular singularity. The model is thus reminiscent ofmore » the Taub-NUT vacuum solution in that it has biaxial Bianchi IX geometry and its evolution exhibits a dimensionality reduction at a quasiregular singularity; the two models are, however, rather different, as we will show in a future work. Here we concentrate on the cosmological implications of our model and show how the scalar field drives both isotropization and inflation, thus raising the question of whether structure on the largest scales was laid down at a time when the universe was still oblate (as also suggested by [T. S. Pereira, C. Pitrou, and J.-P. Uzan, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 9 (2007) 6.][C. Pitrou, T. S. Pereira, and J.-P. Uzan, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 4 (2008) 4.][A. Guemruekcueoglu, C. Contaldi, and M. Peloso, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 11 (2007) 005.]). We also discuss the stability of our model to small perturbations around biaxiality and draw an analogy with cosmological perturbations. We conclude by presenting a separate, bouncing solution, which generalizes the known bouncing solution in closed FRW universes.« less

  6. Phase Transitions in the Early Universe: The Cosmology of Non-Minimal Scalar Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost, Jeffrey D.

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically--such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions--the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this thesis, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system--often by many orders of magnitude--but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "re-overdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings. In the second part of this thesis, we proceed to study the early-universe cosmology of a Kaluza-Klein (KK

  7. Early cosmology constrained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, Licia; Bellini, Emilio; Pigozzo, Cassio; Heavens, Alan F.; Jimenez, Raul

    2017-04-01

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the ΛCDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter ΩMR < 0.006 and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species 2.3 < Neff < 3.2 when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond ΛCDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way that does not depend on late-time Universe assumptions, but depends strongly on early-time physics and in particular on additional components that behave like radiation. We find that the standard ruler length determined in this way is rs = 147.4 ± 0.7 Mpc if the radiation and neutrino components are standard, but the uncertainty increases by an order of magnitude when non-standard dark radiation components are allowed, to rs = 150 ± 5 Mpc.

  8. Computational Cosmology: From the Early Universe to the Large Scale Structure.

    PubMed

    Anninos, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations (and numerical methods applied to specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark-hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  9. Computational Cosmology: from the Early Universe to the Large Scale Structure.

    PubMed

    Anninos, Peter

    1998-01-01

    In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark-hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  10. Early cosmology constrained

    SciT

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul; Bellini, Emilio

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the ΛCDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter Ω{sub MR} < 0.006 and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species 2.3 < N {sub eff} < 3.2 when imposing flatness. Our constraintsmore » thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond ΛCDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way that does not depend on late-time Universe assumptions, but depends strongly on early-time physics and in particular on additional components that behave like radiation. We find that the standard ruler length determined in this way is r {sub s} = 147.4 ± 0.7 Mpc if the radiation and neutrino components are standard, but the uncertainty increases by an order of magnitude when non-standard dark radiation components are allowed, to r {sub s} = 150 ± 5 Mpc.« less

  11. Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Hořava–Lifshitz early universe

    SciT

    Khodadi, M., E-mail: M.Khodadi@sbu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R., E-mail: hr-sepangi@sbu.ac.ir

    We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 μs old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Hořava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigatemore » the effects of the running coupling constants of Hořava–Lifshitz gravity, λ, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (ξ)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Hořava–Lifshitz model. •We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively.« less

  12. Physics of the very early Universe: what can we learn from cosmological observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondolo, Paolo

    Cosmological observations are starting to probe the evolution of the Universe before nucleosyn- thesis. The observed fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background and in the distribution of matter can be traced back to their origin during inflation, and the inflaton potential has begun to be unraveled. A future probe of the first microseconds would be the detection of weakly-interacting massive particles as dark matter. Discovery of supersymmetric particles at odds with the standard cosmological lore may open an experimental window on the physics at the highest energies, per- haps as far as superstring theory. This presentation will overview two topics on the physics of the Universe before nucleosynthesis: (1) slow-roll, natural and chain inflation in the landscape, and

  13. The Universe Adventure - The Beginnings of Cosmology

    The Universe Adventure [ next ] [ home ] Go The Beginnings of Cosmology Since the beginning of of stars? What do the stars tell us about the future? Where did the Universe come from? Cosmology is will introduce you to Cosmology and the study of the structure, history, and fate of the Universe. In

  14. Early Formed Astrophysical Objects and Cosmological Antimatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, Alexander D.

    Astronomical observations of recent years show that the universe at high redshifts (about ten) is densely populated by early formed objects: bright galaxies, quasars, gamma-bursters, and it contains a lot of metals and dust. Such a rich variety of early formed objects have not been expected in the standard model of formation of astrophysical objects. There is serious tension between the standard theory and the observations. We describe the model which relaxes this tension and nicely fits the data. The model naturally leads to the creation of cosmologically significant antimatter which may be abundant even in the Galaxy. Phenomenological consequences of our scenario and the possibility of distant registration of antimatter are discussed.

  15. Early formed astrophysical objects and cosmological antimatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, Alexander D.

    2016-10-01

    Astronomical observations of recent years show that the universe at high redshifts (about ten) is densely populated by early formed objects: bright galaxies, quasars, gamma-bursters, and it contains a lot of metals and dust. Such a rich variety of early formed objects have not been expected in the standard model of formation of astrophysical objects. There is serious tension between the standard theory and the observations. We describe the model which relaxes this tension and nicely fits the data. The model naturally leads to the creation of cosmologically significant antimatter which may be abundant even in the Galaxy. Phenomenological consequences of our scenario and the possibility of distant registration of antimatter are discussed.

  16. Our Universe from the cosmological constant

    SciT

    Barrau, Aurélien; Linsefors, Linda, E-mail: Aurelien.Barrau@cern.ch, E-mail: linda.linsefors@lpsc.in2p3.fr

    The issue of the origin of the Universe and of its contents is addressed in the framework of bouncing cosmologies, as described for example by loop quantum gravity. If the current acceleration is due to a true cosmological constant, this constant is naturally conserved through the bounce and the Universe should also be in a (contracting) de Sitter phase in the remote past. We investigate here the possibility that the de Sitter temperature in the contracting branch fills the Universe with radiation that causes the bounce and the subsequent inflation and reheating. We also consider the possibility that this givesmore » rise to a cyclic model of the Universe and suggest some possible tests.« less

  17. Relativistic numerical cosmology with silent universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Relativistic numerical cosmology is most often based either on the exact solutions of the Einstein equations, or perturbation theory, or weak-field limit, or the BSSN formalism. The silent universe provides an alternative approach to investigate relativistic evolution of cosmological systems. The silent universe is based on the solution of the Einstein equations in 1  +  3 comoving coordinates with additional constraints imposed. These constraints include: the gravitational field is sourced by dust and cosmological constant only, both rotation and magnetic part of the Weyl tensor vanish, and the shear is diagnosable. This paper describes the code simsilun (free software distributed under the terms of the reposi General Public License), which implements the equations of the silent universe. The paper also discusses applications of the silent universe and it uses the Millennium simulation to set up the initial conditions for the code simsilun. The simulation obtained this way consists of 16 777 216 worldlines, which are evolved from z  =  80 to z  =  0. Initially, the mean evolution (averaged over the whole domain) follows the evolution of the background ΛCDM model. However, once the evolution of cosmic structures becomes nonlinear, the spatial curvature evolves from ΩK =0 to ΩK ≈ 0.1 at the present day. The emergence of the spatial curvature is associated with ΩM and Ω_Λ being smaller by approximately 0.05 compared to the ΛCDM.

  18. The best-fit universe. [cosmological models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Inflation provides very strong motivation for a flat Universe, Harrison-Zel'dovich (constant-curvature) perturbations, and cold dark matter. However, there are a number of cosmological observations that conflict with the predictions of the simplest such model: one with zero cosmological constant. They include the age of the Universe, dynamical determinations of Omega, galaxy-number counts, and the apparent abundance of large-scale structure in the Universe. While the discrepancies are not yet serious enough to rule out the simplest and most well motivated model, the current data point to a best-fit model with the following parameters: Omega(sub B) approximately equal to 0.03, Omega(sub CDM) approximately equal to 0.17, Omega(sub Lambda) approximately equal to 0.8, and H(sub 0) approximately equal to 70 km/(sec x Mpc) which improves significantly the concordance with observations. While there is no good reason to expect such a value for the cosmological constant, there is no physical principle that would rule out such.

  19. 'Black universe' epoch in string cosmology

    SciT

    Buchel, Alex; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, N2J 2W9; Kofman, Lev

    2008-10-15

    String theory compactification involves manifolds with multiple warp factors. For cosmological applications, we often introduce a short, high-energy inflationary throat, and a long, low-energy standard model (SM) throat. It is assumed that at the end of inflation, the excited Kaluza-Klein modes from the inflationary throat tunnel to the SM throat and reheat standard model degrees of freedom, which are attached to probe brane(s). However, the huge hierarchy of energy scales can result in a highly dynamic transition of the throat geometry. We point out that in such a cosmological scenario the standard model throat (together with SM brane) will bemore » cloaked by a Schwarzschild horizon, produced by the Kaluza-Klein modes tunneling from the short throat. The black brane formation is dual to the first order chiral phase transition of the cascading gauge theory. We calculate the critical energy density corresponding the formation of the black hole (BH) horizon in the long throat. We discuss the duality between 'black universe' cosmology and an expanding universe driven by the hot gauge theory radiation. We address the new problem of the hierarchical multiple-throat scenarios: SM brane disappearance after the decay of the BH horizon.« less

  20. Cosmological immortality: how to eliminate aging on a universal scale.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Clement

    2014-01-01

    The death of our universe is as certain as our individual death. Some cosmologists have elaborated models which would make the cosmos immortal. In this paper, I examine them as cosmological extrapolations of immortality narratives that civilizations have developed to face death anxiety. I first show why cosmological death should be a worry, then I briefly examine scenarios involving the notion of soul or resurrection on a cosmological scale. I discuss in how far an intelligent civilization could stay alive by engaging in stellar, galactic and universal rejuvenation. Finally, I argue that leaving a cosmological legacy via universe making is an inspiring and promising narrative to achieve cosmological immortality.

  1. Does Cosmological Scale Expansion Explain the Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masreliez, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The idea of the creation of the world has been central in Western civilization since the earliest recorded history some 6000 years ago and it still prevails, supported by religious dogma. If the creation idea is wrong and the universe is eternal we might wonder why science has not yet revealed this fundamental truth. To understand why, we have to review how the Big Bang theory came to be the dominant cosmological paradigm in spite of many clear indications that the theory might be fundamentally flawed.

  2. Cosmology: The search for the order of the universe

    SciT

    Caes, C.J.

    Cosmology is fast becoming a ''hot'' topic among physicists and astronomers, but few ''outsiders'' really understand what it's all about. This book discusses metaphysics and sheds an informative, nontechnical light on the roots of the universe and the mysteries that surround it. Focusing on the speculative nature of the sciences, the author brings together religion, theology, philosophy, and astronomy to provide a broad spectrum of theories and ideas that have evolved from the early cosmologies of the Babylonians, Egyptians, the Chinese, the Greeks, the Romans, and other ancients. Highlighted is the work of men like Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newtonmore » and the importance they played in the historical progression of discoveries. The author also examines theories on the origin of galaxies, stars, and the solar system - the sun, asteroids, comets, meteoroids, and planets - and presents the latest evidence on how they were formed.« less

  3. Cosmology of Universe Particles and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    For the first time in history, all properties of cosmology particles are uncovered and described concisely and systematically, known as the elementary particles in contemporary physics.Aligning with the synthesis of the virtual and physical worlds in a hierarchical taxonomy of the universe, this theory refines the topology framework of cosmology, and presents a new perspective of the Yin Yang natural laws that, through the processes of creation and reproduction, the fundamental elements generate an infinite series of circular objects and a Yin Yang duality of dynamic fields that are sequenced and transformed states of matter between the virtual and physical worlds.Once virtual objects are transformed, they embody various enclaves of energy states, known as dark energy, quarks, leptons, bosons, protons, and neutrons, characterized by their incentive oscillations of timestate variables in a duality of virtual realities: energy and time, spin and charge, mass and space, symmetry and antisymmetry.As a consequence, it derives the fully-scaled quantum properties of physical particles in accordance with numerous historical experiments, and has overcome the limitations of uncertainty principle and the Standard Model, towards concisely exploring physical nature and beyond...

  4. [Early Greek medicine and Plato's cosmology].

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kee-Bag

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the influence of Early greek medicine on Plato's Cosmology. Alcmaeon holds that health depends on proportion (equality; isonomia) or proportioned mixture of opposing factors. This notion dominated nearly all greek medicine, and also influenced Plato's cosmology greatly. Generally each greek doctors believed that man consisted of opposing factors, though these are designated differently. Alcmaeon takes powers - hot and dry, cold and hot, vitter, sweet and the rest as those factors. On the other hand, Philistion of Locri adopts the four element theory of Empedocles. He conceives that human body as a mixture of the four elements, and health consists in proportion of these opposing four element, basically as Alcmaeon. This notion is accepted by Plato. Only Plato differs from Philistion in that he doesn't consider the four elements as the ultimate factors. In Timaeus Plato explain that the Demiourgos constructed the four elements through introducing 'proportion' into the primitive materials (the oppositives) by means of shapes and numbers. And Plato thinks that the cosmic body and soul was constructed basically in the same way as the four elements. This is true of the human body and soul. Also Plato explicates diseases from standpoint of proportion or symmetry. Moreover according to Philebus, the good states (i.e. 'health', 'music', 'season' etc) in the cosmos arises out of the right mixture of the limit and the unlimited. In the other word this mixture is proportioned mixture of the oppositives by aid of ratios. In short Plato believes that both the cosmos itself and the good states s proportioned mixture of the oppositives. Thus Plato' cosmology is fundamentally based upon Alcmaeon's or Philistion's concept of Health.

  5. Compactified cosmological simulations of the infinite universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rácz, Gábor; Szapudi, István; Csabai, István; Dobos, László

    2018-06-01

    We present a novel N-body simulation method that compactifies the infinite spatial extent of the Universe into a finite sphere with isotropic boundary conditions to follow the evolution of the large-scale structure. Our approach eliminates the need for periodic boundary conditions, a mere numerical convenience which is not supported by observation and which modifies the law of force on large scales in an unrealistic fashion. We demonstrate that our method outclasses standard simulations executed on workstation-scale hardware in dynamic range, it is balanced in following a comparable number of high and low k modes and, its fundamental geometry and topology match observations. Our approach is also capable of simulating an expanding, infinite universe in static coordinates with Newtonian dynamics. The price of these achievements is that most of the simulated volume has smoothly varying mass and spatial resolution, an approximation that carries different systematics than periodic simulations. Our initial implementation of the method is called StePS which stands for Stereographically projected cosmological simulations. It uses stereographic projection for space compactification and naive O(N^2) force calculation which is nevertheless faster to arrive at a correlation function of the same quality than any standard (tree or P3M) algorithm with similar spatial and mass resolution. The N2 force calculation is easy to adapt to modern graphics cards, hence our code can function as a high-speed prediction tool for modern large-scale surveys. To learn about the limits of the respective methods, we compare StePS with GADGET-2 running matching initial conditions.

  6. Quasar populations in a cosmological constant-dominated flat universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta; Turner, Edwin L.

    1995-01-01

    Most physical properties derived for quasars, as single entities or as a population, depend upon the cosmology assumed. In this paper, we calculate the quasar luminosity function and some related quantities for a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda (Lambda = 0.9, Omega = 0.1) and compare them with those deduced for a flat universe with zero cosmological constant (Lambda = 0, Omega = 1). We use the ATT quasar survey data (Boyle et al. 1990) as input in both cases. The data are fitted well by a pure luminosity evolution model for both the cosmologies but with different evolutionary parameters. From the luminosity function, we predict (extrapolate) a greater number of quasars at faint apparent magnitudes (twice the number at B = 24, z is less than 2.2) for the Lambda-dominated universe. This population of faint quasars at high redshift would result in a higher incidence of gravitational lensing. The total luminosity of the quasar population and the total mass tied up in black hole remnants of quasars is not sensitive to the cosmology. However, for a Lambda cosmology, this mass is tied up in fewer but more massive black holes.

  7. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    PubMed

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  8. Cosmic Explosions, Life in the Universe, and the Cosmological Constant.

    PubMed

    Piran, Tsvi; Jimenez, Raul; Cuesta, Antonio J; Simpson, Fergus; Verde, Licia

    2016-02-26

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are copious sources of gamma rays whose interaction with a planetary atmosphere can pose a threat to complex life. Using recent determinations of their rate and probability of causing massive extinction, we explore what types of universes are most likely to harbor advanced forms of life. We use cosmological N-body simulations to determine at what time and for what value of the cosmological constant (Λ) the chances of life being unaffected by cosmic explosions are maximized. Life survival to GRBs favors Lambda-dominated universes. Within a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, the likelihood of life survival to GRBs is governed by the value of Λ and the age of the Universe. We find that we seem to live in a favorable point in this parameter space that minimizes the exposure to cosmic explosions, yet maximizes the number of main sequence (hydrogen-burning) stars around which advanced life forms can exist.

  9. Cosmic Explosions, Life in the Universe, and the Cosmological Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piran, Tsvi; Jimenez, Raul; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Simpson, Fergus; Verde, Licia

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are copious sources of gamma rays whose interaction with a planetary atmosphere can pose a threat to complex life. Using recent determinations of their rate and probability of causing massive extinction, we explore what types of universes are most likely to harbor advanced forms of life. We use cosmological N -body simulations to determine at what time and for what value of the cosmological constant (Λ ) the chances of life being unaffected by cosmic explosions are maximized. Life survival to GRBs favors Lambda-dominated universes. Within a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, the likelihood of life survival to GRBs is governed by the value of Λ and the age of the Universe. We find that we seem to live in a favorable point in this parameter space that minimizes the exposure to cosmic explosions, yet maximizes the number of main sequence (hydrogen-burning) stars around which advanced life forms can exist.

  10. Particle physics in the very early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

  11. Ancient Cosmology, superfine structure of the Universe and Anthropological Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakelyan, Hrant; Vardanyan, Susan

    2015-07-01

    The modern cosmology by its spirit, conception of the Big Bang is closer to the ancient cosmology, than to the cosmological paradigm of the XIX century. Repeating the speculations of the ancients, but using at the same time subtle mathematical methods and relying on the steadily accumulating empirical material, the modern theory tends to a quantitative description of nature, in which increasing role are playing the numerical ratios between the physical constants. The detailed analysis of the influence of the numerical values -- of physical quantities on the physical state of the universe revealed amazing relations called fine and hyperfine tuning. In order to explain, why the observable universe comes to be a certain set of interrelated fundamental parameters, in fact a speculative anthropic principle was proposed, which focuses on the fact of the existence of sentient beings.

  12. A cosmological solution to the Impossibly Early Galaxy Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yennapureddy, Manoj K.; Melia, Fulvio

    2018-06-01

    To understand the formation and evolution of galaxies at redshifts 0 ≲ z ≲ 10, one must invariably introduce specific models (e.g., for the star formation) in order to fully interpret the data. Unfortunately, this tends to render the analysis compliant to the theory and its assumptions, so consensus is still somewhat elusive. Nonetheless, the surprisingly early appearance of massive galaxies challenges the standard model, and the halo mass function estimated from galaxy surveys at z ≳ 4 appears to be inconsistent with the predictions of ΛCDM, giving rise to what has been termed "The Impossibly Early Galaxy Problem" by some workers in the field. A simple resolution to this question may not be forthcoming. The situation with the halos themselves, however, is more straightforward and, in this paper, we use linear perturbation theory to derive the halo mass function over the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 10 for the Rh = ct universe. We use this predicted halo distribution to demonstrate that both its dependence on mass and its very weak dependence on redshift are compatible with the data. The difficulties with ΛCDM may eventually be overcome with refinements to the underlying theory of star formation and galaxy evolution within the halos. For now, however, we demonstrate that the unexpected early formation of structure may also simply be due to an incorrect choice of the cosmology, rather than to yet unknown astrophysical issues associated with the condensation of mass fluctuations and subsequent galaxy formation.

  13. Windows on Our Universe: Breakthroughs in Observational Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, John; Faber, Sandy; Weinberg, David

    2009-03-01

    Clusters and Cosmology with the South Pole Telescope[0pt] John Ruhl, Case Western Reserve University[4pt] The Formation of Galaxies[0pt] Sandra Faber, University of California, Santa Cruz[4pt] Cosmology from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey[0pt] David Weinberg, The Ohio State University[4pt] In the past decade, the study of our Universe has entered a data- driven era. Indeed, observational advances indicate that cosmologists can understand the evolution of our Universe in exquisite detail and use our Universe as a laboratory with which to make profound statements about the laws of physics. Cosmologists have mapped out the relic radiation from the big bang itself and have succeeded in enormous projects to map the patterns of galaxies and the evolution of galaxies over ten billion years. Researchers are beginning to understand how the initial conditions depicted in the relic radiation evolve to form such rich galactic structure. And of course, with new data new mysteries have arisen that strike at the heart of fundamental physics and drive another generation of ambitious observational projects. The three speakers will discuss recent breakthroughs in observational cosmology: what has been learned about our Universe, the mysteries that have been uncovered, and what they see for the future.

  14. Dynamics of cosmological perturbations and reheating in the anamorphic universe

    SciT

    Graef, L.L.; Ferreira, Elisa G.M.; Brandenberger, Robert

    We discuss scalar-tensor realizations of the Anamorphic cosmological scenario recently proposed by Ijjas and Steinhardt [1]. Through an analysis of the dynamics of cosmological perturbations we obtain constraints on the parameters of the model. We also study gravitational Parker particle production in the contracting Anamorphic phase and we compute the fraction between the energy density of created particles at the end of the phase and the background energy density. We find that, as in the case of inflation, a new mechanism is required to reheat the universe.

  15. Emergence of a classical Universe from quantum gravity and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Claus

    2012-09-28

    I describe how we can understand the classical appearance of our world from a universal quantum theory. The essential ingredient is the process of decoherence. I start with a general discussion in ordinary quantum theory and then turn to quantum gravity and quantum cosmology. There is a whole hierarchy of classicality from the global gravitational field to the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background, which serve as the seeds for the structure in the Universe.

  16. Precision Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2017-04-01

    Preface; Notation and conventions; Part I. 100 Years of Cosmology: 1. Emerging cosmology; 2. The cosmic expansion; 3. The cosmic microwave background; 4. Recent cosmology; Part II. Newtonian Cosmology: 5. Newtonian cosmology; 6. Dark energy cosmological models; 7. The early universe; 8. The inhomogeneous universe; 9. The inflationary universe; Part III. Relativistic Cosmology: 10. Minkowski space; 11. The energy momentum tensor; 12. General relativity; 13. Space-time geometry and calculus; 14. The Einstein field equations; 15. Solutions of the Einstein equations; 16. The Robertson-Walker solution; 17. Congruences, curvature and Raychaudhuri; 18. Observing and measuring the universe; Part IV. The Physics of Matter and Radiation: 19. Physics of the CMB radiation; 20. Recombination of the primeval plasma; 21. CMB polarisation; 22. CMB anisotropy; Part V. Precision Tools for Precision Cosmology: 23. Likelihood; 24. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 25. Statistical inference: Bayesian; 26. CMB data processing; 27. Parametrising the universe; 28. Precision cosmology; 29. Epilogue; Appendix A. SI, CGS and Planck units; Appendix B. Magnitudes and distances; Appendix C. Representing vectors and tensors; Appendix D. The electromagnetic field; Appendix E. Statistical distributions; Appendix F. Functions on a sphere; Appendix G. Acknowledgements; References; Index.

  17. WMAP - A Glimpse of the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward

    2009-01-01

    The early Universe was incredibly hot, dense, and homogeneous. A powerful probe of this time is provided by the relic radiation which we refer to today as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Images produced from this light contain the earliest glimpse of the Universe after the "Big Bang" and the signature of the evolution of its contents. By exploiting these clues, precise constraints on the age, mass density, and geometry of the early Universe can be derived. The history of this intriguing cosmological detective story will be reviewed. Recent results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) will be presented.

  18. Closed inflationary universe in patch cosmology

    SciT

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Saavedra, Joel

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, we study closed inflationary universe models using the Gauss-Bonnet Brane. We determine and characterize the existence of a universe with {omega}>1, with an appropriate period of inflation. We have found that this model is less restrictive in comparison with the standard approach where a scalar field is considered. We use recent astronomical observations to constrain the parameters appearing in the model.

  19. Lyra’s cosmology of hybrid universe in Bianchi-V space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Anil Kumar; Bhardwaj, Vinod Kumar

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we have searched for the existence of Lyra’s cosmology in a hybrid universe with minimal interaction between dark energy and normal matter using Bianchi-V space-time. To derive the exact solution, the average scale factor is taken as a={({t}n{e}kt)}\\frac{1{m}} which describes the hybrid nature of the scale factor and generates a model of the transitioning universe from the early deceleration phase to the present acceleration phase. The quintessence model makes the matter content of the derived universe remarkably able to satisfy the null, dominant and strong energy condition. It has been found that the time varying displacement β(t) co-relates with the nature of cosmological constant Λ(t). We also discuss some physical and geometrical features of the universe.

  20. Elementary Cosmology: From Aristotle's Universe to the Big Bang and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolata, James J.

    2015-11-01

    Cosmology is the study of the origin, size, and evolution of the entire universe. Every culture has developed a cosmology, whether it be based on religious, philosophical, or scientific principles. In this book, the evolution of the scientific understanding of the Universe in Western tradition is traced from the early Greek philosophers to the most modern 21st century view. After a brief introduction to the concept of the scientific method, the first part of the book describes the way in which detailed observations of the Universe, first with the naked eye and later with increasingly complex modern instruments, ultimately led to the development of the ``Big Bang'' theory. The second part of the book traces the evolution of the Big Bang including the very recent observation that the expansion of the Universe is itself accelerating with time.

  1. Cosmological perturbations in the entangled inflationary universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Pérez, Salvador J.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the model of a multiverse made up of universes that are created in entangled pairs that conserve the total momentum conjugated to the scale factor is presented. For the background spacetime, assumed is a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric with a scalar field with mass m minimally coupled to gravity. For the fields that propagate in the entangled spacetimes, the perturbations of the spacetime and the scalar field, whose quantum states become entangled too, are considered. They turn out to be in a quasithermal state, and the corresponding thermodynamical magnitudes are computed. Three observables are expected to be caused by the creation of the universes in entangled pairs: a modification of the Friedmann equation because of the entanglement of the spacetimes, a modification of the effective value of the potential of the scalar field by the backreaction of the perturbation modes, and a modification of the spectrum of fluctuations because the thermal distribution is induced by the entanglement of the partner universes. The later would be a distinctive feature of the creation of universes in entangled pairs.

  2. Hybrid petacomputing meets cosmology: The Roadrunner Universe project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian; Lukić, Zarija; Daniel, David; Fasel, Patricia; Desai, Nehal; Heitmann, Katrin; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Ankeny, Lee; Mark, Graham; Bhattacharya, Suman; Ahrens, James

    2009-07-01

    The target of the Roadrunner Universe project at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a set of very large cosmological N-body simulation runs on the hybrid supercomputer Roadrunner, the world's first petaflop platform. Roadrunner's architecture presents opportunities and difficulties characteristic of next-generation supercomputing. We describe a new code designed to optimize performance and scalability by explicitly matching the underlying algorithms to the machine architecture, and by using the physics of the problem as an essential aid in this process. While applications will differ in specific exploits, we believe that such a design process will become increasingly important in the future. The Roadrunner Universe project code, MC3 (Mesh-based Cosmology Code on the Cell), uses grid and direct particle methods to balance the capabilities of Roadrunner's conventional (Opteron) and accelerator (Cell BE) layers. Mirrored particle caches and spectral techniques are used to overcome communication bandwidth limitations and possible difficulties with complicated particle-grid interaction templates.

  3. The Toy model: Understanding the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Peter H.; Price, Richard H.

    2018-04-01

    In many branches of science, progress is being made by taking advantage of insights from other branches of science. Cosmology, the structure and evolution of the universe, is certainly an area that is currently beset by problems in understanding. We show here that the scientific insights from the studies of early childhood development, in particular, those of Piaget, give a new way of looking at the early universe. This new approach can not only be invaluable in undergraduate teaching, but can even be the basis of semi-quantitative predictions.

  4. Universal subhalo accretion in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubik, Bogna; Libeskind, Noam I.; Knebe, Alexander; Courtois, Hélène; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the large-scale structure on host haloes may be studied by examining the angular infall pattern of subhaloes. In particular, since warm dark matter (WDM) and cold dark matter (CDM) cosmologies predict different abundances and internal properties for haloes at the low-mass end of the mass function, it is interesting to examine if there are differences in how these low-mass haloes are accreted. The accretion events are defined as the moment a halo becomes a substructure, namely when it crosses its host's virial radius. We quantify the cosmic web at each point by the shear tensor and examine where, with respect to its eigenvectors, such accretion events occur in ΛCDM and ΛWDM (1 keV sterile neutrino) cosmological models. We find that the CDM and WDM subhaloes are preferentially accreted along the principal axis of the shear tensor corresponding to the direction of weakest collapse. The beaming strength is modulated by the host and subhalo masses and by the redshift at which the accretion event occurs. Although strongest for the most massive hosts and subhaloes at high redshift, the preferential infall is found to be always aligned with the axis of weakest collapse, thus we say that it has universal nature. We compare the strength of beaming in the ΛWDM cosmology with the one found in the ΛCDM scenario. While the main findings remain the same, the accretion in the ΛWDM model for the most massive host haloes appears more beamed than in ΛCDM cosmology across all the redshifts.

  5. The Cosmology Gallery: Unity through diversity in a vast and awe-inspiring universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, John

    2011-06-01

    Scientists, artists, religious and cultural leaders have come together to create the Cosmology Gallery at the Gravity Discovery Centre (GDC) located 70 km north of Perth, Western Australia. The Cosmology Gallery exhibitions include the multicultural cosmology artworks, Celestial Visions astronomical photography exhibition and the Timeline of the Universe. The multicultural cosmology artworks are new artworks inspired by Australian Indigenous, Christian, Buddhist, Islamic, Hindu, scientific and technological perspectives of the universe. The Celestial Visions exhibition features astronomical events above famous landmarks, including Stonehenge and the Pyramids. The AUD 400,000+ project was funded by Lotterywest, Western Australia and the Cosmology Gallery was officially opened in July 2008 by the Premier of Western Australia.

  6. Cosmology with gamma-ray bursts. II. Cosmography challenges and cosmological scenarios for the accelerated Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demianski, Marek; Piedipalumbo, Ester; Sawant, Disha; Amati, Lorenzo

    2017-02-01

    Context. Explaining the accelerated expansion of the Universe is one of the fundamental challenges in physics today. Cosmography provides information about the evolution of the universe derived from measured distances, assuming only that the space time geometry is described by the Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric, and adopting an approach that effectively uses only Taylor expansions of basic observables. Aims: We perform a high-redshift analysis to constrain the cosmographic expansion up to the fifth order. It is based on the Union2 type Ia supernovae data set, the gamma-ray burst Hubble diagram, a data set of 28 independent measurements of the Hubble parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations measurements from galaxy clustering and the Lyman-α forest in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), and some Gaussian priors on h and ΩM. Methods: We performed a statistical analysis and explored the probability distributions of the cosmographic parameters. By building up their regions of confidence, we maximized our likelihood function using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Results: Our high-redshift analysis confirms that the expansion of the Universe currently accelerates; the estimation of the jerk parameter indicates a possible deviation from the standard ΛCDM cosmological model. Moreover, we investigate implications of our results for the reconstruction of the dark energy equation of state (EOS) by comparing the standard technique of cosmography with an alternative approach based on generalized Padé approximations of the same observables. Because these expansions converge better, is possible to improve the constraints on the cosmographic parameters and also on the dark matter EOS. Conclusions: The estimation of the jerk and the DE parameters indicates at 1σ a possible deviation from the ΛCDM cosmological model.

  7. WMAP - A Portrait of the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    A host of astrophysical observations suggest that early Universe was incredibly hot, dense, and homogeneous. A powerful probe of this time is provided by the relic radiation which we refer to today as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Images produced from this light contain the earliest glimpse of the Universe after the 'Big Bang' and the signature of the evolution of its contents. By exploiting these clues, constraints on the age, mass density, and geometry of the early Universe can be derived. A brief history of the evolution of the microwave radiometer systems and map making approaches used in advancing these aspects our understanding of cosmological will be reviewed. In addition, an overview of the results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy (WMAP) will be presented.

  8. Initial conditions of inhomogeneous universe and the cosmological constant problem

    SciT

    Totani, Tomonori, E-mail: totani@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Deriving the Einstein field equations (EFE) with matter fluid from the action principle is not straightforward, because mass conservation must be added as an additional constraint to make rest-frame mass density variable in reaction to metric variation. This can be avoided by introducing a constraint 0δ(√− g ) = to metric variations δ g {sup μν}, and then the cosmological constant Λ emerges as an integration constant. This is a removal of one of the four constraints on initial conditions forced by EFE at the birth of the universe, and it may imply that EFE are unnecessarily restrictive about initialmore » conditions. I then adopt a principle that the theory of gravity should be able to solve time evolution starting from arbitrary inhomogeneous initial conditions about spacetime and matter. The equations of gravitational fields satisfying this principle are obtained, by setting four auxiliary constraints on δ g {sup μν} to extract six degrees of freedom for gravity. The cost of achieving this is a loss of general covariance, but these equations constitute a consistent theory if they hold in the special coordinate systems that can be uniquely specified with respect to the initial space-like hypersurface when the universe was born. This theory predicts that gravity is described by EFE with non-zero Λ in a homogeneous patch of the universe created by inflation, but Λ changes continuously across different patches. Then both the smallness and coincidence problems of the cosmological constant are solved by the anthropic argument. This is just a result of inhomogeneous initial conditions, not requiring any change of the fundamental physical laws in different patches.« less

  9. Initial conditions of inhomogeneous universe and the cosmological constant problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totani, Tomonori

    2016-06-01

    Deriving the Einstein field equations (EFE) with matter fluid from the action principle is not straightforward, because mass conservation must be added as an additional constraint to make rest-frame mass density variable in reaction to metric variation. This can be avoided by introducing a constraint 0δ(√-g) = to metric variations δ gμν, and then the cosmological constant Λ emerges as an integration constant. This is a removal of one of the four constraints on initial conditions forced by EFE at the birth of the universe, and it may imply that EFE are unnecessarily restrictive about initial conditions. I then adopt a principle that the theory of gravity should be able to solve time evolution starting from arbitrary inhomogeneous initial conditions about spacetime and matter. The equations of gravitational fields satisfying this principle are obtained, by setting four auxiliary constraints on δ gμν to extract six degrees of freedom for gravity. The cost of achieving this is a loss of general covariance, but these equations constitute a consistent theory if they hold in the special coordinate systems that can be uniquely specified with respect to the initial space-like hypersurface when the universe was born. This theory predicts that gravity is described by EFE with non-zero Λ in a homogeneous patch of the universe created by inflation, but Λ changes continuously across different patches. Then both the smallness and coincidence problems of the cosmological constant are solved by the anthropic argument. This is just a result of inhomogeneous initial conditions, not requiring any change of the fundamental physical laws in different patches.

  10. Cylindrically symmetric cosmological model of the universe in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, B.; Vadrevu, Samhita

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed the cosmological models of the universe in a cylindrically symmetric space time in two classes of f(R,T) gravity (Harko et al. in Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011). We have discussed two cases: one in the linear form and the other in the quadratic form of R. The matter is considered to be in the form of perfect fluid. It is observed that in the first case, the pressure and energy density remain the same, which reduces to a Zeldovich fluid. In the second case we have studied the quadratic function of f(R,T) gravity in the form f(R)=λ(R+R2) and f(T)=λ T. In the second case the pressure is in the negative domain and the energy density is in the positive domain, which confirms that the equation of state parameter is negative. The physical properties of the constructed models are studied.

  11. Constraints on universe models with cosmological constant from cosmic microwave background anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Naoshi; Gouda, Naoteru; Sasaki, Misao

    1990-12-01

    Thorough numerical calculations of the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation using the gage-invariant formalism are carried out for various cosmological models with the cosmological constant. It is shown that a spatially flat cold dark matter-dominated universe of Omega(0) = 0.1 to about 0.4 and H(0) = 50 to about 100 km/s per Mpc with adiabatic perturbations has the possibility of giving the final answer to cosmological puzzles. It is also found that the introduction of the cosmological constant may revive pure baryonic universe models.

  12. An outline of cellular automaton universe via cosmological KdV equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianto, V.; Smarandache, F.; Umniyati, Y.

    2018-03-01

    It has been known for long time that the cosmic sound wave was there since the early epoch of the Universe. Signatures of its existence are abound. However, such a sound wave model of cosmology is rarely developed fully into a complete framework. This paper can be considered as our second attempt towards such a complete description of the Universe based on soliton wave solution of cosmological KdV equation. Then we advance further this KdV equation by virtue of Cellular Automaton method to solve the PDEs. We submit wholeheartedly Robert Kuruczs hypothesis that Big Bang should be replaced with a finite cellular automaton universe with no expansion [4][5]. Nonetheless, we are fully aware that our model is far from being complete, but it appears the proposed cellular automaton model of the Universe is very close in spirit to what Konrad Zuse envisaged long time ago. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.

  13. Cosmological singularity resolution from quantum gravity: The emergent-bouncing universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesci, Emanuele; Botta, Gioele; Cianfrani, Francesco; Liberati, Stefano

    2017-08-01

    Alternative scenarios to the big bang singularity have been subject of intense research for several decades by now. Most popular in this sense have been frameworks were such singularity is replaced by a bounce around some minimal cosmological volume or by some early quantum phase. This latter scenario was devised a long time ago and referred as an "emergent universe" (in the sense that our universe emerged from a constant volume quantum phase). We show here that within an improved framework of canonical quantum gravity (the so-called quantum reduced loop gravity) the Friedmann equations for cosmology are modified in such a way to replace the big bang singularity with a short bounce preceded by a metastable quantum phase in which the volume of the universe oscillates between a series of local maxima and minima. We call this hybrid scenario an "emergent-bouncing universe" since after a pure oscillating quantum phase the classical Friedmann spacetime emerges. Perspective developments and possible tests of this scenario are discussed in the end.

  14. Exact solutions to Brans-Dicke cosmologies in flat Friedmann universes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morganstern, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    The Brans-Dicke cosmological equations for flat Friedmann-type expanding universes are solved parametrically for time, density, expansion parameter, and scalar field. These results reduce to a previously obtained exact solution to the radiation cosmology. Although the scalar field may be undetectable at the present epoch, it is felt that, if it exists, it must play an important role as one approaches the initial singularity of the cosmology.

  15. Dynamically avoiding fine-tuning the cosmological constant: the ``Relaxed Universe''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Florian; Solà, Joan; Štefancić, Hrvoje

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate that there exists a large class of Script F(R,Script G) action functionals of the scalar curvature and of the Gauß-Bonnet invariant which are able to relax dynamically a large cosmological constant (CC), whatever it be its starting value in the early universe. Hence, it is possible to understand, without fine-tuning, the very small current value Λ0 ~ H02 of the CC as compared to its theoretically expected large value in quantum field theory and string theory. In our framework, this relaxation appears as a pure gravitational effect, where no ad hoc scalar fields are needed. The action involves a positive power of a characteristic mass parameter, Script M, whose value can be, interestingly enough, of the order of a typical particle physics mass of the Standard Model of the strong and electroweak interactions or extensions thereof, including the neutrino mass. The model universe emerging from this scenario (the ``Relaxed Universe'') falls within the class of the so-called ΛXCDM models of the cosmic evolution. Therefore, there is a ``cosmon'' entity X (represented by an effective object, not a field), which in this case is generated by the effective functional Script F(R,Script G) and is responsible for the dynamical adjustment of the cosmological constant. This model universe successfully mimics the essential past epochs of the standard (or ``concordance'') cosmological model (ΛCDM). Furthermore, it provides interesting clues to the coincidence problem and it may even connect naturally with primordial inflation.

  16. Reionization of the Universe and the Photoevaporation of Cosmological Minihalos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Raga, Alejandro C.

    2000-01-01

    The first sources of ionizing radiation to condense out of the dark and neutral Intergalactic Medium (IGM) sent ionization fronts sweeping outward through their surroundings, overtaking other condensed objects and photoevaporating them. This feedback effect of universal reionization on cosmic structure formation is demonstrated here for the case of a cosmological minihalo of dark matter and baryons exposed to an external source of ionizing radiation with a quasar-like spectrum, just after the passage of the global ionization front created by the source. We model the pre-ionization minihalo as a truncated, nonsingular isothermal sphere in hydrostatic equilibrium following its collapse out of the expanding background universe and virialization. Results are presented of the first, gas dynamical simulations of this process, including radiative transfer. A sample of observational diagnostics is also presented, including the spatially-varying ionization levels of C, N, and O in the flow if a trace of heavy elements is present and the integrated column densities of H I, He I and He II, and C IV through the photoevaporating gas at different velocities, which would be measured in absorption against a background source like that responsible for the ionization.

  17. Did God create our universe? Theological reflections on the Big Bang, inflation, and quantum cosmologies.

    PubMed

    Russell, R J

    2001-12-01

    The sciences and the humanities, including theology, form an epistemic hierarchy that ensures both constraint and irreducibility. At the same time, theological methodology is analogous to scientific methodology, though with several important differences. This model of interaction between science and theology can be seen illustrated in a consideration of the relation between contemporary cosmology (Big Bang cosmology, cosmic inflation, and quantum cosmology) and Christian systematic and natural theology. In light of developments in cosmology, the question of origins has become theologically less interesting than that of the cosmic evolution of a contingent universe.

  18. Inflationary Cosmology: Is Our Universe Part of a Multiverse?

    SciT

    Guth, Alan

    2008-11-06

    In this talk, Guth explains the inflationary theory and reviews the features that make it scientifically plausible. In addition, he discusses the biggest mystery in cosmology: Why is the value of the cosmological constant, sometimes called the "anti-gravity" effect, so remarkably small compared to theoretical expectations?

  19. Pre-inflationary universe in loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tao; Wang, Anzhong; Cleaver, Gerald; Kirsten, Klaus; Sheng, Qin

    2017-10-01

    The evolutions of the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe and its linear perturbations are studied systematically in the dressed metric approach of loop quantum cosmology. When it is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton at the quantum bounce, the evolution of the background can be divided into three different phases prior to the preheating: bouncing, transition and slow-roll inflation. During the bouncing phase, the evolution is independent of not only the initial conditions, but also the inflationary potentials. In particular, the expansion factor can be well described by the same exact solution in all the cases considered. In contrast, in the potential-dominated case such a universality is lost. It is because of this universality that the linear perturbations are also independent of the inflationary models and obtained exactly. During the transition phase, the evolutions of the background and its linear perturbations are found explicitly, and then matched to the ones given in the other two phases. Hence, once the initial conditions are imposed, the linear scalar and tensor perturbations will be uniquely determined. Considering two different sets of initial conditions, one imposed during the contracting phase and the other at the bounce, we calculate the Bogoliubov coefficients and find that the two sets yield the same results and all lead to particle creations at the onset of the inflation. Due to the preinflationary dynamics, the scalar and tensor power spectra become scale dependent. By comparing our results with the Planck 2015 data, we find constraints on the total number of e -folds since the bounce, in order to be consistent with current observations.

  20. Gauss-Bonnet cosmology unifying late and early-time acceleration eras with intermediate eras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that with vacuum F(G) gravity it is possible to describe the unification of late and early-time acceleration eras with the radiation and matter domination era. The Hubble rate of the unified evolution contains two mild singularities, so called Type IV singularities, and the evolution itself has some appealing features, such as the existence of a deceleration-acceleration transition at late times. We also address quantitatively a fundamental question related to modified gravity models description of cosmological evolution: Is it possible for all modified gravity descriptions of our Universe evolution, to produce a nearly scale invariant spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations? As we demonstrate, the answer for the F(G) description is no, since the resulting power spectrum is not scale invariant, in contrast to the F(R) description studied in the literature. Therefore, although the cosmological evolution can be realized in the context of vacuum F(G) gravity, the evolution is not compatible with the observational data, in contrast to the F(R) gravity description of the same cosmological evolution.

  1. Cosmological moduli and the post-inflationary universe: A critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Gordon; Sinha, Kuver; Watson, Scott

    2015-06-01

    We critically review the role of cosmological moduli in determining the post-inflationary history of the universe. Moduli are ubiquitous in string and M-theory constructions of beyond the Standard Model physics, where they parametrize the geometry of the compactification manifold. For those with masses determined by supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking this leads to their eventual decay slightly before Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) (without spoiling its predictions). This results in a matter dominated phase shortly after inflation ends, which can influence baryon and dark matter genesis, as well as observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the growth of large-scale structure. Given progress within fundamental theory, and guidance from dark matter and collider experiments, nonthermal histories have emerged as a robust and theoretically well-motivated alternative to a strictly thermal one. We review this approach to the early universe and discuss both the theoretical challenges and the observational implications.

  2. Can superhorizon cosmological perturbations explain the acceleration of the universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Christopher M.; Seljak, Uroš

    2005-10-01

    We investigate the recent suggestions by Barausse et al. and Kolb et al. that the acceleration of the universe could be explained by large superhorizon fluctuations generated by inflation. We show that no acceleration can be produced by this mechanism. We begin by showing how the application of Raychaudhuri equation to inhomogeneous cosmologies results in several “no go” theorems for accelerated expansion. Next we derive an exact solution for a specific case of initial perturbations, for which application of the Kolb et al. expressions leads to an acceleration, while the exact solution reveals that no acceleration is present. We show that the discrepancy can be traced to higher-order terms that were dropped in the Kolb et al. analysis. We proceed with the analysis of initial value formulation of general relativity to argue that causality severely limits what observable effects can be derived from superhorizon perturbations. By constructing a Riemann normal coordinate system on initial slice we show that no infrared divergence terms arise in this coordinate system. Thus any divergences found previously can be eliminated by a local rescaling of coordinates and are unobservable. We perform an explicit analysis of the variance of the deceleration parameter for the case of single-field inflation using usual coordinates and show that the infrared-divergent terms found by Barausse et al. and Kolb et al. cancel against several additional terms not considered in their analysis. Finally, we argue that introducing isocurvature perturbations does not alter our conclusion that the accelerating expansion of the universe cannot be explained by superhorizon modes.

  3. Stability of the Einstein static universe in open cosmological models

    SciT

    Canonico, Rosangela; Parisi, Luca; INFN, Sezione di Napoli, GC di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, I-84081 Baronissi

    2010-09-15

    The stability properties of the Einstein static solution of general relativity are altered when corrective terms arising from modification of the underlying gravitational theory appear in the cosmological equations. In this paper the existence and stability of static solutions are considered in the framework of two recently proposed quantum gravity models. The previously known analysis of the Einstein static solutions in the semiclassical regime of loop quantum cosmology with modifications to the gravitational sector is extended to open cosmological models where a static neutrally stable solution is found. A similar analysis is also performed in the framework of Horava-Lifshitz gravitymore » under detailed balance and projectability conditions. In the case of open cosmological models the two solutions found can be either unstable or neutrally stable according to the admitted values of the parameters.« less

  4. Cosmology: A research briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    As part of its effort to update topics dealt with in the 1986 decadal physics survey, the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council (NRC) formed a Panel on Cosmology. The Panel produced this report, intended to be accessible to science policymakers and nonscientists. The chapters include an overview ('What Is Cosmology?'), a discussion of cosmic microwave background radiation, the large-scale structure of the universe, the distant universe, and physics of the early universe.

