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Sample records for early vascular response

  1. Stomatal Blue Light Response Is Present in Early Vascular Plants.

    PubMed

    Doi, Michio; Kitagawa, Yuki; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Light is a major environmental factor required for stomatal opening. Blue light (BL) induces stomatal opening in higher plants as a signal under the photosynthetic active radiation. The stomatal BL response is not present in the fern species of Polypodiopsida. The acquisition of a stomatal BL response might provide competitive advantages in both the uptake of CO2 and prevention of water loss with the ability to rapidly open and close stomata. We surveyed the stomatal opening in response to strong red light (RL) and weak BL under the RL with gas exchange technique in a diverse selection of plant species from euphyllophytes, including spermatophytes and monilophytes, to lycophytes. We showed the presence of RL-induced stomatal opening in most of these species and found that the BL responses operated in all euphyllophytes except Polypodiopsida. We also confirmed that the stomatal opening in lycophytes, the early vascular plants, is driven by plasma membrane proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase and K(+) accumulation in guard cells, which is the same mechanism operating in stomata of angiosperms. These results suggest that the early vascular plants respond to both RL and BL and actively regulate stomatal aperture. We also found three plant species that absolutely require BL for both stomatal opening and photosynthetic CO2 fixation, including a gymnosperm, C. revoluta, and the ferns Equisetum hyemale and Psilotum nudum. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Vascular-mediated signalling involved in early phosphate stress response in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoliang; Zheng, Yi; Ham, Byung-Kook; Chen, Jieyu; Yoshida, Akiko; Kochian, Leon V; Fei, Zhangjun; Lucas, William J

    2016-04-04

    Depletion of finite global rock phosphate (Pi) reserves will impose major limitations on future agricultural productivity and food security. Hence, modern breeding programmes seek to develop Pi-efficient crops with sustainable yields under reduced Pi fertilizer inputs. In this regard, although the long-term responses of plants to Pi stress are well documented, the early signalling events have yet to be elucidated. Here, we show plant tissue-specific responses to early Pi stress at the transcription level and a predominant role of the plant vascular system in this process. Specifically, imposition of Pi stress induces rapid and major changes in the mRNA population in the phloem translocation stream, and grafting studies have revealed that many hundreds of phloem-mobile mRNAs are delivered to specific sink tissues. We propose that the shoot vascular system acts as the site of root-derived Pi stress perception, and the phloem serves to deliver a cascade of signals to various sinks, presumably to coordinate whole-plant Pi homeostasis.

  3. Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Early Response to a Vascular-Disrupting Agent with Dynamic PET.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ning; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Guo, Jinxia; Lang, Lixin; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Niu, Gang; Li, Quanzheng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the early response of tumors to a vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) VEGF121/recombinant toxin gelonin (rGel) using dynamic [(18)F]FPPRGD2 positron emission tomography (PET) and kinetic parameter estimation. Two tumor xenograft models: U87MG (highly vascularized) and A549 (moderately vascularized), were selected, and both were randomized into treatment and control groups. Sixty-minute dynamic PET scans with [(18)F]FPPRGD2 that targets to integrin αvβ3 were performed at days 0 (baseline), 1, and 3 since VEGF121/rGel treatment started. Dynamic PET-derived binding potential (BPND) and parametric maps were compared with tumor uptake (%ID/g) and the static PET image at 1 h after the tracer administration. The growth of U87MG tumor was obviously delayed upon VEGF121/rGel treatment. A549 tumor was not responsive to the same treatment. BPND of treated U87MG tumors decreased significantly at day 1 (p < 0.05), and the difference was more significant at day 3 (p < 0.01), compared with the control group. However, the tracer uptake (%ID/g) derived from static images at 1-h time point did not show significant difference between the treated and control tumors until day 3. Little difference in tracer uptake (%ID/g) or BPND was found between treated and control A549 tumors. Considering the tracer retention in tumor and the slower clearance due to damaged tumor vasculature after treatment, BPND representing the actual specific binding portion appears to be more sensitive and accurate than the semiquantitative parameters (such as %ID/g) derived from static images to assess the early response of tumor to VDA treatment. Quantitative analysis based on dynamic PET with [(18)F]FPPRGD2 shows advantages in distinguishing effective from ineffective treatment during the course of VEGF121/rGel therapy at early stage and is therefore more sensitive in assessing therapy response than static PET.

  4. Early changes in vascular reactivity in response to 56Fe irradiation in ApoE-/- mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. Roger; Yu, Tao; Gupta, Kiran; Babitz, Stephen K.; Black, Leland L.; Kabarowski, Janusz H.; Kucik, Dennis F.

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have established that radiation from a number of terrestrial sources increases the risk of atherosclerosis. The accelerated heavy ions in the galacto-cosmic radiation (GCR) that astronauts will encounter on in space, however, interact very differently with tissues than most types of terrestrial radiation, so the health consequences of exposure on deep-space missions are not clear. We demonstrated earlier that 56Fe, an important component of cosmic radiation, accelerates atherosclerotic plaque development. In the present study, we examined an earlier, pro-atherogenic event that might be predictive of later atherosclerotic disease. Decreased endothelium-dependent vasodilation is a prominent manifestation of vascular dysfunction that is thought to predispose humans to the development of structural vascular changes that precede the development of atherosclerotic plaques. To test the effect of heavy-ion radiation on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, we used the same ApoE-/- mouse model in which we previously demonstrated the pro-atherogenic effect of 56Fe on plaque development. Ten week old male ApoE mice (an age at which there is little atherosclerotic plaque in the descending aorta) were exposed to 2.6 Gy 56Fe. The mice were then fed a normal diet and housed under standard conditions. At 4-5 weeks post-irradiation, aortic rings were isolated and endothelial-dependent relaxation was measured. Relaxation in response to acetylcholine was significantly impaired in irradiated mice compared to age-matched, un-irradiated mice. This decrease in vascular reactivity following 56Fe irradiation occurred eight weeks prior to the development of statistically significant exacerbation of aortic plaque formation and may contribute to the formation of later atherosclerotic lesions.

  5. Early Growth Response-1 Induces and Enhances Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Expression in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Yazawa, Takuya; Sato, Hanako; Okudela, Koji; Ishii, Jun; Sakaeda, Masashi; Kashiwagi, Korehito; Suzuki, Takehisa; Mitsui, Hideaki; Woo, Tetsukan; Tajiri, Michihiko; Ohmori, Takahiro; Ogura, Takashi; Masuda, Munetaka; Oshiro, Hisashi; Kitamura, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is crucial for angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and metastasis during tumor development. We demonstrate here that early growth response-1 (EGR-1), which is induced by the extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation, activates VEGF-A in lung cancer cells. Increased EGR-1 expression was found in adenocarcinoma cells carrying mutant K-RAS or EGFR genes. Hypoxic culture, siRNA experiment, luciferase assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and quantitative RT-PCR using EGR-1–inducible lung cancer cells demonstrated that EGR-1 binds to the proximal region of the VEGF-A promoter, activates VEGF-A expression, and enhances hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-mediated VEGF-A expression. The EGR-1 modulator, NAB-2, was rapidly induced by increased levels of EGR-1. Pathology samples of human lung adenocarcinomas revealed correlations between EGR-1/HIF-1α and VEGF-A expressions and relative elevation of EGR-1 and VEGF-A expression in mutant K-RAS- or EGFR-carrying adenocarcinomas. Both EGR-1 and VEGF-A expression increased as tumors dedifferentiated, whereas HIF-1α expression did not. Although weak correlation was found between EGR-1 and NAB-2 expressions on the whole, NAB-2 expression decreased as tumors dedifferentiated, and inhibition of DNA methyltransferase/histone deacetylase increased NAB-2 expression in lung cancer cells despite no epigenetic alteration in the NAB-2 promoter. These findings suggest that EGR-1 plays important roles on VEGF-A expression in lung cancer cells, and epigenetic silencing of transactivator(s) associated with NAB-2 expression might also contribute to upregulate VEGF-A expression. PMID:20489156

  6. Role of early growth response 1 in arteriogenesis: impact on vascular cell proliferation and leukocyte recruitment in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Judith-Irina; Ziegelhoeffer, Tibor; Heil, Matthias; Fischer, Silvia; Fernández, Borja; Schaper, Wolfgang; Preissner, Klaus T; Deindl, Elisabeth

    2012-03-01

    Based on previous findings that early growth response 1 (Egr-1) participates in leukocyte recruitment and cell proliferation in vitro, this study was designed to investigate its mode of action during arteriogenesis in vivo. In a model of peripheral arteriogenesis, Egr-1 was significantly upregulated in growing collaterals of wild-type (WT) mice, both on mRNA and protein level. Egr-1(-/-) mice demonstrated delayed arteriogenesis after femoral artery ligation. They further showed increased levels of monocytes and granulocytes in the circulation, but reduced levels in adductor muscles under baseline conditions. After femoral artery ligation, elevated numbers of macrophages were detected in the perivascular zone of collaterals in Egr-1(-/-) mice and mRNA of leukocyte recruitment mediators was upregulated. Other Egr family members (Egr-2 to -4) were significantly upregulated only in Egr-1(-/-) mice, suggesting a mechanism of counterbalancing Egr-1 deficiency. Moreover, splicing factor-1, downregulated in WT mice after femoral artery ligation in the process of increased vascular cell proliferation, was upregulated in Egr-1(-/-) mice. αSM-actin on the other hand, significantly downregulated in WT mice, showed no differential expression in Egr-1(-/-) mice. While cell cycle regulator cyclin E and cdc20 were upregulated in Egr-1(-/-) mice, cyclin D1 expression decreased below the detection limit in collaterals, and the proliferation marker ki67 was not differentially expressed. In conclusion, compensation for deficiency in Egr-1 function in leukocyte recruitment can presumably be mediated by other transcription factors; however, Egr-1 is indispensable for effective vascular cell cycle progression in arteriogenesis.

