Science.gov

Sample records for early universe models

  1. The Toy model: Understanding the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Peter H.; Price, Richard H.

    2018-04-01

    In many branches of science, progress is being made by taking advantage of insights from other branches of science. Cosmology, the structure and evolution of the universe, is certainly an area that is currently beset by problems in understanding. We show here that the scientific insights from the studies of early childhood development, in particular, those of Piaget, give a new way of looking at the early universe. This new approach can not only be invaluable in undergraduate teaching, but can even be the basis of semi-quantitative predictions.

  2. Probing Models of Dark Matter and the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlofsky, Nicholas David

    This thesis discusses models for dark matter (DM) and their behavior in the early universe. An important question is how phenomenological probes can directly search for signals of DM today. Another topic of investigation is how the DM and other processes in the early universe must evolve. Then, astrophysical bounds on early universe dynamics can constrain DM. We will consider these questions in the context of three classes of DM models--weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), axions, and primordial black holes (PBHs). Starting with WIMPs, we consider models where the DM is charged under the electroweak gauge group of the Standard Model. Such WIMPs, if generated by a thermal cosmological history, are constrained by direct detection experiments. To avoid present or near-future bounds, the WIMP model or cosmological history must be altered in some way. This may be accomplished by the inclusion of new states that coannihilate with the WIMP or a period of non-thermal evolution in the early universe. Future experiments are likely to probe some of these altered scenarios, and a non-observation would require a high degree of tuning in some of the model parameters in these scenarios. Next, axions, as light pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons, are susceptible to quantum fluctuations in the early universe that lead to isocurvature perturbations, which are constrained by observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We ask what it would take to allow axion models in the face of these strong CMB bounds. We revisit models where inflationary dynamics modify the axion potential and discuss how isocurvature bounds can be relaxed, elucidating the difficulties in these constructions. Avoiding disruption of inflationary dynamics provides important limits on the parameter space. Finally, PBHs have received interest in part due to observations by LIGO of merging black hole binaries. We ask how these PBHs could arise through inflationary models and investigate the opportunity

  3. Anisotropic, nonsingular early universe model leading to a realistic cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Dechant, Pierre-Philippe; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Hobson, Michael P.

    2009-02-15

    We present a novel cosmological model in which scalar field matter in a biaxial Bianchi IX geometry leads to a nonsingular 'pancaking' solution: the hypersurface volume goes to zero instantaneously at the 'big bang', but all physical quantities, such as curvature invariants and the matter energy density remain finite, and continue smoothly through the big bang. We demonstrate that there exist geodesics extending through the big bang, but that there are also incomplete geodesics that spiral infinitely around a topologically closed spatial dimension at the big bang, rendering it, at worst, a quasiregular singularity. The model is thus reminiscent ofmore » the Taub-NUT vacuum solution in that it has biaxial Bianchi IX geometry and its evolution exhibits a dimensionality reduction at a quasiregular singularity; the two models are, however, rather different, as we will show in a future work. Here we concentrate on the cosmological implications of our model and show how the scalar field drives both isotropization and inflation, thus raising the question of whether structure on the largest scales was laid down at a time when the universe was still oblate (as also suggested by [T. S. Pereira, C. Pitrou, and J.-P. Uzan, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 9 (2007) 6.][C. Pitrou, T. S. Pereira, and J.-P. Uzan, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 4 (2008) 4.][A. Guemruekcueoglu, C. Contaldi, and M. Peloso, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 11 (2007) 005.]). We also discuss the stability of our model to small perturbations around biaxiality and draw an analogy with cosmological perturbations. We conclude by presenting a separate, bouncing solution, which generalizes the known bouncing solution in closed FRW universes.« less

  4. Integrated Specialized Early-Course Psychosis Treatment Services - University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce Model.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, DraŽenka; Čulo, Ilaria; Silić, Ante; Kos, Suzana; Savić, Aleksandar

    2018-06-01

    First episode of psychosis presents a critical period in terms of numerous associated risks, but also possibilities for effective therapeutic interventions. There is a continued focus on early interventions in prodromal states and early course of frank psychosis, aimed at ensuring faster remission, reducing relapses, achieving better long-term functioning, and preventing adverse outcomes linked to untreated psychosis and chronic psychotic disorders. A number of different specialized treatment models and services exist trying to close knowledge gaps and provide clinical interventions to first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but there is still no generally accepted standard of care informing our every-day practice. FEP and early-course psychosis specialized treatment model developed in 2004 in University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce rests on integration of care across different organization units and clinical presentation acuity levels and patient needs (intensive care, FEP inpatient unit, FEP outpatient services including day hospital). Such integration of FEP services allows for flexible entry point on multiple levels, earlier structuring of therapeutic alliance for those requiring inpatient care, reduction of risks associated with FEP, quicker formation of long-term treatment plans, reduction of delay in accessing specialized services, and a more coordinated diagnostic process and recruitment of FEP patient population. Detailed evaluations of outcomes and comparisons with different treatment models are necessary in order to assess strengths and weaknesses of each specific model and inform modifications to current practice models.

  5. The early universe history from contraction-deformation of the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    The elementary particles evolution in the early Universe from Plank time up to several milliseconds is presented. The developed theory is based on the high-temperature (high-energy) limit of the Standard Model which is generated by the contractions of its gauge groups. At the infinite temperature all particles lose masses. Only massless neutral -bosons, massless Z-quarks, neutrinos and photons are survived in this limit. The weak interactions become long-range and are mediated by neutral currents, quarks have only one color degree of freedom.

  6. Models and (some) Searches for CPT Violation: From Early Universe to the Present Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2017-07-01

    In the talk, I review theoretical models, inspired by quantum gravity, that may violate CPT symmetry. The amount of violation today (which is constrained severely by a plethora of experiments that I will not describe due to lack of space) need not be the same with the one that occurred in the Early Universe,. In certain models, one can obtain a precise temperature dependence of CPT violating effects, which is such that these effects are significant during the radiation era of the Universe, but are damped quickly so that they do not to affect nucleosynthesis and are negligible in the present epoch (that is, beyond experimental detection with the current experimental sensitivity). The CPT Violation (CPTV) in these models may arise from special properties of the background over which the fields of the model are propagating upon and be responsible for the generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry, where any CP violation effects could only assist in the creation of the asymmetry, the dominant effect being CPTV. However, there are cases, where the CPTV arises as a consequence of an ill-defined CPT operator due to decoherence as a result of quantum gravity environmental degrees of freedom, inaccessible to a low-energy observer. I also discuss briefly the current-era phenomenology of some of the above models; in particular, for the ones involving decoherence-induced CPT violation, I argue that entangled states of neutral mesons (Kaons or B-systems) can provide smoking-gun sensitive tests or even falsify some of these models. If CPT is ill-defined one may also encounter violations of the spin-statistics theorem, with possible consequences for the Pauli Exclusion Principle.

  7. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    PubMed

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  8. A Constructivist/Reflective Paradigm: A Model for the Early Childhood Program at Tuskegee University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noori, Kathryn K.

    The Early Childhood Program in the Department of Curriculum, Instruction and Administration at Tuskegee University (Alabama) is described as a convergence of Jean Piaget's constructivism and John Dewey's progressivism. It is designed to provide preservice teachers with experiences that promote reflective practice and that view the learner as an…

  9. Universal Session-Level Change Processes in an Early Session of Psychotherapy: Path Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolden, Gregory G.; Chisholm-Stockard, Sarah M.; Strauman, Timothy J.; Tierney, Sandy C.; Mullen, Elizabeth A.; Schneider, Kristin L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used structural equation modeling to investigate universal change processes identified in the generic model of psychotherapy (GMP). Three path models of increasing complexity were examined in Study 1 in dynamic therapy. The best fitting model from Study one was replicated in Study two for participants receiving either cognitive or…

  10. A simple model of universe describing the early inflation and the late accelerated expansion in a symmetric manner

    SciTech Connect

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    We construct a simple model of universe which 'unifies' vacuum energy and radiation on the one hand, and matter and dark energy on the other hand in the spirit of a generalized Chaplygin gas model. Specifically, the phases of early inflation and late accelerated expansion are described by a generalized equation of state p/c{sup 2} = αρ+kρ{sup 1+1/n} having a linear component p = αρc{sup 2} and a polytropic component p = kρ{sup 1+1/n}c{sup 2}. For α= 1/3, n= 1 and k=−4/(3ρ{sub P}), where ρ{sub P}= 5.1610{sup 99} g/m{sup 3} is the Planck density, this equation of state describes themore » transition between the vacuum energy era and the radiation era. For t≥ 0, the universe undergoes an inflationary expansion that brings it from the Planck size l{sub P}= 1.6210{sup −35} m to a size a{sub 1}= 2.6110{sup −6} m on a timescale of about 23.3 Planck times t{sub P}= 5.3910{sup −44} s (early inflation). When t > t{sub 1}= 23.3t{sub P}, the universe decelerates and enters in the radiation era. We interpret the transition from the vacuum energy era to the radiation era as a second order phase transition where the Planck constant ℏ plays the role of finite size effects (the standard Big Bang theory is recovered for ℏ= 0). For α= 0, n=−1 and k=−ρ{sub Λ}, where ρ{sub Λ}= 7.0210{sup −24} g/m{sup 3} is the cosmological density, the equation of state p/c{sup 2} = αρ+kρ{sup 1+1/n} describes the transition from a decelerating universe dominated by pressureless matter (baryonic and dark matter) to an accelerating universe dominated by dark energy (late inflation). This transition takes place at a size a{sub 2}= 0.204l{sub Λ}. corresponding to a time t{sub 2}= 0.203t{sub Λ} where l{sub Λ}= 4.38 10{sup 26} m is the cosmological length and t{sub Λ}= 1.46 10{sup 18} s the cosmological time. The present universe turns out to be just at the transition between these two periods (t{sub 0}∼t{sub 2}). Our model gives the same results as the standard

  11. Geometry in transition in four dimensions: A model of emergent geometry in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ydri, Badis; Khaled, Ramda; Ahlam, Rouag

    2016-10-01

    We study a six matrix model with global S O (3 )×S O (3 ) symmetry containing at most quartic powers of the matrices. This theory exhibits a phase transition from a geometrical phase at low temperature to a Yang-Mills matrix phase with no background geometrical structure at high temperature. This is an exotic phase transition in the same universality class as the three matrix model but with important differences. The geometrical phase is determined dynamically, as the system cools, and is given by a fuzzy sphere background SN2×SN2, with an Abelian gauge field which is very weakly coupled to two normal scalar fields.

  12. Inflation in the early universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.

    1998-04-01

    In this talk it will be assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time. Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the Universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. The author calculates the ratio of the volumes of the Universe at two different times T1 and T2 after the big bang. The result conforms with the standard inflationary universe theory, but now it is obtained without assuming that the Universe is propelled by antigravity.

  13. QCD development in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru

    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  14. Cosmology and the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Abhigna

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning the universe was in a hot dense state nearly 13.8 billion years ago. The thermal history of the universe was traced back to an era when the temperature was about 1012K. At this early time, the universe was filled with particles-mostly photons and leptons- whose interactions are hopefully weak enough to allow this medium to be treated as a more or less ideal gas. However, if we look back a little further, into the first 0.0001 second of cosmic history when the temperature was above 1012K. At such temperatures, there will be present in thermal equilibrium copious numbers of strongly interacting particles-mostly masons and baryons-with a mean interparticle distance less than a Compton wavelength. These particles will be in a state of continual mutual interaction, and cannot reasonably be expected to obey any simple equation of state. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10-36seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10-33and 10-32seconds. Matter and energy created in this time. Right after that space expanded exponentially with enormous rate of 74.3 +/-2.1Km per second per Mpc. Undergraduate student and researcher of the string theory, quantum gravity, cosmology and quantum biology.

  15. Inflation in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Moshe

    In this talk it will be assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time (in which the cosmic time is measured backward with respect to the present time). Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the Universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. We calculate the ratio of the volumes of the Universe at two different times T1 and T2 after the Big Bang. Under the assumptions that T2 - T1 ≈ 10-32 sec and T2 ≪ 1 sec, we find that V_{2}/V_{1} = 10^{-16}/√{T_{1}}. For T1 ≈ 10-132 sec we obtain V2/V1 ≈ 1050. This result conforms with the standard inflationary universe theory, but now it is obtained without assuming that the Universe is propelled by antigravity.

  16. Artist's Concept of Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an artist's impression of how the very early universe (less than one billion years old) might have looked when it went through a voracious onset of star formation, converting primordial hydrogen into myriad stars at an unprecedented rate. The deepest views of the cosmos from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) yield clues that the very first stars may have burst into the universe as brilliantly and spectacularly as a firework finale. Except in this case, the finale came first, long before Earth, the Sun ,and the Milky Way Galaxy formed. Studies of HST's deepest views of the heavens lead to the preliminary conclusion that the universe made a significant portion of its stars in a torrential firestorm of star birth, which abruptly lit up the pitch-dark heavens just a few hundred million years after the 'big bang,' the tremendous explosion that created the cosmos. Within the starburst galaxies, bright knots of hot blue stars come and go like bursting fireworks shells. Regions of new starbirth glow intensely red under torrent of ultraviolet radiation. The most massive stars self-detonate as supernovas, which explode across the sky like a string of firecrackers. A foreground starburst galaxy at lower right is sculpted with hot bubbles from supernova explosions and torrential stellar winds. Unlike today there is very little dust in these galaxies, because the heavier elements have not yet been cooked up through nucleosynthesis in stars. Recent analysis of HST deep sky images supports the theory that the first stars in the universe appeared in an abrupt eruption of star formation, rather than at a gradual pace. Science Credit: NASA and K. Lanzetta (SUNY). Artwork Credit: Adolf Schaller for STScI.

  17. Curvature perturbations in the early universe: Theoretical models and observational tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallinotto, Alberto

    A very general prediction of inflation is that the power spectrum of density perturbations is characterized by a spectral index ns which is scale independent and approximately equal to unity. Drawing from the potential reconstruction method and adopting the slow-roll parameter expansion technique, we derive all possible single field inflationary potentials that would lead to a scale invariant density spectral index, consistent with current observations. In the process, a new method to determine the functional form of the inflationary potential in the slow roll approximation is devised, based on the reparametrization of the field dynamics with respect to the slow roll parameter epsilon which also allowed to show that under the assumptions made the investigation proved to be exhaustive and that no other solutions are available. Next, we focus on the fact that there exist a large class of inflationary models currently ruled out because the predicted production of curvature perturbations during the slow-roll stage results exponentially suppressed. We investigate whether an alternative mechanism for the generation of curvature perturbations can be devised for such a class of models. In the process, it is shown that it is sufficient for the inflationary potential to exhibit a broken symmetry to successfully convert isocurvature perturbations, which are excited during the slow-roll stage, into curvature perturbations thanks to an inhomogeneous decay stage. This conclusion is general, requiring as a sufficient condition only the fact that the inflation potential is characterized by a broken symmetry. Finally, we show that the perturbations thus produced are generally characterized by a non-negligible degree of non-gaussianity, which then provides a clear experimental signature for experimental detection or rejection.

  18. Water Emission from Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarugula, Sreevani; Vieira, Joaquin

    2017-06-01

    The study of dusty star forming galaxies (DSFGs) is important to understand galaxy assembly in early universe. A bulk of star formation at z ˜ 2-3 takes place in DSFGs but are obscured by dust in optical/UV. However, they are extremely bright in far infrared (FIR) and submillimeter with infrared luminosities of 10^{11} - 10^{13} L_{⊙}. ALMA, with its high spatial and spectral resolution, has opened up a new window to study molecular lines, which are vital to our understanding of the excitation and physical processes in the galaxy. Carbon monoxide (CO) being the second most abundant and bright molecule after hydrogen (H_{2}), is an important tracer of star forming potential. Besides CO, water (H_{2}O) is also abundant and it's line strength is comparable to high-J CO lines in high redshift Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). Studies have shown H_{2}O to directly trace the FIR field and hence the star forming regions. Moreover, L_{H_{2}O}/L_{IR} ratio is nearly constant for five of the most important water lines and does not depend on the presence of AGN implying that H_{2}O is one of the best tracers of star forming regions (SFRs). This incredible correlation holds for nearly five orders of magnitude in luminosity and observed in both local and high redshift luminous infrared galaxies. In this talk, I will discuss the importance of H_{2}O in tracing FIR field and show the preliminary results of resolved water emission from three high-redshift gravitationally lensed South Pole Telescope (SPT) sources obtained from ALMA cycle 3 and cycle 4. These sources are among the first H_{2}O observations with resolved spatial scales ˜ 1 kpc and will prove to be important for ALMA and galaxy evolution studies.

  19. Forming Disk Galaxies Early in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    What were galaxies like in the first 500 million years of the universe? According to simulations by Yu Feng (UC Berkeley) and collaborators, the earliest massive galaxies to form were mostly disk-shaped, rather than the compact clumps previously predicted. Early-Galaxy Models. Current models for galaxy formation predict that small perturbations in the distribution of matter in the early universe collapsed to form very compact, irregular, clumpy first galaxies. Observations support this: the furthest out that we've spotted disk-shaped galaxies is at z=3, whereas the galaxies we've observed from earlier times -- up to redshifts of z=8-10 -- are very compact. But could this be a selection effect, arising from the rarity of large galaxies in the early universe? Current surveys at high redshift have thus far only covered relatively small volumes of space, so it's not necessarily surprising that we haven't yet spotted any large disk galaxies. Similarly, numerical simulations of galaxy formation are limited in the size of the volume they can evolve, so resulting models of early galaxy formation also tend to favor compact clumpy galaxies over large disks. An Enormous Simulation. Pushing at these limitations, Feng and his collaborators used the Blue Waters supercomputer to carry out an enormous cosmological hydrodynamic simulation called BlueTides. In this simulation, they track 700 billion particles as they evolve in a volume of 400 comoving Mpc/h -- 40 times the volume of the largest previous simulation and 300 times the volume of the largest observational survey at these redshifts. What they find is that by z=8, a whopping 70% of the most massive galaxies (over 7 billion solar masses each) were disk-shaped, though they are more compact, gas-rich, and turbulent than present-day disk galaxies like the Milky Way. The way the most massive galaxies formed in the simulation also wasn't expected: rather than resulting from major mergers, they were built from smooth accretion

  20. The Early Retirees of Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    Because an option for early retirement in Canadian Universities has created a need to know more about the vacancies early retirement creates and the potential to fill these vacancies, a survey of 15 representative universities was conducted. The sample included institutions of faculty numbering less than 100 to institutions of faculty numbering…

  1. Modellierung dreidimensionaler Strahlungsfelder im frühen Universum %t Modelling three dimensional radiation fields in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinköhn, Erik

    2002-11-01

    The present work aims at the modelling of three-dimensional radiation fields in gas clouds from the early universe, in particular as to the influence of varying distributions of density and velocity. In observations of high-redshift gas clouds, the Lyα transition from the first excited energy level to the ground state of the hydrogen atom is usually found to be the only prominent emission lines in the entire spectrum. It is a well-known assumption that high-redshifted hydrogen clouds are the precursors of present-day galaxies. Thus, the investigation of the Lyα line is of paramount importance of the theory of galaxy formation and evolution. The observed Lyα line - or rather, to be precise, its profile - reveals both the complexity of the spatial distribution and of the kinematics of the interstellar gas, and also the nature of the photon source. In this thesis we have developed a code which is capable of solving the three-dimensional frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation for arbitrarily nonrelativistically moving media. The numerical treatment of the associated partial integro-differential equation is an extremely challenging task, since radiation intensity depends on 6 variables, namely 3 space variables, 2 variables describing the direction of photon propagation, and the frequency. With the goal of a quantitative comparison with observational data in mind, the implementation of very efficient methods for a sufficiently accurate solution of the complex radiative transfer problems turned out to be a necessity. The size of the resulting linear system of equations makes the use of parallelization techniques and grid refinement strategies indispensable.

  2. Exploring the Early Universe on Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Dale; McGrath, E. J.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The widespread adoption of smart phones and tablet computers has the potential to revolutionize the way in which educational material is shared with the general public. As part of the outreach effort for the CANDELS survey, we have developed a free interactive astronomy education application named Hubble Universe for iPad and iPhone devices. The application focuses on extragalactic science topics related to the CANDELS legacy survey, which is documenting galaxy evolution in the early universe. I will provide an overview of the application, which contains a wide range of interactive content, including 3D models of astrophysical phenomenon, informative diagrams and computer simulations. I will discuss how the application can be used to enhance classroom learning both by providing a database of interactive media and by encouraging students to explore astronomical topics away from traditional settings like the classroom or the desktop computer.

  3. Nuclear matter in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Celso de Camargo, E-mail: barros.celso@ufsc.br; Cunha, Ivan Eugênio da, E-mail: lordlihige@hotmail.com

    Recently, extreme conditions have been obtained in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the Large Hadron collider. It is believed that these conditions are similar to the ones of the early Universe, in the time between 10{sup −6}s and 1s, approximately. In this work, the hadrons produced in this range of time will be studied, considering some aspects of the systems produced in the heavy-ion collisions. We will study a phase posterior to the phase transition (in fact it is believed to be a crossover) from the quark-gluon plasma, that is the hadronic phase of the Universe. Wemore » will show the model proposed in [1], considering the hadronic matter described by a relativistic model (similar to the Walecka model), considering particles described by quantum equations in a curved spacetime. This curvature is due to the mass and to the strong interactions that appears in the energy-momentum tensor. The set of the equations is proposed in the Robertson-Walker metric, and some approximate solutions are obtained.« less

  4. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  5. WMAP - A Glimpse of the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward

    2009-01-01

    The early Universe was incredibly hot, dense, and homogeneous. A powerful probe of this time is provided by the relic radiation which we refer to today as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Images produced from this light contain the earliest glimpse of the Universe after the "Big Bang" and the signature of the evolution of its contents. By exploiting these clues, precise constraints on the age, mass density, and geometry of the early Universe can be derived. The history of this intriguing cosmological detective story will be reviewed. Recent results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) will be presented.

  6. Disorder in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel, E-mail: drgreen@cita.utoronto.ca

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about the microscopic physics that gave rise to inflation in our universe. There are many reasons to wonder if the underlying description requires a careful arrangement of ingredients or if inflation was the result of an essentially random process. At a technical level, randomness in the microphysics of inflation is closely related to disorder in solids. We develop the formalism of disorder for inflation and investigate the observational consequences of quenched disorder. We find that a common prediction is the presence of additional noise in the power spectrum or bispectrum. At a phenomenological level, these results canmore » be recast in terms of a modulating field, allowing us to write the quadratic maximum likelihood estimator for this noise. Preliminary constraints on disorder can be derived from existing analyses but significant improvements should be possible with a dedicated treatment.« less

  7. ALICE in the early Universe wonderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Nezza, Pasquale

    2012-03-01

    In these years the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is probing, for the first time, physics at energy scales more than an order of magnitude beyond that of the Standard Model. These experiments explore an energy regime of particle physics where phenomena, such as supersymmetry and Grand Unified Theories, may become relevant. Certainly, the LHC should shed light on the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking and may discover the first fundamental scalar particle seen in nature. The collisions of heavy ions (Pb - Pb) will create the same "soup" the early Universe had at the epoch of 10-5 seconds. In general, there is a strong and growing interplay between particle physics and cosmology, in particular in the possible production of mini black holes and dark matter candidates like the lightest neutralino in the MSSM.

  8. Particle physics in the very early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

  9. Elementary particles in the early Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Gromov, N.A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru

    The high-temperature limit of the Standard Model generated by the contractions of gauge groups is discussed. Contraction parameters of gauge group SU(2) of the Electroweak Model and gauge group SU(3) of Quantum Chromodynamics are taken identical and tending to zero when the temperature increases. Properties of the elementary particles change drastically at the infinite temperature limit: all particles lose masses, all quarks are monochromatic. Electroweak interactions become long-range and are mediated by neutral currents. Particles of different kind do not interact. It looks like some stratification with only one sort of particles in each stratum. The Standard Model passes inmore » this limit through several stages, which are distinguished by the powers of the contraction parameter. For any stage intermediate models are constructed and the exact expressions for the respective Lagrangians are presented. The developed approach describes the evolution of the Standard Model in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several nanoseconds.« less

  10. WMAP - A Portrait of the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    A host of astrophysical observations suggest that early Universe was incredibly hot, dense, and homogeneous. A powerful probe of this time is provided by the relic radiation which we refer to today as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Images produced from this light contain the earliest glimpse of the Universe after the 'Big Bang' and the signature of the evolution of its contents. By exploiting these clues, constraints on the age, mass density, and geometry of the early Universe can be derived. A brief history of the evolution of the microwave radiometer systems and map making approaches used in advancing these aspects our understanding of cosmological will be reviewed. In addition, an overview of the results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy (WMAP) will be presented.

  11. Early Tracking or Finally Leaving? Determinants of Early Study Success in First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan; Flache, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches underlie this investigation of the determinants of early study success among first-year university students. Specifically, to extend Walberg's educational productivity model, this study draws on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation in a contemporary university context. The survey data came from 407…

  12. DMR 'Map of the Early Universe.'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    DMR 'Map of the Early Universe.' This false-color image shows tiny variations in the intensity of the cosmic microwave background measured in four years of observations by the Differential Microwave Radiometers on NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). The cosmic microwave background is widely believed to be a remnant of the Big Bang; the blue and red spots correspond to regions of greater or lesser density in the early Universe. These 'fossilized' relics record the distribution of matter and energy in the early Universe before the matter became organized into stars and galaxies. While the initial discovery of variations in the intensity of the CMB (made by COBE in 1992) was based on a mathematical examination of the data, this picture of the sky from the full four-year mission gives an accurate visual impression of the data. The features traced in this map stretch across the visible Universe: the largest features seen by optical telescopes, such as the 'Great Wall' of galaxies, would fit neatly within the smallest feature in this map. (See Bennett et al. 1996, ApJ, 464, L1 and references therein for details.)

  13. Chaotic universe model.

    PubMed

    Aydiner, Ekrem

    2018-01-15

    In this study, we consider nonlinear interactions between components such as dark energy, dark matter, matter and radiation in the framework of the Friedman-Robertson-Walker space-time and propose a simple interaction model based on the time evolution of the densities of these components. By using this model we show that these interactions can be given by Lotka-Volterra type equations. We numerically solve these coupling equations and show that interaction dynamics between dark energy-dark matter-matter or dark energy-dark matter-matter-radiation has a strange attractor for 0 > w de  >-1, w dm  ≥ 0, w m  ≥ 0 and w r  ≥ 0 values. These strange attractors with the positive Lyapunov exponent clearly show that chaotic dynamics appears in the time evolution of the densities. These results provide that the time evolution of the universe is chaotic. The present model may have potential to solve some of the cosmological problems such as the singularity, cosmic coincidence, big crunch, big rip, horizon, oscillation, the emergence of the galaxies, matter distribution and large-scale organization of the universe. The model also connects between dynamics of the competing species in biological systems and dynamics of the time evolution of the universe and offers a new perspective and a new different scenario for the universe evolution.

  14. UTM: Universal Transit Modeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans J.

    2014-12-01

    The Universal Transit Modeller (UTM) is a light-curve simulator for all kinds of transiting or eclipsing configurations between arbitrary numbers of several types of objects, which may be stars, planets, planetary moons, and planetary rings. A separate fitting program, UFIT (Universal Fitter) is part of the UTM distribution and may be used to derive best fits to light-curves for any set of continuously variable parameters. UTM/UFIT is written in IDL code and its source is released in the public domain under the GNU General Public License.

  15. Protostar formation in the early universe.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-08-01

    The nature of the first generation of stars in the universe remains largely unknown. Observations imply the existence of massive primordial stars early in the history of the universe, and the standard theory for the growth of cosmic structure predicts that structures grow hierarchically through gravitational instability. We have developed an ab initio computer simulation of the formation of primordial stars that follows the relevant atomic and molecular processes in a primordial gas in an expanding universe. The results show that primeval density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang can drive the formation of a tiny protostar with a mass 1% that of the Sun. The protostar is a seed for the subsequent formation of a massive primordial star.

  16. Modeling Retention at a Large Public University: Can At-Risk Students Be Identified Early Enough to Treat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singell, Larry D.; Waddell, Glen R.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the extent to which readily available data at a large public university can be used to a priori identify at-risk students who may benefit from targeted retention efforts. Although it is possible to identify such students, there remains an inevitable tradeoff in any resource allocation between not treating the students who are likely to…

  17. An Early Childhood Movement Laboratory Model: Kindergym

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Rip

    2004-01-01

    Early childhood motor activity programs at institutions of higher learning can operate within the tripartite mission of the university while serving a vital function in providing leadership and guidance to educators. This article describes the University of Northern Iowa's Kindergym model. Within this model, curricular areas of games/sports,…

  18. Universal Sequence Replication, Reversible Polymerization and Early Functional Biopolymers: A Model for the Initiation of Prebiotic Sequence Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sara Imari; Grover, Martha A.; Hud, Nicholas V.

    2012-01-01

    Many models for the origin of life have focused on understanding how evolution can drive the refinement of a preexisting enzyme, such as the evolution of efficient replicase activity. Here we present a model for what was, arguably, an even earlier stage of chemical evolution, when polymer sequence diversity was generated and sustained before, and during, the onset of functional selection. The model includes regular environmental cycles (e.g. hydration-dehydration cycles) that drive polymers between times of replication and functional activity, which coincide with times of different monomer and polymer diffusivity. Template-directed replication of informational polymers, which takes place during the dehydration stage of each cycle, is considered to be sequence-independent. New sequences are generated by spontaneous polymer formation, and all sequences compete for a finite monomer resource that is recycled via reversible polymerization. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that this proposed prebiotic scenario provides a robust mechanism for the exploration of sequence space. Introduction of a polymer sequence with monomer synthetase activity illustrates that functional sequences can become established in a preexisting pool of otherwise non-functional sequences. Functional selection does not dominate system dynamics and sequence diversity remains high, permitting the emergence and spread of more than one functional sequence. It is also observed that polymers spontaneously form clusters in simulations where polymers diffuse more slowly than monomers, a feature that is reminiscent of a previous proposal that the earliest stages of life could have been defined by the collective evolution of a system-wide cooperation of polymer aggregates. Overall, the results presented demonstrate the merits of considering plausible prebiotic polymer chemistries and environments that would have allowed for the rapid turnover of monomer resources and for regularly varying monomer

  19. Sound Shell Model for Acoustic Gravitational Wave Production at a First-Order Phase Transition in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Mark

    2018-02-01

    A model for the acoustic production of gravitational waves at a first-order phase transition is presented. The source of gravitational radiation is the sound waves generated by the explosive growth of bubbles of the stable phase. The model assumes that the sound waves are linear and that their power spectrum is determined by the characteristic form of the sound shell around the expanding bubble. The predicted power spectrum has two length scales, the average bubble separation and the sound shell width when the bubbles collide. The peak of the power spectrum is at wave numbers set by the sound shell width. For a higher wave number k , the power spectrum decreases to k-3. At wave numbers below the inverse bubble separation, the power spectrum goes to k5. For bubble wall speeds near the speed of sound where these two length scales are distinguished, there is an intermediate k1 power law. The detailed dependence of the power spectrum on the wall speed and the other parameters of the phase transition raises the possibility of their constraint or measurement at a future space-based gravitational wave observatory such as LISA.

  20. Sound Shell Model for Acoustic Gravitational Wave Production at a First-Order Phase Transition in the Early Universe.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Mark

    2018-02-16

    A model for the acoustic production of gravitational waves at a first-order phase transition is presented. The source of gravitational radiation is the sound waves generated by the explosive growth of bubbles of the stable phase. The model assumes that the sound waves are linear and that their power spectrum is determined by the characteristic form of the sound shell around the expanding bubble. The predicted power spectrum has two length scales, the average bubble separation and the sound shell width when the bubbles collide. The peak of the power spectrum is at wave numbers set by the sound shell width. For a higher wave number k, the power spectrum decreases to k^{-3}. At wave numbers below the inverse bubble separation, the power spectrum goes to k^{5}. For bubble wall speeds near the speed of sound where these two length scales are distinguished, there is an intermediate k^{1} power law. The detailed dependence of the power spectrum on the wall speed and the other parameters of the phase transition raises the possibility of their constraint or measurement at a future space-based gravitational wave observatory such as LISA.

  1. COBE - New sky maps of the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents early results obtained from the first six months of measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by instruments aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite and discusses the implications for cosmology. The three instruments: FIRAS, DMR, and DIRBE have operated well and produced significant new results. The FIRAS measurement of the CMB spectrum supports the standard big bang nucleosynthesis model. The maps made from the DMR instrument measurements show a surprisingly smooth early universe. The measurements are sufficiently precise that we must pay careful attention to potential systematic errors. The maps of galactic and local emission produced by the DIRBE instrument will be needed to identify foregrounds from extragalactic emission and thus to interpret the terms of events in the early universe.

  2. Role Model Effects of Female STEM Teachers and Doctors on Early 20th Century University Enrollment in California. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleemer, Zach

    2016-01-01

    What was the role of imperfect local information in the growth, gender gap, and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) major selection of early 20th century American universities? In order to examine pre-1950 American higher education, this study constructs four rich panel datasets covering most students, high school teachers, and…

  3. Early Universe synthesis of asymmetric dark matter nuggets

    SciTech Connect

    Gresham, Moira I.; Lou, Hou Keong; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    We compute the mass function of bound states of asymmetric dark matter - nuggets - synthesized in the early Universe. We apply our results for the nugget density and binding energy computed from a nuclear model to obtain analytic estimates of the typical nugget size exiting synthesis. We numerically solve the Boltzmann equation for synthesis including two-to-two fusion reactions, estimating the impact of bottlenecks on the mass function exiting synthesis. These results provide the basis for studying the late Universe cosmology of nuggets in a future companion paper.

  4. Early Universe synthesis of asymmetric dark matter nuggets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresham, Moira I.; Lou, Hou Keong; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2018-02-01

    We compute the mass function of bound states of asymmetric dark matter—nuggets—synthesized in the early Universe. We apply our results for the nugget density and binding energy computed from a nuclear model to obtain analytic estimates of the typical nugget size exiting synthesis. We numerically solve the Boltzmann equation for synthesis including two-to-two fusion reactions, estimating the impact of bottlenecks on the mass function exiting synthesis. These results provide the basis for studying the late Universe cosmology of nuggets in a future companion paper.

  5. Early Universe synthesis of asymmetric dark matter nuggets

    DOE PAGES

    Gresham, Moira I.; Lou, Hou Keong; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2018-02-12

    We compute the mass function of bound states of asymmetric dark matter - nuggets - synthesized in the early Universe. We apply our results for the nugget density and binding energy computed from a nuclear model to obtain analytic estimates of the typical nugget size exiting synthesis. We numerically solve the Boltzmann equation for synthesis including two-to-two fusion reactions, estimating the impact of bottlenecks on the mass function exiting synthesis. These results provide the basis for studying the late Universe cosmology of nuggets in a future companion paper.

  6. Numerical relativity and the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    We consider numerical simulations in general relativity in ADM formalism with cosmological ansatz for the metric. This ansatz is convenient for investigations of the Universe creation in laboratory with Galileons. Here we consider toy model for the software: spherically symmetric scalar field minimally coupled to the gravity with asymmetric double well potential. We studied the dependence of radius of critical bubble on the parameters of the theory. It demonstrates the wide applicability of thin-wall approximation. We did not find any kind of stable bubble solution.

  7. Galactic Pairs in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    In the spirit of Valentines Day, today well be exploring apparent pairs of galaxies in the distant, early universe. How can we tell whether these duos are actually paired galaxies, as opposed to disguised singles?Real Pair, or Trick of the Light?In the schematic timeline of the universe, the epoch of reionization is when the first galaxies and quasars began to form and evolve. [NASA]The statistics of merging galaxies throughout the universe reveal not only direct information about how galaxies interact, but also cosmological information about the structure of the universe. While weve observed many merging galaxy pairs at low redshift, however, its much more challenging to identify these duos in the early universe.A merging pair of galaxies at high redshift appears to us as a pair of unresolved blobs that lie close to each other in the sky. But spotting such a set of objects doesnt necessarily mean were looking at a merger! There are three possible scenarios to explain an observed apparent duo:Its a pair of galaxies in a stage of merger.Its a projection coincidence; the two galaxies arent truly near each other.Its a single galaxy being gravitationally lensed by a foreground object. This strong lensing produces the appearance of multiple galaxies.Hubble photometry of one of the three galaxy groups identified at z 8, with the galaxies in the image labeled with their corresponding approximate photometric redshifts. [Adapted from Chaikin et al. 2018]Hunting for Distant DuosIn a recent study led by Evgenii Chaikin (Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Russia), a team of scientists has explored the Hubble Ultra Deep Field in search ofhigh-redshift galaxies merging during the epoch of reionization, when the first galaxies formed and evolved.Using an approach called the dropout technique, which leverages the visibility of the galaxies in different wavelength filters, Chaikin and collaborators obtain approximate redshifts for an initial sample of 7

  8. The Early Astronomy Toolkit was Universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2018-01-01

    From historical, anthropological, and archaeological records, we can reconstruct the general properties of the earliest astronomy for many cultures worldwide, and they all share many similar characteristics. The 'Early Astronomy Toolkit' (EAT) has the Earth being flat, and the heavens as a dome overhead populated by gods/heroes that rule Nature. The skies provided omens in a wide variety of manners, with eclipses, comets, and meteors always being evil and bad. Constellations were ubiquitous pictures of gods, heroes, animals, and everyday items; all for story telling. The calendars were all luni-solar, with no year counts and months only named by seasonal cues (including solstice observations and heliacal risings) with vague intercalation. Time of day came only from the sun's altitude/azimuth, while time at night came from star risings. Graves are oriented astronomically, and each culture has deep traditions of quartering the horizon. The most complicated astronomical tools were just a few sticks and stones. This is a higher level description and summary of the astronomy of all ancient cultures.This basic EAT was universal up until the Greeks, Mesopotamians, and Chinese broke out around 500 BC and afterwards. Outside the Eurasian milieu, with few exceptions (for example, planetary position measures in Mexico), this EAT represents astronomy for the rest of the world up until around 1600 AD. The EAT is present in these many cultures with virtually no variations or extensions. This universality must arise either from multiple independent inventions or by migration/diffusion. The probability of any culture independently inventing all 19 items in the EAT is low, but any such calculation has all the usual problems. Still, we realize that it is virtually impossible for many cultures to independently develop all 19 items in the EAT, so there must be a substantial fraction of migration of the early astronomical concepts. Further, the utter lack, as far as I know, of any

  9. Was there an early reionization component in our universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva-Domingo, Pablo; Gariazzo, Stefano; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Mena, Olga

    2018-04-01

    A deep understanding of the epoch of reionization is still missing in our knowledge of the universe. While future probes will allow us to test the precise evolution of the free electron fraction from redshifts between zsimeq 6 and 0zsimeq 2, at present one could ask what kind of reionization processes are allowed by present cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization measurements. An early contribution to reionization could imply a departure from the standard picture where star formation determines the reionization onset. By considering a broad class of possible reionization parameterizations, we find that current data do not require an early reionization component in our universe and that only one marginal class of models, based on a particular realization of reionization, may point to that. In addition, the frequentist Akaike information criterion (AIC) provides strong evidence against alternative reionization histories, favoring the most simple reionization scenario, which describes reionization by means of only one (constant) reionization optical depth τ.

  10. The early universe as a probe of new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Christopher Shane

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics has been verified to unprecedented precision in the last few decades. However there are still phenomena in nature which cannot be explained, and as such new theories will be required. Since terrestrial experiments are limited in both the energy and precision that can be probed, new methods are required to search for signs of physics beyond the Standard Model. In this dissertation, I demonstrate how these theories can be probed by searching for remnants of their effects in the early Universe. In particular I focus on three possible extensions of the Standard Model: the addition of massive neutral particles as dark matter, the addition of charged massive particles, and the existence of higher dimensions. For each new model, I review the existing experimental bounds and the potential for discovering new physics in the next generation of experiments. For dark matter, I introduce six simple models which I have developed, and which involve a minimum amount of new physics, as well as reviewing one existing model of dark matter. For each model I calculate the latest constraints from astrophysics experiments, nuclear recoil experiments, and collider experiments. I also provide motivations for studying sub-GeV mass dark matter, and propose the possibility of searching for light WIMPs in the decay of B-mesons and other heavy particles. For charged massive relics, I introduce and review the recently proposed model of catalyzed Big Bang nucleosynthesis. In particular I review the production of 6Li by this mechanism, and calculate the abundance of 7Li after destruction of 7Be by charged relics. The result is that for certain natural relics CBBN is capable of removing tensions between the predicted and observed 6Li and 7Li abundances which are present in the standard model of BBN. For extra dimensions, I review the constraints on the ADD model from both astrophysics and collider experiments. I then calculate the constraints on this model

  11. Black hole formation in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J.

    2013-08-01

    Supermassive black holes with up to a 109 M⊙ dwell in the centres of present-day galaxies, and their presence has been confirmed at z ≥ 6. Their formation at such early epochs is still an enigma. Different pathways have been suggested to assemble supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the big bang. Direct collapse has emerged as a highly plausible scenario to form black holes as it provides seed masses of 105-106 M⊙. Gravitational collapse in atomic cooling haloes with virial temperatures Tvir ≥ 104 K may lead to the formation of massive seed black holes in the presence of an intense background ultraviolet flux. Turbulence plays a central role in regulating accretion and transporting angular momentum. We present here the highest resolution cosmological large eddy simulations to date which track the evolution of high-density regions on scales of 0.25 au beyond the formation of the first peak, and study the impact of subgrid-scale turbulence. The peak density reached in these simulations is 1.2 × 10-8 g cm-3. Our findings show that while fragmentation occasionally occurs, it does not prevent the growth of a central massive object resulting from turbulent accretion and occasional mergers. The central object reaches ˜1000 M⊙ within four free-fall times, and we expect further growth up to 106 M⊙ through accretion in about 1 Myr. The direct collapse model thus provides a viable pathway of forming high-mass black holes at early cosmic times.

  12. Connecting QGP-Heavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2013-10-01

    We discuss properties and evolution of quark-gluon plasma in the early Universe and compare to laboratory heavy ion experiments. We describe how matter and antimatter emerged from a primordial soup of quarks and gluons. We focus our discussion on similarities and differences between the early Universe and the laboratory experiments.

  13. University Macro Analytic Simulation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert; Gulko, Warren

    The University Macro Analytic Simulation System (UMASS) has been designed as a forecasting tool to help university administrators budgeting decisions. Alternative budgeting strategies can be tested on a computer model and then an operational alternative can be selected on the basis of the most desirable projected outcome. UMASS uses readily…

  14. The Black Hole Universe Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin

  15. A Universal Early Childhood Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrates how the current emphasis on viewing early childhood education (ECE) as an investment keeps ECE at the margins of U.S. political debates as well as in other discussions around the world. Historically, the field of ECE in the United States has struggled, and continues to struggle, for political positioning.…

  16. Universal biology and the statistical mechanics of early life.

    PubMed

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Biancalani, Tommaso; Jafarpour, Farshid

    2017-12-28

    All known life on the Earth exhibits at least two non-trivial common features: the canonical genetic code and biological homochirality, both of which emerged prior to the Last Universal Common Ancestor state. This article describes recent efforts to provide a narrative of this epoch using tools from statistical mechanics. During the emergence of self-replicating life far from equilibrium in a period of chemical evolution, minimal models of autocatalysis show that homochirality would have necessarily co-evolved along with the efficiency of early-life self-replicators. Dynamical system models of the evolution of the genetic code must explain its universality and its highly refined error-minimization properties. These have both been accounted for in a scenario where life arose from a collective, networked phase where there was no notion of species and perhaps even individuality itself. We show how this phase ultimately terminated during an event sometimes known as the Darwinian transition, leading to the present epoch of tree-like vertical descent of organismal lineages. These examples illustrate concrete examples of universal biology: the quest for a fundamental understanding of the basic properties of living systems, independent of precise instantiation in chemistry or other media.This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Universal biology and the statistical mechanics of early life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Biancalani, Tommaso; Jafarpour, Farshid

    2017-11-01

    All known life on the Earth exhibits at least two non-trivial common features: the canonical genetic code and biological homochirality, both of which emerged prior to the Last Universal Common Ancestor state. This article describes recent efforts to provide a narrative of this epoch using tools from statistical mechanics. During the emergence of self-replicating life far from equilibrium in a period of chemical evolution, minimal models of autocatalysis show that homochirality would have necessarily co-evolved along with the efficiency of early-life self-replicators. Dynamical system models of the evolution of the genetic code must explain its universality and its highly refined error-minimization properties. These have both been accounted for in a scenario where life arose from a collective, networked phase where there was no notion of species and perhaps even individuality itself. We show how this phase ultimately terminated during an event sometimes known as the Darwinian transition, leading to the present epoch of tree-like vertical descent of organismal lineages. These examples illustrate concrete examples of universal biology: the quest for a fundamental understanding of the basic properties of living systems, independent of precise instantiation in chemistry or other media. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  18. Was there an early reionization component in our universe?

    DOE PAGES

    Villanueva-Domingo, Pablo; Gariazzo, Stefano; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; ...