  5. Higgs cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  6. Higgs cosmology.

    PubMed

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2018-03-06

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  7. Hubble's Cosmology: From a Finite Expanding Universe to a Static Endless Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, A. K. T.; Neves, M. C. D.; Soares, D. S. L.

    2009-12-01

    We analyze the views of Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) as regards the large scale structure of the universe. In 1929 he initially accepted a finite expanding universe in order to explain the redshifts of distant galaxies. Later on he turned to an infinite stationary universe and a new principle of nature in order to explain the same phenomena. Initially, he was impressed by the agreement of his redshift-distance relation with one of the predictions of de Sitter's cosmological model, namely, the so-called "de Sitter effect'', the phenomenon of the scattering of material particles, leading to an expanding universe. A number of observational evidences, though, made him highly skeptical with such a scenario. They were better accounted for by an infinite static universe. The evidences he found were: (i) the huge values he was getting for the "recession'' velocities of the nebulae (1,800 km s-1 in 1929 up to 42,000 km s-1 in 1942, leading to v/c = 1/7), with the redshifts interpreted as velocity-shifts. All other known real velocities of large astronomical bodies are much smaller than these. (ii) The "number effect'' test, which is the running of nebulae luminosity with redshift. Hubble found that a static universe is, within the observational uncertainties, slightly favored. The test is equivalent to the modern "Tolman effect,'' for galaxy surface brightnesses, whose results are still a matter of dispute. (iii) The smallness of the size and the age of the curved expanding universe, implied by the expansion rate that he had determined, and, (iv) the fact that a uniform distribution of galaxies on large scales is more easily obtained from galaxy counts, when a static and flat model is considered. In an expanding and closed universe, Hubble found that homogeneity was only obtained at the cost of a large curvature. We show, by quoting his works, that Hubble remained cautiously against the big bang until the end of his life, contrary to the statements of many modern authors. In

  8. Early-time cosmology with stiff era from modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we shall incorporate a stiff era in the Universe's evolution in the context of F (R ) gravity. After deriving the vacuum F (R ) gravity, which may realize a stiff evolution, we combine the stiff F (R ) gravity with an R2 model, and we construct a qualitative model for the inflationary and stiff era, with the latter commencing after the end of the inflationary era. We assume that the baryogenesis occurs during the stiff era, and we calculate the baryon to entropy ratio, which effectively constraints the functional form of the stiff F (R ) gravity. Further constraints on the stiff F (R ) gravity may come from the primordial gravitational waves, and particularly their scalar mode, which is characteristic of the F (R ) gravity theory. The stiff era presence does not contradict the standard cosmology era, namely, inflation, and the radiation-matter domination eras. Furthermore, we investigate which F (R ) gravity may realize a dust and stiff matter dominated Einstein-Hilbert evolution.

  9. ALICE in the early Universe wonderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Nezza, Pasquale

    2012-03-01

    In these years the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is probing, for the first time, physics at energy scales more than an order of magnitude beyond that of the Standard Model. These experiments explore an energy regime of particle physics where phenomena, such as supersymmetry and Grand Unified Theories, may become relevant. Certainly, the LHC should shed light on the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking and may discover the first fundamental scalar particle seen in nature. The collisions of heavy ions (Pb - Pb) will create the same "soup" the early Universe had at the epoch of 10-5 seconds. In general, there is a strong and growing interplay between particle physics and cosmology, in particular in the possible production of mini black holes and dark matter candidates like the lightest neutralino in the MSSM.

  10. Globally baryon symmetric cosmology, GUT spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the structure of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Brown, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Grand unified theories (GUT) such as SU(5), with spontaneous symmetry breaking, can lead more naturally to a globally baryon symmetric big bang cosmology with a domain structure than to a totally asymmetric cosmology. The symmetry is broken at random in causally independent domains, favoring neither a baryon nor an antibaryon excess on a universal scale. Because of the additional freedom in the high-energy physics allowed by such GUT gauge theories, new observational tests may be possible. Arguments in favor of this cosmology and various observational tests are discussed.

  11. Ground State of the Universe and the Cosmological Constant. A Nonperturbative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Husain, Viqar; Qureshi, Babar

    2016-02-12

    The physical Hamiltonian of a gravity-matter system depends on the choice of time, with the vacuum naturally identified as its ground state. We study the expanding Universe with scalar field in the volume time gauge. We show that the vacuum energy density computed from the resulting Hamiltonian is a nonlinear function of the cosmological constant and time. This result provides a new perspective on the relation between time, the cosmological constant, and vacuum energy.

  12. The Early Universe: Searching for Evidence of Cosmic Inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as "inflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  13. Big-bounce cosmology from quantum gravity: The case of a cyclical Bianchi I universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriconi, Riccardo; Montani, Giovanni; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the classical and quantum dynamics of a Bianchi I model in the presence of a small negative cosmological constant characterizing its evolution in term of the dust-time dualism. We demonstrate that in a canonical metric approach, the cosmological singularity is removed in correspondence to a positive defined value of the dust energy density. Furthermore, the quantum big bounce is connected to the Universe's turning point via a well-defined semiclassical limit. Then we can reliably infer that the proposed scenario is compatible with a cyclical universe picture. We also show how, when the contribution of the dust energy density is sufficiently high, the proposed scenario can be extended to the Bianchi IX cosmology and therefore how it can be regarded as a paradigm for the generic cosmological model. Finally, we investigate the origin of the observed cutoff on the cosmological dynamics, demonstrating how the big-bounce evolution can be mimicked by the same semiclassical scenario, where the negative cosmological constant is replaced via a polymer discretization of the Universe's volume. A direct proportionality law between these two parameters is then established.

  14. Laws of nature and the universe: Philosophical implications of modern cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, Yuri V.

    1998-11-01

    Are the laws of nature real? Do they belong to the world or merely reflect the way we speak about it? If they are real, what sort of entity are they? This study contributes to the ongoing discussion of these questions by emphasizing the importance of a cosmological perspective on them. I argue that the evidence coming from modern evolutionary cosmology presents difficulties for certain currently fashionable philosophical accounts of laws, in particular, for the Dretske-Tooley-Armstrong theory. I defend, in light of this evidence, the idea of laws as grounded in irreducible nomic properties of basic objects and examine its cosmological implications and consequences for the philosophy of modality. If the laws of nature are real, they must represent an integral aspect of the universe as a whole. From a cosmological point of view, these two totalities, the laws of nature and the universe, may be related. I begin by showing that a concern about the consequences of such possible relationship was an important factor in the historical rivalry between the steady-state and big bang cosmologies (1948-1965). The cosmological perspective on laws has still more striking implications in the context of the contemporary interplay between big-bang cosmology and high energy physics in the effort to understand the processes at work during the first moments of cosmic evolution. In a sense, the evolution of the physical state of the universe as a whole may have 'carried' with it the evolution of certain nomic properties of matter. I contend that this poses problems for some nomic ontologies, such as the relations-between-universals theory, and favors the view of laws as grounded in causal powers of particulars. I show how the universe of causally powerful basic substances provides a natural framework for an interesting sense of modality characteristic of laws and how this illuminates the notoriously difficult problems of essential properties and natural kinds.

  15. Possible evidence for the existence of antimatter on a cosmological scale in the universe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Morgan, D. L., Jr.; Bredekamp, J.

    1971-01-01

    Initial results of a detailed calculation of the cosmological gamma-ray spectrum from matter-antimatter annihilation in the universe. The similarity between the calculated spectrum and the present observations of the gamma-ray background spectrum above 1 MeV suggests that such observations may be evidence of the existence of antimatter on a large scale in the universe.

  16. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Elementary particles and cosmology (Metagalaxy and Universe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozental', I. L.

    1997-08-01

    The close relation between cosmology and the theory of elementary particles is analyzed in the light of prospects of a unified field theory. The unity of their respective problems and solution methodologies is indicated. The difference between the concepts of 'Metagalaxy' and 'Universe' is emphasized and some possible schemes for estimating the size of the Universe are pointed out.

  17. Magnetized string cosmological models of accelerated expansion of the Universe in f(R,T) theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anirudh; Jaiswal, Rekha

    A class of spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi-V massive string models have been studied in the modified f(R,T)-theory of gravity proposed by Harko et al. [Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011] in the presence of magnetic field. For a specific choice of f(R,T)=f1(R) + f2(T), where f1(R) = ν1R and f2(T) = ν2T; ν1, ν2 being arbitrary parameters, solutions of modified gravity field equations have been generated. To find the deterministic solution of the field equations, we have considered the time varying deceleration parameter which is consistent with observational data of standard cosmology (SNIa, BAO and CMB). As a result to study the transit behavior of Universe, we consider a law of variation for the specifically chosen scale factor, which yields a time-dependent deceleration parameter comprising a class of models that depicts a transition of the Universe from the early decelerated phase to the recent accelerating phase. In this context, for the model of the Universe, the field equations are solved and corresponding cosmological aspects have been discussed. The Energy conditions in this modified gravity theory are also studied. Stability analysis of the solutions through cosmological perturbation is performed and it is concluded that the expanding solution is stable against the perturbation with respect to anisotropic spatial direction. Some physical and geometric properties of the models are also discussed.

  18. Simulating the universe(s): from cosmic bubble collisions to cosmological observables with numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Carroll L.; Johnson, Matthew C.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Aguirre, Anthony; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.

    2014-03-01

    The theory of eternal inflation in an inflaton potential with multiple vacua predicts that our universe is one of many bubble universes nucleating and growing inside an ever-expanding false vacuum. The collision of our bubble with another could provide an important observational signature to test this scenario. We develop and implement an algorithm for accurately computing the cosmological observables arising from bubble collisions directly from the Lagrangian of a single scalar field. We first simulate the collision spacetime by solving Einstein's equations, starting from nucleation and ending at reheating. Taking advantage of the collision's hyperbolic symmetry, the simulations are performed with a 1+1-dimensional fully relativistic code that uses adaptive mesh refinement. We then calculate the comoving curvature perturbation in an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, which is used to determine the temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation. For a fiducial Lagrangian, the anisotropies are well described by a power law in the cosine of the angular distance from the center of the collision signature. For a given form of the Lagrangian, the resulting observational predictions are inherently statistical due to stochastic elements of the bubble nucleation process. Further uncertainties arise due to our imperfect knowledge about inflationary and pre-recombination physics. We characterize observational predictions by computing the probability distributions over four phenomenological parameters which capture these intrinsic and model uncertainties. This represents the first fully-relativistic set of predictions from an ensemble of scalar field models giving rise to eternal inflation, yielding significant differences from previous non-relativistic approximations. Thus, our results provide a basis for a rigorous confrontation of these theories with cosmological data.

  19. Higgs cosmology

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue ‘Higgs cosmology’. PMID:29358352

  20. The Jungle Universe: coupled cosmological models in a Lotka-Volterra framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jérôme; Füzfa, André; Carletti, Timoteo; Mélot, Laurence; Guedezounme, Lazare

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we exploit the fact that the dynamics of homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître universes is a special case of generalized Lotka-Volterra system where the competitive species are the barotropic fluids filling the Universe. Without coupling between those fluids, Lotka-Volterra formulation offers a pedagogical and simple way to interpret usual Friedmann-Lemaître cosmological dynamics. A natural and physical coupling between cosmological fluids is proposed which preserves the structure of the dynamical equations. Using the standard tools of Lotka-Volterra dynamics, we obtain the general Lyapunov function of the system when one of the fluids is coupled to dark energy. This provides in a rigorous form a generic asymptotic behavior for cosmic expansion in presence of coupled species, beyond the standard de Sitter, Einstein-de Sitter and Milne cosmologies. Finally, we conjecture that chaos can appear for at least four interacting fluids.

  1. Gravitational lensing limits on the cosmological constant in a flat universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Edwin L.

    1990-01-01

    Inflationary cosmological theories predict, and some more general aesthetic criteria suggest, that the large-scale spatial curvature of the universe k should be accurately zero (i.e., flat), a condition which is satisfied when the universe's present mean density and the value of the cosmological constant Lambda have certain pairs of values. Available data on the frequency of multiple image-lensing of high-redshift quasars by galaxies suggest that the cosmological constant cannot make a dominant contribution to producing a flat universe. In particular, if the mean density of the universe is as small as the baryon density inferred from standard cosmic nucleosynthesis calculations or as determined from typical dynamical studies of galaxies and galaxy clusters, then a value of Lambda large enough to produce a k = 0 universe would result in a substantially higher frequency of multiple-image lensing of quasars than has been observed so far. Shortcomings of the available lens data and uncertainties concerning galaxy properties allow some possibility of escaping this conclusion, but systematic searches for a gravitational lenses and continuing investigations of galaxy mass distributions should soon provide decisive information. It is also noted that nonzero-curvature cosmological models can account for the observed frequency of galaxy-quasar lens systems and for a variety of other constraints.

  2. Forming Disk Galaxies Early in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    What were galaxies like in the first 500 million years of the universe? According to simulations by Yu Feng (UC Berkeley) and collaborators, the earliest massive galaxies to form were mostly disk-shaped, rather than the compact clumps previously predicted. Early-Galaxy Models. Current models for galaxy formation predict that small perturbations in the distribution of matter in the early universe collapsed to form very compact, irregular, clumpy first galaxies. Observations support this: the furthest out that we've spotted disk-shaped galaxies is at z=3, whereas the galaxies we've observed from earlier times -- up to redshifts of z=8-10 -- are very compact. But could this be a selection effect, arising from the rarity of large galaxies in the early universe? Current surveys at high redshift have thus far only covered relatively small volumes of space, so it's not necessarily surprising that we haven't yet spotted any large disk galaxies. Similarly, numerical simulations of galaxy formation are limited in the size of the volume they can evolve, so resulting models of early galaxy formation also tend to favor compact clumpy galaxies over large disks. An Enormous Simulation. Pushing at these limitations, Feng and his collaborators used the Blue Waters supercomputer to carry out an enormous cosmological hydrodynamic simulation called BlueTides. In this simulation, they track 700 billion particles as they evolve in a volume of 400 comoving Mpc/h -- 40 times the volume of the largest previous simulation and 300 times the volume of the largest observational survey at these redshifts. What they find is that by z=8, a whopping 70% of the most massive galaxies (over 7 billion solar masses each) were disk-shaped, though they are more compact, gas-rich, and turbulent than present-day disk galaxies like the Milky Way. The way the most massive galaxies formed in the simulation also wasn't expected: rather than resulting from major mergers, they were built from smooth accretion

  3. Singular F(R) cosmology unifying early- and late-time acceleration with matter and radiation domination era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-06-01

    We present some cosmological models which unify the late- and early-time acceleration eras with the radiation and the matter domination era, and we realize the cosmological models by using the theoretical framework of F(R) gravity. Particularly, the first model unifies the late- and early-time acceleration with the matter domination era, and the second model unifies all the evolution eras of our Universe. The two models are described in the same way at early and late times, and only the intermediate stages of the evolution have some differences. Each cosmological model contains two Type IV singularities which are chosen to occur one at the end of the inflationary era and one at the end of the matter domination era. The cosmological models at early times are approximately identical to the R 2 inflation model, so these describe a slow-roll inflationary era which ends when the slow-roll parameters become of order one. The inflationary era is followed by the radiation era and after that the matter domination era follows, which lasts until the second Type IV singularity, and then the late-time acceleration era follows. The models have two appealing features: firstly they produce a nearly scale invariant power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations and a scalar-to-tensor ratio which are compatible with the most recent observational data and secondly, it seems that the deceleration-acceleration transition is crucially affected by the presence of the second Type IV singularity which occurs at the end of the matter domination era. As we demonstrate, the Hubble horizon at early times shrinks, as expected for an initially accelerating Universe, then during the matter domination era, it expands and finally after the Type IV singularity, the Hubble horizon starts to shrink again, during the late-time acceleration era. Intriguingly enough, the deceleration-acceleration transition, occurs after the second Type IV singularity. In addition, we investigate which F(R) gravity

  4. THE CHALLENGE OF THE LARGEST STRUCTURES IN THE UNIVERSE TO COSMOLOGY

    SciT

    Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2012-11-01

    Large galaxy redshift surveys have long been used to constrain cosmological models and structure formation scenarios. In particular, the largest structures discovered observationally are thought to carry critical information on the amplitude of large-scale density fluctuations or homogeneity of the universe, and have often challenged the standard cosmological framework. The Sloan Great Wall (SGW) recently found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) region casts doubt on the concordance cosmological model with a cosmological constant (i.e., the flat {Lambda}CDM model). Here we show that the existence of the SGW is perfectly consistent with the {Lambda}CDM model, a result that onlymore » our very large cosmological N-body simulation (the Horizon Run 2, HR2) could supply. In addition, we report on the discovery of a void complex in the SDSS much larger than the SGW, and show that such size of the largest void is also predicted in the {Lambda}CDM paradigm. Our results demonstrate that an initially homogeneous isotropic universe with primordial Gaussian random phase density fluctuations growing in accordance with the general relativity can explain the richness and size of the observed large-scale structures in the SDSS. Using the HR2 simulation we predict that a future galaxy redshift survey about four times deeper or with 3 mag fainter limit than the SDSS should reveal a largest structure of bright galaxies about twice as big as the SGW.« less

  5. Early Universe synthesis of asymmetric dark matter nuggets

    SciT

    Gresham, Moira I.; Lou, Hou Keong; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    We compute the mass function of bound states of asymmetric dark matter - nuggets - synthesized in the early Universe. We apply our results for the nugget density and binding energy computed from a nuclear model to obtain analytic estimates of the typical nugget size exiting synthesis. We numerically solve the Boltzmann equation for synthesis including two-to-two fusion reactions, estimating the impact of bottlenecks on the mass function exiting synthesis. These results provide the basis for studying the late Universe cosmology of nuggets in a future companion paper.

  6. Early Universe synthesis of asymmetric dark matter nuggets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresham, Moira I.; Lou, Hou Keong; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2018-02-01

    We compute the mass function of bound states of asymmetric dark matter—nuggets—synthesized in the early Universe. We apply our results for the nugget density and binding energy computed from a nuclear model to obtain analytic estimates of the typical nugget size exiting synthesis. We numerically solve the Boltzmann equation for synthesis including two-to-two fusion reactions, estimating the impact of bottlenecks on the mass function exiting synthesis. These results provide the basis for studying the late Universe cosmology of nuggets in a future companion paper.

  7. Early Universe synthesis of asymmetric dark matter nuggets

    DOE PAGES

    Gresham, Moira I.; Lou, Hou Keong; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2018-02-12

    We compute the mass function of bound states of asymmetric dark matter - nuggets - synthesized in the early Universe. We apply our results for the nugget density and binding energy computed from a nuclear model to obtain analytic estimates of the typical nugget size exiting synthesis. We numerically solve the Boltzmann equation for synthesis including two-to-two fusion reactions, estimating the impact of bottlenecks on the mass function exiting synthesis. These results provide the basis for studying the late Universe cosmology of nuggets in a future companion paper.

  8. The High Energy Universe: Ultra-High Energy Events in Astrophysics and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, Péter

    2010-09-01

    1. Introduction; 2. The nuts and bolts of the Universe; 3. Cosmology; 4. Cosmic structure formation; 5. Active galaxies; 6. Stellar cataclysms; 7. Gamma ray bursts; 8. GeV and TeV gamma rays; 9. Gravitational waves; 10. Cosmic rays; 11. Neutrinos; 12. Dark dreams, Higgs and beyond.

  9. Simple coupling with cosmological implications. The initial singularity and the inflationary universe

    SciT

    Saez, D.

    1987-03-15

    In this work the metric is coupled with a scalar field phi in a simple way. Although this coupling becomes problematic because the energy density of phi appears to be unbounded from below, it is displayed as a very simple coupling leading to a nonsingular cosmological model with an early antigravity regime. A basic study of the inflationary period and various suggestions are presented.

  10. Astrophysical cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardeen, J. M.

    The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe.

  11. Cosmological ``Truths''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothun, Greg

    2011-10-01

    Ever since Aristotle placed us, with certainty, in the Center of the Cosmos, Cosmological models have more or less operated from a position of known truths for some time. As early as 1963, for instance, it was ``known'' that the Universe had to be 15-17 billion years old due to the suspected ages of globular clusters. For many years, attempts to determine the expansion age of the Universe (the inverse of the Hubble constant) were done against this preconceived and biased notion. Not surprisingly when more precise observations indicated a Hubble expansion age of 11-13 billion years, stellar models suddenly changed to produce a new age for globular cluster stars, consistent with 11-13 billion years. Then in 1980, to solve a variety of standard big bang problems, inflation was introduced in a fairly ad hoc manner. Inflation makes the simple prediction that the net curvature of spacetime is zero (i.e. spacetime is flat). The consequence of introducing inflation is now the necessary existence of a dark matter dominated Universe since the known baryonic material could comprise no more than 1% of the necessary energy density to make spacetime flat. As a result of this new cosmological ``truth'' a significant world wide effort was launched to detect the dark matter (which obviously also has particle physics implications). To date, no such cosmological component has been detected. Moreover, all available dynamical inferences of the mass density of the Universe showed in to be about 20% of that required for closure. This again was inconsistent with the truth that the real density of the Universe was the closure density (e.g. Omega = 1), that the observations were biased, and that 99% of the mass density had to be in the form of dark matter. That is, we know the universe is two component -- baryons and dark matter. Another prevailing cosmological truth during this time was that all the baryonic matter was known to be in galaxies that populated our galaxy catalogs. Subsequent

  12. One-loop quantum gravity repulsion in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Broda, Bogusław

    2011-03-11

    Perturbative quantum gravity formalism is applied to compute the lowest order corrections to the classical spatially flat cosmological Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker solution (for the radiation). The presented approach is analogous to the approach applied to compute quantum corrections to the Coulomb potential in electrodynamics, or rather to the approach applied to compute quantum corrections to the Schwarzschild solution in gravity. In the framework of the standard perturbative quantum gravity, it is shown that the corrections to the classical deceleration, coming from the one-loop graviton vacuum polarization (self-energy), have (UV cutoff free) opposite to the classical repulsive properties which are not negligible in the very early Universe. The repulsive "quantum forces" resemble those known from loop quantum cosmology.

  13. Gravitational particle production in braneworld cosmology.

    PubMed

    Bambi, C; Urban, F R

    2007-11-09

    Gravitational particle production in a time variable metric of an expanding universe is efficient only when the Hubble parameter H is not too small in comparison with the particle mass. In standard cosmology, the huge value of the Planck mass M{Pl} makes the mechanism phenomenologically irrelevant. On the other hand, in braneworld cosmology, the expansion rate of the early Universe can be much faster, and many weakly interacting particles can be abundantly created. Cosmological implications are discussed.

  14. COBE - New sky maps of the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents early results obtained from the first six months of measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by instruments aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite and discusses the implications for cosmology. The three instruments: FIRAS, DMR, and DIRBE have operated well and produced significant new results. The FIRAS measurement of the CMB spectrum supports the standard big bang nucleosynthesis model. The maps made from the DMR instrument measurements show a surprisingly smooth early universe. The measurements are sufficiently precise that we must pay careful attention to potential systematic errors. The maps of galactic and local emission produced by the DIRBE instrument will be needed to identify foregrounds from extragalactic emission and thus to interpret the terms of events in the early universe.

  15. Value of H, space-time patterns, vacuum, matter, expansion of the Universe, alternative cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2017-12-01

    To the experimental uncertainties on the present value H0 of the Lundmark - Lemaître-Hubble constant, fundamental theoretical uncertainties of several kinds should also be added. In standard Cosmology, consistency problems are really serious. The cosmological constant is a source of well-known diffculties while the associated dark energy is assumed to be at the origin of the observed acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. But in alternative cosmologies, possible approaches without these problems exist. An example is the pattern based on the spinorial space-time (SST) we introduced in 1996-97 where the H t = 1 relation (t = cosmic time = age of the Universe) is automatically generated by a pre-existing cosmic geometry before standard matter and conventional forces, including gravitation and relativity, are introduced. We analyse present theoretical, experimental and observational uncertainties, focusing also on the possible sources of the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe as well as on the structure of the physical vacuum and its potential cosmological role. Particular attention is given to alternative approaches to both Particle Physics and Cosmology including possible preonic constituents of the physical vacuum and associated pre-Big Bang patterns. A significant example is provided by the cosmic SST geometry together with the possibility that the expanding cosmological vacuum releases energy in the form of standard matter and dark matter, thus modifying the dependence of the matter energy density with respect to the age and size of our Universe. The SST naturally generates a new leading contribution to the value of H. If the matter energy density decreases more slowly than in standard patterns, it can naturally be at the origin of the observed acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. The mathematical and dynamical structure of standard Physics at very short distances can also be modified by an underlying preonic structure. If preons are

  16. Investigating Student Ideas about Cosmology II: Composition of the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coble, Kim; Nickerson, Melissa D.; Bailey, Janelle M.; Trouille, Laura E.; Cochran, Geraldine L.; Camarillo, Carmen T.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2013-01-01

    Continuing our work from a previous study (Coble et al. 2013), we examine undergraduates' ideas on the composition of the Universe as they progress through a general education astronomy integrated lecture and laboratory course with a focus on active learning. The study was conducted over five semesters at an urban minority-serving institution. The…

  17. Supernovae, an accelerating universe and the cosmological constant

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of supernova explosions halfway back to the Big Bang give plausible evidence that the expansion of the universe has been accelerating since that epoch, approximately 8 billion years ago and suggest that energy associated with the vacuum itself may be responsible for the acceleration. PMID:10200242

  18. Cosmological solutions in spatially curved universes with adiabatic particle production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aresté Saló, Llibert; de Haro, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    We perform a qualitative and thermodynamic study of two models when one takes into account adiabatic particle production. In the first one, there is a constant particle production rate, which leads to solutions depicting the current cosmic acceleration but without inflation. The other one has solutions that unify the early and late time acceleration. These solutions converge asymptotically to the thermal equilibrium.

  19. Inflation in the early universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.

    1998-04-01

    In this talk it will be assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time. Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the Universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. The author calculates the ratio of the volumes of the Universe at two different times T1 and T2 after the big bang. The result conforms with the standard inflationary universe theory, but now it is obtained without assuming that the Universe is propelled by antigravity.

  20. Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.

  1. The Large-scale Structure of the Universe: Probes of Cosmology and Structure Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Yookyung

    The usefulness of large-scale structure as a probe of cosmology and structure formation is increasing as large deep surveys in multi-wavelength bands are becoming possible. The observational analysis of large-scale structure guided by large volume numerical simulations are beginning to offer us complementary information and crosschecks of cosmological parameters estimated from the anisotropies in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. Understanding structure formation and evolution and even galaxy formation history is also being aided by observations of different redshift snapshots of the Universe, using various tracers of large-scale structure. This dissertation work covers aspects of large-scale structure from the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, to that of large scale filaments and galaxy clusters. First, I discuss a large- scale structure use for high precision cosmology. I investigate the reconstruction of Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) peak within the context of Lagrangian perturbation theory, testing its validity in a large suite of cosmological volume N-body simulations. Then I consider galaxy clusters and the large scale filaments surrounding them in a high resolution N-body simulation. I investigate the geometrical properties of galaxy cluster neighborhoods, focusing on the filaments connected to clusters. Using mock observations of galaxy clusters, I explore the correlations of scatter in galaxy cluster mass estimates from multi-wavelength observations and different measurement techniques. I also examine the sources of the correlated scatter by considering the intrinsic and environmental properties of clusters.

  2. Panel Discussion Vi: Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E.; Dolgov, A.; Crothers, S.; Mitra, A.; Rubakov, V.; Zakharov, A.

    2014-03-01

    Questions to discuss: * To what extent are Dark Matter and Dark Energy necessary to explain the observed properties of the Universe? * Why are the Dark matter profiles so universal at the galactic scales? * Are there viable candidates of modified gravitational dynamics to exclude the dark components of Universe? * Do we have any perspectives to distinguish the Dark Energy from the cosmological constant? * Are there any certain indications for sterile neutrinos in the cosmos? * How does the Planck data change the view of inflation in the early Universe? What could be the origin of the inflaton plateau? So far, what else is interesting about the Planck data? * What are the nearest crucial points in cosmological observations? * Can we be more decisive discriminating between the anthropic principle, the superstringy landscape, fine tuning or dynamics as reasons for the cosmological coincidences?

  3. BOOK REVIEW: The Physics of the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Douglas

    2007-11-01

    The physics of the very small and the very large were successfully brought together in the 1980s through the idea of 'the universe as a particle accelerator'. The manifesto of this new campaign was laid out in the book 'The Early Universe' by Kolb and Turner in 1990. For at least the next decade that book was to be found on the shelves of every theorist (and many experimentalists) who professed an interest in this topic. But science marches on, and the last 10 15 years has seen an explosion in our understanding of the physics of the very earliest times and the very largest scales. Experimentally our world-view has changed utterly, through exquisitely precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background, galaxy clustering and supernova distances, with a refinement of the basic inflationary big bang paradigm into the new 'standard cosmological model'. And in tandem with these changes has been the development of new theoretical ideas, particularly involving dark energy and connections between string/brane theory and cosmology. So what is the new book for the shelves of today's cohort of young Rockys and Mikes? Despite a recent number of promising-sounding cosmology books, there is nothing at the advanced level which is broad enough to be a general introduction to the 'early universe' topic. Perhaps the best of the bunch is 'The Physics of the Early Universe', edited by E Papantonopoulos as part of Springer's series 'Lecture notes in physics'. This is a set of 9 review articles given as part of a 2003 summer school on Syros Island, Greece. Although far from perfect, the core of this book provides a solid introduction to current research in early universe physics, which should be useful for PhD students or postdoctoral researchers who want the real thing. The book starts with a competent introduction by Kyriakos Tamvakis, serving essentially as a summary of where we were in Kolb and Turner's text. We have learned since then, however, that inflation is really all

  4. Inflation in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Moshe

    In this talk it will be assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time (in which the cosmic time is measured backward with respect to the present time). Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the Universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. We calculate the ratio of the volumes of the Universe at two different times T1 and T2 after the Big Bang. Under the assumptions that T2 - T1 ≈ 10-32 sec and T2 ≪ 1 sec, we find that V_{2}/V_{1} = 10^{-16}/√{T_{1}}. For T1 ≈ 10-132 sec we obtain V2/V1 ≈ 1050. This result conforms with the standard inflationary universe theory, but now it is obtained without assuming that the Universe is propelled by antigravity.

  5. Artist's Concept of Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an artist's impression of how the very early universe (less than one billion years old) might have looked when it went through a voracious onset of star formation, converting primordial hydrogen into myriad stars at an unprecedented rate. The deepest views of the cosmos from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) yield clues that the very first stars may have burst into the universe as brilliantly and spectacularly as a firework finale. Except in this case, the finale came first, long before Earth, the Sun ,and the Milky Way Galaxy formed. Studies of HST's deepest views of the heavens lead to the preliminary conclusion that the universe made a significant portion of its stars in a torrential firestorm of star birth, which abruptly lit up the pitch-dark heavens just a few hundred million years after the 'big bang,' the tremendous explosion that created the cosmos. Within the starburst galaxies, bright knots of hot blue stars come and go like bursting fireworks shells. Regions of new starbirth glow intensely red under torrent of ultraviolet radiation. The most massive stars self-detonate as supernovas, which explode across the sky like a string of firecrackers. A foreground starburst galaxy at lower right is sculpted with hot bubbles from supernova explosions and torrential stellar winds. Unlike today there is very little dust in these galaxies, because the heavier elements have not yet been cooked up through nucleosynthesis in stars. Recent analysis of HST deep sky images supports the theory that the first stars in the universe appeared in an abrupt eruption of star formation, rather than at a gradual pace. Science Credit: NASA and K. Lanzetta (SUNY). Artwork Credit: Adolf Schaller for STScI.

  6. On the proposed existence of an anti-gravity regime in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, M. D.

    1982-02-01

    In an interesting letter, Linde has recently suggested that, as a result of the behaviour of dense matter in the early Universe, the realization of an anti-gravity phase is possible, in principle, without the intervention of quantum gravity. Using the Friedman cosmological model, we amplify the discussion given by Linde and find a difficulty with his interpretation.

  7. Taking the Measure of the Universe: Cosmology from the WMAP Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2003-01-01

    The data from the first year of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide the first detailed full sky map of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The anisotropy in the radiation temperature provides a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. These and other aspects of the mission will be discussed. The WMAP satellite was built in a close partnership between Princeton University and the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  8. Gruber Prize in Cosmology Awarded for the Discovery of the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Nearly a decade ago astronomers from two competing teams announced that they had found evidence for an accelerated cosmic expansion. The Gruber Prize in Cosmology 2007 honours this achievement and has been awarded to two groups: the Supernova Cosmology Project team, led by Saul Perlmutter (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), and the High-z Supernova Search Team, led by Brian Schmidt (Australian National University). Their results were based on the observations of distant Type Ia supernovae and were obtained with the major telescopes at the time (Riess et al. 1998, AJ 116, 1009; Perlmutter et al. 1999, ApJ 517, 565). Both teams used the 3.6-m telescope and the NTT to contribute photometry and spectroscopic classifications of the supernovae. Four people at ESO were directly involved in the two teams and are recognised as co-recipients of the Gruber Prize. Isobel Hook (now at Oxford University) and Chris Lidman (ESO Chile) were ESO Fellows when they contributed to the work of the Super- nova Cosmology Project, while Jason Spyromilio and Bruno Leibundgut (both ESO Garching) participated in the High-z Supernova Search Team.

  9. Isotropy of the early universe from CMB anisotropies

    SciT

    Donoghue, Evan P.; University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556; Donoghue, John F.

    The acoustic peak in the cosmic microwave background power spectrum is sensitive to causal processes and cosmological parameters in the early universe up to the time of last scattering. We provide limits on correlated spatial variations of the peak height and peak position and interpret these as constraints on the spatial variation of the cosmological parameters (baryon density, cold dark matter density, and cosmological constant as well as the amplitude and tilt of the original fluctuations). We utilize recent work of Hansen, Banday, and Gorski who have studied the spatial isotropy of the power spectrum as measured by WMAP bymore » performing the power spectrum analysis on smaller patches of the sky. We find that there is no statistically significant correlated asymmetry of the peak. Hansen, Banday, and Gorski have also provided preliminary indications of a preferred direction in the lower angular momentum range (l{approx}2-40) and we show how possible explanations of this asymmetry are severely constrained by the data on the acoustic peak. Finally we show a possible non-Gaussian feature in the data, associated with a difference in the northern and southern galactic hemispheres.« less

  10. Taking the Measure of the Universe: Cosmology from the WMAP Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2006-01-01

    The data from the first three years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy and new full-sky maps of the polarization. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. These and other aspects of the mission will be discussed. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30,2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Cornel1 University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; University of Pennsylvania; and University of California, Los Angeles

  11. Black hole shadow in an expanding universe with a cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlick, Volker; Tsupko, Oleg Yu.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennady S.

    2018-05-01

    We analytically investigate the influence of a cosmic expansion on the shadow of the Schwarzschild black hole. We suppose that the expansion is driven by a cosmological constant only and use the Kottler (or Schwarzschild-de Sitter) spacetime as a model for a Schwarzschild black hole embedded in a de Sitter universe. We calculate the angular radius of the shadow for an observer who is comoving with the cosmic expansion. It is found that the angular radius of the shadow shrinks to a nonzero finite value if the comoving observer approaches infinity.

  12. Taking the Measure of the Universe: Cosmology from the WMAP Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2007-01-01

    The data from the first three years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy and new full-sky maps of the polarization. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. These and other aspects of the mission will be discussed.

  13. Implications of an Absolute Simultaneity Theory for Cosmology and Universe Acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Kipreos, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    An alternate Lorentz transformation, Absolute Lorentz Transformation (ALT), has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains absolute simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light emissions from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift–distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe. PMID:25536116

  14. Implications of an absolute simultaneity theory for cosmology and universe acceleration.

    PubMed

    Kipreos, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    An alternate Lorentz transformation, Absolute Lorentz Transformation (ALT), has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains absolute simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light emissions from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift-distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe.

  15. Numerical relativity and the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    We consider numerical simulations in general relativity in ADM formalism with cosmological ansatz for the metric. This ansatz is convenient for investigations of the Universe creation in laboratory with Galileons. Here we consider toy model for the software: spherically symmetric scalar field minimally coupled to the gravity with asymmetric double well potential. We studied the dependence of radius of critical bubble on the parameters of the theory. It demonstrates the wide applicability of thin-wall approximation. We did not find any kind of stable bubble solution.

  16. Cosmology with the Square Kilometre Array by SKA-Japan

    SciT

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kohri, Kazunori

    In the past several decades, the standard cosmological model has been established and its parameters have been measured to a high precision, while there are still many fundamental questions in cosmology; such as the physics in the very early universe, the origin of the cosmic acceleration, and the nature of dark matter. The forthcoming radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which will be the world's largest, will be able to open a new frontier in cosmology and will be one of the most powerful tools for cosmology in the coming decade. The cosmological surveys conducted by the SKA wouldmore » have the potential not only to answer these fundamental questions but also deliver precision cosmology. In this article we briefly review the role of the SKA from the viewpoint of modern cosmology. Furthermore, the cosmological science led by the SKA-Japan Consortium (SKA-JP) Cosmology Science Working Group is also discussed.« less

  17. Cosmology with the Square Kilometre Array by SKA-Japan

    DOE PAGES

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kohri, Kazunori; ...

    2016-10-17

    In the past several decades, the standard cosmological model has been established and its parameters have been measured to a high precision, while there are still many fundamental questions in cosmology; such as the physics in the very early universe, the origin of the cosmic acceleration, and the nature of dark matter. The forthcoming radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which will be the world's largest, will be able to open a new frontier in cosmology and will be one of the most powerful tools for cosmology in the coming decade. The cosmological surveys conducted by the SKA wouldmore » have the potential not only to answer these fundamental questions but also deliver precision cosmology. In this article we briefly review the role of the SKA from the viewpoint of modern cosmology. Furthermore, the cosmological science led by the SKA-Japan Consortium (SKA-JP) Cosmology Science Working Group is also discussed.« less

  18. The Arrow of Time In a Universe with a Positive Cosmological Constant Λ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    There is a mounting evidence that our universe is propelled into an accelerated expansion driven by Dark Energy. The simplest form of Dark Energy is a cosmological constant Λ, which is woven into the fabric of spacetime. For this reason it is often referred to as vacuum energy. It has the "strange" property of maintaining a constant energy density despite the expanding volume of the universe. Universes whose energy ismade of Λ posses an event horizon with and eternally finite constant temperature and entropy, and are known as DeSitter geometries. Since the entropy of DeSitter spaces remains a finite constant, then the meaning of a thermodynamic arrow of time becomes unclear. Here we explore the consequences of a fundamental cosmological constant Λ for our universe. We show that when the gravitational entropy of a pure DeSitter state ultimately dominates over the matter entropy, then the thermodynamic arrow of time in our universe may reverse in scales of order a Hubble time. We find that due to the dynamics of gravity and entanglement with other domain, a finite size system such as a DeSitter patch with horizon size H 0 -1 has a finite lifetime ∆t. This phenomenon arises from the dynamic gravitational instabilities that develop during a DeSitter epoch and turn catastrophic. A reversed arrow of time is in disagreementwith observations. Thus we explore the possibilities that: Nature may not favor a fundamental Λ, or else general relativity may be modified in the infrared regime when Λ dominates the expansion of the Universe.

  19. Water Emission from Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarugula, Sreevani; Vieira, Joaquin

    2017-06-01

    The study of dusty star forming galaxies (DSFGs) is important to understand galaxy assembly in early universe. A bulk of star formation at z ˜ 2-3 takes place in DSFGs but are obscured by dust in optical/UV. However, they are extremely bright in far infrared (FIR) and submillimeter with infrared luminosities of 10^{11} - 10^{13} L_{⊙}. ALMA, with its high spatial and spectral resolution, has opened up a new window to study molecular lines, which are vital to our understanding of the excitation and physical processes in the galaxy. Carbon monoxide (CO) being the second most abundant and bright molecule after hydrogen (H_{2}), is an important tracer of star forming potential. Besides CO, water (H_{2}O) is also abundant and it's line strength is comparable to high-J CO lines in high redshift Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). Studies have shown H_{2}O to directly trace the FIR field and hence the star forming regions. Moreover, L_{H_{2}O}/L_{IR} ratio is nearly constant for five of the most important water lines and does not depend on the presence of AGN implying that H_{2}O is one of the best tracers of star forming regions (SFRs). This incredible correlation holds for nearly five orders of magnitude in luminosity and observed in both local and high redshift luminous infrared galaxies. In this talk, I will discuss the importance of H_{2}O in tracing FIR field and show the preliminary results of resolved water emission from three high-redshift gravitationally lensed South Pole Telescope (SPT) sources obtained from ALMA cycle 3 and cycle 4. These sources are among the first H_{2}O observations with resolved spatial scales ˜ 1 kpc and will prove to be important for ALMA and galaxy evolution studies.

  20. The Search for Cosmological Antimatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    For more than 40 years, experimentalists have searched in the cosmic radiation for evidence of antimatter which may have been created in the early Universe. The experimental evidence for cosmologically significant amounts of antimatter in the Universe is reviewed. There is no compelling evidence, either theoretical of experimental. However, the possibility is not completely ruled out.

  1. The Early Retirees of Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    Because an option for early retirement in Canadian Universities has created a need to know more about the vacancies early retirement creates and the potential to fill these vacancies, a survey of 15 representative universities was conducted. The sample included institutions of faculty numbering less than 100 to institutions of faculty numbering…

  2. The varying cosmological constant: a new approximation to the Friedmann equations and universe model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztaş, Ahmet M.; Dil, Emre; Smith, Michael L.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the time-dependent nature of the cosmological constant, Λ, of the Einstein Field Equation (EFE). Beginning with the Einstein-Hilbert action as our fundamental principle we develop a modified version of the EFE allowing the value of Λ to vary as a function of time, Λ(t), indirectly, for an expanding universe. We follow the evolving Λ presuming four-dimensional space-time and a flat universe geometry and present derivations of Λ(t) as functions of the Hubble constant, matter density, and volume changes which can be traced back to the radiation epoch. The models are more detailed descriptions of the Λ dependence on cosmological factors than previous, allowing calculations of the important parameters, Ωm and Ωr, to deep lookback times. Since we derive these without the need for extra dimensions or other special conditions our derivations are useful for model evaluation with astronomical data. This should aid resolution of several difficult problems of astronomy such as the best value for the Hubble constant at present and at recombination.

  3. Probing Models of Dark Matter and the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlofsky, Nicholas David

    This thesis discusses models for dark matter (DM) and their behavior in the early universe. An important question is how phenomenological probes can directly search for signals of DM today. Another topic of investigation is how the DM and other processes in the early universe must evolve. Then, astrophysical bounds on early universe dynamics can constrain DM. We will consider these questions in the context of three classes of DM models--weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), axions, and primordial black holes (PBHs). Starting with WIMPs, we consider models where the DM is charged under the electroweak gauge group of the Standard Model. Such WIMPs, if generated by a thermal cosmological history, are constrained by direct detection experiments. To avoid present or near-future bounds, the WIMP model or cosmological history must be altered in some way. This may be accomplished by the inclusion of new states that coannihilate with the WIMP or a period of non-thermal evolution in the early universe. Future experiments are likely to probe some of these altered scenarios, and a non-observation would require a high degree of tuning in some of the model parameters in these scenarios. Next, axions, as light pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons, are susceptible to quantum fluctuations in the early universe that lead to isocurvature perturbations, which are constrained by observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We ask what it would take to allow axion models in the face of these strong CMB bounds. We revisit models where inflationary dynamics modify the axion potential and discuss how isocurvature bounds can be relaxed, elucidating the difficulties in these constructions. Avoiding disruption of inflationary dynamics provides important limits on the parameter space. Finally, PBHs have received interest in part due to observations by LIGO of merging black hole binaries. We ask how these PBHs could arise through inflationary models and investigate the opportunity

  4. String inspired brane world cosmology.

    PubMed

    Germani, Cristiano; Sopuerta, Carlos F

    2002-06-10

    We consider brane world scenarios including the leading correction to the Einstein-Hilbert action suggested by superstring theory, the Gauss-Bonnet term. We obtain and study the complete set of equations governing the cosmological dynamics. We find they have the same form as those in Randall-Sundrum scenarios but with time-varying four-dimensional gravitational and cosmological constants. By studying the bulk geometry we show that this variation is produced by bulk curvature terms parametrized by the mass of a black hole. Finally, we show there is a coupling between these curvature terms and matter that can be relevant for early universe cosmology.

  5. Smoot Cosmology Group

    Links We bring the universe to you! University of California Berkeley Cosmology Group Lawrence Computational Cosmology Center Institute for Nuclear & Particle Astrophysics Supernova Acceleration Probe

  6. Cosmological antigravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    The long-derided cosmological constant - a contrivance of Albert Einstein's that represents a bizarre form of energy inherent in space itself - is one of two contenders for explaining changes in the expansion rate of the Universe.

  7. Galactic Pairs in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    In the spirit of Valentines Day, today well be exploring apparent pairs of galaxies in the distant, early universe. How can we tell whether these duos are actually paired galaxies, as opposed to disguised singles?Real Pair, or Trick of the Light?In the schematic timeline of the universe, the epoch of reionization is when the first galaxies and quasars began to form and evolve. [NASA]The statistics of merging galaxies throughout the universe reveal not only direct information about how galaxies interact, but also cosmological information about the structure of the universe. While weve observed many merging galaxy pairs at low redshift, however, its much more challenging to identify these duos in the early universe.A merging pair of galaxies at high redshift appears to us as a pair of unresolved blobs that lie close to each other in the sky. But spotting such a set of objects doesnt necessarily mean were looking at a merger! There are three possible scenarios to explain an observed apparent duo:Its a pair of galaxies in a stage of merger.Its a projection coincidence; the two galaxies arent truly near each other.Its a single galaxy being gravitationally lensed by a foreground object. This strong lensing produces the appearance of multiple galaxies.Hubble photometry of one of the three galaxy groups identified at z 8, with the galaxies in the image labeled with their corresponding approximate photometric redshifts. [Adapted from Chaikin et al. 2018]Hunting for Distant DuosIn a recent study led by Evgenii Chaikin (Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Russia), a team of scientists has explored the Hubble Ultra Deep Field in search ofhigh-redshift galaxies merging during the epoch of reionization, when the first galaxies formed and evolved.Using an approach called the dropout technique, which leverages the visibility of the galaxies in different wavelength filters, Chaikin and collaborators obtain approximate redshifts for an initial sample of 7

  8. Testing cosmology from fundamental considerations: Is the Friedmann universe intrinsically flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2014-02-01

    Recently Melia and Shevchuk (Mon Not R Astron Soc 419:2579,2012) (MS) have proposed the so-called cosmology where the "Gravitational Horizon" of the universe is equal to the distance travelled by light since "Big Bang". Here we would like to see whether the basic claim is correct or not because MS have not given any cogent derivation for the same. Essentially we will compare the twin expressions for the Einstein energy momentum complex (EMC) of the Friedmann universe obtained by using an appropriate superpotential and also by a direct method. To enable a meaningful comparison of the twin expressions, both are computed by using the same quasi-Cartesian coordinates. We however do not claim that Einstein EMC is superior to many other routes of defining EM of a self-gravitating system. In fact, for static isolated spherical syatems, the idea of a coordinate independent field energy of Lynden-Bell and Katz (Mon Not R Astron Soc 213:21, 1985) might be quite physically significant. Yet, here, we use Einstein EMC because (i) our system is non-static and not isolated one (ii) our primary aim is not find any absolute value of EM, and, finally, (iii) only Einstein pseudo-tensor offers equivalent twin expressions for EM which one can be equated irrespective of any physical significance. Following such comparison of equivalent twin expressions of Einstein energy, we find an exact proof as to why Friedmann universe must be spatially flat even though, mathematically one can conceive of curved spaces in any dimension. Additionally, it follows that, apparently, the scale factor as insisted by proposition. Nonetheless, because of close similarity of this form, , with the (vacuum) Milne metric, and also because of implied unphysical equation of state, cosmology is unlikely to represent the physical universe.