  7. TH-E-BRF-03: A Multivariate Interaction Model for Assessment of Hippocampal Vascular Dose-Response and Early Prediction of Radiation-Induced Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    SciT

    Farjam, R; Pramanik, P; Srinivasan, A

    Purpose: Vascular injury could be a cause of hippocampal dysfunction leading to late neurocognitive decline in patients receiving brain radiotherapy (RT). Hence, our aim was to develop a multivariate interaction model for characterization of hippocampal vascular dose-response and early prediction of radiation-induced late neurocognitive impairments. Methods: 27 patients (17 males and 10 females, age 31–80 years) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective longitudinal study. All patients were diagnosed with a low-grade glioma or benign tumor and treated by 3-D conformal or intensity-modulated RT with a median dose of 54 Gy (50.4–59.4 Gy in 1.8− Gy fractions). Six DCE-MRI scans weremore » performed from pre-RT to 18 months post-RT. DCE data were fitted to the modified Toft model to obtain the transfer constant of gadolinium influx from the intravascular space into the extravascular extracellular space, Ktrans, and the fraction of blood plasma volume, Vp. The hippocampus vascular property alterations after starting RT were characterized by changes in the hippocampal mean values of, μh(Ktrans)τ and μh(Vp)τ. The dose-response, Δμh(Ktrans/Vp)pre->τ, was modeled using a multivariate linear regression considering integrations of doses with age, sex, hippocampal laterality and presence of tumor/edema near a hippocampus. Finally, the early vascular dose-response in hippocampus was correlated with neurocognitive decline 6 and 18 months post-RT. Results: The μh(Ktrans) increased significantly from pre-RT to 1 month post-RT (p<0.0004). The multivariate model showed that the dose effect on Δμh(Ktrans)pre->1M post-RT was interacted with sex (p<0.0007) and age (p<0.00004), with the dose-response more pronounced in older females. Also, the vascular dose-response in the left hippocampus of females was significantly correlated with memory function decline at 6 (r = − 0.95, p<0.0006) and 18 (r = −0.88, p<0.02) months post-RT. Conclusion: The hippocampal

  8. WE-FG-202-02: Exploration of High-Resolution Quantitative Ultrasonic Micro-Vascular Imaging for Early Assessment of Radiotherapy Tumor Response

    SciT

    Kasoji, S; Rivera, J; Dayton, P

    Purpose: Currently, we cannot predict an individual patient’s response to a given radiotherapy which normally is not detected for weeks to months post-treatment. As a result, precious time is wasted for patients with unresponsive tumors who could have switched to an alternative treatment much earlier. Presently, no early treatment response detection method exists that is effective, low-cost, non-invasive, and safe. We hypothesize that changes in tumor microvasculature predict tumor response to radiotherapy earlier than tumor volume changes. Recent radiobiology research suggests tumors undergo vascular remodeling in response to radiation well before manifesting changes in tumor volume. We propose monitoring tumormore » microvasculature post-radiation using Acoustic Angiography (AA), a novel ultrasound imaging modality developed and patented in-house. In this study, we investigate whether changes in tumor microvasculature, measured using AA, can be an early indicator of high-dose radiotherapy success, compared to changes in tumor volume. Methods: Fibrosarcoma xenograft tumor tissue was subcutaneously implanted into rodent flanks (N=10). Animal tumors (N=8) were irradiated with a single treatment of 15Gy using a clinical LINAC at 100SSD and 2×2cm field size. Two untreated rats were left as tumor controls. AA imaging was performed immediately posttreatment and every third day thereafter for 30 days, or until tumors disappeared. Tumor volumes and vascular densities were measured from anatomical b-mode ultrasound and AA images, respectively. Results: Statistical differences in vascular density between treatment responders and non-responders were observed on Day 10 (p=0.005), whereas statistical differences in tumor volume were not observed until Day 19 (p=0.02). Conclusions: Tumor vascularity differences may be observed substantially earlier than differences in tumor size. In addition, significant early increases in vascular density were observed in non

  9. Sulphonated Formononetin Induces Angiogenesis through Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein/Early Growth Response 3/Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaoju; Shi, Yanan; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Ning; Ye, Liang; Zhang, Shuping; Zhu, Haibo

    2018-01-01

    Sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) is a derivative of the isoflavone formononetin. In this study, we investigated whether Sul-F can regulate angiogenesis and the potential mechanism in vitro. We examined the effects of Sul-F on cell proliferation, cell invasion, and tube formation in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC). To better understand the mechanism involved, we investigated effects of the following compounds: cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) inhibitor 2-naphthol-AS-E-phosphate (KG-501), early growth response 3 (Egr-3) siRNA, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonist soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt-1), VEGF receptor 2 blocker SU-1498, Wnt5a antagonist WIF-1 recombinant protein (WIF-1), and inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin recombinant Dickkopf-1 protein (DKK-1). HUVEC proliferation was tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). A scratch adhesion test was used to assess cell invasion ability. Matrigel tube formation assay was performed to test capillary tube formation ability. Activation of the VEGF/CREB/Egr-3/Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) pathway in HUVEC was tested by Western blot analysis. Our results suggest that Sul-F induced angiogenesis in vitro by enhancing cell proliferation, invasion, and tube formation. The increase in proliferation and tube formation by Sul-F was counteracted by DKK-1, WIF-1, SU1498, KG-501, sFlt-1, and Egr-3 siRNA. These results may suggest that Sul-F induces angiogenesis in vitro via a programed Wnt/β-catenin pathway and VEGF/CREB/Egr-3/VCAM-1 signaling axis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Early Vascular Ageing - A Concept in Development.

    PubMed

    M Nilsson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prevalent condition in the elderly, often associated with metabolic disturbance and type 2 diabetes. For a number of years, research dedicated to understand atherosclerosis dominated, and for many good reasons, this pathophysiological process being proximal to the CVD events. In recent years, research has been devoted to an earlier stage of vascular pathology named arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffness) and the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA), developed by a group of mostly European researchers. This overview describes recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular risk. There are new aspects related to genetics, telomere biology and the role of gut microbiota. However, there is still no unifying definition available of EVA and no direct treatment, but rather only recommendations for conventional cardiovascular risk factor control. New interventions are being developed - not only new antihypertensive drugs, but also new drugs for vascular protection - the selective angiotensin-II (AT2) agonist Compound 21 (C21). Human studies are eagerly awaited. Even new functional food products could have the potential to positively influence cardiometabolic regulation, to be confirmed.

  11. Ultra-hydrophilic stent platforms promote early vascular healing and minimise late tissue response: a potential alternative to second-generation drug-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Kolandaivelu, Kumaran; Bailey, Lynn; Buzzi, Stefano; Zucker, Arik; Milleret, Vincent; Ziogas, Algirdas; Ehrbar, Martin; Khattab, Ahmed A; Stanley, James R L; Wong, Gee K; Zani, Brett; Markham, Peter M; Tzafriri, Abraham R; Bhatt, Deepak L; Edelman, Elazer R

    2017-04-20

    Simple surface modifications can enhance coronary stent performance. Ultra-hydrophilic surface (UHS) treatment of contemporary bare metal stents (BMS) was assessed in vivo to verify whether such stents can provide long-term efficacy comparable to second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) while promoting healing comparably to BMS. UHS-treated BMS, untreated BMS and corresponding DES were tested for three commercial platforms. A thirty-day and a 90-day porcine coronary model were used to characterise late tissue response. Three-day porcine coronary and seven-day rabbit iliac models were used for early healing assessment. In porcine coronary arteries, hydrophilic treatment reduced intimal hyperplasia relative to the BMS and corresponding DES platforms (1.5-fold to threefold reduction in 30-day angiographic and histological stenosis; p<0.04). Endothelialisation was similar on UHS-treated BMS and untreated BMS, both in swine and rabbit models, and lower on DES. Elevation in thrombotic indices was infrequent (never observed with UHS, rare with BMS, most often with DES), but, when present, correlated with reduced endothelialisation (p<0.01). Ultra-hydrophilic surface treatment of contemporary stents conferred good healing while moderating neointimal and thrombotic responses. Such surfaces may offer safe alternatives to DES, particularly when rapid healing and short dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) are crucial.

  12. Nutrient-gene interactions in early pregnancy: a vascular hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Steegers, E A P

    2003-02-10

    It is hypothesized that the following periconceptional and early pregnancy nutrient-gene interactions link vascular-related reproductive complications and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood: (1) Maternal and paternal genetically controlled nutrient status affects the quality of gametes and fertilization capacity; (2) The embryonic genetic constitution, derived from both parents, and the maternal genetically controlled nutrient environment determine embryogenesis and fetal growth; (3) Trophoblast invasion of decidua and spiral arteries is driven by genes derived from both parents as well as by maternal nutritional factors; (4) Angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and vascular function are dependent on the genetic constitution of the embryo, derived from both parents, and the maternal genetically controlled nutritional environment.Early intra-uterine programming of vessels may concern the same (in)dependent determinants of vascular-related complications during pregnancy and cardiovascular diseases in later life.

  13. Evoked Electrical and Cerebral Vascular Responses Following Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Schei, Jennifer L.; Rector, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal activity elicits vascular dilation, delivering additional blood and metabolites to the activated region. With increasing neural activity, vessels stretch and may become less compliant. Most functional imaging studies assume that limits to vascular expansion are not normally reached except under pathological conditions, with the possibility that metabolism could outpace supply. However, we previously demonstrated that evoked hemodynamic responses were larger during quiet sleep when compared to both waking and REM sleep, suggesting that high basal activity during wake may elicit blunted evoked hemodynamic responses due to vascular expansion limits. We hypothesized that extended brain activity through sleep deprivation will further dilate blood vessels, and exacerbate the blunted evoked hemodynamic responses observed during wake, and dampen responses in subsequent sleep. We measured evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses from rats using auditory clicks (0.5 s, 10 Hz, 2–13 s random ISIs) for one hour following 2, 4, or 6 hours of sleep deprivation. Time-of-day matched controls were recorded continuously for 7 hours. Within quiet sleep periods following deprivation, ERP amplitude did not differ; however, the evoked vascular response was smaller with longer sleep deprivation periods. These results suggest that prolonged neural activity periods through sleep deprivation may diminish vascular compliance as indicated by the blunted vascular response. Subsequent sleep may allow vessels to relax, restoring their ability to deliver blood. These results also suggest that severe sleep deprivation or chronic sleep disturbances could push the vasculature to critical limits, leading to metabolic deficit and the potential for tissue trauma. PMID:21854966

  14. Vascular Responsiveness in Adrenalectomized Rats with Corticosterone Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Kaship, Kapil; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1989-01-01

    To determine under resting, unstressed conditions the circulating glucocorticoid concentrations that best maintain sensitivity of the vascular smooth muscle and baroreceptor responses to vasoactive agents, rats with vascular cannulas were sham-adrenalectomized (sham) or adrenalectomized (ADRX) and provided with four levels of corticosterone replacement (-100 mg fused pellets of corticosterone: cholesterol 0, 20, 40, and 80% implanted subcutaneously at the time of adrenal surgery). Changes in vascular and baroreflex responses were determined after intravenous injection of varying doses of phenylephrine and nitroglycerin with measurement of arterial blood pressure and heart rate in the conscious, chronically cannulated rats. Vascular sensitivity was decreased, and resting arterial blood pressure tended to be decreased in the adrenalectomized rats; both were restored to normal with levels of corticosterone (40%), which also maintained body weight gain, thymus weight, and plasma corticosteroid binding globulin concentrations at normal values. The baroreflex curve generated from the sham group was different from the curves generated from the ADRX+O, 20, and 40% groups, but not different from that of the ADRX+80% group, suggesting that the baroreflex is maintained by higher levels of corticosterone than are necessary for the maintenance of the other variables. These data demonstrate that physiological levels of corticosterone (40% pellet) restore vascular responsiveness, body weight, thymus weight, and transcortin levels to normal in ADRX rats, whereas higher levels (80% pellet) are necessary for restoration of the baroreflex.

  15. VASCULAR RESPONSE TO TRAFFIC-DERIVED INHALATION IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    By coordinating closely with Center Projects 1-3, we will determine whether specific aspects of traffic-derived exposure (primary vs. secondary organics, particulate vs. gases, spark-ignition vs. diesel engine vs. a mixture) enhance the human vascular response to pollutants. W...

  16. Highly localized laser-induced vascular responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiukhina, Elena S.; Kurochkin, Maxim A.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Postnov, Dmitry E.