    2018-04-06

    A deep understanding of the Epoch of Reionization is still missing in our knowledge of the universe. While future probes will allow us to test the precise evolution of the free electron fraction from redshifts betweenmore » $$z\\simeq 6$$ and $$z\\simeq 20$$, at present one could ask what kind of reionization processes are allowed by present Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization measurements. An early contribution to reionization could imply a departure from the standard picture where star formation determines the reionization onset. BBy considering a broad class of possible reionization parameterizations, we find that current data do not require an early reionization component in our universe and that only one marginal class of models, based on a particular realization of reionization, may point to that. In addition, the frequentist Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) provides strong evidence against alternative reionization histories, favoring the most simple reionization scenario, which describes reionization by means of only one (constant) reionization optical depth $$\\tau$$.« less

  19. Was there an early reionization component in our universe?

    SciTech Connect

    Villanueva-Domingo, Pablo; Gariazzo, Stefano; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    A deep understanding of the Epoch of Reionization is still missing in our knowledge of the universe. While future probes will allow us to test the precise evolution of the free electron fraction from redshifts betweenmore » $$z\\simeq 6$$ and $$z\\simeq 20$$, at present one could ask what kind of reionization processes are allowed by present Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization measurements. An early contribution to reionization could imply a departure from the standard picture where star formation determines the reionization onset. BBy considering a broad class of possible reionization parameterizations, we find that current data do not require an early reionization component in our universe and that only one marginal class of models, based on a particular realization of reionization, may point to that. In addition, the frequentist Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) provides strong evidence against alternative reionization histories, favoring the most simple reionization scenario, which describes reionization by means of only one (constant) reionization optical depth $$\\tau$$.« less

  20. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  1. Using Supercomputers to Probe the Early Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Elena Edi

    For decades physicists have been trying to decipher the first moments after the Big Bang. Using very large telescopes, for example, scientists scan the skies and look at how fast galaxies move. Satellites study the relic radiation left from the Big Bang, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. And finally, particle colliders, like the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, allow researchers to smash protons together and analyze the debris left behind by such collisions. Physicists at Los Alamos National Laboratory, however, are taking a different approach: they are using computers. In collaboration with colleagues at University of California San Diego,more » the Los Alamos researchers developed a computer code, called BURST, that can simulate conditions during the first few minutes of cosmological evolution.« less

  2. Primordial Black Holes from Supersymmetry in the Early Universe.

    PubMed

    Cotner, Eric; Kusenko, Alexander

    2017-07-21

    Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model generically predict that in the early Universe a scalar condensate can form and fragment into Q balls before decaying. If the Q balls dominate the energy density for some period of time, the relatively large fluctuations in their number density can lead to formation of primordial black holes (PBH). Other scalar fields, unrelated to supersymmetry, can play a similar role. For a general charged scalar field, this robust mechanism can generate black holes over the entire mass range allowed by observational constraints, with a sufficient abundance to account for all dark matter in some parameter ranges. In the case of supersymmetry the mass range is limited from above by 10^{23}  g. We also comment on the role that topological defects can play for PBH formation in a similar fashion.

  3. Black holes in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian

    2012-12-01

    The existence of massive black holes (MBHs) was postulated in the 1960s, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late 1990s their reality was proven beyond doubt in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of MBHs. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion years of the Universe. The first MBHs must therefore have formed around the time the first stars and galaxies formed. Dynamical evidence also indicates that black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses ordinarily dwell in the centers of today's galaxies. MBHs populate galaxy centers today, and shone as quasars in the past; the quiescent black holes that we detect now in nearby bulges are the dormant remnants of this fiery past. In this review we report on basic, but critical, questions regarding the cosmological significance of MBHs. What physical mechanisms led to the formation of the first MBHs? How massive were the initial MBH seeds? When and where did they form? How is the growth of black holes linked to that of their host galaxy? The answers to most of these questions are works in progress, in the spirit of these reports on progress in physics.

  4. University Students' Early Maladaptive Schemas' Prediction of Their Mindfulness Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcin, S.Barbaros; Kavakli, Mehmet; Kesici, Sahin; Ak, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine whether university students' early maladaptive schemas predict their mindfulness levels or not. Methods: The study was carried out in the relational screening model. The study group consisted of 293 university students; 237 (80,9%) females and 56 (19,1%) males. "Mindful Attention Awareness Scale…

  5. Early Predictors of First-Year Academic Success at University: Pre-University Effort, Pre-University Self-Efficacy, and Pre-University Reasons for Attending University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Herpen, Sanne G. A.; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Severiens, Sabine E.; Arends, Lidia R.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large number of dropouts in the 1st year at university, it is important to identify early predictors of 1st-year academic success. The present study (n = 453 first-year students) contributes to literature on the transition from secondary to higher education by investigating how the non-cognitive factors "pre-university" effort…

  6. Star Formation-Driven Winds in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, Matthew; Lundgren, Britt; Brammer, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the extent of star formation-driven winds from galaxies in the early universe is crucial for understanding of how galaxies evolve over cosmic time. Using WFC3/IR grism data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have measured the star formation rates and star formation rate surface densities of several hundred galaxies at redshift (z) = 1, when the universe was roughly half its present age. The galaxies we examine are also probed by background quasars, whose spectra provide information about the extent of metal-enriched gas in their halos. We use a computational pipeline to measure the density of the star formation in each galaxy and correlate these measurements with detections of Mg II absorption in nearby quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our preliminary results support a model in which galaxies with high SFR surface densities drive metal-enriched gas out of the disk and into these galaxies’ extended halos, where that gas is detected in the spectra of more distant quasars.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: The Physics of the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Douglas

    2007-11-01

    The physics of the very small and the very large were successfully brought together in the 1980s through the idea of 'the universe as a particle accelerator'. The manifesto of this new campaign was laid out in the book 'The Early Universe' by Kolb and Turner in 1990. For at least the next decade that book was to be found on the shelves of every theorist (and many experimentalists) who professed an interest in this topic. But science marches on, and the last 10 15 years has seen an explosion in our understanding of the physics of the very earliest times and the very largest scales. Experimentally our world-view has changed utterly, through exquisitely precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background, galaxy clustering and supernova distances, with a refinement of the basic inflationary big bang paradigm into the new 'standard cosmological model'. And in tandem with these changes has been the development of new theoretical ideas, particularly involving dark energy and connections between string/brane theory and cosmology. So what is the new book for the shelves of today's cohort of young Rockys and Mikes? Despite a recent number of promising-sounding cosmology books, there is nothing at the advanced level which is broad enough to be a general introduction to the 'early universe' topic. Perhaps the best of the bunch is 'The Physics of the Early Universe', edited by E Papantonopoulos as part of Springer's series 'Lecture notes in physics'. This is a set of 9 review articles given as part of a 2003 summer school on Syros Island, Greece. Although far from perfect, the core of this book provides a solid introduction to current research in early universe physics, which should be useful for PhD students or postdoctoral researchers who want the real thing. The book starts with a competent introduction by Kyriakos Tamvakis, serving essentially as a summary of where we were in Kolb and Turner's text. We have learned since then, however, that inflation is really all

  8. Early universe cosmology, effective supergravity, and invariants of algebraic forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Kuver

    2015-09-01

    The presence of light scalars can have profound effects on early universe cosmology, influencing its thermal history as well as paradigms like inflation and baryogenesis. Effective supergravity provides a framework to make quantifiable, model-independent studies of these effects. The Riemannian curvature of the Kähler manifold spanned by scalars belonging to chiral superfields, evaluated along supersymmetry breaking directions, provides an order parameter (in the sense that it must necessarily take certain values) for phenomena as diverse as slow roll modular inflation, nonthermal cosmological histories, and the viability of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. Within certain classes of UV completions, the order parameter for theories with n scalar moduli is conjectured to be related to invariants of n -ary cubic forms (for example, for models with three moduli, the order parameter is given by a function on the ring of invariants spanned by the Aronhold invariants). Within these completions, and under the caveats spelled out, this may provide an avenue to obtain necessary conditions for the above phenomena that are in principle calculable given nothing but the intersection numbers of a Calabi-Yau compactification geometry. As an additional result, abstract relations between holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvatures are utilized to constrain Affleck-Dine baryogenesis on a wide class of Kähler geometries.

  9. Transition from AdS universe to DS universe in the BPP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wontae; Yoon, Myungseok

    2007-04-01

    It can be shown that in the BPP model the smooth phase transition from the asymptotically decelerated AdS universe to the asymptotically accelerated DS universe is possible by solving the modified semiclassical equations of motion. This transition comes from noncommutative Poisson algebra, which gives the constant curvature scalars asymptotically. The decelerated expansion of the early universe is due to the negative energy density with the negative pressure induced by quantum back reaction, and the accelerated late-time universe comes from the positive energy and the negative pressure which behave like dark energy source in recent cosmological models.

  10. Nearby star cluster yields insights into early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    The nebula offers a unique opportunity for a close-up glimpse of the "firestorm" accompanying the birth of extremely massive stars, each blazing with the brilliance of 300,000 of our suns. Such galactic fireworks were much more common billions of years ago in the early universe, when most star formation took place. "This is giving us new insights into the physical mechanisms governing star formation in far away galaxies that existed long ago," says Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France), who headed the international team of astronomers who made the discovery using Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Because these stars are deficient in heavier elements, they also evolve much like the universe's earliest stars, which were made almost exclusively of the primordial elements hydrogen and helium that were created in the big bang. The Small Magellanic Cloud is a unique laboratory for studying star formation in the early universe since it is the closest and best seen galaxy containing so-called "metal-poor" first- and second -generation type stars. These observations show that massive stars may form in groups. "As a result, it is more likely some of these stars are members of double and multiple star systems," says Heydari-Malayeri. "The multiple systems will affect stellar evolution considerably by ejecting a great deal of matter into space." This furious rate of mass loss from these stars is evident in the Hubble picture, which reveals dramatic shapes sculpted in the nebula's wall of glowing gases by violent stellar winds and shock waves. "This implies a very turbulent environment typical of young star formation regions," Heydari-Malayeri adds. He believes one of the members of the cluster may be an extremely rare and short-lived class of super-hot star (50,000 degrees Kelvin) called a Wolf-Rayet. This star represents a violent, transitional phase in the final years of a massive star's existence - before it ultimately explodes as a supernova. "If

  11. Probing the Early Universe with the SZ Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, M. K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) which we observe today is relic radiation which last interacted with matter more than 10 billion years ago, when the expanding universe cooled to the point that free electrons and ionized nuclei recombined to form atoms. Prior to recombination, scattering between photons and free electrons was a very frequent occurrence, and the distance light could penetrate was small; afterwards, with free electrons out of circulation, the universe became largely transparent to light. Thus, the CMBR photons we observe today give us a clear view of the state of the early universe. Measured deviations in the intensity of the CMBR trace the small perturbations in the primordial matter density, which have been amplified by gravitational forces to form the magnificent, complex structures which comprise the present-day universe.

  12. A Glimpse of the Very Early Universal Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    The VLT Maps Extremely Distant Galaxies Summary New, trailblazing observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal lend strong support to current computer models of the early universe: It is "spongy", with galaxies forming along filaments, like droplets along the strands of a spiders web. A group of astronomers at ESO and in Denmark [1] determined the distances to some very faint galaxies in the neighbourhood of a distant quasar. Plotting their positions in a three-dimensional map, they found that these objects are located within a narrow "filament", exactly as predicted by the present theories for the development of the first structures in the young universe . The objects are most likely "building blocks" from which galaxies and clusters of galaxies assemble. This observation shows a very useful way forward for the study of the early evolution of the universe and the emergence of structures soon after the Big Bang. At the same time, it provides yet another proof of the great power of the new class of giant optical telescopes for cosmological studies. PR Photo 19a/01 : Web-like structures in the young Universe (computer model). PR Photo 19b/01 : A group of objects at redshift 3.04 . PR Photo 19c/01 : Animated view of sky field and distant filament . PR Photo 19d/01 : The shape of the filament . PR Photo 19e/01 : Artist's impression of the very distant filament. PR Video Clip 04/01 : Video animation of the very distant filament. The computers are ahead of the telescopes For the past two decades cosmologists have been in the somewhat odd situation that their computers were "ahead" of their telescopes. The rapid evolution of powerful computer hardware and sophisticated software has provided theorists with the ability to build almost any sort of virtual universe they can imagine. Starting with different initial conditions just after the Big Bang, they can watch such fictional worlds evolve over billions of years in their supercomputers - and do so in a

  13. Camera for Quasars in the Early Universe (CQUEAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunbin; Park, W.; Lim, J.; Jeong, H.; Kim, J.; Oh, H.; Pak, S.; Im, M.; Kuehne, J.

    2010-05-01

    The early universe of z ɳ is where the first stars, galaxies, and quasars formed, starting the re-ionization of the universe. The discovery and the study of quasars in the early universe allow us to witness the beginning of history of astronomical objects. In order to perform a medium-deep, medium-wide, imaging survey of quasars, we are developing an optical CCD camera, CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse) which uses a 1024*1024 pixel deep-depletion CCD. It has an enhanced QE than conventional CCD at wavelength band around 1μm, thus it will be an efficient tool for observation of quasars at z > 7. It will be attached to the 2.1m telescope at McDonald Observatory, USA. A focal reducer is designed to secure a larger field of view at the cassegrain focus of 2.1m telescope. For long stable exposures, auto-guiding system will be implemented by using another CCD camera viewing an off-axis field. All these instruments will be controlled by the software written in python on linux platform. CQUEAN is expected to see the first light during summer in 2010.

  14. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  15. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2008-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown university; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  16. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  17. The Early Universe: Searching for Evidence of Cosmic Inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as "inflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  18. Topological Defects and Structures in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yong

    1997-08-01

    This thesis discusses the topological defects generated in the early universe and their contributions to cosmic structure formation. First, we investigate non-Gaussian isocurvature perturbations generated by the evolution of Goldstone modes during inflation. If a global symmetry is broken before inflation, the resulting Goldstone modes are disordered during inflation in a precise and predictable way. After inflation these Goldstone modes order themselves in a self-similar way, much as Goldstone modes in field ordering scenarios based on the Kibble mechanism. For (Hi2/Mpl2)~10- 6, through their gravitational interaction these Goldstone modes generate density perturbations of approximately the right magnitude to explain the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and seed the structure seen in the universe today. In such a model non-Gaussian perturbations result because to lowest order density perturbations are sourced by products of Gaussian fields. We explore the issue of phase dispersion and conclude that this non-Gaussian model predicts Doppler peaks in the CMB anisotropy. Topological defects generated from quantum fluctuations during inflation are studied in chapter four. We present a calculation of the power spectrum generated in a classically symmetry-breaking O(N) scalar field through inflationary quantum fluctuations, using the large-N limit. The effective potential of the theory in de Sitter space is obtained from a gap equation which is exact at large N. Quantum fluctuations restore the O(N) symmetry in de Sitter space, but for the finite values of N of interest, there is symmetry breaking and phase ordering after inflation, described by the classical nonlinear sigma model. The scalar field power spectrum is obtained as a function of the scalar field self-coupling. In the second part of the thesis, we investigate non-Abelian topological worm-holes, obtained when winding number one texture field is coupled to Einstein gravity with a conserved global

  19. Enhanced X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua

    2016-04-01

    X-rays from binaries containing compact objects may have played an important role in heating the early Universe. Here we discuss our findings from X-ray studies of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), Lyman break analogs (LBAs), and Green Pea galaxies (GP), all of which are considered local analogs to high redshift galaxies. We find enhanced X-ray emission per unit star-formation rate which strongly correlates with decreasing metallicity. We find evidence for the existence of a L_X-SFR-Metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies. The exact properties of X-ray emission in the early Universe affects the timing and morphology of reionization, both being observable properties of current and future radio observations of the redshifted 21cm signal from neutral hydrogen.

  20. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor is a mission which will be proposed for the ESA M5 call. THESEUS will address multiple components in the Early Universe ESA Cosmic Vision theme:4.1 Early Universe,4.2 The Universe taking shape, and4.3 The evolving violent Universe.THESEUS aims at vastly increasing the discovery space of the high energy transient phenomena over the entire cosmic history. This is achieved via a unique payload providing an unprecedented combination of: (i) wide and deep sky monitoring in a broad energy band(0.3 keV-20 MeV; (ii) focusing capabilities in the soft X-ray band granting large grasp and high angular resolution; and (iii) on board near-IR capabilities for immediate transient identification and first redshift estimate.The THESEUS payload consists of: (i) the Soft X--ray Imager (SXI), a set of Lobster Eye (0.3--6 keV) telescopes with CCD detectors covering a total FOV of 1 sr; (ii) the X--Gamma-rays spectrometer (XGS), a non-imaging spectrometer (XGS) based on SDD+CsI, covering the same FOV than the Lobster telescope extending the THESEUS energy band up to 20 MeV; and (iii) a 70cm class InfraRed Telescope (IRT) observing up to 2 microns with imaging and moderate spectral capabilities.The main scientific goals of THESEUS are to:(a) Explore the Early Universe (cosmic dawn and reionization era) by unveiling the Gamma--Ray Burst (GRBs) population in the first billion years}, determining when did the first stars form, and investigating the re-ionization epoch, the interstellar medium (ISM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts.(b) Perform an unprecedented deep survey of the soft X-ray transient Universe in order to fill the present gap in the discovery space of new classes of transient; provide a fundamental step forward in the comprehension of the physics of various classes of Galactic and extra--Galactic transients, and provide real time trigger and accurate locations of transients for follow-up with next

  1. Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Erb, Dawn K

    2015-07-09

    The formation, evolution and death of massive stars release large quantities of energy and momentum into the gas surrounding the sites of star formation. This process, generically termed 'feedback', inhibits further star formation either by removing gas from the galaxy, or by heating it to temperatures that are too high to form new stars. Observations reveal feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas in galaxies with high rates of star formation, especially in the early Universe. Feedback in faint, low-mass galaxies probably facilitated the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, so that the hydrogen between galaxies changed from neutral to ionized-the last major phase transition in the Universe.

  2. Summer Session Organizational Models at Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kops, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The issue of summer session organizational models continues to be of interest to summer session deans/directors and university administrators. The University of Victoria surveyed Canadian universities on this issue in 1994. Based on a similar survey done in 2009, this paper updates the status of Canadian university summer session organizational…

  3. On the proposed existence of an anti-gravity regime in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, M. D.

    1982-02-01

    In an interesting letter, Linde has recently suggested that, as a result of the behaviour of dense matter in the early Universe, the realization of an anti-gravity phase is possible, in principle, without the intervention of quantum gravity. Using the Friedman cosmological model, we amplify the discussion given by Linde and find a difficulty with his interpretation.

  4. X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Around 300,000 years after the Big Bang, the Universe had cooled enough to combine and form neutral atoms. This signified the beginning of a time known as the Dark Ages. Neutral matter began to fall into the dark matter gravitational wells that were seeded after the initial moments of the Big Bang. As the first stars and galaxies formed within these gravitational wells, the surrounding baryonic matter was heated and started to ionize. The source of energetic photons that heated and reionized the early Universe remains uncertain. Early galaxies had low metallicity and recent population synthesis calculations suggest that the number and luminosity of high-mass X-ray binaries are enhanced in star-forming galaxies with low metallicity, offering a potentially important and previously overlooked source of heating and reionization. Here we examine two types of local galaxies that have been shown to be good analogs to the early galaxies in the Universe: Blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) and Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs).A BCD is defined by its blue optical colors, low metallicities, and physically small size. This makes BCDs the best available local analogs for early star formation. We analyzed data from a sample of 25 metal-poor BCDs and compared our results with those of near-solar metallicity galaxies. Using a Bayesian approach, we showed that the X-ray luminosity function for the low-metallicity BCDs is significantly elevated relative to the XLF for near-solar metallicity galaxies.Larger, gas-rich galaxies may have formed shortly after these first galaxies. These larger galaxies would be similar in their properties to the high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). LBAs provide the best local comparison to the LBGs. We studied a sample of 10 LBAs in order to measure the relation between star formation rate and X-ray luminosity for these galaxies. We found that for LBAs with intermediate sub-solar metallicities, there is enhanced X-ray emission relative to the expected

  5. Cosmological Simulations with Molecular Astrochemistry: Water in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Brandon K.; Smidt, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Water is required for the rise of life as we know it throughout the universe, but its origin and the circumstances of its first appearance remain a mystery. The abundance of deuterated water in solar system bodies cannot be explained if all the water in the solar system were created in the protoplanetary disk (Cleeves et al. 2014), suggesting that as much of half of Earth’s water predates the Sun. Water has been observed as early as one sixth the current universe’s age in MG J0414+0534 (Imprellizzeri et al. 2008). It was recently shown that water could, in principle, appear in hot halos barely enriched with heavy elements such as oxygen and carbon (Bialy et al. 2015). So far, no self-consistent calculation of cosmology physics carried out in line with a large chemical reaction network has been carried out to study the first sites of water formation in the universe. We present initial results the first such series of cosmological calculations with a 26 species low metallicity molecular chemical reaction network with Enzo (Bryan et al. 2014) to understand the role of hydrodynamics and radiative feedback on molecule formation in the early universe and to shed light on the cosmological history of this life-giving substance.

  6. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students.

    PubMed

    Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.

  7. University Administration on a Political Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that recognizing the university as a political community may lead to better management and organization. The patriarchal role, the president as hero, dispersed power, how the university really functions, and a political model are described. (MLW)

  8. Phonological universals in early childhood: Evidence from sonority restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Berent, Iris; Harder, Katherine; Lennertz, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Across languages, onsets with large sonority distances are preferred to those with smaller distances (e.g., bw>bd>lb; Greenberg, 1978). Optimality theory (Prince & Smolensky, 2004) attributes such facts to grammatical restrictions that are universally active in all grammars. To test this hypothesis, here, we examine whether children extend putatively universal sonority restrictions to onsets unattested in their language. Participants (M=4;04 years) were presented with pairs of auditory words—either identical (e.g., lbif→lbif) or epenthetically related (e.g., lbif→lebif)—and asked to judge their identity. Results showed that, like adults, children’s ability to detect epenthetic distortions was monotonically related to sonority distance (bw>bd>lb), and their performance was inexplicable by several statistical and phonetic factors. These findings suggest that sonority restrictions are active in early childhood and their scope is broad. PMID:22328807

  9. Hypermagnetic helicity evolution in early universe: leptogenesis and hypermagnetic diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Semikoz, V.B.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Sokoloff, D.D., E-mail: semikoz@yandex.ru, E-mail: smirnoff.alexandr@gmail.com, E-mail: sokoloff.dd@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    We study hypermagnetic helicity and lepton asymmetry evolution in plasma of the early Universe before the electroweak phase transition (EWPT) accounting for chirality flip processes via inverse Higgs decays and sphaleron transitions which violate the left lepton number and wash out the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU). In the scenario where the right electron asymmetry supports the BAU alone through the conservation law B/3−L{sub eR} = const at temperatures T > T{sub RL} ≅ 10 TeV the following universe cooling leads to the production of a non-zero left lepton (electrons and neutrinos) asymmetry. This is due to the Higgsmore » decays becoming more faster when entering the equilibrium at T = T{sub RL} with the universe expansion, Γ{sub RL} ∼ T > H ∼ T{sup 2}, resulting in the parallel evolution of both the right and the left electron asymmetries at T < T{sub RL} through the corresponding Abelian anomalies in SM in the presence of a seed hypermagnetic field. The hypermagnetic helicity evolution proceeds in a self-consistent way with the lepton asymmetry growth. The role of sphaleron transitions decreasing the left lepton number turns out to be negligible in given scenario. The hypermagnetic helicity can be a supply for the magnetic one in Higgs phase assuming a strong seed hypermagnetic field in symmetric phase.« less

  10. Viscous cosmology for early- and late-time universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Iver; Grøn, Øyvind; de Haro, Jaume; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    From a hydrodynamicist’s point of view the inclusion of viscosity concepts in the macroscopic theory of the cosmic fluid would appear most natural, as an ideal fluid is after all an abstraction (exluding special cases such as superconductivity). Making use of modern observational results for the Hubble parameter plus standard Friedmann formalism, we may extrapolate the description of the universe back in time up to the inflationary era, or we may go to the opposite extreme and analyze the probable ultimate fate of the universe. In this review, we discuss a variety of topics in cosmology when it is enlarged in order to contain a bulk viscosity. Various forms of this viscosity, when expressed in terms of the fluid density or the Hubble parameter, are discussed. Furthermore, we consider homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous equations of state. We investigate viscous cosmology in the early universe, examining the viscosity effects on the various inflationary observables. Additionally, we study viscous cosmology in the late universe, containing current acceleration and the possible future singularities, and we investigate how one may even unify inflationary and late-time acceleration. Finally, we analyze the viscosity-induced crossing through the quintessence-phantom divide, we examine the realization of viscosity-driven cosmological bounces, and we briefly discuss how the Cardy-Verlinde formula is affected by viscosity.

  11. The Origin of Dust in the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2011-01-01

    In this talk I will describe the origin of dust in the early universe. I will be presenting observations of the spectral energy distribution of the galaxy J1148+5251, and present estimates of the dust mass in this high redshift (z=6.4) object. I will then discuss the origin of this dust, and the role of SN and AGB stars as dust sources, and the effect of SNRs on the destruction of dust in the interstellar medium of this galaxy.

  12. The Origin of Dust in the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2010-01-01

    In this talk I will describe the origin of dust in the early universe. I will be presenting observations of the spectral energy distribution of the galaxy J1148+5251, and present estimates of the dust mass in this high redshift (z=6.4) object. I will then discuss the origin of this dust, and the role of SN and AGB stars as dust sources, and the effect of SNRs on the destruction of dust in the interstellar medium of this galaxy.

  13. Fluctuation-driven electroweak phase transition. [in early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  14. Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.

  15. University Satellite Campus Management Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Doug; Stott, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Among the 60 or so university satellite campuses in Australia are many that are probably failing to meet the high expectations of their universities and the communities they were designed to serve. While in some cases this may be due to the demand driven system, it may also be attributable in part to the ways in which they are managed. The…

  16. Virtual Universities: Current Models and Future Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Describes current models of distance education (single-mode distance teaching universities, dual- and mixed-mode universities, extension services, consortia-type ventures, and new technology-based universities), including their merits and problems. Discusses future trends in potential student constituencies, faculty roles, forms of knowledge…

  17. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Lorenzo; O'Brien, Paul T.; Götz, Diego

    2016-07-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) is a mission concept under development by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting gamma-ray bursts for investigating the early Universe. The main scientific objectives of THESEUS include: investigating the star formation rate and metallicity evolution of the ISM and IGM up to redshift 9-10, detecting the first generation (pop III) of stars, studying the sources and physics of re-ionization, detecting the faint end of galaxies luminosity function. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRB detection and arcmin localization over a broad FOV (more than 1sr) and an energy band extending from several MeVs down to 0.3 keV with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as on-board prompt (few minutes) follow-up with a 0.6m class IR telescope with both imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Such instrumentation will also allow THESEUS to unveil and study the population of soft and sub-energetic GRBs, and, more in general, to perform monitoring and survey of the X-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity.

  18. Blast from the Past Gives Clues About Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have gained tantalizing insights into the nature of the most distant object ever observed in the Universe -- a gigantic stellar explosion known as a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB). The explosion was detected on April 23 by NASA's Swift satellite, and scientists soon realized that it was more than 13 billion light-years from Earth. It represents an event that occurred 630 million years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was only four percent of its current age of 13.7 billion years. This explosion provides an unprecedented look at an era when the Universe was very young and also was undergoing drastic changes. The primal cosmic darkness was being pierced by the light of the first stars and the first galaxies were beginning to form. The star that exploded in this event was a member of one of these earliest generations of stars," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Astronomers turned telescopes from around the world to study the blast, dubbed GRB 090423. The VLA first looked for the object the day after the discovery, detected the first radio waves from the blast a week later, then recorded changes in the object until it faded from view more than two months later. "It's important to study these explosions with many kinds of telescopes. Our research team combined data from the VLA with data from X-ray and infrared telescopes to piece together some of the physical conditions of the blast," said Derek Fox of Pennsylvania State University. "The result is a unique look into the very early Universe that we couldn't have gotten any other way," he added. The scientists concluded that the explosion was more energetic than most GRBs, was a nearly-spherical blast, and that it expanded into a tenuous and relatively uniform gaseous medium surrounding the star. Astronomers suspect that the very first stars in the Universe were very different -- brighter, hotter, and more

  19. Emergent universe model with dissipative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, P. S.; Paul, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    Emergent universe model is presented in general theory of relativity with isotropic fluid in addition to viscosity. We obtain cosmological solutions that permit emergent universe scenario in the presence of bulk viscosity that are described by either Eckart theory or Truncated Israel Stewart (TIS) theory. The stability of the solutions are also studied. In this case, the emergent universe (EU) model is analyzed with observational data. In the presence of viscosity, one obtains emergent universe scenario, which however is not permitted in the absence of viscosity. The EU model is compatible with cosmological observations.

  20. The Offshore Model for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the ongoing effort of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to bring higher education services within the purview of the General Agreement on Trade and Services (GATS). One result of the anticipated liberalization of trade in education, the author explains, is the headlong rush of Anglophone universities into the global market…

  1. University Students' Meta-Modelling Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krell, Moritz; Krüger, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Background: As one part of scientific meta-knowledge, students' meta-modelling knowledge should be promoted on different educational levels such as primary school, secondary school and university. This study focuses on the assessment of university students' meta-modelling knowledge using a paper-pencil questionnaire. Purpose: The general purpose…

  2. A fractal model of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, Ioan

    The book represents a revisioned, extended, completed and translated version of the book "Superposed Universes. A scientific novel and a SF story" (1995). The book contains a hypothesis by the author concerning the complexity of the Nature. An introduction to the theories of numbers, manyfolds and topology is given. The possible connection with the theory of evolution of the Universe is discussed. The book contains also in the last chapter a SF story based on the hypothesis presented. A connection with fractals theory is given. A part of his earlier studies (1955-1956) were subsequently published without citation by Ali Kyrala (Phys. Rev. vol.117, No.5, march 1, 1960). The book contains as an important appendix the early papers (some of which are published in the coauthoprship with his scientific advisors): 1) T.T. Vescan, A. Weiszmann and I.Gottlieb, Contributii la studiul problemelor geometrice ale teoriei relativitatii restranse. Academia R.P.R. Baza Timisoara. Lucrarile consfatuirii de geometrie diferentiala din 9-12 iunie 1955. In this paper the authors show a new method of the calculation of the metrics. 2) Jean Gottlieb, L'hyphotese d'un modele de la structure de la matiere, Revista Matematica y Fisica Teorica, Serie A, Volumen XY, No.1, y.2, 1964 3) I. Gottlieb, Some hypotheses on space, time and gravitation, Studies in Gravitation Theory, CIP Press, Bucharest, 1988, pp.227-234 as well as some recent papers (published in the coauthorship with his disciples): 4)M. Agop, Gottlieb speace-time. A fractal axiomatic model of the Universe. in Particles and Fields, Editors: M.Agop and P.D. Ioannou, Athens University Press, 2005, pp. 59-141 5) I. Gottlieb, M.Agop and V.Enache, Games with Cantor's dust. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, vol.40 (2009) pp. 940-945 6) I. Gottlieb, My picture over the World, Bull. of the Polytechnic Institute of Iasi. Tom LVI)LX, Fasc. 1, 2010, pp. 1-18. The book contains also a dedication to father Vasile Gottlieb and wife Cleopatra

  3. One-loop quantum gravity repulsion in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Broda, Bogusław

    2011-03-11

    Perturbative quantum gravity formalism is applied to compute the lowest order corrections to the classical spatially flat cosmological Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker solution (for the radiation). The presented approach is analogous to the approach applied to compute quantum corrections to the Coulomb potential in electrodynamics, or rather to the approach applied to compute quantum corrections to the Schwarzschild solution in gravity. In the framework of the standard perturbative quantum gravity, it is shown that the corrections to the classical deceleration, coming from the one-loop graviton vacuum polarization (self-energy), have (UV cutoff free) opposite to the classical repulsive properties which are not negligible in the very early Universe. The repulsive "quantum forces" resemble those known from loop quantum cosmology.

  4. Observing the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation: A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics,of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales will reveal the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. The validity of inflationary models will be tested and, if agreement is found, accurate values for most of the key cosmological parameters will result. If disagreement is found, we will need to rethink our basic ideas about the physics of the early universe. I will present an overview of the physical processes at work in forming the anisotropy and discuss what we have already learned from current observations. I will conclude with a brief overview of the recently launched Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission which will observe the anisotropy over the full sky with 0.21 degree angular resolution. At the time of this meeting, MAP will have just arrived at the L2 Lagrange point, marking the start of its observing campaign. The MAP hardware is being produced by Goddard in partnership with Princeton University.

  5. Information Technology: A Model for Brandon University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazillion, Richard J.

    Information technology is having a profound effect on higher education in North America, and Brandon University in Manitoba (Canada) is in a position to join this movement in its early stages. The case for integrating information technology into the curriculum is argued, and the potential role of the new library complex in the teaching function is…

  6. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Tomalak, Oleksandr; Shtanov, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of `inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  7. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    SciTech Connect

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Shtanov, Yuri; Tomalak, Oleksandr, E-mail: maxsydorenko@gmail.com, E-mail: tomalak@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field andmore » lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.« less

  8. STELLAR 'FIREWORKS FINALE' CAME FIRST IN EARLY UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an artist's impression of how the very early universe (less than 1 billion years old) might have looked when it went through a voracious onset of star formation, converting primordial hydrogen into myriad stars at an unprecedented rate. Back then the sky would have looked markedly different from the sea of quiescent galaxies around us today. The sky is ablaze with primeval starburst galaxies; giant elliptical and spiral galaxies have yet to form. Within the starburst galaxies, bright knots of hot blue stars come and go like bursting fireworks shells. Regions of new starbirth glow intensely red under a torrent of ultraviolet radiation. The most massive stars self-detonate as supernovas, which explode across the sky like a string of firecrackers. A foreground starburst galaxy at lower right is sculpted with hot bubbles from supernova explosions and torrential stellar winds. Unlike today there is very little dust in these galaxies, because the heavier elements have not yet been cooked up through nucleosynthesis in stars. Recent analysis of Hubble Space Telescope deep sky images supports the theory that the first stars in the universe appeared in an abrupt eruption of star formation, rather than at a gradual pace. Painting Credit: Adolf Schaller for STScI

  9. Entropy production during an isothermal phase transition in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaempfer, B.

    The analytical model of Lodenquai and Dixit (1983) and of Bonometto and Matarrese (1983) of an isothermal era in the early universe is extended here to arbitrary temperatures. It is found that a sufficiently large supercooling gives rise to a large entropy production which may significantly dilute the primordial monopole or baryon to entropy ratio. Whether such large supercooling can be achieved depends on the characteristics of the nucleation process.

  10. A Collaborative University Model for Employee Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Melondie R.; Kelly, Rebecca C.; Alexander, Chelley K.; Holmes, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    Universities are taking a more active approach in understanding and monitoring employees' modifiable health risk factors and chronic care conditions by developing strategies to encourage employees to start and sustain healthy behaviors. WellBama, the University of Alabama's signature health and wellness program, utilizes a collaborative model in…

  11. International Universities: Misunderstandings and Emerging Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Internationalization has transformed higher education institutions and systems but there is much confusion as to what an international, binational, transnational, cosmopolitan, multinational, or global university actually means. There is no standardized model for an international university, nor should there be, but a deeper understanding of…

  12. Reuleaux models at St. Petersburg State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteeva, G. A.; Sinilshchikova, G. A.; Trifonenko, B. V.

    2018-05-01

    Franz Reuleaux (1829 - 1905) is a famous mechanical engineer, a Professor of the Berlin Royal Technical Academy. He became widely known as an engineer-scientist, a Professor and industrial consultant, education reformer and leader of the technical elite of Germany. He directed the design and manufacture of over 300 models of simple mechanisms. They were sold to many famous universities for pedagogical and scientific purposes. Today, the most complete set is at Cornell University, College of Engineering. In this article we discuss the history, the modern state and our using the Reuleaux models that survived at St. Petersburg State University for educational purposes. We present description of certain models and our electronic resource with these models. We provide the information of similar electronic resources from other universities.

  13. Model Rocketry: University-Level Educational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrowman, James S.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how model rocketry can be a useful educational tool at the university level as a practical application of theoretical aerodynamic concepts and as a tool for students in experimental research. (BR)

  14. PhD Thesis: String theory in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, Rhiannon

    2009-11-01

    The intersection of string theory with cosmology is unavoidable in the early universe, and its exploration may shine light on both fields. In this thesis, three papers at this intersection are presented and reviewed, with the aim of providing a thorough and pedagogical guide to their results. First, we address the longstanding problem of finding a string theory realisation of the axion. Using warped compactifications in heterotic string theory, we show that the axion decay constant can be lowered to acceptable values by the warp factor. Next, we move to the subject of cosmic strings, whose network evolution could have important consequences for astrophysics and cosmology. In particular, there are quantitative differences between cosmic superstring networks and GUT cosmic string networks. We investigate the properties of cosmic superstring networks in warped backgrounds, giving the tension and properties of three-string junctions in these backgrounds. Finally, we examine the possibility that cosmic strings in heterotic string theory could be responsible for generating the galactic magnetic fields that seeded those observed today.

  15. Turbulence of Weak Gravitational Waves in the Early Universe.

    PubMed

    Galtier, Sébastien; Nazarenko, Sergey V

    2017-12-01

    We study the statistical properties of an ensemble of weak gravitational waves interacting nonlinearly in a flat space-time. We show that the resonant three-wave interactions are absent and develop a theory for four-wave interactions in the reduced case of a 2.5+1 diagonal metric tensor. In this limit, where only plus-polarized gravitational waves are present, we derive the interaction Hamiltonian and consider the asymptotic regime of weak gravitational wave turbulence. Both direct and inverse cascades are found for the energy and the wave action, respectively, and the corresponding wave spectra are derived. The inverse cascade is characterized by a finite-time propagation of the metric excitations-a process similar to an explosive nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation, which provides an efficient mechanism to ironing out small-scale inhomogeneities. The direct cascade leads to an accumulation of the radiation energy in the system. These processes might be important for understanding the early Universe where a background of weak nonlinear gravitational waves is expected.

  16. Isotropy of the early universe from CMB anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, Evan P.; University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556; Donoghue, John F.

    The acoustic peak in the cosmic microwave background power spectrum is sensitive to causal processes and cosmological parameters in the early universe up to the time of last scattering. We provide limits on correlated spatial variations of the peak height and peak position and interpret these as constraints on the spatial variation of the cosmological parameters (baryon density, cold dark matter density, and cosmological constant as well as the amplitude and tilt of the original fluctuations). We utilize recent work of Hansen, Banday, and Gorski who have studied the spatial isotropy of the power spectrum as measured by WMAP bymore » performing the power spectrum analysis on smaller patches of the sky. We find that there is no statistically significant correlated asymmetry of the peak. Hansen, Banday, and Gorski have also provided preliminary indications of a preferred direction in the lower angular momentum range (l{approx}2-40) and we show how possible explanations of this asymmetry are severely constrained by the data on the acoustic peak. Finally we show a possible non-Gaussian feature in the data, associated with a difference in the northern and southern galactic hemispheres.« less

  17. Early universe with modified scalar-tensor theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Ranajit; Sarkar, Chandramouli; Sanyal, Abhik Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Scalar-tensor theory of gravity with non-minimal coupling is a fairly good candidate for dark energy, required to explain late-time cosmic evolution. Here we study the very early stage of evolution of the universe with a modified version of the theory, which includes scalar curvature squared term. One of the key aspects of the present study is that, the quantum dynamics of the action under consideration ends up generically with de-Sitter expansion under semiclassical approximation, rather than power-law. This justifies the analysis of inflationary regime with de-Sitter expansion. The other key aspect is that, while studying gravitational perturbation, the perturbed generalized scalar field equation obtained from the perturbed action, when matched with the perturbed form of the background scalar field equation, relates the coupling parameter and the potential exactly in the same manner as the solution of classical field equations does, assuming de-Sitter expansion. The study also reveals that the quantum theory is well behaved, inflationary parameters fall well within the observational limit and quantum perturbation analysis shows that the power-spectrum does not deviate considerably from the standard one obtained from minimally coupled theory.

  18. NEARBY MASSIVE STAR CLUSTER YIELDS INSIGHTS INTO EARLY UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of young, ultra-bright stars nested in their embryonic cloud of glowing gases. The celestial maternity ward, called N81, is located 200,000 light-years away in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a small irregular satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. Hubble's exquisite resolution allows astronomers to pinpoint 50 separate stars tightly packed in the nebula's core within a 10 light-year diameter - slightly more than twice the distance between earth and the nearest star to our sun. The closest pair of stars is only 1/3 of a light-year apart (0.3 arcseconds in the sky). This furious rate of mass loss from these super-hot stars is evident in the Hubble picture that reveals dramatic shapes sculpted in the nebula's wall of glowing gases by violent stellar winds and shock waves. A pair of bright stars in the center of the nebula is pouring out most of the ultraviolet radiation to make the nebula glow. Just above them, a small dark knot is all that's left of the cold cloud of molecular hydrogen and dust the stars were born from. Dark absorption lanes of residual dust trisect the nebula. The nebula offers a unique opportunity for a close-up glimpse at the 'firestorm' accompanying the birth of extremely massive stars, each blazing with the brilliance of 300,000 of our suns. Such galactic fireworks were much more common billions of years ago in the early universe, when most star formation took place. The 'natural-color' view was assembled from separate images taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, in ultraviolet light and two narrow emission lines of ionized Hydrogen (H-alpha, H-beta). The picture was taken on September 4, 1997. Credit: Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France), NASA/ESA

  19. Teaching Early Childhood Assessment Online: A State-Wide Multi-University Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Ann D.; McDonald, Angie; York, Marti A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an online early childhood assessment course that was developed through a multi-university collaboration with support from a state improvement grant. Collaborators from three universities developed the course to address a new early childhood unified license (birth to age 8, regular and special education) in the state of Kansas.…

  20. The universal function in color dipole model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalilian, Z.; Boroun, G. R.

    2017-10-01

    In this work we review color dipole model and recall properties of the saturation and geometrical scaling in this model. Our primary aim is determining the exact universal function in terms of the introduced scaling variable in different distance than the saturation radius. With inserting the mass in calculation we compute numerically the contribution of heavy productions in small x from the total structure function by the fraction of universal functions and show the geometrical scaling is established due to our scaling variable in this study.

  1. Matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe via string-inspired CPT violation at early eras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2018-01-01

    In four-space-time dimensional string/brane theory, obtained either through compactification of the extra spatial dimensions, or by appropriate restriction to brane worlds with three large spatial dimensions, the rich physics potential associated with the presence of non-trivial Kalb-Ramond (KR) axion-like fields has not been fully exploited so far. In this talk, I discuss a scenario whereby such fields produce spontaneous Lorentz- and CPT-violating cosmological backgrounds over which strings propagate, which in the early Universe can lead to Baryogenesis through Leptogenesis in models with heavy right-handed neutrinos.

  2. e-University Project: Business Model. Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This report describes the context and goals of the Higher Education Funding Council for England's e-University project to develop Internet-based higher education. It summarizes the proposed business model and outlines next steps in implementing the project. A February 2000 letter announced the project and invited higher education institutions…

  3. Modeling Environmental Literacy of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teksoz, Gaye; Sahin, Elvan; Tekkaya-Oztekin, Ceren

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposed an Environmental Literacy Components Model to explain how environmental attitudes, environmental responsibility, environmental concern, and environmental knowledge as well as outdoor activities related to each other. A total of 1,345 university students responded to an environmental literacy survey (Kaplowitz and Levine…

  4. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time.

  5. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  6. A collaborative university model for employee wellness.

    PubMed

    Carter, Melondie R; Kelly, Rebecca C; Alexander, Chelley K; Holmes, Lauren M

    2011-01-01

    Universities are taking a more active approach in understanding and monitoring employees' modifiable health risk factors and chronic care conditions by developing strategies to encourage employees to start and sustain healthy behaviors. WellBama, the University of Alabama's signature health and wellness program, utilizes a collaborative model in partnership with select colleges and departments to implement strategies to improve employees' health status. The program provides onsite health screenings and assessments, timely health advising sessions, assistance in setting and monitoring individual health goals to promote improved health, and preventive examination referrals.