  9. Smoot Group Cosmology

    Image: NASA WMAP George F. Smoot and John Mather share the 2006 Nobel prize "for their the Universe About Cosmology Planck Satellite Launched Cosmology Videos Professor George Smoot's group science goals regarding cosmology. George Smoot named Director of Korean Cosmology Institute The GRB

  10. HERA: Illuminating Our Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBoer, David

    2014-06-01

    The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) roadmap is a staged plan for using the unique properties of the 21cm line from neutral hydrogen to probe our cosmic dawn, from the birth of the first stars and black holes, through the full reionization of the primordial intergalactic medium (IGM). HERA is a collaboration between the Precision Array Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), US-Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and MIT Epoch of Reionization (MITEOR) teams.The first phase of the HERA roadmap entailed the operation of the PAPER and MWA telescopes to explore techniques and designs required to detect the primordial HI signal in the presence of radio continuum foreground emission some four orders of magnitude brighter. Studies with PAPER and the MWA have led to a new understanding of the interplay of foreground and instrumental systematics in the context of a three-dimensional cosmological intensity-mapping experiment. We are now able to remove foregrounds to the limits of our sensitivity with these instruments, culminating in the first physically meaningful upper limits on the power spectrum of 2 cm emission from reionization.Building on this understanding, the next stage of HERA entails a new 14m diameter antenna element that is optimized both for sensitivity and for minimizing foreground systematics. Arranging these elements in a compact hexagonal grid yields an array that facilitates calibration, leverages proven foreground removal techniques, and is scalable to large collecting areas. The HERA phase II will be located in the radio quiet environment of the SKA site in Karoo, South Africa, and have a sensitivity close to two orders of magnitude better than PAPER and the MWA, with broader frequency coverage, HERA can paint an uninterrupted picture through reionization, back to the end of the Dark Ages.This paper will present a summary of the current understanding of the signal characteristics and measurements and describe this planned HERA telescope to

  11. Departures from the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertston-Walker Cosmological Model in an Inhomogeneous Universe: A Numerical Examination.

    PubMed

    Giblin, John T; Mertens, James B; Starkman, Glenn D

    2016-06-24

    While the use of numerical general relativity for modeling astrophysical phenomena and compact objects is commonplace, the application to cosmological scenarios is only just beginning. Here, we examine the expansion of a spacetime using the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formalism of numerical relativity in synchronous gauge. This work represents the first numerical cosmological study that is fully relativistic, nonlinear, and without symmetry. The universe that emerges exhibits an average Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) behavior; however, this universe also exhibits locally inhomogeneous expansion beyond that expected in linear perturbation theory around a FLRW background.

  12. De Sitter universe described by a binary mixture with a variable cosmological constant λ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    We have constructed a self-consistent system of Bianchi Type VI0 cosmology, and mingling of perfect fluid and dark energy in five dimensions. The usual equation of state p = γ ρ with γ \\in [0, 1] is chosen by the perfect fluid. The dark energy assumed to be chosen is taken into consideration to be either the quintessence or Chaplygin gas. The same solutions pertaining to the corresponding the field equations of Einstein are obtained as a quadrature. State parameter's equations for dark energy ω is found to be consistent enough with the recent observations of SNe Ia data (SNe Ia data with CMBR anisotropy) and galaxy clustering statistics. Here our models predict that the rate of expansion of Universe would increase with passage of time. The cosmological constant Λ is traced as a declining function of time and it gets nearer to a small positive value later on which is supported by the results from the current supernovae Ia observations. Also a detail discussion is made on the physical and geometrical aspects of the models.

  13. Ancient prototypes of the big bang and the Hot Universe (to the prehistory of some fundamental ideas in cosmology)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremeeva, A. I.

    Gamov's cosmological (as a matter of fact, cosmophysical!) Hot Universe theory, which shocked the astrophysics by its unusual universality at first, had "predecessors" in the antiquity. In spite of the ancient natural philosophers' poor scientific knowledge, their apprehension of the world as a whole helped them to catch some profound analogies and to express some surprising guesses concerning the process of the birth of the Universe.

  14. PhD Thesis: String theory in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, Rhiannon

    2009-11-01

    The intersection of string theory with cosmology is unavoidable in the early universe, and its exploration may shine light on both fields. In this thesis, three papers at this intersection are presented and reviewed, with the aim of providing a thorough and pedagogical guide to their results. First, we address the longstanding problem of finding a string theory realisation of the axion. Using warped compactifications in heterotic string theory, we show that the axion decay constant can be lowered to acceptable values by the warp factor. Next, we move to the subject of cosmic strings, whose network evolution could have important consequences for astrophysics and cosmology. In particular, there are quantitative differences between cosmic superstring networks and GUT cosmic string networks. We investigate the properties of cosmic superstring networks in warped backgrounds, giving the tension and properties of three-string junctions in these backgrounds. Finally, we examine the possibility that cosmic strings in heterotic string theory could be responsible for generating the galactic magnetic fields that seeded those observed today.

  15. Cosmology in the laboratory: An analogy between hyperbolic metamaterials and the Milne universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, David; Moraes, Fernando; Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Bertrand

    2017-11-01

    This article shows that the compactified Milne universe geometry, a toy model for the big crunch/big bang transition, can be realized in hyperbolic metamaterials, a new class of nanoengineered systems which have recently found its way as an experimental playground for cosmological ideas. On one side, Klein-Gordon particles, as well as tachyons, are used as probes of the Milne geometry. On the other side, the propagation of light in two versions of a liquid crystal-based metamaterial provides the analogy. It is shown that ray and wave optics in the metamaterial mimic, respectively, the classical trajectories and wave function propagation, of the Milne probes, leading to the exciting perspective of realizing experimental tests of particle tunneling through the cosmic singularity, for instance.

  16. Using Supercomputers to Probe the Early Universe

    SciT

    Giorgi, Elena Edi

    For decades physicists have been trying to decipher the first moments after the Big Bang. Using very large telescopes, for example, scientists scan the skies and look at how fast galaxies move. Satellites study the relic radiation left from the Big Bang, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. And finally, particle colliders, like the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, allow researchers to smash protons together and analyze the debris left behind by such collisions. Physicists at Los Alamos National Laboratory, however, are taking a different approach: they are using computers. In collaboration with colleagues at University of California San Diego,more » the Los Alamos researchers developed a computer code, called BURST, that can simulate conditions during the first few minutes of cosmological evolution.« less

  17. Harmonizing Physics & Cosmology With Everything Else in the Universe(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asija, Pal

    2006-03-01

    This paper postulates a theory of everything including our known finite physical universe within and as sub-set of an infinite virtual invisible universe occupying some of the same space and time. It attempts to harmonize astrophysics with everything else including life. It compares and contrasts properties, similarities, differences and relationships between the two universe(s). A particular attention is paid to the interface between the two and the challenges of building and/or traversing bridges between them. A number of inflection points between the two are identified. The paper also delineates their relationship to big bang, theory of evolution, gravity, dark matter, black holes, time travel, speed of light, theory of relativity and string theory just to name a few. Several new terms are introduced and defined to discuss proper relationship, transition and interface between the body, soul and spirit as well as their relationship to brain and mind. Physical bodies & beings are compared with virtual, meta and ultra bodies and beings and how the ``Virtual Inside'' relates to people, pets, plants and particles and their micro constituents as well as macro sets. The past, present, and potential of the concurrent universe(s) is compared and contrasted along with many myths and misconceptions of the meta physics as well as modern physics.

  18. Sterile neutrinos in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazajian, Kevork N.

    2017-11-01

    Sterile neutrinos are natural extensions to the standard model of particle physics in neutrino mass generation mechanisms. If they are relatively light, less than approximately 10 keV, they can alter cosmology significantly, from the early Universe to the matter and radiation energy density today. Here, we review the cosmological role such light sterile neutrinos can play from the early Universe, including production of keV-scale sterile neutrinos as dark matter candidates, and dynamics of light eV-scale sterile neutrinos during the weakly-coupled active neutrino era. We review proposed signatures of light sterile neutrinos in cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data. We also discuss keV-scale sterile neutrino dark matter decay signatures in X-ray observations, including recent candidate ∼3.5 keV X-ray line detections consistent with the decay of a ∼7 keV sterile neutrino dark matter particle.

  19. Disorder in the early universe

    SciT

    Green, Daniel, E-mail: drgreen@cita.utoronto.ca

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about the microscopic physics that gave rise to inflation in our universe. There are many reasons to wonder if the underlying description requires a careful arrangement of ingredients or if inflation was the result of an essentially random process. At a technical level, randomness in the microphysics of inflation is closely related to disorder in solids. We develop the formalism of disorder for inflation and investigate the observational consequences of quenched disorder. We find that a common prediction is the presence of additional noise in the power spectrum or bispectrum. At a phenomenological level, these results canmore » be recast in terms of a modulating field, allowing us to write the quadratic maximum likelihood estimator for this noise. Preliminary constraints on disorder can be derived from existing analyses but significant improvements should be possible with a dedicated treatment.« less

  20. Constraints on cosmological models and reconstructing the acceleration history of the Universe with gamma-ray burst distance indicators

    SciT

    Liang Nan; Wu Puxun; Zhang Shuangnan

    2010-04-15

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been regarded as standard candles at very high redshift for cosmology research. We have proposed a new method to calibrate GRB distance indicators with Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) data in a completely cosmology-independent way to avoid the circularity problem that had limited the direct use of GRBs to probe cosmology [N. Liang, W. K. Xiao, Y. Liu, and S. N. Zhang, Astrophys. J. 685, 354 (2008).]. In this paper, a simple method is provided to combine GRB data into the joint observational data analysis to constrain cosmological models; in this method those SNe Ia datamore » points used for calibrating the GRB data are not used to avoid any correlation between them. We find that the {Lambda}CDM model is consistent with the joint data in the 1-{sigma} confidence region, using the GRB data at high redshift calibrated with the interpolating method, the Constitution set of SNe Ia, the cosmic microwave background radiation from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five year observation, the baryonic acoustic oscillation from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy sample, the x-ray baryon mass fraction in clusters of galaxies, and the observational Hubble parameter versus redshift data. Comparing to the joint constraints with GRBs and without GRBs, we find that the contribution of GRBs to the joint cosmological constraints is a slight shift in the confidence regions of cosmological parameters to better enclose the {Lambda}CDM model. Finally, we reconstruct the acceleration history of the Universe up to z>6 with the distance moduli of SNe Ia and GRBs and find some features that deviate from the {Lambda}CDM model and seem to favor oscillatory cosmology models; however, further investigations are needed to better understand the situation.« less

  1. Standard cosmology delayed

    SciT

    Choudhury, Debajyoti; Ghoshal, Debashis; Sen, Anjan Ananda, E-mail: debajyoti.choudhury@gmail.com, E-mail: dghoshal@mail.jnu.ac.in, E-mail: anjan.ctp@jmi.ac.in

    2012-02-01

    The introduction of a delay in the Friedmann equation of cosmological evolution is shown to result in the very early universe undergoing the necessary accelerated expansion in the usual radiation (or matter) dominated phase. Occurring even without a violation of the strong energy condition, this expansion slows down naturally to go over to the decelerated phase, namely the standard Hubble expansion. This may obviate the need for a scalar field driven inflationary epoch.

  2. ΛCDM Cosmology Through the Lens of Einstein's Static Universe, the Mother of Λ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhatt, Nilay

    2013-03-01

    We show here that, in the context of Einstein's static universe (ESU), the static cosmological constant Λs = 0. We do so by extending (and not contradicting) the ESU relationship from Λs = 4πρ to Λs = 4πρ = 0, where ρ is the ESU matter density (G = c = 1). This extension follows from the fact that the elements of the spacetime geometry depend on pressure and energy density (ρ). Note in the ΛCDM model, Λ is associated with "Dark Energy (DE)." And, if Λ would be considered as a fundamental constant, it should be zero even for a dynamic universe. In such a case, the observed accelerated expansion could be an artifact of inhomogeneity [D. L. Wiltshire, Phys. Rev. D80 (2009) 123512; E. W. Kolb, Class. Quantum. Grav.28 (2011) 164009] or large peculiar acceleration of the Milky way [C. Tasgas, Phys. Rev. D84 (2011) 063503] or extinction of light of distant supernovae [R. E. Schild and M. Dekker, Astron. Nachr.327 (2006) 729, arXiv:astro-ph/0512236]. The same conclusion has also been obtained in an independent manner [A. Mitra, JCAP03 (2013) 007, doi: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/03/007].

  3. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    PubMed

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  4. A tale of two timescales: Mixing, mass generation, and phase transitions in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kost, Jeff; Thomas, Brooks

    2016-02-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically—such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions—the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system—often by many orders of magnitude—but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "reoverdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings.

  5. A Positive Cosmological Constant as Centrifugal Force in an Expanding Kantian Model of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternglass, E. J.

    1998-05-01

    Recent redshift measurements of distant Type Ia supernovae appear to indicate that cosmic expansion has speeded up since these distant stars exploded, rather than slowing down under the action of gravity. These results suggest the existence of a repulsive force as originally assumed by Einstein through the introduction of the lambda constant. Such a repulsive force arises naturally as centrifugal force in the evolution of a hierarchically organized cosmological model involving a series of rotating structures of increasing size as originally suggested by Kant in the 18th century when combined with the idea of Lemaitre, according to which the universe and the observed systems arose in the course of repeated divisions by two of a primeval atom. As described in the AIP Conference Proceedings 254,105 (1992), if this atom is assumed to be a highly relativistic form of positronium or "quarkonium" at the Planck density one avoids an initial singularity and requires no other particles. The division process takes place in 27 stages of 10 divisions each beginning with a lower mass excited state of the original Lemaitre atom that forms a central cluster in which a quarter of the particles are initially retained. One then arrives at a model in which all structures are laid down in the form of massive "cold dark matter" during a period of exponential growth or inflation before the Big Bang, leading to an ultimately stable, closed "flat" universe of finite mass that explains the masses, sizes, rotational and expansion velocities and thus the Hubble constants of the various systems as well as the age of the universe since the Big Bang in good agreement with observations, using only e, mo, c and h.

  6. Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Perlmutter, S.; Aldering, G.; Della Valle, M.; Deustua, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fruchter, A.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I. M.; Kim, A. G.; Kim, M. Y.; Knop, R. A.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R. G.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Panagia, N.; Pennypacker, C. R.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.

    1997-12-16

    The ultimate fate of the universe, infinite expansion or a big crunch, can be determined by measuring the redshifts, apparent brightnesses, and intrinsic luminosities of very distant supernovae. Recent developments have provided tools that make such a program practicable: (1) Studies of relatively nearby Type la supernovae (SNe la) have shown that their intrinsic luminosities can be accurately determined; (2) New research techniques have made it possible to schedule the discovery and follow-up observations of distant supernovae, producing well over 50 very distant (z = 0.3-0.7) SNe Ia to date. These distant supernovae provide a record of changes in the expansion rate over the past several billion years. By making precise measurements of supernovae at still greater distances, and thus extending this expansion history back far enough in time, we can even distinguish the slowing caused by the gravitational attraction of the universe's mass density {Omega}{sub M} from the effect of a possibly inflationary pressure caused by a cosmological constant {Lambda}. We report here the first such measurements, with our discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN 1997ap) at z = 0.83. Measurements at the Keck II 10-m telescope make this the most distant spectroscopically confirmed supernova. Over two months of photometry of SN 1997ap with the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, when combined with previous measurements of nearer SNe la, suggests that we may live in a low mass-density universe. Further supernovae at comparable distances are currently scheduled for ground and space-based observations.

  7. An ancient revisits cosmology.

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, J L

    1993-01-01

    In this after-dinner speech, a somewhat light-hearted attempt is made to view the observational side of physical cosmology as a subdiscipline of astrophysics, still in an early stage of sophistication and in need of more theoretical understanding. The theoretical side of cosmology, in contrast, has its deep base in general relativity. A major result of observational cosmology is that an expansion of the Universe arose from a singularity some 15 billion years ago. This has had an enormous impact on the public's view of both astronomy and theology. It places on cosmologists an extra responsibility for clear thinking and interpretation. Recently, gravitational physics caused another crisis from an unexpected observational result that nonbaryonic matter appears to dominate. Will obtaining information about this massive nonbaryonic component require that astronomers cease to rely on measurement of photons? But 40 years ago after radio astronomical techniques uncovered the high-energy universe, we happily introduced new subfields, with techniques from physics and engineering still tied to photon detection. Another historical example shows how a subfield of cosmology, big bang nucleosynthesis, grew in complexity from its spectroscopic astrophysics beginning 40 years ago. Determination of primordial abundances of lighter nuclei does illuminate conditions in the Big Bang, but the observational results faced and overcame many hurdles on the way. PMID:11607403

  8. An Ancient Revisits Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstein, Jesse L.

    1993-06-01

    In this after-dinner speech, a somewhat light-hearted attempt is made to view the observational side of physical cosmology as a subdiscipline of astrophysics, still in an early stage of sophistication and in need of more theoretical understanding. The theoretical side of cosmology, in contrast, has its deep base in general relativity. A major result of observational cosmology is that an expansion of the Universe arose from a singularity some 15 billion years ago. This has had an enormous impact on the public's view of both astronomy and theology. It places on cosmologists an extra responsibility for clear thinking and interpretation. Recently, gravitational physics caused another crisis from an unexpected observational result that nonbaryonic matter appears to dominate. Will obtaining information about this massive nonbaryonic component require that astronomers cease to rely on measurement of photons? But 40 years ago after radio astronomical techniques uncovered the high-energy universe, we happily introduced new subfields, with techniques from physics and engineering still tied to photon detection. Another historical example shows how a subfield of cosmology, big bang nucleosynthesis, grew in complexity from its spectroscopic astrophysics beginning 40 years ago. Determination of primordial abundances of lighter nuclei does illuminate conditions in the Big Bang, but the observational results faced and overcame many hurdles on the way.

  9. Cosmological element production.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, R V

    1967-03-17

    Two recent observations appear to have provided critical information about the past history of the universe. The thermal character of the microwave background radiation suggests that the universe has expanded from a state of high temperature and density, and places constraints on such a big-bang cosmology. The observations of very weak helium lines in the spectra of certain stars in the halo of our galaxy are possibly due to a low primeval abundance of this element. However, the simplest model of a big-bang cosmology leads to much higher helium abundances, such as are observed in the solar system and in many stars. The production of helium can be reduced either by altering the early expansion rate or by introducing degenerate electron neutrinos. Observations of interstellar and intergalactic deuterium and He(4), and possibly even He(3) and Li(7), are needed to test the various models.

  10. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Tomalak, Oleksandr; Shtanov, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of `inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  11. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    SciT

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Shtanov, Yuri; Tomalak, Oleksandr, E-mail: maxsydorenko@gmail.com, E-mail: tomalak@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field andmore » lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.« less

  12. Black holes in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian

    2012-12-01

    The existence of massive black holes (MBHs) was postulated in the 1960s, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late 1990s their reality was proven beyond doubt in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of MBHs. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion years of the Universe. The first MBHs must therefore have formed around the time the first stars and galaxies formed. Dynamical evidence also indicates that black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses ordinarily dwell in the centers of today's galaxies. MBHs populate galaxy centers today, and shone as quasars in the past; the quiescent black holes that we detect now in nearby bulges are the dormant remnants of this fiery past. In this review we report on basic, but critical, questions regarding the cosmological significance of MBHs. What physical mechanisms led to the formation of the first MBHs? How massive were the initial MBH seeds? When and where did they form? How is the growth of black holes linked to that of their host galaxy? The answers to most of these questions are works in progress, in the spirit of these reports on progress in physics.

  13. Possible evolution of a bouncing universe in cosmological models with non-minimally coupled scalar fields

    SciT

    Pozdeeva, Ekaterina O.; Vernov, Sergey Yu.; Skugoreva, Maria A.

    2016-12-01

    We explore dynamics of cosmological models with bounce solutions evolving on a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker background. We consider cosmological models that contain the Hilbert-Einstein curvature term, the induced gravity term with a negative coupled constant, and even polynomial potentials of the scalar field. Bounce solutions with non-monotonic Hubble parameters have been obtained and analyzed. The case when the scalar field has the conformal coupling and the Higgs-like potential with an opposite sign is studied in detail. In this model the evolution of the Hubble parameter of the bounce solution essentially depends on the sign of the cosmological constant.

  14. Scalar field and time varying cosmological constant in f(R,T) gravity for Bianchi type-I universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G. P.; Bishi, Binaya K.; Sahoo, P. K.

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we have analysed the behaviour of scalar field and cosmological constant in $f(R,T)$ theory of gravity. Here, we have considered the simplest form of $f(R,T)$ i.e. $f(R,T)=R+2f(T)$, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $T$ is the trace of the energy momentum tensor and explored the spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Locally Rotationally Symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I cosmological model. It is assumed that the Universe is filled with two non-interacting matter sources namely scalar field (normal or phantom) with scalar potential and matter contribution due to $f(R,T)$ action. We have discussed two cosmological models according to power law and exponential law of the volume expansion along with constant and exponential scalar potential as sub models. Power law models are compatible with normal (quintessence) and phantom scalar field whereas exponential volume expansion models are compatible with only normal (quintessence) scalar field. The values of cosmological constant in our models are in agreement with the observational results. Finally, we have discussed some physical and kinematical properties of both the models.

  15. Black hole formation in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J.

    2013-08-01

    Supermassive black holes with up to a 109 M⊙ dwell in the centres of present-day galaxies, and their presence has been confirmed at z ≥ 6. Their formation at such early epochs is still an enigma. Different pathways have been suggested to assemble supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the big bang. Direct collapse has emerged as a highly plausible scenario to form black holes as it provides seed masses of 105-106 M⊙. Gravitational collapse in atomic cooling haloes with virial temperatures Tvir ≥ 104 K may lead to the formation of massive seed black holes in the presence of an intense background ultraviolet flux. Turbulence plays a central role in regulating accretion and transporting angular momentum. We present here the highest resolution cosmological large eddy simulations to date which track the evolution of high-density regions on scales of 0.25 au beyond the formation of the first peak, and study the impact of subgrid-scale turbulence. The peak density reached in these simulations is 1.2 × 10-8 g cm-3. Our findings show that while fragmentation occasionally occurs, it does not prevent the growth of a central massive object resulting from turbulent accretion and occasional mergers. The central object reaches ˜1000 M⊙ within four free-fall times, and we expect further growth up to 106 M⊙ through accretion in about 1 Myr. The direct collapse model thus provides a viable pathway of forming high-mass black holes at early cosmic times.

  16. Cosmological footprints of loop quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Grain, J; Barrau, A

    2009-02-27

    The primordial spectrum of cosmological tensor perturbations is considered as a possible probe of quantum gravity effects. Together with string theory, loop quantum gravity is one of the most promising frameworks to study quantum effects in the early universe. We show that the associated corrections should modify the potential seen by gravitational waves during the inflationary amplification. The resulting power spectrum should exhibit a characteristic tilt. This opens a new window for cosmological tests of quantum gravity.

  17. DMR 'Map of the Early Universe.'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    DMR 'Map of the Early Universe.' This false-color image shows tiny variations in the intensity of the cosmic microwave background measured in four years of observations by the Differential Microwave Radiometers on NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). The cosmic microwave background is widely believed to be a remnant of the Big Bang; the blue and red spots correspond to regions of greater or lesser density in the early Universe. These 'fossilized' relics record the distribution of matter and energy in the early Universe before the matter became organized into stars and galaxies. While the initial discovery of variations in the intensity of the CMB (made by COBE in 1992) was based on a mathematical examination of the data, this picture of the sky from the full four-year mission gives an accurate visual impression of the data. The features traced in this map stretch across the visible Universe: the largest features seen by optical telescopes, such as the 'Great Wall' of galaxies, would fit neatly within the smallest feature in this map. (See Bennett et al. 1996, ApJ, 464, L1 and references therein for details.)

  18. On under-determination in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2014-05-01

    I discuss how modern cosmology illustrates under-determination of theoretical hypotheses by data, in ways that are different from most philosophical discussions. I emphasise cosmology's concern with what data could in principle be collected by a single observer (Section 2); and I give a broadly sceptical discussion of cosmology's appeal to the cosmological principle as a way of breaking the under-determination (Section 3). I confine most of the discussion to the history of the observable universe from about one second after the Big Bang, as described by the mainstream cosmological model: in effect, what cosmologists in the early 1970s dubbed the 'standard model', as elaborated since then. But in the closing Section 4, I broach some questions about times earlier than one second.

  19. Classical and quantum cosmology of minimal massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, F.; Mousavi, M.

    2016-10-01

    In a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time background we study the classical cosmological models in the context of recently proposed theory of nonlinear minimal massive bigravity. We show that in the presence of perfect fluid the classical field equations acquire contribution from the massive graviton as a cosmological term which is positive or negative depending on the dynamical competition between two scale factors of bigravity metrics. We obtain the classical field equations for flat and open universes in the ordinary and Schutz representation of perfect fluid. Focusing on the Schutz representation for flat universe, we find classical solutions exhibiting singularities at early universe with vacuum equation of state. Then, in the Schutz representation, we study the quantum cosmology for flat universe and derive the Schrodinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We find its exact and wave packet solutions and discuss on their properties to show that the initial singularity in the classical solutions can be avoided by quantum cosmology. Similar to the study of Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal in the quantum cosmology of de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, it turns out that the mass of graviton predicted by quantum cosmology of the minimal massive bigravity is large at early universe. This is in agreement with the fact that at early universe the cosmological constant should be large.

  20. The Decoherence and Interference of Cosmological Arrows of Time for a de Sitter Universe with Quantum Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotondo, Marcello; Nambu, Yasusada

    2018-06-01

    We consider the superposition of two semiclassical solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for a de Sitter universe, describing a quantized scalar vacuum propagating in a universe that is contracting in one case and expanding in the other, each identifying a opposite cosmological arrow of time. We discuss the suppression of the interference terms between the two arrows of time due to environment-induced decoherence caused by modes of the scalar vacuum crossing the Hubble horizon. Furthermore, we quantify the effect of the interference on the expectation value of the observable field mode correlations, with respect to an observer that we identify with the spatial geometry.

  1. QCD development in the early universe

    SciT

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru

    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  2. The Higgs field and the resolution of the Cosmological Constant Paradox in the Weyl-geometrical Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martini, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of Weyl's differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved space-time. Within this novel geometrical scenario, the standard electroweak theory of leptons based on the SU(2)L⊗U(1)Y as well as on the conformal groups of space-time Weyl's transformations is analysed within the framework of a general-relativistic, conformally covariant scalar-tensor theory that includes the electromagnetic and the Yang-Mills fields. A Higgs mechanism within a spontaneous symmetry breaking process is identified and this offers formal connections between some relevant properties of the elementary particles and the dark energy content of the Universe. An `effective cosmological potential': Veff is expressed in terms of the dark energy potential: via the `mass reduction parameter': , a general property of the Universe. The mass of the Higgs boson, which is considered a `free parameter' by the standard electroweak theory, by our theory is found to be proportional to the mass which accounts for the measured cosmological constant, i.e. the measured content of vacuum-energy in the Universe. The non-integrable application of Weyl's geometry leads to a Proca equation accounting for the dynamics of a φρ-particle, a vector-meson proposed as an an optimum candidate for dark matter. On the basis of previous cosmic microwave background results our theory leads, in the condition of cosmological `critical density', to the assessment of the average energy content of the φρ-excitation. The peculiar mathematical structure of Veff offers a clue towards a very general resolution of a most

  3. The Higgs field and the resolution of the Cosmological Constant Paradox in the Weyl-geometrical Universe.

    PubMed

    De Martini, Francesco

    2017-11-13

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of Weyl's differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved space-time. Within this novel geometrical scenario, the standard electroweak theory of leptons based on the SU (2) L ⊗ U (1) Y as well as on the conformal groups of space-time Weyl's transformations is analysed within the framework of a general-relativistic, conformally covariant scalar-tensor theory that includes the electromagnetic and the Yang-Mills fields. A Higgs mechanism within a spontaneous symmetry breaking process is identified and this offers formal connections between some relevant properties of the elementary particles and the dark energy content of the Universe. An 'effective cosmological potential': V eff is expressed in terms of the dark energy potential: [Formula: see text] via the 'mass reduction parameter': [Formula: see text], a general property of the Universe. The mass of the Higgs boson, which is considered a 'free parameter' by the standard electroweak theory, by our theory is found to be proportional to the mass [Formula: see text] which accounts for the measured cosmological constant, i.e. the measured content of vacuum-energy in the Universe. The non-integrable application of Weyl's geometry leads to a Proca equation accounting for the dynamics of a ϕ ρ -particle, a vector-meson proposed as an an optimum candidate for dark matter. On the basis of previous cosmic microwave background results our theory leads, in the condition of cosmological 'critical density', to the assessment of the average energy content of the ϕ ρ -excitation. The peculiar mathematical structure of V eff offers a clue towards a very general resolution of a most intriguing puzzle of modern quantum field theory, the 'Cosmological Constant Paradox' (here referred to as the ' Λ -Paradox'). Indeed, our 'universal' theory offers a resolution of the Λ -Paradox

  4. Protostar formation in the early universe.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-08-01

    The nature of the first generation of stars in the universe remains largely unknown. Observations imply the existence of massive primordial stars early in the history of the universe, and the standard theory for the growth of cosmic structure predicts that structures grow hierarchically through gravitational instability. We have developed an ab initio computer simulation of the formation of primordial stars that follows the relevant atomic and molecular processes in a primordial gas in an expanding universe. The results show that primeval density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang can drive the formation of a tiny protostar with a mass 1% that of the Sun. The protostar is a seed for the subsequent formation of a massive primordial star.

  5. An Introduction to Galaxies and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mark H.; Lambourne, Robert J. A.; Serjeant, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction; 1. The Milky Way - our galaxy; 2. Normal galaxies; 3. Active galaxies; 4. The spatial distribution of galaxies; 5. Introducing cosmology - the science of the Universe; 6. Big bang cosmology - the evolving Universe; 7. Observational cosmology - measuring the Universe; 8. Questioning cosmology - outstanding problems about the Universe; Answers and comments; Appendix; Glossary; Further reading; Acknowledgements; Figure references; Index.

  6. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  7. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2008-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown university; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  8. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  9. Observational Constraints on Models of the Universe with Time Variable Gravitational and Cosmological Constants Along MOG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, M.; Mazhari, N. S.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R.; Raza, M.

    2015-02-01

    The subject of this paper is to investigate the weak regime covariant scalar-tensor-vector gravity (STVG) theory, known as the MOdified gravity (MOG) theory of gravity. First, we show that the MOG in the absence of scalar fields is converted into Λ( t), G( t) models. Time evolution of the cosmological parameters for a family of viable models have been investigated. Numerical results with the cosmological data have been adjusted. We've introduced a model for dark energy (DE) density and cosmological constant which involves first order derivatives of Hubble parameter. To extend this model, correction terms including the gravitational constant are added. In our scenario, the cosmological constant is a function of time. To complete the model, interaction terms between dark energy and dark matter (DM) manually entered in phenomenological form. Instead of using the dust model for DM, we have proposed DM equivalent to a barotropic fluid. Time evolution of DM is a function of other cosmological parameters. Using sophisticated algorithms, the behavior of various quantities including the densities, Hubble parameter, etc. have been investigated graphically. The statefinder parameters have been used for the classification of DE models. Consistency of the numerical results with experimental data of S n e I a + B A O + C M B are studied by numerical analysis with high accuracy.

  10. Nucleosynthesis in relation to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Eid, Mounib F.

    2018-04-01

    While the primordial (or Big Bang) nucleosynthesis delivers important clues about the conditions in the high red-shift universe (termed far-field cosmology), the nucleosynthesis of the heavy elements beyond iron by the r-process or the s-process deliver information about the early phase and history of the Galaxy (termed near-field cosmology). In particular, the r-process nucleosynthesis is unique, because it is a primary process that helps to associate individual stars with the composition of the protocloud. The present contribution is intended to give a brief overview about these nucleosynthesis processes and describe their link to the early universe, stellar evolution and to the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The focus of this present contribution is on illumination the role of nucleosynthesis in the Universe. Owing to the complexity of this subject, a general scenario is more appealing to address interested readers.

  11. Exact solutions, finite time singularities and non-singular universe models from a variety of Λ(t) cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Supriya

    2018-01-01

    Cosmological models with time-dependent Λ (read as Λ(t)) have been investigated widely in the literature. Models that solve background dynamics analytically are of special interest. Additionally, the allowance of past or future singularities at finite cosmic time in a specific model signals for a generic test on its viabilities with the current observations. Following these, in this work we consider a variety of Λ(t) models focusing on their evolutions and singular behavior. We found that a series of models in this class can be exactly solved when the background universe is described by a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) line element. The solutions in terms of the scale factor of the FLRW universe offer different universe models, such as power-law expansion, oscillating, and the singularity free universe. However, we also noticed that a large number of the models in this series permit past or future cosmological singularities at finite cosmic time. At last we close the work with a note that the avoidance of future singularities is possible for certain models under some specific restrictions.

  12. Non-Friedmann cosmology for the Local Universe, significance of the universal Hubble constant, and short-distance indicators of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Baryshev, Yu. V.

    2006-09-01

    Based on the increasing evidence of the cosmological relevance of the local Hubble flow, we consider a simple analytical cosmological model for the Local Universe. This is a non-Friedmann model with a non-uniform static space-time. The major dynamical factor controlling the local expansion is the antigravity produced by the omnipresent and permanent dark energy of the cosmic vacuum (or the cosmological constant). The antigravity dominates at larger distances than 1-2 Mpc from the center of the Local group. The model gives a natural explanation of the two key quantitative characteristics of the local expansion flow, which are the local Hubble constant and the velocity dispersion of the flow. The observed kinematical similarity of the local and global flows of expansion is clarified by the model. We analytically demonstrate the efficiency of the vacuum cooling mechanism that allows one to see the Hubble law this close to the Local group. The "universal Hubble constant" HV (≈60 km s-1 Mpc-1), depending only on the vacuum density, has special significance locally and globally. The model makes a number of verifiable predictions. It also unexpectedly shows that the dwarf galaxies of the local flow with the shortest distances and lowest redshifts may be the most sensitive indicators of dark energy in our neighborhood.

  13. Exploring the Early Universe on Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Dale; McGrath, E. J.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The widespread adoption of smart phones and tablet computers has the potential to revolutionize the way in which educational material is shared with the general public. As part of the outreach effort for the CANDELS survey, we have developed a free interactive astronomy education application named Hubble Universe for iPad and iPhone devices. The application focuses on extragalactic science topics related to the CANDELS legacy survey, which is documenting galaxy evolution in the early universe. I will provide an overview of the application, which contains a wide range of interactive content, including 3D models of astrophysical phenomenon, informative diagrams and computer simulations. I will discuss how the application can be used to enhance classroom learning both by providing a database of interactive media and by encouraging students to explore astronomical topics away from traditional settings like the classroom or the desktop computer.

  14. Matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe via string-inspired CPT violation at early eras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2018-01-01

    In four-space-time dimensional string/brane theory, obtained either through compactification of the extra spatial dimensions, or by appropriate restriction to brane worlds with three large spatial dimensions, the rich physics potential associated with the presence of non-trivial Kalb-Ramond (KR) axion-like fields has not been fully exploited so far. In this talk, I discuss a scenario whereby such fields produce spontaneous Lorentz- and CPT-violating cosmological backgrounds over which strings propagate, which in the early Universe can lead to Baryogenesis through Leptogenesis in models with heavy right-handed neutrinos.

  15. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Sushkov, Sergey V.; Volkov, Mikhail S.

    2016-06-01

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing ``the emergence of time''. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.

  16. The quantum Higgs field and the resolution of the cosmological constant paradox in the Weyl-geometrical Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Martini, Francesco

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of the Weyl’s differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved spacetime. Within this novel geometrical scenario, the standard electroweak theory of leptons based on the SU(2)L⊗U(1)Y as well as on the conformal groups of spacetime Weyl’s transformations is analyzed within the framework of a general-relativistic, conformally-covariant scalar-tensor theory that includes the electromagnetic and the Yang-Mills fields. A Higgs mechanism within a spontaneous symmetry breaking process is identified and this offers formal connections between some relevant properties of the elementary particles and the dark energy content of the Universe. An “effective cosmological potential”: Veff is expressed in terms of the dark energy potential: |VΛ| via the “mass reduction parameter”: |ζ|≡|Veff||VΛ|, a general property of the Universe. The mass of the Higgs boson, which is considered a “free parameter” by the standard electroweak theory, by our theory is found to be proportional to the mass MU≡|Veff| which contributes to the measured Cosmological Constant, i.e. the measured content of vacuum-energy in the Universe. The nonintegrable application of the Weyl’s geometry leads to a Proca equation accounting for the dynamics of a ϕρ-particle, a vector-meson proposed as an optimum candidate for Dark Matter. The peculiar mathematical structure of Veff offers a clue towards a very general resolution in 4-D of a most intriguing puzzle of modern quantum field theory, the “cosmological constant paradox”(here referred to as: “Λ-paradox”). Indeed, our “universal” theory offers a resolution of the “Λ-paradox” for all exponential inflationary potentials: VΛ(ϕ)∝e‑nϕ, and for all linear superpositions of these potentials, where n belongs to the mathematical set of the “real numbers”. An explicit

  17. Cosmological models in energy-momentum-squared gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Board, Charles V. R.; Barrow, John D.

    2017-12-01

    We study the cosmological effects of adding terms of higher order in the usual energy-momentum tensor to the matter Lagrangian of general relativity. This is in contrast to most studies of higher-order gravity which focus on generalizing the Einstein-Hilbert curvature contribution to the Lagrangian. The resulting cosmological theories give rise to field equations of similar form to several particular theories with different fundamental bases, including bulk viscous cosmology, loop quantum gravity, k -essence, and brane-world cosmologies. We find a range of exact solutions for isotropic universes, discuss their behaviors with reference to the early- and late-time evolution, accelerated expansion, and the occurrence or avoidance of singularities. We briefly discuss extensions to anisotropic cosmologies and delineate the situations where the higher-order matter terms will dominate over anisotropies on approach to cosmological singularities.

  18. A simple model of universe describing the early inflation and the late accelerated expansion in a symmetric manner

    SciT

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    We construct a simple model of universe which 'unifies' vacuum energy and radiation on the one hand, and matter and dark energy on the other hand in the spirit of a generalized Chaplygin gas model. Specifically, the phases of early inflation and late accelerated expansion are described by a generalized equation of state p/c{sup 2} = αρ+kρ{sup 1+1/n} having a linear component p = αρc{sup 2} and a polytropic component p = kρ{sup 1+1/n}c{sup 2}. For α= 1/3, n= 1 and k=−4/(3ρ{sub P}), where ρ{sub P}= 5.1610{sup 99} g/m{sup 3} is the Planck density, this equation of state describes themore » transition between the vacuum energy era and the radiation era. For t≥ 0, the universe undergoes an inflationary expansion that brings it from the Planck size l{sub P}= 1.6210{sup −35} m to a size a{sub 1}= 2.6110{sup −6} m on a timescale of about 23.3 Planck times t{sub P}= 5.3910{sup −44} s (early inflation). When t > t{sub 1}= 23.3t{sub P}, the universe decelerates and enters in the radiation era. We interpret the transition from the vacuum energy era to the radiation era as a second order phase transition where the Planck constant ℏ plays the role of finite size effects (the standard Big Bang theory is recovered for ℏ= 0). For α= 0, n=−1 and k=−ρ{sub Λ}, where ρ{sub Λ}= 7.0210{sup −24} g/m{sup 3} is the cosmological density, the equation of state p/c{sup 2} = αρ+kρ{sup 1+1/n} describes the transition from a decelerating universe dominated by pressureless matter (baryonic and dark matter) to an accelerating universe dominated by dark energy (late inflation). This transition takes place at a size a{sub 2}= 0.204l{sub Λ}. corresponding to a time t{sub 2}= 0.203t{sub Λ} where l{sub Λ}= 4.38 10{sup 26} m is the cosmological length and t{sub Λ}= 1.46 10{sup 18} s the cosmological time. The present universe turns out to be just at the transition between these two periods (t{sub 0}∼t{sub 2}). Our model gives the same results as the standard

  19. The Development of Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Cosmologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses early Euclidean cosmologies, inadequacies in classical Euclidean cosmology, and the development of non-Euclidean cosmologies. Explains the present state of the theory of cosmology including the work of Dirac, Sandage, and Gott. (CP)

  20. The Age of Precision Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as Uinflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  1. On the cosmological gravitational waves and cosmological distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinski, V. A.; Vereshchagin, G. V.

    2018-03-01

    We show that solitonic cosmological gravitational waves propagated through the Friedmann universe and generated by the inhomogeneities of the gravitational field near the Big Bang can be responsible for increase of cosmological distances.

  2. Loophole to the universal photon spectrum in electromagnetic cascades and application to the cosmological lithium problem.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale Dario

    2015-03-06

    The standard theory of electromagnetic cascades onto a photon background predicts a quasiuniversal shape for the resulting nonthermal photon spectrum. This has been applied to very disparate fields, including nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). However, once the energy of the injected photons falls below the pair-production threshold the spectral shape is much harder, a fact that has been overlooked in past literature. This loophole may have important phenomenological consequences, since it generically alters the BBN bounds on nonthermal relics; for instance, it allows us to reopen the possibility of purely electromagnetic solutions to the so-called "cosmological lithium problem," which were thought to be excluded by other cosmological constraints. We show this with a proof-of-principle example and a simple particle physics model, compared with previous literature.

  3. Numerical Results for a Polytropic Cosmology Interpreted as a Dust Universe Producing Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapp, J.; Cervantes-Cota, J.; Chauvet, P.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. A nivel cosmol6gico pensamos que se ha estado prodticiendo radiaci6n gravitacional en cantidades considerables dentro de las galaxias. Si los eventos prodnctores de radiaci6n gravitatoria han venido ocurriendo desde Ia epoca de Ia formaci6n de las galaxias, cuando menos, sus efectos cosmol6gicos pueden ser tomados en cuenta con simplicidad y elegancia al representar la producci6n de radiaci6n y, por consiguiente, su interacci6n con materia ordinaria fenomenol6gicamente a trave's de una ecuaci6n de estado politr6pica, como lo hemos mostrado en otros trabajos. Presentamos en este articulo resultados nunericos de este modelo. ABSTRACT A common believe in cosmology is that gravitational radiation in considerable quantities is being produced within the galaxies. Ifgravitational radiation production has been running since the galaxy formation epoch, at least, its cosmological effects can be assesed with simplicity and elegance by representing the production of radiation and, therefore, its interaction with ordinary matter phenomenologically through a polytropic equation of state as shown already elsewhere. We present in this paper the numerical results of such a model. K words: COSMOLOGY - GRAVITATION

  4. Medieval Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, E.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    During the early Middle Ages (ca 500 to ca 1130) scholars with an interest in cosmology had little useful and dependable literature. They relied heavily on a partial Latin translation of PLATO's Timaeus by Chalcidius (4th century AD), and on a series of encyclopedic treatises associated with the names of Pliny the Elder (ca AD 23-79), Seneca (4 BC-AD 65), Macrobius (fl 5th century AD), Martianus ...

  5. Cosmology in Mr. Tompkins' Lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Rudi Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mr. Tompkins, the hero of George Gamow's most famous book, was born in the first decade of the twentieth century and lived until its end. A bank clerk by day, Mr. Tompkins had wide-ranging interests, and his curiosity led him to popular scientific presentations, and these in turn brought him a long and happy marriage to Maud, the daughter of a professor of physics. His lifetime offers an appropriate framework for a meditation on the history of cosmology during the century in which cosmology became a scientific enterprise. As it happens, Mr. Tompkins' first exposure to cosmology, in which he observed both the expansion and contraction of an oscillating universe in 1939, happened during the long night of relativity, the generation in which relativity specialists became few and, like the galaxies, far between. This talk will consider the heyday of early relativistic cosmology from 1917 to 1935, the causes and consequences of the "long night" from 1935 until 1963, and the renaissance of cosmology, which, occurring as it did upon the retirement of Mr. Tompkins, afforded him great pleasure in his later years.