    2018-04-01

    The assessment of functioning microcirculatory network implies usage of adequate tools for testing the network responses on local changes of vessels state. While there are well-developed and widely used methods, such as focal application of vasoactive substances, or electric stimulation, there is a need for a non-destructive (and ideally - non-contact) and local method of impact a single vessel in order to trigger the network responce. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of applying the effect of a reversible change in the diameter of a blood vessel caused by laser radiation as a functional test of a microcirculatory system. For this purpose, we combine this effect with the method of micro-PIV (particle image velocimetry), which provides information on both the dynamics of blood flow in neighboring segments and the changes in their diameters.

  17. FLAIR vascular hyperintensities predict early ischemic recurrence in TIA.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Kim, Chi Kyung; Kim, Tae Jung; Oh, Kyungmi; Han, Moon-Ku; Ko, Sang-Bae; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate the relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensity (FVH) and early ischemic lesion recurrence (follow-up diffusion-weighted imaging [FU-DWI] [+]) in patients with lesion-negative TIA. We recruited consecutive patients with lesion-negative TIA within 24 hours of symptom onset, who underwent follow-up MRI during the acute period. FVH was defined as a focal or serpentine high signal intensity on FLAIR images. Other potential confounders were adjusted to evaluate the relationship between FVH and FU-DWI (+). Furthermore, to compare clinical outcomes between the FU-DWI (+) and FU-DWI (-) groups, we assessed 1-year recurrent ischemic stroke or TIA. Among 392 patients with lesion-negative TIA, 82 patients had FU-DWI (+) on the follow-up MRI. In the multivariate analysis, FVH remained an independent predictor of FU-DWI (+) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.45-9.29, p < 0.001). The time to initial MRI (aOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.33-0.70, p < 0.001) and intracranial atherosclerosis (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.10-3.92, p = 0.025) were also associated with FU-DWI (+), independent of FVH. In clinical outcomes, the FU-DWI (+) group showed more frequent 1-year recurrent ischemic stroke events than the FU-DWI (-) group (10.7% vs 3.1%, respectively, p = 0.007). FVH is associated with FU-DWI (+) in patients with lesion-negative TIA. As FU-DWI (+) frequently occurs during the acute period and has a subsequent worse outcome after discharge, additional radiologic or clinical markers for it are necessary. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Cell-Responsive Hydrogel for Encapsulation of Vascular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kraehenbuehl, Thomas P.; Ferreira, Lino S.; Zammaretti, Prisca; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Langer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro potential of a synthetic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-responsive polyethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel as a bioactive co-encapsulation system for vascular cells and a small bioactive peptide, thymosin β4 (Tp4), was examined. We show that the physical incorporation of Tβ4 in this bioactive matrix creates a three-dimensional (3D) environment conducive for human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) adhesion, survival, migration and organization. Gels with entrapped Tβ4 increased the survival of HUVEC compared to gels without Tp4, and significantly up-regulated the endothelial genes vascular endothelial-cadherin and angiopoietin-2, whereas von Willebrand factor was significantly down-regulated. Incorporation of Tβ4 significantly increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion of encapsulated HUVEC. The gel acts as a controlled Tβ4-release system, as MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymes trigger the release. In addition, Tβ4 facilitated HUVEC attachment and induced vascular-like network formation upon the PEG-hydrogels. These MMP-responsive PEG-hydrogels may thus serve as controlled co-encapsulation system of vascular cells and bioactive factors for in situ regeneration of ischemic tissues. PMID:19500842

  19. Approximate entropy analysis of event-related potentials in patients with early vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Sheng, Hengsong; Lou, Wutao; Zhao, Songzhen

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated differences in event-related potential (ERP) parameters among early vascular dementia (VD) patients, healthy elder controls (ECs), and young controls (YCs). A visual "oddball" color identification task was performed while individuals' electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded. Approximate entropy (ApEn), a nonlinear measure, along with P300 latencies and amplitudes were used to analyze ERP data and compare these three groups. The patients with VD showed more complex ERP waveforms and higher ApEn values than did ECs while performing the visual task. It was further found that patients with VD showed reduced P300 amplitudes and increased latencies. The results indicate that patients with VD have fewer attention resources to devote to processing stimuli, lower speed of stimulus classification, and lower synchrony in their cortical activity during the response period. We suggest that ApEn, as a measure of ERP complexity, is a promising marker for early diagnosis of VD.

  20. Vascular Hyperpermeability Response in Animals Systemically Exposed to Arsenic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Chao-Yuah; Lin, Ming-Lu

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases induced by chronic exposure to arsenic remain unclarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether increased vascular leakage is induced by inflammatory mustard oil in mice systemically exposed to various doses of arsenic and whether an increased vascular leakage response is still present in arsenic-fed mice after arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. ICR mice were fed water or various doses of sodium arsenite (10, 15, or 20 mg/kg/day; 5 days/week) for 8 weeks. In separate experiments, the mice were treated with sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) for 2 or 8 weeks, followed by arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. Vascular permeability to inflammatory mustard oil was quantified using Evans blue (EB) techniques. Both arsenic-exposed and water-fed (control) mice displayed similar basal levels of EB leakage in the ears brushed with mineral oil, a vehicle of mustard oil. The levels of EB leakage induced by mustard oil in the arsenic groups fed with sodium arsenite (10 or 15 mg/kg) were similar to those of water-fed mice. However, increased levels of EB leakage in response to mustard oil stimulation were significantly higher in mice treated with sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg; high dose) than in arsenic-fed (10 or 15 mg/kg; low and middle doses) or control mice. After arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months, mustard oil-induced vascular EB leakage in arsenic-fed (20 mg/kg) mice was similar to that in control mice. Dramatic increases in mustard oil-induced vascular leakage were only present in mice systemically exposed to the high arsenic dose, indicating the synergistic effects of the high arsenic dose and mustard oil.

  1. [Early mobilization. Competencies, responsibilities, milestones].

    PubMed

    Nydahl, P; Dewes, M; Dubb, R; Filipovic, S; Hermes, C; Jüttner, F; Kaltwasser, A; Klarmann, S; Klas, K; Mende, H; Rothaug, O; Schuchhardt, D

    2016-03-01

    Early mobilization is an evident, interprofessional concept to improve the outcome of intensive care patients. It reduces psychocognitive deficits and delirium and attenuates a general deconditioning, including atrophy of the respiratory pump and skeletal muscles. In this regard the interdisciplinary approach of early mobilization, taking into account different levels of mobilization, appears to be beneficial. The purpose of this study was to explore opinions on collaboration and tasks between different professional groups. During the 25th Bremen Conference on Intensive Medicine and Nursing on 20 February 2015, a questionnaire survey was carried out among the 120 participants of the German Early Mobilization Network meeting. In all, 102 questionnaires were analyzed. Most participants reported on the interdisciplinarity of the approach, but none of the tasks and responsibilities concerning early mobilization can be assigned to a single professional group. The practical implementation of mobilizing orally intubated patients may require two registered nurses as well as a physical therapist. Implementation in daily practice seems to be heterogeneous. There is no consensus regarding collaboration, competencies, and responsibilities with respect to early mobilization of intensive care patients. The approach to date has been characterized by a lack of interprofessional communication, which may lead to an inefficient use of the broad and varied base of knowledge and experienceof the different professions.

  2. Endurance exercise training increases peripheral vascular response in human fingers.

    PubMed

    Katayama, K; Shimoda, M; Maeda, J; Takemiya, T

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure is changed by endurance exercise training. The healthy male subjects (training group; n = 6) performed endurance exercise training that consisted of cycle ergometer exercise 5 d.week-1 and 30 min.d-1 for a period of 8 weeks. Changes in the peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger were measured by a differential digital photoplethysmogram (DeltaDPG) and blood pressure during passive movement of the arm to different vertical hand positions relative to heart level. Following 8 weeks of endurance training, percent changes in DeltaDPG from heart level in the training group increased significantly (mean +/- SD, -48.1 +/- 7. 3 to -58.7 +/- 9.3% at the lowered position, 46.1 +/- 13.4 to 84.6 +/- 8.8% at the elevated position, p<0.05). Similarly, the arterial compliance index, which was calculated from DeltaDPG-P wave amplitude and arterial pulse pressure, also significantly changed in the training group over the 8 weeks (5.6 +/- 1.3 to 2.7 +/- 1.6 mV. V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the lowered position, 30.0 +/- 12.4 to 54.4 +/- 18. 9 mV.V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the elevated position ). Maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2 max) was significantly increased in the training group. On the other hand, the control group (n = 6) showed no significant changes in all parameters for 8 weeks. Therefore these results suggest that endurance exercise training induces an increase in peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger.

  3. Retinal vascular imaging in early life: insights into processes and risk of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling‐Jun; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. In recent years, studies have shown that the origins of CVD may be traced to vascular and metabolic processes in early life. Retinal vascular imaging is a new technology that allows detailed non‐invasive in vivo assessment and monitoring of the microvasculature. In this systematic review, we described the application of retinal vascular imaging in children and adolescents, and we examined the use of retinal vascular imaging in understanding CVD risk in early life. We reviewed all publications with quantitative retinal vascular assessment in two databases: PubMed and Scopus. Early life CVD risk factors were classified into four groups: birth risk factors, environmental risk factors, systemic risk factors and conditions linked to future CVD development. Retinal vascular changes were associated with lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, low‐fibre and high‐sugar diet, lesser physical activity, parental hypertension history, childhood hypertension, childhood overweight/obesity, childhood depression/anxiety and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. In summary, there is increasing evidence supporting the view that structural changes in the retinal microvasculature are associated with CVD risk factors in early life. Thus, the retina is a useful site for pre‐clinical assessment of microvascular processes that may underlie the future development of CVD in adulthood. PMID:26435039

  4. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increase inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Numerous risk factors for endothelial cell inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis have been identified, including inhalation of ultrafine particles. Recently, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) such as titanium (TiO2) NPs have attracted much attention due to their wide range of applications. However, there are also great concerns surrounding potential adverse health effects in vascular systems. Although TiO2 NPs are known to induce oxidative stress and inflammation, the associated signaling pathways have not been well studied. The focus of this work, therefore, deals with examination of the cellular signaling pathways responsible for TiO2 NP-induced endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, primary vascular endothelial cells were treated with TiO2 NPs for 2–16 h at concentrations of 0–50 µg/mL. TiO2 NP exposure increased cellular oxidative stress and DNA binding of NF-κB. Further, phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 was increased in cells exposed to TiO2 NPs. TiO2 NPs also significantly increased induction of mRNA and protein levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and mRNA levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Pretreatment with inhibitors for NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), oxidative stress (epigallocatechin gallate and apocynin), Akt (LY294002), ERK (PD98059), JNK (SP600125) and p38 (SB203580) significantly attenuated TiO2 NP-induced MCP-1 and VCAM-1 gene expression, as well as activation of NF-κB. These data indicate that TiO2 NPs can induce endothelial inflammatory responses via redox-sensitive cellular signaling pathways. PMID:23380242

  5. The relationship between copper, homocysteine and early vascular disease in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Celik, Cem; Bastu, Ercan; Abali, Remzi; Alpsoy, Seref; Guzel, Eda Celik; Aydemir, Birsen; Yeh, John

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates copper (Cu) levels and vascular dysfunction in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). 44 subjects with PCOS, diagnosed according to Rotterdam criteria, and 42 healthy subjects matched for body mass index and age. Comparison of serum Cu, homocysteine, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD) was carried out between PCOS patients and the control group. Clinical study was done in Namik Kemal University School of Medicine. The CIMT and concentration of Cu in PCOS patients was significantly higher than the healthy controls. FMD levels in PCOS patients were significantly lower than those in controls. In PCOS patients, CIMT was correlated with estrogen and Cu levels. However, FMD was correlated with age and Cu levels. Among these contributing factors, Cu levels were correlated with a change in CIMT and FMD. CIMT and FMD in PCOS patients were related to Cu levels as well as several cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, increased Cu levels may be responsible for the increased risk of early vascular disease in women with PCOS.