  7. Universal Prekindergarten and Early Childhood Education Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2009-10-08

    House - 11/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Universal Prekindergarten and Early Childhood Education Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2013-02-27

    House - 04/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Universal Prekindergarten and Early Childhood Education Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2011-11-17

    House - 03/29/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Tsunami Generation Modelling for Early Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annunziato, A.; Matias, L.; Ulutas, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Carrilho, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the frame of a collaboration between the European Commission Joint Research Centre and the Institute of Meteorology in Portugal, a complete analytical tool to support Early Warning Systems is being developed. The tool will be part of the Portuguese National Early Warning System and will be used also in the frame of the UNESCO North Atlantic Section of the Tsunami Early Warning System. The system called Tsunami Analysis Tool (TAT) includes a worldwide scenario database that has been pre-calculated using the SWAN-JRC code (Annunziato, 2007). This code uses a simplified fault generation mechanism and the hydraulic model is based on the SWAN code (Mader, 1988). In addition to the pre-defined scenario, a system of computers is always ready to start a new calculation whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismic networks (such as USGS or EMSC) and is judged capable to generate a Tsunami. The calculation is performed using minimal parameters (epicentre and the magnitude of the earthquake): the programme calculates the rupture length and rupture width by using empirical relationship proposed by Ward (2002). The database calculations, as well the newly generated calculations with the current conditions are therefore available to TAT where the real online analysis is performed. The system allows to analyze also sea level measurements available worldwide in order to compare them and decide if a tsunami is really occurring or not. Although TAT, connected with the scenario database and the online calculation system, is at the moment the only software that can support the tsunami analysis on a global scale, we are convinced that the fault generation mechanism is too simplified to give a correct tsunami prediction. Furthermore short tsunami arrival times especially require a possible earthquake source parameters data on tectonic features of the faults like strike, dip, rake and slip in order to minimize real time uncertainty of rupture parameters. Indeed the earthquake

  11. Ground based THz Spectroscopy of Obscured Starbursts in the Early Universe enabled by the 2nd generation Redshift (z) & Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwas, Amit; Stacey, Gordon; Nikola, Thomas; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Parshley, Stephen; Schoenwald, Justin; Lamarche, Cody James; Higdon, James; Higdon, Sarah; Brisbin, Drew; Güesten, Rolf; Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Niemack, Michael; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Amiri, Mandana; Halpern, Mark; Wiebe, Donald; Hasselfield, Matthew; Ade, Peter; Tucker, Carole

    2018-01-01

    Galaxies were surprisingly dusty in the early Universe, with more than half of the light emitted from stars being absorbed by dust within the system and re-radiated into far infrared (FIR, ~50-150μm) wavelengths. Dusty star forming galaxies (DSFGs) dominate the co-moving star formation rate density of the Universe that peaks around redshift, z~2, making it compelling to study them in rest frame FIR bands. From galaxies at z > 1, the FIR line emission from abundant ions like [O III], [C II] and [N II], are redshifted into the short sub-mm telluric windows. My thesis work is based on building and deploying the 2nd Generation Redshift (z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), a long-slit, echelle grating spectrometer optimized to study broad (Δv = 300km/s) spectral lines from galaxies in the 200-650µm telluric windows using TES bolometers. These far-IR lines being extinction free and major coolants of the gas heated by (young) massive stars, are powerful probes of the physical conditions of the gas and the stellar radiation field. I present results from our survey of the [O III] 88µm line in galaxies at redshift, z ~ 2.8 to 4.6, with ZEUS-2 at the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope. To interpret our observations along with ancillary data from optical to radio facilities, we apply photoionization models for HII regions and Photo Dissociation Region (PDR) models and confirm that the galaxies host substantial ongoing obscured star formation. The presence of doubly ionized oxygen suggests hard radiation fields and hence, elevated ionization parameters that can only be accounted for by a large population of massive stars formed during the ongoing starburst, that contribute a large fraction of the infrared luminosity. This study highlights the use of FIR line emission to trace the assembly of current day massive galaxies, conditions of star formation and details of their stellar populations. The construction and operation of ZEUS-2 were funded by NSF ATI

  12. Vacuum stability in the early universe and the backreaction of classical gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, Tommi

    2018-01-01

    In the case of a metastable electroweak vacuum, the quantum corrected effective potential plays a crucial role in the potential instability of the standard model. In the early universe, in particular during inflation and reheating, this instability can be triggered leading to catastrophic vacuum decay. We discuss how the large space-time curvature of the early universe can be incorporated in the calculation and in many cases significantly modify the flat space prediction. The two key new elements are the unavoidable generation of the non-minimal coupling between the Higgs field and the scalar curvature of gravity and a curvature induced contribution to the running of the constants. For the minimal set up of the standard model and a decoupled inflation sector we show how a metastable vacuum can lead to very tight bounds for the non-minimal coupling. We also discuss a novel and very much related dark matter generation mechanism. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  13. Vacuum stability in the early universe and the backreaction of classical gravity.

    PubMed

    Markkanen, Tommi

    2018-03-06

    In the case of a metastable electroweak vacuum, the quantum corrected effective potential plays a crucial role in the potential instability of the standard model. In the early universe, in particular during inflation and reheating, this instability can be triggered leading to catastrophic vacuum decay. We discuss how the large space-time curvature of the early universe can be incorporated in the calculation and in many cases significantly modify the flat space prediction. The two key new elements are the unavoidable generation of the non-minimal coupling between the Higgs field and the scalar curvature of gravity and a curvature induced contribution to the running of the constants. For the minimal set up of the standard model and a decoupled inflation sector we show how a metastable vacuum can lead to very tight bounds for the non-minimal coupling. We also discuss a novel and very much related dark matter generation mechanism.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Modeling children's early grammatical knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Bannard, Colin; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Theories of grammatical development differ in how much abstract knowledge they attribute to young children. Here, we report a series of experiments using a computational model to evaluate the explanatory power of child grammars based not on abstract rules but on concrete words and phrases and some local abstractions associated with these words and phrases. We use a Bayesian procedure to extract such item-based grammars from transcriptions of 28+ h of each of two children's speech at 2 and 3 years of age. We then use these grammars to parse all of the unique multiword utterances from transcriptions of separate recordings of these same children at each of the two ages. We found that at 2 years of age such a model had good coverage and predictive fit, with the children showing radically limited productivity. Furthermore, adding expert-annotated parts of speech to the induction procedure had little effect on coverage, with the exception of the category of noun. At age 3, the children's productivity sharply increased and the addition of a verb and a noun category markedly improved the model's performance. PMID:19805057

  15. Predictors of Early Termination in a University Counseling Training Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Schneider, Mercedes K.; Spengler, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the existence of counseling dropout research, there are limited predictive data for counseling in training clinics. Potential predictor variables were investigated in this archival study of 380 client files in a university counseling training clinic. Multinomial logistic regression, predictive discriminant analysis, and classification and…

  16. Early Literacy Teacher Preparation: One University's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenato, Carolyn; Severino, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Colleges and universities can have an impact on the entire field of education when preparing teachers for one of the most challenging part of the job: teaching literacy. When teachers are properly trained and have a toolbox of strategies and teaching techniques to use, they can have a tremendous impact on student learning. In teacher preparation…

  17. The Early Universe and High-Energy Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, David N.

    1983-01-01

    Many properties of new particle field theories can only be tested by comparing their predictions about the physical conditions immediately after the big bang with what can be reconstructed about this event from astronomical data. Facts/questions about big bang, unified field theories, and universe epochs/mass are among the topics discussed. (JN)

  18. James Gregory, the University observatory and the early acquisition of scientific instruments at the University of St Andrews

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Helen C.

    2015-01-01

    James Gregory, inventor of the reflecting telescope and Fellow of the Royal Society, was the first Regius Professor of Mathematics of the University of St Andrews, 1668–74. He attempted to establish in St Andrews what would, if completed, have been the first purpose-built observatory in the British Isles. He travelled to London in 1673 to purchase instruments for equipping the observatory and improving the teaching and study of natural philosophy and mathematics in the university, seeking the advice of John Flamsteed, later the first Astronomer Royal. This paper considers the observatory initiative and the early acquisition of instruments at the University of St Andrews, with reference to Gregory's correspondence, inventories made ca. 1699–ca. 1718 and extant instruments themselves, some of which predate Gregory's time. It examines the structure and fate of the university observatory, the legacy of Gregory's teaching and endeavours, and the meridian line laid down in 1748 in the University Library.

  19. The best-fit universe. [cosmological models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Inflation provides very strong motivation for a flat Universe, Harrison-Zel'dovich (constant-curvature) perturbations, and cold dark matter. However, there are a number of cosmological observations that conflict with the predictions of the simplest such model: one with zero cosmological constant. They include the age of the Universe, dynamical determinations of Omega, galaxy-number counts, and the apparent abundance of large-scale structure in the Universe. While the discrepancies are not yet serious enough to rule out the simplest and most well motivated model, the current data point to a best-fit model with the following parameters: Omega(sub B) approximately equal to 0.03, Omega(sub CDM) approximately equal to 0.17, Omega(sub Lambda) approximately equal to 0.8, and H(sub 0) approximately equal to 70 km/(sec x Mpc) which improves significantly the concordance with observations. While there is no good reason to expect such a value for the cosmological constant, there is no physical principle that would rule out such.

  20. The Transient High-Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, L.

    2016-10-01

    THESEUS is a mission concept by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting GRBs for investigating the early universe and at vastly increasing the discovery space of the high energy transient phenomena over the entire cosmic history.

  1. A cosmic book. [of physics of early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peebles, P. J. E.; Silk, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    A system of assigning odds to the basic elements of cosmological theories is proposed in order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the theories. A figure of merit for the theories is obtained by counting and weighing the plausibility of each of the basic elements that is not substantially supported by observation or mature fundamental theory. The magnetized strong model is found to be the most probable. In order of decreasing probability, the ranking for the rest of the models is: (1) the magnetized string model with no exotic matter and the baryon adiabatic model; (2) the hot dark matter model and the model of cosmic string loops; (3) the canonical cold dark matter model, the cosmic string loops model with hot dark matter, and the baryonic isocurvature model; and (4) the cosmic string loops model with no exotic matter.

  2. The Monash University Interactive Simple Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommenget, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Monash university interactive simple climate model is a web-based interface that allows students and the general public to explore the physical simulation of the climate system with a real global climate model. It is based on the Globally Resolved Energy Balance (GREB) model, which is a climate model published by Dommenget and Floeter [2011] in the international peer review science journal Climate Dynamics. The model simulates most of the main physical processes in the climate system in a very simplistic way and therefore allows very fast and simple climate model simulations on a normal PC computer. Despite its simplicity the model simulates the climate response to external forcings, such as doubling of the CO2 concentrations very realistically (similar to state of the art climate models). The Monash simple climate model web-interface allows you to study the results of more than a 2000 different model experiments in an interactive way and it allows you to study a number of tutorials on the interactions of physical processes in the climate system and solve some puzzles. By switching OFF/ON physical processes you can deconstruct the climate and learn how all the different processes interact to generate the observed climate and how the processes interact to generate the IPCC predicted climate change for anthropogenic CO2 increase. The presentation will illustrate how this web-base tool works and what are the possibilities in teaching students with this tool are.

  3. Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  4. Lyman-α Emission from an Infant Black Hole in the Early Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, Brandon Kerry; Smidt, Joseph Michael; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    The COSMOS survey recently discovered an exotic young galaxy, COSMOS Redshift 7 (CR7), in the early universe (1 billion years after the Big Bang), which is devoid of evidence of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. Whereas some believe this might be the first galaxy discovered with stars made only from these elements, others think CR7 may be powered by a newborn supermassive black hole. In this paper, we summarize for a general academic audience our efforts to model the creation of this galaxy through cosmological simulations. These state-of-the-art calculations include primordial chemistry and cooling and the interaction of x-raysmore » from the black hole with surrounding gas. We simulate the process of light escaping this object with Monte Carlo Lyman-α transfer and compare our calculations with observations of CR7. Our work demonstrates the viability of the black hole interpretation for this intriguing object in the early universe.« less

  5. Lyman-α Emission from an Infant Black Hole in the Early Universe

    DOE PAGES

    Wiggins, Brandon Kerry; Smidt, Joseph Michael; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2016-01-01

    The COSMOS survey recently discovered an exotic young galaxy, COSMOS Redshift 7 (CR7), in the early universe (1 billion years after the Big Bang), which is devoid of evidence of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. Whereas some believe this might be the first galaxy discovered with stars made only from these elements, others think CR7 may be powered by a newborn supermassive black hole. In this paper, we summarize for a general academic audience our efforts to model the creation of this galaxy through cosmological simulations. These state-of-the-art calculations include primordial chemistry and cooling and the interaction of x-raysmore » from the black hole with surrounding gas. We simulate the process of light escaping this object with Monte Carlo Lyman-α transfer and compare our calculations with observations of CR7. Our work demonstrates the viability of the black hole interpretation for this intriguing object in the early universe.« less

  6. Developing Peer Mentoring Support for TAFE Students Entering 1st-Year University Early Childhood Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heirdsfield, Ann; Walker, Sue; Walsh, Kerryann

    2005-01-01

    At Queensland University of Technology (QUT, Australia), in the Bachelor of Education (BEd) (Early Childhood) (EC), Technical and Further Education (TAFE) students with a diploma enroll with advanced standing (1 year's credit). These students share many challenges faced by 1st-year university students--workload, technology, academic orientation,…

  7. Addressing the University's Tripartite Mission through an Early Childhood Movement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Rip

    2002-01-01

    Describes the University of Northern Iowa's early childhood motor laboratory, which brings together college students, preschoolers, and parents while contributing to each strand of the university's three-strand mission of teaching, scholarly endeavors, and service. The article describes program sessions, highlights the tripartite mission, and…

  8. A Pathway to Enhancing Professionalism: Building a Bridge between TAFE and University Early Childhood Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitington, Victoria; Ebbeck, Marjory; Diamond, Alexandra; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that a key strategy to improve developmental and educational outcomes for young children is to increase the number of childcare staff with early childhood university degrees (Saracho & Spodek, 2007). In order to upgrade the qualifications of staff, a number of Australian universities provide pathways that enable graduates of…

  9. Strategic Programming for Early University Entrants: Creating Support for Socio-Emotional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancour, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces "Resiliency Training," a program designed to support early university entrants as they take on the challenges and adventures of their sophomore and junior year at the University of Washington (UW). As the Academic Counselor and Counseling Services Coordinator for the Robinson Center, watching the students engage…

  10. A Balancing Act: Facilitating a University Education Induction Programme for (Early Career) Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Sarasvathie; Searle, Ruth L.; Shawa, Lester B.; Teferra, Damtew

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the University Education Induction Programme (UEIP), an academic development programme, delivered at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The authors, who developed and now facilitate the UEIP, deliver the programme to early career academics and senior academics as per a senate-mandated requirement. Drawing on…

  11. Universal Design for Learning: Cognitive Theory into Practice for Facilitating Comprehension in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Dalton, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Addressing the unique needs of children of all ages and abilities, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is gaining momentum in schools and preschools around the nation and the globe. This article explores Universal Design for Learning and its promising applications to a variety of reading and language arts experiences in the Early Childhood…

  12. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  13. A Case Study of the Development of an Early Retirement Program for University Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Jay L.; Trainer, Aileen

    1985-01-01

    To offset declining enrollments, financial constraints, younger faculties, and high tenure ratios, some institutions are considering early retirement programs to facilitate faculty turnover. A University of Virginia faculty committee reviewed several early retirement options and selected a cost-effective bridging program with ample incentives and…

  14. Universality in a Neutral Evolution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Dawn; Scott, Adam; Maric, Nevena; Bahar, Sonya

    2013-03-01

    Agent-based models are ideal for investigating the complex problems of biodiversity and speciation because they allow for complex interactions between individuals and between individuals and the environment. Presented here is a ``null'' model that investigates three mating types - assortative, bacterial, and random - in phenotype space, as a function of the percentage of random death δ. Previous work has shown phase transition behavior in an assortative mating model with variable fitness landscapes as the maximum mutation size (μ) was varied (Dees and Bahar, 2010). Similarly, this behavior was recently presented in the work of Scott et al. (submitted), on a completely neutral landscape, for bacterial-like fission as well as for assortative mating. Here, in order to achieve an appropriate ``null'' hypothesis, the random death process was changed so each individual, in each generation, has the same probability of death. Results show a continuous nonequilibrium phase transition for the order parameters of the population size and the number of clusters (analogue of species) as δ is varied for three different mutation sizes of the system. The system shows increasing robustness as μ increases. Universality classes and percolation properties of this system are also explored. This research was supported by funding from: University of Missouri Research Board and James S. McDonnell Foundation

  15. The art and science of prognostication in early university medicine.

    PubMed

    Demaitre, Luke

    2003-01-01

    Prognosis occupied a more prominent place in the medieval curriculum than it does at the modern university. Scholastic discussions were rooted in the Hippocratic Aphorisms and shaped by Galen's treatises On Crisis and On Critical Days. Medical prediction, as an art dependent on personal skills such as memory and conjecture, was taught with the aid of the liberal arts of rhetoric and logic. Scientific predictability was sought in branches of mathematics, moving from periodicity and numerology to astronomy. The search for certitude contributed to the cultivation of astrology; even at its peak, however, astrological medicine did not dominate the teaching on prognostication. The ultimate concern, which awaits further discussion, was not even with forecasting as such, but with the physician and, indeed, the patient.

  16. Early Grade Writing Assessment: An Instrument Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization promoted the creation of a model instrument for individual assessment of students' foundational writing skills in the Spanish language that was based on a literature review and existing writing tools and assessments. The purpose of the "Early Grade Writing Assessment"…

  17. Chemical Evolution and the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Benoit; JINA-CEE, NuGrid, ChETEC

    2018-06-01

    Stellar abundances in local dwarf galaxies offer a unique window into the nature and nucleosynthesis of the first stars. They also contain clues regarding how galaxies formed and assembled in the early stages of the universe. In this talk, I will present our effort to connect nuclear astrophysics with the field of galaxy formation in order to define what can be learned about galaxy evolution using stellar abundances. In particular, I will describe the current state of our numerical chemical evolution pipeline which accounts for the mass assembly history of galaxies, present how we use high-redshift cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to calibrate our models and to learn about the formation of dwarf galaxies, and address the challenge of identifying the dominant r-process site(s) using stellar abundances.

  18. On the origin of Hawking mini black-holes and the cold early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.

    1978-01-01

    A simple argument is outlined leading to the result that the mass of mini black holes exploding today is 10 to the 15th power g. A mathematical model is discussed which indicates that the equation of state is greatly softened in the high-density regime and a phase transition may exist, such that any length (particularly very small sizes) will grow with time irrespective of its relation to the size of the particle horizon. It is shown that the effect of spin-2 mesons with respect to the equation of state is to soften the pressure and make it negative. An analytical expression is given for the probability that any particular region in a hot early universe will evolve into a black hole.

  19. A universal model for nanoporous carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Supercapacitors based on nanoporous carbon materials, commonly called electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), are emerging as a novel type of energy-storage device with the potential to substitute batteries in applications that require high power densities. Nanoporous carbon supercapacitors are generally viewed as a parallel-plate capacitor since supercapacitors store energy by charge separation in an electric double layer formed at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The EDLC model has been used to characterize the energy storage of supercapacitors for decades. We comment in this chapter on the shortcomings of the EDLC model when applied to nanoporous carbon supercapacitors. In response to the latest experimentalmore » breakthrough in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors, we have proposed a heuristic model that takes pore curvature into account as a replacement for the EDLC model. When the pore size is in the mesopore regime (2 50 nm), electrolyte counterions enter mesoporous carbons and approach the pore wall to form an electric double-cylinder capacitor (EDCC); in the micropore regime (< 2 nm), solvated/desolvated counterions line up along the pore axis to form an electric wire-in-cylinder capacitor (EWCC). In the macropore regime (> 50 nm), where pores are large enough so that pore curvature is no longer significant, the EDCC model can be reduced to the EDLC model. With the backing of experimental data and quantum density functional theory calculations, we have shown that the EDCC/EWCC model is universal for carbon supercapacitors with diverse carbon materials and electrolytes. The strengths and limitations of this new model are discussed. The new model allows the supercapacitor properties to be correlated with pore size, specific surface area, Debye length, electrolyte concentration, dielectric constant, and solute ion size, and may lend support to the systematic optimization of the properties of carbon supercapacitors through experiments.« less

  20. [Lübeck University Model for Physiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bretin, Annette; Großmann, Kirsten; Schulz, ArndtPeter

    2018-02-19

    The aim of this paper is to describe the development of an innovative bachelor's degree program for physiotherapy directly affiliated with the medical department, which is a unique approach to making physiotherapy an academic course in Germany. The previous system for qualifying as a physiotherapist was amended by the adaption of qualification objectives resulting in a model that links scientific and vocational knowledge from the beginning of the study. Several lectures support interprofessionality. The vocational training is fully integrated into the curriculum. The exemplary concept is monitored by an extensive quality management program. The approach meets general recommendations of experts and can serve as a model for other universities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. A massive, dead disk galaxy in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Toft, Sune; Zabl, Johannes; Richard, Johan; Gallazzi, Anna; Zibetti, Stefano; Prescott, Moire; Grillo, Claudio; Man, Allison W S; Lee, Nicholas Y; Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Stockmann, Mikkel; Magdis, Georgios; Steinhardt, Charles L

    2017-06-21

    At redshift z = 2, when the Universe was just three billion years old, half of the most massive galaxies were extremely compact and had already exhausted their fuel for star formation. It is believed that they were formed in intense nuclear starbursts and that they ultimately grew into the most massive local elliptical galaxies seen today, through mergers with minor companions, but validating this picture requires higher-resolution observations of their centres than is currently possible. Magnification from gravitational lensing offers an opportunity to resolve the inner regions of galaxies. Here we report an analysis of the stellar populations and kinematics of a lensed z = 2.1478 compact galaxy, which-surprisingly-turns out to be a fast-spinning, rotationally supported disk galaxy. Its stars must have formed in a disk, rather than in a merger-driven nuclear starburst. The galaxy was probably fed by streams of cold gas, which were able to penetrate the hot halo gas until they were cut off by shock heating from the dark matter halo. This result confirms previous indirect indications that the first galaxies to cease star formation must have gone through major changes not just in their structure, but also in their kinematics, to evolve into present-day elliptical galaxies.

  2. Relativistic inverse Compton scattering of photons from the early universe.

    PubMed

    Malu, Siddharth; Datta, Abhirup; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Marchegiani, Paolo; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Narasimha, D; Wieringa, Mark H

    2017-12-05

    Electrons at relativistic speeds, diffusing in magnetic fields, cause copious emission at radio frequencies in both clusters of galaxies and radio galaxies through non-thermal radiation emission called synchrotron. However, the total power radiated through this mechanism is ill constrained, as the lower limit of the electron energy distribution, or low-energy cutoffs, for radio emission in galaxy clusters and radio galaxies, have not yet been determined. This lower limit, parametrized by the lower limit of the electron momentum - p min - is critical for estimating the total energetics of non-thermal electrons produced by cluster mergers or injected by radio galaxy jets, which impacts the formation of large-scale structure in the universe, as well as the evolution of local structures inside galaxy clusters. The total pressure due to the relativistic, non-thermal population of electrons can be measured using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect, and is critically dependent on p min , making the measurement of this non-thermal pressure a promising technique to estimate the electron low-energy cutoff. We present here the first unambiguous detection of this Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect for a non-thermal population of electrons in a radio galaxy jet/lobe, located at a significant distance away from the center of the Bullet cluster of galaxies.

  3. A Universal Model for Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyper, Peter; Antiochos, Spiro K.; DeVore, C. Richard

    2017-08-01

    We present a universal model for solar eruptions that encompasses coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at one end of the scale, to coronal jets at the other. The model is a natural extension of the Magnetic Breakout model for large-scale fast CMEs. Using high-resolution adaptive mesh MHD simulations conducted with the ARMS code, we show that so-called blowout or mini-filament coronal jets can be explained as one realisation of the breakout process. We also demonstrate the robustness of this “breakout-jet” model by studying three realisations in simulations with different ambient field inclinations. We conclude that magnetic breakout supports both large-scale fast CMEs and small-scale coronal jets, and by inference eruptions at scales in between. Thus, magnetic breakout provides a unified model for solar eruptions. P.F.W was supported in this work by an award of a RAS Fellowship and an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program. C.R.D and S.K.A were supported by NASA’s LWS TR&T and H-SR programs.

  4. Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Hořava–Lifshitz early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Khodadi, M., E-mail: M.Khodadi@sbu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R., E-mail: hr-sepangi@sbu.ac.ir

    We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 μs old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Hořava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigatemore » the effects of the running coupling constants of Hořava–Lifshitz gravity, λ, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (ξ)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Hořava–Lifshitz model. •We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively.« less

  5. Electroweak phase transition and entropy release in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, A.; Dolgov, A.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that the vacuum-like energy of the Higgs potential at non-zero temperatures leads, in the course of the cosmological expansion, to a small but non-negligible rise of the entropy density in the comoving volume. This increase is calculated in the frameworks of the minimal standard model. The result can have a noticeable effect on the outcome of baryo-through-leptogenesis.

  6. Towards a Universal Model of Reading

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Ram

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, reading research has seen a paradigmatic shift. A new wave of computational models of orthographic processing that offer various forms of noisy position or context-sensitive coding, have revolutionized the field of visual word recognition. The influx of such models stems mainly from consistent findings, coming mostly from European languages, regarding an apparent insensitivity of skilled readers to letter-order. Underlying the current revolution is the theoretical assumption that the insensitivity of readers to letter order reflects the special way in which the human brain encodes the position of letters in printed words. The present paper discusses the theoretical shortcomings and misconceptions of this approach to visual word recognition. A systematic review of data obtained from a variety of languages demonstrates that letter-order insensitivity is not a general property of the cognitive system, neither it is a property of the brain in encoding letters. Rather, it is a variant and idiosyncratic characteristic of some languages, mostly European, reflecting a strategy of optimizing encoding resources, given the specific structure of words. Since the main goal of reading research is to develop theories that describe the fundamental and invariant phenomena of reading across orthographies, an alternative approach to model visual word recognition is offered. The dimensions of a possible universal model of reading, which outlines the common cognitive operations involved in orthographic processing in all writing systems, are discussed. PMID:22929057

  7. Towards a universal model of reading.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ram

    2012-10-01

    In the last decade, reading research has seen a paradigmatic shift. A new wave of computational models of orthographic processing that offer various forms of noisy position or context-sensitive coding have revolutionized the field of visual word recognition. The influx of such models stems mainly from consistent findings, coming mostly from European languages, regarding an apparent insensitivity of skilled readers to letter order. Underlying the current revolution is the theoretical assumption that the insensitivity of readers to letter order reflects the special way in which the human brain encodes the position of letters in printed words. The present article discusses the theoretical shortcomings and misconceptions of this approach to visual word recognition. A systematic review of data obtained from a variety of languages demonstrates that letter-order insensitivity is neither a general property of the cognitive system nor a property of the brain in encoding letters. Rather, it is a variant and idiosyncratic characteristic of some languages, mostly European, reflecting a strategy of optimizing encoding resources, given the specific structure of words. Since the main goal of reading research is to develop theories that describe the fundamental and invariant phenomena of reading across orthographies, an alternative approach to model visual word recognition is offered. The dimensions of a possible universal model of reading, which outlines the common cognitive operations involved in orthographic processing in all writing systems, are discussed.

  8. Supporting universal prevention programs: a two-phased coaching model.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kimberly D; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-06-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in Early Child Res Q 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in Early Child Educ 38:279-288, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al. in School Psychol Rev 34:87-106, 2005; Stormont et al. 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker et al. 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports, whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs.

  9. The fraction of quiescent massive galaxies in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, A.; Santini, P.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L.; Fiore, F.; Castellano, M.; Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Salimbeni, S.; Cristiani, S.; Nonino, M.; Vanzella, E.

    2009-07-01

    Aims: We attempt to compile a complete, mass-selected sample of galaxies with low specific star-formation rates, and compare their properties with theoretical model predictions. Methods: We use the f(24 μ m})/f(K) flux ratio and the SED fitting to the 0.35-8.0 μm spectral distribution, to select quiescent galaxies from z≃ 0.4 to z≃ 4 in the GOODS-MUSIC sample. Our observational selection can be translated into thresholds in specific star-formation rate dot{M}/M_*, which can be compared with theoretical predictions. Results: In the framework of the well-known global decline in quiescent galaxy fraction with redshift, we find that a non-negligible fraction {≃ 15-20% of massive galaxies with low specific star-formation rate exists up to z≃ 4, including a tail of “red and dead” galaxies with dot{M}/M_*<10-11 yr-1. Theoretical models vary to a large extent in their predictions for the fraction of galaxies with low specific star-formation rates, but are unable to provide a global match to our data.

  10. When growth models are not universal: evidence from marine invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Forster, Jack

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of body mass, as growth, is fundamental to all organisms. Being able to understand which model(s) best describe this growth trajectory, both empirically and ultimately mechanistically, is an important challenge. A variety of equations have been proposed to describe growth during ontogeny. Recently, the West Brown Enquist (WBE) equation, formulated as part of the metabolic theory of ecology, has been proposed as a universal model of growth. This equation has the advantage of having a biological basis, but its ability to describe invertebrate growth patterns has not been well tested against other, more simple models. In this study, we collected data for 58 species of marine invertebrate from 15 different taxa. The data were fitted to three growth models (power, exponential and WBE), and their abilities were examined using an information theoretic approach. Using Akaike information criteria, we found changes in mass through time to fit an exponential equation form best (in approx. 73% of cases). The WBE model predominantly overestimates body size in early ontogeny and underestimates it in later ontogeny; it was the best fit in approximately 14% of cases. The exponential model described growth well in nine taxa, whereas the WBE described growth well in one of the 15 taxa, the Amphipoda. Although the WBE has the advantage of being developed with an underlying proximate mechanism, it provides a poor fit to the majority of marine invertebrates examined here, including species with determinate and indeterminate growth types. In the original formulation of the WBE model, it was tested almost exclusively against vertebrates, to which it fitted well; the model does not however appear to be universal given its poor ability to describe growth in benthic or pelagic marine invertebrates. PMID:23945691

  11. Hybrid Speaker Recognition Using Universal Acoustic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun; Kuroda, Tadahiro

    We propose a novel speaker recognition approach using a speaker-independent universal acoustic model (UAM) for sensornet applications. In sensornet applications such as “Business Microscope”, interactions among knowledge workers in an organization can be visualized by sensing face-to-face communication using wearable sensor nodes. In conventional studies, speakers are detected by comparing energy of input speech signals among the nodes. However, there are often synchronization errors among the nodes which degrade the speaker recognition performance. By focusing on property of the speaker's acoustic channel, UAM can provide robustness against the synchronization error. The overall speaker recognition accuracy is improved by combining UAM with the energy-based approach. For 0.1s speech inputs and 4 subjects, speaker recognition accuracy of 94% is achieved at the synchronization error less than 100ms.

  12. Entropy Growth in the Early Universe and Confirmation of Initial Big Bang Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang level can be measured experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of this entropy increase is explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's (2007, 2008a, 2008b) revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that ΔS~ΔNgravitons is a startmg point to the increasing net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities AS ZPE analysis, it is important to note that the resulting ΔS~ΔNgravitons ≠ 1088, that in fact it is much lower, allowing for evaluating initial graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized. The rapid increase in entropy so alluded to without near sudden increases to 1088 may be enough to allow successful modeling of relic graviton production for entropy in a manner similar to ZPE energy extraction from a vacuum state.

  13. Spider: Probing the Early Universe with a Large-Scale CMB Polarization Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, William

    The standard dark-matter and dark-energy dominated cosmological model (LCDM) has proven to be remarkably successful in describing the current state and past evolution of the Universe. However, there remain significant uncertainties regarding the physical mechanisms that established the initial conditions upon which the LCDM predictions rely. Theories of cosmic genesis - the extremely high energy mechanisms that established these conditions - should be expected to provide a natural description of the nearly flat geometry of the Universe, the existence of super-horizon density correlations, and the adiabatic, Gaussian and nearly scale-invariant nature of the observed primordial density perturbations. The primary objective of Spider is to subject models of the early Universe to observational test, probing fundamental physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of terrestrial particle accelerators. The main scientific result will be to characterize, or place stringent upper limits on the level of the odd-parity polarization of the CMB. In the context of the inflationary paradigm, Spider will confirm or exclude the predictions of the simplest single-field inflationary models near the Lyth bound, characterized by tensor to scalar ratios r 0.03. While viable alternatives to the inflationary paradigm are an active and important area of investigation, including string cosmologies and cyclic models, early Universe models described by inflationary periods are now widely accepted as the underlying cause behind much of what we observe in cosmology today. Nevertheless, we know very little about the mechanism that would drive inflation or the energy scale at which it occurred, and the paradigm faces significant questions about the viability of the framework as a scientific theory. Fortunately, inflationary paradigms and alternative theories offer distinct predictions regarding the statistical properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Spider will use measurements

  14. Outcomes for Students on a Fast Track to College: Early College Entrance Programs at the University of Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Nancy B.; Chung, Rachel U.

    2015-01-01

    Radical acceleration from middle school to university is an unusual option in the United States. The Early Entrance Program and the University of Washington (UW) Academy for Young Scholars housed in the Halbert and Nancy Robinson Center for Young Scholars are two of only 21 early university entrance programs offered in the United States. Due to…

  15. Modeling the early evolution of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisfeiler, Marie; Turcotte, Donald L.; Kellogg, Louise H.

    2017-05-01

    The early evolution of the asteroid Vesta has been extensively studied because of the availability of relevant data, especially important new studies of HED meteorites which originated from Vesta and the Dawn mission to Vesta in 2011-2012. These studies have concluded that an early melting episode led to the differentiation of Vesta into crust, mantle, and core. This melting episode is attributed to the decay of 26Al, which has a half-life of 7.17 × 105 yr. This heating produced a global magma ocean. Surface cooling of this magma ocean will produce a solid crust. In this paper, we propose a convective heat-transfer mechanism that effectively cools the asteroid when the degree of melting reaches about 50%. We propose that a cool solid surface crust, which is gravitationally unstable, will founder into the solid-liquid mix beneath and will very effectively transfer heat that prevents further melting of the interior. In this paper, we quantify this process. If Vesta had a very early formation, melting would commence at an age of about 1,30,000 yr, and solidification would occur at an age of about 10 Myr. If Vesta formed with a time delay greater than about 2 Myr, no melting would have occurred. An important result of our model is that the early melting episode is restricted to the first 10 Myr. This result is in good agreement with the radiometric ages of the HED meteorites.

  16. Gravitational Wave Astronomy Using Pulsars: Massive Black Hole Mergers and the Early Universe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational Wave Astronomy Using Pulsars : Massive Black Hole Mergers & the Early Universe A White Paper for the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gravitational Wave Astronomy Using Pulsars : Massive Black Hole Mergers & the Early...theory of general relativity. Using a collection of millisecond pulsars as high-precision clocks, the nHz band of this radiation is likely to be detected

  17. Replication RCT of Early Universal Prevention Effects on Young Adult Substance Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol

    2014-01-01

    Objective For many substances, more frequent and problematic use occurs in young adulthood; these types of use are predicted by the timing of initiation during adolescence. We replicated and extended an earlier study examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal preventive interventions implemented in middle school, reduces problematic use in young adulthood. Method Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10–14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires were collected at 11 time points, including four during young adulthood. The intercept (average level) and rate of change (slope) in young adult frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, and illicit drugs) across ages 19–22 were modeled as outcomes influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Analyses entailed testing a two-step hierarchical latent growth curve model; models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction. Results Analyses showed significant indirect intervention effects on the average levels of all young adult outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors, along with intervention by risk interaction effects favoring the higher-risk subsample. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed in some cases. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher-risk subsample at age 22, ranging from 5.8% to 36.4% on outcomes showing significant intervention effects. Conclusions Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance use and associated problems, into young adulthood. PMID:24821095

  18. University - industry collaborations: models, drivers and cultures.

    PubMed

    Ehrismann, Dominic; Patel, Dhavalkumar

    2015-01-01

    The way academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies have been approaching collaborations has changed significantly in recent years. A multitude of interaction models were tested and critical factors that drive successful collaborations have been proposed. Based on this experience the current consensus in the pharmaceutical industry is to pursue one of two strategies: an open innovation approach to source discoveries wherever they occur, or investing selectively into scientific partnerships that churn out inventions that can be translated from bench to bedside internally. While these strategies may be intuitive, to form and build sustainable relationships between academia and large multinational healthcare enterprises is proving challenging. In this article we explore some of the more testing aspects of these collaborations, approaches that various industrial players have taken and provide our own views on the matter. We found that understanding and respecting each other's organisational culture and combining the intellectual and technological assets to answer big scientific questions accelerates and improves the quality of every collaboration. Upon discussing the prevailing cooperation models in the university - industry domain, we assert that science-driven collaborations where risks and rewards are shared equally without a commercial agenda in mind are the most impactful.

  19. A Model for the Development of University Curricula in Nanoelectronics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruun, E.; Nielsen, I.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is having an increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering and in physics. Major influencers affecting developments in university programmes related to nanoelectronics are discussed and a model for university programme development is described. The model takes into account that nanotechnology affects not only…

  20. The Triad Research University or a Post 20th Century Research University Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadmor, Zehev

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a model for the future research university is proposed, which answers some of the key challenges facing universities. It consists of three independent yet closely knitted entities: a research institute, a university teaching college and a business unit creating a "triad" structure. The possible inevitability, the advantages and…

  1. The Reluctant Academic: Early-Career Academics in a Teaching-Orientated University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on research into academic identities amongst early-career academics in a UK post-1992, teaching-orientated university. Literature around academic identity suggests five major academic roles: teaching, research, management, writing and networking. However, this appears to be a picture of an established mid-career academic in a…

  2. Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Early Undergraduate Students in a British University in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karjanto, Natanael; Yong, Su Ting

    2013-01-01

    The level of test anxiety in mathematics subjects among early undergraduate students at the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus is studied in this article. The sample consists of 206 students taking several mathematics modules who completed the questionnaires on test anxiety just before they entered the venue for midterm examinations. The…

  3. Postsecondary Preparation and Remediation: Examining the Effect of the Early Assessment Program at California State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jessica S.; Kurlaender, Michal; Grodsky, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how participation in the Early Assessment Program, which provides California high school juniors with information about their academic readiness for college-level work at California State University campuses, affects their college-going behavior and need for remediation in college. Using administrative records from…

  4. Preparedness to Teach: Experiences of the University of Ibadan Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udegbe, I. Bola

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the experiences of early career academics (ECAs) in terms of their preparedness to teach. Using a survey design involving 104 ECAs in a large Nigeria university, quantitative and qualitative data were obtained to address the research questions raised. Findings showed that (1) prior experience and training impacted on…

  5. Matter-antimatter separation in the early universe by rotating black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration of the effect of rotating black holes evaporating early in the universe shows that they would have produced oppositely directed neutrino and antineutrino currents, which push matter and antimatter apart. This separation mechanism is, however, too feeble to account for a present baryon-to-photon ratio of 10 to the -9th, and has no significant observational consequences.

  6. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional identity by…

  7. A Universal Model for Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyper, Peter F.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Devore, C. Richard

    2017-01-01

    Magnetically driven eruptions on the Sun, from stellar-scale coronal mass ejections1 to small-scale coronal X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet jets, have frequently been observed to involve the ejection of the highly stressed magnetic flux of a filament. Theoretically, these two phenomena have been thought to arise through very different mechanisms: coronal mass ejections from an ideal (non-dissipative) process, whereby the energy release does not require a change in the magnetic topology, as in the kink or torus instability; and coronal jets from a resistive process, involving magnetic reconnection. However, it was recently concluded from new observations that all coronal jets are driven by filament ejection, just like large mass ejections. This suggests that the two phenomena have physically identical origin and hence that a single mechanism may be responsible, that is, either mass ejections arise from reconnection, or jets arise from an ideal instability. Here we report simulations of a coronal jet driven by filament ejection, whereby a region of highly sheared magnetic field near the solar surface becomes unstable and erupts. The results show that magnetic reconnection causes the energy release via 'magnetic breakout', a positive feedback mechanism between filament ejection and reconnection. We conclude that if coronal mass ejections and jets are indeed of physically identical origin (although on different spatial scales) then magnetic reconnection (rather than an ideal process) must also underlie mass ejections, and that magnetic breakout is a universal model for solar eruptions.

  8. A universal model for solar eruptions.

    PubMed

    Wyper, Peter F; Antiochos, Spiro K; DeVore, C Richard

    2017-04-26

    Magnetically driven eruptions on the Sun, from stellar-scale coronal mass ejections to small-scale coronal X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet jets, have frequently been observed to involve the ejection of the highly stressed magnetic flux of a filament. Theoretically, these two phenomena have been thought to arise through very different mechanisms: coronal mass ejections from an ideal (non-dissipative) process, whereby the energy release does not require a change in the magnetic topology, as in the kink or torus instability; and coronal jets from a resistive process involving magnetic reconnection. However, it was recently concluded from new observations that all coronal jets are driven by filament ejection, just like large mass ejections. This suggests that the two phenomena have physically identical origin and hence that a single mechanism may be responsible, that is, either mass ejections arise from reconnection, or jets arise from an ideal instability. Here we report simulations of a coronal jet driven by filament ejection, whereby a region of highly sheared magnetic field near the solar surface becomes unstable and erupts. The results show that magnetic reconnection causes the energy release via 'magnetic breakout'-a positive-feedback mechanism between filament ejection and reconnection. We conclude that if coronal mass ejections and jets are indeed of physically identical origin (although on different spatial scales) then magnetic reconnection (rather than an ideal process) must also underlie mass ejections, and that magnetic breakout is a universal model for solar eruptions.

  9. Universal Behavior of a Cyclic Oxidation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model has been generated to represent the iterative, discrete growth and spallation processes associated with cyclic oxidation. Parabolic growth kinetics (k(sub p)) over and a constant spall area (F(sub A)) were assumed, with spalling occurring interfacially at the thickest regions of the scale. Although most models require numerical techniques, the regularity and simplicity of this progression permitted an approximation by algebraic expressions. Normalization could now be performed to reflect all parametric effects, and a universal cyclic oxidation response was generated: W(sub u) = 1/2 {3J(sub u)(sup 1/2)+ J(sub u)(sup 3/2)} where W, is weight change normalized by the maximum and J(sub u) is the cycle number normalized by the number to reach maximum. Similarly, the total amount of metal consumed was represented by a single normalized curve. The factor [(S(sub c)-l)(raised dot)sqrt(F(sub A)k(sub p)DELTAt)] was identified as a general figure of merit, where S(sub c) is the mass ratio of oxide to oxygen and DELTAt is the cycle duration. A cyclic oxidation failure map was constructed, in normalized k(sub p)-F(sub A) space, as defined by the locus of points corresponding to a critical amount of metal consumption in a given time. All three constructions describe behavior for every value of growth rate, spall fraction, and cycle duration by means of single curves, but with two branches corresponding to the times before and after steady state is achieved.

  10. Computational Cosmology: From the Early Universe to the Large Scale Structure.

    PubMed

    Anninos, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations (and numerical methods applied to specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark-hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  11. Computational Cosmology: from the Early Universe to the Large Scale Structure.

    PubMed

    Anninos, Peter

    1998-01-01

    In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark-hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  12. Modeling universal dynamics of cell spreading on elastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Fan, Houfu; Li, Shaofan

    2015-11-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) multiscale moving contact line model is combined with a soft matter cell model to study the universal dynamics of cell spreading over elastic substrates. We have studied both the early stage and the late stage cell spreading by taking into account the actin tension effect. In this work, the cell is modeled as an active nematic droplet, and the substrate is modeled as a St. Venant Kirchhoff elastic medium. A complete 3D simulation of cell spreading has been carried out. The simulation results show that the spreading area versus spreading time at different stages obeys specific power laws, which is in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical prediction reported in the literature. Moreover, the simulation results show that the substrate elasticity may affect force dipole distribution inside the cell. The advantage of this approach is that it combines the hydrodynamics of actin retrograde flow with moving contact line model so that it can naturally include actin tension effect resulting from actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and thus it might be capable of simulating complex cellular scale phenomenon, such as cell spreading or even crawling.

  13. Models of Academic Governance during a Period of Nation-Building: The Hebrew University in the 1920s-1960s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Uri; Sapir, Adi

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the development of the structures of university governance at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem between the 1920s and 1960s. The model that ultimately prevailed, a "state-sponsored model" of governance, dominated the higher education system in Israel until the early 2000s and was characterised by the dominance of…

  14. Phase Transitions in the Early Universe: The Cosmology of Non-Minimal Scalar Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost, Jeffrey D.

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically--such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions--the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this thesis, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system--often by many orders of magnitude--but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "re-overdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings. In the second part of this thesis, we proceed to study the early-universe cosmology of a Kaluza-Klein (KK

  15. A SDMS Model: Early Warning Coordination Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Reyes, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    of work. If it's a tsunami, you've got to get it down to the last Joe on the beach. This is the stuff that is really very hard." Given the above, the paper argues that there is a need for a systemic approach to early warning centres. Systemic means looking upon things as a system; systemic means seeing pattern and inter-relationship within a complex whole; i.e., to see events as products of the working of a system. System may be defined as a whole which is made of parts and relationships. Given this, ‘failure' may be seen as the product of a system and, within that, see death/injury/property loss etc. as results of the working of systems. This paper proposes a preliminary model of ‘early warning coordination centres' (EWCC); it should be highlighted that an EWCC is a subsystem of the Systemic Disaster Management System (SDMS) model.

  16. Abundance profiling of extremely metal-poor stars and supernova properties in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi, E-mail: tominaga@konan-u.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto.nobuyuki@jaea.go.jp, E-mail: nomoto@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-04-20

    After the big bang nucleosynthesis, the first heavy element enrichment in the universe was made by a supernova (SN) explosion of a population (Pop) III star (Pop III SN). The abundance ratios of elements produced from Pop III SNe are recorded in abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. The observations of the increasing number of EMP stars have made it possible to statistically constrain the explosion properties of Pop III SNe. We present Pop III SN models whose nucleosynthesis yields well reproduce, individually, the abundance patterns of 48 such metal-poor stars as [Fe/H] ≲ – 3.5. We then derivemore » relations between the abundance ratios of EMP stars and certain explosion properties of Pop III SNe: the higher [(C + N)/Fe] and [(C + N)/Mg] ratios correspond to the smaller ejected Fe mass and the larger compact remnant mass, respectively. Using these relations, the distributions of the abundance ratios of EMP stars are converted to those of the explosion properties of Pop III SNe. Such distributions are compared with those of the explosion properties of present day SNe: the distribution of the ejected Fe mass of Pop III SNe has the same peak as that of the present day SNe but shows an extended tail down to ∼10{sup –2}-10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}, and the distribution of the mass of the compact remnant of Pop III SNe is as wide as that of the present-day, stellar-mass black holes. Our results demonstrate the importance of large samples of EMP stars obtained by ongoing and future EMP star surveys and subsequent high-dispersion spectroscopic observations in clarifying the nature of Pop III SNe in the early universe.« less

  17. A Review of Research on Universal Design Educational Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Kavita; Ok, Min Wook; Bryant, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Universal design for learning (UDL) has gained considerable attention in the field of special education, acclaimed for its promise to promote inclusion by supporting access to the general curriculum. In addition to UDL, there are two other universal design (UD) educational models referenced in the literature, universal design of instruction (UDI)…

  18. Evolution of domain walls in the early universe. Ph.D. Thesis - Chicago Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawano, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of domain walls in the early universe is studied via 2-D computer simulation. The walls are initially configured on a triangular lattice and then released from the lattice, their evolution driven by wall curvature and by the universal expansion. The walls attain an average velocity of about 0.3c and their surface area per volume (as measured in comoving coordinates) goes down with a slope of -1 with respect to conformal time, regardless of whether the universe is matter or radiation dominated. The additional influence of vacuum pressure causes the energy density to fall away from this slope and steepen, thus allowing a situation in which domain walls can constitute a significant portion of the energy density of the universe without provoking an unacceptably large perturbation upon the microwave background.