  6. The Philosophy of Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamcham, Khalil; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.; Saunders, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Part I. Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology: 1. Cosmology, cosmologia and the testing of cosmological theories George F. R. Ellis; 2. Black holes, cosmology and the passage of time: three problems at the limits of science Bernard Carr; 3. Moving boundaries? - comments on the relationship between philosophy and cosmology Claus Beisbart; 4. On the question why there exists something rather than nothing Roderich Tumulka; Part II. Structures in the Universe and the Structure of Modern Cosmology: 5. Some generalities about generality John D. Barrow; 6. Emergent structures of effective field theories Jean-Philippe Uzan; 7. Cosmological structure formation Joel R. Primack; 8. Formation of galaxies Joseph Silk; Part III. Foundations of Cosmology: Gravity and the Quantum: 9. The observer strikes back James Hartle and Thomas Hertog; 10. Testing inflation Chris Smeenk; 11. Why Boltzmann brains do not fluctuate into existence from the de Sitter vacuum Kimberly K. Boddy, Sean M. Carroll and Jason Pollack; 12. Holographic inflation revised Tom Banks; 13. Progress and gravity: overcoming divisions between general relativity and particle physics and between physics and HPS J. Brian Pitts; Part IV. Quantum Foundations and Quantum Gravity: 14. Is time's arrow perspectival? Carlo Rovelli; 15. Relational quantum cosmology Francesca Vidotto; 16. Cosmological ontology and epistemology Don N. Page; 17. Quantum origin of cosmological structure and dynamical reduction theories Daniel Sudarsky; 18. Towards a novel approach to semi-classical gravity Ward Struyve; Part V. Methodological and Philosophical Issues: 19. Limits of time in cosmology Svend E. Rugh and Henrik Zinkernagel; 20. Self-locating priors and cosmological measures Cian Dorr and Frank Arntzenius; 21. On probability and cosmology: inference beyond data? Martin Sahlén; 22. Testing the multiverse: Bayes, fine-tuning and typicality Luke A. Barnes; 23. A new perspective on Einstein's philosophy of cosmology Cormac O

  7. Supersonic gas streams enhance the formation of massive black holes in the early universe.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Shingo; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Kuiper, Rolf

    2017-09-29

    The origin of super-massive black holes in the early universe remains poorly understood. Gravitational collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud is a promising initial process, but theoretical studies have difficulty growing the black hole fast enough. We report numerical simulations of early black hole formation starting from realistic cosmological conditions. Supersonic gas motions left over from the Big Bang prevent early gas cloud formation until rapid gas condensation is triggered in a protogalactic halo. A protostar is formed in the dense, turbulent gas cloud, and it grows by sporadic mass accretion until it acquires 34,000 solar masses. The massive star ends its life with a catastrophic collapse to leave a black hole-a promising seed for the formation of a monstrous black hole. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  8. Nuclear matter in the early universe

    SciT

    Barros, Celso de Camargo, E-mail: barros.celso@ufsc.br; Cunha, Ivan Eugênio da, E-mail: lordlihige@hotmail.com

    Recently, extreme conditions have been obtained in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the Large Hadron collider. It is believed that these conditions are similar to the ones of the early Universe, in the time between 10{sup −6}s and 1s, approximately. In this work, the hadrons produced in this range of time will be studied, considering some aspects of the systems produced in the heavy-ion collisions. We will study a phase posterior to the phase transition (in fact it is believed to be a crossover) from the quark-gluon plasma, that is the hadronic phase of the Universe. Wemore » will show the model proposed in [1], considering the hadronic matter described by a relativistic model (similar to the Walecka model), considering particles described by quantum equations in a curved spacetime. This curvature is due to the mass and to the strong interactions that appears in the energy-momentum tensor. The set of the equations is proposed in the Robertson-Walker metric, and some approximate solutions are obtained.« less

  9. Arthur E. Haas, His Life and Cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiescher, Michael

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the life and scientific development of Arthur E. Haas, from his early career as young, ambitious Jewish-Austrian scientist at the University of Vienna to his later career in exile at the University of Notre Dame. Haas is known for his early contributions to quantum physics and as the author of several textbooks on topics of modern physics. During the last decade of his life, he turned his attention to cosmology. In 1935 he emigrated from Austria to the United States. There he assumed, on recommendation of Albert Einstein, a faculty position at the University of Notre Dame. He continued his work on cosmology and tried to establish relationships between the mass of the universe and the fundamental cosmological constants to develop concepts for the early universe. Together with Georges Lemaître he organized in 1938 the first international conference on cosmology, which drew more than one hundred attendants to Notre Dame. Haas died in February 1941 after suffering a stroke during a visit in Chicago.

  10. Implications for the Cosmological Landscape: Can Thermal Inputs from a Prior Universe Account for Relic Graviton Production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, A. W.

    2008-01-01

    Sean Carroll's pre-inflation state of low temperature-low entropy provides a bridge between two models with different predictions. The Wheeler-de Witt equation provides thermal input into today's universe for graviton production. Also, brane world models by Sundrum allow low entropy conditions, as given by Carroll & Chen (2005). Moreover, this paper answers the question of how to go from a brane world model to the 10 to the 32 power Kelvin conditions stated by Weinberg in 1972 as necessary for the initiation of quantum gravity processes. This is a way of getting around the fact CMBR is cut off at a red shift of z = 1100. This paper discusses the difference in values of the upper bound of the cosmological constant between a large upper bound predicated for a temperature dependent vacuum energy predicted by Park (2002), and the much lower bound predicted by Barvinsky (2006). with the difference in values in vacuum energy contributing to relic graviton production. This paper claims that this large thermal influx, with a high initial cosmological constant and a large region of space for relic gravitons interacting with space-time up to the z = 1100 CMBR observational limit are interlinked processes delineated in the Lloyd (2002) analogy of the universe as a quantum computing system. Finally, the paper claims that linking a shrinking prior universe via a worm hole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt equation permits graviton generation as thermal input from the prior universe, transferred instantaneously to relic inflationary conditions today. The existence of a wormhole is presented as a necessary condition for relic gravitons. Proving the sufficiency of the existence of a worm hole for relic gravitons is a future project.

  11. Cosmological baryon number domain structure from symmetry-breaking in grand unified field theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.; Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that grand unified field theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking in the very early big-bang can lead more naturally to a baryon symmetric cosmology with a domain structure than to a totally baryon asymmetric cosmology. The symmetry is broken in a randomized manner in causally independent domains, favoring neither a baryon nor an antibaryon excess on a universal scale. Arguments in favor of this cosmology and observational tests are discussed.

  12. Cosmological baryon-number domain structure from symmetry breaking in grand unified field theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.; Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that grand unified field theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking in the very early big bang can lead more naturally to a baryon-symmetric cosmology with a domain structure than to a totally baryon-asymmetric cosmology. The symmetry is broken in a randomized manner in causally independent domains, favoring neither a baryon nor an antibaryon excess on a universal scale. Arguments in favor of this cosmology and observational tests are discussed.

  13. The frequency of very young galaxies in the local Universe: I. A test for galaxy formation and cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tweed, D. P.; Mamon, G. A.; Thuan, T. X.; Cattaneo, A.; Dekel, A.; Menci, N.; Calura, F.; Silk, J.

    2018-06-01

    In the local Universe, the existence of very young galaxies (VYGs), having formed at least half their stellar mass in the last 1 Gyr, is debated. We predict the present-day fraction of VYGs among central galaxies as a function of galaxy stellar mass. For this, we apply to high mass resolution Monte Carlo halo merger trees (MCHMTs) three (one) analytical models of galaxy formation, where the ratio of stellar to halo mass (mass growth rate) is a function of halo mass and redshift. Galaxy merging is delayed until orbital decay by dynamical friction. With starbursts associated with halo mergers, our models predict typically 1 per cent of VYGs up to galaxy masses of m = 1010 M⊙, falling rapidly at higher masses, and VYGs are usually associated with recent major mergers of their haloes. Without these starbursts, two of the models have VYG fractions reduced by 1 or 2 dex at low or intermediate stellar masses, and VYGs are rarely associated with major halo mergers. In comparison, the state-of-the-art semi-analytical model (SAM) of Henriques et al. produces only 0.01 per cent of VYGs at intermediate masses. Finally, the Menci et al. SAM run on MCHMTs with Warm Dark Matter cosmology generates 10 times more VYGs at m < 108 M⊙ than when run with Cold Dark Matter. The wide range in these VYG fractions illustrates the usefulness of VYGs to constrain both galaxy formation and cosmological models.

  14. Cosmology in time asymmetric extensions of general relativity

    SciT

    Leon, Genly; Saridakis, Emmanuel N., E-mail: genly.leon@ucv.cl, E-mail: Emmanuel_Saridakis@baylor.edu

    We investigate the cosmological behavior in a universe governed by time asymmetric extensions of general relativity, which is a novel modified gravity based on the addition of new, time-asymmetric, terms on the Hamiltonian framework, in a way that the algebra of constraints and local physics remain unchanged. Nevertheless, at cosmological scales these new terms can have significant effects that can alter the universe evolution, both at early and late times, and the freedom in the choice of the involved modification function makes the scenario able to produce a huge class of cosmological behaviors. For basic ansatzes of modification, we performmore » a detailed dynamical analysis, extracting the stable late-time solutions. Amongst others, we find that the universe can result in dark-energy dominated, accelerating solutions, even in the absence of an explicit cosmological constant, in which the dark energy can be quintessence-like, phantom-like, or behave as an effective cosmological constant. Moreover, it can result to matter-domination, or to a Big Rip, or experience the sequence from matter to dark energy domination. Additionally, in the case of closed curvature, the universe may experience a cosmological bounce or turnaround, or even cyclic behavior. Finally, these scenarios can easily satisfy the observational and phenomenological requirements. Hence, time asymmetric cosmology can be a good candidate for the description of the universe.« less

  15. The Early Astronomy Toolkit was Universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2018-01-01

    From historical, anthropological, and archaeological records, we can reconstruct the general properties of the earliest astronomy for many cultures worldwide, and they all share many similar characteristics. The 'Early Astronomy Toolkit' (EAT) has the Earth being flat, and the heavens as a dome overhead populated by gods/heroes that rule Nature. The skies provided omens in a wide variety of manners, with eclipses, comets, and meteors always being evil and bad. Constellations were ubiquitous pictures of gods, heroes, animals, and everyday items; all for story telling. The calendars were all luni-solar, with no year counts and months only named by seasonal cues (including solstice observations and heliacal risings) with vague intercalation. Time of day came only from the sun's altitude/azimuth, while time at night came from star risings. Graves are oriented astronomically, and each culture has deep traditions of quartering the horizon. The most complicated astronomical tools were just a few sticks and stones. This is a higher level description and summary of the astronomy of all ancient cultures.This basic EAT was universal up until the Greeks, Mesopotamians, and Chinese broke out around 500 BC and afterwards. Outside the Eurasian milieu, with few exceptions (for example, planetary position measures in Mexico), this EAT represents astronomy for the rest of the world up until around 1600 AD. The EAT is present in these many cultures with virtually no variations or extensions. This universality must arise either from multiple independent inventions or by migration/diffusion. The probability of any culture independently inventing all 19 items in the EAT is low, but any such calculation has all the usual problems. Still, we realize that it is virtually impossible for many cultures to independently develop all 19 items in the EAT, so there must be a substantial fraction of migration of the early astronomical concepts. Further, the utter lack, as far as I know, of any

  16. Elementary particles in the early Universe

    SciT

    Gromov, N.A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru

    The high-temperature limit of the Standard Model generated by the contractions of gauge groups is discussed. Contraction parameters of gauge group SU(2) of the Electroweak Model and gauge group SU(3) of Quantum Chromodynamics are taken identical and tending to zero when the temperature increases. Properties of the elementary particles change drastically at the infinite temperature limit: all particles lose masses, all quarks are monochromatic. Electroweak interactions become long-range and are mediated by neutral currents. Particles of different kind do not interact. It looks like some stratification with only one sort of particles in each stratum. The Standard Model passes inmore » this limit through several stages, which are distinguished by the powers of the contraction parameter. For any stage intermediate models are constructed and the exact expressions for the respective Lagrangians are presented. The developed approach describes the evolution of the Standard Model in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several nanoseconds.« less

  17. Sociology of Modern Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, M.

    2009-08-01

    Certain results of observational cosmology cast critical doubt on the foundations of standard cosmology but leave most cosmologists untroubled. Alternative cosmological models that differ from the Big Bang have been published and defended by heterodox scientists; however, most cosmologists do not heed these. This may be because standard theory is correct and all other ideas and criticisms are incorrect, but it is also to a great extent due to sociological phenomena such as the ``snowball effect'' or ``groupthink''. We might wonder whether cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other branches of physics or just a dominant ideology.

  18. The new model of the Big Bang and the Universe expansion. A comparison with modern observational data and cosmological theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiko, A. N.; Valiyev, Kh. F.

    2016-10-01

    The new model of the Big Bang and the Universe expansion is constructed. It is based on solutions in classical and in relativistic statements of problem on the dispersion into the void of the gas compressed into a point or in a finite, but for further negligible, volume. If to restrict in relativistic statement gas speed value v by the speed of light (υ =| v | cosmological theories with the dark energy and the dark matter. The conclusion is drawn on uselessness of the dark energy.

  19. Observing the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation: A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics,of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales will reveal the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. The validity of inflationary models will be tested and, if agreement is found, accurate values for most of the key cosmological parameters will result. If disagreement is found, we will need to rethink our basic ideas about the physics of the early universe. I will present an overview of the physical processes at work in forming the anisotropy and discuss what we have already learned from current observations. I will conclude with a brief overview of the recently launched Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission which will observe the anisotropy over the full sky with 0.21 degree angular resolution. At the time of this meeting, MAP will have just arrived at the L2 Lagrange point, marking the start of its observing campaign. The MAP hardware is being produced by Goddard in partnership with Princeton University.

  20. Axion cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, David J. E.

    2016-07-01

    Axions comprise a broad class of particles that can play a major role in explaining the unknown aspects of cosmology. They are also well-motivated within high energy physics, appearing in theories related to CP-violation in the standard model, supersymmetric theories, and theories with extra-dimensions, including string theory, and so axion cosmology offers us a unique view onto these theories. I review the motivation and models for axions in particle physics and string theory. I then present a comprehensive and pedagogical view on the cosmology and astrophysics of axion-like particles, starting from inflation and progressing via BBN, the CMB, reionization and structure formation, up to the present-day Universe. Topics covered include: axion dark matter (DM); direct and indirect detection of axions, reviewing existing and future experiments; axions as dark radiation; axions and the cosmological constant problem; decays of heavy axions; axions and stellar astrophysics; black hole superradiance; axions and astrophysical magnetic fields; axion inflation, and axion DM as an indirect probe of inflation. A major focus is on the population of ultralight axions created via vacuum realignment, and its role as a DM candidate with distinctive phenomenology. Cosmological observations place robust constraints on the axion mass and relic density in this scenario, and I review where such constraints come from. I next cover aspects of galaxy formation with axion DM, and ways this can be used to further search for evidence of axions. An absolute lower bound on DM particle mass is established. It is ma > 10-24eV from linear observables, extending to ma ≳ 10-22eV from non-linear observables, and has the potential to reach ma ≳ 10-18eV in the future. These bounds are weaker if the axion is not all of the DM, giving rise to limits on the relic density at low mass. This leads to the exciting possibility that the effects of axion DM on structure formation could one day be detected

  1. What the Most Metal-poor Stars Tell Us About the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, Anna

    2008-05-01

    The chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the early Universe is a key topic in modern astrophysics. The most metal-poor Galactic halo stars are now frequently used in an attempt to reconstruct the onset of the chemical and dynamical formation processes of the Galaxy. These stars are an easily-accessible local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and can thus be used to carry out field-field cosmology. The discovery of two astrophysically very important metal-poor objects has recently lead to a significant advance in the field. One object is the most iron-poor star yet found (with [Fe/H]=-5.4). The other stars displays the strongest known overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements, such as uranium, and nucleo-chronometry yields a stellar age of 13 Gyr. Both stars already serve as benchmark objects for various theoretical studies with regard to nucleosynthesis processes in the early Galaxy. I will discuss how the abundance patterns of these and other metal-poor stars solidify and advance our understanding of the early Universe, and provide constraints on the nature of the first stars, as well as their explosion mechanisms and corresponding supernova nucleosynthesis yields. Large samples of these old objects are also employed to test theoretical predictions about the formation of the very first low-mass stars. In the near future, the combined power of near-field cosmology results with those of the next-generation facilities (e.g., MWA, JWST, GMT) may yield exceptional details about the formation processes of the first generations of stars and galaxies.

  2. How self-interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology.

    PubMed

    Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-24

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large of an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology.

  3. Growth of matter perturbation in quintessence cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulki, Fargiza A. M.; Wulandari, Hesti R. T.

    2017-01-01

    Big bang theory states that universe emerged from singularity with very high temperature and density, then expands homogeneously and isotropically. This theory gives rise standard cosmological principle which declares that universe is homogeneous and isotropic on large scales. However, universe is not perfectly homogeneous and isotropic on small scales. There exist structures starting from clusters, galaxies even to stars and planetary system scales. Cosmological perturbation theory is a fundamental theory that explains the origin of structures. According to this theory, the structures can be regarded as small perturbations in the early universe, which evolves as the universe expands. In addition to the problem of inhomogeneities of the universe, observations of supernovae Ia suggest that our universe is being accelerated. Various models of dark energy have been proposed to explain cosmic acceleration, one of them is cosmological constant. Because of several problems arise from cosmological constant, the alternative models have been proposed, one of these models is quintessence. We reconstruct growth of structure model following quintessence scenario at several epochs of the universe, which is specified by the effective equation of state parameters for each stage. Discussion begins with the dynamics of quintessence, in which exponential potential is analytically derived, which leads to various conditions of the universe. We then focus on scaling and quintessence dominated solutions. Subsequently, we review the basics of cosmological perturbation theory and derive formulas to investigate how matter perturbation evolves with time in subhorizon scales which leads to structure formation, and also analyze the influence of quintessence to the structure formation. From analytical exploration, we obtain the growth rate of matter perturbation and the existence of quintessence as a dark energy that slows down the growth of structure formation of the universe.

  4. The SLUGGS survey: a comparison of total-mass profiles of early-type galaxies from observations and cosmological simulations, to ˜4 effective radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Brodie, Jean P.; Poci, Adriano; McDermid, Richard; Alabi, Adebusola; Chevalier, Leonie; Adams, Caitlin; Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Wasserman, Asher; Pandya, Viraj

    2018-06-01

    We apply the Jeans Anisotropic Multi-Gaussian Expansion dynamical modelling method to SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey data of early-type galaxies in the stellar mass range 1010 < M*/M⊙ < 1011.6 that cover a large radial range of 0.1-4.0 effective radii. We combine SLUGGS and ATLAS3D data sets to model the total-mass profiles of a sample of 21 fast-rotator galaxies, utilizing a hyperparameter method to combine the two independent data sets. The total-mass density profile slope values derived for these galaxies are consistent with those measured in the inner regions of galaxies by other studies. Furthermore, the total-mass density slopes (γtot) appear to be universal over this broad stellar mass range, with an average value of γtot = -2.24 ± 0.05 , i.e. slightly steeper than isothermal. We compare our results to model galaxies from the Magneticum and EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, in order to probe the mechanisms that are responsible for varying total-mass density profile slopes. The simulated-galaxy slopes are shallower than the observed values by ˜0.3-0.5, indicating that the physical processes shaping the mass distributions of galaxies in cosmological simulations are still incomplete. For galaxies with M* > 1010.7 M⊙ in the Magneticum simulations, we identify a significant anticorrelation between total-mass density profile slopes and the fraction of stellar mass formed ex situ (i.e. accreted), whereas this anticorrelation is weaker for lower stellar masses, implying that the measured total-mass density slopes for low-mass galaxies are less likely to be determined by merger activity.

  5. Precision cosmological parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendt, William Ashton, Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Experimental efforts of the last few decades have brought. a golden age to mankind's endeavor to understand tine physical properties of the Universe throughout its history. Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide strong confirmation of the standard big bang paradigm, as well as introducing new mysteries, to unexplained by current physical models. In the following decades. even more ambitious scientific endeavours will begin to shed light on the new physics by looking at the detailed structure of the Universe both at very early and recent times. Modern data has allowed us to begins to test inflationary models of the early Universe, and the near future will bring higher precision data and much stronger tests. Cracking the codes hidden in these cosmological observables is a difficult and computationally intensive problem. The challenges will continue to increase as future experiments bring larger and more precise data sets. Because of the complexity of the problem, we are forced to use approximate techniques and make simplifying assumptions to ease the computational workload. While this has been reasonably sufficient until now, hints of the limitations of our techniques have begun to come to light. For example, the likelihood approximation used for analysis of CMB data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe (WMAP) satellite was shown to have short falls, leading to pre-emptive conclusions drawn about current cosmological theories. Also it can he shown that an approximate method used by all current analysis codes to describe the recombination history of the Universe will not be sufficiently accurate for future experiments. With a new CMB satellite scheduled for launch in the coming months, it is vital that we develop techniques to improve the analysis of cosmological data. This work develops a novel technique of both avoiding the use of approximate computational codes as well as allowing the application of new, more precise analysis

  6. Qualitative cosmology - Diagrammatic solutions for Bianchi type IX universes with expansion, rotation, and shear. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. P., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The investigation of expanding, rotating, shearing Bianchi type IX universes is extended to the most general case possible. Use is made of the techniques of Arnowitt et al. (1962). It is shown that the conclusion reached by Arnowitt et al. regarding the small effect of rotation on the singularity of type IX universes is true in general. The superspace approach to the motion of the universe is discussed in an appendix.

  7. Connecting QGP-Heavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2013-10-01

    We discuss properties and evolution of quark-gluon plasma in the early Universe and compare to laboratory heavy ion experiments. We describe how matter and antimatter emerged from a primordial soup of quarks and gluons. We focus our discussion on similarities and differences between the early Universe and the laboratory experiments.

  8. A philosophy for big-bang cosmology.

    PubMed

    McCrea, W H

    1970-10-03

    According to recent developments in cosmology we seem bound to find a model universe like the observed universe, almost independently of how we suppose it started. Such ideas, if valid, provide fresh justification for the procedures of current cosmological theory.

  9. Network cosmology.

    PubMed

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  10. Network Cosmology

    PubMed Central

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  11. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    SciT

    Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan; Sushkov, Sergey V.

    2016-06-06

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The modelmore » also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing “the emergence of time”. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.« less

  12. The history of changing boundaries in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Cosmology has always been self-consciously on the edge of science. Traditionally, the danger of unhinged speculation has meant that cosmologists, more than most scientists, felt a need to explicitly defend their work as properly scientific. For the last two centuries or so, each generation of astronomers has claimed that they were the first to be able to understand the early universe. A historical perspective on the changing standards of what has counted as scientific cosmology can help flag persistent sticking points, and perhaps suggest some past successful strategies for widening what counts as “scientific.”

  13. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints to neutrino properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Schramm, David N.; Turner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    The astrophysical and cosmological constraints on neutrino properties (masses, lifetimes, numbers of flavors, etc.) are reviewed. The freeze out of neutrinos in the early Universe are discussed and then the cosmological limits on masses for stable neutrinos are derived. The freeze out argument coupled with observational limits is then used to constrain decaying neutrinos as well. The limits to neutrino properties which follow from SN1987A are then reviewed. The constraint from the big bang nucleosynthesis on the number of neutrino flavors is also considered. Astrophysical constraints on neutrino-mixing as well as future observations of relevance to neutrino physics are briefly discussed.

  14. Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  15. Cosmology and particle physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B-, C-, and CP-violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryon-to-photon ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.

  16. Chemical Evolution and the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Benoit; JINA-CEE, NuGrid, ChETEC

    2018-06-01

    Stellar abundances in local dwarf galaxies offer a unique window into the nature and nucleosynthesis of the first stars. They also contain clues regarding how galaxies formed and assembled in the early stages of the universe. In this talk, I will present our effort to connect nuclear astrophysics with the field of galaxy formation in order to define what can be learned about galaxy evolution using stellar abundances. In particular, I will describe the current state of our numerical chemical evolution pipeline which accounts for the mass assembly history of galaxies, present how we use high-redshift cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to calibrate our models and to learn about the formation of dwarf galaxies, and address the challenge of identifying the dominant r-process site(s) using stellar abundances.

  17. Worlds of Knowledge, Cosmologies of Skills: Ethnography Outdoors in a Neo-Liberal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Allen

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the signs that modernizing agendas in contemporary UK universities have not only reduced autonomy and marketized practices but have also stimulated the crystallization of a ramifying academic worldview, structurally consonant with neo-liberal horizons and new organizational vistas. Ethnographically, the account focuses…

  18. A Glimpse of the Very Early Universal Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    The VLT Maps Extremely Distant Galaxies Summary New, trailblazing observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal lend strong support to current computer models of the early universe: It is "spongy", with galaxies forming along filaments, like droplets along the strands of a spiders web. A group of astronomers at ESO and in Denmark [1] determined the distances to some very faint galaxies in the neighbourhood of a distant quasar. Plotting their positions in a three-dimensional map, they found that these objects are located within a narrow "filament", exactly as predicted by the present theories for the development of the first structures in the young universe . The objects are most likely "building blocks" from which galaxies and clusters of galaxies assemble. This observation shows a very useful way forward for the study of the early evolution of the universe and the emergence of structures soon after the Big Bang. At the same time, it provides yet another proof of the great power of the new class of giant optical telescopes for cosmological studies. PR Photo 19a/01 : Web-like structures in the young Universe (computer model). PR Photo 19b/01 : A group of objects at redshift 3.04 . PR Photo 19c/01 : Animated view of sky field and distant filament . PR Photo 19d/01 : The shape of the filament . PR Photo 19e/01 : Artist's impression of the very distant filament. PR Video Clip 04/01 : Video animation of the very distant filament. The computers are ahead of the telescopes For the past two decades cosmologists have been in the somewhat odd situation that their computers were "ahead" of their telescopes. The rapid evolution of powerful computer hardware and sophisticated software has provided theorists with the ability to build almost any sort of virtual universe they can imagine. Starting with different initial conditions just after the Big Bang, they can watch such fictional worlds evolve over billions of years in their supercomputers - and do so in a

  19. A Universal Early Childhood Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrates how the current emphasis on viewing early childhood education (ECE) as an investment keeps ECE at the margins of U.S. political debates as well as in other discussions around the world. Historically, the field of ECE in the United States has struggled, and continues to struggle, for political positioning.…

  20. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time.

  1. Loop Quantum Cosmology.

    PubMed

    Bojowald, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding spacetime is then modified. One particular theory is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. The main effects are introduced into effective classical equations, which allow one to avoid the interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early-universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function, which allows an extension of quantum spacetime beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of spacetime arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds light on more general issues, such as the nature of time. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-4.

  2. Applications of Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopherson, Adam J.

    2011-06-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is crucial for our understanding of the universe. The linear theory has been well understood for some time, however developing and applying the theory beyond linear order is currently at the forefront of research in theoretical cosmology. This thesis studies the applications of perturbation theory to cosmology and, specifically, to the early universe. Starting with some background material introducing the well-tested 'standard model' of cosmology, we move on to develop the formalism for perturbation theory up to second order giving evolution equations for all types of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations, both in gauge dependent and gauge invariant form. We then move on to the main result of the thesis, showing that, at second order in perturbation theory, vorticity is sourced by a coupling term quadratic in energy density and entropy perturbations. This source term implies a qualitative difference to linear order. Thus, while at linear order vorticity decays with the expansion of the universe, the same is not true at higher orders. This will have important implications on future measurements of the polarisation of the Cosmic Microwave Background, and could give rise to the generation of a primordial seed magnetic field. Having derived this qualitative result, we then estimate the scale dependence and magnitude of the vorticity power spectrum, finding, for simple power law inputs a small, blue spectrum. The final part of this thesis concerns higher order perturbation theory, deriving, for the first time, the metric tensor, gauge transformation rules and governing equations for fully general third order perturbations. We close with a discussion of natural extensions to this work and other possible ideas for off-shooting projects in this continually growing field.

  3. Cosmological Origins of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, Alexander; Taylor, Morgan; Black, William; Smidt, Joseph; Wiggins, Brandon K.

    2018-01-01

    Recent models indicate that the sun's protoplanetary disk provided insufficient pathways for water formation, as evidenced by [D/H]H2O measurements in asteroids and Earth's oceans. It is therefore likely that the early universe contained sites conducive to water chemistry. This research tracks the timeline and abundance rates of water using cosmological simulations in Enzo. A 64 Mpc cube of space is evolved from z = 200 to z = 2. Simulations are then centered on a massive halo, and a 26-species reaction network is applied using operator split to track water formation rates. Density projection plots with metallicity contours predict regions of water formation, which are then compared to simulated abundances at both galactic and extragalactic scales. Observational signatures of formation sites are further discussed, and allow for additional validation of the simulations used.

  4. Emergent cosmology revisited

    SciT

    Bag, Satadru; Sahni, Varun; Shtanov, Yuri

    We explore the possibility of emergent cosmology using the effective potential formalism. We discover new models of emergent cosmology which satisfy the constraints posed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We demonstrate that, within the framework of modified gravity, the emergent scenario can arise in a universe which is spatially open/closed. By contrast, in general relativity (GR) emergent cosmology arises from a spatially closed past-eternal Einstein Static Universe (ESU). In GR the ESU is unstable, which creates fine tuning problems for emergent cosmology. However, modified gravity models including Braneworld models, Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) and Asymptotically Free Gravity result inmore » a stable ESU. Consequently, in these models emergent cosmology arises from a larger class of initial conditions including those in which the universe eternally oscillates about the ESU fixed point. We demonstrate that such an oscillating universe is necessarily accompanied by graviton production. For a large region in parameter space graviton production is enhanced through a parametric resonance, casting serious doubts as to whether this emergent scenario can be past-eternal.« less

  5. HAWKING'S Theory of Quantum Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Fang Li; Chao, Wu Zhong

    The most important problem in cosmology is the birth of the universe. Recently Hartle and Hawking put forward a ground state proposal for the quantum state of the universe which incorporates the idea that the universe must come from nothing. Many models have been discussed in quantum cosmology with this boundary condition. It has been shown that every model is a step towards to a realistic universe, i.e. a 4-dimensional isotropic universe with a long inflationary stage.

  6. Cosmology and particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, J. D.

    A brief overview is given of recent work that integrates cosmology and particle physics. The observational data regarding the abundance of matter and radiation in the universe is described. The manner in which the cosmological survival density of stable massive particles can be calculated is discussed along with the process of cosmological nucleosynthesis. Several applications of these general arguments are given with reference to the survival density of nucleons, neutrinos and unconfined fractionally charge particles. The use of nucleosynthesis to limit the number of lepton generations is described together with the implications of a small neutrino mass for the origin of galaxies and clusters.

  7. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  8. Galaxy Formation Efficiency and the Multiverse Explanation of the Cosmological Constant with EAGLE Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Luke A.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop

    2018-04-01

    Models of the very early universe, including inflationary models, are argued to produce varying universe domains with different values of fundamental constants and cosmic parameters. Using the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation code from the EAGLE collaboration, we investigate the effect of the cosmological constant on the formation of galaxies and stars. We simulate universes with values of the cosmological constant ranging from Λ = 0 to Λ0 × 300, where Λ0 is the value of the cosmological constant in our Universe. Because the global star formation rate in our Universe peaks at t = 3.5 Gyr, before the onset of accelerating expansion, increases in Λ of even an order of magnitude have only a small effect on the star formation history and efficiency of the universe. We use our simulations to predict the observed value of the cosmological constant, given a measure of the multiverse. Whether the cosmological constant is successfully predicted depends crucially on the measure. The impact of the cosmological constant on the formation of structure in the universe does not seem to be a sharp enough function of Λ to explain its observed value alone.

  9. Galaxy formation efficiency and the multiverse explanation of the cosmological constant with EAGLE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Luke A.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop

    2018-07-01

    Models of the very early Universe, including inflationary models, are argued to produce varying universe domains with different values of fundamental constants and cosmic parameters. Using the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation code from the EAGLE collaboration, we investigate the effect of the cosmological constant on the formation of galaxies and stars. We simulate universes with values of the cosmological constant ranging from Λ = 0 to Λ0 × 300, where Λ0 is the value of the cosmological constant in our Universe. Because the global star formation rate in our Universe peaks at t = 3.5 Gyr, before the onset of accelerating expansion, increases in Λ of even an order of magnitude have only a small effect on the star formation history and efficiency of the universe. We use our simulations to predict the observed value of the cosmological constant, given a measure of the multiverse. Whether the cosmological constant is successfully predicted depends crucially on the measure. The impact of the cosmological constant on the formation of structure in the universe does not seem to be a sharp enough function of Λ to explain its observed value alone.

  10. Current Issues in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, Jean-Claude; Narlikar, Jayant

    2011-09-01

    Part I. Observational Facts Relating to Discrete Sources: 1. The state of cosmology G. Burbidge; 2. The redshifts of galaxies and QSOs E. M. Burbidge and G. Burbidge; 3. Accretion discs in quasars J. Sulentic; Part II. Observational Facts Relating to Background Radiation: 4. CMB observations and consequences F. Bouchet; 5. Abundances of light nuclei K. Olive; 6. Evidence for an accelerating universe or lack of A. Blanchard; Part III. Standard Cosmology: 7. Cosmology, an overview of the standard model F. Bernardeau; 8. What are the building blocks of our universe? K. C. Wali; Part IV. Large-Scale Structure: 9. Observations of large-scale structure V. de Lapparent; 10. Reconstruction of large-scale peculiar velocity fields R. Mohayaee, B. Tully and U. Frisch; Part V. Alternative Cosmologies: 11. The quasi-steady state cosmology J. V. Narlikar; 12. Evidence for iron whiskers in the universe N. C. Wickramasinghe; 13. Alternatives to dark matter: MOND + Mach D. Roscoe; 14. Anthropic principle in cosmology B. Carter; Part VI. Evidence for Anomalous Redshifts: 15. Anomalous redshifts H. C. Arp; 16. Redshifts of galaxies and QSOs: the problem of redshift periodicities G. Burbidge; 17. Statistics of redshift periodicities W. Napier; 18. Local abnormal redshifts J.-C. Pecker; 19. Gravitational lensing and anomalous redshifts J. Surdej, J.-F. Claeskens and D. Sluse; Panel discussion; General discussion; Concluding remarks.

  11. Philosophical aspects of modern cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkernagel, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    Cosmology is the attempt to understand in scientific terms the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. This ambition has been with us since the ancient Greeks, even if the developments in modern cosmology have provided a picture of the universe dramatically different from that of Pythagoras, Plato and Aristotle. The cosmological thinking of these figures, e.g. the belief in uniform circular motion of the heavens, was closely related to their philosophical ideas, and it shaped the field of cosmology at least up to the times of Copernicus and Kepler.

  12. Gamma-ray Burst Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. Y.

    2011-07-01

    growth rate of perturbations, and find that the ΛCDM is the best fitted model. The transition redshift z_{T} is from 0.40_{-0.08}^{+0.14} to 0.65_{-0.05}^{+0.10}. This is the first time to combine GRBs with other observations to constrain the cosmological parameters, dark energy and transition redshift. In chapter 4, we investigate the early dark energy model using GRBs, SNe Ia, CMB and BAO. The negligible dark energy at high redshift will influence the growth of cosmic structures and leave observable signatures that are different from the standard cosmology. We propose that GRBs are promising tools to study the early dark energy. We find that the fractional dark energy density is less than 0.03 and the linear growth index of perturbations is 0.66. In chapter 5, we use a model-independent method to constrain the dark energy equation of state (EOS) w(z). Among the parameters describing the properties of dark energy, EOS is the most important. Whether and how it evolves with time are crucial in distinguishing different cosmological models. In our analysis, we include high-redshift GRBs. We find that w(z)<0 at z>1.7, and EOS deviates from the cosmological constant at z>0.5 at 95.4% confidence level. In chapter 6, we probe the cosmographic parameters to distinguish between the dark energy and modified gravity models. These two families of models can drive the universe to acclerate. We first derive the expressions of deceleration, jerk and snap parameters in the dark energy and modified gravity models. The snap parameters in these models are different, so they can be used to distinguish between the models. In chapter 7, we measure the high-redshift SFR using long GRBs. Swift observations reveal that the number of high-redshift GRBs is larger than the predication from SFR. We find that the evolving initial mass function can interpret this discrepancy. We study the high-redshift SFR up to z˜ 8.2 considering the Swift GRBs tracing the star formation history and the cosmic

  13. Spider: Probing the Early Universe with a Large-Scale CMB Polarization Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, William

    The standard dark-matter and dark-energy dominated cosmological model (LCDM) has proven to be remarkably successful in describing the current state and past evolution of the Universe. However, there remain significant uncertainties regarding the physical mechanisms that established the initial conditions upon which the LCDM predictions rely. Theories of cosmic genesis - the extremely high energy mechanisms that established these conditions - should be expected to provide a natural description of the nearly flat geometry of the Universe, the existence of super-horizon density correlations, and the adiabatic, Gaussian and nearly scale-invariant nature of the observed primordial density perturbations. The primary objective of Spider is to subject models of the early Universe to observational test, probing fundamental physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of terrestrial particle accelerators. The main scientific result will be to characterize, or place stringent upper limits on the level of the odd-parity polarization of the CMB. In the context of the inflationary paradigm, Spider will confirm or exclude the predictions of the simplest single-field inflationary models near the Lyth bound, characterized by tensor to scalar ratios r 0.03. While viable alternatives to the inflationary paradigm are an active and important area of investigation, including string cosmologies and cyclic models, early Universe models described by inflationary periods are now widely accepted as the underlying cause behind much of what we observe in cosmology today. Nevertheless, we know very little about the mechanism that would drive inflation or the energy scale at which it occurred, and the paradigm faces significant questions about the viability of the framework as a scientific theory. Fortunately, inflationary paradigms and alternative theories offer distinct predictions regarding the statistical properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Spider will use measurements

  14. Precision Cosmology: The First Half Million Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2017-06-01

    Cosmology seeks to characterise our Universe in terms of models based on well-understood and tested physics. Today we know our Universe with a precision that once would have been unthinkable. This book develops the entire mathematical, physical and statistical framework within which this has been achieved. It tells the story of how we arrive at our profound conclusions, starting from the early twentieth century and following developments up to the latest data analysis of big astronomical datasets. It provides an enlightening description of the mathematical, physical and statistical basis for understanding and interpreting the results of key space- and ground-based data. Subjects covered include general relativity, cosmological models, the inhomogeneous Universe, physics of the cosmic background radiation, and methods and results of data analysis. Extensive online supplementary notes, exercises, teaching materials, and exercises in Python make this the perfect companion for researchers, teachers and students in physics, mathematics, and astrophysics.

  15. Vacuum stability in the early universe and the backreaction of classical gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, Tommi

    2018-01-01

    In the case of a metastable electroweak vacuum, the quantum corrected effective potential plays a crucial role in the potential instability of the standard model. In the early universe, in particular during inflation and reheating, this instability can be triggered leading to catastrophic vacuum decay. We discuss how the large space-time curvature of the early universe can be incorporated in the calculation and in many cases significantly modify the flat space prediction. The two key new elements are the unavoidable generation of the non-minimal coupling between the Higgs field and the scalar curvature of gravity and a curvature induced contribution to the running of the constants. For the minimal set up of the standard model and a decoupled inflation sector we show how a metastable vacuum can lead to very tight bounds for the non-minimal coupling. We also discuss a novel and very much related dark matter generation mechanism. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  16. Lyman-α Emission from an Infant Black Hole in the Early Universe

    SciT

    Wiggins, Brandon Kerry; Smidt, Joseph Michael; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    The COSMOS survey recently discovered an exotic young galaxy, COSMOS Redshift 7 (CR7), in the early universe (1 billion years after the Big Bang), which is devoid of evidence of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. Whereas some believe this might be the first galaxy discovered with stars made only from these elements, others think CR7 may be powered by a newborn supermassive black hole. In this paper, we summarize for a general academic audience our efforts to model the creation of this galaxy through cosmological simulations. These state-of-the-art calculations include primordial chemistry and cooling and the interaction of x-raysmore » from the black hole with surrounding gas. We simulate the process of light escaping this object with Monte Carlo Lyman-α transfer and compare our calculations with observations of CR7. Our work demonstrates the viability of the black hole interpretation for this intriguing object in the early universe.« less

  17. Vacuum stability in the early universe and the backreaction of classical gravity.

    PubMed

    Markkanen, Tommi

    2018-03-06

    In the case of a metastable electroweak vacuum, the quantum corrected effective potential plays a crucial role in the potential instability of the standard model. In the early universe, in particular during inflation and reheating, this instability can be triggered leading to catastrophic vacuum decay. We discuss how the large space-time curvature of the early universe can be incorporated in the calculation and in many cases significantly modify the flat space prediction. The two key new elements are the unavoidable generation of the non-minimal coupling between the Higgs field and the scalar curvature of gravity and a curvature induced contribution to the running of the constants. For the minimal set up of the standard model and a decoupled inflation sector we show how a metastable vacuum can lead to very tight bounds for the non-minimal coupling. We also discuss a novel and very much related dark matter generation mechanism.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. Lyman-α Emission from an Infant Black Hole in the Early Universe

    DOE PAGES

    Wiggins, Brandon Kerry; Smidt, Joseph Michael; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2016-01-01

    The COSMOS survey recently discovered an exotic young galaxy, COSMOS Redshift 7 (CR7), in the early universe (1 billion years after the Big Bang), which is devoid of evidence of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. Whereas some believe this might be the first galaxy discovered with stars made only from these elements, others think CR7 may be powered by a newborn supermassive black hole. In this paper, we summarize for a general academic audience our efforts to model the creation of this galaxy through cosmological simulations. These state-of-the-art calculations include primordial chemistry and cooling and the interaction of x-raysmore » from the black hole with surrounding gas. We simulate the process of light escaping this object with Monte Carlo Lyman-α transfer and compare our calculations with observations of CR7. Our work demonstrates the viability of the black hole interpretation for this intriguing object in the early universe.« less

  19. BMS in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.

    2016-05-01

    Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.

  20. BMS in cosmology

    SciT

    Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.; Center for Astroparticle Physics

    Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformationsmore » which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.« less

  1. The Dirac-Milne cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Chardin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    We study an unconventional cosmology, in which we investigate the consequences that antigravity would pose to cosmology. We present the main characteristics of the Dirac-Milne Universe, a cosmological model where antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass. In this non-standard Universe, separate domains of matter and antimatter coexist at our epoch without annihilation, separated by a gravitationally induced depletion zone. We show that this cosmology does not require a priori the Dark Matter and Dark Energy components of the standard model of cosmology. Additionally, inflation becomes an unnecessary ingredient. Investigating this model, we show that the classical cosmological tests such as primordial nucleosynthesis, Type Ia supernovæ and Cosmic Microwave Background are surprisingly concordant.

  2. Early Predictors of First-Year Academic Success at University: Pre-University Effort, Pre-University Self-Efficacy, and Pre-University Reasons for Attending University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Herpen, Sanne G. A.; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Severiens, Sabine E.; Arends, Lidia R.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large number of dropouts in the 1st year at university, it is important to identify early predictors of 1st-year academic success. The present study (n = 453 first-year students) contributes to literature on the transition from secondary to higher education by investigating how the non-cognitive factors "pre-university" effort…

  3. Effects of Anisotropy on Scalar Field Ghost Dark Energy and the Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Fractal Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, A.; Hossienkhani, H.

    2017-10-01

    Since the fractal cosmology has been created in early universe, therefore their models were mostly isotropic. The majority of previous studies had been based on FRW universe, while in the early universe, the best model for describing fractal cosmology is actually the anisotropic universe. Therefore in this work, by assuming the anisotropic universe, the cosmological implications of ghost and generalized ghost dark energy models with dark matter in fractal cosmology has been discussed. Moreover, the different kinds of dark energy models such as quintessence and tachyon field, with the generalized ghost dark energy in fractal universe has been investigated. In addition, we have reconstructed the Hubble parameter, H, the energy density, ρ, the deceleration parameter, q, the equations of state parameter, {ω }{{}D}, for both ghost and generalized ghost dark energy models. This correspondence allows us to reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of a fractal canonical scalar field according to the evolution of generalized ghost dark energy density. Eventually, thermodynamics of the cosmological apparent horizon in fractal cosmology was investigated and the validity of the Generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) have been examined in an anisotropic universe. The results show the influence of the anisotropy on the GSLT of thermodynamics in a fractal cosmology.

  4. String cosmology and the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Graña, Mariana

    2017-03-01

    String Theory is believed to have a landscape of 10500 vacua with properties that resemble those of our Universe. The existence of these vacua can be combined with anthropic reasoning to explain some of the hardest problems in cosmology and high-energy physics: the cosmological constant problem, the hierarchy problem, and the un-natural almost-flatness of the inflationary potential. We will explain the construction of these vacua, focusing on the challenges of obtaining vacua with a positive cosmological constant.

  5. Final Scientific/Technical Report-Quantum Field Theories for Cosmology

    SciT

    Nicolis, Alberto

    The research funded by this award spanned a wide range of subjects in theoretical cosmology and in field theory. In the first part, the PI and his collaborators applied effective field theory techniques to the study of macroscopic media and of cosmological perturbations. Such an approach—now standard in particle physics—is quite unconventional for theoretical cosmology. They addressed several concrete questions where this formalism proved valuable, both within and outside the cosmological context, concerning for instance macroscopic physical phenomena for fluids, superfluids, and solids, and their relationship to the dynamics of cosmological perturbations. A particularly successful outcome of this line ofmore » research has been the development of “solid inflation”: a cosmological model for primordial inflation where the expansion of the universe is driven by an exotic solid substance. In the second part, the PI and his collaborators investigated more fundamental questions and ideas, for the present universe as well as for the very early one, using quantum field theory as a guide. The questions addressed include: Is the present cosmic acceleration due to a new, ‘dark’ form of energy, or are we instead observing a breakdown of Einstein’s general relativity at cosmological distances? Is the cosmic acceleration accelerating? Is the Big Bang unavoidable? Related to this, is early inflation the only sensible cure for the shortcomings of the standard Big Bang model, and the only possible source for the observed scale-invariant cosmological perturbations?« less

  6. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2008-01-01

    We present a review of the sequence of events/circumstances that led to the introduction of interplay between the physics associated with phase transitions in the early universe and their effects on its dynamics of expansion with the goal of resolving the horizon problem that it has since become known as Cosmological Inflation. We then provide a brief review of the fundamentals and the solutions of a theory of gravity based on local scale invariance, known as Weyl gravity that have been elaborated by the presenter and his collaborator P. D. Mannheim. We point out that this theory provides from first principles for a characteristic universal acceleration, whose value appears to be in agreement with observations across a vast range of length scales in the universe.

  7. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2007-01-01

    We present a review of the sequence of events/circumstances that led to the introduction of interplay between the physics associated with phase transitions in the early universe and their effects on its dynamics of expansion with the goal of resolving the horizon problem that it has since become known as Cosmological Inflation. We then provide a brief review of the fundamentals and the solutions of a theory of gravity based on local scale invariance, known as Weyl gravity that have been elaborated by the presenter and his collaborator P. D. Mannheim. We point out that this theory provides from first principles for a characteristic universal acceleration, whose value appears to be in agreement with observations across a vast range of length scales in the universe.

  8. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-02-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

  9. Cosmology. A first course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachieze-Rey, Marc

    This book delivers a quantitative account of the science of cosmology, designed for a non-specialist audience. The basic principles are outlined using simple maths and physics, while still providing rigorous models of the Universe. It offers an ideal introduction to the key ideas in cosmology, without going into technical details. The approach used is based on the fundamental ideas of general relativity such as the spacetime interval, comoving coordinates, and spacetime curvature. It provides an up-to-date and thoughtful discussion of the big bang, and the crucial questions of structure and galaxy formation. Questions of method and philosophical approaches in cosmology are also briefly discussed. Advanced undergraduates in either physics or mathematics would benefit greatly from use either as a course text or as a supplementary guide to cosmology courses.

  10. Cosmology solved? Maybe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1999-03-01

    For two decades the hot big-bang model as been referred to as the standard cosmology - and for good reason. For just as long cosmologists have known that there are fundamental questions that are not answered by the standard cosmology and point to a grander theory. The best candidate for that grander theory is inflation + cold dark matter. It holds that the Universe is flat, that slowly moving elementary particles left over from the earliest moments provide the cosmic infrastructure, and that the primeval density inhomogeneities that seed all the structure arose from quantum fluctuations. There is now prima facie evidence that supports two basic tenets of this paradigm. An avalanche of high-quality cosmological observations will soon make this case stronger or will break it. Key questions remain to be answered; foremost among them are: identification and detection of the cold dark matter particles and elucidation of the dark-energy component. These are exciting times in cosmology!