  6. H2S Regulates Hypobaric Hypoxia-Induced Early Glio-Vascular Dysfunction and Neuro-Pathophysiological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gaurav; Chhabra, Aastha; Mishra, Shalini; Kalam, Haroon; Kumar, Dhiraj; Meena, Ramniwas; Ahmad, Yasmin; Bhargava, Kalpana; Prasad, Dipti N.; Sharma, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Hypobaric Hypoxia (HH) is an established risk factor for various neuro-physiological perturbations including cognitive impairment. The origin and mechanistic basis of such responses however remain elusive. We here combined systems level analysis with classical neuro-physiological approaches, in a rat model system, to understand pathological responses of brain to HH. Unbiased ‘statistical co-expression networks’ generated utilizing temporal, differential transcriptome signatures of hippocampus—centrally involved in regulating cognition—implicated perturbation of Glio-Vascular homeostasis during early responses to HH, with concurrent modulation of vasomodulatory, hemostatic and proteolytic processes. Further, multiple lines of experimental evidence from ultra-structural, immuno-histological, substrate-zymography and barrier function studies unambiguously supported this proposition. Interestingly, we show a significant lowering of H2S levels in the brain, under chronic HH conditions. This phenomenon functionally impacted hypoxia-induced modulation of cerebral blood flow (hypoxic autoregulation) besides perturbing the strength of functional hyperemia responses. The augmentation of H2S levels, during HH conditions, remarkably preserved Glio-Vascular homeostasis and key neuro-physiological functions (cerebral blood flow, functional hyperemia and spatial memory) besides curtailing HH-induced neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. Our data thus revealed causal role of H2S during HH-induced early Glio-Vascular dysfunction and consequent cognitive impairment. PMID:27211559

  7. Noninvasive evaluation of the vascular response to transplantation of alginate encapsulated islets using the dorsal skin-fold model.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Rahul; Arora, Rajan P; Alexander, Michael; White, Sean M; Lamb, Morgan W; Foster, Clarence E; Choi, Bernard; Lakey, Jonathan R T

    2014-01-01

    Alginate encapsulation reduces the risk of transplant rejection by evading immune-mediated cell injury and rejection; however, poor vascular perfusion results in graft failure. Since existing imaging models are incapable of quantifying the vascular response to biomaterial implants after transplantation, in this study, we demonstrate the use of in vivo laser speckle imaging (LSI) and wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) to monitor the microvascular environment surrounding biomaterial implants. The vascular response to two islet-containing biomaterial encapsulation devices, alginate microcapsules and a high-guluronate alginate sheet, was studied and compared after implantation into the mouse dorsal window chamber (N = 4 per implant group). Images obtained over a 14-day period using LSI and WiFI were analyzed using algorithms to quantify blood flow, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and vascular density. Using our method, we were able to monitor the changes in the peri-implant microvasculature noninvasively without the use of fluorescent dyes. Significant changes in blood flow, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and vascular density were noted as early as the first week post-transplant. The dorsal window chamber model enables comparison of host responses to transplanted biomaterials. Future experiments will study the effect of changes in alginate composition on the vascular and immune responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intragraft vascular occlusive sickle crisis with early renal allograft loss in occult sickle cell trait.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lisa; Garfinkel, Marc R; Chang, Anthony; Kadambi, Pradeep V; Meehan, Shane M

    2011-07-01

    Early renal allograft failure due to sickle cell trait is rare. We present clinical and pathologic findings in 2 cases of early renal allograft failure associated with renal vein thrombosis and extensive erythrocyte sickling. Hemoglobin AS was identified in retrospect. In case 1, a 41-year-old female recipient of a deceased donor renal transplant developed abdominal pain and acute allograft failure on day 16, necessitating immediate nephrectomy. In case 2, the transplanted kidney in a 58-year-old female recipient was noted to be mottled blue within minutes of reperfusion. At 24 hours, the patient was oliguric; and the graft was removed. Transplant nephrectomies had diffuse enlargement with diffuse, nonhemorrhagic, cortical, and medullary necrosis. Extensive sickle vascular occlusion was evident in renal vein branches; interlobar, interlobular, and arcuate veins; vasa recta; and peritubular capillaries. The renal arteries had sickle vascular occlusion in case 1. Glomeruli had only focal sickle vascular occlusion. The erythrocytes in sickle vascular occlusion had abundant cytoplasmic filaments by electron microscopy. Acute rejection was not identified in either case. Protein C and S levels, factor V Leiden, and lupus anticoagulant assays were within normal limits. Hemoglobin analysis revealed hemoglobin S of 21.8% and 25.6%, respectively. Renal allograft necrosis with intragraft sickle crisis, characterized by extensive vascular occlusive erythrocyte sickling and prominent renal vein thrombosis, was observed in 2 patients with sickle cell trait. Occult sickle cell trait may be a risk factor for early renal allograft loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis is an early trigger for hypothyroid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Xu, Tian-Ying; Guan, Yun-Feng; Zhao, Yan; Li, Zhi-Yong; Lan, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xia; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Kang, Zhi-Min; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2014-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is an initial and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis, a later step of atherosclerosis. Hypothyroidism accelerates atherosclerosis. However, the early events responsible for this pro-atherosclerotic effect are unclear. Rats were resistant to induction of atherosclerosis by high cholesterol diet alone, but became susceptible in hypothyroid state achieved by administration of propylthiouracil (PTU) for 6 weeks. VSMC dysfunction and apoptosis were obvious within 1 week after PTU treatment, without signs of endothelial dysfunction. This early VSMC damage was caused by hypothyroidism but not the high cholesterol diet. In ApoE knockout mice, PTU-induced hypothyroidism triggered early VSMC apoptosis, increased oxidative stress, and accelerated atherosclerosis development. Thyroid hormone supplementation (T4, 10, or 50 μg/kg) prevented atherogenic phenotypes in hypothyroid rats and mice. In rats, thyroidectomy caused severe hypothyroidism 5 days after operation, which also led to rapid VSMC dysfunction and apoptosis. In vitro studies did not show a direct toxic effect of PTU on VSMCs. In contrast, thyroid hormone (T3, 0.75 μg/L plus T4, 50 nmol/L) exerted a direct protection against VSMC apoptosis, which was reduced by knockdown of TRα1, rather than TRβ1 and TRβ2 receptors. TRα1-mediated inhibition of apoptotic signalling of JNKs and caspase-3 contributed to the anti-apoptotic action of thyroid hormone. These findings provide an in vivo example for VSMC apoptosis as an early trigger of hypothyroidism-associated atherosclerosis, and reveal activation of TRα1 receptors to prevent VSMC apoptosis as a therapeutic strategy in this disease. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Renal vascular responses to static handgrip: role of muscle mechanoreflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momen, Afsana; Leuenberger, Urs A.; Ray, Chester A.; Cha, Susan; Handly, Brian; Sinoway, Lawrence I.

    2003-01-01

    During exercise, the sympathetic nervous system is activated, which causes vasoconstriction. The autonomic mechanisms responsible for this vasoconstriction vary based on the particular tissue being studied. Attempts to examine reflex control of the human renal circulation have been difficult because of technical limitations. In this report, the Doppler technique was used to examine renal flow velocity during four muscle contraction paradigms in conscious humans. Flow velocity was divided by mean arterial blood pressure to yield an index of renal vascular resistance (RVR). Fatiguing static handgrip (40% of maximal voluntary contraction) increased RVR by 76%. During posthandgrip circulatory arrest, RVR remained above baseline (2.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.8 +/- 0.2 arbitrary units; P < 0.017) but was only 40% of the end-grip RVR value. Voluntary biceps contraction increased RVR within 10 s of initiation of contraction. This effect was not associated with an increase in blood pressure. Finally, involuntary biceps contraction also raised RVR. We conclude that muscle contraction evokes renal vasoconstriction in conscious humans. The characteristic of this response is consistent with a primary role for mechanically sensitive afferents. This statement is based on the small posthandgrip circulatory arrest response and the vasoconstriction that was observed with involuntary biceps contraction.

  11. Association Between Increased Vascular Density and Loss of Protective RAS in Early-stage NPDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Vu, Amanda C.; Bryant, Douglas; Yaqian, Duan; Knecht, Brenda E.; Grant, Maria B.; Chalam, K. V.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Our hypothesis predicts that retinal blood vessels increase in density during early-stage progression to moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of DR and in the function of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), a critical bone marrow-derived population that is instrumental in vascular repair.

  12. Thermographic evaluation of early melanoma within the vascularized skin using combined non-Newtonian blood flow and bioheat models.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Arka; Repaka, Ramjee; Mishra, Subhash C

    2014-10-01

    A theoretical study on vascularized skin model to predict the thermal evaluation criteria of early melanoma using the dynamic thermal imaging technique is presented in this article. Thermographic evaluation of melanoma has been carried out during the thermal recovery of skin from undercooled condition. During thermal recovery, the skin has been exposed to natural convection, radiation, and evaporation. The thermal responses of melanoma have been evaluated by integrating the bioheat model for multi-layered skin with the momentum as well as energy conservation equations for blood flow. Differential changes in the surface thermal response of various melanoma stages except that of the early stage have been determined. It has been predicted that the thermal response due to subsurface blood flow overpowers the response of early melanoma. Hence, the study suggests that the quantification of early melanoma diagnosis using thermography has not reached a matured stage yet. Therefore, the study presents a systematic analysis of various intermediate melanoma stages to determine the thermal evaluation criteria of early melanoma. The comprehensive modeling effort made in this work supports the prediction of the disease outcome and relates the thermal response with the variation in patho-physiological, thermal and geometrical parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vascular Effects of Early versus Late Postmenopausal Treatment with Estradiol.