  19. CHAIRMAN'S PREFACE: Nobel Symposium 79: The Birth and Early Evolution of Our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Bengt; Nilsson, Jan S.; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1991-01-01

    It was in 1986 that we submitted a proposal to organize a Nobel Symposium on the topic "The Birth and Early Evolution of Our Universe", a subject not previously discussed at such a meeting. Our feeling at the time was that it would be appropriate to gather together international expertise on the deep and exciting connections between elementary physics and astrophysics/cosmology. In both these scientific disciplines there are wellknown "standard models"—the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model of electroweak interactions and the Big-Bang cosmological model. The former model has now been tested to a very high accuracy. Progress in observational cosmology and astrophysics has on the other hand given strong support to the standard Big-Bang model as a realistic framework of cosmological evolution. The interesting fact, of course, is that the two standard models are not independent, and their predictions become interlinked when one considers the early, hot universe. It is now a wonderfully accepted piece of history that the constraint on the number of light neutrinos as obtained from the Big-Bang primordial nucleosynthesis agree very well with recent high-energy laboratory experiments. When our proposal was approved in 1989 we were very happy and honoured to invite a large number of internationally outstanding contributors to take part in the Symposium, almost all of whom were able to participate. It was, however, with deep regret and shock that their sudden deaths prevented us from inviting A Sakharov and Y Zeldovich. Their presence and wisdom was sadly missed. By choosing the beautiful village of Gräftåvallen, outside the town of Östesund, as the location of the Symposium, we hoped to provide a relaxing and stimulating atmosphere and also, possibly, almost twenty hours of sunlight a day for a week. The hosts of Gräftåvallen, Annika and Tommy Hagström, have to be thanked for making our stay both extremely successful and to a memorable experience. Our thanks also go to

  20. A stochastic model for early placental development†

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Simon L.; Klika, Václav; Kimpton, Laura; Collins, Sally; Heazell, Alexander E. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions. PMID:24850904

  1. Squeezed states and graviton-entropy production in the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    1994-01-01

    Squeezed states are a very useful framework for the quantum treatment of tensor perturbations (i.e. gravitons production) in the early universe. In particular, the non equilibrium entropy growth in a cosmological process of pair production is completely determined by the associated squeezing parameter and is insensitive to the number of particles in the initial state. The total produced entropy may represent a significant fraction of the entropy stored today in the cosmic blackbody radiation, provided pair production originates from a change in the background metric at a curvature scale of the Planck order. Within the formalism of squeezed thermal states it is also possible to discuss the stimulated emission of gravitons from an initial thermal bath, under the action of the cosmic gravitational background field. We find that at low energy the graviton production is enhanced, if compared with spontaneous creation from the vacuum; as a consequence, the inflation scale must be lowered, in order not to exceed the observed CMB quadrupole anisotropy. This effect is important, in particular, for models based on a symmetry-breaking transition which require, as initial condition, a state of thermal equilibrium at temperatures higher than the inflation scale and in which inflation has a minimal duration.

  2. Dusty starburst galaxies in the early Universe as revealed by gravitational lensing.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J D; Marrone, D P; Chapman, S C; De Breuck, C; Hezaveh, Y D; Weiβ, A; Aguirre, J E; Aird, K A; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Biggs, A D; Bleem, L E; Bock, J J; Bothwell, M; Bradford, C M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Fomalont, E B; Fassnacht, C D; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Gullberg, B; Halverson, N W; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Hunter, T R; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Malkan, M; McIntyre, V; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L M; Murphy, E J; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Sharon, K; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Spilker, J S; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Vanderlinde, K; Welikala, N; Williamson, R

    2013-03-21

    In the past decade, our understanding of galaxy evolution has been revolutionized by the discovery that luminous, dusty starburst galaxies were 1,000 times more abundant in the early Universe than at present. It has, however, been difficult to measure the complete redshift distribution of these objects, especially at the highest redshifts (z > 4). Here we report a redshift survey at a wavelength of three millimetres, targeting carbon monoxide line emission from the star-forming molecular gas in the direction of extraordinarily bright millimetre-wave-selected sources. High-resolution imaging demonstrates that these sources are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. We detect spectral lines in 23 out of 26 sources and multiple lines in 12 of those 23 sources, from which we obtain robust, unambiguous redshifts. At least 10 of the sources are found to lie at z > 4, indicating that the fraction of dusty starburst galaxies at high redshifts is greater than previously thought. Models of lens geometries in the sample indicate that the background objects are ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, powered by extreme bursts of star formation.

  3. A New Model of Entrepreneurship Education: Implications for Central and Eastern European Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explains a new model of entrepreneurship education at university level. The early development of potential entrepreneurs through education, experience and nurturing may be one of the most important initiatives that business and other academic schools can pursue, because the role of entrepreneurship in creating new businesses (as well as…

  4. Differential Validation of a Path Analytic Model of University Dropout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winteler, Adolf

    Tinto's conceptual schema of college dropout forms the theoretical framework for the development of a model of university student dropout intention. This study validated Tinto's model in two different departments within a single university. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 684 college freshmen in the Education and Economics Department. A…

  5. Southwest University's No-Fee Teacher-Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shijian; Yang, Shuhan; Li, Linyuan

    2013-01-01

    The training model for Southwest University's no-fee teacher education program has taken shape over several years. Based on a review of the documentation and interviews with administrators and no-fee preservice students from different specialties, this article analyzes Southwest University's no-fee teacher-training model in terms of three main…

  6. Model Preservation Program for a Small University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Louise S.

    This report proposes a preservation program assuming a model of a university library serving 5,000 or fewer students and 350 or fewer faculty members. The model program is not for a comprehensive university or research institution, and the library's collection is one developed and used as a curriculum-support collection. The goal of the…

  7. A Career Success Model for Academics at Malaysian Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Said, Al-Mansor; Mohd Rasdi, Roziah; Abu Samah, Bahaman; Silong, Abu Daud; Sulaiman, Suzaimah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a career success model for academics at the Malaysian research universities. Design/methodology/approach: Self-administered and online surveys were used for data collection among 325 academics from Malaysian research universities. Findings: Based on the analysis of structural equation modeling, the…

  8. School Based/University Collaborative Effort: A Pre Service Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bercik, Janet T.

    This paper discusses the principles and describes the planning and development of a student teaching program model for Northeastern Illinois University students. The program is in its fourth year and was collaboratively designed by faculty from the university and a local middle school. The model is based on the importance of communication,…

  9. An Analytical Model for University Identity and Reputation Strategy Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Lars; Sundstrom, Agneta C.; Sammalisto, Kaisu

    2013-01-01

    Universities face increasing global competition, pressuring them to restructure and find new identities. A multidimensional model: identity, image and reputation of strategic university identity and reputation work is developed. The model includes: organizational identity; employee and student attitudes; symbolic identity; influence from…

  10. Inflaton and metric fluctuations in the early universe from a 5D vacuum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Membiela, Agustin; Bellini, Mauricio

    2006-04-01

    In this Letter we complete a previously introduced formalism to study the gauge-invariant metric fluctuations from a noncompact Kaluza Klein theory of gravity, to study the evolution of the early universe. The evolution of both, metric and inflaton field fluctuations are reciprocally related. We obtain that <δρ>/ρ depends on the coupling of Φ with δφ and the spectral index of its spectrum is 0.9483

  11. From Early Aspirations to Actual Attainment: The Effects of Economic Status and Educational Expectations on University Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ching-Ling; Bai, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of economic status and the educational expectations of significant others on early university aspirations and actual university attainment. The study analyzed two-wave longitudinal data collected from 1,595 Taiwanese students in their 9th grade in middle school and in their freshman year at universities. The…

  12. Early Grade Writing Assessment: An Instrument Model.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Juan E

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization promoted the creation of a model instrument for individual assessment of students' foundational writing skills in the Spanish language that was based on a literature review and existing writing tools and assessments. The purpose of the Early Grade Writing Assessment (EGWA) is to document learners' basic writing skills, mapped in composing units of increasing complexity to communicate meaning. Validation and standardization of EGWA was conducted in the Canary Islands (Spain) in 12 schools using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 1,653 Spanish-speaking students in Grades 1 through 3. The author describes EGWA's internal structure, along with the prevalence of learning disabilities (LD) in transcription and developmental differences in writing between Spanish-speaking children with LD and typical peers. Findings suggest that EGWA's psychometric characteristics are satisfactory, and its internal structure can be attributed to four factors responsible for a high percentage of the variance. The odds ratio indicated that 2 Spanish-speaking children with LD in transcription are identified out of every 100. A comparison between students with and without LD in transcription revealed statistically significant differences concerning sentence and text production across grades. Results are interpreted within current theoretical accounts of writing models.

  13. Re-Envisioning the Role of Universities in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Community Partnerships for 21st-Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Adam S.; Heineke, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Despite contrasting views on the overlap of early childhood education and teacher education, opportunities abound for expanding the role of early childhood educators in broader teacher education discourse. University-based early childhood education and kindergarten-through-grade-12 teacher education share purposes, philosophies, and resources that…

  14. Supersonic gas streams enhance the formation of massive black holes in the early universe.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Shingo; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Kuiper, Rolf

    2017-09-29

    The origin of super-massive black holes in the early universe remains poorly understood. Gravitational collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud is a promising initial process, but theoretical studies have difficulty growing the black hole fast enough. We report numerical simulations of early black hole formation starting from realistic cosmological conditions. Supersonic gas motions left over from the Big Bang prevent early gas cloud formation until rapid gas condensation is triggered in a protogalactic halo. A protostar is formed in the dense, turbulent gas cloud, and it grows by sporadic mass accretion until it acquires 34,000 solar masses. The massive star ends its life with a catastrophic collapse to leave a black hole-a promising seed for the formation of a monstrous black hole. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  15. Origins and Missions of Two Early Land-Grant Colleges: Georgetown University and George Washington University. ASHE Annual Meeting 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martin S.

    The founding and missions of Georgetown University and George Washington University, two early land-grant colleges, are considered. The account is based partially on standard histories of the colleges, and other information comes from Congressional Records. Some understanding of why Congress took an interest in the founding and survival of…

  16. The first three minutes - 1990 version. [of early universe after Big Bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    The present state of understanding of what occurred in the universe's first three minutes is reviewed. Emphasis is on the events that lead to potentially observable consequences and that are model-independent or at least generic to broad classes of models. Inflation, phase transitions, dark matter, and nucleosynthesis are summarized.

  17. University Start-ups: A Better Business Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Many universities look to start-up companies as a way to attract faculty, supporting research and students as traditional federal sources become harder to come by. University affiliated start-up companies can apply for a broader suite of grants, as well as market their services to a broad customer base. Often university administrators see this as a potential panacea, but national statistics show this is not the case. Rarely do universities profit significantly from their start-ups. With a success rates of around 20%, most start-ups end up costing the university money as well as faculty-time. For the faculty, assuming they want to continue in academia, a start-up is often unattractive because it commonly leads out of academia. Running a successful business as well as maintaining a strong teaching and research load is almost impossible to do at the same time. Most business models and business professionals work outside of academia, and the models taught in business schools do not merge well in a university environment. To mitigate this a new business model is proposed where university start-ups are aligned with the academic and research missions of the university. A university start-up must work within the university, directly support research and students, and the work done maintaining the business be recognized as part of the faculty member's university obligations. This requires a complex conflict of interest management plan and for the companies to be non-profit in order to not jeopardize the university's status. This approach may not work well for all universities, but would be ideal for many to conserve resources and ensure a harmonious relationship with their start-ups and faculty.

  18. Modeling Early Galaxies Using Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    None

    This simulation uses a flux-limited diffusion solver to explore the radiation hydrodynamics of early galaxies, in particular, the ionizing radiation created by Population III stars. At the time of this rendering, the simulation has evolved to a redshift of 3.5. The simulation volume is 11.2 comoving megaparsecs, and has a uniform grid of 10243 cells, with over 1 billion dark matter and star particles. This animation shows a combined view of the baryon density, dark matter density, radiation energy and emissivity from this simulation. The multi-variate rendering is particularly useful because is shows both the baryonic matter ("normal") and darkmore » matter, and the pressure and temperature variables are properties of only the baryonic matter. Visible in the gas density are "bubbles", or shells, created by the radiation feedback from young stars. Seeing the bubbles from feedback provides confirmation of the physics model implemented. Features such as these are difficult to identify algorithmically, but easily found when viewing the visualization. Simulation was performed on Kraken at the National Institute for Computational Sciences. Visualization was produced using resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory.« less

  19. Generation of the relic neutrino asymmetry in a hot plasma of the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semikoz, Victor B.; Dvornikov, Maxim

    The neutrino asymmetry in the early universe plasma, nν ‑ nν¯, is calculated both before and after the electroweak phase transition (EWPT). In the Standard Model, before EWPT, the leptogenesis is well known to be driven by the abelian anomaly in a massless hypercharge field. The generation of the neutrino asymmetry in the Higgs phase after EWPT, in its turn, has not been considered previously because of the absence of any quantum anomaly in an external electromagnetic field for such electroneutral particles as neutrino, unlike the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly for charged left and right polarized massless electrons in the same electromagnetic field. Using the neutrino Boltzmann equation, modified by the Berry curvature term in the momentum space, we establish the violation of the macroscopic neutrino current in plasma after EWPT and exactly reproduce the nonconservation of the lepton current in the symmetric phase before EWPT arising in quantum field theory due to the nonzero lepton hypercharge and corresponding triangle anomaly in an external hypercharge field. In the last case, the nonconservation of the lepton current is derived through the kinetic approach without a computation of corresponding Feynman diagrams. Then, the new kinetic equation is applied for the calculation of the neutrino asymmetry accounting for the Berry curvature and the electroweak interaction with background fermions in the Higgs phase. Such an interaction generates a neutrino asymmetry through the electroweak coupling of neutrino currents with electromagnetic fields in plasma, which is ˜ GF2. It turns out that this effect is especially efficient for maximally helical magnetic fields.

  20. FAST MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: GROWTH OF COLLISIONLESS PLASMA INSTABILITIES IN TURBULENT MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; Kowal, G.

    2015-07-20

    In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growthmore » rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.« less

  1. Implementing a university-community-retail partnership model to facilitate community education on universal design.

    PubMed

    Price, Christine A; Zavotka, Susan L; Teaford, Margaret H

    2004-10-01

    A collaborative partnership model was used to develop and implement a state-wide community education program on universal design. University faculty, extension professionals, older adult service agencies, service learning students, and a community retail chain made up the original partnership. This collaboration resulted in a five-stage partnership model. The model was used to develop and disseminate a consumer education program to promote aging in place. The five stages include (a) identifying partner strengths and shared learning, (b) program development, (c) implementing the universal design program, (d) facilitating collaborative outreach, and (e) shifting toward sustainable outreach. A lack of knowledge exists among consumers, builders, and health care professionals regarding strategies for aging in place. Collaborations between educators, outreach professionals, students, and a retail partner resulted in increased interest and awareness about universal design changes that enable seniors to age in place.

  2. Earthquake Early Warning Beta Users: Java, Modeling, and Mobile Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, J. A.; Vinci, M.; Steele, W. P.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a system that can provide a few to tens of seconds warning prior to ground shaking at a user's location. The goal and purpose of such a system is to reduce, or minimize, the damage, costs, and casualties resulting from an earthquake. A demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) is undergoing testing in the United States by the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, Caltech, ETH Zurich, University of Washington, the USGS, and beta users in California and the Pacific Northwest. The beta users receive earthquake information very rapidly in real-time and are providing feedback on their experiences of performance and potential uses within their organization. Beta user interactions allow the ShakeAlert team to discern: which alert delivery options are most effective, what changes would make the UserDisplay more useful in a pre-disaster situation, and most importantly, what actions users plan to take for various scenarios. Actions could include: personal safety approaches, such as drop cover, and hold on; automated processes and procedures, such as opening elevator or fire stations doors; or situational awareness. Users are beginning to determine which policy and technological changes may need to be enacted, and funding requirements to implement their automated controls. The use of models and mobile apps are beginning to augment the basic Java desktop applet. Modeling allows beta users to test their early warning responses against various scenarios without having to wait for a real event. Mobile apps are also changing the possible response landscape, providing other avenues for people to receive information. All of these combine to improve business continuity and resiliency.

  3. Unstable Hadrons in Hot Hadron Gas in Laboratory and in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Inga; Rafelski, Johann

    2011-04-01

    We study kinetic master equations for reactions involving the formation and the natural decay of unstable particles in a thermal expanding hadronic gas in the laboratory and in the early Universe. We consider here for the first time the role of the decay channel of one (hadron resonance) into two daughter particles, and also by token of detailed balance the inverse process, fusion of two (thermal) particles into one. We obtain the thermal invariant reaction rate using as an input the free space (vacuum) decay time and show the medium quantum effects on π+π<->ρ reaction relaxation time. As another laboratory example we describe the K+K<->φ process in thermal expanding hadronic gas in heavy ions collisions. A particularly interesting application of our formalism is the 0̂<->γ+γ process in the early Universe. We also explore the fate of charged pions and the muon freeze-out in the Universe. Another interesting field of application of our formalism is the study of short lived hadronic resonances, which are in general not able to reach yield equilibrium. We study the evolution of hadron resonances in small drops of QGP and use the insight gained to generalize the dynamics to QED effects as well.

  4. Quantum Kinetics and the Zeno Ansatz: Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, Olexiy V.

    We solved the quantum kinetic equations for the evolution of neutrino states in the early universe. Starting at high temperatures, we evolve neutrino states to observe the resonant conversion of active-to-sterile neutrinos in a lepton asymmetric (more neutrinos than anti-neutrinos) universe. We find that at high temperatures, the high neutrino scattering and oscillation rates enforce a local equilibrium that balances the growth of coherence at the oscillation rate and the damping of coherence through scattering. This equilibrium, which we call a "quantum kinetic equilibrium," appears to approximately hold throughout the neutrino evolution, from the initial conditions through resonances that may be non adiabatic. Using this quantum kinetic equilibrium informs a proper choice of the initial conditions of the neutrino state and the relaxation process that occurs to this equilibrium when the initial conditions (as are typically chosen in the literature) are not coincident with the equilibrium values. We also discuss how to use this equilibrium to reduce the computational expense of solving the full quantum kinetic equations for neutrino states evolving in the early universe.

  5. Green Peas emit X-rays: Extreme Star Formation in Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Luminous compact galaxies (LCGs), Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs), and Lyman Break Analog galaxies (LBAs) are all used as proxies for star-forming galaxies in the early Universe (z ≥ 6). The X-ray emission from such galaxies has been found to be elevated compared to other star-forming galaxies in our local Universe. It has been suggested that this may be due to the lower metallicity seen in these proxies to high-redshift galaxies and the elevated X-ray emission may affect the heating and Reionization evolution of the early Universe. Our previous studies have suggested the existence of an LX-SFR-metallicity plane for all star-forming galaxies. We present these results in the context of our newest Joint Chandra/HST study containing the first X-ray detection of the Green Pea galaxies, a population of compact starburst galaxies discovered by volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo Project (Cardamone+2009). The galaxies were given the name Green Peas due to their compact size and green appearance in the gri composite images from SDSS. The green color is caused by a strong [OIII]λ5007Å emission line, an indicator of recent star formation. We observed a few of the most promising candidates with joint Chandra/HST observation and discuss our findings here.

  6. Disadvantaged Rural Students: Five Models of School-University Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Peter; And Others

    This paper describes five models of school-university collaboration designed to maximize academic achievement opportunities for disadvantaged rural students. Project SHAPE (School and Homes As Partners in Education) at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Plattsburgh is an extended school day program established in partnership with…

  7. The "Beijing Consensus" and the Chinese Model of University Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zha, Qiang; Hayhoe, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to address connections between the Chinese model for development or the "Beijing Consensus" and Chinese universities. Chinese universities seem to be caught between serving governmental agendas and pursuing their own goals as an academic community. Up until recently, they had become used to following the lead of the…

  8. Rural Free Universities: Extending the UFM Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Sue C.

    Operating under a grant, the University for Man (UFM) in Manhattan, Kansas, tested the transferability of the UFM free university/community education model using four existing statewide delivery systems (public libraries, a private college consortium, a state cooperative extension service, an office of rural affairs) in five states: Kentucky,…

  9. Community Dissemination of the Early Start Denver Model: Implications for Science and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vismara, Laurie A.; Young, Gregory S.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    The growing number of Autism Spectrum Disorder cases exceeds the services available for these children. This increase challenges both researchers and service providers to develop systematic, effective dissemination strategies for transporting university research models to community early intervention (EI) programs. The current study developed an…

  10. Development of Laboratory Model Ecosystems as Early Warning Elements of Environmental Pollution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    AD-AOll 851 DEVELOPMENT OF LABORATORY MODEL ECOSYSTEMS AS EARLY WARNING ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Robert L. Metcalf... ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Robert L. Metcalf, Ph. D. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Illinois INTRODUCTION Problems of environmental pollution with...house dust is unsafe to breathe (Ewing and Pearson, 1974). Most of the source of our concern about environmental pollution by trace substances relates

  11. Universal Priors for Sparse Modeling(PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Ingenierı́a Eléctrica, Universidad de la República J. Herrera y Reissig 565, Montevideo 11300, Uruguay 2fefo@fing.edu.uy Abstract—Sparse data models, where...Aj‖0 = |Aj | as its cardinality . The goal of sparse modeling is to design a dictionary D such that X = DA with ‖Aj‖0 sufficiently small (usually below

  12. Out of This World: A University Partnership Model for Functional Clothing Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Simon, Cory

    2013-01-01

    University collaborations with external partners can be difficult to initiate, especially in early-stage or emerging topics. External collaborators may be reluctant to commit the level of funding required to ensure that the topic is given adequate attention, and low-stakes mechanisms are relatively rare. Here, we present a successful model for collaboration between universities and NASA, which uses existing project-based coursework as a vehicle for exploration of emerging topics. This model leverages existing structures, reducing the financial and intellectual commitment of both University and NASA research partners, and facilitating pilot investigations for exploration of potential areas for more in-depth research. We outline the logistical structure and benefits for University and NASA partners over 1.5 years of collaboration.

  13. Simple universal models capture all classical spin physics.

    PubMed

    De las Cuevas, Gemma; Cubitt, Toby S

    2016-03-11

    Spin models are used in many studies of complex systems because they exhibit rich macroscopic behavior despite their microscopic simplicity. Here, we prove that all the physics of every classical spin model is reproduced in the low-energy sector of certain "universal models," with at most polynomial overhead. This holds for classical models with discrete or continuous degrees of freedom. We prove necessary and sufficient conditions for a spin model to be universal and show that one of the simplest and most widely studied spin models, the two-dimensional Ising model with fields, is universal. Our results may facilitate physical simulations of Hamiltonians with complex interactions. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. A model for the development of university curricula in nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruun, E.; Nielsen, I.

    2010-12-01

    Nanotechnology is having an increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering and in physics. Major influencers affecting developments in university programmes related to nanoelectronics are discussed and a model for university programme development is described. The model takes into account that nanotechnology affects not only physics but also electrical engineering and computer engineering because of the advent of new nanoelectronics devices. The model suggests that curriculum development tends to follow one of three major tracks: physics; electrical engineering; computer engineering. Examples of European curricula following this framework are identified and described. These examples may serve as sources of inspiration for future developments and the model presented may provide guidelines for a systematic selection of topics in the university programmes.

  15. What the Most Metal-poor Stars Tell Us About the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, Anna

    2008-05-01

    The chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the early Universe is a key topic in modern astrophysics. The most metal-poor Galactic halo stars are now frequently used in an attempt to reconstruct the onset of the chemical and dynamical formation processes of the Galaxy. These stars are an easily-accessible local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and can thus be used to carry out field-field cosmology. The discovery of two astrophysically very important metal-poor objects has recently lead to a significant advance in the field. One object is the most iron-poor star yet found (with [Fe/H]=-5.4). The other stars displays the strongest known overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements, such as uranium, and nucleo-chronometry yields a stellar age of 13 Gyr. Both stars already serve as benchmark objects for various theoretical studies with regard to nucleosynthesis processes in the early Galaxy. I will discuss how the abundance patterns of these and other metal-poor stars solidify and advance our understanding of the early Universe, and provide constraints on the nature of the first stars, as well as their explosion mechanisms and corresponding supernova nucleosynthesis yields. Large samples of these old objects are also employed to test theoretical predictions about the formation of the very first low-mass stars. In the near future, the combined power of near-field cosmology results with those of the next-generation facilities (e.g., MWA, JWST, GMT) may yield exceptional details about the formation processes of the first generations of stars and galaxies.

  16. A Multi-Faceted Study of Three Forms of Galactic Formation in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Gareth Christopher

    While observations of the early universe have focused on bright, highly starbursting galaxies, star formation activity in the early universe was dominated by main sequence galaxies. Observations of the former group have been accumulating for decades, but the latter are only recently observable using modern instruments. In this work, we apply the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe specific examples of each galactic class, in order to explore three modes of galaxy formation: smooth accretion, satellite accretion, and massive mergers. Using the molecular gas tracer CO and a broad set of continuum measurements, we characterize the gas mass and distribution, star formation, and dust temperature of the two archetypal massively merging Hyper-Luminous IR Galaxies (HyLIRGs) BRI1202-0725 & BRI1335-0417. We then examine the [C II] emission of the Lyman-Break Galaxy (LBG) WMH5, which shows two infalling gas clouds, implying ongoing formation via filamentary accretion. Finally, we apply a classical suite of dynamical characterization tools to [C II] observations of three MS galaxies and three starbursts, resulting in rotation curves and dynamical masses for each. By examining each of these sources in detail, we find that galaxies in the early (i.e., z > 4) universe formed via a broad range of interactions, ranging from cold-mode accretion to major mergers. As these instruments continue observing, and with the future advent of JWST and perhaps the ngVLA, stronger constraints may be placed on the behavior of the galaxies in the epoch of initial galaxy formation.

  17. Metabolic Modeling of the Last Universal Common Ancestor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broddrick, J. T.; Yurkovich, J. T.; Palsson, B. O.

    2017-07-01

    The origin and diversity of life on earth are intimately linked to metabolic processes. Using recent assessments of early metabolic capabilities, we construct a metabolic model of a primordial organism that could be representative of the LUCA.

  18. Quantum graviton creation in a model universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, B. K.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of the mechanism of production of gravitons in the empty, anisotropic, spatially inhomogeneous Gowdy three-torus cosmology. The Gowdy cosmology is an exact solution of the vacuum Einstein equations and is obtained as a generalization of the homogeneous empty Bianchi Type I (Kasner) cosmology by permitting the metric components to depend on one of the space variables in addition to time. The Hamiltonian methods of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner are employed to identify the dynamical variables which are to be quantized. The WKB regime solution is identical to that found by Doroshkevich, Zel'dovich, and Novikov (DZN) for a universe containing collisionless anisotropic radiation. Using a procedure similar to that of Parker (1971) or Zel'dovich and Starobinskii (1971) for defining quantum number, it is found that the DZN large-time radiation consists of quanta (gravitons) created from an initial vacuum. The quantum behavior is much like the semiclassical enhancement of quantum number with the added feature of creation of quanta from vacuum fluctuations.

  19. Influence of the turbulent motion on the chiral magnetic effect in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, Maxim; Semikoz, Victor B.

    2017-02-01

    We study the magnetohydrodynamics of relativistic plasmas accounting for the chiral magnetic effect (CME). To take into account the evolution of the plasma velocity, obeying the Navier-Stokes equation, we approximate it by the Lorentz force accompanied by the phenomenological drag time parameter. On the basis of this ansatz, we obtain the contributions of both the turbulence effects, resulting from the dynamo term, and the magnetic field instability, caused by the CME, to the evolution of the magnetic field governed by the modified Faraday equation. In this way, we explore the evolution of the magnetic field energy and the magnetic helicity density spectra in the early Universe plasma. We find that the right-left electron asymmetry is enhanced by the turbulent plasma motion in a strong seed magnetic field compared to the pure CME case studied earlier for the hot Universe plasma in the same broken phase.

  20. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. AGN feedback through UFO and galaxy-wide winds in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feruglio, C.; Piconcelli, E.; Bischetti, M.; Zappacosta, L.; Fiore, F.

    2017-10-01

    AGN feedback through massive molecular winds is today routinely observed in local AGN host galaxies, but not as such in the early universe. I will present the first evidence for a massive, AGN-driven molecular wind in the z 4 QSO APM08279, which also hosts the most well studied and persistent nuclear semi-raltivistic wind (UFO). This observation directly probes the expansion mechanism of a nuclear wind into the ISM on galaxy wide scales, that so far was constrained by a couple of other objects only (Feruglio et al. 2015, Tombesi et al. 2015). This result also opens the path toward the exploration of molecular AGN-driven winds at early epochs, close after the end of the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR).

  2. Constraining antimatter domains in the early universe with big bang nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kurki-Suonio, H; Sihvola, E

    2000-04-24

    We consider the effect of a small-scale matter-antimatter domain structure on big bang nucleosynthesis and place upper limits on the amount of antimatter in the early universe. For small domains, which annihilate before nucleosynthesis, this limit comes from underproduction of 4He. For larger domains, the limit comes from 3He overproduction. Since most of the 3He from &pmacr; 4He annihilation are themselves annihilated, the main source of primordial 3He is the photodisintegration of 4He by the electromagnetic cascades initiated by the annihilation.

  3. Supersonic gas streams enhance the formation of massive black holes in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Shingo; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Kuiper, Rolf

    2017-09-01

    Supermassive black holes existed less than a billion years after the Big Bang. Because black holes can grow at a maximum rate that depends on their current mass, it has been difficult to understand how such massive black holes could have formed so quickly. Hirano et al. developed simulations to show that streaming motions—velocity offsets between the gas and dark matter components—could have produced black holes with tens of thousands of solar masses in the early universe. That's big enough to grow into the supermassive black holes that we observe today.

  4. Coherent Active-Sterile Neutrino Flavor Transformation in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Chad T.; Fuller, George M.; Smith, Christel J.

    2006-10-01

    We solve the problem of coherent Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonant active-to-sterile neutrino flavor conversion driven by an initial lepton number in the early Universe. We find incomplete destruction of the lepton number in this process and a sterile neutrino energy distribution with a distinctive cusp and high energy tail. These features imply alteration of the nonzero lepton number primordial nucleosynthesis paradigm when there exist sterile neutrinos with rest masses ms˜1eV. This could result in better light element probes of (constraints on) these particles.

  5. Coherent active-sterile neutrino flavor transformation in the early universe.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Chad T; Fuller, George M; Smith, Christel J

    2006-10-06

    We solve the problem of coherent Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonant active-to-sterile neutrino flavor conversion driven by an initial lepton number in the early Universe. We find incomplete destruction of the lepton number in this process and a sterile neutrino energy distribution with a distinctive cusp and high energy tail. These features imply alteration of the nonzero lepton number primordial nucleosynthesis paradigm when there exist sterile neutrinos with rest masses m(s) approximately 1 eV. This could result in better light element probes of (constraints on) these particles.

  6. Model Development for A University-Based Learning Disability Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry L.; And Others

    The report presents a model for appraisal and individualized educational programing for learning disabled children at the School of Education, Auburn University, Alabama. Descriptions by clinic staff of visitations to exemplary models and a summary of a regional conference on learning disabilities introduce the report. The clinic model is…

  7. University Business Models and Online Practices: A Third Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Higher Education is in a state of change, and the existing business models do not meet the needs of stakeholders. This article contrasts the current dominant business models of universities, comparing the traditional non-profit against the for-profit online model, examining the structural features and online teaching practices that underlie each.…

  8. Post-recombination early Universe cooling by translation-internal inter-conversion: The role of minor constituents.

    PubMed

    McCaffery, Anthony J

    2015-09-14

    Little is known of the mechanism by which H and H2, the principal constituents of the post-re-combination early Universe, cooled sufficiently to permit cluster formation, nucleosynthesis, and, eventually, the formation of structured objects. Radiative decay primarily cools the internal modes of H2, as Δj = - 2 jumps accompany quadrupolar emission. This, however, would be a self-limiting mechanism. In this work, a translational energy cooling mechanism based on collision-induced, translation-to-internal mode conversion, is extended, following an earlier study [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] of ensembles comprising H2 in a H atom bath gas. Here, the possible influence of minor species, such as HD, on this cooling mechanism is investigated. Results suggest that the influence of HD is small but not insignificant. Conversion is very rapid and an overall translation-to-internal energy conversion efficiency of some 5% could be expected. This finding may be of use in the further development of models of this complex phase of early Universe evolution. An unexpected finding in this study was that H2 + HD ensembles are capable of very rapid translation-to-internal conversion with efficiencies of >40% and relaxation rates that appear to be relatively slow. This may have potential as an energy storage mechanism.

  9. Post-recombination early Universe cooling by translation–internal inter-conversion: The role of minor constituents

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffery, Anthony J., E-mail: A.J.McCaffery@sussex.ac.uk

    Little is known of the mechanism by which H and H{sub 2}, the principal constituents of the post-re-combination early Universe, cooled sufficiently to permit cluster formation, nucleosynthesis, and, eventually, the formation of structured objects. Radiative decay primarily cools the internal modes of H{sub 2}, as Δj = − 2 jumps accompany quadrupolar emission. This, however, would be a self-limiting mechanism. In this work, a translational energy cooling mechanism based on collision-induced, translation-to-internal mode conversion, is extended, following an earlier study [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] of ensembles comprising H{sub 2} in amore » H atom bath gas. Here, the possible influence of minor species, such as HD, on this cooling mechanism is investigated. Results suggest that the influence of HD is small but not insignificant. Conversion is very rapid and an overall translation-to-internal energy conversion efficiency of some 5% could be expected. This finding may be of use in the further development of models of this complex phase of early Universe evolution. An unexpected finding in this study was that H{sub 2} + HD ensembles are capable of very rapid translation-to-internal conversion with efficiencies of >40% and relaxation rates that appear to be relatively slow. This may have potential as an energy storage mechanism.« less

  10. The Transient High-Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, L.; O'Brien, P.; Goetz, D.; Tenzer, C.; Bozzo, E.

    2017-10-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) is a mission concept developed by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting Gamma-Ray Bursts for investigating the early Universe. The main scientic objectives of THESEUS, currently under evaluation by ESA within the selection process for next M5 mission, include: investigating the star formation rate and metallicity evolution of the ISM and IGM up to redshift 10, detecting the first generation (pop III) of stars, studying the sources and physics of re-ionization, detecting the faint end of galaxies luminosity function. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRB detection and arcmin localization over a broad FOV (more than 1sr) and an energy band extending from several MeVs down to 0.3 keV with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as on-board prompt (few minutes) follow-up with a 0.7m class IR telescope with both imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Such instrumentation will also allow THESEUS to perform a monitoring of the X-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity, which will provide a perfect service and sinergy to next generation multi-wavalength (e.g., E-ELT, SKA, CTA, ATHENA) and multi-messenger (aLIGO, aVIRGO, eLISA, ET, neutrino detectors, ...) facilities.

  11. From Universalism to Selectivity? The Background, Discourses and Ideas of Recent Early Childhood Education and Care Reforms in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundkvist, Marina; Nyby, Josefine; Autto, Janne; Nygård, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Universal public childcare for children under seven has been central in Finland since the mid-1990s, capacitating both gender equality and children's human capital and wellbeing. In 2015, as a further step in the development of this system, early learning and childhood pedagogy was strengthened through the early childhood education and care (ECEC)…

  12. Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers' Concerns and Solutions to Overcome Them (the Case of Pamukkale University)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevher-Kalburan, Nilgün

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to determine early childhood pre-service teachers' concerns and solutions. One hundred early childhood pre-service teachers who were enrolled at Pamukkale University, Turkey, answered two open-ended questions by e-mail. In addition, six of these participants were interviewed for developing a deeper…

  13. Variables associated with the risk of early death after liver transplantation at a liver transplant unit in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, L D; Stucchi, R S; de Ataíde, E C; Boin, I F S F

    2015-05-01

    Graft dysfunction after liver transplantation is a serious complication that can lead to graft loss and patient death. This was a study to identify risk factors for early death (up to 30 days after transplantation). It was an observational and retrospective analysis at the Liver Transplantation Unit, Hospital de Clinicas, State University of Campinas, Brazil. From July 1994 to December 2012, 302 patients were included (>18 years old, piggyback technique). Of these cases, 26% died within 30 days. For analysis, Student t tests and chi-square were used to analyze receptor-related (age, body mass index, serum sodium, graft dysfunction, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, renal function, and early graft dysfunction [EGD type 1, 2, or 3]), surgery (hot and cold ischemia, surgical time, and units of packed erythrocytes [pRBC]), and donor (age, hypotension, and brain death cause) factors. Risk factors were identified by means of logistic regression model adjusted by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test with significance set at P < .05. We found that hyponatremic recipients had a 6.26-fold higher risk for early death. There was a 9% reduced chance of death when the recipient serum sodium increased 1 unit. The chance of EGD3 to have early death was 18-fold higher than for EGD1 and there was a 13% increased risk for death for each unit of pRBC transfused. Donor total bilirubin, hyponatremia, massive transfusion, and EGD3 in the allocation graft should be observed for better results in the postoperative period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals’ pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers. PMID:28178270

  15. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers.

    PubMed

    Roach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.

  16. The Effect of Concept Attainment Model on Mathematically Critical Thinking Ability of The University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angraini, L. M.; Kartasasmita, B.; Dasari, D.

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the university students’ mathematically critical thinking ability through Concept Attainment Model learning. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene test, t test, ANOVA one and two ways were used to analyse the data. The results of this study showed that (1) there is no difference grade on the student’s mathematical critical thinking ability between experimental group and conventional group as a whole, (2) there is no difference on the students’ mathematical critical thinking ability of experimental classes based on their mathematical early ability (3) there is no interaction between the learning that is used with the students’ mathematical early ability on the students’ mathematical critical thinking ability.

  17. Thermal cut-off response modelling of universal motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangaveloo, Kashveen; Chin, Yung Shin

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a model to predict the thermal cut-off (TCO) response behaviour in universal motors. The mathematical model includes the calculations of heat loss in the universal motor and the flow characteristics around the TCO component which together are the main parameters for TCO response prediction. In order to accurately predict the TCO component temperature, factors like the TCO component resistance, the effect of ambient, and the flow conditions through the motor are taken into account to improve the prediction accuracy of the model.

  18. Review of early assessment models of innovative medical technologies.

    PubMed

    Fasterholdt, Iben; Krahn, Murray; Kidholm, Kristian; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller

    2017-08-01

    Hospitals increasingly make decisions regarding the early development of and investment in technologies, but a formal evaluation model for assisting hospitals early on in assessing the potential of innovative medical technologies is lacking. This article provides an overview of models for early assessment in different health organisations and discusses which models hold most promise for hospital decision makers. A scoping review of published studies between 1996 and 2015 was performed using nine databases. The following information was collected: decision context, decision problem, and a description of the early assessment model. 2362 articles were identified and 12 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. An additional 12 studies were identified and included in the review by searching reference lists. The majority of the 24 early assessment studies were variants of traditional cost-effectiveness analysis. Around one fourth of the studies presented an evaluation model with a broader focus than cost-effectiveness. Uncertainty was mostly handled by simple sensitivity or scenario analysis. This review shows that evaluation models using known methods assessing cost-effectiveness are most prevalent in early assessment, but seems ill-suited for early assessment in hospitals. Four models provided some usable elements for the development of a hospital-based model. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. What Is FRBR? A Conceptual Model for the Bibliographic Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillett, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    From 1992 to 1995 the IFLA Study Group on Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) developed an entity relationship model as a generalised view of the bibliographic universe, intended to be independent of any cataloguing code or implementation. The FRBR report itself includes a description of the conceptual model (the entities,…

  20. Integrating an Interprofessional Education Model at a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ramona Ann; Gottlieb, Helmut; Dominguez, Daniel G.; Sanchez-Diaz, Patricia C.; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a private University in South Texas sought to prepare eight cohorts of 25 nursing, optometry, pharmacy, physical therapy, and health care administration students with an interprofessional education activity as a model for collaborative learning. The two semester interprofessional activity used a blended model (Blackboard Learn®,…

  1. Precursors of Adolescent Substance Use from Early Childhood and Early Adolescence: Testing a Developmental Cascade Model

    PubMed Central

    Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24029248

  2. University-Industry Research Collaboration: A Model to Assess University Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Di Costa, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and policy makers recognize that collaboration between industry and the public research institutions is a necessity for innovation and national economic development. This work presents an econometric model which expresses the university capability for collaboration with industry as a function of size, location and research quality. The…

  3. Faculties of Education in Traditional Universities and Universities of the Third Age: A Partnership Model in Gerontagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Andre; Boutin, Gerald; Riendeau, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses "Universities of the Third Age", whose function is quite distinct from established universities' traditional role in teaching, research, and community services. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a model of partnership between traditional universities and Universities of the Third Age, ensuring better…

  4. Predictive models for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among Spanish University students: rationale and methods of the UNIVERSAL (University & mental health) project.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Maria Jesús; Castellví, Pere; Almenara, José; Lagares, Carolina; Roca, Miquel; Sesé, Albert; Piqueras, José Antonio; Soto-Sanz, Victoria; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; Echeburúa, Enrique; Gabilondo, Andrea; Cebrià, Ana Isabel; Miranda-Mendizábal, Andrea; Vilagut, Gemma; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Auerbach, Randy P; Kessler, Ronald C; Alonso, Jordi

    2016-05-04

    prevention programs for youth suicide and for improving early identification for high-risk students. The longitudinal design of this study will improve causal interpretation of analyzed associations, needed for generating and validating predictive models. It will represent the first results about suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the Spanish university population. The World Mental Health Survey collaboration will permit accurate cross-national comparisons.

  5. Implementation of a University-wide Retention Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. J.; Campbell, A.

    2006-12-01

    Eleven years ago, Bowie State University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center entered into an agreement to enhance the science, mathematics, engineering and technology /(SMET/) domains. A Model Institutions for Excellence Award provided the financial basis for a number of initiatives that have led to increased retention and graduation rates. Initiatives such as a scholarship program, tutoring center, Summer Academy, safety-net program, research focus and mentoring have had a significant impact on students entering graduate and professional school and SMET related employment. Successes documented through various assessment activities and tracking of student progress, have led to implementation of the `retention model' urilized by the SMET MIE Initiatives throughout the University. The MIE retention efforts include each of the aforementioned initiatives plus pre-college and second-year experience programs. It is anticipated that the University-wide application of the `retention model' will provide the incentives necessary to obtain similar results throughout the student body.

  6. First Look at a Major Transition Period in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    New Observations of Intergalactic Helium Absorption Observations of the bright southern quasar HE 2347-4342 with telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have provided a group of European astronomers [1] with an exceptional glimpse into an early, still unexplored transition period of the Universe. At that time, many billions of years ago, some of the enormous gaseous clouds of hydrogen and helium left over from the Big Bang had not yet been fully ionized by the increasingly strong radiation from emerging galaxies and stars. In recent years astronomers have successfully `looked back' towards this period, but the new observations of HE 2347-4342 have now homed in on an important transitionary epoch during the evolution of the young Universe. Searching for clear views towards bright quasars As has been the case for many other important scientific achievements, this observational breakthrough was preceded by a long and tedious period of careful preparatory work. It began in 1989, when Dieter Reimers and his collaborators from the University of Hamburg (Germany) initiated a spectral survey of the entire southern sky with the 1-metre ESO Schmidt Telescope at La Silla. The aim was to find bright quasars , a rare class of remote galaxies with unusually bright and energetic centres. They would then be studied in greater detail with other, larger telescopes. For this programme, a large objective prism is placed in front of the telescope, allowing the simultaneous recording on a large photographic plate of spectra of about 40,000 celestial objects in a 5 o x 5 o sky field. The plates are sent to Hamburg where they are scanned (digitized) in a microphotometer and automatically searched for spectra of quasars. Until now, more than 400 plates have been obtained. One of the main goals of this vast programme is to find bright and distant quasars, in particular those whose light reaches us along relatively unobstructed paths. Or

  7. Monitoring and modeling agricultural drought for famine early warning (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdin, J. P.; Funk, C.; Budde, M. E.; Lietzow, R.; Senay, G. B.; Smith, R.; Pedreros, D.; Rowland, J.; Artan, G. A.; Husak, G. J.; Michaelsen, J.; Adoum, A.; Galu, G.; Magadzire, T.; Rodriguez, M.