  11. Precision cosmology with weak gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearin, Andrew P.

    In recent years, cosmological science has developed a highly predictive model for the universe on large scales that is in quantitative agreement with a wide range of astronomical observations. While the number and diversity of successes of this model provide great confidence that our general picture of cosmology is correct, numerous puzzles remain. In this dissertation, I analyze the potential of planned and near future galaxy surveys to provide new understanding of several unanswered questions in cosmology, and address some of the leading challenges to this observational program. In particular, I study an emerging technique called cosmic shear, the weak gravitational lensing produced by large scale structure. I focus on developing strategies to optimally use the cosmic shear signal observed in galaxy imaging surveys to uncover the physics of dark energy and the early universe. In chapter 1 I give an overview of a few unsolved mysteries in cosmology and I motivate weak lensing as a cosmological probe. I discuss the use of weak lensing as a test of general relativity in chapter 2 and assess the threat to such tests presented by our uncertainty in the physics of galaxy formation. Interpreting the cosmic shear signal requires knowledge of the redshift distribution of the lensed galaxies. This redshift distribution will be significantly uncertain since it must be determined photometrically. In chapter 3 I investigate the influence of photometric redshift errors on our ability to constrain dark energy models with weak lensing. The ability to study dark energy with cosmic shear is also limited by the imprecision in our understanding of the physics of gravitational collapse. In chapter 4 I present the stringent calibration requirements on this source of uncertainty. I study the potential of weak lensing to resolve a debate over a long-standing anomaly in CMB measurements in chapter 5. Finally, in chapter 6 I summarize my findings and conclude with a brief discussion of my

  12. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    DOE PAGES

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-10-12

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here in this paper, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with "flat'' (including toroidal) and "open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarilymore » large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are "flat" or "open". Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with "flat'' or "open" topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.« less

  13. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    SciT

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here in this paper, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with "flat'' (including toroidal) and "open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarilymore » large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are "flat" or "open". Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with "flat'' or "open" topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.« less

  14. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    SciT

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo; Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University and SLAC,2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuationsmore » and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.« less

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    The field of cosmology has been transformed since the glorious decades of the 1920's and 1930's when theory and observation converged to develop the current model of the expanding universe. It was a triumph of the theory of general relativity and astronomy. The first revolution came when the nuclear physicists entered the fray. This marked the debut of the hot big bang, in which the light elements were synthesized in the first three minutes. It was soon realised that elements like carbon and iron were synthesized in exploding stars. However helium, as well as deuterium and lithium, remain as George Gamow envisaged, the detritus of the big bang. The climax arrived with one of the most remarkable discoveries of the twentieth century, the cosmic microwave background radiation, in 1964. The fossil glow turned out to have the spectrum of an ideal black body. One could not imagine a stronger confirmation of the hot and dense origin of the universe. This discovery set the scene for the next major advance. It was now the turn of the particle physicists, who realized that the energies attained near the beginning of the universe, and unachievable in any conceivable terrestrial accelerator, provided a unique testing ground for theories of grand unification of the fundamental forces. This led Alan Guth and Andrei Linde in 1980 to propose the theory of inflation, which solved outstanding puzzles of the big bang. One could now understand why the universe is so large and homogeneous, and the origin of the seed fluctuations that gave rise to large-scale structure. A key prediction was that the universe should have Euclidean geometry, now verified to a precision of a few percent. Modern cosmology is firmly embedded in particle physics. It merits a text written by a particle physicist who can however appreciate the contributions of astronomy that provide the foundation and infrastructure for the theory of the expanding universe. There are now several such texts available. The most

  16. Is cosmology a historical science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grignon, Claude

    2012-06-01

    To explain the formation and the evolution of the Universe, cosmology settles universal laws. In this respect, cosmology belongs to the category of the nomothetic sciences, which write and think in mathematics. But cosmology is also akin to the historical sciences; like archaeology, geology or the biology of evolution, cosmology infers history from the vestiges of the past; moreover, it is not an experimental but an observational science. Due to this ambivalence, cosmology confronts divergent epistemological options. Nomothetic and historical sciences use indeed different, even opposite conceptions of such fundamental notions as time, causality and chance. Is it possible to make the history of the Universe intelligible without referring to the narrative conception of history congruent with the course of the historical world?.

  17. CHAIRMAN'S PREFACE: Nobel Symposium 79: The Birth and Early Evolution of Our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Bengt; Nilsson, Jan S.; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1991-01-01

    It was in 1986 that we submitted a proposal to organize a Nobel Symposium on the topic "The Birth and Early Evolution of Our Universe", a subject not previously discussed at such a meeting. Our feeling at the time was that it would be appropriate to gather together international expertise on the deep and exciting connections between elementary physics and astrophysics/cosmology. In both these scientific disciplines there are wellknown "standard models"—the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model of electroweak interactions and the Big-Bang cosmological model. The former model has now been tested to a very high accuracy. Progress in observational cosmology and astrophysics has on the other hand given strong support to the standard Big-Bang model as a realistic framework of cosmological evolution. The interesting fact, of course, is that the two standard models are not independent, and their predictions become interlinked when one considers the early, hot universe. It is now a wonderfully accepted piece of history that the constraint on the number of light neutrinos as obtained from the Big-Bang primordial nucleosynthesis agree very well with recent high-energy laboratory experiments. When our proposal was approved in 1989 we were very happy and honoured to invite a large number of internationally outstanding contributors to take part in the Symposium, almost all of whom were able to participate. It was, however, with deep regret and shock that their sudden deaths prevented us from inviting A Sakharov and Y Zeldovich. Their presence and wisdom was sadly missed. By choosing the beautiful village of Gräftåvallen, outside the town of Östesund, as the location of the Symposium, we hoped to provide a relaxing and stimulating atmosphere and also, possibly, almost twenty hours of sunlight a day for a week. The hosts of Gräftåvallen, Annika and Tommy Hagström, have to be thanked for making our stay both extremely successful and to a memorable experience. Our thanks also go to

  18. Early Tracking or Finally Leaving? Determinants of Early Study Success in First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan; Flache, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches underlie this investigation of the determinants of early study success among first-year university students. Specifically, to extend Walberg's educational productivity model, this study draws on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation in a contemporary university context. The survey data came from 407…

  19. A coasting cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1989-01-01

    A Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology with energy density decreasing in expansion as 1/R-squared, where R is the Robertson-Walker scale factor, is studied. In such a model the universe expands with constant velocity; hence the term coasting cosmology. Observational consequences of such a model include the age of the universe, the luminosity distance-redshift relation (the Hubble diagram), the angular diameter distance-redshift relation, and the galaxy number count as a function of redshift. These observations are used to limit the parameters of the model. Among the interesting consequences of the model are the possibility of an ever-expanding closed universe, a model universe with multiple images at different redshifts of the same object, a universe with Omega - 1 not equal to 0 stable in expansion, and a closed universe with radius smaller than 1/H(0).

  20. Producing a scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations in a Hagedorn phase of string cosmology.

    PubMed

    Nayeri, Ali; Brandenberger, Robert H; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-07-14

    We study the generation of cosmological perturbations during the Hagedorn phase of string gas cosmology. Using tools of string thermodynamics we provide indications that it may be possible to obtain a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological fluctuations on scales which are of cosmological interest today. In our cosmological scenario, the early Hagedorn phase of string gas cosmology goes over smoothly into the radiation-dominated phase of standard cosmology, without having a period of cosmological inflation.

  1. Entropy and cosmology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, M. H.

    This paper is a critical analysis and reassessment of entropic functioning as it applies to the question of whether the ultimate fate of the universe will be determined in the future to be "open" (expanding forever to expire in a big chill), "closed" (collapsing to a big crunch), or "flat" (balanced forever between the two). The second law of thermodynamics declares that entropy can only increase and that this principle extends, inevitably, to the universe as a whole. This paper takes the position that this extension is an unwarranted projection based neither on experience nonfact - an extrapolation that ignores the powerful effect of a gravitational force acting within a closed system. Since it was originally presented by Clausius, the thermodynamic concept of entropy has been redefined in terms of "order" and "disorder" - order being equated with a low degree of entropy and disorder with a high degree. This revised terminology more subjective than precise, has generated considerable confusion in cosmology in several critical instances. For example - the chaotic fireball of the big bang, interpreted by Stephen Hawking as a state of disorder (high entropy), is infinitely hot and, thermally, represents zero entropy (order). Hawking, apparently focusing on the disorderly "chaotic" aspect, equated it with a high degree of entropy - overlooking the fact that the universe is a thermodynamic system and that the key factor in evaluating the big-bang phenomenon is the infinitely high temperature at the early universe, which can only be equated with zero entropy. This analysis resolves this confusion and reestablishes entropy as a cosmological function integrally linked to temperature. The paper goes on to show that, while all subsystems contained within the universe require external sources of energization to have their temperatures raised, this requirement does not apply to the universe as a whole. The universe is the only system that, by itself can raise its own

  2. Entropy Growth in the Early Universe and Confirmation of Initial Big Bang Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang level can be measured experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of this entropy increase is explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's (2007, 2008a, 2008b) revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that ΔS~ΔNgravitons is a startmg point to the increasing net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities AS ZPE analysis, it is important to note that the resulting ΔS~ΔNgravitons ≠ 1088, that in fact it is much lower, allowing for evaluating initial graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized. The rapid increase in entropy so alluded to without near sudden increases to 1088 may be enough to allow successful modeling of relic graviton production for entropy in a manner similar to ZPE energy extraction from a vacuum state.

  3. Spacetime deformation effect on the early universe and the PTOLEMY experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, Raul; Trampetic, Josip; You, Jiangyang

    2017-09-01

    Using a fully-fledged formulation of gauge field theory deformed by the spacetime noncommutativity, we study its impact on relic neutrino direct detection, as proposed recently by the PTOLEMY experiment. The noncommutative background tends to influence the propagating neutrinos by providing them with a tree-level vector-like coupling to photons, enabling thus otherwise sterile right-handed (RH) neutrinos to be thermally produced in the early universe. Such a new component in the universe's background radiation has been switched today to the almost fully active sea of non-relativistic neutrinos, exerting consequently some impact on the capture on tritium at PTOLEMY. The peculiarities of our nonperturbative approach tend to reflect in the cosmology as well, upon the appearances of the coupling temperature, above which RH neutrinos stay permanently decoupled from thermal environment. This entails the maximal scale of noncommutativity as well, being of order of 10-4MPl, above which there is no impact whatsoever on the capture rates at PTOLEMY. The latter represents an exceptional upper bound on the scale of noncommutativity coming from phenomenology.

  4. Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.

    We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in

  5. The Case for a Hierarchical Cosmology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaucouleurs, G. de

    1970-01-01

    The development of modern theoretical cosmology is presented and some questionable assumptions of orthodox cosmology are pointed out. Suggests that recent observations indicate that hierarchical clustering is a basic factor in cosmology. The implications of hierarchical models of the universe are considered. Bibliography. (LC)

  6. Frontiers of Big Bang cosmology and primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Grant J.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kusakabe, Motohiko; Yamazaki, Dai G.

    2012-11-01

    We summarize some current research on the formation and evolution of the universe and overview some of the key questions surrounding the the big bang. There are really only two observational cosmological probes of the physics of the early universe. Of those two, the only probe during the relevant radiation dominated epoch is the yield of light elements during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis. The synthesis of light elements occurs in the temperature regime from 108 to 1010 K and times of about 1 to 104 sec into the big bang. The other probe is the spectrum of temperature fluctuations in the CMB which (among other things) contains information of the first quantum fluctuations in the universe, along with details of the distribution and evolution of dark matter, baryonic matter and photons up to the surface of photon last scattering. Here, we emphasize the role of these probes in answering some key questions of the big bang and early universe cosmology.

  7. Physical and Relativistic Numerical Cosmology.

    PubMed

    Anninos, Peter

    1998-01-01

    In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark-hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  8. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio 11B/7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  9. Probing the Early Universe with the SZ Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, M. K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) which we observe today is relic radiation which last interacted with matter more than 10 billion years ago, when the expanding universe cooled to the point that free electrons and ionized nuclei recombined to form atoms. Prior to recombination, scattering between photons and free electrons was a very frequent occurrence, and the distance light could penetrate was small; afterwards, with free electrons out of circulation, the universe became largely transparent to light. Thus, the CMBR photons we observe today give us a clear view of the state of the early universe. Measured deviations in the intensity of the CMBR trace the small perturbations in the primordial matter density, which have been amplified by gravitational forces to form the magnificent, complex structures which comprise the present-day universe.

  10. Camera for Quasars in the Early Universe (CQUEAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunbin; Park, W.; Lim, J.; Jeong, H.; Kim, J.; Oh, H.; Pak, S.; Im, M.; Kuehne, J.

    2010-05-01

    The early universe of z ɳ is where the first stars, galaxies, and quasars formed, starting the re-ionization of the universe. The discovery and the study of quasars in the early universe allow us to witness the beginning of history of astronomical objects. In order to perform a medium-deep, medium-wide, imaging survey of quasars, we are developing an optical CCD camera, CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse) which uses a 1024*1024 pixel deep-depletion CCD. It has an enhanced QE than conventional CCD at wavelength band around 1μm, thus it will be an efficient tool for observation of quasars at z > 7. It will be attached to the 2.1m telescope at McDonald Observatory, USA. A focal reducer is designed to secure a larger field of view at the cassegrain focus of 2.1m telescope. For long stable exposures, auto-guiding system will be implemented by using another CCD camera viewing an off-axis field. All these instruments will be controlled by the software written in python on linux platform. CQUEAN is expected to see the first light during summer in 2010.

  11. Cosmology with a stiff matter era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2015-11-01

    We consider the possibility that the Universe is made of a dark fluid described by a quadratic equation of state P =K ρ2 , where ρ is the rest-mass density and K is a constant. The energy density ɛ =ρ c2+K ρ2 is the sum of two terms: a rest-mass term ρ c2 that mimics "dark matter" (P =0 ) and an internal energy term u =K ρ2=P that mimics a "stiff fluid" (P =ɛ ) in which the speed of sound is equal to the speed of light. In the early universe, the internal energy dominates and the dark fluid behaves as a stiff fluid (P ˜ɛ , ɛ ∝a-6). In the late universe, the rest-mass energy dominates and the dark fluid behaves as pressureless dark matter (P ≃0 , ɛ ∝a-3). We provide a simple analytical solution of the Friedmann equations for a universe undergoing a stiff matter era, a dark matter era, and a dark energy era due to the cosmological constant. This analytical solution generalizes the Einstein-de Sitter solution describing the dark matter era, and the Λ CDM model describing the dark matter era and the dark energy era. Historically, the possibility of a primordial stiff matter era first appeared in the cosmological model of Zel'dovich where the primordial universe is assumed to be made of a cold gas of baryons. A primordial stiff matter era also occurs in recent cosmological models where dark matter is made of relativistic self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). When the internal energy of the dark fluid mimicking stiff matter is positive, the primordial universe is singular like in the standard big bang theory. It expands from an initial state with a vanishing scale factor and an infinite density. We consider the possibility that the internal energy of the dark fluid is negative (while, of course, its total energy density is positive), so that it mimics anti-stiff matter. This happens, for example, when the BECs have an attractive self-interaction with a negative scattering length. In that case, the primordial universe is nonsingular and

  12. On Antimatter and Cosmology.

    PubMed

    Kevane, C J

    1961-02-24

    A cosmological model based on a gravitational plasma of matter and antimatter is discussed. The antigravitational interaction of matter and antimatter leads to segregation and an expansion of the plasma universe. The expansion time scale is controlled by the aggregation time scale.

  13. Enhanced X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua

    2016-04-01

    X-rays from binaries containing compact objects may have played an important role in heating the early Universe. Here we discuss our findings from X-ray studies of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), Lyman break analogs (LBAs), and Green Pea galaxies (GP), all of which are considered local analogs to high redshift galaxies. We find enhanced X-ray emission per unit star-formation rate which strongly correlates with decreasing metallicity. We find evidence for the existence of a L_X-SFR-Metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies. The exact properties of X-ray emission in the early Universe affects the timing and morphology of reionization, both being observable properties of current and future radio observations of the redshifted 21cm signal from neutral hydrogen.

  14. Was there an early reionization component in our universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva-Domingo, Pablo; Gariazzo, Stefano; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Mena, Olga

    2018-04-01

    A deep understanding of the epoch of reionization is still missing in our knowledge of the universe. While future probes will allow us to test the precise evolution of the free electron fraction from redshifts between zsimeq 6 and 0zsimeq 2, at present one could ask what kind of reionization processes are allowed by present cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization measurements. An early contribution to reionization could imply a departure from the standard picture where star formation determines the reionization onset. By considering a broad class of possible reionization parameterizations, we find that current data do not require an early reionization component in our universe and that only one marginal class of models, based on a particular realization of reionization, may point to that. In addition, the frequentist Akaike information criterion (AIC) provides strong evidence against alternative reionization histories, favoring the most simple reionization scenario, which describes reionization by means of only one (constant) reionization optical depth τ.

  15. The kinematic component of the cosmological redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodorowski, Michał J.

    2011-05-01

    It is widely believed that the cosmological redshift is not a Doppler shift. However, Bunn & Hogg have recently pointed out that to solve this problem properly, one has to transport parallelly the velocity four-vector of a distant galaxy to the observer's position. Performing such a transport along the null geodesic of photons arriving from the galaxy, they found that the cosmological redshift is purely kinematic. Here we argue that one should rather transport the velocity four-vector along the geodesic connecting the points of intersection of the world-lines of the galaxy and the observer with the hypersurface of constant cosmic time. We find that the resulting relation between the transported velocity and the redshift of arriving photons is not given by a relativistic Doppler formula. Instead, for small redshifts it coincides with the well-known non-relativistic decomposition of the redshift into a Doppler (kinematic) component and a gravitational one. We perform such a decomposition for arbitrary large redshifts and derive a formula for the kinematic component of the cosmological redshift, valid for any Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology. In particular, in a universe with Ωm= 0.24 and ΩΛ= 0.76, a quasar at a redshift 6, at the time of emission of photons reaching us today had the recession velocity v= 0.997c. This can be contrasted with v= 0.96c, had the redshift been entirely kinematic. Thus, for recession velocities of such high-redshift sources, the effect of deceleration of the early Universe clearly prevails over the effect of its relatively recent acceleration. Last but not the least, we show that the so-called proper recession velocities of galaxies, commonly used in cosmology, are in fact radial components of the galaxies' four-velocity vectors. As such, they can indeed attain superluminal values, but should not be regarded as real velocities.

  16. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor is a mission which will be proposed for the ESA M5 call. THESEUS will address multiple components in the Early Universe ESA Cosmic Vision theme:4.1 Early Universe,4.2 The Universe taking shape, and4.3 The evolving violent Universe.THESEUS aims at vastly increasing the discovery space of the high energy transient phenomena over the entire cosmic history. This is achieved via a unique payload providing an unprecedented combination of: (i) wide and deep sky monitoring in a broad energy band(0.3 keV-20 MeV; (ii) focusing capabilities in the soft X-ray band granting large grasp and high angular resolution; and (iii) on board near-IR capabilities for immediate transient identification and first redshift estimate.The THESEUS payload consists of: (i) the Soft X--ray Imager (SXI), a set of Lobster Eye (0.3--6 keV) telescopes with CCD detectors covering a total FOV of 1 sr; (ii) the X--Gamma-rays spectrometer (XGS), a non-imaging spectrometer (XGS) based on SDD+CsI, covering the same FOV than the Lobster telescope extending the THESEUS energy band up to 20 MeV; and (iii) a 70cm class InfraRed Telescope (IRT) observing up to 2 microns with imaging and moderate spectral capabilities.The main scientific goals of THESEUS are to:(a) Explore the Early Universe (cosmic dawn and reionization era) by unveiling the Gamma--Ray Burst (GRBs) population in the first billion years}, determining when did the first stars form, and investigating the re-ionization epoch, the interstellar medium (ISM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts.(b) Perform an unprecedented deep survey of the soft X-ray transient Universe in order to fill the present gap in the discovery space of new classes of transient; provide a fundamental step forward in the comprehension of the physics of various classes of Galactic and extra--Galactic transients, and provide real time trigger and accurate locations of transients for follow-up with next

  17. Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Erb, Dawn K

    2015-07-09

    The formation, evolution and death of massive stars release large quantities of energy and momentum into the gas surrounding the sites of star formation. This process, generically termed 'feedback', inhibits further star formation either by removing gas from the galaxy, or by heating it to temperatures that are too high to form new stars. Observations reveal feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas in galaxies with high rates of star formation, especially in the early Universe. Feedback in faint, low-mass galaxies probably facilitated the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, so that the hydrogen between galaxies changed from neutral to ionized-the last major phase transition in the Universe.

  18. Dust-obscured star-forming galaxies in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Stephen M.; Feng, Yu; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Lovell, Christopher C.; Thomas, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by recent observational constraints on dust reprocessed emission in star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 6 and above, we use the very large cosmological hydrodynamical simulation BLUETIDES to explore predictions for the amount of dust-obscured star formation in the early Universe (z > 8). BLUETIDES matches current observational constraints on both the UV luminosity function and galaxy stellar mass function and predicts that approximately 90 per cent of the star formation in high-mass (M* > 1010 M⊙) galaxies at z = 8 is already obscured by dust. The relationship between dust attenuation and stellar mass predicted by BLUETIDES is consistent with that observed at lower redshift. However, observations of several individual objects at z > 6 are discrepant with the predictions, though it is possible that their uncertainties may have been underestimated. We find that the predicted surface density of z ≥ 8 submm sources is below that accessible to current Herschel, SCUBA-2 and Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) submm surveys. However, as ALMA continues to accrue an additional surface area the population of z > 8 dust-obscured galaxies may become accessible in the near future.

  19. Squeezed states and graviton-entropy production in the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    1994-01-01

    Squeezed states are a very useful framework for the quantum treatment of tensor perturbations (i.e. gravitons production) in the early universe. In particular, the non equilibrium entropy growth in a cosmological process of pair production is completely determined by the associated squeezing parameter and is insensitive to the number of particles in the initial state. The total produced entropy may represent a significant fraction of the entropy stored today in the cosmic blackbody radiation, provided pair production originates from a change in the background metric at a curvature scale of the Planck order. Within the formalism of squeezed thermal states it is also possible to discuss the stimulated emission of gravitons from an initial thermal bath, under the action of the cosmic gravitational background field. We find that at low energy the graviton production is enhanced, if compared with spontaneous creation from the vacuum; as a consequence, the inflation scale must be lowered, in order not to exceed the observed CMB quadrupole anisotropy. This effect is important, in particular, for models based on a symmetry-breaking transition which require, as initial condition, a state of thermal equilibrium at temperatures higher than the inflation scale and in which inflation has a minimal duration.

  20. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately twenty five years ago a novel proposal was made to explain two of the outstanding cosmological conundrums, namely those of the Horizon Problem and the Flatness Problem of the Universe. These are the fact that widely separated parts of the sky that have never been in causal contact during the evolution of the Universe have apparently the same CMB temperature and the fact that the mean density of the Universe is very close to the critical one, i.e. very close to the density that separates the closed and open models. These coincidences implied that the corresponding initial condition of the Universe must have been set to exquisite accuracy. This novel proposal posted that at these very early times, the energy density of the Universe was dominated by a fluid which had the equation state attributed to the vacuum (i.e. dominated by tension rather than pressure) and that this led to an exponential expansion of the Universe which was "inflated" by many orders of magnitude of its original size. It was then shown that this "inflation" could provide a resolution of the above outstanding problems. The talk will cover the speaker's personal perspective and contributions to this idea and the subsequent developments over the following 25 years since its inception.

  1. X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Around 300,000 years after the Big Bang, the Universe had cooled enough to combine and form neutral atoms. This signified the beginning of a time known as the Dark Ages. Neutral matter began to fall into the dark matter gravitational wells that were seeded after the initial moments of the Big Bang. As the first stars and galaxies formed within these gravitational wells, the surrounding baryonic matter was heated and started to ionize. The source of energetic photons that heated and reionized the early Universe remains uncertain. Early galaxies had low metallicity and recent population synthesis calculations suggest that the number and luminosity of high-mass X-ray binaries are enhanced in star-forming galaxies with low metallicity, offering a potentially important and previously overlooked source of heating and reionization. Here we examine two types of local galaxies that have been shown to be good analogs to the early galaxies in the Universe: Blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) and Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs).A BCD is defined by its blue optical colors, low metallicities, and physically small size. This makes BCDs the best available local analogs for early star formation. We analyzed data from a sample of 25 metal-poor BCDs and compared our results with those of near-solar metallicity galaxies. Using a Bayesian approach, we showed that the X-ray luminosity function for the low-metallicity BCDs is significantly elevated relative to the XLF for near-solar metallicity galaxies.Larger, gas-rich galaxies may have formed shortly after these first galaxies. These larger galaxies would be similar in their properties to the high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). LBAs provide the best local comparison to the LBGs. We studied a sample of 10 LBAs in order to measure the relation between star formation rate and X-ray luminosity for these galaxies. We found that for LBAs with intermediate sub-solar metallicities, there is enhanced X-ray emission relative to the expected

  2. Entropy, matter, and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Prigogine, I; Géhéniau, J

    1986-09-01

    The role of irreversible processes corresponding to creation of matter in general relativity is investigated. The use of Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensors together with conformal (Minkowski) coordinates suggests that this creation took place in the early universe at the stage of the variation of the conformal factor. The entropy production in this creation process is calculated. It is shown that these dissipative processes lead to the possibility of cosmological models that start from empty conditions and gradually build up matter and entropy. Gravitational entropy takes a simple meaning as associated to the entropy that is necessary to produce matter. This leads to an extension of the third law of thermodynamics, as now the zero point of entropy becomes the space-time structure out of which matter is generated. The theory can be put into a convenient form using a supplementary "C" field in Einstein's field equations. The role of the C field is to express the coupling between gravitation and matter leading to irreversible entropy production.

  3. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students.

    PubMed

    Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.

  4. Cosmology with decaying cosmological constant—exact solutions and model testing

    SciT

    Szydłowski, Marek; Stachowski, Aleksander, E-mail: marek.szydlowski@uj.edu.pl, E-mail: aleksander.stachowski@uj.edu.pl

    We study dynamics of Λ(t) cosmological models which are a natural generalization of the standard cosmological model (the ΛCDM model). We consider a class of models: the ones with a prescribed form of Λ(t)=Λ{sub bare}+α{sup 2}/t{sup 2}. This type of a Λ(t) parametrization is motivated by different cosmological approaches. We interpret the model with running Lambda (Λ(t)) as a special model of an interacting cosmology with the interaction term −dΛ(t)/dt in which energy transfer is between dark matter and dark energy sectors. For the Λ(t) cosmology with a prescribed form of Λ(t) we have found the exact solution in themore » form of Bessel functions. Our model shows that fractional density of dark energy Ω{sub e} is constant and close to zero during the early evolution of the universe. We have also constrained the model parameters for this class of models using the astronomical data such as SNIa data, BAO, CMB, measurements of H(z) and the Alcock-Paczyński test. In this context we formulate a simple criterion of variability of Λ with respect to t in terms of variability of the jerk or sign of estimator (1−Ω{sub m},0−Ω{sub Λ,0}). The case study of our model enable us to find an upper limit α{sup 2} < 0.012 (2σ C.L.) describing the variation from the cosmological constant while the LCDM model seems to be consistent with various data.« less

  5. Superheavy magnetic monopoles and the standard cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, M. S.

    1984-10-01

    The superheavy magnetic monopoles predicted to exist in grand unified theories (GUTs) are for particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Astrophysical and cosmological considerations are invaluable in the study of the properties of GUT monopoles. Because of the glut of monopoles predicted in the standard cosmology for the simplest GUTs. The simplest GUTs and the standard cosmology are not compatible. This is a very important piece of information about physics at unification energies and about the earliest movements of the Universe. The cosmological consequences of GUT monopoles within the context of the standard hot big bang model are reviewed.

  6. Cosmology from galaxy clusters as observed by Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierpaoli, Elena

    We propose to use current all-sky data on galaxy clusters in the radio/infrared bands in order to constrain cosmology. This will be achieved performing parameter estimation with number counts and power spectra for galaxy clusters detected by Planck through their Sunyaev—Zeldovich signature. The ultimate goal of this proposal is to use clusters as tracers of matter density in order to provide information about fundamental properties of our Universe, such as the law of gravity on large scale, early Universe phenomena, structure formation and the nature of dark matter and dark energy. We will leverage on the availability of a larger and deeper cluster catalog from the latest Planck data release in order to include, for the first time, the cluster power spectrum in the cosmological parameter determination analysis. Furthermore, we will extend clusters' analysis to cosmological models not yet investigated by the Planck collaboration. These aims require a diverse set of activities, ranging from the characterization of the clusters' selection function, the choice of the cosmological cluster sample to be used for parameter estimation, the construction of mock samples in the various cosmological models with correct correlation properties in order to produce reliable selection functions and noise covariance matrices, and finally the construction of the appropriate likelihood for number counts and power spectra. We plan to make the final code available to the community and compatible with the most widely used cosmological parameter estimation code. This research makes use of data from the NASA satellites Planck and, less directly, Chandra, in order to constrain cosmology; and therefore perfectly fits the NASA objectives and the specifications of this solicitation.

  7. The Emerging Life Era: A Cosmological Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisson, Eric

    Cosmic evolution is the study of the many varied changes in the assembly and composition of radiation, matter and life throughout the Universe. At one and the same time, cosmic evolution represents a search for our cosmic heritage, for a principle of cosmic selection that transcends neo-Darwinism, indeed for a holistic cosmology wherein life plays an integral role. This paper sketches the grand scenario of cosmic evolution by mathematically examining the temporal dependence of various energy densities in current cosmological models. The early Universe is shown to have been flooded with radiation whose energy density was so severe as to preclude the existence of any appreciable structures. As the Universe cooled and thinned, a preeminent phase change occurred about 100,000 years after creation, at which time matter's energy density overthrew the early primacy of radiation. Only with the emergence of technologically manipulative beings (on Earth and perhaps elsewhere) has the energy density contained within matter become locally exceeded by the flux of free energy density flowing through open organic structures. Using aspects of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we argued that it is the contrasting temporal behavior of various energy densities that have given rise to galaxies, stars, planets, and life forms. We furthermore argue that a necessary (though perhaps not sufficient) condition--a veritable prime mover--for the emergence of such ordered structures is the expansion of the Universe itself.

  8. Phonological universals in early childhood: Evidence from sonority restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Berent, Iris; Harder, Katherine; Lennertz, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Across languages, onsets with large sonority distances are preferred to those with smaller distances (e.g., bw>bd>lb; Greenberg, 1978). Optimality theory (Prince & Smolensky, 2004) attributes such facts to grammatical restrictions that are universally active in all grammars. To test this hypothesis, here, we examine whether children extend putatively universal sonority restrictions to onsets unattested in their language. Participants (M=4;04 years) were presented with pairs of auditory words—either identical (e.g., lbif→lbif) or epenthetically related (e.g., lbif→lebif)—and asked to judge their identity. Results showed that, like adults, children’s ability to detect epenthetic distortions was monotonically related to sonority distance (bw>bd>lb), and their performance was inexplicable by several statistical and phonetic factors. These findings suggest that sonority restrictions are active in early childhood and their scope is broad. PMID:22328807

  9. Universal Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, John

    1990-01-01

    Described is a symposium of Nobel laureates held in the summer of 1990 to discuss cosmology. Different views on the structure and evolution of the universe are presented. Evidence for different theories of cosmology is discussed. (CW)

  10. Hypermagnetic helicity evolution in early universe: leptogenesis and hypermagnetic diffusion

    SciT

    Semikoz, V.B.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Sokoloff, D.D., E-mail: semikoz@yandex.ru, E-mail: smirnoff.alexandr@gmail.com, E-mail: sokoloff.dd@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    We study hypermagnetic helicity and lepton asymmetry evolution in plasma of the early Universe before the electroweak phase transition (EWPT) accounting for chirality flip processes via inverse Higgs decays and sphaleron transitions which violate the left lepton number and wash out the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU). In the scenario where the right electron asymmetry supports the BAU alone through the conservation law B/3−L{sub eR} = const at temperatures T > T{sub RL} ≅ 10 TeV the following universe cooling leads to the production of a non-zero left lepton (electrons and neutrinos) asymmetry. This is due to the Higgsmore » decays becoming more faster when entering the equilibrium at T = T{sub RL} with the universe expansion, Γ{sub RL} ∼ T > H ∼ T{sup 2}, resulting in the parallel evolution of both the right and the left electron asymmetries at T < T{sub RL} through the corresponding Abelian anomalies in SM in the presence of a seed hypermagnetic field. The hypermagnetic helicity evolution proceeds in a self-consistent way with the lepton asymmetry growth. The role of sphaleron transitions decreasing the left lepton number turns out to be negligible in given scenario. The hypermagnetic helicity can be a supply for the magnetic one in Higgs phase assuming a strong seed hypermagnetic field in symmetric phase.« less

  11. The Origin of Dust in the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2011-01-01

    In this talk I will describe the origin of dust in the early universe. I will be presenting observations of the spectral energy distribution of the galaxy J1148+5251, and present estimates of the dust mass in this high redshift (z=6.4) object. I will then discuss the origin of this dust, and the role of SN and AGB stars as dust sources, and the effect of SNRs on the destruction of dust in the interstellar medium of this galaxy.

  12. The Origin of Dust in the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2010-01-01

    In this talk I will describe the origin of dust in the early universe. I will be presenting observations of the spectral energy distribution of the galaxy J1148+5251, and present estimates of the dust mass in this high redshift (z=6.4) object. I will then discuss the origin of this dust, and the role of SN and AGB stars as dust sources, and the effect of SNRs on the destruction of dust in the interstellar medium of this galaxy.

  13. Fluctuation-driven electroweak phase transition. [in early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  14. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  15. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  16. f(T) teleparallel gravity and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Saridakis, Emmanuel N

    2016-10-01

    Over recent decades, the role of torsion in gravity has been extensively investigated along the main direction of bringing gravity closer to its gauge formulation and incorporating spin in a geometric description. Here we review various torsional constructions, from teleparallel, to Einstein-Cartan, and metric-affine gauge theories, resulting in extending torsional gravity in the paradigm of f (T) gravity, where f (T) is an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar. Based on this theory, we further review the corresponding cosmological and astrophysical applications. In particular, we study cosmological solutions arising from f (T) gravity, both at the background and perturbation levels, in different eras along the cosmic expansion. The f (T) gravity construction can provide a theoretical interpretation of the late-time universe acceleration, alternative to a cosmological constant, and it can easily accommodate with the regular thermal expanding history including the radiation and cold dark matter dominated phases. Furthermore, if one traces back to very early times, for a certain class of f (T) models, a sufficiently long period of inflation can be achieved and hence can be investigated by cosmic microwave background observations-or, alternatively, the Big Bang singularity can be avoided at even earlier moments due to the appearance of non-singular bounces. Various observational constraints, especially the bounds coming from the large-scale structure data in the case of f (T) cosmology, as well as the behavior of gravitational waves, are described in detail. Moreover, the spherically symmetric and black hole solutions of the theory are reviewed. Additionally, we discuss various extensions of the f (T) paradigm. Finally, we consider the relation with other modified gravitational theories, such as those based on curvature, like f (R) gravity, trying to illuminate the subject of which formulation, or combination of formulations, might be more suitable

  17. Astrometric cosmology .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattanzi, M. G.

    The accurate measurement of the motions of stars in our Galaxy can provide access to the cosmological signatures in the disk and halo, while astrometric experiments from within our Solar System can uniquely probe possible deviations from General Relativity. This article will introduce to the fact that astrometry has the potential, thanks also to impressive technological advancements, to become a key player in the field of local cosmology. For example, accurate absolute kinematics at the scale of the Milky Way can, for the first time in situ, account for the predictions made by the cold dark matter model for the Galactic halo, and eventually map out the distribution of dark matter, or other formation mechanisms, required to explain the signatures recently identified in the old component of the thick disk. Final notes dwell on to what extent Gaia can fulfill the expectations of astrometric cosmology and on what must instead be left to future, specifically designed, astrometric experiments.

  18. Energy Feedback from X-ray Binaries in the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragos, T.; Lehmer, B..; Naoz, S.; Zezas, A.; Basu-Zych, A.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray photons, because of their long mean-free paths, can easily escape the galactic environments where they are produced, and interact at long distances with the intergalactic medium, potentially having a significant contribution to the heating and reionization of the early universe. The two most important sources of X-ray photons in the universe are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and X-ray binaries (XRBs). In this Letter we use results from detailed, large scale population synthesis simulations to study the energy feedback of XRBs, from the first galaxies (z (redshift) approximately equal to 20) until today.We estimate that X-ray emission from XRBs dominates over AGN at z (redshift) greater than or approximately equal to 6-8. The shape of the spectral energy distribution of the emission from XRBs shows little change with redshift, in contrast to its normalization which evolves by approximately 4 orders of magnitude, primarily due to the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate. However, the metallicity and the mean stellar age of a given XRB population affect significantly its X-ray output. Specifically, the X-ray luminosity from high-mass XRBs per unit of star-formation rate varies an order of magnitude going from solar metallicity to less than 10% solar, and the X-ray luminosity from low-mass XRBs per unit of stellar mass peaks at an age of approximately 300 Myr (million years) and then decreases gradually at later times, showing little variation for mean stellar ages 3 Gyr (Giga years, or billion years). Finally, we provide analytical and tabulated prescriptions for the energy output of XRBs, that can be directly incorporated in cosmological simulations.

  19. Theoretical Astrophysics - Volume 3, Galaxies and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    2002-12-01

    1. Overview: galaxies and cosmology; 2. Galactic structure and dynamics; 3. Friedmann model of the universe; 4. Thermal history of the universe; 5. Structure formation; 6. Cosmic microwave background radiation; 7. Formation of baryonic structures; 8. Active galactic nuclei; 9. Intergalactic medium and absorption systems; 10. Cosmological observations.

  20. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Lorenzo; O'Brien, Paul T.; Götz, Diego

    2016-07-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) is a mission concept under development by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting gamma-ray bursts for investigating the early Universe. The main scientific objectives of THESEUS include: investigating the star formation rate and metallicity evolution of the ISM and IGM up to redshift 9-10, detecting the first generation (pop III) of stars, studying the sources and physics of re-ionization, detecting the faint end of galaxies luminosity function. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRB detection and arcmin localization over a broad FOV (more than 1sr) and an energy band extending from several MeVs down to 0.3 keV with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as on-board prompt (few minutes) follow-up with a 0.6m class IR telescope with both imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Such instrumentation will also allow THESEUS to unveil and study the population of soft and sub-energetic GRBs, and, more in general, to perform monitoring and survey of the X-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity.

  1. Was there an early reionization component in our universe?

    DOE PAGES

    Villanueva-Domingo, Pablo; Gariazzo, Stefano; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; ...

    2018-04-06

    A deep understanding of the Epoch of Reionization is still missing in our knowledge of the universe. While future probes will allow us to test the precise evolution of the free electron fraction from redshifts betweenmore » $$z\\simeq 6$$ and $$z\\simeq 20$$, at present one could ask what kind of reionization processes are allowed by present Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization measurements. An early contribution to reionization could imply a departure from the standard picture where star formation determines the reionization onset. BBy considering a broad class of possible reionization parameterizations, we find that current data do not require an early reionization component in our universe and that only one marginal class of models, based on a particular realization of reionization, may point to that. In addition, the frequentist Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) provides strong evidence against alternative reionization histories, favoring the most simple reionization scenario, which describes reionization by means of only one (constant) reionization optical depth $$\\tau$$.« less

  2. Was there an early reionization component in our universe?

    SciT

    Villanueva-Domingo, Pablo; Gariazzo, Stefano; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    A deep understanding of the Epoch of Reionization is still missing in our knowledge of the universe. While future probes will allow us to test the precise evolution of the free electron fraction from redshifts betweenmore » $$z\\simeq 6$$ and $$z\\simeq 20$$, at present one could ask what kind of reionization processes are allowed by present Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization measurements. An early contribution to reionization could imply a departure from the standard picture where star formation determines the reionization onset. BBy considering a broad class of possible reionization parameterizations, we find that current data do not require an early reionization component in our universe and that only one marginal class of models, based on a particular realization of reionization, may point to that. In addition, the frequentist Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) provides strong evidence against alternative reionization histories, favoring the most simple reionization scenario, which describes reionization by means of only one (constant) reionization optical depth $$\\tau$$.« less

  3. Universal biology and the statistical mechanics of early life.

    PubMed

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Biancalani, Tommaso; Jafarpour, Farshid

    2017-12-28

    All known life on the Earth exhibits at least two non-trivial common features: the canonical genetic code and biological homochirality, both of which emerged prior to the Last Universal Common Ancestor state. This article describes recent efforts to provide a narrative of this epoch using tools from statistical mechanics. During the emergence of self-replicating life far from equilibrium in a period of chemical evolution, minimal models of autocatalysis show that homochirality would have necessarily co-evolved along with the efficiency of early-life self-replicators. Dynamical system models of the evolution of the genetic code must explain its universality and its highly refined error-minimization properties. These have both been accounted for in a scenario where life arose from a collective, networked phase where there was no notion of species and perhaps even individuality itself. We show how this phase ultimately terminated during an event sometimes known as the Darwinian transition, leading to the present epoch of tree-like vertical descent of organismal lineages. These examples illustrate concrete examples of universal biology: the quest for a fundamental understanding of the basic properties of living systems, independent of precise instantiation in chemistry or other media.This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Universal biology and the statistical mechanics of early life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Biancalani, Tommaso; Jafarpour, Farshid

    2017-11-01

    All known life on the Earth exhibits at least two non-trivial common features: the canonical genetic code and biological homochirality, both of which emerged prior to the Last Universal Common Ancestor state. This article describes recent efforts to provide a narrative of this epoch using tools from statistical mechanics. During the emergence of self-replicating life far from equilibrium in a period of chemical evolution, minimal models of autocatalysis show that homochirality would have necessarily co-evolved along with the efficiency of early-life self-replicators. Dynamical system models of the evolution of the genetic code must explain its universality and its highly refined error-minimization properties. These have both been accounted for in a scenario where life arose from a collective, networked phase where there was no notion of species and perhaps even individuality itself. We show how this phase ultimately terminated during an event sometimes known as the Darwinian transition, leading to the present epoch of tree-like vertical descent of organismal lineages. These examples illustrate concrete examples of universal biology: the quest for a fundamental understanding of the basic properties of living systems, independent of precise instantiation in chemistry or other media. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  5. Culture and children's cosmology.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A

    2004-06-01

    In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England Though Australia and England have a close cultural affinity, there are differences in children's early exposure to cosmological concepts. Australian children who have early instruction in this domain were nearly always significantly in advance of their English counterparts. In general, they most often produced responses compatible with a conception of a round earth on which people can live all over without falling off. We consider coherence and fragmentation in children's knowledge in terms of the timing of culturally transmitted information, and in relation to questioning methods used in previous research that may have underestimated children's competence.

  6. Blast from the Past Gives Clues About Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have gained tantalizing insights into the nature of the most distant object ever observed in the Universe -- a gigantic stellar explosion known as a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB). The explosion was detected on April 23 by NASA's Swift satellite, and scientists soon realized that it was more than 13 billion light-years from Earth. It represents an event that occurred 630 million years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was only four percent of its current age of 13.7 billion years. This explosion provides an unprecedented look at an era when the Universe was very young and also was undergoing drastic changes. The primal cosmic darkness was being pierced by the light of the first stars and the first galaxies were beginning to form. The star that exploded in this event was a member of one of these earliest generations of stars," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Astronomers turned telescopes from around the world to study the blast, dubbed GRB 090423. The VLA first looked for the object the day after the discovery, detected the first radio waves from the blast a week later, then recorded changes in the object until it faded from view more than two months later. "It's important to study these explosions with many kinds of telescopes. Our research team combined data from the VLA with data from X-ray and infrared telescopes to piece together some of the physical conditions of the blast," said Derek Fox of Pennsylvania State University. "The result is a unique look into the very early Universe that we couldn't have gotten any other way," he added. The scientists concluded that the explosion was more energetic than most GRBs, was a nearly-spherical blast, and that it expanded into a tenuous and relatively uniform gaseous medium surrounding the star. Astronomers suspect that the very first stars in the Universe were very different -- brighter, hotter, and more

  7. Cosmology and the Bispectrum

    SciT

    Sefusatti, Emiliano; /Fermilab /CCPP, New York; Crocce, Martin

    The present spatial distribution of galaxies in the Universe is non-Gaussian, with 40% skewness in 50 h{sup -1} Mpc spheres, and remarkably little is known about the information encoded in it about cosmological parameters beyond the power spectrum. In this work they present an attempt to bridge this gap by studying the bispectrum, paying particular attention to a joint analysis with the power spectrum and their combination with CMB data. They address the covariance properties of the power spectrum and bispectrum including the effects of beat coupling that lead to interesting cross-correlations, and discuss how baryon acoustic oscillations break degeneracies.more » They show that the bispectrum has significant information on cosmological parameters well beyond its power in constraining galaxy bias, and when combined with the power spectrum is more complementary than combining power spectra of different samples of galaxies, since non-Gaussianity provides a somewhat different direction in parameter space. In the framework of flat cosmological models they show that most of the improvement of adding bispectrum information corresponds to parameters related to the amplitude and effective spectral index of perturbations, which can be improved by almost a factor of two. Moreover, they demonstrate that the expected statistical uncertainties in {sigma}s of a few percent are robust to relaxing the dark energy beyond a cosmological constant.« less

  8. Tunneling in quantum cosmology and holographic SYM theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoroku, Kazuo; Nakano, Yoshimasa; Tachibana, Motoi; Toyoda, Fumihiko

    2018-03-01

    We study the time evolution of the early Universe, which is developed by a cosmological constant Λ4 and supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) fields in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time. The renormalized vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor of the SYM theory is obtained in a holographic way. It includes a radiation of the SYM field, parametrized as C . The evolution is controlled by this radiation C and the cosmological constant Λ4. For positive Λ4, an inflationary solution is obtained at late time. When C is added, the quantum mechanical situation at early time is fairly changed. Here we perform the early time analysis in terms of two different approaches, (i) the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and (ii) Lorentzian path integral with the Picard-Lefschetz method by introducing an effective action. The results of two methods are compared.