    PubMed

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J; Henderson, Victor W; Shoupe, Donna; Budoff, Matthew J; Hwang-Levine, Juliana; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Mei; Dustin, Laurie; Kono, Naoko; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Selzer, Robert H; Azen, Stanley P

    2016-03-31

    Data suggest that estrogen-containing hormone therapy is associated with beneficial effects with regard to cardiovascular disease when the therapy is initiated temporally close to menopause but not when it is initiated later. However, the hypothesis that the cardiovascular effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy vary with the timing of therapy initiation (the hormone-timing hypothesis) has not been tested. A total of 643 healthy postmenopausal women were stratified according to time since menopause (<6 years [early postmenopause] or ≥10 years [late postmenopause]) and were randomly assigned to receive either oral 17β-estradiol (1 mg per day, plus progesterone [45 mg] vaginal gel administered sequentially [i.e., once daily for 10 days of each 30-day cycle] for women with a uterus) or placebo (plus sequential placebo vaginal gel for women with a uterus). The primary outcome was the rate of change in carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), which was measured every 6 months. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by cardiac computed tomography (CT), which was performed when participants completed the randomly assigned regimen. After a median of 5 years, the effect of estradiol, with or without progesterone, on CIMT progression differed between the early and late postmenopause strata (P=0.007 for the interaction). Among women who were less than 6 years past menopause at the time of randomization, the mean CIMT increased by 0.0078 mm per year in the placebo group versus 0.0044 mm per year in the estradiol group (P=0.008). Among women who were 10 or more years past menopause at the time of randomization, the rates of CIMT progression in the placebo and estradiol groups were similar (0.0088 and 0.0100 mm per year, respectively; P=0.29). CT measures of coronary-artery calcium, total stenosis, and plaque did not differ significantly between the placebo group and the estradiol group in either postmenopause stratum. Oral estradiol

  14. High fat diet-induced metabolically obese and normal weight rabbit model shows early vascular dysfunction: mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Gabriela; Roco, Julieta; Medina, Mirta; Medina, Analia; Peral, Maria; Jerez, Susana

    2018-01-30

    Obesity contributes significantly to the development and evolution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which is believed to be mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. However, the vascular health of metabolically obese and normal weight (MONW) individuals is not completely comprehended. The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular function on the basis of a high fat diet (HFD)-MONW rabbit model. Twenty four male rabbits were randomly assigned to receive either a regular diet (CD, n = 12) or a high-fat diet (18% extra fat on the regular diet, HFD, n = 12) for 6 weeks. Body weight, TBARS and gluthathione serum levels were similar between the groups; fasting glucose, triglycerides, C reactive protein (CRP), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) were higher in the HFD group. Compared to CD, the HFD rabbits had glucose intolerance and lower HDL-cholesterol and plasma nitrites levels. Thoracic aortic rings from HFD rabbits exhibited: (a) a reduced acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation; (b) a greater contractile response to norepinephrine and KCl; (c) an improved angiotensin II-sensibility. The HFD-effect on acetylcholine-response was reversed by the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (NS398) and the cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor (SC560), and the HFD-effect on angiotensin II was reversed by NS398 and the TP receptor blocker (SQ29538). Immunohistochemistry and western blot studies showed COX-2 expression only in arteries from HFD rabbits. Our study shows a positive pro-inflammatory status of HFD-induced MONW characterized by raised COX-2 expression, increase of the CRP levels, reduction of NO release and oxidative stress-controlled conditions in an early stage of metabolic alterations characteristic of metabolic syndrome. Endothelial dysfunction and increased vascular reactivity in MONW individuals may be biomarkers of early vascular injury. Therefore, the metabolic changes induced by HFD even in normal

  15. Vascular wall shear stress in zebrafish model of early atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woorak; Seo, Eunseok; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Although atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease, the role of hemodynamic force has strong influence on the outbreak of the disease. Low and oscillating wall shear stress (WSS) is associated with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Many researchers have investigated relationships between WSS and the occurrence of atherosclerosis using in vitro and in vivo models. However, these models possess technological limitations in mimicking real biophysiological conditions and monitoring the temporal progression of atherosclerosis. In this study, a hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model was established as a novel model to resolve these technical limitations. WSS in blood vessels of 15 days post-fertilisation zebrafish was measured using a micro PIV technique, and the spatial distribution of lipids inside blood vessels was quantitatively visualized using a confocal microscopy. As a result, lipids are mainly deposited in the regions of low WSS. The oscillating WSS is not induced by blood flows in the zebrafish disease model. The present hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model would be useful for understanding the effect of WSS on the early stage of atherosclerosis. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under a Grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  16. Belowground rhizomes in paleosols: The hidden half of an Early Devonian vascular plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jinzhuang; Deng, Zhenzhen; Huang, Pu; Huang, Kangjun; Benton, Michael J.; Cui, Ying; Wang, Deming; Liu, Jianbo; Shen, Bing; Basinger, James F.; Hao, Shougang

    2016-08-01

    The colonization of terrestrial environments by rooted vascular plants had far-reaching impacts on the Earth system. However, the belowground structures of early vascular plants are rarely documented, and thus the plant-soil interactions in early terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we report the earliest rooted paleosols (fossil soils) in Asia from Early Devonian deposits of Yunnan, China. Plant traces are extensive within the soil and occur as complex network-like structures, which are interpreted as representing long-lived, belowground rhizomes of the basal lycopsid Drepanophycus. The rhizomes produced large clones and helped the plant survive frequent sediment burial in well-drained soils within a seasonal wet-dry climate zone. Rhizome networks contributed to the accumulation and pedogenesis of floodplain sediments and increased the soil stabilizing effects of early plants. Predating the appearance of trees with deep roots in the Middle Devonian, plant rhizomes have long functioned in the belowground soil ecosystem. This study presents strong, direct evidence for plant-soil interactions at an early stage of vascular plant radiation. Soil stabilization by complex rhizome systems was apparently widespread, and contributed to landscape modification at an earlier time than had been appreciated.

  17. Belowground rhizomes in paleosols: The hidden half of an Early Devonian vascular plant.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jinzhuang; Deng, Zhenzhen; Huang, Pu; Huang, Kangjun; Benton, Michael J; Cui, Ying; Wang, Deming; Liu, Jianbo; Shen, Bing; Basinger, James F; Hao, Shougang

    2016-08-23

    The colonization of terrestrial environments by rooted vascular plants had far-reaching impacts on the Earth system. However, the belowground structures of early vascular plants are rarely documented, and thus the plant-soil interactions in early terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we report the earliest rooted paleosols (fossil soils) in Asia from Early Devonian deposits of Yunnan, China. Plant traces are extensive within the soil and occur as complex network-like structures, which are interpreted as representing long-lived, belowground rhizomes of the basal lycopsid Drepanophycus The rhizomes produced large clones and helped the plant survive frequent sediment burial in well-drained soils within a seasonal wet-dry climate zone. Rhizome networks contributed to the accumulation and pedogenesis of floodplain sediments and increased the soil stabilizing effects of early plants. Predating the appearance of trees with deep roots in the Middle Devonian, plant rhizomes have long functioned in the belowground soil ecosystem. This study presents strong, direct evidence for plant-soil interactions at an early stage of vascular plant radiation. Soil stabilization by complex rhizome systems was apparently widespread, and contributed to landscape modification at an earlier time than had been appreciated.

  18. Belowground rhizomes in paleosols: The hidden half of an Early Devonian vascular plant

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jinzhuang; Deng, Zhenzhen; Huang, Pu; Huang, Kangjun; Benton, Michael J.; Cui, Ying; Wang, Deming; Liu, Jianbo; Shen, Bing; Basinger, James F.; Hao, Shougang

    2016-01-01

    The colonization of terrestrial environments by rooted vascular plants had far-reaching impacts on the Earth system. However, the belowground structures of early vascular plants are rarely documented, and thus the plant−soil interactions in early terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we report the earliest rooted paleosols (fossil soils) in Asia from Early Devonian deposits of Yunnan, China. Plant traces are extensive within the soil and occur as complex network-like structures, which are interpreted as representing long-lived, belowground rhizomes of the basal lycopsid Drepanophycus. The rhizomes produced large clones and helped the plant survive frequent sediment burial in well-drained soils within a seasonal wet−dry climate zone. Rhizome networks contributed to the accumulation and pedogenesis of floodplain sediments and increased the soil stabilizing effects of early plants. Predating the appearance of trees with deep roots in the Middle Devonian, plant rhizomes have long functioned in the belowground soil ecosystem. This study presents strong, direct evidence for plant−soil interactions at an early stage of vascular plant radiation. Soil stabilization by complex rhizome systems was apparently widespread, and contributed to landscape modification at an earlier time than had been appreciated. PMID:27503883

  19. Mismatch negativity as a potential neurobiological marker of early-stage Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shixiang; Yan, Chang; Qiao, Zhengxue; Yao, Haiqian; Jiang, Shiquan; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Fang, Deyu; Yang, Yanjie; Zhang, Limei; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Liming

    2017-04-24

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) are serious, irreversible forms of cognitive impairment, which means that an early diagnosis is essential to slow down their progression. One potential neurophysiological biomarker of these diseases is the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials (ERP) component, which reflects an automatic detection mechanism at the pre-attentive stages of information processing. We evaluated the auditory MMN response in individuals from two patient groups: those in the prodromal stages of AD (P-AD) and those in the prodromal stages of VD (P-VD). Thirty patients (15 P-AD patients and 15 P-VD patients) and 30 age-matched controls were recruited to undergo electrophysiological recordings during the presentation of an auditory deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm that was used to elicit genuine MMN responses. We show that over the frontal-central area, the mean amplitude of the MMN was significantly reduced in both the P-AD (p=0.017) and P-VD groups (p=0.013) compared with controls. The MMN peak latency in P-VD patients was significantly shorter than in controls (p=0.027). No MMN response differences between the P-AD and P-VD were found in either the frontal-central or the temporal areas. These results indicate that P-AD and P-VD patients exhibit impaired pre-attentive information processing mechanisms as revealed by the frontal-central area MMN response, which is associated with sensory memory and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Decidual vascular changes in early pregnancy as a marker for intrauterine pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lichtig, C; Korat, A; Deutch, M; Brandes, J M

    1988-09-01

    Endometrial vascular changes similar to atherosclerosis of toxemia of pregnancy were described and graded in 217 consecutive endometrial biopsies of known early intrauterine pregnancy. Severe vascular changes were found in 23.5% of cases. Control material consisting of endometrial biopsies of patients with known cases of tubal ectopic pregnancy and various non-pregnancy menstrual disorders showed minimal or no changes except in one case. A parallel study of Aria-Stella phenomenon in 110 cases of uterine pregnancy showed significant changes in only 3.6% of patients. It is obvious that in these cases of positive Arias-Stella findings, the possibility of an extrauterine pregnancy could not be discarded on histologic grounds alone. The authors suggest the use of the vascular changes of the more severe histologic degree as described in this article as a positive or strongly suspicious marker for intrauterine pregnancy whenever this is needed.

  1. Early detection and rapid response

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.; Simberloff, Daniel; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Prevention is the first line of defense against introduced invasive species - it is always preferable to prevent the introduction of new invaders into a region or country. However, it is not always possible to detect all alien hitchhikers imported in cargo, or to predict with any degree of certainty which introduced species will become invasive over time. Fortunately, the majority of introduced plants and animals don't become invasive. But, according to scientists at Cornell University, costs and losses due to species that do become invasive are now estimated to be over $137 billion/year in the United States. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) is the second line of defense against introduced invasive species - EDRR is the preferred management strategy for preventing the establishment and spread of invasive species. Over the past 50 years, there has been a gradual shift away from large and medium scale federal/state single-agency-led weed eradication programs in the United States, to smaller interagency-led projects involving impacted and potential stakeholders. The importance of volunteer weed spotters in detecting and reporting suspected new invasive species has also been recognized in recent years.