    2009-12-01

    new countries have no local FEWS NET analysts, requiring increased reliance on remote sensing for detection of agricultural drought and potential food insecurity. USGS is increasing its cooperation with NASA, NOAA, and university partners to meet this challenge. New servers for near real time delivery of MODIS NDVI, satellite rainfall estimates, and gridded snow pack estimates are being established. A custom instance of NASA's Land Information System software is also being developed to create a land data assimilation system specifically for FEWS NET domains, data streams, and monitoring and forecast requirements. The system will take better advantage of remote sensing data, including promising new products from the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission, by integrating them with surface observations for simulation of land surface processes. In this way, the continuous improvement of monitoring and modeling for famine early warning will advance to a new level of sophistication and effectiveness.

  8. Exploring the dusty star-formation in the early Universe using intensity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagache, Guilaine

    2018-05-01

    In the last decade, it has become clear that the dust-enshrouded star formation contributes significantly to early galaxy evolution. Detection of dust is therefore essential in determining the properties of galaxies in the high-redshift universe. This requires observations at the (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. Unfortunately, sensitivity and background confusion of single dish observations on the one hand, and mapping efficiency of interferometers on the other hand, pose unique challenges to observers. One promising route to overcome these difficulties is intensity mapping of fluctuations which exploits the confusion-limited regime and measures the collective light emission from all sources, including unresolved faint galaxies. We discuss in this contribution how 2D and 3D intensity mapping can measure the dusty star formation at high redshift, through the Cosmic Infrared Background (2D) and [CII] fine structure transition (3D) anisotropies.

  9. Modeling the Relationship between Prosodic Sensitivity and Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Andrew; Critten, Sarah; Lawrence, Tony; Harrison, Emily; Wood, Clare; Hughes, David

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature has demonstrated that prosodic sensitivity is related to early literacy development; however, the precise nature of this relationship remains unclear. It has been speculated in recent theoretical models that the observed relationship between prosodic sensitivity and early literacy might be partially mediated by children's…

  10. Taiwanese Model of Teacher Preparation for Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was employed in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood education in Taiwan could be summarized as: (1) The…

  11. A tale of two timescales: Mixing, mass generation, and phase transitions in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kost, Jeff; Thomas, Brooks

    2016-02-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically—such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions—the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system—often by many orders of magnitude—but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "reoverdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings.

  12. Sloppy-model universality class and the Vandermonde matrix.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Joshua J; Casey, Fergal P; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Brown, Kevin S; Myers, Christopher R; Brouwer, Piet W; Elser, Veit; Sethna, James P

    2006-10-13

    In a variety of contexts, physicists study complex, nonlinear models with many unknown or tunable parameters to explain experimental data. We explain why such systems so often are sloppy: the system behavior depends only on a few "stiff" combinations of the parameters and is unchanged as other "sloppy" parameter combinations vary by orders of magnitude. We observe that the eigenvalue spectra for the sensitivity of sloppy models have a striking, characteristic form with a density of logarithms of eigenvalues which is roughly constant over a large range. We suggest that the common features of sloppy models indicate that they may belong to a common universality class. In particular, we motivate focusing on a Vandermonde ensemble of multiparameter nonlinear models and show in one limit that they exhibit the universal features of sloppy models.

  13. Home and Community Language Proficiency in Spanish-English Early Bilingual University Students.

    PubMed

    Schmidtke, Jens

    2017-10-17

    This study assessed home and community language proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual university students to investigate whether the vocabulary gap reported in studies of bilingual children persists into adulthood. Sixty-five early bilinguals (mean age = 21 years) were assessed in English and Spanish vocabulary and verbal reasoning ability using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (Schrank & Woodcock, 2009). Their English scores were compared to 74 monolinguals matched in age and level of education. Participants also completed a background questionnaire. Bilinguals scored below the monolingual control group on both subtests, and the difference was larger for vocabulary compared to verbal reasoning. However, bilinguals were close to the population mean for verbal reasoning. Spanish scores were on average lower than English scores, but participants differed widely in their degree of balance. Participants with an earlier age of acquisition of English and more current exposure to English tended to be more dominant in English. Vocabulary tests in the home or community language may underestimate bilingual university students' true verbal ability and should be interpreted with caution in high-stakes situations. Verbal reasoning ability may be more indicative of a bilingual's verbal ability.

  14. Black hole growth in the early Universe is self-regulated and largely hidden from view.

    PubMed

    Treister, Ezequiel; Schawinski, Kevin; Volonteri, Marta; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Gawiser, Eric

    2011-06-15

    The formation of the first massive objects in the infant Universe remains impossible to observe directly and yet it sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of galaxies. Although some black holes with masses more than 10(9) times that of the Sun have been detected in luminous quasars less than one billion years after the Big Bang, these individual extreme objects have limited utility in constraining the channels of formation of the earliest black holes; this is because the initial conditions of black hole seed properties are quickly erased during the growth process. Here we report a measurement of the amount of black hole growth in galaxies at redshift z = 6-8 (0.95-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang), based on optimally stacked, archival X-ray observations. Our results imply that black holes grow in tandem with their host galaxies throughout cosmic history, starting from the earliest times. We find that most copiously accreting black holes at these epochs are buried in significant amounts of gas and dust that absorb most radiation except for the highest-energy X-rays. This suggests that black holes grew significantly more during these early bursts than was previously thought, but because of the obscuration of their ultraviolet emission they did not contribute to the re-ionization of the Universe.

  15. Bar Evolution and Bar Properties from Disc Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson-Smith, Tenley; Simmons, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    Bars in disc galaxies indicate a large collection of stars in a specific configuration of orbits that give the galaxy center a rectangular looking feature. Astronomers have discovered that these bars affect the distribution of matter in galaxies, and are also related to galaxy stellar mass and star formation history. Little is known about the specifics of how bars evolve and drive the evolution of their host galaxies because only a handful of bars have been studied in detail so far. I have examined a sample of 8,221 barred galaxies from the early universe to identify and examine correlations with galaxy properties. The data comes from Galaxy Zoo, an online citizen science project that allows anyone to classify and measure detailed properties of galaxies. I present results including the fraction of galaxies in the sample that have bars, and the variation of galaxy properties with bar length, including galaxy color and stellar mass. I also compare these results to barred galaxies in the local universe. I will discuss the implications of these results in the context of galaxy evolution overall, including the effect of dark matter on bars and galaxy evolution.

  16. Spacetime deformation effect on the early universe and the PTOLEMY experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, Raul; Trampetic, Josip; You, Jiangyang

    2017-09-01

    Using a fully-fledged formulation of gauge field theory deformed by the spacetime noncommutativity, we study its impact on relic neutrino direct detection, as proposed recently by the PTOLEMY experiment. The noncommutative background tends to influence the propagating neutrinos by providing them with a tree-level vector-like coupling to photons, enabling thus otherwise sterile right-handed (RH) neutrinos to be thermally produced in the early universe. Such a new component in the universe's background radiation has been switched today to the almost fully active sea of non-relativistic neutrinos, exerting consequently some impact on the capture on tritium at PTOLEMY. The peculiarities of our nonperturbative approach tend to reflect in the cosmology as well, upon the appearances of the coupling temperature, above which RH neutrinos stay permanently decoupled from thermal environment. This entails the maximal scale of noncommutativity as well, being of order of 10-4MPl, above which there is no impact whatsoever on the capture rates at PTOLEMY. The latter represents an exceptional upper bound on the scale of noncommutativity coming from phenomenology.

  17. Proton-hydrogen collisions for Rydberg n,l-changing transitions in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrinceanu, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is a vestige radiation generated during the Recombination era, some 390,000 years after the Big Bang, when the Universe had become transparent for the first time. Initial observations of CMB made by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) led to determining the age of the Universe. The mechanisms that drove the recombination have been discovered by using modeling of the primordial plasma and seeking agreement with the observations. The new Plank Surveyor Instrument launched in 2009 is expected to produce data about the recombination era of an unprecedented accuracy, that require including better information regarding the basic atomic physics processes into the present models. In this talk, I will review the results for various Rydberg atom - charge particle collisions and establish their relative importance during the stages of recombination era, with respect to each other and to radiative processes. Energy changing and angular momentum changing collisions with electrons and ions are considered. This work has been supported by NSF through grants to the Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics at Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and to the Center for Research on Complex Networks at Texas Southern University.

  18. Modeling early events in Francisella tularensis pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Joseph J; Laws, Thomas R; Lythe, Grant; Molina-París, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of infection and be used as investigative tools to support development of medical treatments. We develop a stochastic, within-host, computational model of the infection process in the BALB/c mouse, following inhalational exposure to Francisella tularensis SCHU S4. The model is mechanistic and governed by a small number of experimentally verifiable parameters. Given an initial dose, the model generates bacterial load profiles corresponding to those produced experimentally, with a doubling time of approximately 5 h during the first 48 h of infection. Analytical approximations for the mean number of bacteria in phagosomes and cytosols for the first 24 h post-infection are derived and used to verify the stochastic model. In our description of the dynamics of macrophage infection, the number of bacteria released per rupturing macrophage is a geometrically-distributed random variable. When combined with doubling time, this provides a distribution for the time taken for infected macrophages to rupture and release their intracellular bacteria. The mean and variance of these distributions are determined by model parameters with a precise biological interpretation, providing new mechanistic insights into the determinants of immune and bacterial kinetics. Insights into the dynamics of macrophage suppression and activation gained by the model can be used to explore the potential benefits of interventions that stimulate macrophage activation.

  19. First look at a major transition period in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    in ESO PR Photo 22b/97 which shows its overall spectrum. Note in particular the intensity increase towards the ultraviolet part (to the left in the diagram) due to the unusually `clear view' in this direction. New observations of HE 2347-4342 have now provided important information, not only about the quasar itself, but especially about the conditions in the surrounding intergalactic medium at this early time. Early evolution of the Universe There is general agreement among most scientists that the Universe emanated from a hot and extremely dense initial state in the so-called Big Bang. Just three minutes later, the production of enormous quantities of hydrogen and helium nuclei of protons and neutrons came to an end. Lots of free electrons were moving around and the numerous photons were scattered from these and the `naked' atomic nuclei. After some 100,000 years, the Universe had cooled down to a few thousand degrees and the nuclei and electrons combined to form atoms. The photons were then no longer scattered and the Universe became transparent. Cosmologists refer to this moment as the recombination epoch. The microwave background radiation we now observe from all directions gives a picture of the state of great homogeneity in the Universe at that epoch. In the next phase the primeval atoms, more than 99% of which were of hydrogen and helium, moved together and began to form huge clouds from which galaxies and stars later emerged. When the first generation of stars and, somewhat later, of quasars, had formed, their intensive ultraviolet radiation began to knock off electrons from the hydrogen and helium atoms. Now the intergalactic gas again became ionized [4] in steadily growing spheres around the ionizing sources. This is the so-called re-ionization epoch. Is it possible to observe the re-ionization epoch directly? It is believed that a sufficient number of energetic photons to cause re-ionization of most of the primeval hydrogen atoms in intergalactic space had

  20. Molecular Modeling and Computational Chemistry at Humboldt State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paselk, Richard A.; Zoellner, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a molecular modeling and computational chemistry (MM&CC) facility for undergraduate instruction and research at Humboldt State University. This facility complex allows the introduction of MM&CC throughout the chemistry curriculum with tailored experiments in general, organic, and inorganic courses as well as a new molecular modeling…

  1. The University Model and Educational Change. SSEC Publication No. 130.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Richard B.

    In the sixties the crisis of the credibility and competence of schools resulted in the funding of programs to remedy school problems. The model for curriculum reform came from the university and, more particularly, from liberal arts departments having the capacity to improve curriculum content and teacher expertise. In a few instances attempts…

  2. The Corporate University Model for Continuous Learning, Training and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Tannir, Akram A.

    2002-01-01

    Corporate universities typically convey corporate culture and provide systematic curriculum aimed at achieving strategic objectives. Virtual access and company-specific content combine to provide opportunities for continuous and active learning, a model that is becoming pervasive. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  3. Explaining formation of Astronomical Jets using Dynamic Universe Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Parameswara Gupta, Satyavarapu

    2016-07-01

    Astronomical jets are observed from the centres of many Galaxies including our own Milkyway. The formation of such jet is explained using SITA simulations of Dynamic Universe Model. For this purpose the path traced by a test neutron is calculated and depicted using a set up of one densemass of the mass equivalent to mass of Galaxy center, 90 stars with similar masses of stars near Galaxy center, mass equivalents of 23 Globular Cluster groups, 16 Milkyway parts, Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies at appropriate distances. Five different kinds of theoretical simulations gave positive results The path travelled by this test neutron was found to be an astronomical jet emerging from Galaxy center. This is another result from Dynamic Universe Model. It solves new problems like a. Variable Mass Rocket Trajectory Problem b. Explaining Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations c. Astronomical jets observed from Milkyway Center d. Prediction of Blue shifted Galaxies e. Explaining Pioneer Anomaly f. Prediction of New Horizons satellite trajectory etc. Dynamic Universe Model never reduces to General relativity on any condition. It uses a different type of mathematics based on Newtonian physics. This mathematics used here is simple and straightforward. As there are no differential equations present in Dynamic Universe Model, the set of equations give single solution in x y z Cartesian coordinates for every point mass for every time step

  4. Universal Instructional Design as a Model for Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Universal Instructional Design as an inclusive pedagogical model for use in educational programs, whether provided by traditional educational institutions, community-based initiatives, or workplace literacy projects. For the benefit of public relations specialists and classroom educators alike, the article begins with a…

  5. Modeling Environmental Literacy of Malaysian Pre-University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamuganathan, Sheila; Karpudewan, Mageswary

    2015-01-01

    In this study attempt was made to model the environmental literacy of Malaysian pre-university students enrolled in a matriculation college. Students enrolled in the matriculation colleges in Malaysia are the top notch students in the country. Environmental literacy of this group is perceived important because in the future these students will be…

  6. Resource Allocation Procedure at Queensland University: A Dynamic Modelling Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Peter L.; Carss, Brian W.

    A structural reorganization of the University of Queensland, Australia, was undertaken to promote efficient resource management, and a resource allocation model was developed to aid in policy evaluation and planning. The operation of the restructured system was based on creating five resource groups to manage the distribution of academic resources…

  7. Modelling the implications of moving towards universal coverage in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Josephine; Mtei, Gemini; Ally, Mariam

    2012-03-01

    A model was developed to assess the impact of possible moves towards universal coverage in Tanzania over a 15-year time frame. Three scenarios were considered: maintaining the current situation ('the status quo'); expanded health insurance coverage (the estimated maximum achievable coverage in the absence of premium subsidies, coverage restricted to those who can pay); universal coverage to all (government revenues used to pay the premiums for the poor). The model estimated the costs of delivering public health services and all health services to the population as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and forecast revenue from user fees and insurance premiums. Under the status quo, financial protection is provided to 10% of the population through health insurance schemes, with the remaining population benefiting from subsidized user charges in public facilities. Seventy-six per cent of the population would benefit from financial protection through health insurance under the expanded coverage scenario, and 100% of the population would receive such protection through a mix of insurance cover and government funding under the universal coverage scenario. The expanded and universal coverage scenarios have a significant effect on utilization levels, especially for public outpatient care. Universal coverage would require an initial doubling in the proportion of GDP going to the public health system. Government health expenditure would increase to 18% of total government expenditure. The results are sensitive to the cost of health system strengthening, the level of real GDP growth, provider reimbursement rates and administrative costs. Promoting greater cross-subsidization between insurance schemes would provide sufficient resources to finance universal coverage. Alternately, greater tax funding for health could be generated through an increase in the rate of Value-Added Tax (VAT) or expanding the income tax base. The feasibility and sustainability of efforts to

  8. Mathematical Modelling in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; Watters, James J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we explore young children's development of mathematical knowledge and reasoning processes as they worked two modelling problems (the "Butter Beans Problem" and the "Airplane Problem"). The problems involve authentic situations that need to be interpreted and described in mathematical ways. Both problems include tables of data,…

  9. Implementation of quality management in early stages of research and development projects at a university.

    PubMed

    Fiehe, Sandra; Wagner, Georg; Schlanstein, Peter; Rosefort, Christiane; Kopp, Rüdger; Bensberg, Ralf; Knipp, Peter; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2014-04-01

    The ultimate objective of university research and development projects is usually to create knowledge, but also to successfully transfer results to industry for subsequent marketing. We hypothesized that the university technology transfer requires efficient measures to improve this important step. Besides good scientific practice, foresighted and industry-specific adapted documentation of research processes in terms of a quality management system might improve the technology transfer. In order to bridge the gap between research institute and cooperating industry, a model project has been accompanied by a project specific amount of quality management. However, such a system had to remain manageable and must not constrain the researchers' creativity. Moreover, topics and research team are strongly interdisciplinary, which entails difficulties regarding communication because of different perspectives and terminology. In parallel to the technical work of the model project, an adaptable quality management system with a quality manual, defined procedures, and forms and documents accompanying the research, development and validation was implemented. After process acquisition and analysis the appropriate amount of management for the model project was identified by a self-developed rating system considering project characteristics like size, innovation, stakeholders, interdisciplinarity, etc. Employees were trained according to their needs. The management was supported and the technical documentation was optimized. Finally, the quality management system has been transferred successfully to further projects.

  10. Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Bansal, Shweta; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    There is a long tradition of using mathematical models to generate insights into the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and assess the potential impact of different intervention strategies. The increasing use of mathematical models for epidemic forecasting has highlighted the importance of designing reliable models that capture the baseline transmission characteristics of specific pathogens and social contexts. More refined models are needed however, in particular to account for variation in the early growth dynamics of real epidemics and to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms at play. Here, we review recent progress on modeling and characterizing early epidemic growth patterns from infectious disease outbreak data, and survey the types of mathematical formulations that are most useful for capturing a diversity of early epidemic growth profiles, ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth dynamics. Specifically, we review mathematical models that incorporate spatial details or realistic population mixing structures, including meta-population models, individual-based network models, and simple SIR-type models that incorporate the effects of reactive behavior changes or inhomogeneous mixing. In this process, we also analyze simulation data stemming from detailed large-scale agent-based models previously designed and calibrated to study how realistic social networks and disease transmission characteristics shape early epidemic growth patterns, general transmission dynamics, and control of international disease emergencies such as the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa.

  11. Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Bansal, Shweta; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    There is a long tradition of using mathematical models to generate insights into the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and assess the potential impact of different intervention strategies. The increasing use of mathematical models for epidemic forecasting has highlighted the importance of designing reliable models that capture the baseline transmission characteristics of specific pathogens and social contexts. More refined models are needed however, in particular to account for variation in the early growth dynamics of real epidemics and to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms at play. Here, we review recent progress on modeling and characterizing early epidemic growth patterns from infectious disease outbreak data, and survey the types of mathematical formulations that are most useful for capturing a diversity of early epidemic growth profiles, ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth dynamics. Specifically, we review mathematical models that incorporate spatial details or realistic population mixing structures, including meta-population models, individual-based network models, and simple SIR-type models that incorporate the effects of reactive behavior changes or inhomogeneous mixing. In this process, we also analyze simulation data stemming from detailed large-scale agent-based models previously designed and calibrated to study how realistic social networks and disease transmission characteristics shape early epidemic growth patterns, general transmission dynamics, and control of international disease emergencies such as the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-15 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. PMID:27451336

  12. Designs that make a difference: the Cardiac Universal Bed model.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jackie; Brown, Katherine Kay; Neal, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Information contained in this article includes some of the findings from a joint research project conducted by Corazon Consulting and Ohio State University Medical Center on national trends in Cardiac Universal Bed (CUB) utilization. This article outlines current findings and "best practice" standards related to the benefits of developing care delivery models to differentiate an organization with a competitive advantage in the highly dynamic marketplace of cardiovascular care. (OSUMC, a Corazon client, is incorporating the CUB into their Ross Heart Hospital slated to open this spring.)

  13. A second Higgs doublet in the early universe: baryogenesis and gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsch, G.C.; Konstandin, T.; Huber, S.J.

    We show that simple Two Higgs Doublet models might still provide a viable explanation for the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe via electroweak baryogenesis, even after taking into account the recent order-of-magnitude improvement on the electron-EDM experimental bound by the ACME Collaboration. Moreover we show that, in the region of parameter space where baryogenesis may be possible, the gravitational wave spectrum generated at the end of the electroweak phase transition is within the sensitivity reach of the future space-based interferometer LISA.

  14. Baryogenesis via dark matter-induced symmetry breaking in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy; Trodden, Mark

    2017-11-01

    We put forward a new proposal for generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe by making use of the dynamics of a U (1) scalar field coupled to dark matter. High dark matter densities cause the U (1) symmetry to break spontaneously so that the field acquires a large vacuum expectation value. The symmetry is restored when the density redshifts below a critical value, resulting in the coherent oscillation of the scalar field. A net B - L number can be generated either via baryon number-conserving couplings to the standard model or through small symmetry-violating operators and the subsequent decay of the scalar condensate.

  15. Energy Feedback from X-ray Binaries in the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragos, T.; Lehmer, B..; Naoz, S.; Zezas, A.; Basu-Zych, A.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray photons, because of their long mean-free paths, can easily escape the galactic environments where they are produced, and interact at long distances with the intergalactic medium, potentially having a significant contribution to the heating and reionization of the early universe. The two most important sources of X-ray photons in the universe are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and X-ray binaries (XRBs). In this Letter we use results from detailed, large scale population synthesis simulations to study the energy feedback of XRBs, from the first galaxies (z (redshift) approximately equal to 20) until today.We estimate that X-ray emission from XRBs dominates over AGN at z (redshift) greater than or approximately equal to 6-8. The shape of the spectral energy distribution of the emission from XRBs shows little change with redshift, in contrast to its normalization which evolves by approximately 4 orders of magnitude, primarily due to the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate. However, the metallicity and the mean stellar age of a given XRB population affect significantly its X-ray output. Specifically, the X-ray luminosity from high-mass XRBs per unit of star-formation rate varies an order of magnitude going from solar metallicity to less than 10% solar, and the X-ray luminosity from low-mass XRBs per unit of stellar mass peaks at an age of approximately 300 Myr (million years) and then decreases gradually at later times, showing little variation for mean stellar ages 3 Gyr (Giga years, or billion years). Finally, we provide analytical and tabulated prescriptions for the energy output of XRBs, that can be directly incorporated in cosmological simulations.

  16. Quasars at Cosmic Dawn: Discoveries and Probes of the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Yang, Jinyi; Bian, Fuyan; McGreer, Ian D.; Green, Richard F.; Yang, Qian; Jiang, Linhua; Wang, Ran; DECaLS Team; UHS Team

    2017-01-01

    High redshift quasars, as the most luminous non-transient objects in the early universe, are the most promising tracers to address the history of cosmic reionization and how the origins of super-massive black hole (SMBH) are linked to galaxy formation and evolution. Over the last fifteen years, more than 100 quasars within the first billion years after the Big Bang have been discovered with the highest redshift at 7.1. We have developed a new method to select z>~6 quasars with both high efficiency and high completeness by combing optical and mid-IR Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) photometric data. We have applied this method to SDSS footprint and resulted in the discovery of the most luminous z>6 quasar ever discovered, which hosts a twelve billion solar mass black hole. I will present detailed follow-up observations of the host galaxies and environment of the most luminous quasars using HST, LBT and ALMA, in order to constrain early black hole growth and black hole/galaxy co-evolution at the highest redshift. I will also present initial results from a new quasar survey, which utilizes optical data from DECaLS, which is imaging 6700 deg^2 of sky down to z_AB˜23.0, and neaar-IR data from UHS and UKIDSS, which maps the whole northern sky at Decl.<+60deg. The combination of these datasets allows us to discover quasars at redshift z>~7 and to conduct a complete census of the faint quasar population at z~6.

  17. Early-career work location of Memorial University medical graduates: Why the decline in rural practice?

    PubMed

    Mathews, Maria; Ryan, Dana; Samarasena, Asoka

    2017-01-01

    In a previous study, we found a decline in the proportion of Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN) medical alumni practising in rural areas, particularly in Newfoundland and Labrador. The current study focused on the work location of recent graduates and examined the predictors of working in rural Canada and in rural Newfoundland and Labrador within the first 15 years following graduation. We linked data from graduating class lists and the alumni and postgraduate databases with Scott's Medical Database to create a record of all graduates from 1973 to 2008, including their work location. We identified differences and significant predictors for each outcome and then described and compared the characteristics of 4 cohorts of graduating classes. In their early career, 127/1113 (11.4%) MUN medical graduates were working in rural Canada, and 57 (5.1%) were working in rural Newfoundland and Labrador. Having a rural background and being a family physician were predictors of working in rural Canada, and having a rural background, doing at least part of the residency at MUN, being from Newfoundland and Labrador and being a family physician were predictors of working in rural Newfoundland and Labrador. Seventy-four (13.6%) and 33 (6.1%) of 1989-1998 graduates worked in rural Canada and rural Newfoundland and Labrador, respectively, compared to 53 (9.3%) and 24 (4.2%), respectively, of 1999-2008 graduates. The proportion of MUN medical graduates who worked in rural communities early in their career decreased among recent cohorts. The results show the impact of changes in the characteristics of MUN medical graduates, who increasingly opt for specialist practice and residency training outside the province, and the important role of local postgraduate training.

  18. Dynamic linear models using the Kalman filter for early detection and early warning of malaria outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkord, C. L.; Liu, Y.; DeVos, M.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria early detection and early warning systems are important tools for public health decision makers in regions where malaria transmission is seasonal and varies from year to year with fluctuations in rainfall and temperature. Here we present a new data-driven dynamic linear model based on the Kalman filter with time-varying coefficients that are used to identify malaria outbreaks as they occur (early detection) and predict the location and timing of future outbreaks (early warning). We fit linear models of malaria incidence with trend and Fourier form seasonal components using three years of weekly malaria case data from 30 districts in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. We identified past outbreaks by comparing the modeled prediction envelopes with observed case data. Preliminary results demonstrated the potential for improved accuracy and timeliness over commonly-used methods in which thresholds are based on simpler summary statistics of historical data. Other benefits of the dynamic linear modeling approach include robustness to missing data and the ability to fit models with relatively few years of training data. To predict future outbreaks, we started with the early detection model for each district and added a regression component based on satellite-derived environmental predictor variables including precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and land surface temperature (LST) and spectral indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We included lagged environmental predictors in the regression component of the model, with lags chosen based on cross-correlation of the one-step-ahead forecast errors from the first model. Our results suggest that predictions of future malaria outbreaks can be improved by incorporating lagged environmental predictors.

  19. Helium-3 in Milky Way Reveals Abundance of Matter in Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's 140 Foot Radio Telescope in Green Bank, West Virginia, were able to infer the amount of matter created by the Big Bang, and confirmed that it accounts for only a small portion of the effects of gravity observed in the Universe. The scientists were able to make these conclusions by determining the abundance of the rare element helium-3 (helium with only one neutron and two protons in its nucleus) in the Milky Way Galaxy. The NRAO 140 Foot Radio Telescope The NRAO 140-Foot Radio Telescope "Moments after the Big Bang, protons and neutrons began to combine to form helium-3 and other basic elements," said Robert Rood of the University of Virginia. "By accurately measuring the abundance of this primordial element in our Galaxy today, we were able infer just how much matter was created when the Universe was only a few minutes old." Rood and his colleagues, Thomas Bania from Boston University and Dana Balser from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), report their findings in the January 3 edition of the scientific journal Nature. Rood began searching for helium-3 in the Milky Way Galaxy in 1978. At that time, scientists believed that stars like our Sun synthesized helium-3 in their nuclear furnaces. Surprisingly, Rood's observations indicated that there was far less of this element in the Galaxy than the current models predicted. "If stars were indeed producing helium-3, as scientists believed, then we should have detected this element in much greater concentrations," he said. This unexpected discovery prompted Rood and his colleagues to broaden their search, and to look throughout the Milky Way for signs of stellar production of helium-3. Over the course of two decades, the researchers discovered that regardless of where they looked -- whether in the areas of sparse star formation like the outer edges of the Galaxy, or in areas of intense star formation near center of the Galaxy -- the relative abundance of

  20. Modeling early cortical serotonergic deficits in autism.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Carolyn B; Blue, Mary E; Hohmann, Christine F

    2007-01-10

    Autism is a developmental brain disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, language and behavior. Brain imaging studies demonstrate increased cerebral cortical volumes and micro- and macro-scopic neuroanatomic changes in children with this disorder. Alterations in forebrain serotonergic function may underlie the neuroanatomic and behavioral features of autism. Serotonin is involved in neuronal growth and plasticity and these actions are likely mediated via serotonergic and glutamatergic receptors. Few animal models of autism have been described that replicate both etiology and pathophysiology. We report here on a selective serotonin (5-HT) depletion model of this disorder in neonatal mice that mimics neurochemical and structural changes in cortex and, in addition, displays a behavioral phenotype consistent with autism. Newborn male and female mice were depleted of forebrain 5-HT with injections of the serotonergic neurotoxin, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), into the bilateral medial forebrain bundle (mfb). Behavioral testing of these animals as adults revealed alterations in social, sensory and stereotypic behaviors. Lesioned mice showed significantly increased cortical width. Serotonin immunocytochemistry showed a dramatic long-lasting depletion of 5-HT containing fibers in cerebral cortex until postnatal day (PND) 60. Autoradiographic binding to high affinity 5-HT transporters was significantly but transiently reduced in cerebral cortex of 5,7-DHT-depleted mice. AMPA glutamate receptor binding was decreased at PND 15. We hypothesize that increased cerebral cortical volume and sensorimotor, cognitive and social deficits observed in both 5-HT-depleted animals and in individuals with autism, may be the result of deficiencies in timely axonal pruning to key cerebral cortical areas.

  1. Modeling Early Cortical Serotonergic Deficits in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Carolyn B.; Blue, Mary E.; Hohmann, Christine F.

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a developmental brain disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, language and behavior. Brain imaging studies demonstrate increased cerebral cortical volumes and micro- and macroscopic neuroanatomic changes in children with this disorder. Alterations in forebrain serotonergic function may underlie the neuroanatomic and behavioral features of autism. Serotonin is involved in neuronal growth and plasticity and these actions are likely mediated via serotonergic and glutamatergic receptors. Few animal models of autism have been described that replicate both etiology and pathophysiology. We report here on a selective serotonin (5-HT) depletion model of this disorder in neonatal mice that mimics neurochemical and structural changes in cortex and, in addition, displays a behavioral phenotype consistent with autism. Newborn male and female mice were depleted of forebrain 5-HT with injections of the serotonergic neurotoxin, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), into the bilateral medial forebrain bundle (mfb). Behavioral testing of these animals as adults revealed alterations in social, sensory and stereotypic behaviors. Lesioned mice showed significantly increased cortical width. Serotonin immunocytochemistry showed a dramatic long-lasting depletion of 5-HT containing fibers in cerebral cortex until postnatal day (PND) 60. Autoradiographic binding to high affinity 5-HT transporters was significantly but transiently reduced in cerebral cortex of 5,7-DHT-depleted mice. AMPA glutamate receptor binding was decreased at PND 15. We hypothesize that increased cerebral cortical volume and sensorimotor, cognitive and social deficits observed in both 5-HT-depleted animals and in individuals with autism, may be the result of deficiencies in timely axonal pruning to key cerebral cortical areas. PMID:17034875

  2. Early differentiation of the Moon: Experimental and modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J.

    1986-01-01

    Major accomplishments include the mapping out of liquidus boundaries of lunar and meteoritic basalts at low pressure; the refinement of computer models that simulate low pressure fractional crystallization; the development of a computer model to calculate high pressure partial melting of the lunar and Martian interiors; and the proposal of a hypothesis of early lunar differentiation based upon terrestrial analogs.

  3. 3D climate-carbon modelling of the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, B.; Le Hir, G.; Fluteau, F.; Forget, F.; Catling, D.

    2017-09-01

    We revisit the climate and carbon cycle of the early Earth at 3.8 Ga using a 3D climate-carbon model. Our resultsfavor cold or temperate climates with global mean temperatures between around 8°C (281 K) and 30°C (303 K) and with 0.1-0.36 bar of CO2 for the late Hadean and early Archean.

  4. Residual fluctuations in the matter and radiation distribution after the decoupling epoch. [of early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.; Wilson, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    The residual spectra of matter and radiation fluctuations in the early universe are investigated, and the evolution of primordial adiabatic and isothermal fluctuations through the decoupling epoch is studied. Amplification of adiabatic density fluctuations during decoupling, or velocity 'overshoot', is largely suppressed by Compton drag. Consequently, the amplitude of density fluctuations entering the horizon prior to decoupling is larger than hitherto assumed in the adiabatic theory. Damping of primordial adiabatic density fluctuations by an order of magnitude occurs on mass-scales of 3 x 10 to the 13th solar masses (Omega = 1) or 10 to the 14th solar masses (Omega = 0.2). Comparison of the residual radiation fluctuations with observational limits indicates that the adiabatic theory is only acceptable if re-ionization of the intergalactic medium results in additional scattering of the radiation after decoupling. Primordial isothermal fluctuations are found to yield radiation fluctuations which are insensitive to the assumed spectrum and lie a factor of about 5 below current limits

  5. Dust-obscured star-forming galaxies in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Stephen M.; Feng, Yu; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Lovell, Christopher C.; Thomas, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by recent observational constraints on dust reprocessed emission in star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 6 and above, we use the very large cosmological hydrodynamical simulation BLUETIDES to explore predictions for the amount of dust-obscured star formation in the early Universe (z > 8). BLUETIDES matches current observational constraints on both the UV luminosity function and galaxy stellar mass function and predicts that approximately 90 per cent of the star formation in high-mass (M* > 1010 M⊙) galaxies at z = 8 is already obscured by dust. The relationship between dust attenuation and stellar mass predicted by BLUETIDES is consistent with that observed at lower redshift. However, observations of several individual objects at z > 6 are discrepant with the predictions, though it is possible that their uncertainties may have been underestimated. We find that the predicted surface density of z ≥ 8 submm sources is below that accessible to current Herschel, SCUBA-2 and Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) submm surveys. However, as ALMA continues to accrue an additional surface area the population of z > 8 dust-obscured galaxies may become accessible in the near future.

  6. Lensing as a probe of early universe: from CMB to galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, Farbod; Baghram, Shant; Firouzjahi, Hassan, E-mail: farbod@physics.sharif.edu, E-mail: baghram@sharif.edu, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation lensing is a promising tool to study the physics of early universe. In this work we probe the imprints of deviations from isotropy and scale invariance of primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum on CMB lensing potential and convergence. Specifically, we consider a scale-dependent hemispherical asymmetry in primordial power spectrum. We show that the CMB lensing potential and convergence and also the cross-correlation of the CMB lensing and late time galaxy convergence can probe the amplitude and the scale dependence of the dipole modulation. As another example, we consider a primordial power spectrum with localmore » feature. We show that the CMB lensing and the cross-correlation of the CMB lensing and galaxy lensing can probe the amplitude and the shape of the local feature. We show that the cross correlation of CMB lensing convergence and galaxy lensing is capable to probe the effects of local features in power spectrum on smaller scales than the CMB lensing. Finally we showed that the current data can constrain the amplitude and moment dependence of dipole asymmetry.« less

  7. The nucleosynthetic origins and chemical evolution of phosphorus in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the chemical evolution of the element phosphorus, despite its relatively large abundance in the Sun and its importance for biological life. The goal of this archive proposal is to establish the chemical evolution trend of phosphorus, extending our knowledge from solar metallicity to stars with less than 1/1000th the solar metallicity.Previous studies have used weak near-infrared P I lines to establish phosphorus abundance trends from -1.0 < [Fe/H] < 0. We have identified a strong P I doublet in the UV at 2136 Angstroms, which is present in the spectra of 22 stars available in the HST archives. Our study will {1} improve on the limited observations of the abundance trend at high metallicity and extend it to metallicities lower by 2 dex and {2} determine whether [P/Fe] flattens out towards lower metallicities {like the alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti} or whether it continues to increase {like Co and Zn}. Our results will provide the first tight constraints on the nucleosynthesis of phosphorus and its production sites in the early Universe.We request one semester of funding to support a graduate student to lead the spectral analysis work, one month of summer salary, and miscellaneous travel and publication costs.

  8. Test anxiety in mathematics among early undergraduate students in a British university in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karjanto, Natanael; Yong, Su Ting

    2013-03-01

    The level of test anxiety in mathematics subjects among early undergraduate students at the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus is studied in this article. The sample consists of 206 students taking several mathematics modules who completed the questionnaires on test anxiety just before they entered the venue for midterm examinations. The sample data include the differences in the context of academic levels, gender groups and nationality backgrounds. The level of test anxiety in mathematics is measured using seven Likert questionnaire statements adapted from the Test Anxiety Inventory describing one's emotional feeling before the start of an examination. In general, the result shows that the students who had a lower score expectation were more anxious than those who had a higher score expectation, but that they obtained a better score than the expected score. In the context of academic levels, gender groups and nationality backgrounds, there were no significant correlations between the level of test anxiety and the students' academic performance. The effect size of the correlation values ranged from extremely small to moderate.

  9. Using Electronic Portfolio to Promote Professional Learning Community for Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers at Alquds University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khales, Buad

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to explore whether the electronic portfolio can influence pre-service teachers' education and to examine how professional learning communities develop through electronic portfolios. To achieve this, twenty-four student-teachers taking a course in early childhood education at Al-Quds University participated in a study to…

  10. "Swim or Sink": State of Induction in the Deployment of Early Career Academics into Teaching at Makerere University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ssempebwa, Jude; Teferra, Damtew; Bakkabulindi, Fred Edward K.

    2016-01-01

    Conducted as part of a multi-country study of the teaching-related experiences and expectations of early career academics (ECAs) in Africa, this study investigated the major influences on the teaching practice of ECAs at Makerere University; the mechanisms by which these academics learn to teach; the teaching-related challenges they experience;…

  11. An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…

  12. Preschool Multi-Tier Prevention-Intervention Model for Language and Early Literacy (Pre-3T): Development Summary and Implementation Guide. CYFS Working Paper No. 2014-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Brandy L.; Knoche, Lisa L.; Abbott, Mary I.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Carta, Judith J.; Sjuts, Tara S.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this development study was to develop and pilot a three-tiered prevention model (universal, targeted, individualized) in early education for children at risk of reading difficulties. The aims of this study were to: (1) Define and develop a Pre-3T model to address the early literacy and language needs of young children in…

  13. Lattice Modeling of Early-Age Behavior of Structural Concrete.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yaming; Prado, Armando; Porras, Rocío; Hafez, Omar M; Bolander, John E

    2017-02-25

    The susceptibility of structural concrete to early-age cracking depends on material composition, methods of processing, structural boundary conditions, and a variety of environmental factors. Computational modeling offers a means for identifying primary factors and strategies for reducing cracking potential. Herein, lattice models are shown to be adept at simulating the thermal-hygral-mechanical phenomena that influence early-age cracking. In particular, this paper presents a lattice-based approach that utilizes a model of cementitious materials hydration to control the development of concrete properties, including stiffness, strength, and creep resistance. The approach is validated and used to simulate early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks. Structural configuration plays a key role in determining the magnitude and distribution of stresses caused by volume instabilities of the concrete material. Under restrained conditions, both thermal and hygral effects are found to be primary contributors to cracking potential.

  14. Lattice Modeling of Early-Age Behavior of Structural Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yaming; Prado, Armando; Porras, Rocío; Hafez, Omar M.; Bolander, John E.

    2017-01-01

    The susceptibility of structural concrete to early-age cracking depends on material composition, methods of processing, structural boundary conditions, and a variety of environmental factors. Computational modeling offers a means for identifying primary factors and strategies for reducing cracking potential. Herein, lattice models are shown to be adept at simulating the thermal-hygral-mechanical phenomena that influence early-age cracking. In particular, this paper presents a lattice-based approach that utilizes a model of cementitious materials hydration to control the development of concrete properties, including stiffness, strength, and creep resistance. The approach is validated and used to simulate early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks. Structural configuration plays a key role in determining the magnitude and distribution of stresses caused by volume instabilities of the concrete material. Under restrained conditions, both thermal and hygral effects are found to be primary contributors to cracking potential. PMID:28772590

  15. Geometrothermodynamic model for the evolution of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, Christine; Quevedo, Hernando, E-mail: christine.gruber@correo.nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: quevedo@nucleares.unam.mx

    Using the formalism of geometrothermodynamics to derive a fundamental thermodynamic equation, we construct a cosmological model in the framework of relativistic cosmology. In a first step, we describe a system without thermodynamic interaction, and show it to be equivalent to the standard ΛCDM paradigm. The second step includes thermodynamic interaction and produces a model consistent with the main features of inflation. With the proposed fundamental equation we are thus able to describe all the known epochs in the evolution of our Universe, starting from the inflationary phase.

  16. Roles of University Support for International Students in the United States: Analysis of a Systematic Model of University Identification, University Support, and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jaehee; Yu, Hongsik

    2015-01-01

    Unlike previous research on international students' social support, this current study applied the concept of organizational support to university contexts, examining the effects of university support. Mainly based on the social identity/self-categorization stress model, this study developed and tested a path model composed of four key…

  17. Early Retirement from Colleges and Universities: Considerations under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Larry E.

    1980-01-01

    Important considerations for institutions wanting to establish supplementary early retirement benefits to encourage the practice are outlined. Regulations concerning pension plans, tax-sheltered annuities, and deferred compensation are reviewed. Individually negotiated early retirement supplements are not recommended. (MSE)

  18. Etiology of early onset septicemia among neonates at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akindolire, Abimbola Ellen; Tongo, Olukemi; Dada-Adegbola, Hannah; Akinyinka, Olusegun

    2016-12-30

    Neonatal septicemia remains a major cause of newborn deaths in developing countries. Its burden is further compounded by the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens, which is related to a lack of antibiotic protocols resulting in unrestricted use of antibiotics. The absence of reliable antibiotic sensitivity testing makes the formulation of antibiotic guidelines and judicious use of antibiotics difficult. This study sought to identify the current bacterial agents associated with early onset septicemia (EOS; age <72 hours) and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns among neonates at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 202 inborn and outborn neonates with risk factors for or clinical features of septicemia in the first 72 hours of life had samples for blood cultures and antibiotic sensitivity patterns taken prior to treatment. Of the subjects, 95 (47.0%) were inborn and 107 (53.0%) outborn, with a M:F ratio of 1.3:1; 12.5% were culture positive, and the prevalence of EOS was 8.8/1,000 live births. The isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (52%), 30.7% of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12%), Enterobacter aerogenes (8%), Enterococcus spp. (8%), Eschericia coli (4%), and other Gram-negatives (12%). All the isolates except Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, amikacin, gentamicin, and third-generation cephalosporins. All MRSA were sensitive to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol, while all methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to ampicillin/sulbactam. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest cause of EOS in our setting, with 30.7% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates being MRSA. Only MRSA demonstrated multidrug resistance.

  19. An Extreme Protocluster of Luminous Dusty Starbursts in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteo, I.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunne, L.; Manilla-Robles, A.; Maddox, S.; Lewis, A. J. R.; de Zotti, G.; Bremer, M.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Eales, S.; Greenslade, J.; Omont, A.; Perez–Fournón, I.; Riechers, D.; Scott, D.; van der Werf, P.; Weiss, A.; Zhang, Z.-Y.

    2018-03-01

    We report the identification of an extreme protocluster of galaxies in the early universe whose core (nicknamed Distant Red Core, DRC, because of its very red color in Herschel SPIRE bands) is formed by at least 10 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), spectroscopically confirmed to lie at {z}spec}=4.002 via detection of [C I](1–0), 12CO(6–5), 12CO(4–3), 12CO(2–1), and {{{H}}}2{{O}}({2}11{--}{2}02) emission lines with ALMA and ATCA. These DSFGs are distributed over a 260 {kpc}× 310 {kpc} region and have a collective obscured star formation rate (SFR) of ∼ 6500 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1, considerably higher than those seen before in any protocluster at z≳ 4. Most of the star formation is taking place in luminous DSFGs since no Lyα emitters are detected in the protocluster core, apart from a Lyα blob located next to one of the DRC components, extending over 60 {kpc}. The total obscured SFR of the protocluster could rise to {SFR}∼ {{14,400}} {M}ȯ {yr}}-1 if all the members of an overdensity of bright DSFGs discovered around DRC in a wide-field Large APEX BOlometer CAmera 870 μm image are part of the same structure. [C I](1–0) emission reveals that DRC has a total molecular gas mass of at least {M}{{{H}}2}∼ 6.6× {10}11 {M}ȯ , and its total halo mass could be as high as ∼ 4.4× {10}13 {M}ȯ , indicating that it is the likely progenitor of a cluster at least as massive as Coma at z = 0.