  9. The early universe as a probe of new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Christopher Shane

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics has been verified to unprecedented precision in the last few decades. However there are still phenomena in nature which cannot be explained, and as such new theories will be required. Since terrestrial experiments are limited in both the energy and precision that can be probed, new methods are required to search for signs of physics beyond the Standard Model. In this dissertation, I demonstrate how these theories can be probed by searching for remnants of their effects in the early Universe. In particular I focus on three possible extensions of the Standard Model: the addition of massive neutral particles as dark matter, the addition of charged massive particles, and the existence of higher dimensions. For each new model, I review the existing experimental bounds and the potential for discovering new physics in the next generation of experiments. For dark matter, I introduce six simple models which I have developed, and which involve a minimum amount of new physics, as well as reviewing one existing model of dark matter. For each model I calculate the latest constraints from astrophysics experiments, nuclear recoil experiments, and collider experiments. I also provide motivations for studying sub-GeV mass dark matter, and propose the possibility of searching for light WIMPs in the decay of B-mesons and other heavy particles. For charged massive relics, I introduce and review the recently proposed model of catalyzed Big Bang nucleosynthesis. In particular I review the production of 6Li by this mechanism, and calculate the abundance of 7Li after destruction of 7Be by charged relics. The result is that for certain natural relics CBBN is capable of removing tensions between the predicted and observed 6Li and 7Li abundances which are present in the standard model of BBN. For extra dimensions, I review the constraints on the ADD model from both astrophysics and collider experiments. I then calculate the constraints on this model

  10. Electroweak phase transition and entropy release in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, A.; Dolgov, A.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that the vacuum-like energy of the Higgs potential at non-zero temperatures leads, in the course of the cosmological expansion, to a small but non-negligible rise of the entropy density in the comoving volume. This increase is calculated in the frameworks of the minimal standard model. The result can have a noticeable effect on the outcome of baryo-through-leptogenesis.

  11. Primordial Black Holes from Supersymmetry in the Early Universe.

    PubMed

    Cotner, Eric; Kusenko, Alexander

    2017-07-21

    Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model generically predict that in the early Universe a scalar condensate can form and fragment into Q balls before decaying. If the Q balls dominate the energy density for some period of time, the relatively large fluctuations in their number density can lead to formation of primordial black holes (PBH). Other scalar fields, unrelated to supersymmetry, can play a similar role. For a general charged scalar field, this robust mechanism can generate black holes over the entire mass range allowed by observational constraints, with a sufficient abundance to account for all dark matter in some parameter ranges. In the case of supersymmetry the mass range is limited from above by 10^{23}  g. We also comment on the role that topological defects can play for PBH formation in a similar fashion.

  12. Gamma ray cosmology: The extra galactic gamma spectrum and methods to detect the underlying source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The possible sources of extragalactic gamma rays and methods to distinguish the different sources are discussed. The sources considered are early universe decays and annihilation of Particles, active galactic nuclei (AGN) sources, and baryon-antibaryon annihilation in a baryon symmetric cosmology. The energy spectrum and possible angular fluctuations due to these sources are described.

  13. How Cosmology Became a Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen G.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the origin of the science of cosmology and the competing theories to explain the beginning of the universe. The big bang theory for the creation of the universe is contrasted with the steady state theory. The author details discoveries that led to the demise of the steady state theory. (PR)

  14. Star Formation-Driven Winds in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, Matthew; Lundgren, Britt; Brammer, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the extent of star formation-driven winds from galaxies in the early universe is crucial for understanding of how galaxies evolve over cosmic time. Using WFC3/IR grism data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have measured the star formation rates and star formation rate surface densities of several hundred galaxies at redshift (z) = 1, when the universe was roughly half its present age. The galaxies we examine are also probed by background quasars, whose spectra provide information about the extent of metal-enriched gas in their halos. We use a computational pipeline to measure the density of the star formation in each galaxy and correlate these measurements with detections of Mg II absorption in nearby quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our preliminary results support a model in which galaxies with high SFR surface densities drive metal-enriched gas out of the disk and into these galaxies’ extended halos, where that gas is detected in the spectra of more distant quasars.

  15. STELLAR 'FIREWORKS FINALE' CAME FIRST IN EARLY UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an artist's impression of how the very early universe (less than 1 billion years old) might have looked when it went through a voracious onset of star formation, converting primordial hydrogen into myriad stars at an unprecedented rate. Back then the sky would have looked markedly different from the sea of quiescent galaxies around us today. The sky is ablaze with primeval starburst galaxies; giant elliptical and spiral galaxies have yet to form. Within the starburst galaxies, bright knots of hot blue stars come and go like bursting fireworks shells. Regions of new starbirth glow intensely red under a torrent of ultraviolet radiation. The most massive stars self-detonate as supernovas, which explode across the sky like a string of firecrackers. A foreground starburst galaxy at lower right is sculpted with hot bubbles from supernova explosions and torrential stellar winds. Unlike today there is very little dust in these galaxies, because the heavier elements have not yet been cooked up through nucleosynthesis in stars. Recent analysis of Hubble Space Telescope deep sky images supports the theory that the first stars in the universe appeared in an abrupt eruption of star formation, rather than at a gradual pace. Painting Credit: Adolf Schaller for STScI

  16. The Future of Theoretical Physics and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Rankin, S. J.

    2003-11-01

    Based on lectures given in honor of Stephen Hawking's 60th birthday, this book comprises contributions from the world's leading theoretical physicists. Popular lectures progress to a critical evaluation of more advanced subjects in modern cosmology and theoretical physics. Topics covered include the origin of the universe, warped spacetime, cosmological singularities, quantum gravity, black holes, string theory, quantum cosmology and inflation. The volume provides a fascinating overview of the variety of subjects to which Stephen Hawking has contributed.

  17. Cosmology beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Christopher M.

    The Standard Model of Cosmology, like its particle physics counterpart, is incomplete in its present form theoretically and observationally. Additional structure, in the form of an early period of accelerated expansion (inflation), is suggested by the special initial conditions required to produce the visible universe. Furthermore, a wide variety of indirect observations indicate that 80% of the mass in the universe is dark. In this thesis, we construct a class of inflation models free from the usual pathologies. In particular, we build a novel realization of hybrid inflation, in which both the inflaton and waterfall degrees of freedom are moduli of a higher dimensional compactification. Because the inflationary fields are realized as global degrees of freedom in the extra dimension, they are protected from the 4D quantum corrections that would otherwise spoil inflation. Via the Ads/CFT correspondence we can relate our construction to a dual theory of composite inflationary degrees of freedom. We then turn to studying the problem of missing matter in the Standard Cosmology. Despite an abundance of indirect observations of dark matter, direct detection experiments have produced conflicting results which seem to point to a more complicated dark sector. In this thesis, we propose that dark matter be made up primarily of non-relativistic bound states, i.e. dark atoms. We explore the atomic parameter space allowed by the demands that dark matter is predominantly atomic and that the dark atoms and ions satisfy observational bounds on dark matter self-interactions. We then study possible interactions between dark matter and normal matter such that dark atoms scatter inelastically from nuclei in direct detection experiments.

  18. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief review of Cosmological Inflation from the personal perspective of the speaker who almost 30 years ago proposed a way of resolving the problem of Cosmological Horizon by employing certain notions and developments from the field of High Energy Physics. Along with a brief introduction of the Horizon and Flatness problems of standard cosmology, this lecture concentrates on personal reminiscing of the notions and ideas that prevailed and influenced the author's thinking at the time. The lecture then touches upon some more recent developments related to the subject including exact solutions to conformal gravity that provide a first principles emergence of a characteristic acceleration in the universe and concludes with some personal views concerning the direction that the cosmology field has taken in the past couple of decades and certain speculations some notions that may indicate future directions of research.

  19. Cosmology and unified gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oraifeartaigh, L.

    1981-09-01

    Theoretical points in common between cosmology and unified gauge theory (UGT) are reviewed, with attention given to areas of one which have proven useful for the other. The underlying principles for both theoretical frameworks are described, noting the differences in scale, i.e., 10 to the 25th cm in cosmology and 10 to the -15th cm for UGT. Cosmology has produced bounds on the number of existing neutrino species, and also on the mass of neutrinos, two factors of interest in particle physics. Electrons, protons, and neutrinos, having been spawned from the same massive leptons, each composed of three quarks, have been predicted to be present in equal numbers in the Universe by UGT, in line with necessities of cosmology. The Grand UGT also suggests specific time scales for proton decay, thus accounting for the observed baryon assymmetry.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Dale Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations

  1. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  2. Inflationary Axion Cosmology

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wilczek, Frank; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-09-01

    If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10-6 eV. This bound can be evaded if the Universe underwent inflation after PQ symmetry breaking and if the observable Universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small, .1 . (ma/10-6eV)0.59. We show consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative.

  3. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  4. Quantum cosmology: a review.

    PubMed

    Bojowald, Martin

    2015-02-01

    In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity. De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting 'microscopic' degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.

  5. Evolution of Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Charles H.

    2005-04-01

    Aristotle thought that the universe was finite and Earth centered. Newton thought that it was infinite. Einstein guessed that the universe was finite, spherical, static, warped, and closed. Hubble's 1930 discovery of the expanding universe, Penzias and Wilson's 1968 discovery of the isotropic CMB, and measurements on light element abundances, however, established a big bang origin. Vera Rubin's 1980 dark matter discovery significantly impacted contending theories. However, 1998 is the year when sufficiently accurate supernova and primordial deuterium data was available to truly explore the universe. CMB anisotropy measurements further extended our cosmological database in 2003. On the theoretical side, Friedmann's 1922 perturbation solution of Einstein's general relativity equations for a static universe has shaped the thought and direction in cosmology for the past 80 years. It describes 3D space as a dynamic function of time. However, 80 years of trying to fit Friedmann's solution to observational data has been a bumpy road - resulting in such counter-intuitive, but necessary, features as rapid inflation, precision tuning, esoteric dark matter, and an accelerating input of esoteric dark energy.

  6. Nearby star cluster yields insights into early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    The nebula offers a unique opportunity for a close-up glimpse of the "firestorm" accompanying the birth of extremely massive stars, each blazing with the brilliance of 300,000 of our suns. Such galactic fireworks were much more common billions of years ago in the early universe, when most star formation took place. "This is giving us new insights into the physical mechanisms governing star formation in far away galaxies that existed long ago," says Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France), who headed the international team of astronomers who made the discovery using Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Because these stars are deficient in heavier elements, they also evolve much like the universe's earliest stars, which were made almost exclusively of the primordial elements hydrogen and helium that were created in the big bang. The Small Magellanic Cloud is a unique laboratory for studying star formation in the early universe since it is the closest and best seen galaxy containing so-called "metal-poor" first- and second -generation type stars. These observations show that massive stars may form in groups. "As a result, it is more likely some of these stars are members of double and multiple star systems," says Heydari-Malayeri. "The multiple systems will affect stellar evolution considerably by ejecting a great deal of matter into space." This furious rate of mass loss from these stars is evident in the Hubble picture, which reveals dramatic shapes sculpted in the nebula's wall of glowing gases by violent stellar winds and shock waves. "This implies a very turbulent environment typical of young star formation regions," Heydari-Malayeri adds. He believes one of the members of the cluster may be an extremely rare and short-lived class of super-hot star (50,000 degrees Kelvin) called a Wolf-Rayet. This star represents a violent, transitional phase in the final years of a massive star's existence - before it ultimately explodes as a supernova. "If

  7. SPIDER: probing the early Universe with a suborbital polarimeter

    SciT

    Fraisse, A.A.; Chiang, H.C.; Ade, P.A.R.

    2013-04-01

    We evaluate the ability of SPIDER, a balloon-borne polarimeter, to detect a divergence-free polarization pattern (B-modes) in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In the inflationary scenario, the amplitude of this signal is proportional to that of the primordial scalar perturbations through the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. We show that the expected level of systematic error in the SPIDER instrument is significantly below the amplitude of an interesting cosmological signal with r = 0.03. We present a scanning strategy that enables us to minimize uncertainty in the reconstruction of the Stokes parameters used to characterize the CMB, while accessing a relatively widemore » range of angular scales. Evaluating the amplitude of the polarized Galactic emission in the SPIDER field, we conclude that the polarized emission from interstellar dust is as bright or brighter than the cosmological signal at all SPIDER frequencies (90 GHz, 150 GHz, and 280 GHz), a situation similar to that found in the ''Southern Hole.'' We show that two ∼ 20-day flights of the SPIDER instrument can constrain the amplitude of the B-mode signal to r < 0.03 (99% CL) even when foreground contamination is taken into account. In the absence of foregrounds, the same limit can be reached after one 20-day flight.« less

  8. Quantum Gravity and Cosmology: an intimate interplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2017-08-01

    I will briefly discuss three cosmological models built upon three distinct quantum gravity proposals. I will first highlight the cosmological rôle of a vector field in the framework of a string/brane cosmological model. I will then present the resolution of the big bang singularity and the occurrence of an early era of accelerated expansion of a geometric origin, in the framework of group field theory condensate cosmology. I will then summarise results from an extended gravitational model based on non-commutative spectral geometry, a model that offers a purely geometric explanation for the standard model of particle physics.

  9. Is the Universe a white-hole?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Marcelo Samuel

    2007-10-01

    Pathria (1972) has shown, for a pressureless closed Universe, that it is inside a black (or white) hole. We show now, that the Universe with a cosmic pressure obeying Einstein’s field equations, can be inside a white-hole. In the closed case, a positive cosmological constant does the job; for the flat and open cases, the condition we find is not verified for the very early Universe, but with the growth of the scale-factor, the condition will be certainly fulfilled for a positive cosmological constant, after some time. We associate the absolute temperature of the Universe, with the temperature of the corresponding white-hole.

  10. Cosmological lepton asymmetry, primordial nucleosynthesis and sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazajian, Kevork; Bell, Nicole F.; Fuller, George M.; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2005-09-01

    We study post weak decoupling coherent active-sterile and active-active matter-enhanced neutrino flavor transformation in the early Universe. We show that flavor conversion efficiency at Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances is likely to be high (adiabatic evolution) for relevant neutrino parameters and energies. However, we point out that these resonances cannot sweep smoothly and continuously with the expansion of the Universe. We show how neutrino flavor conversion in this way can leave both the active and sterile neutrinos with nonthermal energy spectra, and how, in turn, these distorted energy spectra can affect the neutron-to-proton ratio, primordial nucleosynthesis, and cosmological mass/closure constraints on sterile neutrinos. We demonstrate that the existence of a light sterile neutrino which mixes with active neutrinos can change fundamentally the relationship between the cosmological lepton numbers and the primordial nucleosynthesis He4 yield.

  11. Turbulence of Weak Gravitational Waves in the Early Universe.

    PubMed

    Galtier, Sébastien; Nazarenko, Sergey V

    2017-12-01

    We study the statistical properties of an ensemble of weak gravitational waves interacting nonlinearly in a flat space-time. We show that the resonant three-wave interactions are absent and develop a theory for four-wave interactions in the reduced case of a 2.5+1 diagonal metric tensor. In this limit, where only plus-polarized gravitational waves are present, we derive the interaction Hamiltonian and consider the asymptotic regime of weak gravitational wave turbulence. Both direct and inverse cascades are found for the energy and the wave action, respectively, and the corresponding wave spectra are derived. The inverse cascade is characterized by a finite-time propagation of the metric excitations-a process similar to an explosive nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation, which provides an efficient mechanism to ironing out small-scale inhomogeneities. The direct cascade leads to an accumulation of the radiation energy in the system. These processes might be important for understanding the early Universe where a background of weak nonlinear gravitational waves is expected.

  12. Early universe with modified scalar-tensor theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Ranajit; Sarkar, Chandramouli; Sanyal, Abhik Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Scalar-tensor theory of gravity with non-minimal coupling is a fairly good candidate for dark energy, required to explain late-time cosmic evolution. Here we study the very early stage of evolution of the universe with a modified version of the theory, which includes scalar curvature squared term. One of the key aspects of the present study is that, the quantum dynamics of the action under consideration ends up generically with de-Sitter expansion under semiclassical approximation, rather than power-law. This justifies the analysis of inflationary regime with de-Sitter expansion. The other key aspect is that, while studying gravitational perturbation, the perturbed generalized scalar field equation obtained from the perturbed action, when matched with the perturbed form of the background scalar field equation, relates the coupling parameter and the potential exactly in the same manner as the solution of classical field equations does, assuming de-Sitter expansion. The study also reveals that the quantum theory is well behaved, inflationary parameters fall well within the observational limit and quantum perturbation analysis shows that the power-spectrum does not deviate considerably from the standard one obtained from minimally coupled theory.

  13. The covariant entropy conjecture and concordance cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Song; Zhang, Hongbao

    2008-10-01

    Recently a covariant entropy conjecture has been proposed for dynamical horizons. We apply this conjecture to concordance cosmological models, namely, those cosmological models filled with perfect fluids, in the presence of a positive cosmological constant. As a result, we find that this conjecture has a severe constraint power. Not only does this conjecture rule out those cosmological models disfavored by the anthropic principle, but also it imposes an upper bound 10-60 on the cosmological constant for our own universe, which thus provides an alternative macroscopic perspective for understanding the long-standing cosmological constant problem.

  14. Anisotropic Weyl symmetry and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Taeyoon; Oh, Phillial; Sohn, Jongsu

    2010-11-01

    We construct an anisotropic Weyl invariant theory in the ADM formalism and discuss its cosmological consequences. It extends the original anisotropic Weyl invariance of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity using an extra scalar field. The action is invariant under the anisotropic transformations of the space and time metric components with an arbitrary value of the critical exponent z. One of the interesting features is that the cosmological constant term maintains the anisotropic symmetry for z = -3. We also include the cosmological fluid and show that it can preserve the anisotropic Weyl invariance if the equation of state satisfies P = zρ/3. Then, we study cosmology of the Einstein-Hilbert-anisotropic Weyl (EHaW) action including the cosmological fluid, both with or without anisotropic Weyl invariance. The correlation of the critical exponent z and the equation of state parameter bar omega provides a new perspective of the cosmology. It is also shown that the EHaW action admits a late time accelerating universe for an arbitrary value of z when the anisotropic conformal invariance is broken, and the anisotropic conformal scalar field is interpreted as a possible source of dark energy.

  15. Parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanghai, Viraj A. A.; Clifton, Timothy

    2017-03-01

    Einstein’s theory of gravity has been extensively tested on solar system scales, and for isolated astrophysical systems, using the perturbative framework known as the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. This framework is designed for use in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of gravity, and can be used to constrain a large class of metric theories of gravity with data collected from the aforementioned systems. Given the potential of future surveys to probe cosmological scales to high precision, it is a topic of much contemporary interest to construct a similar framework to link Einstein’s theory of gravity and its alternatives to observations on cosmological scales. Our approach to this problem is to adapt and extend the existing PPN formalism for use in cosmology. We derive a set of equations that use the same parameters to consistently model both weak fields and cosmology. This allows us to parameterize a large class of modified theories of gravity and dark energy models on cosmological scales, using just four functions of time. These four functions can be directly linked to the background expansion of the universe, first-order cosmological perturbations, and the weak-field limit of the theory. They also reduce to the standard PPN parameters on solar system scales. We illustrate how dark energy models and scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories of gravity fit into this framework, which we refer to as ‘parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology’ (PPNC).

  16. Fundamental Particle Structure in the Cosmological Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlopov, Maxim

    2013-11-01

    The nonbaryonic dark matter of the universe is assumed to consist of new stable forms of matter. Their stability reflects symmetry of micro-world and mechanisms of its symmetry breaking. Particle candidates for cosmological dark matter are lightest particles that bear new conserved quantum numbers. Dark matter particles may represent ideal gas of noninteracting particles. Self-interacting dark matter weakly or superweakly coupled to ordinary matter is also possible, reflecting nontrivial pattern of particle symmetry in the hidden sector of particle theory. In the early universe the structure of particle symmetry breaking gives rise to cosmological phase transitions, from which macroscopic cosmological defects or primordial nonlinear structures can be originated. Primordial black holes (PBHs) can be not only a candidate for dark matter, but also represent a universal probe for superhigh energy physics in the early universe. Evaporating PBHs turn to be a source of even superweakly interacting particles, while clouds of massive PBHs can serve as nonlinear seeds for galaxy formation. The observed broken symmetry of the three known families may provide a simultaneous solution for the problems of the mass of neutrino and strong CP-violation in the unique framework of models of horizontal unification. Dark matter candidates can also appear in the new families of quarks and leptons and the existence of new stable charged leptons and quarks is possible, hidden in elusive "dark atoms." Such possibility, strongly restricted by the constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements, is not excluded in scenarios that predict stable double charged particles. The excessive -2 charged particles are bound in these scenarios with primordial helium in O-helium "atoms," maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter, which may provide an interesting solution for the puzzles of the direct dark matter searches. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, studying

  17. Nonsingular cosmology from evolutionary quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfrani, Francesco; Montani, Giovanni; Pittorino, Fabrizio

    2014-11-01

    We provide a cosmological implementation of the evolutionary quantum gravity, describing an isotropic Universe, in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and a massive (preinflationary) scalar field. We demonstrate that the considered Universe has a nonsingular quantum behavior, associated to a primordial bounce, whose ground state has a high occupation number. Furthermore, in such a vacuum state, the super-Hamiltonian eigenvalue is negative, corresponding to a positive emerging dust energy density. The regularization of the model is performed via a polymer quantum approach to the Universe scale factor and the proper classical limit is then recovered, in agreement with a preinflationary state of the Universe. Since the dust energy density is redshifted by the Universe de Sitter phase and the cosmological constant does not enter the ground state eigenvalue, we get a late-time cosmology, compatible with the present observations, endowed with a turning point in the far future.

  18. A cosmic book. [of physics of early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peebles, P. J. E.; Silk, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    A system of assigning odds to the basic elements of cosmological theories is proposed in order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the theories. A figure of merit for the theories is obtained by counting and weighing the plausibility of each of the basic elements that is not substantially supported by observation or mature fundamental theory. The magnetized strong model is found to be the most probable. In order of decreasing probability, the ranking for the rest of the models is: (1) the magnetized string model with no exotic matter and the baryon adiabatic model; (2) the hot dark matter model and the model of cosmic string loops; (3) the canonical cold dark matter model, the cosmic string loops model with hot dark matter, and the baryonic isocurvature model; and (4) the cosmic string loops model with no exotic matter.

  19. Topological Defects and Structures in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yong

    1997-08-01

    This thesis discusses the topological defects generated in the early universe and their contributions to cosmic structure formation. First, we investigate non-Gaussian isocurvature perturbations generated by the evolution of Goldstone modes during inflation. If a global symmetry is broken before inflation, the resulting Goldstone modes are disordered during inflation in a precise and predictable way. After inflation these Goldstone modes order themselves in a self-similar way, much as Goldstone modes in field ordering scenarios based on the Kibble mechanism. For (Hi2/Mpl2)~10- 6, through their gravitational interaction these Goldstone modes generate density perturbations of approximately the right magnitude to explain the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and seed the structure seen in the universe today. In such a model non-Gaussian perturbations result because to lowest order density perturbations are sourced by products of Gaussian fields. We explore the issue of phase dispersion and conclude that this non-Gaussian model predicts Doppler peaks in the CMB anisotropy. Topological defects generated from quantum fluctuations during inflation are studied in chapter four. We present a calculation of the power spectrum generated in a classically symmetry-breaking O(N) scalar field through inflationary quantum fluctuations, using the large-N limit. The effective potential of the theory in de Sitter space is obtained from a gap equation which is exact at large N. Quantum fluctuations restore the O(N) symmetry in de Sitter space, but for the finite values of N of interest, there is symmetry breaking and phase ordering after inflation, described by the classical nonlinear sigma model. The scalar field power spectrum is obtained as a function of the scalar field self-coupling. In the second part of the thesis, we investigate non-Abelian topological worm-holes, obtained when winding number one texture field is coupled to Einstein gravity with a conserved global

  20. Super-Eddington accreting massive black holes explore high-z cosmology: Monte-Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Huang, Qing-Guo; Yang, Tao

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we simulate Super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) as the candles to probe cosmology for the first time. SEAMBHs have been demonstrated to be able to provide a new tool for estimating cosmological distance. Thus, we create a series of mock data sets of SEAMBHs, especially in the high redshift region, to check their abilities to probe the cosmology. To fulfill the potential of the SEAMBHs on the cosmology, we apply the simulated data to three projects. The first is the exploration of their abilities to constrain the cosmological parameters, in which we combine different data sets of current observations such as the cosmic microwave background from Planck and type Ia supernovae from Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA). We find that the high redshift SEAMBHs can help to break the degeneracies of the background cosmological parameters constrained by Planck and JLA, thus giving much tighter constraints of the cosmological parameters. The second uses the high redshift SEAMBHs as the complements of the low redshift JLA to constrain the early expansion rate and the dark energy density evolution in the cold dark matter frame. Our results show that these high redshift SEAMBHs are very powerful on constraining the early Hubble rate and the evolution of the dark energy density; thus they can give us more information about the expansion history of our Universe, which is also crucial for testing the Λ CDM model in the high redshift region. Finally, we check the SEAMBH candles' abilities to reconstruct the equation of state for dark energy at high redshift. In summary, our results show that the SEAMBHs, as the rare candles in the high redshift region, can provide us a new and independent observation to probe cosmology in the future.

  1. NEARBY MASSIVE STAR CLUSTER YIELDS INSIGHTS INTO EARLY UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of young, ultra-bright stars nested in their embryonic cloud of glowing gases. The celestial maternity ward, called N81, is located 200,000 light-years away in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a small irregular satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. Hubble's exquisite resolution allows astronomers to pinpoint 50 separate stars tightly packed in the nebula's core within a 10 light-year diameter - slightly more than twice the distance between earth and the nearest star to our sun. The closest pair of stars is only 1/3 of a light-year apart (0.3 arcseconds in the sky). This furious rate of mass loss from these super-hot stars is evident in the Hubble picture that reveals dramatic shapes sculpted in the nebula's wall of glowing gases by violent stellar winds and shock waves. A pair of bright stars in the center of the nebula is pouring out most of the ultraviolet radiation to make the nebula glow. Just above them, a small dark knot is all that's left of the cold cloud of molecular hydrogen and dust the stars were born from. Dark absorption lanes of residual dust trisect the nebula. The nebula offers a unique opportunity for a close-up glimpse at the 'firestorm' accompanying the birth of extremely massive stars, each blazing with the brilliance of 300,000 of our suns. Such galactic fireworks were much more common billions of years ago in the early universe, when most star formation took place. The 'natural-color' view was assembled from separate images taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, in ultraviolet light and two narrow emission lines of ionized Hydrogen (H-alpha, H-beta). The picture was taken on September 4, 1997. Credit: Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France), NASA/ESA

  2. Nonlinear viscosity in brane-world cosmology with a Gauss–Bonnet term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, P. S.; Beesham, A.; Paul, B. C.

    2018-06-01

    Cosmological solutions are obtained with nonlinear bulk viscous cosmological fluid in the Randall–Sundrum type II (RS) brane-world model with or without Gauss–Bonnet (GB) terms. To describe such a viscous fluid, we consider the nonlinear transport equation which may be used far from equilibrium during inflation or reheating. Cosmological models are explored for both (i) power law and (ii) exponential evolution of the early universe in the presence of an imperfect fluid described by the non-linear Israel and Stewart theory (nIS). We obtain analytic solutions and the complex field equations are also analyzed numerically to study the evolution of the universe. The stability analysis of the equilibrium points of the dynamical system associated with the evolution of the nonlinear bulk viscous fluid in the RS Brane in the presence (or absence) of a GB term are also studied.

  3. Quantum effects in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starobinskii, A. A.; Zel'Dovich, Ia. B.

    1988-02-01

    The present status of understanding of the early universe is reviewed, emphasizing the role of microphysics. It is argued that the inflationary stage appears to be eternal, and that the universe is not at all homogeneous, with an infinite number of Friedmann universes created from one maternal de Sitter universe. The problem of quantum unpredictability is discussed.

  4. The evolution of modern cosmology as seen through a personal walk across six decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, Jayant V.

    2018-02-01

    This highly personal account of evolution of cosmology spans a period of approximately six decades 1959-2017. It begins when in 1959 the author, as an undergraduate at Cambridge, was attracted to the subject by the thought provoking lectures by Fred Hoyle as well as by his popular books The Nature of Universe and The Frontiers of Astronomy. The result was that after a successful performance at the Mathematical Tripos (Part III) examination, he enrolled as a research student of Hoyle. In this article the author describes the interesting works in cosmology that kept him busy both in Cambridge and in India. The issues pertinent to cosmological research in the 1960s and 1970s included the Mach's principle, the Wheeler-Feynman theory relating the local electromagnetic arrow of time to the cosmological one, the observational tests of specific expanding universe models, and issues like singularity in quantum cosmology. However, post-1965, the nature of cosmological research changed dramatically with the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). Given the assumption that the CMBR is a relic of big bang there has been a host of papers on the early universe, going as close to the big bang as the very early universe would permit: around just 10-36 s. The author argues that despite the popularity of the standard hot big bang cosmology (SBBC) it rests on rather shaky foundations. On the theoretical side there is no well established physical framework to support the SBBC; nor is there independent observational support for its assumptions like the nonbaryonic dark matter, inflation and dark energy. While technological progress has made it possible to explore the universe in greater detail with open mind, today's cosmologists seem caught in a range of speculations in support of the big bang dogma. Thus, in modern times cosmology appears to have lost the Camelot spirit encouraging adventurous studies of the unknown. A spirit of openness is advocated to restore

  5. The evolution of modern cosmology as seen through a personal walk across six decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, Jayant V.

    2018-05-01

    This highly personal account of evolution of cosmology spans a period of approximately six decades 1959-2017. It begins when in 1959 the author, as an undergraduate at Cambridge, was attracted to the subject by the thought provoking lectures by Fred Hoyle as well as by his popular books The Nature of Universe and The Frontiers of Astronomy. The result was that after a successful performance at the Mathematical Tripos (Part III) examination, he enrolled as a research student of Hoyle. In this article the author describes the interesting works in cosmology that kept him busy both in Cambridge and in India. The issues pertinent to cosmological research in the 1960s and 1970s included the Mach's principle, the Wheeler-Feynman theory relating the local electromagnetic arrow of time to the cosmological one, the observational tests of specific expanding universe models, and issues like singularity in quantum cosmology. However, post-1965, the nature of cosmological research changed dramatically with the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). Given the assumption that the CMBR is a relic of big bang there has been a host of papers on the early universe, going as close to the big bang as the very early universe would permit: around just 10-36 s. The author argues that despite the popularity of the standard hot big bang cosmology (SBBC) it rests on rather shaky foundations. On the theoretical side there is no well established physical framework to support the SBBC; nor is there independent observational support for its assumptions like the nonbaryonic dark matter, inflation and dark energy. While technological progress has made it possible to explore the universe in greater detail with open mind, today's cosmologists seem caught in a range of speculations in support of the big bang dogma. Thus, in modern times cosmology appears to have lost the Camelot spirit encouraging adventurous studies of the unknown. A spirit of openness is advocated to restore

  6. A hundred years with the cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grøn, Øyvind G.

    2018-07-01

    The main points in the history of the cosmological constant are briefly discussed. As a conceptual background, useful for teaching of physics at an elementary college and university level, Newton’s theory formulated locally in terms of the Poisson equation is presented, and it is shown how it is modified by the introduction of the cosmological constant. The different physical interpretations of the cosmological constant, as introduced by Einstein in 1917 and interpreted by Lemaître in 1934, are presented. Energy conservation in an expanding universe dominated by vacuum energy is discussed. The connection between the cosmological constant and the quantum mechanical vacuum energy is mentioned, together with the problem that a quantum mechanical calculation of the density of the vacuum energy gives a vastly too large value of the cosmological constant. The article is concluded by reviewing a solution of this problem that was presented on May 11, 2017.

  7. Cosmic curvature from de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Andreas

    2011-10-07

    I show that the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology generically predicts observable levels of curvature in the Universe today. The predicted value of the curvature, Ω(k), depends only on the ratio of the density of nonrelativistic matter to cosmological constant density ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and the value of the curvature from the initial bubble that starts the inflation, Ω(k)(B). The result is independent of the scale of inflation, the shape of the potential during inflation, and many other details of the cosmology. Future cosmological measurements of ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and Ω(k) will open up a window on the very beginning of our Universe and offer an opportunity to support or falsify the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.

  8. Understanding Creation: Cosmology at the Dawn of the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Andrew E.

    1997-01-01

    Cosmology attempts to answer questions concerning the origin of the universe, the way in which it evolves, and the way in which it will end. These are ancient questions that fascinate humanity and attendant metaphysical answers predate recorded history. The dawn of the 21st century has witnessed the first scientific answers. The goal of modern cosmology is to determine the basic properties of the universe. Numerous discoveries have been made in the last century which have had a profound influence on cosmology such as the expansion of the universe and the existence of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CMB and other phenomena act as fossils for cosmologists who attempt to characterize the early universe through an interpretive methodology similar to that of archaeologists. Programs and tools such as NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) have been designed to illuminate the morphologic history of the universe including the big bang theory and the current density of the universe. In this primer for cosmology, these and other discoveries and postulations are discussed.

  9. Quantum Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojowald, Martin

    The universe, ultimately, is to be described by quantum theory. Quantum aspects of all there is, including space and time, may not be significant for many purposes, but are crucial for some. And so a quantum description of cosmology is required for a complete and consistent worldview. At any rate, even if we were not directly interested in regimes where quantum cosmology plays a role, a complete physical description could not stop at a stage before the whole universe is reached. Quantum theory is essential in the microphysics of particles, atoms, molecules, solids, white dwarfs and neutron stars. Why should one expect this ladder of scales to end at a certain size? If regimes are sufficiently violent and energetic, quantum effects are non-negligible even on scales of the whole cosmos; this is realized at least once in the history of the universe: at the big bang where the classical theory of general relativity would make energy densities diverge. 1.Lachieze-Rey, M., Luminet, J.P.: Phys. Rept. 254,135 (1995), gr-qc/9605010 2.BSDeWitt1967Phys. Rev.160511131967PhRv..160.1113D0158.4650410.1103/PhysRev.160.1113DeWitt, B.S.: Phys. Rev. 160(5), 1113 (1967) 3.Wiltshire, D.L.: In: Robson B., Visvanathan N., Woolcock W.S. (eds.) Cosmology: The Physics of the Universe, pp. 473-531. World Scientific, Singapore (1996

  10. Cosmology on a Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Stuart P. D.; Knebe, Alexander; Gibson, Brad K.; Flynn, Chris; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Lewis, Geraint F.

    2003-04-01

    An adaptive multi grid approach to simulating the formation of structure from collisionless dark matter is described. MLAPM (Multi-Level Adaptive Particle Mesh) is one of the most efficient serial codes available on the cosmological "market" today. As part of Swinburne University's role in the development of the Square Kilometer Array, we are implementing hydrodynamics, feedback, and radiative transfer within the MLAPM adaptive mesh, in order to simulate baryonic processes relevant to the interstellar and intergalactic media at high redshift. We will outline our progress to date in applying the existing MLAPM to a study of the decay of satellite galaxies within massive host potentials.

  11. Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibundgut, B.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-03-01

    The primary agent for Type Ia supernova cosmology is the uniformity of their appearance. We present the current status, achievements and uncertainties. The Hubble constant and the expansion history of the universe are key measurements provided by Type Ia supernovae. They were also instrumental in showing time dilation, which is a direct observational signature of expansion. Connections to explosion physics are made in the context of potential improvements of the quality of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators. The coming years will see large efforts to use Type Ia supernovae to characterise dark energy.

  12. Stochastic processes in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cáceres, Manuel O.; Diaz, Mario C.; Pullin, Jorge A.

    1987-08-01

    The behavior of a radiation filled de Sitter universe in which the equation of state is perturbed by a stochastic term is studied. The corresponding two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation is solved. The finiteness of the cosmological constant appears to be a necessary condition for the stability of the model which undergoes an exponentially expanding state. Present address: Facultad de Matemática Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000 Códoba, Argentina.

  13. Representing massive gravitons, as a way to quantify early universe magnetic field contributions to space-time, created by non linear electrodynamics

    SciT

    Beckwith, Andrew Walcott, E-mail: Rwill9955b@gmail.com

    We review a relationship between cosmological vacuum energy and massive gravitons as given by Garattini and also the nonlinear electrodynamics of Camara et.al (2004) for a non singular universe and NLED. . In evaluating the Garattini result, we find that having the scale factor close to zero due to a given magnetic field value in, an early universe magnetic field affects how we would interpret Garattini’s linkage of the ‘cosmological constant’ value and non zero graviton mass.. We close as to how these initial conditions affect the issue of an early universe initial pressure and its experimental similarities and differencesmore » with results by Corda and Questa as to negative pressure at the surface of a star. Note, that in theDupays et.al. article , the star in question is rapidly spinning, which is not. assumed in the Camara et.al article , for an early universe. Also, Corda and Questa do not assume a spinning star. We conclude with a comparison between the Lagrangian Dupays and other authors bring up for non linear electrodynamics which is for rapidly spinning neutron stars , and a linkage between the Goldstone theorem and NLED. Our conclusion is for generalizing results seen in the Dupays neutron star Lagrangian with conditions which may confirm C. A. Escobar and L. F. Urrutia’s work on the Goldstone theorem and non linear electrodynamics, for some future projects we have in mind. If the universe does not spin, then we will stick with the density analogy given by adapting density as proportional to one over the fourth power of the minimum value of the scale factor as computed by adaptation of the Camara et.al.(2004) theory for non spinning universes. What may happen is that the Camara (2004) density and Quintessential density are both simultaneously satisfied, which would put additional restrictions on the magnetic field, which is one of our considerations, regardless if a universe spins, akin to spinning neutron stars. The spinning universe though

  14. The Higgs boson and cosmology

    PubMed Central

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    I will discuss how the Higgs field of the Standard Model may have played an important role in cosmology, leading to the homogeneity, isotropy and flatness of the Universe; producing the quantum fluctuations that seed structure formation; triggering the radiation-dominated era of the hot Big Bang; and contributing to the processes of baryogenesis and dark matter production.

  15. The Higgs boson and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2015-01-13

    I will discuss how the Higgs field of the Standard Model may have played an important role in cosmology, leading to the homogeneity, isotropy and flatness of the Universe; producing the quantum fluctuations that seed structure formation; triggering the radiation-dominated era of the hot Big Bang; and contributing to the processes of baryogenesis and dark matter production.

  16. Topics in Gravitation and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami Taghanaki, Sina

    This thesis is focused on two topics in which relativistic gravitational fields play an important role, namely early Universe cosmology and black hole physics. The theory of cosmic inflation has emerged as the most successful theory of the very early Universe with concrete and verifiable predictions for the properties of anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation and large scale structure. Coalescences of black hole binaries have recently been detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), opening a new arena for observationally testing the dynamics of gravity. In part I of this thesis we explore some modifications to the standard theory of inflation. The main predictions of single field slow-roll inflation have been largely consistent with cosmological observations. However, there remain some aspects of the theory that are not presently well understood. Among these are the somewhat interrelated issues of the choice of initial state for perturbations and the potential imprints of pre-inflationary dynamics. It is well known that a key prediction of the standard theory of inflation, namely the Gaussianity of perturbations, is a consequence of choosing a natural vacuum initial state. In chapter 3, we study the generation and detectability of non-Gaussianities in inflationary scalar perturbations that originate from more general choices of initial state. After that, in chapter 4, we study a simple but predictive model of pre-inflationary dynamics in an attempt to test the robustness of inflationary predictions. We find that significant deviations from the standard predictions are unlikely to result from models in which the inflaton field decouples from the pre-inflationary degrees of freedom prior to freeze-out of the observable modes. In part II we turn to a study of an aspect of the thermodynamics of black holes, a subject which has led to important advances in our understanding of quantum gravity. For objects which

  17. Teaching Early Childhood Assessment Online: A State-Wide Multi-University Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Ann D.; McDonald, Angie; York, Marti A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an online early childhood assessment course that was developed through a multi-university collaboration with support from a state improvement grant. Collaborators from three universities developed the course to address a new early childhood unified license (birth to age 8, regular and special education) in the state of Kansas.…

  18. Cosmological parameters in a generalized multi-function gravitation model f(T,θ )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadatian, S. Davood; Tahajjodi, A.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present article was to study the cosmological model f(T,θ ). By introducing and examining this model as well as a number of other proposed f(T,θ ) models, certain cosmological parameters were analyzed in this framework, and their behaviors were investigated. Ultimately, the results were qualitatively compared with the observational data. It was found that by employing proper coefficients, phantom crossing division occured for the equation of state, thus pointing to the existence of a bouncing universe scenario. Furthermore, it was revealed that by creating a potential in the model, inflation could be produced, and the early cosmos could be studied.

  19. Computational Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational instability of small density fluctuations, possibly created during an early inflationary period, is the key process leading to the formation of all structure in the Universe. New numerical algorithms have recently enabled much progress in understanding the relevant physical processes dominating the first billion years of structure formation. Computational cosmologists are attempting to simulate on their supercomputers how galaxies come about. In recent years first attempts trying to follow the formation and eventual death of every single star in these model galaxies has become to be within reach. The models now include gravity for both dark matter and baryonic matter, hydrodynamics, follow the radiation from massive stars and its impact in shaping the surrounding material, gas chemistry and all the key radiative atomic and molecular physics determining the thermal state of the model gas. In a small number of cases even the rold of magnetic fields on galactic scales is being studied. At the same time we are learning more about the limitations of certain numerical techniques and developing new schemes to more accurately follow the interplay of these many different physical processes. This talk is in two parts. First we consider a birds eye view of the relevant physical processes relevant for structure formation and potential approaches in solving the relevant equations efficiently and accurately on modern supercomputers. Secondly, we focus in on one of those processes. Namely the intricate and fascinating dynamics of the likely collsionless fluid dynamics of dark matter. A novel way of following the intricate evolution of such collisionless fluids in phase space is allowing us to construct new numerical methods to help understand the nature of dark matter halos as well as problems in astrophysical and terrestial plasmas.

  20. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. Two of its most publicized comological connections are emphasized: big bang nucleosynthesis and dark matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of neutrine flavors, N(sub nu) is approximately 3 which in now being confirmed. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galacty and structure formation in the universe. The role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure is demonstrated.

  1. Classically Stable Nonsingular Cosmological Bounces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2016-09-01

    One of the fundamental questions of theoretical cosmology is whether the Universe can undergo a nonsingular bounce, i.e., smoothly transit from a period of contraction to a period of expansion through violation of the null energy condition (NEC) at energies well below the Planck scale and at finite values of the scale factor such that the entire evolution remains classical. A common claim has been that a nonsingular bounce either leads to ghost or gradient instabilities or a cosmological singularity. In this Letter, we consider a well-motivated class of theories based on the cubic Galileon action and present a procedure for explicitly constructing examples of a nonsingular cosmological bounce without encountering any pathologies and maintaining a subluminal sound speed for comoving curvature modes throughout the NEC violating phase. We also discuss the relation between our procedure and earlier work.

  2. Concordance cosmology without dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rácz, Gábor; Dobos, László; Beck, Róbert; Szapudi, István; Csabai, István

    2017-07-01

    According to the separate universe conjecture, spherically symmetric sub-regions in an isotropic universe behave like mini-universes with their own cosmological parameters. This is an excellent approximation in both Newtonian and general relativistic theories. We estimate local expansion rates for a large number of such regions, and use a scale parameter calculated from the volume-averaged increments of local scale parameters at each time step in an otherwise standard cosmological N-body simulation. The particle mass, corresponding to a coarse graining scale, is an adjustable parameter. This mean field approximation neglects tidal forces and boundary effects, but it is the first step towards a non-perturbative statistical estimation of the effect of non-linear evolution of structure on the expansion rate. Using our algorithm, a simulation with an initial Ωm = 1 Einstein-de Sitter setting closely tracks the expansion and structure growth history of the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. Due to small but characteristic differences, our model can be distinguished from the ΛCDM model by future precision observations. Moreover, our model can resolve the emerging tension between local Hubble constant measurements and the Planck best-fitting cosmology. Further improvements to the simulation are necessary to investigate light propagation and confirm full consistency with cosmic microwave background observations.

  3. Anisotropic k-essence cosmologies

    SciT

    Chimento, Luis P.; Forte, Monica

    We investigate a Bianchi type-I cosmology with k-essence and find the set of models which dissipate the initial anisotropy. There are cosmological models with extended tachyon fields and k-essence having a constant barotropic index. We obtain the conditions leading to a regular bounce of the average geometry and the residual anisotropy on the bounce. For constant potential, we develop purely kinetic k-essence models which are dust dominated in their early stages, dissipate the initial anisotropy, and end in a stable de Sitter accelerated expansion scenario. We show that linear k-field and polynomial kinetic function models evolve asymptotically to Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies.more » The linear case is compatible with an asymptotic potential interpolating between V{sub l}{proportional_to}{phi}{sup -{gamma}{sub l}}, in the shear dominated regime, and V{sub l}{proportional_to}{phi}{sup -2} at late time. In the polynomial case, the general solution contains cosmological models with an oscillatory average geometry. For linear k-essence, we find the general solution in the Bianchi type-I cosmology when the k field is driven by an inverse square potential. This model shares the same geometry as a quintessence field driven by an exponential potential.« less

  4. Universal Prekindergarten and Early Childhood Education Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2009-10-08

    House - 11/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Universal Prekindergarten and Early Childhood Education Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2013-02-27

    House - 04/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Universal Prekindergarten and Early Childhood Education Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2011-11-17

    House - 03/29/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Cosmology and accelerator tests of strongly interacting dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Blinov, Nikita; Gori, Stefania; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia

    2018-03-01

    A natural possibility for dark matter is that it is composed of the stable pions of a QCD-like hidden sector. Existing literature largely assumes that pion self-interactions alone control the early universe cosmology. We point out that processes involving vector mesons typically dominate the physics of dark matter freeze-out and significantly widen the viable mass range for these models. The vector mesons also give rise to striking signals at accelerators. For example, in most of the cosmologically favored parameter space, the vector mesons are naturally long-lived and produce standard model particles in their decays. Electron and proton beam fixed-target experiments such as HPS, SeaQuest, and LDMX can exploit these signals to explore much of the viable parameter space. We also comment on dark matter decay inherent in a large class of previously considered models and explain how to ensure dark matter stability.

  8. Addressing Beyond Standard Model physics using cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalsasi, Akshay

    We have consensus models for both particle physics (i.e. standard model) and cosmology (i.e. LambdaCDM). Given certain assumptions about the initial conditions of the universe, the marriage of the standard model (SM) of particle physics and LambdaCDM cosmology has been phenomenally successful in describing the universe we live in. However it is quite clear that all is not well. The three biggest problems that the SM faces today are baryogenesis, dark matter and dark energy. These problems, along with the problem of neutrino masses, indicate the existence of physics beyond SM. Evidence of baryogenesis, dark matter and dark energy all comes from astrophysical and cosmological observations. Cosmology also provides the best (model dependent) constraints on neutrino masses. In this thesis I will try address the following problems 1) Addressing the origin of dark energy (DE) using non-standard neutrino cosmology and exploring the effects of the non-standard neutrino cosmology on terrestrial and cosmological experiments. 2) Addressing the matter anti-matter asymmetry of the universe.

  9. Dangerous angular Kaluza-Klein/glueball relics in string theory cosmology

    SciT

    Dufaux, J. F.; CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George st., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8; Kofman, L.