  2. Hydraulics of Asteroxylon mackei, an early Devonian vascular plant, and the early evolution of water transport tissue in terrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J P; Fischer, W W

    2011-03-01

    The core of plant physiology is a set of functional solutions to a tradeoff between CO(2) acquisition and water loss. To provide an important evolutionary perspective on how the earliest land plants met this tradeoff, we constructed a mathematical model (constrained geometrically with measurements of fossils) of the hydraulic resistance of Asteroxylon, an Early Devonian plant. The model results illuminate the water transport physiology of one of the earliest vascular plants. Results show that Asteroxylon's vascular system contains cells with low hydraulic resistances; these resistances are low because cells were covered by scalariform pits, elliptical structures that permit individual cells to have large areas for water to pass from one cell to another. Asteroxylon could move a large amount of water quickly given its large pit areas; however, this would have left these plants particularly vulnerable to damage from excessive evapotranspiration. These results highlight a repeated pattern in plant evolution, wherein the evolution of highly conductive vascular tissue precedes the appearance of adaptations to increase water transport safety. Quantitative insight into the vascular transport of Asteroxylon also allows us to reflect on the quality of CO(2) proxy estimates based on early land plant fossils. Because Asteroxylon's vascular tissue lacked any safety features to prevent permanent damage, it probably used stomatal abundance and behavior to prevent desiccation. If correct, low stomatal frequencies in Asteroxylon reflect the need to limit evapotranspiration, rather than adaptation to high CO(2) concentrations in the atmosphere. More broadly, methods to reveal and understand water transport in extinct plants have a clear use in testing and bolstering fossil plant-based paleoclimate proxies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Effects of Phosphate Binder Therapy on Vascular Stiffness in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Michael E.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Rothstein, Marcos; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Cheng, Steven C.; Ross, Will; Windus, David; Dávila-Román, Víctor G.; Hruska, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and contributed to by the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The CKD-MBD begins in early CKD and its vascular manifestations begin with vascular stiffness proceeding to increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and vascular calcification (VC). Phosphorus is associated with this progression and is considered a CVD risk factor in CKD. We hypothesized that modifying phosphorus balance with lanthanum carbonate (LaCO3) in early CKD would not produce hypophosphatemia and may affect vascular manifestations of the CKD-MBD. Methods We randomized 38 subjects with normophosphatemic stage 3 CKD to a fixed dose of LaCO3 or matching placebo without adjusting dietary phosphorus in a 12-month randomized, double-blind, pilot and feasibility study. The primary outcome was the change in serum phosphorus. Secondary outcomes were changes in measures of phosphate homeostasis and vascular stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), cIMT and VC over 12 months. Results There were no statistically significant differences between LaCO3 and placebo with respect to the change in serum phosphorus, urinary phosphorus, tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, PWV, cIMT, or VC. Biomarkers of the early CKD-MBD such as plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin were increased 2–3-fold at baseline but were not affected by LaCO3. Conclusion 12 months of LaCO3 had no effect on serum phosphorus and did not alter phosphate homeostasis, PWV, cIMT, VC, or biomarkers of the CKD-MBD. PMID:23941761

  4. Early pulmonary vascular disease in preterm infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mourani, Peter M; Sontag, Marci K; Younoszai, Adel; Miller, Joshua I; Kinsella, John P; Baker, Christopher D; Poindexter, Brenda B; Ingram, David A; Abman, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with poor outcomes among preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), but whether early signs of pulmonary vascular disease are associated with the subsequent development of BPD or PH at 36 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) is unknown. To prospectively evaluate the relationship of early echocardiogram signs of pulmonary vascular disease in preterm infants to the subsequent development of BPD and late PH (at 36 wk PMA). Prospectively enrolled preterm infants with birthweights 500-1,250 g underwent echocardiogram evaluations at 7 days of age (early) and 36 weeks PMA (late). Clinical and echocardiographic data were analyzed to identify early risk factors for BPD and late PH. A total of 277 preterm infants completed echocardiogram and BPD assessments at 36 weeks PMA. The median gestational age at birth and birthweight of the infants were 27 weeks and 909 g, respectively. Early PH was identified in 42% of infants, and 14% were diagnosed with late PH. Early PH was a risk factor for increased BPD severity (relative risk, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.23) and late PH (relative risk, 2.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-6.33). Infants with late PH had greater duration of oxygen therapy and increased mortality in the first year of life (P < 0.05). Early pulmonary vascular disease is associated with the development of BPD and with late PH in preterm infants. Echocardiograms at 7 days of age may be a useful tool to identify infants at high risk for BPD and PH.

  5. Association Between Increased Vascular Density and Loss of Protective RAS in Early-Stage NPDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Vu, Amanda C.; Bryant, Douglas; Yaqian, Duan; Knecht, Brenda E.; Grant, Maria B.; Chalam, K . V.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Our hypothesis predicts that retinal blood vessels increase in density during early-stage progression to moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). The prevailing paradigm of NPDR progression is that vessels drop out prior to abnormal, vision-impairing regrowth at late-stage proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, surprising results for our previous preliminary study 1 with NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software showed that vessels proliferated considerably during moderate NPDR compared to drop out at both mild and severe NPDR. Validation of our hypothesis will support development of successful early-stage regenerative therapies such as vascular repair by circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS)is implicated in the pathogenesis of DR and in the function of CACs, a critical bone marrow-derived population that is instrumental in vascular repair.

  6. Early decision-analytic modeling - a case study on vascular closure devices.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Alina; Sinner, Moritz F; Kääb, Stefan; Rogowski, Wolf H

    2015-10-27

    As economic considerations become more important in healthcare reimbursement, decisions about the further development of medical innovations need to take into account not only medical need and potential clinical effectiveness, but also cost-effectiveness. Already early in the innovation process economic evaluations can support decisions on development in specific indications or patient groups by anticipating future reimbursement and implementation decisions. One potential concept for early assessment is value-based pricing. The objective is to assess the feasibility of value-based pricing and product design for a hypothetical vascular closure device in the pre-clinical stage which aims at decreasing bleeding events. A deterministic decision-analytic model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of established vascular closure devices from the perspective of the Statutory Health Insurance system. To identify early benchmarks for pricing and product design, three strategies of determining the product's value are explored: 1) savings from complications avoided by the new device; 2) valuation of the avoided complications based on an assumed willingness-to-pay-threshold (the efficiency frontier approach); 3) value associated with modifying the care pathways within which the device would be applied. Use of established vascular closure devices is dominated by manual compression. The hypothetical vascular closure device reduces overall complication rates at higher costs than manual compression. Maximum cost savings of only about €4 per catheterization could be realized by applying the hypothetical device. Extrapolation of an efficiency frontier is only possible for one subgroup where vascular closure devices are not a dominated strategy. Modifying care in terms of same-day discharge of patients treated with vascular closure devices could result in cost savings of €400-600 per catheterization. It was partially feasible to calculate value-based prices for the

  7. Association Between Vascular Density and Loss of Protective RAS During Early NPDR by Fractal Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krisnan; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Murray, Matthew; Predovic, Marina; Lim, Shiyin; Bryant, Douglas; Yaqian, Duan; Grant, Maria B.; Chalam, K. V.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our hypothesis predicts that blood vessels within the retina increase in density during early-stage nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), based on previous results of a small retrospective study. For the current prospective study, the remodeling of arteries and veins during progression of early NPDR is assessed by a repertoire of parameters that includes the fractal dimension (D(sub f) ). In complex structures such as branching vascular trees, D(sub f) is a sensitive measure of space-filing capacity. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in DR pathogenesis and the function of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), a critical bone marrow-derived population instrumental in vascular repair. Methods: Arterial and venous branching patterns were extracted from images of 6 normal controls and 3 early NPDR subjects (2 moderate, 1 mild) acquired by Heidelberg Spectralis (Registered Trademark) OCT following fluorescein angiography (FA). The vascular branching patterns were analyzed by NASAs VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software, in which skeletonized representations were generated automatically to yield D(sub f) by the box-counting method. For binary 2D images, D(sub f) varies between limiting Euclidean dimensions of 1 and 2. Peripheral blood of diabetics and controls was collected for CD34+ CAC isolation. The gene expression of RAS in CACs was assessed by qPCR for Mas receptor to Ang-(1-7). The vasoreparative function of the CACs was measured by migration ability toward CXCL12 (SDF-1). Results: By D(sub f), venous and arterial densities were 1.370 +/- 0.006 and 1.329 +/- 0.016 for early NPDR, compared to 1.318 +/- 0.012 and 1.320 +/- 0.036 for control. The space filling capacity in early NPDR measured by D(sub f), a sensitive parameter, therefore demonstrated a pronounced increase for veins, but not for arteries. Mas receptor mRNA in CACs was increased in diabetics without DR but reduced with onset of NPDR, indicating possible loss of

  8. Biomechanical factors as regulators of biological responses to vascular grafts.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, J E; Glagov, S; Bassiouny, H S

    1999-03-01

    Biomechanical forces have been implicated in the induction and progression of intimal hyperplastic thickening in vein, prosthetic, and endovascular bypass grafts. Graft implantation imposes significant alterations is shear and tensile forces. Such physical forces play an important role in modulating those cellular and molecular events that underlie regulation of vascular healing and adaptation. Characterization of such hemodynamic variables that induce perpetual medial vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration will help in identification of those grafts at risk for occlusion and limited long-term patency and in design of therapeutic strategies that attenuate progressive intimal hyperplasia.

  9. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu-Yin; Hang, Fu; Purvarshi, Gowreesunkur; Li, Min-Qing; Meng, Da-Hua; Huang, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of three-dimensional (3D)-power Doppler sonography on recurrent miscarriage. The study patients were divided into a recurrent miscarriage group (30 cases) and a normal pregnancy group (21 cases). Measurement of endometrial thickness was performed using two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the midluteal phase. The endometrial volume, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI) in midluteal and placenta volume, as well as the VI, FI, and VFI of early pregnancy were measured using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis of 3D-power Doppler ultrasound. Endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial vascular data, VI, FI, and VFI of the midluteal phase were lower in the recurrent miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p < 0.05). Placental volume, VI, and VFI during early pregnancy were lower in the miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p < 0.05). There was no significant change in FI between the recurrent miscarriage and control groups during early pregnancy (p > 0.05). The predictive accuracy of endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, and placenta volume, VI, FI, and VFI in early pregnancy as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict miscarriage before 12 gestational weeks in participants was 0.681, 0.876, 0.770, 0.720, 0.879, 0.771, 0.907, 0.592, respectively. The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Phloem transport velocity varies over time and among vascular bundles during early cucumber seedling development.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica A; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2013-11-01

    We use a novel dye-tracing technique to measure in vivo phloem transport velocity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants during early seedling development. We focus on seedlings because of their importance in plant establishment and because they provide a simple source and sink model of phloem transport. The dye-tracing method uses a photodiode to track the movement of a bleach front of fluorescent dye traveling in the phloem from the cotyledons (source) to the roots (sink). During early seedling development, phloem transport velocity in this direction can change 2-fold depending on vascular connectivity and the number of actively growing sinks. Prior to leaf expansion, vascular bundles attached to the first developing leaf demonstrate a decline in basipetal phloem transport that can be alleviated by the leaf's removal. At this stage, seedlings appear carbon limited and phloem transport velocity is correlated with cotyledon area, a pattern that is apparent both during cotyledon expansion and after source area manipulation. When the first leaf transitions to a carbon source, seedling growth rate increases and basipetal phloem transport velocity becomes more stable. Because bundles appear to operate autonomously, transport velocity can differ among vascular bundles. Together, these results demonstrate the dynamic and heterogeneous nature of phloem transport and underline the need for a better understanding of how changes in phloem physiology impact growth and allocation at this critical stage of development.