  20. HUBBLE'S ULTRAVIOLET VIEWS OF NEARBY GALAXIES YIELD CLUES TO EARLY UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    , NGC 3310, shows young and old stars evenly distributed. If this were the case with most galaxies, astronomers would be able to recognize faraway galaxies fairly easily. In most galaxies, however, the stars are segregated by age, making classifying the distant ones more difficult. NGC 3310 is 46 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The image was taken Sept. 12-13, 2000. The middle image is an example of a tiny, youthful spiral galaxy. ESO 418-008 is representative of the myriad of dwarf galaxies astronomers have seen in deep surveys. These galaxies are much smaller than typical ones like our Milky Way. In this galaxy, the population of stars is more strongly segregated by age. The older stars [red] reside in the center; the younger [blue], in the developing spiral arms. These small, young galaxies may be the building blocks of galaxy formation. ESO 418-008 is 56 million light-years from Earth in the southern constellation Fornax. The image was taken Oct. 10, 2000. The picture at right shows a cosmic collision between two galaxies, UGC 06471 and UGC 06472. These collisions occurred frequently in the early universe, producing galaxies of unusual shapes. The Hubble telescope has spied many such galaxies in the deep field surveys. The ultraviolet images of this galaxy merger suggest the presence of large amounts of dust, which were produced by massive stars that formed before or during this dramatic collision. This dust reddens the starlight in many places, just like a dusty atmosphere reddens the sunset. Studying the effects of this nearby collision could help astronomers explain the peculiar shapes seen in some of the distant galaxies. UGC 06471 and UGC 06472 are 145 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The image was taken July 11, 2000. Photo credits: NASA, Rogier Windhorst (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ), and the Hubble mid-UV team

  1. Universally Sloppy Parameter Sensitivities in Systems Biology Models

    PubMed Central

    Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Waterfall, Joshua J; Casey, Fergal P; Brown, Kevin S; Myers, Christopher R; Sethna, James P

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative computational models play an increasingly important role in modern biology. Such models typically involve many free parameters, and assigning their values is often a substantial obstacle to model development. Directly measuring in vivo biochemical parameters is difficult, and collectively fitting them to other experimental data often yields large parameter uncertainties. Nevertheless, in earlier work we showed in a growth-factor-signaling model that collective fitting could yield well-constrained predictions, even when it left individual parameters very poorly constrained. We also showed that the model had a “sloppy” spectrum of parameter sensitivities, with eigenvalues roughly evenly distributed over many decades. Here we use a collection of models from the literature to test whether such sloppy spectra are common in systems biology. Strikingly, we find that every model we examine has a sloppy spectrum of sensitivities. We also test several consequences of this sloppiness for building predictive models. In particular, sloppiness suggests that collective fits to even large amounts of ideal time-series data will often leave many parameters poorly constrained. Tests over our model collection are consistent with this suggestion. This difficulty with collective fits may seem to argue for direct parameter measurements, but sloppiness also implies that such measurements must be formidably precise and complete to usefully constrain many model predictions. We confirm this implication in our growth-factor-signaling model. Our results suggest that sloppy sensitivity spectra are universal in systems biology models. The prevalence of sloppiness highlights the power of collective fits and suggests that modelers should focus on predictions rather than on parameters. PMID:17922568

  2. Universally sloppy parameter sensitivities in systems biology models.

    PubMed

    Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Waterfall, Joshua J; Casey, Fergal P; Brown, Kevin S; Myers, Christopher R; Sethna, James P

    2007-10-01

    Quantitative computational models play an increasingly important role in modern biology. Such models typically involve many free parameters, and assigning their values is often a substantial obstacle to model development. Directly measuring in vivo biochemical parameters is difficult, and collectively fitting them to other experimental data often yields large parameter uncertainties. Nevertheless, in earlier work we showed in a growth-factor-signaling model that collective fitting could yield well-constrained predictions, even when it left individual parameters very poorly constrained. We also showed that the model had a "sloppy" spectrum of parameter sensitivities, with eigenvalues roughly evenly distributed over many decades. Here we use a collection of models from the literature to test whether such sloppy spectra are common in systems biology. Strikingly, we find that every model we examine has a sloppy spectrum of sensitivities. We also test several consequences of this sloppiness for building predictive models. In particular, sloppiness suggests that collective fits to even large amounts of ideal time-series data will often leave many parameters poorly constrained. Tests over our model collection are consistent with this suggestion. This difficulty with collective fits may seem to argue for direct parameter measurements, but sloppiness also implies that such measurements must be formidably precise and complete to usefully constrain many model predictions. We confirm this implication in our growth-factor-signaling model. Our results suggest that sloppy sensitivity spectra are universal in systems biology models. The prevalence of sloppiness highlights the power of collective fits and suggests that modelers should focus on predictions rather than on parameters.

  3. The Application of a Transdisciplinary Model for Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Strachan, Deborah; Tucker, Michelle; Duwyn, Betty; Desserud, Sharon; Shillington, Monique

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the transdisciplinary approach to early intervention services and identifies the essential elements of this approach. A practice model describing the implementation of the approach is then presented, based on the experiences of staff members in a home visiting program for infants that has been in existence…

  4. Parametric Cost and Schedule Modeling for Early Technology Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-04-02

    Best Paper in the Analysis Methods Category and 2017 Best Paper Overall awards. It was also presented at the 2017 NASA Cost and Schedule Symposium... Methods over the Project Life Cycle .............................................................................................. 2 Figure 2. Average...information contribute to the lack of data, objective models, and methods that can be broadly applied in early planning stages. Scientific

  5. Early Identification Guidelines: Suburban Model (Lucas County School District).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Educational Services.

    Developed by a suburban school district, this manual provides guidelines for the early identification of gifted preschool children and describes Project Unicorn, a project to conceptualize, plan, and implement a classroom curriculum model for gifted young children. Project activities were based on Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development and…

  6. A quantitative risk model for early lifecycle decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Cornford, S. L.; Dunphy, J.; Hicks, K.

    2002-01-01

    Decisions made in the earliest phases of system development have the most leverage to influence the success of the entire development effort, and yet must be made when information is incomplete and uncertain. We have developed a scalable cost-benefit model to support this critical phase of early-lifecycle decision-making.

  7. Selection and Validation of Model Early Childhood Projects: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, John R.; And Others

    Presented is the final report of a research program to select and describe outstanding Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP) projects. Projects were analyzed in terms of 14 components of an HCEEP program (such as screening, programing, and inservice training). A detailed discussion of model selection and validation is appendixed.)…

  8. Project BLEND: An Inclusive Model of Early Intervention Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William; Horn, Eva M.; Heiser, JoAnn G.; Odom, Samuel L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a model demonstration project to provide inclusive early intervention services to young children with developmental delays and their families. It notes the importance of collaborative partnerships among the significant adults in a child's life as a basis for effective program implementation. The project has three major…

  9. Predictive model for early math skills based on structural equations.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Estíbaliz; Navarro, José I; Aguilar, Manuel; Cerda, Gamal; García-Sedeño, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Early math skills are determined by higher cognitive processes that are particularly important for acquiring and developing skills during a child's early education. Such processes could be a critical target for identifying students at risk for math learning difficulties. Few studies have considered the use of a structural equation method to rationalize these relations. Participating in this study were 207 preschool students ages 59 to 72 months, 108 boys and 99 girls. Performance with respect to early math skills, early literacy, general intelligence, working memory, and short-term memory was assessed. A structural equation model explaining 64.3% of the variance in early math skills was applied. Early literacy exhibited the highest statistical significance (β = 0.443, p < 0.05), followed by intelligence (β = 0.286, p < 0.05), working memory (β = 0.220, p < 0.05), and short-term memory (β = 0.213, p < 0.05). Correlations between the independent variables were also significant (p < 0.05). According to the results, cognitive variables should be included in remedial intervention programs. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The characteristic black hole mass resulting from direct collapse in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Black holes of a billion solar masses are observed in the infant Universe a few hundred million years after the big bang. The direct collapse of protogalactic gas clouds in primordial haloes with Tvir ≥ 104 K provides the most promising way to assemble massive black holes. In this study, we aim to determine the characteristic mass scale of seed black holes and the time evolution of the accretion rates resulting from the direct collapse model. We explore the formation of supermassive black holes via cosmological large eddy simulations (LES) by employing sink particles and following their evolution for 20 000 yr after the formation of the first sink. As the resulting protostars were shown to have cool atmospheres in the presence of strong accretion, we assume here that UV feedback is negligible during this calculation. We confirm this result in a comparison run without sinks. Our findings show that black hole seeds with characteristic mass of 105 M⊙ are formed in the presence of strong Lyman-Werner flux which leads to an isothermal collapse. The characteristic mass is about two times higher in LES compared to the implicit large eddy simulations. The accretion rates increase with time and reach a maximum value of 10 M⊙ yr-1 after 104 yr. Our results show that the direct collapse model is clearly feasible as it provides the expected mass of the seed black holes.

  11. Universality and depinning models for plastic yield in amorphous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budrikis, Zoe; Fernandez Castellano, David; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zaiser, Michael; Zapperi, Stefano

    Plastic yield in amorphous materials occurs as a result of complex collective dynamics of local reorganizations, which gives rise to rich phenomena such as strain localization, intermittent dynamics and power-law distributed avalanches. While such systems have received considerable attention, both theoretical and experimental, controversy remains over the nature of the yielding transition. We present a new fully-tensorial coarsegrained model in 2D and 3D, and demonstrate that the exponents describing avalanche distributions are universal under a variety of loading conditions, system dimensionality and size, and boundary conditions. Our results show that while depinning-type models in general are apt to describe the system, mean field depinning models are not.

  12. Hazard Regression Models of Early Mortality in Trauma Centers

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David E; Qian, Jing; Winchell, Robert J; Betensky, Rebecca A

    2013-01-01

    Background Factors affecting early hospital deaths after trauma may be different from factors affecting later hospital deaths, and the distribution of short and long prehospital times may vary among hospitals. Hazard regression (HR) models may therefore be more useful than logistic regression (LR) models for analysis of trauma mortality, especially when treatment effects at different time points are of interest. Study Design We obtained data for trauma center patients from the 2008–9 National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Cases were included if they had complete data for prehospital times, hospital times, survival outcome, age, vital signs, and severity scores. Cases were excluded if pulseless on admission, transferred in or out, or ISS<9. Using covariates proposed for the Trauma Quality Improvement Program and an indicator for each hospital, we compared LR models predicting survival at 8 hours after injury to HR models with survival censored at 8 hours. HR models were then modified to allow time-varying hospital effects. Results 85,327 patients in 161 hospitals met inclusion criteria. Crude hazards peaked initially, then steadily declined. When hazard ratios were assumed constant in HR models, they were similar to odds ratios in LR models associating increased mortality with increased age, firearm mechanism, increased severity, more deranged physiology, and estimated hospital-specific effects. However, when hospital effects were allowed to vary by time, HR models demonstrated that hospital outliers were not the same at different times after injury. Conclusions HR models with time-varying hazard ratios reveal inconsistencies in treatment effects, data quality, and/or timing of early death among trauma centers. HR models are generally more flexible than LR models, can be adapted for censored data, and potentially offer a better tool for analysis of factors affecting early death after injury. PMID:23036828

  13. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on

  14. New generation of universal modeling for centrifugal compressors calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galerkin, Y.; Drozdov, A.

    2015-08-01

    The Universal Modeling method is in constant use from mid - 1990th. Below is presented the newest 6th version of the Method. The flow path configuration of 3D impellers is presented in details. It is possible to optimize meridian configuration including hub/shroud curvatures, axial length, leading edge position, etc. The new model of vaned diffuser includes flow non-uniformity coefficient based on CFD calculations. The loss model was built from the results of 37 experiments with compressors stages of different flow rates and loading factors. One common set of empirical coefficients in the loss model guarantees the efficiency definition within an accuracy of 0.86% at the design point and 1.22% along the performance curve. The model verification was made. Four multistage compressors performances with vane and vaneless diffusers were calculated. As the model verification was made, four multistage compressors performances with vane and vaneless diffusers were calculated. Two of these compressors have quite unusual flow paths. The modeling results were quite satisfactory in spite of these peculiarities. One sample of the verification calculations is presented in the text. This 6th version of the developed computer program is being already applied successfully in the design practice.

  15. Universal Free School Breakfast: A Qualitative Model for Breakfast Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Harvey-Golding, Louise; Donkin, Lynn Margaret; Blackledge, John; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the provision of school breakfast has increased significantly in the UK. However, research examining the effectiveness of school breakfast is still within relative stages of infancy, and findings to date have been rather mixed. Moreover, previous evaluations of school breakfast schemes have been predominantly quantitative in their methodologies. Currently, there are few qualitative studies examining the subjective perceptions and experiences of stakeholders, and thereby an absence of knowledge regarding the sociocultural impacts of school breakfast. The purpose of this study was to investigate the beliefs, views and attitudes, and breakfast consumption behaviors, among key stakeholders, served by a council-wide universal free school breakfast initiative, within the North West of England, UK. A sample of children, parents, and school staff were recruited from three primary schools, participating in the universal free school breakfast scheme, to partake in semi-structured interviews and small focus groups. A Grounded Theory analysis of the data collected identified a theoretical model of breakfast behaviors, underpinned by the subjective perceptions and experiences of these key stakeholders. The model comprises of three domains relating to breakfast behaviors, and the internal and external factors that are perceived to influence breakfast behaviors, among children, parents, and school staff. Findings were validated using triangulation methods, member checks, and inter-rater reliability measures. In presenting this theoretically grounded model for breakfast behaviors, this paper provides a unique qualitative insight into the breakfast consumption behaviors and barriers to breakfast consumption, within a socioeconomically deprived community, participating in a universal free school breakfast intervention program. PMID:26125017

  16. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    PubMed

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  17. A discriminant function model for admission at undergraduate university level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hamdi F.; Charbaji, Abdulrazzak; Hajj, Nada Kassim

    1992-09-01

    The study is aimed at predicting objective criteria based on a statistically tested model for admitting undergraduate students to Beirut University College. The University is faced with a dual problem of having to select only a fraction of an increasing number of applicants, and of trying to minimize the number of students placed on academic probation (currently 36 percent of new admissions). Out of 659 new students, a sample of 272 students (45 percent) were selected; these were all the students on the Dean's list and on academic probation. With academic performance as the dependent variable, the model included ten independent variables and their interactions. These variables included the type of high school, the language of instruction in high school, recommendations, sex, academic average in high school, score on the English Entrance Examination, the major in high school, and whether the major was originally applied for by the student. Discriminant analysis was used to evaluate the relative weight of the independent variables, and from the analysis three equations were developed, one for each academic division in the College. The predictive power of these equations was tested by using them to classify students not in the selected sample into successful and unsuccessful ones. Applicability of the model to other institutions of higher learning is discussed.

  18. Critical mingling and universal correlations in model binary active liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Nicolas; Bartolo, Denis

    2017-06-01

    Ensembles of driven or motile bodies moving along opposite directions are generically reported to self-organize into strongly anisotropic lanes. Here, building on a minimal model of self-propelled bodies targeting opposite directions, we first evidence a critical phase transition between a mingled state and a phase-separated lane state specific to active particles. We then demonstrate that the mingled state displays algebraic structural correlations also found in driven binary mixtures. Finally, constructing a hydrodynamic theory, we single out the physical mechanisms responsible for these universal long-range correlations typical of ensembles of oppositely moving bodies.

  19. Early Opportunities Research Partnership Between Howard University, University of Maryland Baltimore County and NASA Goddard for Engaging Underrepresented STEM Students in Earth and Space Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, P.; Venable, D. D.; Hoban, S.; Demoz, B.; Bleacher, L.; Meeson, B. W.; Farrell, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Howard University, University of Maryland Baltimore County and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) are collaborating to engage underrepresented STEM students and expose them to an early career pathway in NASA-related Earth & Space Science research. The major goal is to instill interest in Earth and Space Science to STEM majors early in their academic careers, so that they become engaged in ongoing NASA-related research, motivated to pursue STEM careers, and perhaps become part of the future NASA workforce. The collaboration builds on a program established by NASA's Dynamic Response of the Environments of Asteroids, the Moon and the moons of Mars (DREAM2) team to engage underrepresented students from Howard in summer internships. Howard leveraged this program to expand via NASA's Minority University Research and Education Project (MUREP) funding. The project pairs Howard students with GSFC mentors and engages them in cutting-edge Earth and Space Science research throughout their undergraduate tenure. The project takes a multi-faceted approach, with each year of the program specifically tailored to each student's strengths and addressing their weaknesses, so that they experience a wide array of enriching research and professional development activities that help them grow both academically and professionally. During the academic year, the students are at Howard taking a full load of courses towards satisfying their degree requirements and engaging in research with their GSFC mentors via regular telecons, e-mail exchanges, video chats & on an average one visit per semester to GSFC for an in-person meeting with their research mentor. The students extend their research with full-time summer internships at GSFC, culminating in a Capstone Project and Senior Thesis. As a result, these Early Opportunities Program students, who have undergone rigorous training in the Earth and Space Sciences, are expected to be well-prepared for graduate school and the NASA workforce.

  20. Organizational Models and Mythologies of the American Research University. ASHE 1986 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Daniel

    Features of the matrix model of the research university and myths about the academic enterprise are described, along with serious dissonances in the U.S. university system. The linear model, from which the matrix model evolved, describes the university's structure, perceived mission, and organizational behavior. A matrix model portrays in concise,…

  1. Towards comprehensive early abortion service delivery in high income countries: insights for improving universal access to abortion in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angela; Bateson, Deborah; Estoesta, Jane; Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2016-10-22

    Improving access to safe abortion is an essential strategy in the provision of universal access to reproductive health care. Australians are largely supportive of the provision of abortion and its decriminalization. However, the lack of data and the complex legal and service delivery situation impacts upon access for women seeking an early termination of pregnancy. There are no systematic reviews from a health services perspective to help direct health planners and policy makers to improve access comprehensive medical and early surgical abortion in high income countries. This review therefore aims to identify quality studies of abortion services to provide insight into how access to services can be improved in Australia. We undertook a structured search of six bibliographic databases and hand-searching to ascertain peer reviewed primary research in English between 2005 and 2015. Qualitative and quantitative study designs were deemed suitable for inclusion. A deductive content analysis methodology was employed to analyse selected manuscripts based upon a framework we developed to examine access to early abortion services. This review identified the dimensions of access to surgical and medical abortion at clinic or hospital-outpatient based abortion services, as well as new service delivery approaches utilising a remote telemedicine approach. A range of factors, mostly from studies in the United Kingdom and United States of America were found to facilitate improved access to abortion, in particular, flexible service delivery approaches that provide women with cost effective options and technology based services. Standards, recommendations and targets were also identified that provided services and providers with guidance regarding the quality of abortion care. Key insights for service delivery in Australia include the: establishment of standards, provision of choice of procedure, improved provider education and training and the expansion of telemedicine for medical

  2. Supporting Universal Prevention Programs: A Two-Phased Coaching Model

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students’ emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter, Snyder, & Artman, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter & Van Norman, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al., 2005; Stormont, Reinke, Newcomer, Darney, & Lewis, 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker, Bradshaw, Domitrovich, & Ialongo, 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS® curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs. PMID:23660973

  3. A Model-Model and Data-Model Comparison for the Early Eocene Hydrological Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, Matthew J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Huber, Matthew; Heinemann, Malte; Kiehl, Jeffrey; LeGrande, Allegra; Loptson, Claire A.; Roberts, Chris D.; Sagoo, Navjit; Shields, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A range of proxy observations have recently provided constraints on how Earth's hydrological cycle responded to early Eocene climatic changes. However, comparisons of proxy data to general circulation model (GCM) simulated hydrology are limited and inter-model variability remains poorly characterised. In this work, we undertake an intercomparison of GCM-derived precipitation and P - E distributions within the extended EoMIP ensemble (Eocene Modelling Intercomparison Project; Lunt et al., 2012), which includes previously published early Eocene simulations performed using five GCMs differing in boundary conditions, model structure, and precipitation-relevant parameterisation schemes. We show that an intensified hydrological cycle, manifested in enhanced global precipitation and evaporation rates, is simulated for all Eocene simulations relative to the preindustrial conditions. This is primarily due to elevated atmospheric paleo-CO2, resulting in elevated temperatures, although the effects of differences in paleogeography and ice sheets are also important in some models. For a given CO2 level, globally averaged precipitation rates vary widely between models, largely arising from different simulated surface air temperatures. Models with a similar global sensitivity of precipitation rate to temperature (dP=dT ) display different regional precipitation responses for a given temperature change. Regions that are particularly sensitive to model choice include the South Pacific, tropical Africa, and the Peri-Tethys, which may represent targets for future proxy acquisition. A comparison of early and middle Eocene leaf-fossil-derived precipitation estimates with the GCM output illustrates that GCMs generally underestimate precipitation rates at high latitudes, although a possible seasonal bias of the proxies cannot be excluded. Models which warm these regions, either via elevated CO2 or by varying poorly constrained model parameter values, are most successful in simulating a

  4. A Model for Cooperative Student Teaching Involving a Nearby Majority Black University and a Nearby Majority White University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Walter A.

    Major features of the cooperative student teaching model include 1) a pattern of student teaching assignments within the school system which would provide for proportional inclusion of prospective teachers--from the nearby majority black university and the nearby majority white university--to each school serving as a student teaching facility; 2)…

  5. Earth-mass dark-matter haloes as the first structures in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Diemand, J; Moore, B; Stadel, J

    2005-01-27

    The Universe was nearly smooth and homogeneous before a redshift of z = 100, about 20 million years after the Big Bang. After this epoch, the tiny fluctuations imprinted upon the matter distribution during the initial expansion began to collapse because of gravity. The properties of these fluctuations depend on the unknown nature of dark matter, the determination of which is one of the biggest challenges in present-day science. Here we report supercomputer simulations of the concordance cosmological model, which assumes neutralino dark matter (at present the preferred candidate), and find that the first objects to form are numerous Earth-mass dark-matter haloes about as large as the Solar System. They are stable against gravitational disruption, even within the central regions of the Milky Way. We expect over 10(15) to survive within the Galactic halo, with one passing through the Solar System every few thousand years. The nearest structures should be among the brightest sources of gamma-rays (from particle-particle annihilation).

  6. A new insight into the phase transition in the early Universe with two Higgs doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Bian, Ligong; Jiang, Yun

    2018-05-01

    We study the electroweak phase transition in the alignment limit of the CP-conserving two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) of Type I and Type II. The effective potential is evaluated at one-loop, where the thermal potential includes Daisy corrections and is reliably approximated by means of a sum of Bessel functions. Both 1-stage and 2-stage electroweak phase transitions are shown to be possible, depending on the pattern of the vacuum development as the Universe cools down. For the 1-stage case focused on in this paper, we analyze the properties of phase transition and discover that the field value of the electroweak symmetry breaking vacuum at the critical temperature at which the first order phase transition occurs is largely correlated with the vacuum depth of the 1-loop potential at zero temperature. We demonstrate that a strong first order electroweak phase transition (SFOEWPT) in the 2HDM is achievable and establish benchmark scenarios leading to different testable signatures at colliders. In addition, we verify that an enhanced triple Higgs coupling (including loop corrections) is a typical feature of the SFOPT driven by the additional doublet. As a result, SFOEWPT might be able to be probed at the LHC and future lepton colliders through Higgs pair production.

  7. Probing Cosmic Dust of the Early Universe through High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S. L.; Li, Aigen

    2009-01-01

    We explore the extinction properties of the dust in the distant universe through the afterglows of high-redshifted gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) based on the "Drude" model which, unlike previous studies, does not require a prior assumption of template extinction laws. We select GRB 070802 at z ≈ 2.45 (which shows clear evidence for the 2175 Å extinction bump) and GRB 050904 at z ≈ 6.29, the second most distant GRB observed to date. We fit their afterglow spectra to determine the extinction of their host galaxies. We find that (1) their extinction curves differ substantially from that of the Milky Way and the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (which were widely adopted as template extinction laws in the literature); (2) the 2175 Å extinction feature appears to be also present in GRB 050904 at z ≈ 6.29; and (3) there does not appear to be strong evidence for the dependence of dust extinction on redshifts. The inferred extinction curves are closely reproduced in terms of a mixture of amorphous silicate and graphite, both of which are expected supernova condensates and have been identified in primitive meteorites as presolar grains originating from supernovae (which are considered as the main source of dust at high-z).

  8. Early gas stripping as the origin of the darkest galaxies in the Universe.

    PubMed

    Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Mastropietro, C; Wadsley, J

    2007-02-15

    The known galaxies most dominated by dark matter (Draco, Ursa Minor and Andromeda IX) are satellites of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies. They are members of a class of faint galaxies, devoid of gas, known as dwarf spheroidals, and have by far the highest ratio of dark to luminous matter. None of the models proposed to unravel their origin can simultaneously explain their exceptional dark matter content and their proximity to a much larger galaxy. Here we report simulations showing that the progenitors of these galaxies were probably gas-dominated dwarf galaxies that became satellites of a larger galaxy earlier than the other dwarf spheroidals. We find that a combination of tidal shocks and ram pressure swept away the entire gas content of such progenitors about ten billion years ago because heating by the cosmic ultraviolet background kept the gas loosely bound: a tiny stellar component embedded in a relatively massive dark halo survived until today. All luminous galaxies should be surrounded by a few extremely dark-matter-dominated dwarf spheroidal satellites, and these should have the shortest orbital periods among dwarf spheroidals because they were accreted early.

  9. Preference Mining Using Neighborhood Rough Set Model on Two Universes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Preference mining plays an important role in e-commerce and video websites for enhancing user satisfaction and loyalty. Some classical methods are not available for the cold-start problem when the user or the item is new. In this paper, we propose a new model, called parametric neighborhood rough set on two universes (NRSTU), to describe the user and item data structures. Furthermore, the neighborhood lower approximation operator is used for defining the preference rules. Then, we provide the means for recommending items to users by using these rules. Finally, we give an experimental example to show the details of NRSTU-based preference mining for cold-start problem. The parameters of the model are also discussed. The experimental results show that the proposed method presents an effective solution for preference mining. In particular, NRSTU improves the recommendation accuracy by about 19% compared to the traditional method.

  10. Universal Knight shift anomaly in the periodic Anderson model

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, M.; Curro, N. J.; Scalettar, R. T.

    Here, we report a Determinant Quantum Monte Carlo investigation which quantifies the behavior of the susceptibility and the entropy in the framework of the periodic Anderson model (PAM), focussing on the evolution with different degree of conduction electron (c) -local moment (f) hybridization. These results capture the behavior observed in several experiments, including the universal behavior of the NMR Knight shift anomaly below the crossover temperature, T*. We find that T* is a measure of the onset of c-f correlations and grows with increasing hybridization. Our results suggest that the NMR Knight shift and spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements in non-Fermimore » liquid materials are strongly influenced by temperature-dependent hybridization processes. Furthermore, our results provide a microscopic basis for the phenomenological two-fluid model of Kondo lattice behavior, and its evolution with pressure and temperature.« less

  11. Universality of entropy scaling in one dimensional gapless models.

    PubMed

    Korepin, V E

    2004-03-05

    We consider critical models in one dimension. We study the ground state in the thermodynamic limit (infinite lattice). We are interested in an entropy of a subsystem. We calculate the entropy of a part of the ground state from a space interval (0,x). At zero temperature it describes the entanglement of the part of the ground state from this interval with the rest of the ground state. We obtain an explicit formula for the entropy of the subsystem at any temperature. At zero temperature our formula reproduces a logarithmic formula, discovered by Vidal, Latorre, Rico, and Kitaev for spin chains. We prove our formula by means of conformal field theory and the second law of thermodynamics. Our formula is universal. We illustrate it for a Bose gas with a delta interaction and for the Hubbard model.

  12. Cylindrically symmetric cosmological model of the universe in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, B.; Vadrevu, Samhita

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed the cosmological models of the universe in a cylindrically symmetric space time in two classes of f(R,T) gravity (Harko et al. in Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011). We have discussed two cases: one in the linear form and the other in the quadratic form of R. The matter is considered to be in the form of perfect fluid. It is observed that in the first case, the pressure and energy density remain the same, which reduces to a Zeldovich fluid. In the second case we have studied the quadratic function of f(R,T) gravity in the form f(R)=λ(R+R2) and f(T)=λ T. In the second case the pressure is in the negative domain and the energy density is in the positive domain, which confirms that the equation of state parameter is negative. The physical properties of the constructed models are studied.

  13. Edinburgh University, Schools and the Civil Service in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert David

    2013-01-01

    This article is a case study of the relation between urban schooling and university education, using two main sources. Data on the schools attended by history students at Edinburgh University between 1899 and 1933 illustrate the diversity and social ranking of schools in the city. New higher grade schools had a key role in increasing access to…

  14. A Universal Good: Expanding Voluntary, Early Learning Opportunities for Illinois' Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Sean

    This report was written to stimulate discussion about the potential and need for expanding access to voluntary, high-quality early childhood care and education programs in Illinois. The report compiles 13 short articles pertaining to early learning as follows: (1) "Ready to Succeed: Preparing Children for School, and for Life"; (2)…

  15. Modeling Spacecraft Fuel Slosh at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlee, Keith L.

    2007-01-01

    As a NASA-sponsored GSRP Fellow, I worked with other researchers and analysts at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and NASA's ELV Division to investigate the effect of spacecraft fuel slosh. NASA's research into the effects of fuel slosh includes modeling the response in full-sized tanks using equipment such as the Spinning Slosh Test Rig (SSTR), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). NASA and SwRI engineers analyze data taken from SSTR runs and hand-derive equations of motion to identify model parameters and characterize the sloshing motion. With guidance from my faculty advisor, Dr. Sathya Gangadharan, and NASA flight controls analysts James Sudermann and Charles Walker, I set out to automate this parameter identification process by building a simple physical experimental setup to model free surface slosh in a spherical tank with a simple pendulum analog. This setup was then modeled using Simulink and SimMechanics. The Simulink Parameter Estimation Tool was then used to identify the model parameters.

  16. Conceptual Model for Quality of Life among Adults With Congenital or Early Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Kushalnagar, P; McKee, M; Smith, SR; Hopper, M; Kavin, D; Atcherson, SR

    2015-01-01

    Background A conceptual model of health-related quality of life (QoL) is needed to describe key themes that impact perceived QoL in adults with congenital or early deafness. Objective: To revise University of Washington Center for Disability Policy and Research's conceptual model of health promotion and QoL, with suggestions for applying the model to improving programs or services that target deaf adults with early deafness. Methods Purposive and theoretical sampling of 35 adults who were born or became deaf early was planned in a 1-year study. In-depth semi-structured interviews probed deaf adult participants' perceptions about quality of life as a deaf individual. Data saturation was reached at the 17th interview with 2 additional interviews for validation, resulting in a total sample of 19 deaf adults. Coding and thematic analysis were conducted to develop the conceptual model. Results Our conceptual model delineates the relationships between health status (self-acceptance, coping with limitations), intrinsic (functional communication skills, navigating barriers/self-advocacy, resilience) and extrinsic (acceptance by others, access to information, educating others) factors in their influence on deaf adult quality of life outcomes at home, college, work, and in the community. Conclusions Findings demonstrate the need for the programs and services to consider not only factors intrinsic to the deaf individual but also extrinsic factors in enhancing perceived quality of life outcomes among people with a range of functional hearing and language preferences, including American Sign Language. PMID:24947577

  17. Conceptual model for quality of life among adults with congenital or early deafness.

    PubMed

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; McKee, Michael; Smith, Scott R; Hopper, Melinda; Kavin, Denise; Atcherson, Samuel R

    2014-07-01

    A conceptual model of health-related quality of life (QoL) is needed to describe key themes that impact perceived QoL in adults with congenital or early deafness. To revise University of Washington Center for Disability Policy and Research's conceptual model of health promotion and QoL, with suggestions for applying the model to improving programs or services that target deaf adults with early deafness. Purposive and theoretical sampling of 35 adults who were born or became deaf early was planned in a 1-year study. In-depth semi-structured interviews probed deaf adult participants' perceptions about quality of life as a deaf individual. Data saturation was reached at the 17th interview with 2 additional interviews for validation, resulting in a total sample of 19 deaf adults. Coding and thematic analysis were conducted to develop the conceptual model. Our conceptual model delineates the relationships between health status (self-acceptance, coping with limitations), intrinsic (functional communication skills, navigating barriers/self-advocacy, resilience) and extrinsic (acceptance by others, access to information, educating others) factors in their influence on deaf adult quality of life outcomes at home, college, work, and in the community. Findings demonstrate the need for the programs and services to consider not only factors intrinsic to the deaf individual but also extrinsic factors in enhancing perceived quality of life outcomes among people with a range of functional hearing and language preferences, including American Sign Language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Do the Trajectories of Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Follow a Universal Staging Model?

    PubMed

    Duffy, Anne; Malhi, Gin S; Grof, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to address the question of whether a universal staging model of severe psychiatric disorders is a viable direction for future research by examining the extant literature. A narrative review was conducted of the relevant historical, conceptual, and empirical literature pertaining to the clinical trajectory of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and issues relevant to staging. There is substantive evidence that classic recurrent bipolar disorder is separable from schizophrenia on the basis of family history, developmental and clinical course, treatment response, and neurobiological findings. However, because of the intrinsic heterogeneity of diagnostic categories that has been amplified by recent changes in psychiatric taxonomy, key distinctions between the groups have become obfuscated. While mapping risk and illness markers to emerging psychopathology is a logical approach and may be of value for some psychiatric disorders and/or their clinical subtypes, robust evidence supporting identifiable stages per se is still lacking. Presently, even rudimentary stages such as prodromes cannot be meaningfully applied across different disorders and no commonalities can be found for the basis of universal staging. Advances in the prediction of risk, accurate early illness detection, and tailored intervention will require mapping biomarkers and other risk indicators to reliable clinical phases of illness progression. Given the capricious nature of mood and psychotic disorders, this task is likely to yield success only if conducted in narrowly defined subgroups of individuals at high risk for specific illnesses. This approach is diametrically opposite to that being promulgated by proponents of a universal staging model.

  19. Simple Mathematical Models Do Not Accurately Predict Early SIV Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Noecker, Cecilia; Schaefer, Krista; Zaccheo, Kelly; Yang, Yiding; Day, Judy; Ganusov, Vitaly V.

    2015-01-01

    Upon infection of a new host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates in the mucosal tissues and is generally undetectable in circulation for 1–2 weeks post-infection. Several interventions against HIV including vaccines and antiretroviral prophylaxis target virus replication at this earliest stage of infection. Mathematical models have been used to understand how HIV spreads from mucosal tissues systemically and what impact vaccination and/or antiretroviral prophylaxis has on viral eradication. Because predictions of such models have been rarely compared to experimental data, it remains unclear which processes included in these models are critical for predicting early HIV dynamics. Here we modified the “standard” mathematical model of HIV infection to include two populations of infected cells: cells that are actively producing the virus and cells that are transitioning into virus production mode. We evaluated the effects of several poorly known parameters on infection outcomes in this model and compared model predictions to experimental data on infection of non-human primates with variable doses of simian immunodifficiency virus (SIV). First, we found that the mode of virus production by infected cells (budding vs. bursting) has a minimal impact on the early virus dynamics for a wide range of model parameters, as long as the parameters are constrained to provide the observed rate of SIV load increase in the blood of infected animals. Interestingly and in contrast with previous results, we found that the bursting mode of virus production generally results in a higher probability of viral extinction than the budding mode of virus production. Second, this mathematical model was not able to accurately describe the change in experimentally determined probability of host infection with increasing viral doses. Third and finally, the model was also unable to accurately explain the decline in the time to virus detection with increasing viral dose. These results

  20. A new model for early Earth: heat-pipe cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, A. G.; Moore, W. B.

    2013-12-01

    In the study of heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth, current models depend upon plate tectonic and vertical tectonic concepts. Plate tectonic models adequately account for regions with diverse lithologies juxtaposed along ancient shear zones, as seen at the famous Eoarchean Isua supracrustal belt of West Greenland. Vertical tectonic models to date have involved volcanism, sub- and intra-lithospheric diapirism, and sagduction, and can explain the geology of the best-preserved low-grade ancient terranes, such as the Paleoarchean Barberton and Pilbara greenstone belts. However, these models do not offer a globally-complete framework consistent with the geologic record. Plate tectonics models suggest that paired metamorphic belts and passive margins are among the most likely features to be preserved, but the early rock record shows no evidence of these terranes. Existing vertical tectonics models account for the >300 million years of semi-continuous volcanism and diapirism at Barberton and Pilbara, but when they explain the shearing record at Isua, they typically invoke some horizontal motion that cannot be differentiated from plate motion and is not a salient feature of the lengthy Barberton and Pilbara records. Despite the strengths of these models, substantial uncertainty remains about how early Earth evolved from magma ocean to plate tectonics. We have developed a new model, based on numerical simulations and analysis of the geologic record, that provides a coherent, global geodynamic framework for Earth's evolution from magma ocean to subduction tectonics. We hypothesize that heat-pipe cooling offers a viable mechanism for the lithospheric dynamics of early Earth. Our numerical simulations of heat-pipe cooling on early Earth indicate that a cold, thick, single-plate lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downward. The constant resurfacing and downward advection caused compression as the

  1. A Model of Reading Teaching for University EFL Students: Need Analysis and Model Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamra, Arifuddin; Syatriana, Eny

    2012-01-01

    This study designed a model of teaching reading for university EFL students based on the English curriculum at the Faculty of Languages and Literature and the concept of the team-based learning in order to improve the reading comprehension of the students. What kind of teaching model can help students to improve their reading comprehension? The…

  2. Walking the Walk: Modeling Social Model and Universal Design in the Disabilities Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Melanie; Downs, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Making the shift from the medical model of disability to the social model requires postsecondary disabilities offices to carefully examine and revise policies and procedures to reflect this paradigm shift, which gives them the credibility to work toward such change on the campus level. The process followed by one university is covered in-depth, as…

  3. A Universal Model of Giftedness--An Adaptation of the Munich Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessurun, J. H.; Shearer, C. B.; Weggeman, M. C. D. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Munich Model of Giftedness (MMG) by Heller and his colleagues, developed for the identification of gifted children, is adapted and expanded, with the aim of making it more universally usable as a model for the pathway from talents to performance. On the side of the talent-factors, the concept of multiple intelligences is introduced, and the…

  4. Implications of Higgs’ universality for physics beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, T.; Stephenson, G. J.

    2017-06-01

    We emulate Cabibbo by assuming a kind of universality for fermion mass terms in the Standard Model. We show that this is consistent with all current data and with the concept that deviations from what we term Higgs’ universality are due to corrections from currently unknown physics of nonetheless conventional form. The application to quarks is straightforward, while the application to leptons makes use of the recognition that Dark Matter can provide the “sterile” neutrinos needed for the seesaw mechanism. Requiring agreement with neutrino oscillation results leads to the prediction that the mass eigenstates of the sterile neutrinos are separated by quadratically larger ratios than for the charged fermions. Using consistency with the global fit to LSND-like, short-baseline oscillations to determine the scale of the lowest mass sterile neutrino strongly suggests that the recently observed astrophysical 3.55 keV γ-ray line is also consistent with the mass expected for the second most massive sterile neutrino in our analysis.

  5. Astronomy in the early years of elementary education: a partnership between university and school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barai, A.; Carvalho Neto, J. T.; Garrido, D.; Ityanagui, G.; Navi, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the interaction and partnership experience between a school and one of the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)campi, both located in Araras, SP, aiming to teach and promote astronomy and astronautics knowledge among students of the first five years of Elementary Education. This initiative made use of Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics as a motivating event for the theme exploration. The actions were divided into two fronts: an improvement course for the school teachers conducted by university professors and lectures for students by UFSCar students under the guidance of university teachers and the school coordinators. By the observed results, we noticed the importance of narrowing the distance school-university, promoting learning for both institutions and helping to raise the level of education from elementary school to college.

  6. Tactile Architectural Models as Universal ‘Urban Furniture’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłopotowska, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    Tactile architectural models and maquettes have been built in the external public spaces of Polish cities since the latter half of the 00s of the 21st century. These objects are designed for the blind, but also other people - tourists, children, and those who arrive in wheelchairs. This collection has got currently more than 70 implements, which places Poland in the group of European leaders. Unfortunately, this “furniture”, is not always “convenient” and safe for all recipients. Studies, which have been conducted together with Maciej Kłopotowski since 2016 across the country, show a number of serious design and executive mistakes or examples of misuse. The purpose of this article is drawing attention to these issues and pointing out ways how they can be avoided. These objects may become completely valuable, universal tool for learning and a great way of studying architecture in an alternative way.

  7. Einstein's 1917 static model of the universe: a centennial review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2017-08-01

    We present a historical review of Einstein's 1917 paper ` Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity' to mark the centenary of a key work that set the foundations of modern cosmology. We find that the paper followed as a natural next step after Einstein's development of the general theory of relativity and that the work offers many insights into his thoughts on relativity, astronomy and cosmology. Our review includes a description of the observational and theoretical background to the paper; a paragraph-by-paragraph guided tour of the work; a discussion of Einstein's views of issues such as the relativity of inertia, the curvature of space and the cosmological constant. Particular attention is paid to little-known aspects of the paper such as Einstein's failure to test his model against observation, his failure to consider the stability of the model and a mathematical oversight concerning his interpretation of the role of the cosmological constant. We recall the response of theorists and astronomers to Einstein's cosmology in the context of the alternate models of the universe proposed by Willem de Sitter, Alexander Friedman and Georges Lemaître. Finally, we consider the relevance of the Einstein World in today's `emergent' cosmologies.

  8. Climate Model Tests of the Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrus, S.; Kutzbach, J.; Philippon, G.

    2008-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that greenhouse gas emissions produced by the combination of early and recent human activities, augmented by additional rises in greenhouse gases through ocean feedbacks, have kept the climate warmer than its natural level and offset an incipient glaciation. We use four different configurations of NCAR's Community Climate System Model to investigate the natural climate that should exist today if CO2 and CH4 concentrations had fallen to their average levels reached during previous interglaciations. The model simulations consist of three using a coupled atmosphere-slab ocean configuration---fixed land cover at moderate (T42) and high (T85) model resolution and interactive vegetation composition at T42 resolution--and one employing a coupled atmosphere-dynamical ocean configuration and fixed land cover at T42 resolution. With greenhouse gas concentrations lowered to their estimated natural levels, global mean temperature falls by 2.5-3.0 K in all four experiments. Of the total global cooling with fixed land cover and moderate model resolution, 38% (62%) is attributable to early agricultural activities (industrialization), while early agriculture accounts for approximately half of the expanded permanent snow cover area. The greenhouse cooling triggers widespread glacial inception in the Northern Hemisphere, where permanent snow cover expands by at least 80% and even more with the addition of enhanced model processes: 130% with the dynamical ocean, 150% with high (T85) model resolution, and 200% with vegetation feedbacks included. The regional pattern of incipient glaciation is strongly influenced by atmospheric and circulation changes, sea ice feedbacks, and model resolution. The simulation with a dynamical ocean produces a decrease in vertically integrated global ocean temperature of 1.25 K, a 20% weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning cell, and an expansion of sea ice and reduced upwelling in the Southern Ocean. Viewed from the

  9. Early experiences building a software quality prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.; Evanco, W. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiences building a software quality prediction model are discussed. The overall research objective is to establish a capability to project a software system's quality from an analysis of its design. The technical approach is to build multivariate models for estimating reliability and maintainability. Data from 21 Ada subsystems were analyzed to test hypotheses about various design structures leading to failure-prone or unmaintainable systems. Current design variables highlight the interconnectivity and visibility of compilation units. Other model variables provide for the effects of reusability and software changes. Reported results are preliminary because additional project data is being obtained and new hypotheses are being developed and tested. Current multivariate regression models are encouraging, explaining 60 to 80 percent of the variation in error density of the subsystems.

  10. Modeling and managing risk early in software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Thomas, William M.; Hetmanski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the software development process, we need to be able to build empirical multivariate models based on data collectable early in the software process. These models need to be both useful for prediction and easy to interpret, so that remedial actions may be taken in order to control and optimize the development process. We present an automated modeling technique which can be used as an alternative to regression techniques. We show how it can be used to facilitate the identification and aid the interpretation of the significant trends which characterize 'high risk' components in several Ada systems. Finally, we evaluate the effectiveness of our technique based on a comparison with logistic regression based models.

  11. Inflation of the early cold Universe filled with a nonlinear scalar field and a nonideal relativistic Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pashitskii, E. A., E-mail: pashitsk@iop.kiev.ua; Pentegov, V. I., E-mail: pentegov@iop.kiev.ua

    We consider a possible scenario for the evolution of the early cold Universe born from a fairly large quantum fluctuation in a vacuum with a size a{sub 0} ≫ l{sub P} (where l{sub P} is the Planck length) and filled with both a nonlinear scalar field φ, whose potential energy density U(φ) determines the vacuum energy density λ, and a nonideal Fermi gas with short-range repulsion between particles, whose equation of state is characterized by the ratio of pressure P(n{sub F}) to energy density ε(n{sub F}) dependent on the number density of fermions n{sub F}. As the early Universe expands,more » the dimensionless quantity ν(n{sub F}) = P(n{sub F})/ε(n{sub F}) decreases with decreasing n{sub F} from its maximum value ν{sub max} = 1 for n{sub F} → ∞ to zero for n{sub F} → 0. The interaction of the scalar and gravitational fields, which is characterized by a dimensionless constant ξ, is proportional to the scalar curvature of four-dimensional space R = κ[3P(n{sub F})–ε(n{sub F})–4λ] (where κ is Einstein’s gravitational constant), and contains terms both quadratic and linear in φ. As a result, the expanding early Universe reaches the point of first-order phase transition in a finite time interval at critical values of the scalar curvature R = R{sub c} =–μ{sup 2}/ξ and radius a{sub c} ≫ a{sub 0}. Thereafter, the early closed Universe “rolls down” from the flat inflection point of the potential U(φ) to the zero potential minimum in a finite time. The release of the total potential energy of the scalar field in the entire volume of the expanding Universe as it “rolls down” must be accompanied by the production of a large number of massive particles and antiparticles of various kinds, whose annihilation plays the role of the Big Bang. We also discuss the fundamental nature of Newton’ gravitational constant G{sub N}.« less

  12. PKS 0537-286, carrying the information of the environment of SMBHs in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottacini, E.; Ajello, M.; Greiner, J.; Pian, E.; Rau, A.; Palazzi, E.; Covino, S.; Ghisellini, G.; Krühler, T.; Küpcü Yoldaş, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Afonso, P.