    2008-07-15

    The presence of Kaluza-Klein (KK) particles in the universe is a potential manifestation of string theory cosmology. In general, they can be present in the high temperature bath of the early universe. In particular examples, string theory inflation often ends with brane-antibrane annihilation followed by the energy cascading through massive closed string loops to KK modes which then decay into lighter standard model particles. However, massive KK modes in the early universe may become dangerous cosmological relics if the inner manifold contains warped throat(s) with approximate isometries. In the complimentary picture, in the AdS/CFT dual gauge theory with extra isometries,more » massive glueballs of various spins become the dangerous cosmological relics. The decay of these angular KK modes/glueballs, located around the tip of the throat, is caused by isometry breaking which results from gluing the throat to the compact Calabi-Yau (CY) manifold. We address the problem of these angular KK particles/glueballs, studying their interactions and decay channels, from the theory side, and the resulting cosmological constraints on the warped compactification parameters, from the phenomenology side. The abundance and decay time of the long-lived nonrelativistic angular KK modes depend strongly on the parameters of the warped geometry, so that observational constraints rule out a significant fraction of the parameter space. In particular, the coupling of the angular KK particles can be weaker than gravitational.« less

  10. Franz Selety (1893-1933?). His cosmological investigations and the correspondence with Einstein (German Title: Franz Selety (1893-1933?). Seine kosmologischen Arbeiten und der Briefwechsel mit Einstein)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Tobias

    In 1922, Franz Selety, university-bred philosopher and self-educated physicist and cosmologist, developed a molecular hierarchical, spatially infinite, Newtonian cosmological model. His considerations were based on his earlier philosophical work published in 1914 as well as on the early correspondence with Einstein in 1917. Historically, the roots of hierarchical models can be seen in 18th century investigations by Thomas Wright of Durham, Immanuel Kant and Johann Heinrich Lambert. Those investigations were taken up by Edmund Fournier d'Albe and Carl Charlier at the beginning of the 20th century. Selety's cosmological model was criticized by Einstein mainly due to its spatial infiniteness which in Einstein's opinion seemed to contradict Mach's principle. This criticism sheds light on Einstein's conviction that with his first cosmological model, namely the static, spatially infinite, though unbounded Einstein Universe of 1917, the appropriate cosmological theory already had been established.

  11. Thermodynamics of cosmological matter creation.

    PubMed

    Prigogine, I; Geheniau, J; Gunzig, E; Nardone, P

    1988-10-01

    A type of cosmological history that includes large-scale entropy production is proposed. These cosmologies are based on reinterpretation of the matter-energy stress tensor in Einstein's equations. This modifies the usual adiabatic energy conservation laws, thereby including irreversible matter creation. This creation corresponds to an irreversible energy flow from the gravitational field to the created matter constituents. This point of view results from consideration of the thermodynamics of open systems in the framework of cosmology. It is shown that the second law of thermodynamics requires that space-time transforms into matter, while the inverse transformation is forbidden. It appears that the usual initial singularity associated with the big bang is structurally unstable with respect to irreversible matter creation. The corresponding cosmological history therefore starts from an instability of the vacuum rather than from a singularity. This is exemplified in the framework of a simple phenomenological model that leads to a three-stage cosmology: the first drives the cosmological system from the initial instability to a de Sitter regime, and the last connects with the usual matter-radiation Robertson-Walker universe. Matter as well as entropy creation occurs during the first two stages, while the third involves the traditional cosmological evolution. A remarkable fact is that the de Sitter stage appears to be an attractor independent of the initial fluctuation. This is also the case for all the physical predictions involving the present Robertson-Walker universe. Most results obtained previously, in the framework of quantum field theory, can now be obtained on a macroscopic basis. It is shown that this description leads quite naturally to the introduction of primeval black holes as the intermediate stage between the Minkowski vacuum and the present matter-radiation universe. The instability at the origin of the universe is the result of fluctuations of the

  12. Thermodynamics of cosmological matter creation

    PubMed Central

    Prigogine, I.; Geheniau, J.; Gunzig, E.; Nardone, P.

    1988-01-01

    A type of cosmological history that includes large-scale entropy production is proposed. These cosmologies are based on reinterpretation of the matter-energy stress tensor in Einstein's equations. This modifies the usual adiabatic energy conservation laws, thereby including irreversible matter creation. This creation corresponds to an irreversible energy flow from the gravitational field to the created matter constituents. This point of view results from consideration of the thermodynamics of open systems in the framework of cosmology. It is shown that the second law of thermodynamics requires that space-time transforms into matter, while the inverse transformation is forbidden. It appears that the usual initial singularity associated with the big bang is structurally unstable with respect to irreversible matter creation. The corresponding cosmological history therefore starts from an instability of the vacuum rather than from a singularity. This is exemplified in the framework of a simple phenomenological model that leads to a three-stage cosmology: the first drives the cosmological system from the initial instability to a de Sitter regime, and the last connects with the usual matter-radiation Robertson-Walker universe. Matter as well as entropy creation occurs during the first two stages, while the third involves the traditional cosmological evolution. A remarkable fact is that the de Sitter stage appears to be an attractor independent of the initial fluctuation. This is also the case for all the physical predictions involving the present Robertson-Walker universe. Most results obtained previously, in the framework of quantum field theory, can now be obtained on a macroscopic basis. It is shown that this description leads quite naturally to the introduction of primeval black holes as the intermediate stage between the Minkowski vacuum and the present matter-radiation universe. The instability at the origin of the universe is the result of fluctuations of the

  13. The state of the Universe.

    PubMed

    Coles, Peter

    2005-01-20

    The past 20 years have seen dramatic advances in cosmology, mostly driven by observations from new telescopes and detectors. These instruments have allowed astronomers to map out the large-scale structure of the Universe and probe the very early stages of its evolution. We seem to have established the basic parameters describing the behaviour of our expanding Universe, thereby putting cosmology on a firm empirical footing. But the emerging 'standard' model leaves many details of galaxy formation still to be worked out, and new ideas are emerging that challenge the theoretical framework on which the structure of the Big Bang is based. There is still a great deal left to explore in cosmology.

  14. Lorentz symmetry breaking in a cosmological context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresham, Moira I.

    This thesis is comprised primarily of work from three independent papers, written in collaboration with Sean Carroll, Tim Dulaney, and Heywood Tam. The original motivation for the projects undertaken came from revisiting the standard assumption of spatial isotropy during inflation. Each project relates to the spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry---in early Universe cosmology or in the context of effective field theory, in general. Chapter 1 is an introductory chapter that provides context for the thesis. Chapter 2 is an investigation of the stability of theories in which Lorentz invariance is spontaneously broken by fixed-norm vector "aether" fields. It is shown that models with generic kinetic terms are plagued either by ghosts or by tachyons, and are therefore physically unacceptable. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the phenomenological properties of the one low-energy effective theory of spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking found in the previous chapter to have a globally bounded Hamiltonian and a perturbatively stable vacuum---the theory in which the Lagrangian takes the form of a sigma model. In chapter 4 cosmological perturbations in a dynamical theory of inflation in which an Abelian gauge field couples directly to the inflaton are examined. The dominant effects of a small, persistent anisotropy on the primordial gravitational wave and curvature perturbation power spectra are found using the "in-in" formalism of perturbation theory. It is found that the primordial power spectra of cosmological perturbations gain significant direction dependence and that the fractional direction dependence of the tensor power spectrum is suppressed in comparison to that of the scalar power spectrum.

  15. Cosmological Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, J. O.

    2012-01-01

    As teachers, we want to encourage our students to ask searching questions on topics like how old the Universe is, how much of the Universe we can actually see and how far away the cosmic microwave background radiation is. But how many of us can honestly say we know the answers? And, even if we know the answers, how are we going to respond to the…

  16. Predictors of Early Termination in a University Counseling Training Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Schneider, Mercedes K.; Spengler, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the existence of counseling dropout research, there are limited predictive data for counseling in training clinics. Potential predictor variables were investigated in this archival study of 380 client files in a university counseling training clinic. Multinomial logistic regression, predictive discriminant analysis, and classification and…

  17. Early Literacy Teacher Preparation: One University's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenato, Carolyn; Severino, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Colleges and universities can have an impact on the entire field of education when preparing teachers for one of the most challenging part of the job: teaching literacy. When teachers are properly trained and have a toolbox of strategies and teaching techniques to use, they can have a tremendous impact on student learning. In teacher preparation…

  18. The Early Universe and High-Energy Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, David N.

    1983-01-01

    Many properties of new particle field theories can only be tested by comparing their predictions about the physical conditions immediately after the big bang with what can be reconstructed about this event from astronomical data. Facts/questions about big bang, unified field theories, and universe epochs/mass are among the topics discussed. (JN)

  19. Did I Say Cosmology? On Modern Cosmologies and Ancient World-views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, S.

    2009-08-01

    The modern cosmology that emerged from observational astronomy in 16th century Europe meant a radical break-away from earlier conceptions of the world. While all ancient and nonwestern worldviews usually describe a multidimensional reality in which diverse environmental, economic, sociopolitical and ideological factors intersect, modern cosmologies espouse the vision of a radically different universe which is completely dehumanized, ethically indifferent and universally valid. Despite these differences cosmology and worldview tend to be used interchangeably to depict ancient and nonwestern worldviews.Any correspondences which can be found between different parts of ancient and/or nonwestern worldviews and modern cosmologies tend to transfer modern conceptions to the premodern world. Ignoring ancient cultural contexts, we risk imposing modern cosmological concepts on past worldview categories. While we have to describe ancient astronomies in our own terms, our ultimate goal is to understand them on their own terms.

  20. James Gregory, the University observatory and the early acquisition of scientific instruments at the University of St Andrews

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Helen C.

    2015-01-01

    James Gregory, inventor of the reflecting telescope and Fellow of the Royal Society, was the first Regius Professor of Mathematics of the University of St Andrews, 1668–74. He attempted to establish in St Andrews what would, if completed, have been the first purpose-built observatory in the British Isles. He travelled to London in 1673 to purchase instruments for equipping the observatory and improving the teaching and study of natural philosophy and mathematics in the university, seeking the advice of John Flamsteed, later the first Astronomer Royal. This paper considers the observatory initiative and the early acquisition of instruments at the University of St Andrews, with reference to Gregory's correspondence, inventories made ca. 1699–ca. 1718 and extant instruments themselves, some of which predate Gregory's time. It examines the structure and fate of the university observatory, the legacy of Gregory's teaching and endeavours, and the meridian line laid down in 1748 in the University Library.

  1. Vector disformal transformation of cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Vassilis; Zarei, Moslem; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2018-03-01

    We study disformal transformations of cosmological perturbations by vector fields in theories invariant under U (1 ) gauge transformations. Three types of vector disformal transformations are considered: (i) disformal transformations by a single timelike vector; (ii) disformal transformations by a single spacelike vector; and (iii) disformal transformations by three spacelike vectors. We show that transformations of type (i) do not change either curvature perturbation or gravitational waves; that those of type (ii) do not change curvature perturbation but change gravitational waves; and that those of type (iii) change both curvature perturbation and gravitational waves. Therefore, coupling matter fields to the metric after disformal transformations of type (ii) or (iii) in principle have observable consequences. While the recent multi-messenger observation of binary neutron stars has singled out a proper disformal frame at the present epoch with a high precision, the result of the present paper may thus help distinguishing disformal frames in the early universe.

  2. Cosmological bounds on non-Abelian dark forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestell, Lindsay; Morrissey, David E.; Sigurdson, Kris

    2018-04-01

    Non-Abelian dark gauge forces that do not couple directly to ordinary matter may be realized in nature. The minimal form of such a dark force is a pure Yang-Mills theory. If the dark sector is reheated in the early Universe, it will be realized as a set of dark gluons at high temperatures and as a collection of dark glueballs at lower temperatures, with a cosmological phase transition from one form to the other. Despite being dark, the gauge fields of the new force can connect indirectly to the standard model through nonrenormalizable operators. These operators will transfer energy between the dark and visible sectors, and they allow some or all of the dark glueballs to decay. In this work we investigate the cosmological evolution and decays of dark glueballs in the presence of connector operators to the standard model. Dark glueball decays can modify cosmological and astrophysical observables, and we use these considerations to put very strong limits on the existence of pure non-Abelian dark forces. On the other hand, if one or more of the dark glueballs are stable, we find that they can potentially make up the dark matter of the Universe.

  3. Cosmology from a gauge induced gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falciano, F. T.; Sadovski, G.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Tomaz, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The main goal of the present work is to analyze the cosmological scenario of the induced gravity theory developed in previous works. Such a theory consists on a Yang-Mills theory in a four-dimensional Euclidian spacetime with { SO}(m,n) such that m+n=5 and m\\in {0,1,2} as its gauge group. This theory undergoes a dynamical gauge symmetry breaking via an Inönü-Wigner contraction in its infrared sector. As a consequence, the { SO}(m,n) algebra is deformed into a Lorentz algebra with the emergency of the local Lorentz symmetries and the gauge fields being identified with a vierbein and a spin connection. As a result, gravity is described as an effective Einstein-Cartan-like theory with ultraviolet correction terms and a propagating torsion field. We show that the cosmological model associated with this effective theory has three different regimes. In particular, the high curvature regime presents a de Sitter phase which tends towards a Λ CDM model. We argue that { SO}(m,n) induced gravities are promising effective theories to describe the early phase of the universe.

  4. Cosmological density fluctuations produced by vacuum strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilenkin, A.

    1981-04-01

    Consideration is given to the possible role of vacuum domain strings produced in the grand unification phase transition in the early universe in the generation of the density fluctuations giving rise to galaxies. The cosmological evolution of the strings formed in the grand unification phase transition is analyzed, with attention given to possible mechanisms for the damping out of oscillations produced by tension in convoluted strings and closed loops. The cosmological density fluctuations introduced by infinite strings and closed loops smaller than the horizon are then shown to be capable of giving rise to mass condensations on a scale of approximately 10 to the 9th solar masses at the time of the decoupling of radiation from matter, around which the galaxies condense. Differences between the present theory and that suggested by Zel'dovich (1980) are pointed out, and it is noted that string formation at the grand unification phase transition is possible only if the manifold of the degenerate vacua of the gauge theory is not simply connected.

  5. Cosmological Signatures of a Mirror Twin Higgs

    SciT

    Chacko, Zackaria; Curtin, David; Geller, Michael

    We explore the cosmological signatures associated with the twin baryons, electrons, photons and neutrinos in the Mirror Twin Higgs framework. We consider a scenario in which the twin baryons constitute a subcomponent of dark matter, and the contribution of the twin photon and neutrinos to dark radiation is suppressed due to late asymmetric reheating, but remains large enough to be detected in future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. We show that this framework can lead to distinctive signals in large scale structure and in the cosmic microwave background. Baryon acoustic oscillations in the mirror sector prior to recombination lead tomore » a suppression of structure on large scales, and leave a residual oscillatory pattern in the matter power spectrum. This pattern depends sensitively on the relative abundances and ionization energies of both twin hydrogen and helium, and is therefore characteristic of this class of models. Although both mirror photons and neutrinos constitute dark radiation in the early universe, their effects on the CMB are distinct. This is because prior to recombination the twin neutrinos free stream, while the twin photons are prevented from free streaming by scattering off twin electrons. In the Mirror Twin Higgs framework the relative contributions of these two species to the energy density in dark radiation is predicted, leading to testable effects in the CMB. These highly distinctive cosmological signatures may allow this class of models to be discovered, and distinguished from more general dark sectors.« less

  6. Supernova Cosmology Project

    , 2014 The Supernova Cosmology Project and High-Z Team share the 2015 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Perlmutter, leader of the international Supernova Cosmology Project, and principal investigator of the

  7. The Transient High-Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, L.

    2016-10-01

    THESEUS is a mission concept by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting GRBs for investigating the early universe and at vastly increasing the discovery space of the high energy transient phenomena over the entire cosmic history.

  8. Cosmology and Globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, D. K.

    2006-08-01

    Microbes swarming on a sand grain planet or integral complex organisms evolving consciousness at the forefront of cosmic evolution? How is our new cosmology contributing to redefining who we see ourselves to be at the edge of the 21^st century, as globalization and capitalism speed forward? How is the evolution of stardust and the universe offering new paradigms of process and identity regarding the role, function and emergence of life in space-time? What are the cultural and philosophical questions that are arising and how might astronomy be contributing to the creation of new visions for cooperation and community at a global scale? What is the significance of including astronomy in K-12 education and what can it offer youth regarding values in light of the present world situation? Exploring our new cosmological concepts and the emergence of life at astronomical scales may offer much of valuable orientation toward reframing the human role in global evolution. Considering new insight from astrobiology each diverse species has a definitive role to play in the facilitation and functioning of the biosphere. Thus the question may arise: Is there any sort of ethic implied by natural science and offered by our rapidly expanding cosmic frontier?

  9. Inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction: Current status and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Korzyński, Mikołaj

    Astronomical observations reveal hierarchical structures in the universe, from galaxies, groups of galaxies, clusters and superclusters, to filaments and voids. On the largest scales, it seems that some kind of statistical homogeneity can be observed. As a result, modern cosmological models are based on spatially homogeneous and isotropic solutions of the Einstein equations, and the evolution of the universe is approximated by the Friedmann equations. In parallel to standard homogeneous cosmology, the field of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction is being developed. This field investigates whether small scale inhomogeneities via nonlinear effects can backreact and alter the properties of the universe on its largest scales, leading to a non-Friedmannian evolution. This paper presents the current status of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction. It also discusses future prospects of the field of inhomogeneous cosmology, which is based on a survey of 50 academics working in the field of inhomogeneous cosmology.

  10. Information carrying capacity of a cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simidzija, Petar; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the exchange of information in different cosmological backgrounds when sender and receiver are timelike separated and communicate through massless fields (without the exchange of light signals). Remarkably, we show that the dominance of a cosmological constant makes the amount of recoverable information imprinted in the field by the sender extremely resilient: it does not decay in time or with the spatial separation of the sender and receiver, and it actually increases with the rate of expansion of the Universe. This is in stark contrast with the information carried by conventional light signals and with previous results on timelike communication through massless fields in matter-dominated cosmologies.

  11. Variable generalized Chaplygin gas in a 5D cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salti, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Oktay; Yanar, Hilmi; Sogut, Kenan

    2018-03-01

    We construct the variable generalized Chaplygin gas (VGCG) defining a unified dark matter-energy scenario and investigate its essential cosmological properties in a universe governed by the Kaluza-Klein (KK) theory. A possible theoretical basis for the VGCG in the KK cosmology is argued. Also, we check the validity of thermodynamical laws and reimplement dynamics of tachyons in the KK universe.

  12. Higgs field and cosmological parameters in the fractal quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, Valeriy

    2017-10-01

    For the fractal model of the Universe the relations of cosmological parameters and the Higgs field are established. Estimates of the critical density, the expansion and speed-up parameters of the Universe (the Hubble constant and the cosmological redshift); temperature and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation were performed.

  13. Quantum propagation across cosmological singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil

    2017-05-01

    The initial singularity is the most troubling feature of the standard cosmology, which quantum effects are hoped to resolve. In this paper, we study quantum cosmology with conformal (Weyl) invariant matter. We show that it is natural to extend the scale factor to negative values, allowing a large, collapsing universe to evolve across a quantum "bounce" into an expanding universe like ours. We compute the Feynman propagator for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds exactly, identifying curious pathologies in the case of curved (open or closed) universes. We then include anisotropies, fixing the operator ordering of the quantum Hamiltonian by imposing covariance under field redefinitions and again finding exact solutions. We show how complex classical solutions allow one to circumvent the singularity while maintaining the validity of the semiclassical approximation. The simplest isotropic universes sit on a critical boundary, beyond which there is qualitatively different behavior, with potential for instability. Additional scalars improve the theory's stability. Finally, we study the semiclassical propagation of inhomogeneous perturbations about the flat, isotropic case, at linear and nonlinear order, showing that, at least at this level, there is no particle production across the bounce. These results form the basis for a promising new approach to quantum cosmology and the resolution of the big bang singularity.

  14. Nonsingular solutions and instabilities in Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sberna, Laura; Pani, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    It is generically believed that higher-order curvature corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action might cure the curvature singularities that plague general relativity. Here we consider Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, the only four-dimensional, ghost-free theory with quadratic curvature terms. For any choice of the coupling function and of the scalar potential, we show that the theory does not allow for bouncing solutions in the flat and open Friedmann universe. For the case of a closed universe, using a reverse-engineering method, we explicitly provide a bouncing solution which is nevertheless linearly unstable in the scalar gravitational sector. Moreover, we show that the expanding, singularity-free, early-time cosmologies allowed in the theory are unstable. These results rely only on analyticity and finiteness of cosmological variables at early times.

  15. Developing Peer Mentoring Support for TAFE Students Entering 1st-Year University Early Childhood Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heirdsfield, Ann; Walker, Sue; Walsh, Kerryann

    2005-01-01

    At Queensland University of Technology (QUT, Australia), in the Bachelor of Education (BEd) (Early Childhood) (EC), Technical and Further Education (TAFE) students with a diploma enroll with advanced standing (1 year's credit). These students share many challenges faced by 1st-year university students--workload, technology, academic orientation,…

  16. Addressing the University's Tripartite Mission through an Early Childhood Movement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Rip

    2002-01-01

    Describes the University of Northern Iowa's early childhood motor laboratory, which brings together college students, preschoolers, and parents while contributing to each strand of the university's three-strand mission of teaching, scholarly endeavors, and service. The article describes program sessions, highlights the tripartite mission, and…

  17. University Students' Early Maladaptive Schemas' Prediction of Their Mindfulness Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcin, S.Barbaros; Kavakli, Mehmet; Kesici, Sahin; Ak, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine whether university students' early maladaptive schemas predict their mindfulness levels or not. Methods: The study was carried out in the relational screening model. The study group consisted of 293 university students; 237 (80,9%) females and 56 (19,1%) males. "Mindful Attention Awareness Scale…

  18. A Pathway to Enhancing Professionalism: Building a Bridge between TAFE and University Early Childhood Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitington, Victoria; Ebbeck, Marjory; Diamond, Alexandra; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that a key strategy to improve developmental and educational outcomes for young children is to increase the number of childcare staff with early childhood university degrees (Saracho & Spodek, 2007). In order to upgrade the qualifications of staff, a number of Australian universities provide pathways that enable graduates of…

  19. Strategic Programming for Early University Entrants: Creating Support for Socio-Emotional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancour, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces "Resiliency Training," a program designed to support early university entrants as they take on the challenges and adventures of their sophomore and junior year at the University of Washington (UW). As the Academic Counselor and Counseling Services Coordinator for the Robinson Center, watching the students engage…

  20. A Balancing Act: Facilitating a University Education Induction Programme for (Early Career) Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Sarasvathie; Searle, Ruth L.; Shawa, Lester B.; Teferra, Damtew

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the University Education Induction Programme (UEIP), an academic development programme, delivered at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The authors, who developed and now facilitate the UEIP, deliver the programme to early career academics and senior academics as per a senate-mandated requirement. Drawing on…

  1. Universal Design for Learning: Cognitive Theory into Practice for Facilitating Comprehension in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Dalton, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Addressing the unique needs of children of all ages and abilities, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is gaining momentum in schools and preschools around the nation and the globe. This article explores Universal Design for Learning and its promising applications to a variety of reading and language arts experiences in the Early Childhood…

  2. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  3. Constraints on cosmological parameters in power-law cosmology

    SciT

    Rani, Sarita; Singh, J.K.; Altaibayeva, A.

    In this paper, we examine observational constraints on the power law cosmology; essentially dependent on two parameters H{sub 0} (Hubble constant) and q (deceleration parameter). We investigate the constraints on these parameters using the latest 28 points of H(z) data and 580 points of Union2.1 compilation data and, compare the results with the results of ΛCDM . We also forecast constraints using a simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey. Our studies give better insight into power law cosmology than the earlier done analysis by Kumar [arXiv:1109.6924] indicating it tuning well with Union2.1 compilation data but not withmore » H(z) data. However, the constraints obtained on and i.e. H{sub 0} average and q average using the simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey are found to be inconsistent with the values obtained from the H(z) and Union2.1 compilation data. We also perform the statefinder analysis and find that the power-law cosmological models approach the standard ΛCDM model as q → −1. Finally, we observe that although the power law cosmology explains several prominent features of evolution of the Universe, it fails in details.« less

  4. A Case Study of the Development of an Early Retirement Program for University Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Jay L.; Trainer, Aileen

    1985-01-01

    To offset declining enrollments, financial constraints, younger faculties, and high tenure ratios, some institutions are considering early retirement programs to facilitate faculty turnover. A University of Virginia faculty committee reviewed several early retirement options and selected a cost-effective bridging program with ample incentives and…

  5. Standard Model Background of the Cosmological Collider.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingang; Wang, Yi; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2017-06-30

    The inflationary universe can be viewed as a "cosmological collider" with an energy of the Hubble scale, producing very massive particles and recording their characteristic signals in primordial non-Gaussianities. To utilize this collider to explore any new physics at very high scales, it is a prerequisite to understand the background signals from the particle physics standard model. In this Letter we describe the standard model background of the cosmological collider.

  6. The Cosmology of Edgar Allan Poe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Eureka is a ``prose poem'' published in 1848, where Edgar Allan Poe presents his original cosmology. While starting from metaphysical assumptions, Poe develops an evolving Newtonian model of the Universe which has many and non casual analogies with modern cosmology. Poe was well informed about astronomical and physical discoveries, and he was influenced by both contemporary science and ancient ideas. For these reasons, Eureka is a unique synthesis of metaphysics, art and science.

  7. Particle Theory & Cosmology

    SciT

    Shafi, Qaisar; Barr, Steven; Gaisser, Thomas

    1. Executive Summary (April 1, 2012 - March 31, 2015) Title: Particle Theory, Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Qaisar Shafi University of Delaware (Principal Investigator) Stephen M. Barr, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) Thomas K. Gaisser, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) Todor Stanev, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) The proposed research was carried out at the Bartol Research included Professors Qaisar Shafi Stephen Barr, Thomas K. Gaisser, and Todor Stanev, two postdoctoral fellows (Ilia Gogoladze and Liucheng Wang), and several graduate students. Five students of Qaisar Shafi completed their PhD during the period August 2011 - August 2014. Measures of themore » group’s high caliber performance during the 2012-2015 funding cycle included pub- lications in excellent refereed journals, contributions to working groups as well as white papers, and conference activities, which together provide an exceptional record of both individual performance as well as overall strength. Another important indicator of success is the outstanding quality of the past and current cohort of graduate students. The PhD students under our supervision regularly win the top departmental and university awards, and their publications records show excellence both in terms of quality and quantity. The topics covered under this grant cover the frontline research areas in today’s High Energy Theory & Phenomenology. For Professors Shafi and Barr they include LHC related topics including supersymmetry, collider physics, fl vor physics, dark matter physics, Higgs boson and seesaw physics, grand unifi and neutrino physics. The LHC two years ago discovered the Standard Model Higgs boson, thereby at least partially unlocking the secrets behind electroweak symmetry breaking. We remain optimistic that new and exciting physics will be found at LHC 14, which explain our focus on physics beyond the Standard Model. Professors Shafi continued his

  8. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    SciT

    Vieira, J.P.P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony, E-mail: J.Pinto-Vieira@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ( w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contractingmore » counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.« less

  9. New trends in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.

    1978-01-01

    A review of big-bang cosmology is presented, emphasizing the big-bang model, hypotheses on the origin of galaxies, observational tests of the big-bang model that may be possible with the Large Space Telescope, and the scale-covariant theory of gravitation. Detailed attention is given to the equations of general relativity, the redshift-distance relation for extragalactic objects, expansion of the universe, the initial singularity, the discovery of the 3-K blackbody radiation, and measurements of the amount of deuterium in the universe. The curvature of the expanding universe is examined along with the magnitude-redshift relation for quasars and galaxies. Several models for the origin of galaxies are evaluated, and it is suggested that a model of galaxy formation via the formation of black holes is consistent with the model of an expanding universe. Scale covariance is discussed, a scale-covariant theory is developed which contains invariance under scale transformation, and it is shown that Dirac's (1937) large-numbers hypothesis finds a natural role in this theory by relating the atomic and Einstein units.

  10. Cosmology and the Sinusoidal Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, David F.

    2006-06-01

    The nature of dark matter (and dark energy) remains a mystery. An alternative is being explored by several scientists: changing Newton's (and Einstein's) field equations. The sinusoidal potential is the latest attempt[1]. Here the gravitational law is alternately attractive and repulsive:φ = -GM cos(kor)/r, where λo=2π/ko = 1/20 of the distance from the sun to the center of the Milky Way. The proposal accommodates several structural features of the Milky Way including, paradoxically, its spiral shape and flat rotation curve. The sinusoidal potential's unique feature is strong galactic tidal forces (dg/dr). These may explain why the new planetoid Sedna is securely between the Kuiper Belt and the Oort cloud and why distant comets are more influenced by galactic tides that are in the r, rather than the z-direction.At this meeting I discuss the consequences of the sinusoidal potential for cosmology. Here the alternation of attraction and repulsion gives (i) an open universe, and (ii) gravitational lensing which is usually weak, but occasionally very strong. An open universe is one that, asymptotically, has a size R which varies directly as time t. The open universe conflicts both with the old Einstein-deSitter model (R α t2/3} and the new accelerating one. The evidence for an accelerating universe decisively rejects the Einstein-deSitter model. The rejection of an open (or empty) universe is less secure. This rejection is influenced by the different ways the groups studying the brightness of supernovae use the HST. Surprising additional inputs include neutrino masses, the equivalence principle, LSB galaxies, and "over-luminous" Sn1a. I thank Mostafa Jon Dadras and Patrick Motl for early help and John Cumalat for continual support. [1] D.F. Bartlett, "Analogies between electricity and gravity", Metrologia 41, S115-S124 (2004).

  11. Philosophical Roots of Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovic, M.

    2008-10-01

    We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.

  12. A presocratic cosmological proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danezis, E.; Theodossiou, E.; Stathopoulou, M.; Grammenos, Th.

    Up to now, Alcman was known as one of the greatest lyric poets of the ancient world (650 B.C.). However, the publication of the Oxyrynchus papyrus No 2390 in 1957 caused a great amount of astonishment. This papyrus from the 2nd century A.D. contains parts of a comment written in prose, with implies that, in one of his poems, Alcman deals with a kind of a god-created cosmogony. Undoubtedly, that cosmogonical view formulated by Alcman in the midth of the 7th century B.C., describes much older considerations which resemble certain modern cosmological conjectures. According to the latter, the observable universe has emerged out of a point singularity interior to a white hole which, due to the time symmetry of Einstein' s field equations, can be considered as a time- reversed black hole.

  13. A presocratic cosmological proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danezis, E.; Theodossiou, E.; Stathopoulou, M.; Grammenos, Th.

    1999-12-01

    Alcman is known as one of the greatest lyric poets of the ancient world. However, the publication of the Oxyrhynchus papyrus No. 2390 in 1957 caused a great deal of excitement. This papyrus, from the second century AD, contains parts of a comment written in prose, which implies that in one of his poems Alcman deals with a kind of a god-created cosmogony. That cosmogonical view, formulated by Alcman in the middle of the seventh century BC, describes much older considerations that resemble certain modern cosmological conjectures. In terms of the latter, the observable universe emerged out of a point singularity interior to a white hole which, due to the time symmetry of Einstein's field equations, can be considered as a time-reversed black hole.

  14. Cosmological structure formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the current forefront problem of physical cosmology, the formation of structures (galaxies, clusters, great walls, etc.) in the universe is presented. Solutions require two key ingredients: (1) matter; and (2) seeds. Regarding the matter, it now seems clear that both baryonic and non-baryonic matter are required. Whether the non-baryonic matter is hot or cold depends on the choice of seeds. Regarding the seeds, both density fluctuations and topological defects are discussed. The combination of isotropy of the microwave background and the recent observations indicating more power on large scales have severly constrained, if not eliminated, Gaussian fluctuations with equal power on all scales, regardless of the eventual resolution of both the matter and seed questions. It is important to note that all current structure formation ideas require new physics beyond SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1).

  15. Nonsingular universe in massive gravity's rainbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Momennia, M.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.

    2017-06-01

    One of the fundamental open questions in cosmology is whether we can regard the universe evolution without singularity like a Big Bang or a Big Rip. This challenging subject stimulates one to regard a nonsingular universe in the far past with an arbitrarily large vacuum energy. Considering the high energy regime in the cosmic history, it is believed that Einstein gravity should be corrected to an effective energy dependent theory which could be acquired by gravity's rainbow. On the other hand, employing massive gravity provided us with solutions to some of the long standing fundamental problems of cosmology such as cosmological constant problem and self acceleration of the universe. Considering these aspects of gravity's rainbow and massive gravity, in this paper, we initiate studying FRW cosmology in the massive gravity's rainbow formalism. At first, we show that although massive gravity modifies the FRW cosmology, but it does not itself remove the big bang singularity. Then, we generalize the massive gravity to the case of energy dependent spacetime and find that massive gravity's rainbow can remove the early universe singularity. We bring together all the essential conditions for having a nonsingular universe and the effects of both gravity's rainbow and massive gravity generalizations on such criteria are determined.

  16. The art and science of prognostication in early university medicine.

    PubMed

    Demaitre, Luke

    2003-01-01

    Prognosis occupied a more prominent place in the medieval curriculum than it does at the modern university. Scholastic discussions were rooted in the Hippocratic Aphorisms and shaped by Galen's treatises On Crisis and On Critical Days. Medical prediction, as an art dependent on personal skills such as memory and conjecture, was taught with the aid of the liberal arts of rhetoric and logic. Scientific predictability was sought in branches of mathematics, moving from periodicity and numerology to astronomy. The search for certitude contributed to the cultivation of astrology; even at its peak, however, astrological medicine did not dominate the teaching on prognostication. The ultimate concern, which awaits further discussion, was not even with forecasting as such, but with the physician and, indeed, the patient.

  17. Cosmological Effects in Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H. J.; Wilson, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier discussion of the planetary flyby anomaly, a preliminary assessment of cosmological effects upon planetary orbits exhibiting the flyby anomaly was made. A more comprehensive investigation has since been published, although it was directed at the Pioneer anomaly and possible effects of universal rotation. The general subject of Solar System anomalies will be examined here from the point of view of planetary science.

  18. The Origin of the Universe and the Arrow of Time

    Carroll, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Over a century ago, Boltzmann and others provided a microscopic understanding for the tendency of entropy to increase. But this understanding relies ultimately on an empirical fact about cosmology: the early universe had very low entropy. Why was it like that? Cosmologist aspire to provide a dynamical explanation for the observed state of the universe, but have had very little to say about the dramatic asymmetry between early times and late times. I will argue that the search for a natural explanation for the observed breakdown of time-reversal symmetry in cosmology leads us directly to interesting conclusions about inflation, quantum gravity, and the multiverse.

  19. The Origin of the Universe and the Arrow of Time

    SciT

    Carroll, Sean

    2009-02-11

    Over a century ago, Boltzmann and others provided a microscopic understanding for the tendency of entropy to increase. But this understanding relies ultimately on an empirical fact about cosmology: the early universe had very low entropy. Why was it like that? Cosmologist aspire to provide a dynamical explanation for the observed state of the universe, but have had very little to say about the dramatic asymmetry between early times and late times. I will argue that the search for a natural explanation for the observed breakdown of time-reversal symmetry in cosmology leads us directly to interesting conclusions about inflation, quantummore » gravity, and the multiverse.« less

  20. Comparison of cosmology and seabed acoustics measurements using statistical inference from maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobles, David; Stotts, Steven; Sagers, Jason

    2012-03-01

    Why can one obtain from similar measurements a greater amount of information about cosmological parameters than seabed parameters in ocean waveguides? The cosmological measurements are in the form of a power spectrum constructed from spatial correlations of temperature fluctuations within the microwave background radiation. The seabed acoustic measurements are in the form of spatial correlations along the length of a spatial aperture. This study explores the above question from the perspective of posterior probability distributions obtained from maximizing a relative entropy functional. An answer is in part that the seabed in shallow ocean environments generally has large temporal and spatial inhomogeneities, whereas the early universe was a nearly homogeneous cosmological soup with small but important fluctuations. Acoustic propagation models used in shallow water acoustics generally do not capture spatial and temporal variability sufficiently well, which leads to model error dominating the statistical inference problem. This is not the case in cosmology. Further, the physics of the acoustic modes in cosmology is that of a standing wave with simple initial conditions, whereas for underwater acoustics it is a traveling wave in a strongly inhomogeneous bounded medium.

  1. The quark-hadron transition in cosmology and astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Olive, K A

    1991-03-08

    A transition from normal hadronic matter (such as protons and neutrons) to quark-gluon matter is expected at both high temperatures and densities. In physical situations, this transition may occur in heavy ion collisions, the early universe, and in the cores of neutron stars. Astrophysics and cosmology can be greatly affected by such a phase transition. With regard to the early universe, big bang nucleosynthesis, the theory describing the primordial origin of the light elements, can be affected by inhomogeneities produced during the transition. A transition to quark matter in the interior by neutron stars further enhances our uncertainties regarding the equation of state of dense nuclear matter and neutron star properties such as the maximum mass and rotation frequencies.

  2. A massive, dead disk galaxy in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Toft, Sune; Zabl, Johannes; Richard, Johan; Gallazzi, Anna; Zibetti, Stefano; Prescott, Moire; Grillo, Claudio; Man, Allison W S; Lee, Nicholas Y; Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Stockmann, Mikkel; Magdis, Georgios; Steinhardt, Charles L

    2017-06-21

    At redshift z = 2, when the Universe was just three billion years old, half of the most massive galaxies were extremely compact and had already exhausted their fuel for star formation. It is believed that they were formed in intense nuclear starbursts and that they ultimately grew into the most massive local elliptical galaxies seen today, through mergers with minor companions, but validating this picture requires higher-resolution observations of their centres than is currently possible. Magnification from gravitational lensing offers an opportunity to resolve the inner regions of galaxies. Here we report an analysis of the stellar populations and kinematics of a lensed z = 2.1478 compact galaxy, which-surprisingly-turns out to be a fast-spinning, rotationally supported disk galaxy. Its stars must have formed in a disk, rather than in a merger-driven nuclear starburst. The galaxy was probably fed by streams of cold gas, which were able to penetrate the hot halo gas until they were cut off by shock heating from the dark matter halo. This result confirms previous indirect indications that the first galaxies to cease star formation must have gone through major changes not just in their structure, but also in their kinematics, to evolve into present-day elliptical galaxies.

  3. Relativistic inverse Compton scattering of photons from the early universe.

    PubMed

    Malu, Siddharth; Datta, Abhirup; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Marchegiani, Paolo; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Narasimha, D; Wieringa, Mark H

    2017-12-05

    Electrons at relativistic speeds, diffusing in magnetic fields, cause copious emission at radio frequencies in both clusters of galaxies and radio galaxies through non-thermal radiation emission called synchrotron. However, the total power radiated through this mechanism is ill constrained, as the lower limit of the electron energy distribution, or low-energy cutoffs, for radio emission in galaxy clusters and radio galaxies, have not yet been determined. This lower limit, parametrized by the lower limit of the electron momentum - p min - is critical for estimating the total energetics of non-thermal electrons produced by cluster mergers or injected by radio galaxy jets, which impacts the formation of large-scale structure in the universe, as well as the evolution of local structures inside galaxy clusters. The total pressure due to the relativistic, non-thermal population of electrons can be measured using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect, and is critically dependent on p min , making the measurement of this non-thermal pressure a promising technique to estimate the electron low-energy cutoff. We present here the first unambiguous detection of this Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect for a non-thermal population of electrons in a radio galaxy jet/lobe, located at a significant distance away from the center of the Bullet cluster of galaxies.

  4. Quantum vacuum noise in physics and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2001-09-01

    The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid. One result is that rapidly changing gravitational fields can create particles from the vacuum, and in turn the backreaction on the gravitational dynamics operates like a damping force. I consider such effects in early universe cosmology and the theory of quantum black holes, including the possibility that the large-scale structure of the universe might be produced by quantum vacuum noise in an early inflationary phase. I also discuss the curious phenomenon that an observer who accelerates through a quantum vacuum perceives a bath of thermal radiation closely analogous to Hawking radiation from black holes, even though an inertial observer registers no particles. The effects predicted raise very deep and unresolved issues about the nature of quantum particles, the role of the observer, and the relationship between the quantum vacuum and the concepts of information and entropy. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Computational complexity of the landscape II-Cosmological considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denef, Frederik; Douglas, Michael R.; Greene, Brian; Zukowski, Claire

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new approach for multiverse analysis based on computational complexity, which leads to a new family of "computational" measure factors. By defining a cosmology as a space-time containing a vacuum with specified properties (for example small cosmological constant) together with rules for how time evolution will produce the vacuum, we can associate global time in a multiverse with clock time on a supercomputer which simulates it. We argue for a principle of "limited computational complexity" governing early universe dynamics as simulated by this supercomputer, which translates to a global measure for regulating the infinities of eternal inflation. The rules for time evolution can be thought of as a search algorithm, whose details should be constrained by a stronger principle of "minimal computational complexity". Unlike previously studied global measures, ours avoids standard equilibrium considerations and the well-known problems of Boltzmann Brains and the youngness paradox. We also give various definitions of the computational complexity of a cosmology, and argue that there are only a few natural complexity classes.

  6. Cosmological surveys with multi-object spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colless, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Multi-object spectroscopy has been a key technique contributing to the current era of `precision cosmology.' From the first exploratory surveys of the large-scale structure and evolution of the universe to the current generation of superbly detailed maps spanning a wide range of redshifts, multi-object spectroscopy has been a fundamentally important tool for mapping the rich structure of the cosmic web and extracting cosmological information of increasing variety and precision. This will continue to be true for the foreseeable future, as we seek to map the evolving geometry and structure of the universe over the full extent of cosmic history in order to obtain the most precise and comprehensive measurements of cosmological parameters. Here I briefly summarize the contributions that multi-object spectroscopy has made to cosmology so far, then review the major surveys and instruments currently in play and their prospects for pushing back the cosmological frontier. Finally, I examine some of the next generation of instruments and surveys to explore how the field will develop in coming years, with a particular focus on specialised multi-object spectrographs for cosmology and the capabilities of multi-object spectrographs on the new generation of extremely large telescopes.

  7. Wormholes and the cosmological constant problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebanov, I.

    The author reviews the cosmological constant problem and the recently proposed wormhole mechanism for its solution. Summation over wormholes in the Euclidean path integral for gravity turns all the coupling parameters into dynamical variables, sampled from a probability distribution. A formal saddle point analysis results in a distribution with a sharp peak at the cosmological constant equal to zero, which appears to solve the cosmological constant problem. He discusses the instabilities of the gravitational Euclidean path integral and the difficulties with its interpretation. He presents an alternate formalism for baby universes, based on the "third quantization" of the Wheeler-De Witt equation. This approach is analyzed in a minisuperspace model for quantum gravity, where it reduces to simple quantum mechanics. Once again, the coupling parameters become dynamical. Unfortunately, the a priori probability distribution for the cosmological constant and other parameters is typically a smooth function, with no sharp peaks.

  8. Cosmological applications of F (T ,TG) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofinas, Georgios; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the cosmological applications of F (T ,TG) gravity, which is a novel modified gravitational theory based on the torsion invariant T and the teleparallel equivalent of the Gauss-Bonnet term TG. F (T ,TG) gravity differs from both F (T ) theories as well as from F (R ,G ) class of curvature modified gravity, and thus its corresponding cosmology proves to be very interesting. In particular, it provides a unified description of the cosmological history from early-times inflation to late-times self-acceleration, without the inclusion of a cosmological constant. Moreover, the dark energy equation-of-state parameter can be quintessence or phantomlike, or experience the phantom-divide crossing, depending on the parameters of the model.

  9. Multiverse understanding of cosmological coincidences

    SciT

    Bousso, Raphael; Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2009-09-15

    There is a deep cosmological mystery: although dependent on very different underlying physics, the time scales of structure formation, of galaxy cooling (both radiatively and against the CMB), and of vacuum domination do not differ by many orders of magnitude, but are all comparable to the present age of the universe. By scanning four landscape parameters simultaneously, we show that this quadruple coincidence is resolved. We assume only that the statistical distribution of parameter values in the multiverse grows towards certain catastrophic boundaries we identify, across which there are drastic regime changes. We find order-of-magnitude predictions for the cosmological constant,more » the primordial density contrast, the temperature at matter-radiation equality, the typical galaxy mass, and the age of the universe, in terms of the fine structure constant and the electron, proton and Planck masses. Our approach permits a systematic evaluation of measure proposals; with the causal patch measure, we find no runaway of the primordial density contrast and the cosmological constant to large values.« less

  10. Dark matter universe.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  11. Outcomes for Students on a Fast Track to College: Early College Entrance Programs at the University of Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Nancy B.; Chung, Rachel U.

    2015-01-01

    Radical acceleration from middle school to university is an unusual option in the United States. The Early Entrance Program and the University of Washington (UW) Academy for Young Scholars housed in the Halbert and Nancy Robinson Center for Young Scholars are two of only 21 early university entrance programs offered in the United States. Due to…

  12. Cosmological bounds on neutrino statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Salas, P. F.; Gariazzo, S.; Laveder, M.; Pastor, S.; Pisanti, O.; Truong, N.

    2018-03-01

    We consider the phenomenological implications of the violation of the Pauli exclusion principle for neutrinos, focusing on cosmological observables such as the spectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and the primordial abundances of light elements. Neutrinos that behave (at least partly) as bosonic particles have a modified equilibrium distribution function that implies a different influence on the evolution of the Universe that, in the case of massive neutrinos, can not be simply parametrized by a change in the effective number of neutrinos. Our results show that, despite the precision of the available cosmological data, only very weak bounds can be obtained on neutrino statistics, disfavouring a more bosonic behaviour at less than 2σ.

  13. Running of the spectrum of cosmological perturbations in string gas cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenberger, Robert; Franzmann, Guilherme; Liang, Qiuyue

    2017-12-01

    We compute the running of the spectrum of cosmological perturbations in string gas cosmology, making use of a smooth parametrization of the transition between the early Hagedorn phase and the later radiation phase. We find that the running has the same sign as in simple models of single scalar field inflation. Its magnitude is proportional to (1 -ns) (ns being the slope index of the spectrum), and it is thus parametrically larger than for inflationary cosmology, where it is proportional to (1 -ns)2 .

  14. Gravitational Wave Astronomy Using Pulsars: Massive Black Hole Mergers and the Early Universe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational Wave Astronomy Using Pulsars : Massive Black Hole Mergers & the Early Universe A White Paper for the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gravitational Wave Astronomy Using Pulsars : Massive Black Hole Mergers & the Early...theory of general relativity. Using a collection of millisecond pulsars as high-precision clocks, the nHz band of this radiation is likely to be detected

  15. Cosmology as Science?: From Inflation to Eternity

    Krauss, Lawrence M.