  11. Early life stage trimethyltin exposure induces ADP-ribosylation factor expression and perturbs the vascular system in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangfei; Huang, Changjiang; Truong, Lisa; La Du, Jane; Tilton, Susan C; Waters, Katrina M; Lin, Kuanfei; Tanguay, Robert L; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2012-12-16

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is an organotin contaminant, widely detected in aqueous environments, posing potential human and environmental risks. In this study, we utilized the zebrafish model to investigate the impact of transient TMT exposure on developmental progression, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular development. Embryos were waterborne exposed to a wide TMT concentration range from 8 to 96 h post fertilization (hpf). The TMT concentration that led to mortality in 50% of the embryos (LC(50)) at 96 hpf was 8.2 μM; malformations in 50% of the embryos (EC(50)) was 2.8 μM. The predominant response observed in surviving embryos was pericardial edema. Additionally, using the Tg (fli1a: EGFP) y1 transgenic zebrafish line to non-invasively monitor vascular development, TMT exposure led to distinct disarrangements in the vascular system. The most susceptible developmental stage to TMT exposure was between 48 and 72 hpf. High density whole genome microarrays were used to identify the early transcriptional changes following TMT exposure from 48 to 60 hpf or 72 hpf. In total, 459 transcripts were differentially expressed at least 2-fold (P<0.05) by TMT compared to control. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tools, it was revealed that the transcripts misregulated by TMT exposure were clustered in numerous categories including metabolic and cardiovascular disease, cellular function, cell death, molecular transport, and physiological development. In situ localization of highly elevated transcripts revealed intense staining of ADP-ribosylation factors arf3 and arf5 in the head, trunk, and tail regions. When arf5 expression was blocked by morpholinos, the zebrafish did not display the prototypical TMT-induced vascular deficits, indicating that the induction of arf5 was necessary for TMT-induced vascular toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early vascular ageing in translation: from laboratory investigations to clinical applications in cardiovascular prevention.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Peter M; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Cunha, Pedro; Kotsis, Vasilios; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Parati, Gianfranco; Rietzschel, Ernst; Scuteri, Angelo; Laurent, Stephane

    2013-08-01

    The ageing of the vascular tree is a fundamental reflection of biological ageing in general and a determinant of organ function. In the arterial wall this is characterized by a reduction in the elastin content, as well as by an increased content of collagen and its cross-linkages, leading to increased arterial stiffness and elevated central as well as brachial blood pressure, accompanied by increased SBP variability. In recent years a better understanding of these processes have led to the proposal of a condition named early vascular ageing (EVA) in patients with increased arterial stiffness for their age and sex. This is a condition that could increase cardiovascular risk and is associated with various degrees of cognitive dysfunction, as well as other features of biological ageing. This brief review aims to give an update on EVA and how the concept can be used in clinical practice.

  13. Early caregiving and physiological stress responses.

    PubMed

    Luecken, Linda J; Lemery, Kathryn S

    2004-05-01

    Inadequate early caregiving has been associated with risks of stress-related psychological and physical illness over the life span. Dysregulated physiological stress responses may represent a mechanism linking early caregiving to health outcomes. This paper reviews evidence linking early caregiving to physiological responses that can increase vulnerability to stress-related illness. A number of high-risk family characteristics, including high conflict, divorce, abuse, and parental psychopathology, are considered in the development of stress vulnerability. Three theoretical pathways linking caregiving to physiological stress responses are outlined: genetic, psychosocial, and cognitive-affective. Exciting preliminary evidence suggests that early caregiving can impact long-term physiological stress responses. Directions for future research in this area are suggested.

  14. Early harvesting of the vascularized pedicled nasoseptal flap during endoscopic skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Patel, Amit A; Shukla, Pratik A; Choudhry, Osamah J; Liu, James K

    2013-01-01

    The vascularized pedicled nasoseptal flap (PNSF) represents a successful option for reconstruction of large skull base defects after expanded endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA). This vascularized flap can be harvested early or late in the operation depending on the anticipation of high-flow CSF leaks. Each harvesting technique (early vs. late) is associated with different advantages and disadvantages. In this study, we evaluate our experience with early harvesting of the PNSF for repair of large skull base defects after EEA. A retrospective review was performed at a tertiary care medical center on patients who underwent early PNSF harvesting during reconstruction of intraoperative high-flow CSF leaks after EEA between December 2008 and March 2012. Demographic data, repair materials, surgical approach, and incidence of PNSF usage were collected. Eighty-seven patients meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. In 86 procedures (98.9%), the PNSF harvested at the beginning of the operation was used. In 1 case (1.1%), the PNSF was not used because a high-flow intraoperative CSF leak was not encountered. This patient had recurrence of intradural disease 8months later, and the previously elevated PNSF was subsequent used after tumor resection. Based on our data, a high-flow CSF leak and need for a PNSF can be accurately anticipated in patients undergoing EEA for skull base lesions. Because of the advantages of early harvesting of the PNSF and the high preoperative predictive value of CSF leak anticipations, this technique represents a feasible harvesting practice for EEA surgeries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vascular adaptive responses to physical exercise and to stress are affected differently by nandrolone administration.

    PubMed

    Bruder-Nascimento, T; Cordellini, S

    2011-04-01

    Androgenic anabolic steroid, physical exercise and stress induce cardiovascular adaptations including increased endothelial function. The present study investigated the effects of these conditions alone and in combination on the vascular responses of male Wistar rats. Exercise was started at 8 weeks of life (60-min swimming sessions 5 days per week for 8 weeks, while carrying a 5% body-weight load). One group received nandrolone (5 mg/kg, twice per week for 8 weeks, im). Acute immobilization stress (2 h) was induced immediately before the experimental protocol. Curves for noradrenaline were obtained for thoracic aorta, with and without endothelium from sedentary and trained rats, submitted or not to stress, treated or not with nandrolone. None of the procedures altered the vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in denuded aorta. In intact aorta, stress and exercise produced vascular adaptive responses characterized by endothelium-dependent hyporeactivity to noradrenaline. These conditions in combination did not potentiate the vascular adaptive response. Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone. In contrast, the aortal reactivity to noradrenaline of sedentary rats and the vascular adaptive response to stress of sedentary and trained rats were not affected by nandrolone. Maximum response for 7-10 rats/group (g): sedentary 3.8 ± 0.2 vs trained 3.0 ± 0.2*; sedentary/stress 2.7 ± 0.2 vs trained/stress 3.1 ± 0.1*; sedentary/nandrolone 3.6 ± 0.1 vs trained/nandrolone 3.8 ± 0.1; sedentary/stress/nandrolone 3.2 ± 0.1 vs trained/stress/nandrolone 2.5 ± 0.1*; *P < 0.05 compared to its respective control. Stress and physical exercise determine similar vascular adaptive response involving distinct mechanisms as indicated by the observation that only the physical exercise-induced adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone.

  16. Early prediction of norepinephrine dependency and refractory septic shock with a multimodal approach of vascular failure.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Marie; Perez, Pierre; Thivilier, Carine; Levy, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study is to improve our ability to detect catecholamine dependency and refractory septic shock. Fifty-one patients with septic shock were studied within the first 4 hours of norepinephrine administration. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their evolution in the intensive care unit, namely, group A, shock reversal, and group B, no shock reversal. Reversal of shock was defined as the maintenance of a systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg without vasopressor support for 24 hours or more. Vascular reactivity was tested using incremental doses of phenylephrine. Muscle tissue oxygen saturation and its changes during a vascular occlusion test were measured. Group B patients had a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and lactate level and more frequently received norepinephrine and renal replacement. Overall mortality was 100% in group B (16/16) and 20% (7/35) in group A. Phenylephrine increased mean arterial pressure in a dose-dependent manner more significantly in group A patients than in group B (P = .0004). Basal tissue oxygen saturation and the recovery slope after vascular occlusion test were lower in group B. In multivariate analysis, 4 parameters remained independently associated with mortality: the increase in mean arterial pressure at phenylephrine 6 μg/kg per minute, the recovery slope, SOFA score, and norepinephrine doses at H0. The intensity of septic shock-induced vascular hyporesponsiveness to vasopressor is tightly linked to septic shock severity and evolution and may potentially be identified early with simple to obtain parameters such as near-infrared spectroscopy value, SOFA score, or norepinephrine dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Microvascular dysfunction with increased vascular leakage response in mice systemically exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Shin-Yin; Lu, Chi-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Hung; Wang, Dean-Chuan

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease induced by arsenic exposure are not completely understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether arsenic-fed mice have an increased vascular leakage response to vasoactive agents and whether enhanced type-2 protein phosphatase (PP2A) activity is involved in mustard oil-induced leakage. ICR mice were fed water or sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) for 4 or 8 weeks. The leakage response to vasoactive agents was quantified using the Evans blue (EB) technique or vascular labeling with carbon particles. Increased EB leakage and high density of carbon-labeled microvessels were detected in arsenic-fed mice treated with mustard oil. Histamine induced significantly higher vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice than in water-fed mice. Pretreatment with the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid or the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) blocker RP67580 significantly reduced mustard oil-induced vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice. The protein levels of PP2Ac and NK1R were similar in both groups. PP2A activity was significantly higher in the arsenic-fed mice compared with the control group. These findings indicate that microvessels generally respond to vasoactive agents, and that the increased PP2A activity is involved in mustard oil-induced vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice. Arsenic may initiate endothelial dysfunction, resulting in vascular leakage in response to vasoactive agents.

  18. Functional imaging to monitor vascular and metabolic response in canine head and neck tumors during fractionated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rødal, Jan; Rusten, Espen; Søvik, Åste; Skogmo, Hege Kippenes; Malinen, Eirik

    2013-10-01

    Radiotherapy causes alterations in tumor biology, and non-invasive early assessment of such alterations may become useful for identifying treatment resistant disease. The purpose of the current work is to assess changes in vascular and metabolic features derived from functional imaging of canine head and neck tumors during fractionated radiotherapy. Material and methods. Three dogs with spontaneous head and neck tumors received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Contrast-enhanced cone beam computed tomography (CE-CBCT) at the treatment unit was performed at five treatment fractions. Dynamic (18)FDG-PET (D-PET) was performed prior to the start of radiotherapy, at mid-treatment and at 3-12 weeks after the completion of treatment. Tumor contrast enhancement in the CE-CBCT images was used as a surrogate for tumor vasculature. Vascular and metabolic tumor parameters were further obtained from the D-PET images. Changes in these tumor parameters were assessed, with emphasis on intra-tumoral distributions. Results. For all three patients, metabolic imaging parameters obtained from D-PET decreased from the pre- to the inter-therapy session. Correspondingly, for two of three patients, vascular imaging parameters obtained from both CE-CBCT and D-PET increased. Only one of the tumors showed a clear metabolic response after therapy. No systematic changes in the intra-tumor heterogeneity in the imaging parameters were found. Conclusion. Changes in vascular and metabolic parameters could be detected by the current functional imaging methods. Vascular tumor features from CE-CBCT and D-PET corresponded well. CE-CBCT is a potential method for easy response assessment when the patient is at the treatment unit.