    2010-01-01

    Context. The high-redshift (z = 3.1) blazar PKS 0537-286, belonging to the flat spectrum radio quasar blazar subclass, is one of the most luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Universe. Blazars are very suitable candidates for multiwavelength observations. Indeed, the relativistic beaming effect at work within the jet enhances their luminosity. This in turn allows the properties of the extragalactic jets, the powering central engine, and the surrounding environment to be derived. Aims: Our aim is to present the results of a multifrequency campaign from the near-IR to hard X-ray energies on PKS 0537-286 and give insight into the physical environment where the radiation processes take place. Methods: We observed the source at different epochs from 2006 to 2008 with INTEGRAL and Swift, and nearly simultaneously with ground-based optical telescopes. We also analyzed two archival spectra taken with XMM-Newton in 1999 and 2005. A comparative analysis of the results is performed. Results: The X-ray continuum of the blazar, as sampled by XMM, is described by a power law of index Γ = 1.2, modified by variable absorption at the soft X-rays, as found in other high-redshift QSOs. Modest X-ray continuum variability is found in the Swift observations. The combined Swift/BAT and Swift/XRT spectrum is very hard (Γ = 1.3). This, together with the non simultaneous EGRET detection and the more recent non detection by Fermi-LAT, constrains the peak of the high-energy component robustly. The optical/UV data, heavily affected by intervening Ly α absorption, indicate the presence of a bright thermal accretion disk that decreased in luminosity between 2006 and 2008. We infer from this a reduction of the BLR radius. When taking this into account, the 2006 and 2008 SEDs are compatible with a model based on synchrotron radiation and external inverse Compton scattering where the accretion-disk luminosity decreases between the 2 epochs by a factor 2, while the bulk Lorentz factor

  13. Simple predictive model for Early Childhood Caries of Chilean children.

    PubMed

    Fierro Monti, Claudia; Pérez Flores, M; Brunotto, M

    2014-01-01

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC), in both industrialized and developing countries, is the most prevalent chronic disease in childhood and it is still a health public problem, affecting mainly populations considered as vulnerable, despite being preventable. The purpose of this study was to obtain a simple predictive model based on risk factors for improving public health strategies for ECC prevention for 3-5 year-old children. Clinical, environmental and psycho-socio-cultural data of children (n=250) aged 3-5 years, of both genders, from the Health Centers, were recorded in a Clinical History and Behavioral Survey. 24% of children presented behavioral problems (bizarre behavior was the main feature observed as behavioral problems). The variables associated to dmf ?4 were: bad children temperament (OR=2.43 [1.34, 4.40]) and home stress (OR=3.14 [1.54, 6.41]). It was observed that the model for male gender has higher accuracy for ECC (AUC= 78%, p-value=0.000) than others. Based on the results, we proposed a model where oral hygiene, sugar intake, male gender, and difficult temperament are main factors for predicting ECC. This model could be a promising tool for cost-effective early childhood caries control.

  14. Universal immunogenicity validation and assessment during early biotherapeutic development to support a green laboratory.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Ami C; Zhou, Lei; Jawa, Vibha

    2013-10-01

    Immunogenicity support during nonclinical biotherapeutic development can be resource intensive if supported by conventional methodologies. A universal indirect species-specific immunoassay can eliminate the need for biotherapeutic-specific anti-drug antibody immunoassays without compromising quality. By implementing the R's of sustainability (reduce, reuse, rethink), conservation of resources and greener laboratory practices were achieved in this study. Statistical analysis across four biotherapeutics supported identification of consistent product performance standards (cut points, sensitivity and reference limits) and a streamlined universal anti-drug antibody immunoassay method implementation strategy. We propose an efficient, fit-for-purpose, scientifically and statistically supported nonclinical immunogenicity assessment strategy. Utilization of a universal method and streamlined validation, while retaining comparability to conventional immunoassays and meeting the industry recommended standards, provides environmental credits in the scientific laboratory. Collectively, individual reductions in critical material consumption, energy usage, waste and non-environment friendly consumables, such as plastic and paper, support a greener laboratory environment.

  15. Heavy element synthesis in the oldest stars and the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Cowan, John J; Sneden, Christopher

    2006-04-27

    The first stars in the Universe were probably quite different from those born today. Composed almost entirely of hydrogen and helium (plus a tiny trace of lithium), they lacked the heavier elements that determine the formation and evolution of younger stars. Although we cannot observe the very first stars--they died long ago in supernovae explosions--they created heavy elements that were incorporated into the next generation. Here we describe how observations of heavy elements in the oldest surviving stars in our Galaxy's halo help us understand the nature of the first stars--those responsible for the chemical enrichment of our Galaxy and Universe.

  16. Universal thermodynamics of the one-dimensional attractive Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Song; Yu, Yi-Cong; Batchelor, M. T.; Guan, Xi-Wen

    2018-03-01

    The one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model, describing electrons on a lattice with an on-site repulsive interaction, provides a paradigm for the physics of quantum many-body phenomena. Here, by solving the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations, we study the universal thermodynamics, quantum criticality, and magnetism of the 1D attractive Hubbard model. We show that the compressibility and the susceptibility of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO)-like state obey simple additivity rules at low temperatures, indicating an existence of two free quantum fluids. The magnetic properties, such as magnetization and susceptibility, reveal three physical regions: quantum fluids at low temperatures, a non-Fermi liquid at high temperatures, and the quantum fluid to non-Fermi liquid crossover in between. The lattice interaction is seen to significantly influence the nature of the FFLO-like state in 1D. Furthermore, we show that the dimensionless Wilson ratio provides an ideal parameter to map out the various phase boundaries and to characterize the two free fluids of the FLLO-like state. The quantum scaling functions for the thermal and magnetic properties yield the same dynamic critical exponent z =2 and correlation critical exponent ν =1 /2 in the quantum critical region whenever a phase transition occurs. Our results provide a rigorous understanding of quantum criticality and free fluids of many-body systems on a 1D lattice.

  17. The University of British Columbia model of interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Charles, Grant; Bainbridge, Lesley; Gilbert, John

    2010-01-01

    The College of Health Disciplines, at the University of British Columbia (UBC) has a long history of developing interprofessional learning opportunities for students and practitioners. Historically, many of the courses and programmes were developed because they intuitively made sense or because certain streams of funding were available at particular times. While each of them fit generally within our understanding of interprofessional education in the health and human service education programs, they were not systematically developed within an educational or theoretical framework. This paper discusses the model we have subsequently developed at the College for conceptualizing the various types of interprofessional experiences offered at UBC. It has been developed so that we can offer the broadest range of courses and most effective learning experiences for our students. Our model is based on the premise that there are optimal learning times for health and human services students (and practitioners) depending upon their stage of development as professionals in their respective disciplines and their readiness to learn and develop new perspectives on professional interaction.

  18. Land Surface Modeling Applications for Famine Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Verdin, J. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Arsenault, K. R.; Wang, S.; Kumar, S.; Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Pervez, M. S.; Fall, G. M.; Karsten, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    AGU 2015 Fall Meeting Session ID#: 7598 Remote Sensing Applications for Water Resources Management Land Surface Modeling Applications for Famine Early Warning James Verdin, USGS EROS Christa Peters-Lidard, NASA GSFC Amy McNally, NASA GSFC, UMD/ESSIC Kristi Arsenault, NASA GSFC, SAIC Shugong Wang, NASA GSFC, SAIC Sujay Kumar, NASA GSFC, SAIC Shrad Shukla, UCSB Chris Funk, USGS EROS Greg Fall, NOAA Logan Karsten, NOAA, UCAR Famine early warning has traditionally required close monitoring of agro-climatological conditions, putting them in historical context, and projecting them forward to anticipate end-of-season outcomes. In recent years, it has become necessary to factor in the effects of a changing climate as well. There has also been a growing appreciation of the linkage between food security and water availability. In 2009, Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) science partners began developing land surface modeling (LSM) applications to address these needs. With support from the NASA Applied Sciences Program, an instance of the Land Information System (LIS) was developed to specifically support FEWS NET. A simple crop water balance model (GeoWRSI) traditionally used by FEWS NET took its place alongside the Noah land surface model and the latest version of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, and LIS data readers were developed for FEWS NET precipitation forcings (NOAA's RFE and USGS/UCSB's CHIRPS). The resulting system was successfully used to monitor and project soil moisture conditions in the Horn of Africa, foretelling poor crop outcomes in the OND 2013 and MAM 2014 seasons. In parallel, NOAA created another instance of LIS to monitor snow water resources in Afghanistan, which are an early indicator of water availability for irrigation and crop production. These successes have been followed by investment in LSM implementations to track and project water availability in Sub-Saharan Africa and Yemen, work that is now underway. Adoption of

  19. MUSE--Model for University Strategic Evaluation. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutina, Kenneth L.; Zullig, Craig M.; Starkman, Glenn D.; Tanski, Laura E.

    A model for simulating college and university operations, finances, program investments, and market response in terms of applicants, acceptances, and retention has been developed and implemented using the system dynamics approach. The Model for University Strategic Evaluation (MUSE) is a simulation of the total operations of the university,…

  20. "Character of a University": The Journey of a College President in the Early Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Reverend Horace Holley, a New England-born, Yale-educated, Unitarian minister from Boston, was offered the presidency of Transylvania University in the town of Lexington, Kentucky, in 1817. He investigated the opportunity by way of a "tour of inquiry," a circuitous route west through notable "literary establishments" of the…

  1. Predicting Early Center Care Utilization in a Context of Universal Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Janson, Harald; Naerde, Ane

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports predictors for center care utilization prior to 18 months of age in Norway, a country with a welfare system providing up to one-year paid parental leave and universal access to subsidized and publicly regulated center care. A community sample of 1103 families was interviewed about demographics, family, and child characteristics…

  2. Early Participation in the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stacey Swearingen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze those US campuses that became signatories of the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment (ACUPCC) during the charter membership period of December 2006 through September 15, 2007. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on literature in organizational change,…

  3. Developmentally Universal Practice: Visioning Innovative Early Childhood Pedagogy for Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen I.

    2015-01-01

    Although developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) has strong merits, there are considerations pertaining to its development and implementation which must be raised. In order for educators to include diverse voices of young children, the time has come for a new conversation to unfold introducing developmentally universal practice (DUP). With this…

  4. From Early to Current Developments in Online Learning at Nova Southeastern University: Reflections on Historical Milestones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dringus, Laurie P.; Scigliano, John A.

    2000-01-01

    Traces the major historical milestones achieved by Nova Southeastern University in its pioneering of graduate level online learning programs. Highlights include delivery systems; Web-based electronic classrooms; overview of the technology, including telecommunications through UNIX; evaluation and research; and technology used in the School of…

  5. Transformational Learning and Community Development: Early Reflections on Professional and Community Engagement at Macquarie University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity; Sachs, Judyth

    2014-01-01

    Professional and Community Engagement (PACE) at Macquarie University offers undergraduate students experiential learning opportunities with local, regional, and international partners. In PACE projects, students work toward meeting the partner's organizational goals while they develop their capabilities, learn through the process of engagement,…

  6. Planning for Universal Design for Learning in the Early Childhood Inclusion Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The majority of children with exceptionalities aged 3-5 are being served in general education settings. Teachers working in these inclusion classrooms must have the ability and knowledge to work with all students under their care. The purpose of this study was to determine how teachers in early childhood inclusion classrooms plan to incorporate…

  7. Placement Supervision of Pedagogue Students in Denmark: The Role of University Colleges and Early Childhood Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jytte Juul

    2015-01-01

    The article examines Danish pedagogue students' supervision during their placement periods in early childhood settings. Throughout the long history of Danish pedagogue education, discourses relating to the placement element have been located either within a "work" paradigm or a "scholastic" paradigm. These two understandings of…

  8. The creation and early implementation of a high speed fiber optic network for a university health sciences center.

    PubMed Central

    Schueler, J. D.; Mitchell, J. A.; Forbes, S. M.; Neely, R. C.; Goodman, R. J.; Branson, D. K.

    1991-01-01

    In late 1989 the University of Missouri Health Sciences Center began the process of creating an extensive fiber optic network throughout its facilities, with the intent to provide networked computer access to anyone in the Center desiring such access, regardless of geographic location or organizational affiliation. A committee representing all disciplines within the Center produced and, in conjunction with independent consultants, approved a comprehensive design for the network. Installation of network backbone components commenced in the second half of 1990 and was completed in early 1991. As the network entered its initial phases of operation, the first realities of this important new resource began to manifest themselves as enhanced functional capacity in the Health Sciences Center. This paper describes the development of the network, with emphasis on its design criteria, installation, early operation, and management. Also included are discussions on its organizational impact and its evolving significance as a medical community resource. PMID:1807660

  9. The bovine patella as a model of early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hargrave-Thomas, E J; Thambyah, A; McGlashan, S R; Broom, N D

    2013-12-01

    The bovine patella model has been used extensively for studying important structure-function aspects of articular cartilage, including its degeneration. However, the degeneration seen in this model has, to our knowledge, never been adequately compared with human osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, bovine patellae displaying normal to severely degenerate states were compared with human tissue displaying intact cartilage to severe OA. Comparisons of normal and OA features were made with histological scoring, morphometric measurements, and qualitative observations. Differential interference contrast microscopy was used to image early OA changes in the articular cartilage matrix and to investigate whether this method provided comparable quality of visualisation of key structural features with standard histology. The intact bovine cartilage was found to be similar to healthy human cartilage and the degenerate bovine cartilage resembled the human OA tissues with regard to structural disruption, cellularity changes, and staining loss. The extent of degeneration in the bovine tissues matched the mild to moderate range of human OA tissues; however, no bovine samples exhibited late-stage OA. Additionally, in both bovine and human tissues, cartilage degeneration was accompanied by calcified cartilage thickening, tidemark duplication, and the advancement of the cement line by protrusions of bony spicules into the calcified cartilage. This comparison of degeneration in the bovine and human tissues suggests a common pathway for the progression of OA and thus the bovine patella is proposed to be an appropriate model for investigating the structural changes associated with early OA. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  10. The bovine patella as a model of early osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave-Thomas, E J; Thambyah, A; McGlashan, S R; Broom, N D

    2013-01-01

    The bovine patella model has been used extensively for studying important structure–function aspects of articular cartilage, including its degeneration. However, the degeneration seen in this model has, to our knowledge, never been adequately compared with human osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, bovine patellae displaying normal to severely degenerate states were compared with human tissue displaying intact cartilage to severe OA. Comparisons of normal and OA features were made with histological scoring, morphometric measurements, and qualitative observations. Differential interference contrast microscopy was used to image early OA changes in the articular cartilage matrix and to investigate whether this method provided comparable quality of visualisation of key structural features with standard histology. The intact bovine cartilage was found to be similar to healthy human cartilage and the degenerate bovine cartilage resembled the human OA tissues with regard to structural disruption, cellularity changes, and staining loss. The extent of degeneration in the bovine tissues matched the mild to moderate range of human OA tissues; however, no bovine samples exhibited late-stage OA. Additionally, in both bovine and human tissues, cartilage degeneration was accompanied by calcified cartilage thickening, tidemark duplication, and the advancement of the cement line by protrusions of bony spicules into the calcified cartilage. This comparison of degeneration in the bovine and human tissues suggests a common pathway for the progression of OA and thus the bovine patella is proposed to be an appropriate model for investigating the structural changes associated with early OA. PMID:24111904

  11. A Narrowing Target for Early Mars Climate Models: Which Models Survive Confrontation with Improved Hydrology Constraints?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, E. S.; Goldblatt, C.; Gao, P.; Mayer, D. P.; Sneed, J.; Wilson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The wettest climates in Mars' geologic history represent habitability optima, and also set the tightest constraints on climate models. For lake-forming climates on Early Mars, geologic data constrain discharge, duration, intermittency, and the number of lake-forming events. We synthesise new and existing data to suggest that post-Noachian lake-forming climates were widely separated in time, lasted >10^4 yr individually, were few in number, but cumulatively lasted <10^7 yr (to allow olivine to survive globally). We compare these data against existing models, set out a new model involving methane bursts, and conclude with future directions for Early Mars geologic analysis and modelling work.

  12. Computational Thermomechanical Modelling of Early-Age Silicate Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vala, J.; Št'astník, S.; Kozák, V.

    2009-09-01

    Strains and stresses in early-age silicate composites, widely used in civil engineering, especially in fresh concrete mixtures, in addition to those caused by exterior mechanical loads, are results of complicated non-deterministic physical and chemical processes. Their numerical prediction at the macro-scale level requires the non-trivial physical analysis based on the thermodynamic principles, making use of micro-structural information from both theoretical and experimental research. The paper introduces a computational model, based on a nonlinear system of macroscopic equations of evolution, supplied with certain effective material characteristics, coming from the micro-scale analysis, and sketches the algorithm for its numerical analysis.

  13. Physics of the very early Universe: what can we learn from cosmological observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondolo, Paolo

    Cosmological observations are starting to probe the evolution of the Universe before nucleosyn- thesis. The observed fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background and in the distribution of matter can be traced back to their origin during inflation, and the inflaton potential has begun to be unraveled. A future probe of the first microseconds would be the detection of weakly-interacting massive particles as dark matter. Discovery of supersymmetric particles at odds with the standard cosmological lore may open an experimental window on the physics at the highest energies, per- haps as far as superstring theory. This presentation will overview two topics on the physics of the Universe before nucleosynthesis: (1) slow-roll, natural and chain inflation in the landscape, and

  14. Vascular wall shear stress in zebrafish model of early atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woorak; Seo, Eunseok; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Although atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease, the role of hemodynamic force has strong influence on the outbreak of the disease. Low and oscillating wall shear stress (WSS) is associated with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Many researchers have investigated relationships between WSS and the occurrence of atherosclerosis using in vitro and in vivo models. However, these models possess technological limitations in mimicking real biophysiological conditions and monitoring the temporal progression of atherosclerosis. In this study, a hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model was established as a novel model to resolve these technical limitations. WSS in blood vessels of 15 days post-fertilisation zebrafish was measured using a micro PIV technique, and the spatial distribution of lipids inside blood vessels was quantitatively visualized using a confocal microscopy. As a result, lipids are mainly deposited in the regions of low WSS. The oscillating WSS is not induced by blood flows in the zebrafish disease model. The present hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model would be useful for understanding the effect of WSS on the early stage of atherosclerosis. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under a Grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  15. A Microstructurally Inspired Damage Model for Early Venous Thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Manuel K.; Humphrey, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulative damage may be an important contributor to many cases of thrombotic disease progression. Thus, a complete understanding of the pathological role of thrombus requires an understanding of its mechanics and in particular mechanical consequences of damage. In the current study, we introduce a novel microstructurally inspired constitutive model for thrombus that considers a non-uniform distribution of microstructural fibers at various crimp levels and employs one of the distribution parameters to incorporate stretch-driven damage on the microscopic level. To demonstrate its ability to represent the mechanical behavior of thrombus, including a recently reported Mullins type damage phenomenon, we fit our model to uniaxial tensile test data of early venous thrombus. Our model shows an agreement with these data comparable to previous models for damage in elastomers with the added advantages of a microstructural basis and fewer model parameters. We submit that our novel approach marks another important step toward modeling the evolving mechanics of intraluminal thrombus, specifically its damage, and hope it will aid in the study of physiological and pathological thrombotic events. PMID:26523784

  16. Universality away from critical points in a thermostatistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapilli, C. M.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.

    Nature uses phase transitions as powerful regulators of processes ranging from climate to the alteration of phase behavior of cell membranes to protect cells from cold, building on the fact that thermodynamic properties of a solid, liquid, or gas are sensitive fingerprints of intermolecular interactions. The only known exceptions from this sensitivity are critical points. At a critical point, two phases become indistinguishable and thermodynamic properties exhibit universal behavior: systems with widely different intermolecular interactions behave identically. Here we report a major counterexample. We show that different members of a family of two-dimensional systems —the discrete p-state clock model— with different Hamiltonians describing different microscopic interactions between molecules or spins, may exhibit identical thermodynamic behavior over a wide range of temperatures. The results generate a comprehensive map of the phase diagram of the model and, by virtue of the discrete rotors behaving like continuous rotors, an emergent symmetry, not present in the Hamiltonian. This symmetry, or many-to-one map of intermolecular interactions onto thermodynamic states, demonstrates previously unknown limits for macroscopic distinguishability of different microscopic interactions.

  17. Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities

    PubMed Central

    Roopnarine, Peter D; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Wang, Steve C; Hertog, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the end-Permian mass extinction have emphasized potential abiotic causes and their direct biotic effects. Less attention has been devoted to secondary extinctions resulting from ecological crises and the effect of community structure on such extinctions. Here we use a trophic network model that combines topological and dynamic approaches to simulate disruptions of primary productivity in palaeocommunities. We apply the model to Permian and Triassic communities of the Karoo Basin, South Africa, and show that while Permian communities bear no evidence of being especially susceptible to extinction, Early Triassic communities appear to have been inherently less stable. Much of the instability results from the faster post-extinction diversification of amphibian guilds relative to amniotes. The resulting communities differed fundamentally in structure from their Permian predecessors. Additionally, our results imply that changing community structures over time may explain long-term trends like declining rates of Phanerozoic background extinction PMID:17609191

  18. Metropolitan Universities: An Emerging Model in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Daniel M., Ed.; Bell, David A., Ed.

    This volume contains 29 readings reprinted from the journal "Metropolitan Universities: An International Forum," selected to demonstrate the unique mission and characteristics of metropolitan universities and to recognize the special challenges they face in addressing the nation's major urban issues. The papers include: "What Is a Metropolitan…

  19. University of Phoenix Says Test Scores Vindicate Its Academic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2008-01-01

    The University of Phoenix is often derided by traditional academics for caring more about its bottom line than about academic quality, and every year, the annual report issued by its parent company focuses more on profits than student performance. This article reports that the institution that has become the largest private university in North…

  20. Model of Collaboration between Two Universities: Meeting the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Laughton, Joan M.

    This paper describes a collaborative program of Georgia State University and the University of Georgia to train prospective teachers of the deaf in accordance with recent standards developed by the Council on Education of the Deaf (CED). The program involves: (1) a shared advisory committee; (2) foundation coursework taken separately at the two…

  1. University as Foundations: The New Model of Lower Saxony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palandt, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In Lower Saxony, the legal status of universities as foundations under public law is offered because increased autonomy is a core condition for effective and economical management of resources and can attract increased private and public funding and improve corporate identity. A university senate can apply to receive this status. The university…

  2. Alternative Model of Funding for Academic Research in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olayiwola, Shina

    2010-01-01

    Funding of academic research in Nigerian universities by Government (5 per cent recurrent grants) is a policy dictated by the National Universities Commission (NUC) as the central body for allocating research funds. This research fund, little as it is, is irregular and inadequate and to make it worse is difficult to access. These aforementioned…

  3. A Working Model of a New American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Michael M.; Loui, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    American universities confront unique challenges as they move into the twenty-first century. These include rapid population growth, demographic and economic changes on both global and regional levels, and the numerous local challenges that face today's communities. Modern universities must engage, and in turn be engaged by, their communities in…

  4. Universal Breadwinner versus Universal Caregiver Model: Fathers' Involvement in Caregiving and Well-Being of Mothers of Offspring with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Kröger, Teppo; Pu, Cheng-yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The universal breadwinner model means both parents are employed; while the universal caregiver model implies that the father's hours of caregiving are equal or higher to those of the mother. This study aims to examine the hypothesis that the universal caregiver model is more related to the overall well-being of mothers of children with…

  5. Spectral models for early time SN 2011fe observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Friesen, Brian; Sullivan, M.; Hsiao, E.; Ellis, R. S.; Gal-Yam, A.; Howell, D. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Dominguez, I.; Krisciunas, K.; Phillips, M. M.; Suntzeff, N.; Wang, L.; Thomas, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    We use observed UV through near-IR spectra to examine whether SN 2011fe can be understood in the framework of Branch-normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and to examine its individual peculiarities. As a benchmark, we use a delayed-detonation model with a progenitor metallicity of Z⊙/20. We study the sensitivity of features to variations in progenitor metallicity, the outer density profile, and the distribution of radioactive nickel. The effect of metallicity variations in the progenitor have a relatively small effect on the synthetic spectra. We also find that the abundance stratification of SN 2011fe resembles closely that of a delayed-detonation model with a transition density that has been fit to other Branch-normal SNe Ia. At early times, the model photosphere is formed in material with velocities that are too high, indicating that the photosphere recedes too slowly or that SN 2011fe has a lower specific energy in the outer ≈0.1 M⊙ than does the model. We discuss several explanations for the discrepancies. Finally, we examine variations in both the spectral energy distribution and in the colours due to variations in the progenitor metallicity, which suggests that colours are only weak indicators for the progenitor metallicity, in the particular explosion model that we have studied. We do find that the flux in the U band is significantly higher at maximum light in the solar metallicity model than in the lower metallicity model and the lower metallicity model much better matches the observed spectrum.

  6. Power law expansion of the early universe for a V (a) = kan potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Augusto S.

    2018-01-01

    In a recent paper, He, Gao and Cai [Phys. Rev. D 89, 083510 (2014)], found a rigorous proof, based on analytical solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDWE) equation, of the spontaneous creation of the universe from nothing. The solutions were obtained from a classical potential V = ka2, where a is the scale factor. In this paper, we present a complementary (to that of He, Gao and Cai) solution to the WDWE equation with V = kan. I have found an exponential expansion of the true vacuum bubble for all scenarios. In all scenarios, we found a power law behavior of the scale factor result which is in agreement with another studies.

  7. Evaluation of Standardized Instruments for Use in Universal Screening of Very Early School-Age Children: Suitability, Technical Adequacy, and Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Sandra; Fulbrook, Paul; Mainwaring-Mägi, Debra

    2018-01-01

    Universal screening of very early school-age children (age 4-7 years) is important for early identification of learning problems that may require enhanced learning opportunity. In this context, use of standardized instruments is critical to obtain valid, reliable, and comparable assessment outcomes. A wide variety of standardized instruments is…

  8. [The early years of anatomy and obstetrics at the Göttingen University, 1734-1760].

    PubMed

    Rab, Irén

    2014-03-16

    In the Age of Enlightenment medical education was based on new fundamentals. According to experts at that time, a medical faculty had to have five branches: anatomy, botany, chemistry, practical and theoretical medicine. Perhaps Göttingen was the most successful university foundation at that time, because a generous financial support was provided, outstanding professors were invited and an education without censorship was warranted. The spirit of Enlightenment affected both the structure and the standards of education of the facultas medicinae. The word-wide reputation of this faculty was earned by Albrecht von Haller. Haller conceived both the still highly regarded botanical garden and the anatomical theatre, which was the first of its kind in the German speaking area. Furthermore, he founded one of the first clinical obstetrics departments in the world. Students gained theoretical knowledge, were trained practically and had the opportunity to make scientific observations and medical experiments. This paper describes the founding era of the medical faculty of University of Göttingen from a historical-cultural view of point, based on contemporary documents from Germany and Hungary.

  9. Spectral models for early time SN 2011fe observations

    DOE PAGES

    Baron, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Friesen, Brian; ...

    2015-10-13

    We use observed UV through near-IR spectra to examine whether SN 2011fe can be understood in the framework of Branch-normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and to examine its individual peculiarities. As a benchmark, we use a delayed-detonationmodel with a progenitormetallicity of Z ⊙/20. We study the sensitivity of features to variations in progenitor metallicity, the outer density profile, and the distribution of radioactive nickel. The effect of metallicity variations in the progenitor have a relatively small effect on the synthetic spectra. We also find that the abundance stratification of SN 2011fe resembles closely that of a delayed-detonation model withmore » a transition density that has been fit to other Branch-normal SNe Ia. At early times, the model photosphere is formed in material with velocities that are too high, indicating that the photosphere recedes too slowly or that SN 2011fe has a lower specific energy in the outer ≈0.1 M ⊙ than does the model. We discuss several explanations for the discrepancies. Lastly, we examine variations in both the spectral energy distribution and in the colours due to variations in the progenitor metallicity, which suggests that colours are only weak indicators for the progenitor metallicity, in the particular explosion model that we have studied. Here we do find that the flux in the U band is significantly higher at maximum light in the solar metallicity model than in the lower metallicity model and the lower metallicity model much better matches the observed spectrum.« less

  10. Toward University Modeling Instruction--Biology: Adapting Curricular Frameworks from Physics to Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthey, Seth; Brewe, Eric

    2013-01-01

    University Modeling Instruction (UMI) is an approach to curriculum and pedagogy that focuses instruction on engaging students in building, validating, and deploying scientific models. Modeling Instruction has been successfully implemented in both high school and university physics courses. Studies within the physics education research (PER)…

  11. Model for a university-based clinical research development infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Havermahl, Tamara; LaPensee, Elizabeth; Williams, David; Clauw, Daniel; Parker, Robert A; Downey, Brad; Liu, Jing; Myles, James

    2015-01-01

    The Research Development Core (RDC) is housed within the Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research (MICHR) at the University of Michigan (U-M). Established in 2006, RDC provides no-cost, in-person consultations to help U-M investigators strengthen their grant proposals. RDC offers investigators feedback and critique on all aspects of their study design, plus partnerships, funding mechanisms, and future directions. This article describes RDC's model and provides data describing the success of its services.RDC is composed of a multidisciplinary team of professionals in grant development. It comprises two senior faculty codirectors from the U-M Medical School, two senior biostatisticians, outside faculty content experts, and RDC administrative staff. Investigators contact RDC to request a consultation and submit advance grant materials for review by the RDC team. During the consultation, investigators explain their project and identify challenges. The RDC team and additional experts offer feedback that is captured in meeting notes and provided to investigators. RDC commitments beyond the meetings are implemented and carefully tracked. Investigators may also request grant editing, budgeting, or proposal submission assistance. Investigators using RDC have been awarded $44.5 million since 2011.The demand for RDC consultations doubled from 2010 to 2011 and reached a high of 131 consultations in 2012. Investigator feedback has been positive: 80% reported that RDC had a strong impact on their proposal, and over 90% indicated that they would recommend RDC to colleagues. MICHR is committed to providing investigators with RDC services to better ensure strong grant applications and successful research careers.

  12. Model for a University-Based Clinical Research Development Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Havermahl, Tamara; LaPensee, Elizabeth; Williams, David; Clauw, Daniel; Parker, Robert A.; Downey, Brad; Liu, Jing; Myles, James

    2014-01-01

    The Research Development Core (RDC) is housed within the Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research (MICHR) at the University of Michigan (U-M). Established in 2006, RDC provides no-cost, in-person consultations to help U-M investigators strengthen their grant proposals. RDC offers investigators feedback and critique on all aspects of their study design, plus partnerships, funding mechanisms and future directions. This article describes RDC’s model and provides data describing the success of its services. The RDC is composed of a multidisciplinary team of professionals in grant development. It is comprised of two senior faculty co-directors from the U-M Medical School, two senior biostatisticians, outside faculty content experts, and RDC administrative staff. Investigators contact RDC to request a consultation and submit advance grant materials for review by the RDC team. During the consultation, investigators explain their project and identify challenges. The RDC team and additional experts offer feedback that is captured in meeting notes and provided to investigators. RDC commitments beyond the meetings are implemented and carefully tracked. Investigators may also request grant editing, budgeting, or proposal submission assistance. Investigators utilizing RDC have been awarded $44.5 million since 2011. The demand for RDC consultations doubled from 2010 to 2011, and reached a high of 131 consultations in 2012. Investigator feedback has been positive: 80% reported RDC had a strong impact on their proposal, and over 90% indicated they would recommend RDC to colleagues. MICHR is committed to providing investigators with RDC services to better ensure strong grant applications and successful research careers. PMID:25340362

  13. Early phenotypical diagnoses in Trembler-J mice model.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Gonzalo; Cal, Karina; Canclini, Lucía; Damián, Juan Pablo; Ruiz, Paul; Rodríguez, Héctor; Sotelo, José Roberto; Vazquez, Cristina; Kun, Alejandra

    2010-06-30

    Pmp-22 mutant mice (Trembler-J: B6.D2-Pmp22/J), are used as a model to study Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A). The identification of individual genotypes is a routine in the management of the Tr(J) colony. The earliest phenotypic manifestation of the pmp-22 mutation is just about 20th postnatal days, when pups begin to tremble. In this study, a rapid and simple diagnostic method was developed by modifying the Tail Suspension Test (MTST) to determine the difference between the Tr(J) and the wild-type mice phenotype. The animal behavioral phenotypes generated during the test were consistent with the specific genotype of each animal. The MTST allowed us to infer the heterozygous genotype in early postnatal stages, at 11 days after birth. The motor impairment of Tr(J) mice was also analyzed by a Fixed Bar Test (FBT), which revealed the disease evolution according to age. The main advantages of MTST are its objectivity, simplicity, and from the viewpoint of animal welfare, it is a non-invasive technique that combined with his rapidity show its very well applicability for use from an early age in these mice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Observed heavy precipitation increase confirms theory and early model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. M.; Knutti, R.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental phenomena are often first observed, and then explained or simulated quantitatively. The complexity and diversity of processes, the range of scales involved, and the lack of first principles to describe many processes make it challenging to predict conditions beyond the ones observed. Here we use the intensification of heavy precipitation as a counterexample, where seemingly complex and potentially computationally intractable processes to first order manifest themselves in simple ways: the intensification of heavy precipitation is now emerging in the observed record across many regions of the world, confirming both theory and a variety of model predictions made decades ago, before robust evidence arose from observations. We here compare heavy precipitation changes over Europe and the contiguous United States across station series and gridded observations, theoretical considerations and multi-model ensembles of GCMs and RCMs. We demonstrate that the observed heavy precipitation intensification aggregated over large areas agrees remarkably well with Clausius-Clapeyron scaling. The observed changes in heavy precipitation are consistent yet somewhat larger than predicted by very coarse resolution GCMs in the 1980s and simulated by the newest generation of GCMs and RCMs. For instance the number of days with very heavy precipitation over Europe has increased by about 45% in observations (years 1981-2013 compared to 1951-1980) and by about 25% in the model average in both GCMs and RCMs, although with substantial spread across models and locations. As the anthropogenic climate signal strengthens, there will be more opportunities to test climate predictions for other variables against observations and across a hierarchy of different models and theoretical concepts. *Fischer, E.M., and R. Knutti, 2016, Observed heavy precipitation increase confirms theory and early models, Nature Climate Change, in press.

  15. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (early Earth showing that, until the late Archean, most continents were flooded and Earth was largely a water world. From this, a model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic

  16. A microengineered pathophysiological model of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonseok; Hyun, Eunjeh; Seo, Jeongyun; Blundell, Cassidy; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Eunhee; Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Aree; Moon, Woo Kyung; Huh, Dongeun

    2015-08-21

    A mounting body of evidence in cancer research suggests that the local microenvironment of tumor cells has a profound influence on cancer progression and metastasis. In vitro studies on the tumor microenvironment and its pharmacological modulation, however, are often hampered by the technical challenges associated with creating physiological cell culture environments that integrate cancer cells with the key components of their native niche such as neighboring cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic complex microarchitecture of cancerous tissue. Using early-stage breast cancer as a model disease, here we describe a biomimetic microengineering strategy to reconstitute three-dimensional (3D) structural organization and microenvironment of breast tumors in human cell-based in vitro models. Specifically, we developed a microsystem that enabled co-culture of breast tumor spheroids with human mammary ductal epithelial cells and mammary fibroblasts in a compartmentalized 3D microfluidic device to replicate microarchitecture of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We also explored the potential of this breast cancer-on-a-chip system as a drug screening platform by evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of an anticancer drug (paclitaxel). Our microengineered disease model represents the first critical step towards recapitulating pathophysiological complexity of breast cancer, and may serve as an enabling tool to systematically examine the contribution of the breast cancer microenvironment to the progression of DCIS to an invasive form of the disease.

  17. Relevance of early head CT scans following neurosurgical procedures: an analysis of 892 intracranial procedures at Rush University Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Ricardo B V; Smith, Adam P; Muñoz, Lorenzo F; Byrne, Richard W; Traynelis, Vincent C

    2014-08-01

    Early postoperative head CT scanning is routinely performed following intracranial procedures for detection of complications, but its real value remains uncertain: so-called abnormal results are frequently found, but active, emergency intervention based on these findings may be rare. The authors' objective was to analyze whether early postoperative CT scans led to emergency surgical interventions and if the results of neurological examination predicted this occurrence. The authors retrospectively analyzed 892 intracranial procedures followed by an early postoperative CT scan performed over a 1-year period at Rush University Medical Center and classified these cases according to postoperative neurological status: baseline, predicted neurological change, unexpected neurological change, and sedated or comatose. The interpretation of CT results was reviewed and unexpected CT findings were classified based on immediate action taken: Type I, additional observation and CT; Type II, active nonsurgical intervention; and Type III, surgical intervention. Results were compared between neurological examination groups with the Fisher exact test. Patients with unexpected neurological changes or in the sedated or comatose group had significantly more unexpected findings on the postoperative CT (p < 0.001; OR 19.2 and 2.3, respectively) and Type II/III interventions (p < 0.001) than patients at baseline. Patients at baseline or with expected neurological changes still had a rate of Type II/III changes in the 2.2%-2.4% range; however, no patient required an immediate return to the operating room. Over a 1-year period in an academic neurosurgery service, no patient who was neurologically intact or who had a predicted neurological change required an immediate return to the operating room based on early postoperative CT findings. Obtaining early CT scans should not be a priority in these patients and may even be cancelled in favor of MRI studies, if the latter have already been planned

  18. Silurian to Early Carboniferous plate tectonic model of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golonka, Jan; Barmuta, Jan; Barmuta, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The presented plate tectonic model focuses on Silurian to Early Carboniferous evolution of Central Europe with special attention given to the Sudetes region (north and north-east part of the Bohemian Massif). During our studies, we tested alternative models focused on the position of the Armorican terranes, known as the Armorican Terrane Assembly (ATA) (e.g.: Matte, 2001) and tried to refine the existing reconstructions, which describe Armorica as an individual continent during the Late Silurian and Devonian (e.g. Lewandowski, 2003, Winchester, 2002). Our plate tectonic model depict that these small blocks were scattered along the northern margin of Gondwana, where they formed the "Armorican Spour" as suggested by Kroner and Romer (2013). The seaways were present between blocks. Because of the north dipping subduction zone along the southern margin of the Laurussia continent the back-arc basin and island arc were formed. The narrowing of the Rheic ocean led to the complicated collision of Gondwana and Laurussia. Three main stages of this event can be distinguished: (1) collision of the Armorican Spour with the Laurussian island arc, (2) back-arc basin closure, (3) final Gondwana and Laurussian collision. Those stages correlate well with Variscan Subduction Zone System proposed by Kroner and Romer (2013). Interactive modeling performed in GPlates, shows that the presented model is valid from kinematic and geometrical point of view. Kroner U., Romer R., L., 2013, Two plates - many subduction zones: the Variscan orogeny reconsidered. Gondwana Research, 24: 298-329. Lewandowski M., 2003, Assembly of Pangea: Combined paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic approach, Advances in Geophysics, 46: 199-236 Matte P., 2001, The Variscan collage and orogeny (480 290 Ma) and the tectonic definition of the Armorica microplate: a review. Terra Nova, 13: 122¨C128. Winchester J., A., The Pace TMR Network Team, 2002, Palaeozoic amalgamation of Central Europe: new results from recent

  19. Early nursing career experience for 1994-2000 graduates from the University of Nottingham.

    PubMed

    Park, Jennifer R; Chapple, Mary; Wharrad, Heather; Bradley, Sue

    2007-05-01

    This paper reports the views of nurses graduating from the University of Nottingham School of Nursing, UK, 1994-2000, Bachelor of Nursing (Hons) course, concerning career aspirations, progress and reflections on their qualification. Alongside academic knowledge and practical skills, this four-year Bachelor of Nursing course aimed to develop students' critical thinking and research skills. The degree's effect on nurses' career trajectories is unknown. Self-completion questionnaires employing open and closed questions were sent to graduates 9 months after graduation and at intervals over the next 6 years. Most respondents were confident and motivated in their nursing careers. Promotion, increased responsibility, further study, specialization and qualifications were career priorities. Recent qualifiers also focused on changing jobs, travel and working overseas. The graduates' experience has salience for nurse managers, especially when matching graduates against post outlines within the knowledge and skills framework, considering staff skill mix, and advising graduates about their development and assisting them to find satisfaction in their nursing careers.

  20. Building a Model of Early Years Professionalism from Practitioners’ Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Avril

    2013-01-01

    Practitioner voice has been absent from debates regarding what constitutes professional behaviour and practice in the early years. This research identifies and uses the professional knowledge of a group of early years educators to create a typology of professionalism. The typology comprises seven inter-related dimensions of early years…

  1. [CII] At 1 < z < 2: Observing Star Formation in the Early Universe with Zeus (1 and 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Oberst, T.; Parshley, S.; Stacey, G.; Benford, D.; staguhn, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the [CII] 158 micron fine structure line from six submillimeter galaxies with redshifts between 1.12 and 1.73. This more than doubles the total number of [CII] 158 micron detections reported from high redshift sources. These observations were made with the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer(ZEUS) at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii between December 2006 and March 2009. ZEUS is a background limited submm echelle grating spectrometer (Hailey-Dunsheath 2009). Currently we are constructing ZEUS-2. This new instrument will utilize the same grating but will feature a two dimensional transition-edge sensed bolometer array with SQUID multiplexing readout system enabling simultaneous background limited observations in the 200, 340,450 and 650 micron telluric windows. ZEUS-2 will allow for long slit imaging spectroscopy in nearby galaxies and a [CII] survey from z 0.25 to 2.5.

  2. Matter antimatter domains: A possible solution to the CP domain wall problem in the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohanty, A. K.; Stecker, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    An SU(5) grand unified theory model is used to show how the degeneracy between vacua with different spontaneously broken charge parity can be dynamically lifted by a condensate of heavy fermion pairs. This drives a phase transition to a unique vacuum state with definite charge parity. The transition eliminates the domain walls in a matter antimatter symmetric domain cosmology.

  3. Scaling and Sustaining Effective Early Childhood Programs through School-Family-University Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Hayakawa, Momoko; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F.; Englund, Michelle M.; Candee, Allyson J.; Smerillo, Nicole E.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a comprehensive preschool to third grade prevention program for the goals of sustaining services at a large scale. The Midwest Child-Parent Center (CPC) Expansion is a multilevel collaborative school reform model designed to improve school achievement and parental involvement from ages…

  4. Zooming in on star formation in the brightest galaxies of the early Universe discovered with the Planck and Herschel satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canameras, Raoul

    2016-09-01

    Strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies offer an outstanding opportunity to characterize the most intensely star-forming galaxies in the high-redshift universe. In the most extreme cases, one can probe the mechanisms that underlie the intense star formation on the scales of individual star-forming regions. This requires very fortuitous gravitational lensing configurations offering magnification factors >>10, which are particularly rare toward the high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies. The Planck's Dusty GEMS (Gravitationally Enhanced subMillimeter Sources) sample contains eleven of the brightest high-redshift galaxies discovered with the Planck submillimeter all-sky survey, with flux densities between 300 and 1000 mJy at 350 microns, factors of a few brighter than the majority of lensed sources previously discovered with other surveys. Six of them are above the 90% completeness limit of the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS), suggesting that they are among the brightest high-redshift sources on the sky selected by their active star formation. This thesis comes within the framework of the extensive multi-wavelength follow-up programme designed to determine the overall properties of the high-redshift sources and to probe the lensing configurations. Firstly, to characterize the intervening lensing structures and calculate lensing models, I use optical and near/mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy. I deduce that our eleven GEMS are aligned with intervening matter overdensities at intermediate redshift, either massive isolated galaxies or galaxy groups and clusters. The foreground sources exhibit evolved stellar populations of a few giga years, characteristic of early-type galaxies. Moreover, the first detailed models of the light deflection toward the GEMS suggest magnification factors systematically >10, and >20 for some lines-of-sight. Secondly, we observe the GEMS in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter domains in order to characterize the background

  5. Modeling and Reality in Early Twentieth-Century Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Suman

    2011-04-01

    Towards the end of 1913, Arnold Sommerfeld, Professor of theoretical physics at Munich University, sent a letter of congratulations to a young Niels Bohr. The Dane's now-classic trilogy of papers, which coupled Rutherford's conception of the atom with a ``planetary'' configuration of electrons, had just appeared. Sommerfeld saw the calculation of the Rydberg constant as a singular triumph and immediately spotted an opportunity to try to explain the Zeeman effect. Yet he also sounded a note of caution, confessing that he remained ``somewhat skeptical'' of atomic models in general. In this, of course, he was hardly alone. Bohr's atom was a particularly egregious example of a peculiar model, one requiring what even its creator considered ``horrid assumptions.'' Nonetheless, success bred conviction. Expanding upon Bohr's original ideas, Sommerfeld soon produced the so-called ``Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization conditions,'' using them to calculate a myriad of results. Experimental evidence, Sommerfeld argued in 1915, showed that quantised electron-paths ``correspond exactly to reality'' and possess ``real existence.'' This kind of realism would not, of course, last long. In 1925, Werner Heisenberg (earlier a student of Sommerfeld's) made scepticism about the details of the Bohr model into a methodological dictum, one later enshrined in the ``Copenhagen interpretation'' of quantum mechanics. This paper uses Sommerfeld's work from the turn of the twentieth century to the mid-1920s as a window onto a landscape involving multiple contestations over the legitimacy of atomic modelling. The surprise that greeted Heisenberg's and others' phenomenological insistences, we will see, can only be understood with reference to what should be considered a ``realist interlude'' in the history of twentieth century atomic physics, one inspired by the astonishing successes of Rutherford's and Bohr's imaginings.