    2018-05-23

    The last decade or two have represented the golden age of observational cosmology, producing a revolution in our picture of the Universe on its largest scales, and perhaps also its smallest ones. I will argue that these recent development bring to the forefront some vexing questions about whether various fundamental assumptions about the universe are in fact falsifiable. I will focus on 3 issues: (1) "Proving" Inflation, (2) Dark Energy and Anthropic Arguments, and (3) Cosmology of the far future. Interview with Lawrence M. Krauss

  16. Topology and the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gott, J. Richard, III

    1998-09-01

    Topology may play an important role in cosmology in several different ways. First, Einstein's field equations tell us about the local geometry of the universe but not about its topology. Therefore, the universe may be multiply connected. Inflation predicts that the fluctuations that made clusters and groups of galaxies arose from random quantum fluctuations in the early universe. These should be Gaussian random phase. This can be tested by quantitatively measuring the topology of large-scale structure in the universe using the genus statistic. If the original fluctuations were Gaussian random phase then the structure we see today should have a spongelike topology. A number of studies by our group and others have shown that this is indeed the case. Future tests using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey should be possible. Microwave background fluctuations should also exhibit a characteristic symmetric pattern of hot and cold spots. The COBE data are consistent with this pattern and the MAP and PLANCK satellites should provide a definitive test. If the original inflationary state was metastable then it should decay by making an infinite number of open inflationary bubble universes. This model makes a specific prediction for the power spectrum of fluctuations in the microwave background which can be checked by the MAP and PLANCK satellites. Finally, Gott and Li have proposed how a multiply connected cosmology with an early epoch of closed timelike curves might allow the universe to be its own mother.

  17. The unfolding of the historical style in modern cosmology: Emergence, evolution, entrenchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    This paper traces the emergence, evolution and subsequent entrenchment of the historical style in the shifting scene of modern cosmological inquiry. It argues that the historical style in cosmology was forged in the early decades of the 20th century and continued to evolve in the century that followed. Over time, the scene of cosmological inquiry has gradually become dominated and entirely constituted by historicist explanations. Practices such as forwards and backwards temporal extrapolation (thinking about the past evolutionary history of the universe with different initial conditions and other parameters) are now commonplace. The non-static geometrization of the cosmos in the early 20th century led to inquires thinking about the cosmos in evolutionary terms. Drawing on the historical approach of Gamow (and contrasting this with the ahistorical approach of Bondi), the paper then argues that the historical style became a major force as inquirers began scouring the universe for fossils and other relics as a new form of scientific practice-cosmic palaeontology. By the 1970s the historical style became the bedrock of the discipline and the presupposition of new lines of inquiry. By the end of the 20th century, the historical style was pushed to its very limits as temporal reasoning began to occur beyond a linear historical narrative. With the atemporal 'ensemble' type multiverse proposals, a certain type of ahistorical reasoning has been reintroduced to cosmological discourse, which, in a sense, represents a radical de-historicization of the historical style in cosmology. Some are now even attempting to explain the laws of physics in terms of their historicity.

  18. Cosmology as Science: From Inflation to the Future

    Krass, Lawrence

    2018-01-11

    Recent developments in cosmology bring to the forefront fundamental questions about our ability to falsify various fundamental assumptions about the universe.  I will discuss three issues that reflect different aspects of these questions:  (1) "Proving" Inflation (2) Anthropic "Explanations" (3) Cosmology of the far future.

  19. On Modern Cosmology and Its Place in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragh, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Cosmology in its current meaning of the science of the universe is a topic that attracts as much popular as scientific interest. This paper argues that modern cosmology and its philosophical aspects should have a prominent place in science education. In the context of science teaching a partly historical approach is recommended, in particular an…

  20. Quasars, clusters and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanda, Neelam

    PART A: Acceleration of the Universe and Modified Gravity: We study the power of next-generation galaxy cluster surveys (such as eROSITA and WFXT) in constraining the cosmological parameters and especially the growth history of the Universe, using the information from galaxy cluster redshift and mass-function evolution and from cluster power spectrum. We use the Fisher Matrix formalism to evaluate the potential for the galaxy cluster surveys to make predictions about cosmological parameters like the gravitational growth index gamma. The primary purpose of this study has been to check whether we can rule out one or the other of the underlying gravity theories in light of the present uncertainty of mass-observable relations and their scatter evolution. We found that these surveys will provide better constraints on various cosmological parameters even after we admit a lack of complete knowledge about the galaxy cluster structure, and when we combine the information from the cluster number count redshift and mass evolution with that from the cluster power spectrum. Based on this, we studied the ability of different surveys to constrain the growth history of the Universe. It was found that whereas eROSITA surveys will need strong priors on cluster structure evolution to conclusively rule out one or the other of the two gravity models, General Relativity and DGP Braneworld Gravity; WFXT surveys do hold the special promise of differentiating growth and telling us whether it is GR or not, with its wide-field survey having the ability to say so even with 99% confidence. PART B: Chemical Evolution in Quasars: We studied chemical evolution in the broad emission line region (BELR) of nitrogen rich quasars drawn from the SDSS Quasar Catalogue IV. Using tools of emission-line spectroscopy, we made detailed abundance measurements of ˜ 40 quasars and estimated their metallicities using the line-intensity ratio method. It was found that quasars with strong nitrogen lines are

  1. Horava-Lifshitz cosmology, entropic interpretation and quark-hadron phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheyri, F.; Khodadi, M.; Sepangi, Hamid Reza

    2013-05-01

    Based on the assumptions of the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition has occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons. We consider such a phase transition in the context of a deformed Horava-Lifshitz cosmology. The Friedmann equation for the deformed Horava-Lifshitz universe is obtained using the entropic interpretation of gravity, proposed by Verlinde. We investigate the effects of the parameter ω appearing in the theory on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the energy density and temperature before, during and after the phase transition. Finally, we study the cross-over phase transition in both high and low temperature regions in view of the recent lattice QCD simulations data.

  2. Science with the space-based interferometer eLISA. II: gravitational waves from cosmological phase transitions

    SciT

    Caprini, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.caprini@cea.fr; Hindmarsh, Mark; Huber, Stephan

    We investigate the potential for the eLISA space-based interferometer to detect the stochastic gravitational wave background produced by strong first-order cosmological phase transitions. We discuss the resulting contributions from bubble collisions, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, and sound waves to the stochastic background, and estimate the total corresponding signal predicted in gravitational waves. The projected sensitivity of eLISA to cosmological phase transitions is computed in a model-independent way for various detector designs and configurations. By applying these results to several specific models, we demonstrate that eLISA is able to probe many well-motivated scenarios beyond the Standard Model of particle physics predicting strong first-ordermore » cosmological phase transitions in the early Universe.« less

  3. "Big Bang" as a result result of the curvature-driven first-order phase transition in the early cold Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashitskii, E. A.; Pentegov, V. I.

    We suggest that the "Big Bang" may be a result of the first-order phase transition driven by changing scalar curvature of the 4D space-time in the expanding cold Universe, filled with nonlinear scalar field φ and neutral matter with equation of state p = vɛ (where p and ɛ are pressure and energy density of matter). We consider a Lagrangian for scalar field in curved space-time with nonlinearity φ, which along with the quadratic term -ΣR|φ|2 (where Σ is interaction constant and R is scalar curvature) contains a term ΣR(φ +φ+) linear in φ. Due to this term the condition for the extrema of the potential energy of the scalar field is given by a cubic equation. Provided v > 1/3 the scalar curvature R = [κ(3v-1)ɛ - 4Γ (where κ and Γ are Einstein's gravitational and cosmological constants) decreases along with decreasing " in the process of the Universe's expansion, and at some critical value Rc < 0 a first-order phase transition occurs, driven by an "external field" parameter proportional to R. Given certain conditions the critical radius of the early Universe at the point of the first-order phase transition may reach arbitrary large values, so this scenario of unrestricted "inflation" of the Universe may be called "hyperinflation". Beyond the point of phase transition the system is rolling down into the potential minimum releasing the potential energy of scalar field with subsequent powerful heating of the Universe playing the role of "Big Bang".

  4. The Reluctant Academic: Early-Career Academics in a Teaching-Orientated University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on research into academic identities amongst early-career academics in a UK post-1992, teaching-orientated university. Literature around academic identity suggests five major academic roles: teaching, research, management, writing and networking. However, this appears to be a picture of an established mid-career academic in a…

  5. Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Early Undergraduate Students in a British University in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karjanto, Natanael; Yong, Su Ting

    2013-01-01

    The level of test anxiety in mathematics subjects among early undergraduate students at the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus is studied in this article. The sample consists of 206 students taking several mathematics modules who completed the questionnaires on test anxiety just before they entered the venue for midterm examinations. The…

  6. Postsecondary Preparation and Remediation: Examining the Effect of the Early Assessment Program at California State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jessica S.; Kurlaender, Michal; Grodsky, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how participation in the Early Assessment Program, which provides California high school juniors with information about their academic readiness for college-level work at California State University campuses, affects their college-going behavior and need for remediation in college. Using administrative records from…

  7. Preparedness to Teach: Experiences of the University of Ibadan Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udegbe, I. Bola

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the experiences of early career academics (ECAs) in terms of their preparedness to teach. Using a survey design involving 104 ECAs in a large Nigeria university, quantitative and qualitative data were obtained to address the research questions raised. Findings showed that (1) prior experience and training impacted on…

  8. Matter-antimatter separation in the early universe by rotating black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration of the effect of rotating black holes evaporating early in the universe shows that they would have produced oppositely directed neutrino and antineutrino currents, which push matter and antimatter apart. This separation mechanism is, however, too feeble to account for a present baryon-to-photon ratio of 10 to the -9th, and has no significant observational consequences.

  9. A Constructivist/Reflective Paradigm: A Model for the Early Childhood Program at Tuskegee University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noori, Kathryn K.

    The Early Childhood Program in the Department of Curriculum, Instruction and Administration at Tuskegee University (Alabama) is described as a convergence of Jean Piaget's constructivism and John Dewey's progressivism. It is designed to provide preservice teachers with experiences that promote reflective practice and that view the learner as an…

  10. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional identity by…

  11. Dark matter and cosmological nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1986-01-01

    Existing dark matter problems, i.e., dynamics, galaxy formation and inflation, are considered, along with a model which proposes dark baryons as the bulk of missing matter in a fractal universe. It is shown that no combination of dark, nonbaryonic matter can either provide a cosmological density parameter value near unity or, as in the case of high energy neutrinos, allow formation of condensed matter at epochs when quasars already existed. The possibility that correlations among galactic clusters are scale-free is discussed. Such a distribution of matter would yield a fractal of 1.2, close to a one-dimensional universe. Biasing, cosmic superstrings, and percolated explosions and hot dark matter are theoretical approaches that would satisfy the D = 1.2 fractal model of the large-scale structure of the universe and which would also allow sufficient dark matter in halos to close the universe.

  12. Cosmological Entropy Bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brustein, R.

    I review some basic facts about entropy bounds in general and about cosmological entropy bounds. Then I review the causal entropy bound, the conditions for its validity and its application to the study of cosmological singularities. This article is based on joint work with Gabriele Veneziano and subsequent related research.

  13. Homogeneous cosmological models and new inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.; Widrow, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    The promise of the inflationary-universe scenario is to free the present state of the universe from extreme dependence upon initial data. Paradoxically, inflation is usually analyzed in the context of the homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker cosmological models. It is shown that all but a small subset of the homogeneous models undergo inflation. Any initial anisotropy is so strongly damped that if sufficient inflation occurs to solve the flatness and horizon problems, the universe today would still be very isotropic.

  14. Earth-mass dark-matter haloes as the first structures in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Diemand, J; Moore, B; Stadel, J

    2005-01-27

    The Universe was nearly smooth and homogeneous before a redshift of z = 100, about 20 million years after the Big Bang. After this epoch, the tiny fluctuations imprinted upon the matter distribution during the initial expansion began to collapse because of gravity. The properties of these fluctuations depend on the unknown nature of dark matter, the determination of which is one of the biggest challenges in present-day science. Here we report supercomputer simulations of the concordance cosmological model, which assumes neutralino dark matter (at present the preferred candidate), and find that the first objects to form are numerous Earth-mass dark-matter haloes about as large as the Solar System. They are stable against gravitational disruption, even within the central regions of the Milky Way. We expect over 10(15) to survive within the Galactic halo, with one passing through the Solar System every few thousand years. The nearest structures should be among the brightest sources of gamma-rays (from particle-particle annihilation).

  15. The characteristic black hole mass resulting from direct collapse in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Black holes of a billion solar masses are observed in the infant Universe a few hundred million years after the big bang. The direct collapse of protogalactic gas clouds in primordial haloes with Tvir ≥ 104 K provides the most promising way to assemble massive black holes. In this study, we aim to determine the characteristic mass scale of seed black holes and the time evolution of the accretion rates resulting from the direct collapse model. We explore the formation of supermassive black holes via cosmological large eddy simulations (LES) by employing sink particles and following their evolution for 20 000 yr after the formation of the first sink. As the resulting protostars were shown to have cool atmospheres in the presence of strong accretion, we assume here that UV feedback is negligible during this calculation. We confirm this result in a comparison run without sinks. Our findings show that black hole seeds with characteristic mass of 105 M⊙ are formed in the presence of strong Lyman-Werner flux which leads to an isothermal collapse. The characteristic mass is about two times higher in LES compared to the implicit large eddy simulations. The accretion rates increase with time and reach a maximum value of 10 M⊙ yr-1 after 104 yr. Our results show that the direct collapse model is clearly feasible as it provides the expected mass of the seed black holes.

  16. Gravitational entropy and the cosmological no-hair conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    The gravitational entropy and no-hair conjectures seem to predict contradictory future states of our Universe. The growth of the gravitational entropy is associated with the growth of inhomogeneity, while the no-hair conjecture argues that a universe dominated by dark energy should asymptotically approach a homogeneous and isotropic de Sitter state. The aim of this paper is to study these two conjectures. The investigation is based on the Simsilun simulation, which simulates the universe using the approximation of the Silent Universe. The Silent Universe is a solution to the Einstein equations that assumes irrotational, nonviscous, and insulated dust, with vanishing magnetic part of the Weyl curvature. The initial conditions for the Simsilun simulation are sourced from the Millennium simulation, which results with a realistically appearing but relativistic at origin simulation of a universe. The Simsilun simulation is evolved from the early universe (t =25 Myr ) until far future (t =1000 Gyr ). The results of this investigation show that both conjectures are correct. On global scales, a universe with a positive cosmological constant and nonpositive spatial curvature does indeed approach the de Sitter state. At the same time it keeps generating the gravitational entropy.

  17. Evolving Hořava cosmological horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Mohsen; Mohseni, Morteza

    2016-09-01

    Several sets of radially propagating null congruence generators are exploited in order to form 3-dimensional marginally trapped surfaces, referred to as black hole and cosmological apparent horizons in a Hořava universe. Based on this method, we deal with the characteristics of the 2-dimensional space-like spheres of symmetry and the peculiarities of having trapping horizons. Moreover, we apply this method in standard expanding and contracting FLRW cosmological models of a Hořava universe to investigate the conditions under which the extra parameters of the theory may lead to trapped/anti-trapped surfaces both in the future and in the past. We also include the cases of negative time, referred to as the finite past, and discuss the formation of anti-trapped surfaces inside the cosmological apparent horizons.

  18. PREFACE: The Sixth International Conference on Gravitation & Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Ghanashyam; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-01

    The sixth International Conference on Gravitation & Cosmology (ICGC-2007) was organized at IUCAA, Pune, 17-21 December 2007. This series of international meetings, held every four years under the auspices of the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), has now spanned two decades. Previous ICGC meetings were held at Cochin University of Science and Technology (2004), Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (2000), IUCAA, Pune (1995), Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (1991) & Goa (1987). These meetings have broad international participation and feature leading experts in the field of Cosmology, gravitational waves and quantum gravity. The frontier of research in Gravitation and Cosmology has seen remarkable progress in the past decades. On the theoretical front, black holes and cosmological singularities continue to challenge and attract quantum gravity researchers. The quest for the detection of Gravitational waves and the promise of gravitational wave astronomy continues to grow and breakthroughs of the past couple of years indicate that numerical relativity is catching up too. The past few years have also seen very ambitious experimental efforts to verify general relativity as the theory of gravitation. Cosmology has been veritably transformed into a precision science with the tremendous improvement in the quantity and quality of cosmological observations. The exquisite measurements not only allow refinement of the cosmological model parameters but have begun to allow observational tests of underlying fundamental assumptions and hunt for subtle deviations that could be the key to understanding the early universe. The sixth meeting brought together active scientists from all over the globe to present the state of the art at the frontiers of research. It also offered younger Indian researchers an opportunity for interaction with experts from within India and abroad. The meeting was attended by over 160 participants. The scientific

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of a New Cosmology Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2015-01-01

    Informed by our research on student understanding of cosmology, The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks and real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a more engaging format that builds important STEM skills.During the spring 2014 semester, we field-tested a subset of chapters with the general education astronomy and cosmology classes at Sonoma State University in a flipped-classroom format. We administered pre and post content and attitude assessments in the two flipped classes as well as two lecture classes. The majority of cosmology students had taken astronomy before whereas the astronomy students had not.When switching to an active mode of learning (e.g., flipped classroom instead of lecture), many instructors report pushback from students. We saw this effect from students in course evaluations, who reported dissatisfaction with "having to do more work." However, the students in the flipped section in astronomy made greater gains on the multiple choice content assessment than the students in either of the two lecture sections. On the attitude assessment (the CLASS), the cosmology students made a small shift toward more expert-like opinions. Preliminary results from open-ended content surveys indicate that, prior to instruction, students had difficulty answering 'why' or 'how do we know' questions; that post-instruction, students are less likely to respond "I don't know" or to leave an answer blank; and that students using the modules made gains in their content knowledge.Module development was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University's Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and Great River Technology

  20. Smoot Cosmology Group

    Nobel Prize for physics. He led a team that mapped the early universe, revealing its primal form and the said these fifteen billion-year-old fossils are the primordial seeds that grew into the galaxies and

  1. CBR anisotropy from primordial gravitational waves in inflationary cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Bruce; Koranda, Scott

    1994-09-01

    We examine stochastic temperature fluctuations of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) arising via the Sachs-Wolfe effect from gravitational wave perturbations produced in the early Universe. These temperature fluctuations are described by an angular correlation function C(γ). A new (more concise and general) derivation of C(γ) is given, and evaluated for inflationary-universe cosmologies. This yields standard results for angles γ greater than a few degrees, but new results for smaller angles, because we do not make standard long-wavelength approximations to the gravitational wave mode functions. The function C(γ) may be expanded in a series of Legendre polynomials; we use numerical methods to compare the coefficients of the resulting expansion in our exact calculation with standard (approximate) results. We also report some progress towards finding a closed form expression for C(γ).

  2. Effect of bulk Lorentz violation on anisotropic brane cosmologies

    SciT

    Heydari-Fard, Malihe, E-mail: heydarifard@qom.ac.ir

    2012-04-01

    The effect of Lorentz invariance violation in cosmology has attracted a considerable amount of attention. By using a dynamical vector field assumed to point in the bulk direction, with Lorentz invariance holding on the brane, we extend the notation of Lorentz violation in four dimensions Jacobson to a five-dimensional brane-world. We obtain the general solution of the field equations in an exact parametric form for Bianchi type I space-time, with perfect fluid as a matter source. We show that the brane universe evolves from an isotropic/anisotropic state to an isotropic de Sitter inflationary phase at late time. The early timemore » behavior of anisotropic brane universe is largely dependent on the Lorentz violating parameters β{sub i},i = 1,2,3 and the equation of state of the matter, while its late time behavior is independent of these parameters.« less

  3. Bounce inflation cosmology with Standard Model Higgs boson

    SciT

    Wan, Youping; Huang, Fa Peng; Zhang, Xinmin

    It is of great interest to connect cosmology in the early universe to the Standard Model of particle physics. In this paper, we try to construct a bounce inflation model with the standard model Higgs boson, where the one loop correction is taken into account in the effective potential of Higgs field. In this model, a Galileon term has been introduced to eliminate the ghost mode when bounce happens. Moreover, due to the fact that the Fermion loop correction can make part of the Higgs potential negative, one naturally obtains a large equation of state(EoS) parameter in the contracting phase,more » which can eliminate the anisotropy problem. After the bounce, the model can drive the universe into the standard higgs inflation phase, which can generate nearly scale-invariant power spectrum.« less

  4. Symmetron and de Sitter attractor in a teleparallel model of cosmology

    SciT

    Sadjadi, H. Mohseni, E-mail: mohsenisad@ut.ac.ir

    In the teleparallel framework of cosmology, a quintessence with non-minimal couplings to the scalar torsion and a boundary term is considered. A conformal coupling to matter density is also taken into account. It is shown that the model can describe onset of cosmic acceleration after an epoch of matter dominated era, where dark energy is negligible, via Z {sub 2} symmetry breaking. While the conformal coupling holds the Universe in a state with zero dark energy density in the early epoch, the non-minimal couplings lead the Universe to a stable state with de Sitter expansion at late time.

  5. Evolution of domain walls in the early universe. Ph.D. Thesis - Chicago Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawano, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of domain walls in the early universe is studied via 2-D computer simulation. The walls are initially configured on a triangular lattice and then released from the lattice, their evolution driven by wall curvature and by the universal expansion. The walls attain an average velocity of about 0.3c and their surface area per volume (as measured in comoving coordinates) goes down with a slope of -1 with respect to conformal time, regardless of whether the universe is matter or radiation dominated. The additional influence of vacuum pressure causes the energy density to fall away from this slope and steepen, thus allowing a situation in which domain walls can constitute a significant portion of the energy density of the universe without provoking an unacceptably large perturbation upon the microwave background.

  6. Cosmological perturbations in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology

    SciT

    Haro, Jaime, E-mail: jaime.haro@upc.edu

    2013-11-01

    Cosmological perturbations in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) are usually studied incorporating either holonomy corrections, where the Ashtekar connection is replaced by a suitable sinus function in order to have a well-defined quantum analogue, or inverse-volume corrections coming from the eigenvalues of the inverse-volume operator. In this paper we will develop an alternative approach to calculate cosmological perturbations in LQC based on the fact that, holonomy corrected LQC in the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry could be also obtained as a particular case of teleparallel F(T) gravity (teleparallel LQC). The main idea of our approach is to mix the simple bounce providedmore » by holonomy corrections in LQC with the non-singular perturbation equations given by F(T) gravity, in order to obtain a matter bounce scenario as a viable alternative to slow-roll inflation. In our study, we have obtained an scale invariant power spectrum of cosmological perturbations. However, the ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations is of order 1, which does not agree with the current observations. For this reason, we suggest a model where a transition from the matter domination to a quasi de Sitter phase is produced in order to enhance the scalar power spectrum.« less

  7. Implications of an extended dark energy cosmology with massive neutrinos for cosmological tensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Vivian; Boddy, Kimberly K.; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2018-06-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the most common early- and late-universe solutions to the H0 , Ly -α , and S8 discrepancies. When considered on their own, massive neutrinos provide a natural solution to the S8 discrepancy at the expense of increasing the H0 tension. If all extensions are considered simultaneously, the best-fit solution has a neutrino mass sum of ˜0.4 eV , a dark energy equation of state close to that of a cosmological constant, and no additional relativistic degrees of freedom (d.o.f). However, the H0 tension, while weakened, remains unresolved. Motivated by this result, we perform a nonparametric reconstruction of the evolution of the dark energy fluid density (allowing for negative energy densities), together with massive neutrinos. When all data sets are included, there exists a residual ˜1.9 σ tension with H0. If this residual tension remains in the future, it will indicate that it is not possible to solve the H0 tension solely with a modification of the late-universe dynamics within standard general relativity. However, we do find that it is possible to resolve the tension if either galaxy baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) or joint light-curve analysis supernovae data are omitted. We find that negative dark energy densities are favored near redshift z ˜2.35 when including the Ly -α BAO measurement (at ˜2 σ ). This behavior may point to a negative curvature, but it is most likely indicative of systematics or at least an underestimated covariance matrix. Quite remarkably, we find that in the extended cosmologies considered in this work, the neutrino mass sum is always close to 0.4 eV regardless of the choice of external data sets, as long as the H0 tension is solved or significantly decreased.

  8. Warm inflationary model in loop quantum cosmology

    SciT

    Herrera, Ramon

    A warm inflationary universe model in loop quantum cosmology is studied. In general we discuss the condition of inflation in this framework. By using a chaotic potential, V({phi}){proportional_to}{phi}{sup 2}, we develop a model where the dissipation coefficient {Gamma}={Gamma}{sub 0}=constant. We use recent astronomical observations for constraining the parameters appearing in our model.

  9. Cosmology with cosmic shear observations: a review.

    PubMed

    Kilbinger, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as the implications for cosmology. We then conclude with an outlook on the various future surveys and missions, for which cosmic shear is one of the main science drivers, and discuss promising new weak cosmological lensing techniques for future observations.

  10. Primordial alchemy: from the Big Bang to the present universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigman, Gary

    Of the light nuclides observed in the universe today, D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li are relics from its early evolution. The primordial abundances of these relics, produced via Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) during the first half hour of the evolution of the universe provide a unique window on Physics and Cosmology at redshifts ~1010. Comparing the BBN-predicted abundances with those inferred from observational data tests the consistency of the standard cosmological model over ten orders of magnitude in redshift, constrains the baryon and other particle content of the universe, and probes both Physics and Cosmology beyond the current standard models. These lectures are intended to introduce students, both of theory and observation, to those aspects of the evolution of the universe relevant to the production and evolution of the light nuclides from the Big Bang to the present. The current observational data is reviewed and compared with the BBN predictions and the implications for cosmology (e.g., universal baryon density) and particle physics (e.g., relativistic energy density) are discussed. While this comparison reveals the stunning success of the standard model(s), there are currently some challenge which leave open the door for more theoretical and observational work with potential implications for astronomy, cosmology, and particle physics.

  11. Non-equilibrium in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroni, M.

    2009-02-01

    All the non-trivial features of the Universe we see around us, such as particles, stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies, are the result of non-equilibrium processes in the cosmic evolution. These lectures aim to provide some general background in cosmology and to examine specific, and notable, examples of departures from thermal equilibrium. They are organized as follows: 1) Overview of the thermal history of the Universe after the Big Bang: the relevant time-scales and the mechanism of particle decoupling from the themal bath; 2) Explicit examples of cosmic relics: nucleosynthesis, photons and the cosmic microwave background, neutrinos, and cold dark matter; 3) Baryogenesis: the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe; 4) The formation of cosmic structures (galaxies, clusters of galaxies): from the Vlasov equation to the renormalization group.

  12. Quantum transitions through cosmological singularities

    SciT

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Hertog, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    In a quantum theory of cosmology spacetime behaves classically only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the wave function of the universe is defined. Quantum transitions can connect classical evolution in different patches. Working in the saddle point approximation and in minisuperspace we compute quantum transitions connecting inflationary histories across a de Sitter like throat or a singularity. This supplies probabilities for how an inflating universe, when evolved backwards, transitions and branches into an ensemble of histories on the opposite side of a quantum bounce. Generalising our analysis to scalar potentials with negative regions we identify saddlemore » points describing a quantum transition between a classically contracting, crunching ekpyrotic phase and an inflationary universe.« less

  13. Quantum transitions through cosmological singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Hertog, Thomas; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Vreys, Yannick

    2017-07-01

    In a quantum theory of cosmology spacetime behaves classically only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the wave function of the universe is defined. Quantum transitions can connect classical evolution in different patches. Working in the saddle point approximation and in minisuperspace we compute quantum transitions connecting inflationary histories across a de Sitter like throat or a singularity. This supplies probabilities for how an inflating universe, when evolved backwards, transitions and branches into an ensemble of histories on the opposite side of a quantum bounce. Generalising our analysis to scalar potentials with negative regions we identify saddle points describing a quantum transition between a classically contracting, crunching ekpyrotic phase and an inflationary universe.

  14. Current observations with a decaying cosmological constant allow for chaotic cyclic cosmology

    SciT

    Ellis, George F.R.; Platts, Emma; Weltman, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    We use the phase plane analysis technique of Madsen and Ellis [1] to consider a universe with a true cosmological constant as well as a cosmological 'constant' that is decaying. Time symmetric dynamics for the inflationary era allows eternally bouncing models to occur. Allowing for scalar field dynamic evolution, we find that if dark energy decays in the future, chaotic cyclic universes exist provided the spatial curvature is positive. This is particularly interesting in light of current observations which do not yet rule out either closed universes or possible evolution of the cosmological constant. We present only a proof ofmore » principle, with no definite claim on the physical mechanism required for the present dark energy to decay.« less

  15. Higgs Physics and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Alex

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a new framework for describing the multiverse has been proposed which is based on the principles of quantum mechanics. The framework allows for well-defined predictions, both regarding global properties of the universe and outcomes of particular experiments, according to a single probability formula. This provides complete unification of the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics. We elucidate how cosmological parameters can be calculated in this framework, and study the probability distribution for the value of the cosmological constant. We consider both positive and negative values, and find that the observed value is consistent with the calculated distribution at an order of magnitude level. In particular, in contrast to the case of earlier measure proposals, our framework prefers a positive cosmological constant over a negative one. These results depend only moderately on how we model galaxy formation and life evolution therein. We explore supersymmetric theories in which the Higgs mass is boosted by the non-decoupling D-terms of an extended U(1) X gauge symmetry, defined here to be a general linear combination of hypercharge, baryon number, and lepton number. Crucially, the gauge coupling, gX, is bounded from below to accommodate the Higgs mass, while the quarks and leptons are required by gauge invariance to carry non-zero charge under U(1)X. This induces an irreducible rate, sigmaBR, for pp → X → ll relevant to existing and future resonance searches, and gives rise to higher dimension operators that are stringently constrained by precision electroweak measurements. Combined, these bounds define a maximally allowed region in the space of observables, (sigmaBR, mX), outside of which is excluded by naturalness and experimental limits. If natural supersymmetry utilizes non-decoupling D-terms, then the associated X boson can only be observed within this window, providing a model independent 'litmus test' for this broad

  16. Equilibrium thermodynamics and neutrino decoupling in quasi-metric cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østvang, Dag

    2018-05-01

    The laws of thermodynamics in the expanding universe are formulated within the quasi-metric framework. The quasi-metric cosmic expansion does not directly influence momenta of material particles, so the expansion directly cools null particles only (e.g., photons). Therefore, said laws differ substantially from their counterparts in standard cosmology. Consequently, all non-null neutrino mass eigenstates are predicted to have the same energy today as they had just after neutrino decoupling in the early universe. This indicates that the predicted relic neutrino background is strongly inconsistent with detection rates measured in solar neutrino detectors (Borexino in particular). Thus quasi-metric cosmology is in violent conflict with experiment unless some exotic property of neutrinos makes the relic neutrino background essentially undetectable (e.g., if all massive mass eigenstates decay into "invisible" particles over cosmic time scales). But in absence of hard evidence in favour of the necessary exotic neutrino physics needed to resolve said conflict, the current status of quasi-metric relativity has been changed to non-viable.

  17. QCD nature of dark energy at finite temperature: Cosmological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, K.; Katırcı, N.

    2016-05-01

    The Veneziano ghost field has been proposed as an alternative source of dark energy, whose energy density is consistent with the cosmological observations. In this model, the energy density of the QCD ghost field is expressed in terms of QCD degrees of freedom at zero temperature. We extend this model to finite temperature to search the model predictions from late time to early universe. We depict the variations of QCD parameters entering the calculations, dark energy density, equation of state, Hubble and deceleration parameters on temperature from zero to a critical temperature. We compare our results with the observations and theoretical predictions existing at different eras. It is found that this model safely defines the universe from quark condensation up to now and its predictions are not in tension with those of the standard cosmology. The EoS parameter of dark energy is dynamical and evolves from -1/3 in the presence of radiation to -1 at late time. The finite temperature ghost dark energy predictions on the Hubble parameter well fit to those of Λ CDM and observations at late time.

  18. Radiation hydrodynamical instabilities in cosmological and galactic ionization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Norman, Michael L.

    2011-11-01

    Ionization fronts, the sharp radiation fronts behind which H/He ionizing photons from massive stars and galaxies propagate through space, were ubiquitous in the universe from its earliest times. The cosmic dark ages ended with the formation of the first primeval stars and galaxies a few hundred Myr after the Big Bang. Numerical simulations suggest that stars in this era were very massive, 25-500 solar masses, with H(II) regions of up to 30,000 light-years in diameter. We present three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical calculations that reveal that the I-fronts of the first stars and galaxies were prone to violent instabilities, enhancing the escape of UV photons into the early intergalactic medium (IGM) and forming clumpy media in which supernovae later exploded. The enrichment of such clumps with metals by the first supernovae may have led to the prompt formation of a second generation of low-mass stars, profoundly transforming the nature of the first protogalaxies. Cosmological radiation hydrodynamics is unique because ionizing photons coupled strongly to both gas flows and primordial chemistry at early epochs, introducing a hierarchy of disparate characteristic timescales whose relative magnitudes can vary greatly throughout a given calculation. We describe the adaptive multistep integration scheme we have developed for the self-consistent transport of both cosmological and galactic ionization fronts.

  19. Gravitational baryogenesis in DGP brane cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atazadeh, K.

    2018-06-01

    We consider the imbalance of matter and antimatter by using a gravitational baryogenesis mechanism in the background of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) brane cosmology. By taking into account a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric in the DGP brane model, we find that for a radiation dominated universe, w=1/3, the ratio of baryon number density to entropy from the gravitational baryogenesis is not zero, contrary to ordinary general relativity. Also, we study the ratio of baryon number density to entropy against the observational constraints in DGP cosmology.

  20. Cosmological implications of Higgs near-criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, J. R.

    2018-01-01

    The Standard Model electroweak (EW) vacuum, in the absence of new physics below the Planck scale, lies very close to the boundary between stability and metastability, with the last option being the most probable. Several cosmological implications of this so-called `near-criticality' are discussed. In the metastable vacuum case, the main challenges that the survival of the EW vacuum faces during the evolution of the Universe are analysed. In the stable vacuum case, the possibility of implementing Higgs inflation is critically examined. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  1. Cosmological implications of Higgs near-criticality.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, J R

    2018-03-06

    The Standard Model electroweak (EW) vacuum, in the absence of new physics below the Planck scale, lies very close to the boundary between stability and metastability, with the last option being the most probable. Several cosmological implications of this so-called 'near-criticality' are discussed. In the metastable vacuum case, the main challenges that the survival of the EW vacuum faces during the evolution of the Universe are analysed. In the stable vacuum case, the possibility of implementing Higgs inflation is critically examined.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Entropy production during an isothermal phase transition in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaempfer, B.

    The analytical model of Lodenquai and Dixit (1983) and of Bonometto and Matarrese (1983) of an isothermal era in the early universe is extended here to arbitrary temperatures. It is found that a sufficiently large supercooling gives rise to a large entropy production which may significantly dilute the primordial monopole or baryon to entropy ratio. Whether such large supercooling can be achieved depends on the characteristics of the nucleation process.

  3. Inflaton and metric fluctuations in the early universe from a 5D vacuum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Membiela, Agustin; Bellini, Mauricio

    2006-04-01

    In this Letter we complete a previously introduced formalism to study the gauge-invariant metric fluctuations from a noncompact Kaluza Klein theory of gravity, to study the evolution of the early universe. The evolution of both, metric and inflaton field fluctuations are reciprocally related. We obtain that <δρ>/ρ depends on the coupling of Φ with δφ and the spectral index of its spectrum is 0.9483

  4. Baryogenesis and cosmological antimatter

    SciT

    Dolgov, Alexander D.

    2009-04-20

    Possible mechanisms of baryogenesis are reviewed. Special attention is payed to those which allow for creation of astronomically significant domains or objects consisting of antimatter. Observational manifestations of cosmological antimatter are discussed.

  5. The Diffuse Light of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, Jean-Marc

    2017-06-01

    In 1965, the discovery of a new type of uniform radiation, located between radiowaves and infrared light, was accidental. Known today as Cosmic Microwave background (CMB), this diffuse radiation is commonly interpreted as a fossil light released in an early hot and dense universe and constitutes today the main 'pilar' of the big bang cosmology. Considerable efforts have been devoted to derive fundamental cosmological parameters from the characteristics of this radiation that led to a surprising universe that is shaped by at least three major unknown components: inflation, dark matter and dark energy. This is an important weakness of the present consensus cosmological model that justifies raising several questions on the CMB interpretation. Can we consider its cosmological nature as undisputable? Do other possible interpretations exist in the context of other cosmological theories or simply as a result of other physical mechanisms that could account for it? In an effort to questioning the validity of scientific hypotheses and the under-determination of theories compared to observations, we examine here the difficulties that still exist on the interpretation of this diffuse radiation and explore other proposed tracks to explain its origin. We discuss previous historical concepts of diffuse radiation before and after the CMB discovery and underline the limit of our present understanding.

  6. Perturbation theory for cosmologies with nonlinear structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Sophia R.; Gallagher, Christopher S.; Clifton, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    The next generation of cosmological surveys will operate over unprecedented scales, and will therefore provide exciting new opportunities for testing general relativity. The standard method for modelling the structures that these surveys will observe is to use cosmological perturbation theory for linear structures on horizon-sized scales, and Newtonian gravity for nonlinear structures on much smaller scales. We propose a two-parameter formalism that generalizes this approach, thereby allowing interactions between large and small scales to be studied in a self-consistent and well-defined way. This uses both post-Newtonian gravity and cosmological perturbation theory, and can be used to model realistic cosmological scenarios including matter, radiation and a cosmological constant. We find that the resulting field equations can be written as a hierarchical set of perturbation equations. At leading-order, these equations allow us to recover a standard set of Friedmann equations, as well as a Newton-Poisson equation for the inhomogeneous part of the Newtonian energy density in an expanding background. For the perturbations in the large-scale cosmology, however, we find that the field equations are sourced by both nonlinear and mode-mixing terms, due to the existence of small-scale structures. These extra terms should be expected to give rise to new gravitational effects, through the mixing of gravitational modes on small and large scales—effects that are beyond the scope of standard linear cosmological perturbation theory. We expect our formalism to be useful for accurately modeling gravitational physics in universes that contain nonlinear structures, and for investigating the effects of nonlinear gravity in the era of ultra-large-scale surveys.

  7. Dilaton Cosmology and Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, M.

    This paper is dedicated to Gabriele Veneziano on his 65th birthday. Most of the results reported here are known results, due to Gabriele, or obtained in collaboration with him, or inspired by our joint work on string cosmology. A few new results are also presented concerning the duality invariance of a non-local dilaton coupling to the matter sources, and its possible cosmological applications in the context of the dark energy scenario.

  8. w-cosmological singularities

    SciT

    Fernandez-Jambrina, L.

    2010-12-15

    In this paper we characterize barotropic index singularities of homogeneous isotropic cosmological models [M. P. Dabrowski and T. Denkiewicz, Phys. Rev. D 79, 063521 (2009).]. They are shown to appear in cosmologies for which the scale factor is analytical with a Taylor series in which the linear and quadratic terms are absent. Though the barotropic index of the perfect fluid is singular, the singularities are weak, as it happens for other models for which the density and the pressure are regular.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamics and Plasma Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Vlahos, Loukas

    2007-09-01

    We study the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, both in the Newtonian and the general-relativistic limit, as regards a viscous magnetized fluid of finite conductivity and discuss instability criteria. In addition, we explore the excitation of cosmological perturbations in anisotropic spacetimes, in the presence of an ambient magnetic field. Acoustic, electromagnetic (e/m) and fast-magnetosonic modes, propagating normal to the magnetic field, can be excited, resulting in several implications of cosmological significance.

  10. Republication of: Relativistic cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, George F. R.

    2009-03-01

    This is a republication of a paper by G.F.R. Ellis first published in Proceedings of the International School of Physics: General Relativity and Cosmology, 1971, in which he formulated the framework for relativistic cosmology with an arbitrary background geometry. The article has been selected for publication in the Golden Oldies series of General Relativity and Gravitation. The paper is accompanied by a Golden Oldie Editorial comprising an editorial note written by Bill Stoeger and Ellis’ brief autobiography.

  11. First Look at a Major Transition Period in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    New Observations of Intergalactic Helium Absorption Observations of the bright southern quasar HE 2347-4342 with telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have provided a group of European astronomers [1] with an exceptional glimpse into an early, still unexplored transition period of the Universe. At that time, many billions of years ago, some of the enormous gaseous clouds of hydrogen and helium left over from the Big Bang had not yet been fully ionized by the increasingly strong radiation from emerging galaxies and stars. In recent years astronomers have successfully `looked back' towards this period, but the new observations of HE 2347-4342 have now homed in on an important transitionary epoch during the evolution of the young Universe. Searching for clear views towards bright quasars As has been the case for many other important scientific achievements, this observational breakthrough was preceded by a long and tedious period of careful preparatory work. It began in 1989, when Dieter Reimers and his collaborators from the University of Hamburg (Germany) initiated a spectral survey of the entire southern sky with the 1-metre ESO Schmidt Telescope at La Silla. The aim was to find bright quasars , a rare class of remote galaxies with unusually bright and energetic centres. They would then be studied in greater detail with other, larger telescopes. For this programme, a large objective prism is placed in front of the telescope, allowing the simultaneous recording on a large photographic plate of spectra of about 40,000 celestial objects in a 5 o x 5 o sky field. The plates are sent to Hamburg where they are scanned (digitized) in a microphotometer and automatically searched for spectra of quasars. Until now, more than 400 plates have been obtained. One of the main goals of this vast programme is to find bright and distant quasars, in particular those whose light reaches us along relatively unobstructed paths. Or

  12. From Early Aspirations to Actual Attainment: The Effects of Economic Status and Educational Expectations on University Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ching-Ling; Bai, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of economic status and the educational expectations of significant others on early university aspirations and actual university attainment. The study analyzed two-wave longitudinal data collected from 1,595 Taiwanese students in their 9th grade in middle school and in their freshman year at universities. The…

  13. Re-Envisioning the Role of Universities in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Community Partnerships for 21st-Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Adam S.; Heineke, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Despite contrasting views on the overlap of early childhood education and teacher education, opportunities abound for expanding the role of early childhood educators in broader teacher education discourse. University-based early childhood education and kindergarten-through-grade-12 teacher education share purposes, philosophies, and resources that…

  14. Building cosmological frozen stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2017-02-01

    Janis-Newman-Winicour (JNW) solutions generalize Schwarzschild to include a massless scalar field. While they share the familiar infinite redshift feature of Schwarzschild, they suffer from the presence of naked singularities. Cosmological versions of JNW spacetimes were discovered some years ago, in the most general case, by Fonarev. Fonarev solutions are also plagued by naked singularities, but have the virtue, unlike e.g. Schwarzschild-deSitter, of being dynamical. Given that exact dynamical cosmological black hole solutions are scarce, Fonarev solutions merit further study. We show how Fonarev solutions can be obtained via generalized dimensional reduction from simpler static vacuum solutions. These results may lead towards constructions of actual dynamical cosmological black holes. In particular, we note that cosmological versions of extremal charged dilaton black holes are known. JNW spacetimes represent a different limiting case of the family of charged dilaton black holes, which have been important in the context of string theory, and better understanding their cosmological versions of JNW spacetimes thus provides a second data point towards finding cosmological versions of the entire family.

  15. Cosmological Models and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Lars

    Principles in the form of heuristic guidelines or generally accepted dogma play an important role in the development of physical theories. In particular, philosophical considerations and principles figure prominently in the work of Albert Einstein. As mentioned in the talk by Jiří Bičák at this conference, Einstein formulated the equivalence principle, an essential step on the road to general relativity, during his time in Prague 1911-1912. In this talk, I would like to discuss some aspects of cosmological models. As cosmology is an area of physics where "principles" such as the "cosmological principle" or the "Copernican principle" play a prominent role in motivating the class of models which form part of the current standard model, I will start by comparing the role of the equivalence principle to that of the principles used in cosmology. I will then briefly describe the standard model of cosmology to give a perspective on some mathematical problems and conjectures on cosmological models, which are discussed in the later part of this paper.

  16. Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ning; Bousso, Raphael; Jordan, Stephen; Lackey, Brad

    2017-11-01

    Denef and Douglas have observed that in certain landscape models the problem of finding small values of the cosmological constant is a large instance of a problem that is hard for the complexity class NP (Nondeterministic Polynomial-time). The number of elementary operations (quantum gates) needed to solve this problem by brute force search exceeds the estimated computational capacity of the observable Universe. Here we describe a way out of this puzzling circumstance: despite being NP-hard, the problem of finding a small cosmological constant can be attacked by more sophisticated algorithms whose performance vastly exceeds brute force search. In fact, in some parameter regimes the average-case complexity is polynomial. We demonstrate this by explicitly finding a cosmological constant of order 10-120 in a randomly generated 1 09-dimensional Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Kachru landscape.

  17. Evaluation of an Interactive Undergraduate Cosmology Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Aaron; Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2018-06-01

    The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks as well as labs that allow students to manipulate and analyze real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a format that builds important STEM skills, while engaging those outside the field with modern discoveries and a more realistic sense of practices and tools used by professional astronomers. Over two semesters, we field-tested the curriculum in general education cosmology classes at a state university in California [N ~ 80]. We administered pre- and post-instruction multiple-choice and open-ended content surveys as well as the CLASS, to gauge the effectiveness of the course and modules. Questions addressed included the structure, composition, and evolution of the universe, including students’ reasoning and “how we know.”Module development and evaluation was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University’s Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and San Francisco State University. The modules are published by Great River Learning/Kendall-Hunt.

  18. Asymptotically Vanishing Cosmological Constant in the Multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Hikaru; Okada, Takashi

    We study the problem of the cosmological constant in the context of the multiverse in Lorentzian space-time, and show that the cosmological constant will vanish in the future. This sort of argument was started by Sidney Coleman in 1989, and he argued that the Euclidean wormholes make the multiverse partition function a superposition of various values of the cosmological constant Λ, which has a sharp peak at Λ = 0. However, the implication of the Euclidean analysis to our Lorentzian space-time is unclear. With this motivation, we analyze the quantum state of the multiverse in Lorentzian space-time by the WKB method, and calculate the density matrix of our universe by tracing out the other universes. Our result predicts vanishing cosmological constant. While Coleman obtained the enhancement at Λ = 0 through the action itself, in our Lorentzian analysis the similar enhancement arises from the front factor of eiS in the universe wave function, which is in the next leading order in the WKB approximation.

  19. Arguments concerning Relativity and Cosmology.

    PubMed

    Klein, O

    1971-01-29

    In the first place I have reviewed the true foundation of Einstein's theory of general relativity, the so-called principle of equivalence, according to which there is no essential difference between "genuine" gravitation and inertial forces, well known from accelerated vehicles. By means of a comparison with Gaussian geometry of curved surfaces-the background of Riemannian geometry, the tool used by Einstein for the mathematical formulation of his theory-it is made clear that this principle is incompatible with the idea proposed by Mach and accepted by Einstein as an incitement to his attempt to describe the main situation in the universe as an analogy in three dimensions to the closed surface of a sphere. In the later attempts toward a mathematical description of the universe, where Einstein's cosmology was adapted to the discovery by Hubble that its observed part is expanding, the socalled cosmological postulate has been used as a kind of axiomatic background which, when analyzed, makes it probable that this expansion is shared by a very big, but still bounded system. This implies that our expanding metagalaxy is probably just one of a type of stellar objects in different phases of evolution, some expanding and some contracting. Some attempts toward the description of this evolution are sketched in the article with the hope that further investigation, theoretical and observational, may lead to an interesting advance in this part of astrophysics.

  20. Origins and Missions of Two Early Land-Grant Colleges: Georgetown University and George Washington University. ASHE Annual Meeting 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martin S.

    The founding and missions of Georgetown University and George Washington University, two early land-grant colleges, are considered. The account is based partially on standard histories of the colleges, and other information comes from Congressional Records. Some understanding of why Congress took an interest in the founding and survival of…