  6. Investigation on the governance model and effect of medical schools merged with comprehensive universities in China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ge; Luo, Li

    2013-08-01

    This investigation analyzes the management of medical schools merged with comprehensive universities through internet search and research review to reveal management model and effect of the merger. The conclusion is safely reached that governance models are divided into two different patterns: centralized management and decentralized management. Eight universities, representing the two models, were selected and evaluated comprehensively. Among them, the universities that carried out decentralized management have greater development after the merger based on a quality comparison concerning freshmen, faculty, teaching, and research between the two patterns. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  7. Introducing CoDa (Cosmic Dawn): Radiation-Hydrodynamics of Galaxy Formation in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocvirk, Pierre; Gillet, Nicolas; Shapiro, Paul; Aubert, Dominique; Iliev, Ilian; Romain, Teyssier; Yepes, Gustavo; Choi, Jun-hwan; Sullivan, David; Knebe, Alexander; Gottloeber, Stefan; D'Aloisio, Anson; Park, Hyunbae; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2015-08-01

    CoDa (Cosmic Dawn) is the largest fully coupled radiation hydrodynamics simulation of the reionization of the local Universe to date. It was performed using RAMSES-CUDATON running on 8192 nodes (i.e. 8192 GPUs) on the titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate a 64 h-1Mpc side box down to z=4.23. In this simulation, reionization proceeds self-consistently, driven by stellar radiation. We compare the simulation's reionization history, ionizing flux density, the cosmic star formation history and the CMB Thompson scattering optical depth with their observational values. Luminosity functions are also in rather good agreement with high redshift observations, although very bright objects (MAB1600 < -21) are overabundant in CoDa. We investigate the evolution of the intergalactic medium, and find that gas filaments present a sheathed structure, with a hot envelope surrounding a cooler core. They are however not able to self-shield, while regions denser than 10^-4.5 H atoms per comoving h^-3cm^3 are. Haloes below M ˜ 3.10^9 M⊙ are severely affected by the expanding, rising UV background: their ISM is quickly photo-heated to temperatures above our star formation threshold and therefore stop forming stars after local reionization has occured. Overall, the haloes between 10^(10-11) M⊙ dominate the star formation budget of the box for most of the Epoch of Reionization. Several additional studies will follow, looking for instance at environmental effects on galaxy properties, and the regimes of accretion.

  8. Clarifying Parent-Child Reciprocities during Early Childhood: The Early Childhood Coercion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2004-01-01

    Consistent with existing theory, the quality of parent-child interactions during early childhood affects children's social relationships and behavioral adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence. Harsh parenting and a propensity toward emotional overarousal interact very early in life to affect risk for later conduct problems. Less…

  9. Stakeholder perspectives on implementing a universal Lynch syndrome screening program: a qualitative study of early barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jennifer L; Davis, James; Kauffman, Tia L; Reiss, Jacob A; McGinley, Cheryl; Arnold, Kathleen; Zepp, Jamilyn; Gilmore, Marian; Muessig, Kristin R; Syngal, Sapna; Acheson, Louise; Wiesner, Georgia L; Peterson, Susan K; Goddard, Katrina A B

    2016-02-01

    Evidence-based guidelines recommend that all newly diagnosed colon cancer be screened for Lynch syndrome (LS), but best practices for implementing universal tumor screening have not been extensively studied. We interviewed a range of stakeholders in an integrated health-care system to identify initial factors that might promote or hinder the successful implementation of a universal LS screening program. We conducted interviews with health-plan leaders, managers, and staff. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis began with a grounded approach and was also guided by the Practical Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model (PRISM). We completed 14 interviews with leaders/managers and staff representing involved clinical and health-plan departments. Although stakeholders supported the concept of universal screening, they identified several internal (organizational) and external (environment) factors that promote or hinder implementation. Facilitating factors included perceived benefits of screening for patients and organization, collaboration between departments, and availability of organizational resources. Barriers were also identified, including: lack of awareness of guidelines, lack of guideline clarity, staffing and program "ownership" concerns, and cost uncertainties. Analysis also revealed nine important infrastructure-type considerations for successful implementation. We found that clinical, laboratory, and administrative departments supported universal tumor screening for LS. Requirements for successful implementation may include interdepartmental collaboration and communication, patient and provider/staff education, and significant infrastructure and resource support related to laboratory processing and systems for electronic ordering and tracking.

  10. A Model of Volcanic Outgassing for Earth's Early Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaliwal, J. K.; Kasting, J. F.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We build on historical paradigms of volcanic degassing [1] to account for non-linear relations among C-O-H-S volatiles, their speciation, solubility and concentrations in magmatic melts, and the resulting contribution to atmospheric volatile inventories. We focus on the build-up of greenhouse-relevant carbon species (CO2 and CH4) and molecular oxygen to better understand the environments of early life and the Great Oxygenation Event [2,3,4]. The mantle is an important reservoir of C-O-H-S volatiles [5], and melt concentrations depend on temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. We present a preliminary chemical model that simulates volatile concentrations released into the Earth's atmosphere at 1 bar, or pressures corresponding to the early Earth prior to 2.4 Ga. We maintain redox balance in the system using H+ [2, 6] because the melt oxidation state evolves with volatile melt concentrations [7] and affects the composition of degassed compounds. For example, low fO2 in the melt degasses CO, CH4, H2S and H2 while high fO2 yields CO2, SO2 and H2O [1,8,9]. Our calculations incorporate empirical relations from experimental petrology studies [e.g., 10, 11] to account for inter-dependencies among volatile element solubility trends. This model has implications for exploring planetary atmospheric evolution and potential greenhouse effects on Venus and Mars [12]­, and possibly exoplanets. A future direction of this work would be to link this chemical degassing model with different tectonic regimes [13] to account for degassing and ingassing, such as during subduction. References: [1] Holland, H. D. (1984) The chemical evolution of the atmosphere and oceans [2] Kasting, J. F. (2013) Chem. Geo. 362, 13-25 [3] Kasting, J.F. (1993) Sci. 259, 920-926 [4] Duncan, M.S. & Dasgupta, R. (2017) Nat. Geoscience 10, 387-392. [5] Hier-Majumder, S. & Hirschmann, M.M. (2017) G3, doi: 10.1002/2017GC006937 [6] Gaillard, F. et al. (2003) GCA 67, 2427- 2441 [7] Moussalam, Y. et al. (2014

  11. Cost-effectiveness model for prevention of early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gomez, F J; Shepard, D S

    1999-07-01

    This study presents and illustrates a model that determines the cost-effectiveness of three successively more complete levels of preventive intervention (minimal, intermediate, and comprehensive) in treating dental caries in disadvantaged children up to 6 years of age. Using existing data on the costs of early childhood caries (ECC), the authors estimated the probable cost-effectiveness of each of the three preventive intervention levels by comparing treatment costs to prevention costs as applied to a typical low-income California child for five years. They found that, in general, prevention becomes cost-saving if at least 59 percent of carious lesions receive restorative treatment. Assuming an average restoration cost of $112 per surface, the model predicts cost savings of $66 to $73 in preventing a one-surface, carious lesion. Thus, all three levels of preventive intervention should be relatively cost-effective. Comprehensive intervention would provide the greatest oral health benefit; however, because more children would receive reparative care, overall program costs would rise even as per-child treatment costs decline.

  12. Chasing passive galaxies in the early Universe: a critical analysis in CANDELS GOODS-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlin, E.; Fontana, A.; Castellano, M.; Santini, P.; Torelli, M.; Boutsia, K.; Wang, T.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L.; Schreiber, C.; Ciesla, L.; McLure, R.; Derriere, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.

    2018-01-01

    We search for passive galaxies at z > 3 in the GOODS-South field, using different techniques based on photometric data, and paying attention to develop methods that are sensitive to objects that have become passive shortly before the epoch of observation. We use CANDELS HST catalogues, ultra-deep Ks data and new IRAC photometry, performing spectral energy distribution fitting using models with abruptly quenched star formation histories. We then single out galaxies which are best fitted by a passively evolving model, and having only low probability (<5 per cent) star-forming solutions. We verify the effects of including nebular lines emission, and we consider possible solutions at different redshifts. The number of selected sources dramatically depends on the models used in the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. Without including emission lines and with photometric redshifts fixed at the CANDELS estimate, we single out 30 candidates; the inclusion of nebular lines emission reduces the sample to 10 objects; allowing for solutions at different redshifts, only two galaxies survive as robust candidates. Most of the candidates are not far-infrared emitters, corroborating their association with passive galaxies. Our results translate into an upper limit in the number density of ∼0.173 arcmin2 above the detection limit. However, we conclude that the selection of passive galaxies at z > 3 is still subject to significant uncertainties, being sensitive to assumptions in the SED modelling adopted and to the relatively low S/N of the objects. By means of dedicated simulations, we show that JWST will greatly enhance the accuracy, allowing for a much more robust classification.

  13. Early Childhood Teachers' Professional Learning in Early Algebraic Thinking: A Model that Supports New Knowledge and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of a new mathematics syllabus in the elementary context is problematic, especially if it contains a new content area. A professional development model, Transformative Teaching in the Early Years Mathematics (TTEYM) was specifically developed to support the implementation of the new Patterns and Algebra strand. The model was…

  14. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  15. Towards a Theory of University Entrepreneurship: Developing a Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollard, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out to develop a robust theory in a largely atheoretical field of study. The increasing importance of entrepreneurship in delivering the "Third Mission" calls for an enhanced understanding of the university entrepreneurship phenomenon, not solely as a subject of academic interest but also to guide the work of practitioners in the…

  16. From Universal Laws of Cognition to Specific Cognitive Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chater, Nick; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2008-01-01

    The remarkable successes of the physical sciences have been built on highly general quantitative laws, which serve as the basis for understanding an enormous variety of specific physical systems. How far is it possible to construct universal principles in the cognitive sciences, in terms of which specific aspects of perception, memory, or decision…

  17. Process-Model Feminism in the Corporate University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer-Hanks, D. T.

    2016-01-01

    In a period characterised by worries over the rise of the corporate university, it is important to ask what role feminism plays in the academy, and whether that role is commensurate with feminist values and ethics. Commercial and political pressures brought to bear on the encounter between instructor and student can rob teaching of its efficacy,…

  18. Recommendations to Improve Space Projection Models and University Space Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigall, Sam W.

    2007-01-01

    In today"s economy, public university administrators need to reflect on current practices for reporting and projecting space requirements to government entities as the cost of constructing new facilities or renovating space rises while income from legislative appropriations diminishes. As stewards of public buildings and funds, institutions…

  19. Modelling Graduate Skill Transfer from University to the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This study explores skill transfer in graduates as they transition from university to the workplace. Graduate employability continues to dominate higher education agendas yet the transfer of acquired skills is often assumed. The study is prompted by documented concern with graduate performance in certain employability skills, and prevalent skill…

  20. Evaluation of Stress Management Education: The University of Maryland Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Roger J.

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the undergraduate service program "Controlling Stress & Tension" at the University of Maryland in terms of improving the health status of participants across biomedical stress reactivity and psychometric variables. Six hundred fifty-three participants were compared to 264 control subjects for pre-…

  1. Is There a Latin American Model of the University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Latin America has seen the advent of research activities to meet the call for research that long preceded them and of the full-time research faculty who engage in them. These developments have taken place as the region partakes in contemporary worldwide trends that have affected universities elsewhere: the consequences of the increased…

  2. SRC: A Model of Industry-University Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavin, Ralph K., III; Phillips, D. Howard

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC), a non-profit research cooperative designed to conduct research in the field of integrated circuits, principally in U.S. universities, with membership restricted to U.S.-owned companies. Analyzes SRC's impact on the U.S. educational system. (TW)

  3. Supporting Universal Prevention Programs: A Two-Phased Coaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in "Early Child Res Q" 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in "Early…

  4. Low-Energy Mutual Neutralization Studies for Early Universe Hydrogen Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbain, Xavier

    2010-03-01

    Low-energy interactions between light ions, as they occur in low density plasmas, are ideally studied under merged-beam conditions. This was the motivation for building the dual-source setup in operation at UCL, Louvain-la-Neuve, since the early eighties. Although initially developed for the study of charge exchange [1], mutual neutralization and transfer ionization, this machine has produced a host of total cross section measurements for a wide variety of associative ionization and other reactive processes involving charged reactants, from H^+ to CO^+, in collision with H^-, D^-, C^- and O^- [2]. A recent paper by Glover et al. [3] has revived the interest for mutual neutralization studies, by stressing the need of the astrophysical community for a precise determination of the low-energy cross section of the H^+/H^- reaction. The mutual neutralization acts as a sink for negative ions which otherwise dominate the primordial formation of H2 by associative detachment with ground state H. Absolute measurements in the range 5 meV to 5 eV are needed to rule out earlier experimental work [4] contradicting the most recent theoretical predictions [5]. Our setup is currently modified to incorporate coincident imaging techniques, giving access to differential cross sections besides the branching among accessible neutral channels. Mutual neutralization reactions of H^- with H2^+ and H3^+ will also be investigated, for the role they play in laboratory plasmas [6].[4pt] [1] S. Sz"ucs, M. Karemera, M. Terao, and F. Brouillard, J. Phys. B 17, 1613 (1983).[0pt] [2] E. A. Naji et al., J. Phys. B 31, 4887 (1998), A. Le Padellec et al., J. Chem. Phys., 124, 154304 (2006) and references therein.[0pt] [3] S. C. Glover, D. W. Savin, and A.-K. Jappsen , Astrophys. J. 640, 553 (2006). [0pt] [4] J. Moseley, W. Aberth, and J. R. Peterson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 435 (1970).[0pt] [5] M. Stenrup, å. Larson, and N. Elander, Phys. Rev. A 79, 012713 (2009).[0pt] [6] M. J. J. Eerden et al., Phys

  5. Description and Early Outcomes of a Comprehensive Curriculum Redesign at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Heather L; O'Brien, Celia L; Curry, Raymond H; Green, Marianne M; Baker, James F; Kushner, Robert F; Thomas, John X; Corbridge, Thomas C; Corcoran, Julia F; Hauser, Joshua M; Garcia, Patricia M

    2017-09-26

    In 2012, the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine launched a redesigned curriculum addressing the four primary recommendations in the 2010 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching report on reforming medical education. This new curriculum provides a more standardized evaluation of students' competency achievement through a robust portfolio review process coupled with standard evaluations of medical knowledge and clinical skills. It individualizes learning processes through curriculum flexibility, enabling students to take electives earlier and complete clerkships in their preferred order. The new curriculum is integrated both horizontally and vertically, combining disciplines within organ-based modules and deliberately linking elements (science in medicine, clinical medicine, health and society, professional development) and threads (medical decision making, quality and safety, teamwork and leadership, lifestyle medicine, advocacy and equity) across the three phases that replaced the traditional four-year timeline. It encourages students to conduct research in an area of interest and commit to lifelong learning and self-improvement. The curriculum formalizes the process of professional identity formation and requires students to reflect on their experiences with the informal and hidden curricula, which strongly shape their identities.The authors describe the new curriculum structure, explain their approach to each Carnegie report recommendation, describe early outcomes and challenges, and propose areas for further work. Early data from the first cohort to progress through the curriculum show unchanged United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and 2 scores, enhanced student research engagement and career exploration, and improved student confidence in the patient care and professional development domains.

  6. The ZEUS 1 & 2 INvestigated Galaxy Reference Sample (ZINGRS): A window into galaxies in the early Universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Hershey, Deborah; Scrabeck, Alex; Higdon, Sarah; Higdon, James L.; Tidwell, Hannah; Lamarche, Cody; Vishwas, Amit; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Brisbin, Drew

    2018-06-01

    Galaxies have evolved significantly from the early Universe until today. Star formation rates, stellar and molecular gas masses, sizes and metal enrichment of galaxies have all changed significantly from early epochs until the present. Probing the physical conditions of galaxy at high redshift is vital to understanding this evolution. ZINGRS, the ZEUS 1 and 2 INvestigated Galaxy Reference Sample, provides a unique and powerful window for this work. The sample consists of more than ~30 galaxies from z ~ 1 - 4.5 for which the far-IR fine-structure lines (e.g. [CII] 158 micron, [NII] 122micron, [OIII] 88 micron) have been observed with the ZEUS-1 and 2 instruments. These lines are ideal for studying high-z systems since they require low energies for excitation, are typically optically thin, and are not susceptible to extinction from dust. ZINGRS is the largest collection of far-IR fine-structure line detections at high-z. Here we describe the sample, including extensive multifrequency supporting observations like CO & radio continuum, and summarize what we have learned so far.

  7. An Iterative Needs Assessment/Evaluation Model for a Japanese University English-Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study is the development and implementation of the Iterative Needs Assessment/Evaluation Model for use as part of an English curriculum reform project at a four-year university in Japan. Three questions were addressed in this study: (a) what model components were necessary for use in a Japanese university setting; (b) what survey…

  8. A Decision Support Model and Tool to Assist Financial Decision-Making in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhayat, Imtiaz; Manuguerra, Maurizio; Baldock, Clive

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a model and tool is proposed to assist universities and other mission-based organisations to ascertain systematically the optimal portfolio of projects, in any year, meeting the organisations risk tolerances and available funds. The model and tool presented build on previous work on university operations and decision support systems…

  9. An Unusually Effective School/University Programme: The Plymouth and Peninsula Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    la Velle, Linda; Reynolds, David; Nichol, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a novel UK school/university partnership, the "Plymouth Model" designed to encourage young people from disadvantaged backgrounds to aim for higher education (HE) study. The model incorporates the activity of university students, researchers and teachers working together to improve aspirations and outcomes for…

  10. Evaluating the Liberal Arts Model in the Context of the Dutch University College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    The Liberal Arts model of undergraduate education within small, internationally-focused University Colleges is becoming increasingly popular in Europe. This trend is most notable in the Netherlands, where the liberal arts model is acclaimed as filling a gap in Dutch undergraduate education at conventional research universities. This paper explores…

  11. UArizona at the CLEF eRisk 2017 Pilot Task: Linear and Recurrent Models for Early Depression Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sadeque, Farig; Xu, Dongfang; Bethard, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 CLEF eRisk pilot task focuses on automatically detecting depression as early as possible from a users’ posts to Reddit. In this paper we present the techniques employed for the University of Arizona team’s participation in this early risk detection shared task. We leveraged external information beyond the small training set, including a preexisting depression lexicon and concepts from the Unified Medical Language System as features. For prediction, we used both sequential (recurrent neural network) and non-sequential (support vector machine) models. Our models perform decently on the test data, and the recurrent neural models perform better than the non-sequential support vector machines while using the same feature sets. PMID:29075167

  12. Two superluminous supernovae from the early universe discovered by the supernova legacy survey

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, D. A.; Kasen, D.; Lidman, C.

    2013-12-20

    We present spectra and light curves of SNLS 06D4eu and SNLS 07D2bv, two hydrogen-free superluminous supernovae (SNe) discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey. At z = 1.588, SNLS 06D4eu is the highest redshift superluminous SN with a spectrum, at M{sub U} = –22.7 it is one of the most luminous SNe ever observed, and it gives a rare glimpse into the rest-frame ultraviolet where these SNe put out their peak energy. SNLS 07D2bv does not have a host galaxy redshift, but on the basis of the SN spectrum, we estimate it to be at z ∼ 1.5. Both SNe havemore » similar observer-frame griz light curves, which map to rest-frame light curves in the U band and UV, rising in ∼20 rest-frame days or longer and declining over a similar timescale. The light curves peak in the shortest wavelengths first, consistent with an expanding blackbody starting near 15,000 K and steadily declining in temperature. We compare the spectra with theoretical models, and we identify lines of C II, C III, Fe III, and Mg II in the spectra of SNLS 06D4eu and SCP 06F6 and find that they are consistent with an expanding explosion of only a few solar masses of carbon, oxygen, and other trace metals. Thus, the progenitors appear to be related to those suspected for SNe Ic. A high kinetic energy, 10{sup 52} erg, is also favored. Normal mechanisms of powering core-collapse or thermonuclear SNe do not seem to work for these SNe. We consider models powered by {sup 56}Ni decay and interaction with circumstellar material, but we find that the creation and spin-down of a magnetar with a period of 2 ms, a magnetic field of 2 × 10{sup 14} G, and a 3 M {sub ☉} progenitor provides the best fit to the data.« less

  13. International Models and Domestic Translations? The Case of University Governing Boards in Romania and Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Králiková, Renáta

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, several post-communist countries launched reforms of university management and governance marked by the influence of a "modernization agenda" for higher education governance, which was promoted by the World Bank, the OECD and the European Commission. However, this "modernization agenda" was employed…

  14. Learning to Be: The Modelling of Art and Design Practice in University Art and Design Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budge, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    Learning to be an artist or designer is a complex process of becoming. Much of the early phase of "learning to be" occurs during the time emerging artists and designers are students in university art/design programmes, both undergraduate and postgraduate. Recent research reveals that a critical role in assisting students in their…

  15. Scaling and Sustaining Effective Early Childhood Programs Through School-Family-University Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Hayakawa, Momoko; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F; Englund, Michelle M; Candee, Allyson J; Smerillo, Nicole E

    2017-09-01

    We describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a comprehensive preschool to third grade prevention program for the goals of sustaining services at a large scale. The Midwest Child-Parent Center (CPC) Expansion is a multilevel collaborative school reform model designed to improve school achievement and parental involvement from ages 3 to 9. By increasing the dosage, coordination, and comprehensiveness of services, the program is expected to enhance the transition to school and promote more enduring effects on well-being in multiple domains. We review and evaluate evidence from two longitudinal studies (Midwest CPC, 2012 to present; Chicago Longitudinal Study, 1983 to present) and four implementation examples of how the guiding principles of shared ownership, committed resources, and progress monitoring for improvement can promote effectiveness. The implementation system of partners and further expansion using "Pay for Success" financing shows the feasibility of scaling the program while continuing to improve effectiveness. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  16. Early Onset of Type 1 Diabetes and Educational Field at Upper Secondary and University Level: Is Own Experience an Asset for a Health Care Career?

    PubMed Central

    Steen Carlsson, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Ill health in early life has a significant negative impact on school grades, grade repetition, educational level, and labor market outcomes. However, less is known about qualitative socio-economic consequences of a health shock in childhood or adolescence. We investigate the relationship between onset of type 1 diabetes up to age 15 and the probability of choosing and completing a health-oriented path at upper secondary and university level of education. We analyze the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, the National Educational Register, and other population registers in Sweden for 2756 people with type 1 diabetes and 10,020 matched population controls. Educational decisions are modeled as unsorted series of binary choices to assess the choice of educational field as a potential mechanism linking early life health to adult outcomes. The analyses reject the hypothesis of no systematic differences in choice of educational field between people with and without type 1 diabetes at both levels. The results are robust to selection on ability proxies and across sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the observed pro health-oriented educational choices among people with type 1 diabetes in our data are consistent with disease onset in childhood and adolescence having qualitative impact on life-course choices. PMID:28665347

  17. Early Onset of Type 1 Diabetes and Educational Field at Upper Secondary and University Level: Is Own Experience an Asset for a Health Care Career?

    PubMed

    Lovén, Ida; Steen Carlsson, Katarina

    2017-06-30

    Ill health in early life has a significant negative impact on school grades, grade repetition, educational level, and labor market outcomes. However, less is known about qualitative socio-economic consequences of a health shock in childhood or adolescence. We investigate the relationship between onset of type 1 diabetes up to age 15 and the probability of choosing and completing a health-oriented path at upper secondary and university level of education. We analyze the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, the National Educational Register, and other population registers in Sweden for 2756 people with type 1 diabetes and 10,020 matched population controls. Educational decisions are modeled as unsorted series of binary choices to assess the choice of educational field as a potential mechanism linking early life health to adult outcomes. The analyses reject the hypothesis of no systematic differences in choice of educational field between people with and without type 1 diabetes at both levels. The results are robust to selection on ability proxies and across sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the observed pro health-oriented educational choices among people with type 1 diabetes in our data are consistent with disease onset in childhood and adolescence having qualitative impact on life-course choices.

  18. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists: a model for experiential learning in professional development for students and early career researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.

  19. Transdisciplinary Model and Early Intervention: Building Collaborative Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Valerie E.; Thompson, Stacy D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC) reported 348,604 children received services in the United States under Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 2009, representing 2.7% of the population (NECTAC, 2012). Early Intervention (EI), or Part C, is designed to provide services to families of…

  20. Magnetized string cosmological models of accelerated expansion of the Universe in f(R,T) theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anirudh; Jaiswal, Rekha

    A class of spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi-V massive string models have been studied in the modified f(R,T)-theory of gravity proposed by Harko et al. [Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011] in the presence of magnetic field. For a specific choice of f(R,T)=f1(R) + f2(T), where f1(R) = ν1R and f2(T) = ν2T; ν1, ν2 being arbitrary parameters, solutions of modified gravity field equations have been generated. To find the deterministic solution of the field equations, we have considered the time varying deceleration parameter which is consistent with observational data of standard cosmology (SNIa, BAO and CMB). As a result to study the transit behavior of Universe, we consider a law of variation for the specifically chosen scale factor, which yields a time-dependent deceleration parameter comprising a class of models that depicts a transition of the Universe from the early decelerated phase to the recent accelerating phase. In this context, for the model of the Universe, the field equations are solved and corresponding cosmological aspects have been discussed. The Energy conditions in this modified gravity theory are also studied. Stability analysis of the solutions through cosmological perturbation is performed and it is concluded that the expanding solution is stable against the perturbation with respect to anisotropic spatial direction. Some physical and geometric properties of the models are also discussed.

  1. SELF (Supports for Early Learning Foundations): A Non-Directed Model Demonstration Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Holly

    This final report describes achievements and activities of Project SELF (Supports for Early Learning Foundations), a federally funded project in New Mexico which developed, evaluated, and replicated an innovative model that provides strategies for early interventionists and families to support early learning foundations. The project identified…

  2. Family Support or School Readiness? Contrasting Models of Public Spending on Children's Early Care and Learning. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, public policy and expenditure intended to improve the prospects of children from low-income families have focused on better preparing children for school through Head Start and universal pre-K. This school readiness approach differs from the dominant model of public support for early care and learning in Northern Europe,…

  3. Universities as Hubs for Next-Generation Networks: A Model for Universities to Spur 21st Century Internet Access and Innovation in Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennett, Benjamin; Morris, Sarah J.; Byrum, Greta

    2012-01-01

    Based on a request for information (RFI) submitted to The University Community Next Generation Innovation Project (Gig.U), the paper describes a model for universities to develop next generation broadband infrastructure in their communities. In the our view universities can play a critical role in spurring next generation networks into their…

  4. The Teaching Artist: A Model for University Dance Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddy, Avril; Stevens, Kym

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a teaching model, "The Teaching Artist", developed to address the pedagogical and cultural divide between the traditional dance teacher and the dance artist who teaches: traditionally, one teaching about dance and the other, teaching through dance. The "Teaching Artist" model was developed through the…

  5. A Leadership Model for University Geology Department Teacher Inservice Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Daniel S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Provides geology departments and science educators with a leadership model for developing earth science inservice programs. Model emphasizes cooperation/coordination among departments, science educators, and curriculum specialists at local/intermediate/state levels. Includes rationale for inservice programs and geology department involvement in…

  6. Cost Efficiency in the University: A Departmental Evaluation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Victor M.; Martinez, Jose Luis

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a model for the analysis of cost efficiency within the framework of data envelopment analysis models. It calculates the cost excess, separating a unit of production from its optimal or frontier levels, and, at the same time, breaks these excesses down into three explanatory factors: (a) technical inefficiency, which depends…

  7. UCODE, a computer code for universal inverse modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poeter, E.P.; Hill, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the US Geological Survey computer program UCODE, which was developed in collaboration with the US Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station and the International Ground Water Modeling Center of the Colorado School of Mines. UCODE performs inverse modeling, posed as a parameter-estimation problem, using nonlinear regression. Any application model or set of models can be used; the only requirement is that they have numerical (ASCII or text only) input and output files and that the numbers in these files have sufficient significant digits. Application models can include preprocessors and postprocessors as well as models related to the processes of interest (physical, chemical and so on), making UCODE extremely powerful for model calibration. Estimated parameters can be defined flexibly with user-specified functions. Observations to be matched in the regression can be any quantity for which a simulated equivalent value can be produced, thus simulated equivalent values are calculated using values that appear in the application model output files and can be manipulated with additive and multiplicative functions, if necessary. Prior, or direct, information on estimated parameters also can be included in the regression. The nonlinear regression problem is solved by minimizing a weighted least-squares objective function with respect to the parameter values using a modified Gauss-Newton method. Sensitivities needed for the method are calculated approximately by forward or central differences and problems and solutions related to this approximation are discussed. Statistics are calculated and printed for use in (1) diagnosing inadequate data or identifying parameters that probably cannot be estimated with the available data, (2) evaluating estimated parameter values, (3) evaluating the model representation of the actual processes and (4) quantifying the uncertainty of model simulated values. UCODE is intended for use on any computer operating

  8. Development of an early-stage toll revenue estimation model.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    With agencies and states increasingly considering tolls as a means to finance transportation infrastructure, : there is an increasing need to quickly assess the feasibility of potential tolling projects. In the early stages : of a project when an age...

  9. The Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, William

    It is a great honor to have been invited to deliver the Fourth B.M. Birla Memorial Lecture following in the footsteps of Fred Hoyle, Philip Morrison and Abdus Salam. I must express my gratitude to Dr. B.G. Sidharth, Director of the Birla Science Centre, for all he has done to make the arrangements for the travel here and the stay here of my wife and myself so pleasant and so comfortable. Finally we are most grateful to Mr. and Mrs. G.P. Birla for their gracious hospitality at their home and its beautiful gardens here in Hyderabad.

  10. Education for Sustainability in University Studies: A Model for Reorienting the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junyent, Merce; de Ciurana, Anna M. Geli

    2008-01-01

    A decisive factor for achieving a culture of sustainability is university training for future professionals. The aim of this article is to bring new elements to the process of reorienting university studies towards sustainability. Presented here is the ACES model (Curriculum Greening of Higher Education, acronym in Spanish), which is the result of…

  11. The Analysis of Organizational Diagnosis on Based Six Box Model in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, Rahimi; Siadat, Sayyed Ali; Reza, Hoveida; Arash, Shahin; Ali, Nasrabadi Hasan; Azizollah, Arbabisarjou

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The analysis of organizational diagnosis on based six box model at universities. Research method: Research method was descriptive-survey. Statistical population consisted of 1544 faculty members of universities which through random strafed sampling method 218 persons were chosen as the sample. Research Instrument were organizational…

  12. University Rankings, Global Models, and Emerging Hegemony: Critical Analysis from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Mayumi

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzes how the emergence of dominant models in higher education and power they embody affect non-Western, non-English language universities such as those in Japan. Based on extended micro-level participant observation in a Japanese research university aspiring to become a "world-class" institution, their struggles and the…

  13. Partnerships in Medical Education: An Exploration of Library Service Models for Postgraduate Medicine at Macquarie University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Macquarie University's new medical school, The Australian School of Advanced Medicine (ASAM), is developing a postgraduate program that incorporates a partnership with Macquarie University Library. The curriculum encompasses contemporary models of competency-based assessment, teamwork and lifelong learning that are integrated with research and…

  14. A Model of Institutional Creative Change for Assessing Universities as Learning Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Universities, like students, differ in their ability to learn and to recreate themselves. In this article, I present a 3-part model of institutional creative change for assessing universities as learning organizations that can move creatively into the future. The first part, prerequisites, deals with actual ability to change creatively and belief…

  15. The University in the Knowledge Economy: The Triple Helix Model and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Peijun; Harris, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In the context of the global knowledge economy, the three major players--university, industry, and government--are becoming increasingly interdependent. As more intensified interactions and relationships of increasing complexity among the institutions evolve, the Triple Helix model attempts to describe not only interactions among university,…

  16. Old Borrowings and New Models of the University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the transfer of university models from Europe and America to East Asia and will consider how international power relations in different times transform ideas about the university, in the process of global transfer. These relations will be identified with different forms of the state: imperial, colonial, welfare and market…

  17. The Effect of Academic Culture on the Implementation of the EFQM Excellence Model in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, John; Douglas, Alex; Douglas, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to explore the effect of academic culture on the implementation of the European Foundation for Quality Management's (EFQM) Excellence Model in UK universities. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review reveals several aspects, which collectively define the academic culture in UK universities. These aspects were…

  18. World-Class Higher Education and the Emerging Chinese Model of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jun

    2012-01-01

    China's recent quest to develop world-class universities is a significant phenomenon within the worldwide transformation of tertiary education. Taking a cultural approach and drawing on empirical findings, this article investigates the emerging Chinese model of the university, considering its key features and contributions to global communities.…

  19. The Practicum Course Model: Embracing the Museum-University Culture Clash

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Jennifer P.

    2016-01-01

    Museums and universities have natural connections. Yet with few exceptions, collaborations between them segregate each partner to its traditional sphere of activity. This article presents a practicum course model that blurs and overlaps the distinctive roles of the museum and university in productive and mutually beneficial ways. In particular,…

  20. The Charlotte Action Research Project: A Model for Direct and Mutually Beneficial Community-University Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Janni; Howarth, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the Charlotte Action Research Project (CHARP), a community-university partnership founded in 2008 at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and focuses particularly on the program's unique organizational structure. Research findings of a project evaluation suggest that the CHARP model's unique…

  1. Early diagnosis and Early Start Denver Model intervention in autism spectrum disorders delivered in an Italian Public Health System service.

    PubMed

    Devescovi, Raffaella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mancini, Alice; Bin, Maura; Vellante, Valerio; Carrozzi, Marco; Colombi, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System. Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20-36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents' and teachers' active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months) and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months). Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment. Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children. Particularly in toddlers, it seems that an intervention model based on the ESDM principles, involving the active engagement of parents and nursery school teachers, may be effective even when the individual treatment is delivered at low intensity. Furthermore, our study supports the adaptation and the positive impact of the ESDM entirely sustained by the Italian Public Health System.

  2. The Origin of Dust in the Early Universe: Probing the Star Formation History of Galaxies by Their Dust Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Two distinct scenarios for the origin of the approximately 4 x 10(exp 8) Solar Mass of dust observed in the high-redshift (z = 6.4) quasar J1148+5251 have been proposed. The first assumes that this galaxy is much younger than the age of the universe at that epoch so that only supernovae, could have produced this dust. The second scenario assumes a significantly older galactic age, so that the dust could have formed in lower-mass AGB stars. Presenting new integral solutions for the chemical evolution of metals and dust in galaxies, we offer a critical evaluation of these two scenarios. ^N;"(,, show that the AGB scenario is sensitive to the details of the galaxy's star formation history (SFH), which must consist of an early intense starburst followed by a period of low stellar activity. The presence or absence of massive amounts of dust in high-redshift galaxies can therefore be used to infer their SFH. However, a problem with the AGB scenario is that it produces a stellar mass that is significantly larger than the inferred dynamical mass of J1148+5251, an yet unresolved discrepancy. If this problem persists, then additional sites for the growth or formation of dust, such as molecular clouds or dense clouds around active galactic nuclei, must be considered.

  3. r-Process Nucleosynthesis in the Early Universe Through Fast Mergers of Compact Binaries in Triple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Matteo; Perego, Albino; Capelo, Pedro R.; Dotti, Massimo; Miller, M. Coleman

    2018-05-01

    Surface abundance observations of halo stars hint at the occurrence of r-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity ([Fe/H] < -3), possibly within the first 108 yr after the formation of the first stars. Possible loci of early-Universe r-process nucleosynthesis are the ejecta of either black hole-neutron star or neutron star-neutron star binary mergers. Here, we study the effect of the inclination-eccentricity oscillations raised by a tertiary (e.g. a star) on the coalescence time-scale of the inner compact object binaries. Our results are highly sensitive to the assumed initial distribution of the inner binary semi-major axes. Distributions with mostly wide compact object binaries are most affected by the third object, resulting in a strong increase (by more than a factor of 2) in the fraction of fast coalescences. If instead the distribution preferentially populates very close compact binaries, general relativistic precession prevents the third body from increasing the inner binary eccentricity to very high values. In this last case, the fraction of coalescing binaries is increased much less by tertiaries, but the fraction of binaries that would coalesce within 108 yr even without a third object is already high. Our results provide additional support to the compact-binary merger scenario for r-process nucleosynthesis.

  4. First identification of direct collapse black hole candidates in the early Universe in CANDELS/GOODS-S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; Grazian, Andrea; Fiore, Fabrizio; Giallongo, Emanuele; Puccetti, Simonetta

    2016-06-01

    The first black hole seeds, formed when the Universe was younger than ˜500 Myr, are recognized to play an important role for the growth of early (z ˜ 7) supermassive black holes. While progresses have been made in understanding their formation and growth, their observational signatures remain largely unexplored. As a result, no detection of such sources has been confirmed so far. Supported by numerical simulations, we present a novel photometric method to identify black hole seed candidates in deep multiwavelength surveys. We predict that these highly obscured sources are characterized by a steep spectrum in the infrared (1.6-4.5 μm), I.e. by very red colours. The method selects the only two objects with a robust X-ray detection found in the CANDELS/GOODS-S survey with a photometric redshift z ≳ 6. Fitting their infrared spectra only with a stellar component would require unrealistic star formation rates (≳2000 M⊙ yr-1). To date, the selected objects represent the most promising black hole seed candidates, possibly formed via the direct collapse black hole scenario, with predicted mass >105 M⊙. While this result is based on the best photometric observations of high-z sources available to date, additional progress is expected from spectroscopic and deeper X-ray data. Upcoming observatories, like the JWST, will greatly expand the scope of this work.

  5. On the universality of the attribution-affect model of helping.

    PubMed

    Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-08-01

    Although Pilati et al.'s (2014) findings question the strong quantitative universality of the attribution-affect model of helping, they are consistent with a weak form of quantitative universality, as well as with the qualitative universality of the theory. However, universality is put into question by previous studies revealing significant and sizeable between-study differences in the strength of the causal paths postulated by the theory. These differences may in part reflect differences in the type of helping situations studied. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

  7. Modelling Facebook Usage among University Students in Thailand: The Role of Emotional Attachment in an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the factors that influenced the use of Facebook among university students. Using an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) with emotional attachment (EA) as an external variable, a sample of 498 students from a public-funded Thailand university were surveyed on their responses to five variables hypothesized…

  8. The Learning Experiences of Early-Career Indonesian Government Employees: A Case Study in Cross-Cultural Workforce Development Based in a University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Omarova, Amina; Grill, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The research provides a selective report on the learning experiences covering a whole year of study for a double-degree Master's programme by a cohort of early-career Indonesians. They were undertaking the second half of the programme at The University of Adelaide in South Australia, and for all 18 students it was their first taste of learning in…

  9. Continuity, Support, Togetherness and Trust: Findings from an Evaluation of a University-Administered Early Professional Development Programme for Teachers in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Joanna; Hobson, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the evaluation of a unique university-based early professional development (EPD) programme in England that enabled newly and recently qualified teachers to have continued contact with their initial teacher preparation provider. The programme was designed to enhance the induction, EPD and retention of beginning teachers of…

  10. Aspects of Reading Acquisition; Proceedings of the Annual Hyman Blumberg Symposium on Research in Early Childhood Education (5th, Johns Hopkins University, Nov. 13-14, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T., Ed.

    Papers collected in this volume were presented at the Fifth Annual Blumberg Symposium on Research in Early Childhood Education, held at Johns Hopkins University in 1974. Selections include "Alexia" (D. Frank Benson), "Young Children's Expectations for Reading" (Doris R. Entwisle), "Relations between Acquisition of…

  11. An Analysis of the California State University and Colleges Early Retirement Incentive Program: A Report Pursuant to Chapter 656 of the Statutes of 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Raymond M.

    The California State University and Colleges' (CSUC) Early Retirement Incentive (ERI) Program is described, and information is presented of those who retire during a three-month period with an incentive bonus of two additional years of (unearned) retirement service credit. During the eligibility period 1,047 CSUC employees retired, and it appears…

  12. Test Review for Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET) Manual: Assessing Universal Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo

    2013-01-01

    The Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET; Steed & Pomerleau, 2012) is published by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company in Baltimore, MD. The PreSET purports to measure universal and program-wide features of early childhood programs' implementation fidelity of program-wide positive behavior intervention and support (PW-PBIS) and is,…

  13. Measuring effectiveness of a university by a parallel network DEA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashim, Rosmaini; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Rahman, Rosshairy Abd

    2017-11-01

    Universities contribute significantly to the development of human capital and socio-economic improvement of a country. Due to that, Malaysian universities carried out various initiatives to improve their performance. Most studies have used the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to measure efficiency rather than effectiveness, even though, the measurement of effectiveness is important to realize how effective a university in achieving its ultimate goals. A university system has two major functions, namely teaching and research and every function has different resources based on its emphasis. Therefore, a university is actually structured as a parallel production system with its overall effectiveness is the aggregated effectiveness of teaching and research. Hence, this paper is proposing a parallel network DEA model to measure the effectiveness of a university. This model includes internal operations of both teaching and research functions into account in computing the effectiveness of a university system. In literature, the graduate and the number of program offered are defined as the outputs, then, the employed graduates and the numbers of programs accredited from professional bodies are considered as the outcomes for measuring the teaching effectiveness. Amount of grants is regarded as the output of research, while the different quality of publications considered as the outcomes of research. A system is considered effective if only all functions are effective. This model has been tested using a hypothetical set of data consisting of 14 faculties at a public university in Malaysia. The results show that none of the faculties is relatively effective for the overall performance. Three faculties are effective in teaching and two faculties are effective in research. The potential applications of the parallel network DEA model allow the top management of a university to identify weaknesses in any functions in their universities and take rational steps for improvement.

  14. Predoctoral Program Models in Dentistry for the Handicapped: The University of Tennessee Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessels, Kenneth E.

    1980-01-01

    A model program in dentistry for the handicapped offered at the University of Tennessee and supported by a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation grant is described. The program includes didactic instruction, observation and seminar, and clinical practice. (JMF)

  15. BUILDING MODEL ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS WITH THE JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY (JUPITER) API

    EPA Science Inventory

    The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input ...

  16. Consistency of the tachyon warm inflationary universe models

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao-Min; Zhu, Jian-Yang, E-mail: zhangxm@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhujy@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    This study concerns the consistency of the tachyon warm inflationary models. A linear stability analysis is performed to find the slow-roll conditions, characterized by the potential slow-roll (PSR) parameters, for the existence of a tachyon warm inflationary attractor in the system. The PSR parameters in the tachyon warm inflationary models are redefined. Two cases, an exponential potential and an inverse power-law potential, are studied, when the dissipative coefficient Γ = Γ{sub 0} and Γ = Γ(φ), respectively. A crucial condition is obtained for a tachyon warm inflationary model characterized by the Hubble slow-roll (HSR) parameter ε{sub H}, and the conditionmore » is extendable to some other inflationary models as well. A proper number of e-folds is obtained in both cases of the tachyon warm inflation, in contrast to existing works. It is also found that a constant dissipative coefficient (Γ = Γ{sub 0}) is usually not a suitable assumption for a warm inflationary model.« less

  17. Matter-Induced Neutrino Oscillation in Double Universal Seesaw Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogami, I. S.; Shinohara, T.; Egawa, Y.

    1992-04-01

    The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect is investigated in an extended gauge field theory in which the universal seesaw mechanism is applied singly to the charged fermion sectors to lower their masses below the electroweak energy scale and doubly to the neutral fermion sector to make neutrinos superlight. At the first seesaw approximation, neutrinos are proved to have a distinctive spectrum consisting of doubly degenerate states with smaller mass m_{S} and a singlet state with larger mas m_{L}. The lepton mixing matrix is determined definitely in terms of the masses of charged leptons and down quarks, with a very small vacuum mixing angle sin theta = 0.043 +/- 0.004. The Schrödinger-like equation describing the spatial evolution of stationary neutrino flux is solved for globally-rotated-flavor wave functions. Comparison of its nonadiabatic solution with experimental results leads to an estimation m_{L}(2) - m_{S}(2) = (6 +/- 2) x 10(-6) eV(2) for the squared mass difference and a capture rate prediction of 74 +/- 12 SNU for the SAGE gallium experiment.

  18. Stability of the Einstein static universe in open cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Canonico, Rosangela; Parisi, Luca; INFN, Sezione di Napoli, GC di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, I-84081 Baronissi

    2010-09-15

    The stability properties of the Einstein static solution of general relativity are altered when corrective terms arising from modification of the underlying gravitational theory appear in the cosmological equations. In this paper the existence and stability of static solutions are considered in the framework of two recently proposed quantum gravity models. The previously known analysis of the Einstein static solutions in the semiclassical regime of loop quantum cosmology with modifications to the gravitational sector is extended to open cosmological models where a static neutrally stable solution is found. A similar analysis is also performed in the framework of Horava-Lifshitz gravitymore » under detailed balance and projectability conditions. In the case of open cosmological models the two solutions found can be either unstable or neutrally stable according to the admitted values of the parameters.« less

  19. Exploring a Comprehensive Model for Early Childhood Vocabulary Instruction: A Design Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, X. Christine; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Addressing a critical need for effective vocabulary practices in early childhood classrooms, we conducted a design experiment to achieve three goals: (1) developing a comprehensive model for early childhood vocabulary instruction, (2) examining the effectiveness of this model, and (3) discerning the contextual conditions that hinder or facilitate…

  20. Integrating Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation with the Pyramid Model. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Deborah F.; Kaufmann, Roxane K.

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of states and communities are implementing the Pyramid Model in early care and education settings, and in many of these places there are also early childhood mental health consultation (ECMHC) programs operating. This policy brief provides an overview of ECMHC, how it can support the implementation of the Pyramid Model and the…