  19. Short-term bryoid and vascular vegetation response to reforestation alternatives following wildfire in conifer plantations

    Lori J. Kayes; Klaus J. Puettmann; Paul D. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    How are dynamics of early-seral post-fire vascular plant and bryoid (terrestrial mosses, lichens, and fungi) vegetation impacted by reforestation activities, particularly manual vegetation removal and planting density? Does the relationship between vegetation dynamics and vegetation removal differ between harsh (west-facing) and moderate (east-facing) aspects?...

  20. An Analysis of Responses to Defibrotide in the Pulmonary Vascular Bed of the Cat.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Alan D; Skonieczny, Brendan D; Kaye, Aaron J; Harris, Zoey I; Luk, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Defibrotide is a polydisperse mixture of single-stranded oligonucleotides with many pharmacologic properties and multiple actions on the vascular endothelium. Responses to defibrotide and other vasodepressor agents were evaluated in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat under conditions of controlled pulmonary blood flow and constant left atrial pressure. Lobar arterial pressure was increased to a high steady level with the thromboxane A2 analog U-46619. Under increased-tone conditions, defibrotide caused dose-dependent decreases in lobar arterial pressure without altering systemic arterial and left atrial pressures. Responses to defibrotide were significantly attenuated after the administration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor sodium meclofenamate. Responses to defibrotide were also significantly attenuated after the administration of both the adenosine 1 and 2 receptor antagonists 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine and 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine. Responses to defibrotide were not altered after the administration of the vascular selective adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel blocker U-37883A, or after the administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N-(1-iminoethyl)-ornithine. These data show that defibrotide has significant vasodepressor activity in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat. They also suggest that pulmonary vasodilator responses to defibrotide are partially dependent on both the activation of the cyclooxygenase enzyme and adenosine 1 and 2 receptor pathways and independent of the activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels or the synthesis of nitric oxide in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat.

  1. A continuum of executive function deficits in early subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Amado, Patricia; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2017-01-01

    Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment (SVCI) is a clinical continuum of vascular-related cognitive impairment, including Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI) and Vascular Dementia. Deficits in Executive Function (EF) are hallmarks of the disorder, but the best methods to assess this function have yet to be determined. The insidious and almost predictable course of SVCI and the multidimensional concept of EF suggest that a temporal dissociation of impairments in EF domains exists early in the disorder. This study aims to review and analyze data from the literature about performance of VaMCI patients on the most used EF tests through a meta-analytic approach. Medline, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched, using the terms: "vascular mild cognitive impairment" OR "vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" OR "vascular mild neurocognitive disorder" AND "dysexecutive" OR "executive function". Meta-analyses were conducted for each of the selected tests, using random-effect models. Systematic review showed major discrepancies among the results of the studies included. Meta-analyses evidenced poorer performance on the Trail-Making Test part B and the Stroop color test by VaMCI patients compared to controls. A continuum of EF impairments has been proposed in SVCI. Early deficits appear to occur in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control.

  2. A continuum of executive function deficits in early subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Amado, Patricia; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Background. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment (SVCI) is a clinical continuum of vascular-related cognitive impairment, including Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI) and Vascular Dementia. Deficits in Executive Function (EF) are hallmarks of the disorder, but the best methods to assess this function have yet to be determined. The insidious and almost predictable course of SVCI and the multidimensional concept of EF suggest that a temporal dissociation of impairments in EF domains exists early in the disorder. Objective: This study aims to review and analyze data from the literature about performance of VaMCI patients on the most used EF tests through a meta-analytic approach. Methods: Medline, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched, using the terms: “vascular mild cognitive impairment” OR “vascular cognitive impairment no dementia” OR “vascular mild neurocognitive disorder” AND “dysexecutive” OR “executive function”. Meta-analyses were conducted for each of the selected tests, using random-effect models. Results: Systematic review showed major discrepancies among the results of the studies included. Meta-analyses evidenced poorer performance on the Trail-Making Test part B and the Stroop color test by VaMCI patients compared to controls. Conclusion: A continuum of EF impairments has been proposed in SVCI. Early deficits appear to occur in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control. PMID:29354217

  3. Mechanistic Insights into the Relationship between Lung and Vascular Response to Ambient Particulate Matter (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which pulmonary-encountered ambient PM induces vascular response are not well understood. We examined lung and aortic response of rats following intratracheal instillation of three ambient PM. Chemically characterized PM10 and PM2.5 from th...

  4. Assessment of tumor response to radiation and vascular targeting therapy in mice using quantitative ultrasound spectroscopy

    SciT

    El Kaffas, Ahmed; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Falou, Omar

    Purpose: It is now recognized that the tumor vasculature is in part responsible for regulating tumor responses to radiation therapy. However, the extent to which radiation-based vascular damage contributes to tumor cell death remains unknown. In this work, quantitative ultrasound spectroscopy (QUS) methods were used to investigate the acute responses of tumors to radiation-based vascular treatments. Methods: Tumor xenografts (MDA-MB-231) were treated with single radiation doses of 2 or 8 Gy alone, or in combination with pharmacological agents that modulate vascular radiosensitivity. The midband fit, the slope, and the 0-MHz intercept QUS parameters were obtained from a linear-regression fit tomore » the averaged power spectrum of frequency-dependent ultrasound backscatter and were used to quantify acute tumor responses following treatment administration. Power spectrums were extracted from raw volumetric radio-frequency ultrasound data obtained before and 24 h following treatment administration. These parameters have previously been correlated to tumor cell death. Staining using in situ end labeling, carbonic anhydrase 9 and cluster of differentiation 31 of tumor sections were used to assess cell death, oxygenation, and vasculature distributions, respectively. Results: Results indicate a significant midband fit QUS parameter increases of 3.2 ± 0.3 dBr and 5.4 ± 0.5 dBr for tumors treated with 2 and 8 Gy radiation combined with the antiangiogenic agent Sunitinib, respectively. In contrast, tumors treated with radiation alone demonstrated a significant midband fit increase of 4.4 ± 0.3 dBr at 8 Gy only. Preadministration of basic fibroblast growth factor, an endothelial radioprotector, acted to minimize tumor response following single large doses of radiation. Immunohistochemical analysis was in general agreement with QUS findings; an R{sup 2} of 0.9 was observed when quantified cell death was correlated with changes in midband fit. Conclusions: Results from QUS

  5. Vascular responses to radiotherapy and androgen-deprivation therapy in experimental prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy (RT) and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) are standard treatments for advanced prostate cancer (PC). Tumor vascularization is recognized as an important physiological feature likely to impact on both RT and ADT response, and this study therefore aimed to characterize the vascular responses to RT and ADT in experimental PC. Methods Using mice implanted with CWR22 PC xenografts, vascular responses to RT and ADT by castration were visualized in vivo by DCE MRI, before contrast-enhancement curves were analyzed both semi-quantitatively and by pharmacokinetic modeling. Extracted image parameters were correlated to the results from ex vivo quantitative fluorescent immunohistochemical analysis (qIHC) of tumor vascularization (9 F1), perfusion (Hoechst 33342), and hypoxia (pimonidazole), performed on tissue sections made from tumors excised directly after DCE MRI. Results Compared to untreated (Ctrl) tumors, an improved and highly functional vascularization was detected in androgen-deprived (AD) tumors, reflected by increases in DCE MRI parameters and by increased number of vessels (VN), vessel density ( VD), and vessel area fraction ( VF) from qIHC. Although total hypoxic fractions ( HF) did not change, estimated acute hypoxia scores ( AHS) – the proportion of hypoxia staining within 50 μm from perfusion staining – were increased in AD tumors compared to in Ctrl tumors. Five to six months after ADT renewed castration-resistant (CR) tumor growth appeared with an even further enhanced tumor vascularization. Compared to the large vascular changes induced by ADT, RT induced minor vascular changes. Correlating DCE MRI and qIHC parameters unveiled the semi-quantitative parameters area under curve ( AUC) from initial time-points to strongly correlate with VD and VF, whereas estimation of vessel size ( VS) by DCE MRI required pharmacokinetic modeling. HF was not correlated to any DCE MRI parameter, however, AHS may be estimated after

  6. Effect of nabumetone treatment on vascular responses of the thoracic aorta in rat experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ulker, S; Onal, A; Hatip, F B; Sürücü, A; Alkanat, M; Koşay, S; Evinç, A

    2000-04-01

    Nabumetone is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drug which is known to cause less gastrointestinal damage than other NSAI drugs. This study was performed to evaluate whether nabumetone treatment might alter the vascular aberrations related to inflammation in a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Nabumetone treatment (120 or 240 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1), orally) was initiated on the 15th day of adjuvant inoculation and continued for 14 days. Arthritic lesions, vascular contractile and relaxant responses and gastroduodenal histopathological preparations were evaluated 29 days after adjuvant inoculation. The contractile responses of aortic rings to phenylephrine and KCl were increased in grade 2 arthritic rats. In grade 3 arthritis only the phenylephrine contractility was decreased. The relaxant responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were decreased in grades 2 and 3. In healthy rats, nabumetone did not change the vascular responses. After treatment of arthritic rats with nabumetone, both the contractile and relaxant response of the aortic rings returned to normal, and arthritic score and paw swelling were reduced. Gastroduodenal histopathology did not show erosions or ulcers in any of the groups. In conclusion, nabumetone improved the systemic signs and vascular alterations in experimental arthritis without showing any gastrointestinal side effects. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Vascular defense responses in rice: peroxidase accumulation in xylem parenchyma cells and xylem wall thickening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Young, S. A.; Willard, L. H.; McGee, J. D.; Sweat, T.; Chittoor, J. M.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    The rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a vascular pathogen that elicits a defensive response through interaction with metabolically active rice cells. In leaves of 12-day-old rice seedlings, the exposed pit membrane separating the xylem lumen from the associated parenchyma cells allows contact with bacterial cells. During resistant responses, the xylem secondary walls thicken within 48 h and the pit diameter decreases, effectively reducing the area of pit membrane exposed for access by bacteria. In susceptible interactions and mock-inoculated controls, the xylem walls do not thicken within 48 h. Xylem secondary wall thickening is developmental and, in untreated 65-day-old rice plants, the size of the pit also is reduced. Activity and accumulation of a secreted cationic peroxidase, PO-C1, were previously shown to increase in xylem vessel walls and lumen. Peptide-specific antibodies and immunogold-labeling were used to demonstrate that PO-C1 is produced in the xylem parenchyma and secreted to the xylem lumen and walls. The timing of the accumulation is consistent with vessel secondary wall thickening. The PO-C1 gene is distinct but shares a high level of similarity with previously cloned pathogen-induced peroxidases in rice. PO-C1 gene expression was induced as early as 12 h during resistant interactions and peaked between 18 and 24 h after inoculation. Expression during susceptible interactions was lower than that observed in resistant interactions and was undetectable after infiltration with water, after mechanical wounding, or in mature leaves. These data are consistent with a role for vessel secondary wall thickening and peroxidase PO-C1 accumulation in the defense response in rice to X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  8. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a vascular component

    PubMed Central

    Garriga, Marina; Milà, Marta; Mir, Manzoor; Al-Baradie, Raid; Huertas, Sonia; Castejon, Cesar; Casas, Laura; Badenes, Dolors; Giménez, Nuria; Font, M. Angels; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Ysamat, Maria; Aguilar, Miguel; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common cause of dementia. Cerebral ischemia is a major risk factor for development of dementia. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT (DaTScan) is a complementary tool in the differential diagnoses of patients with incomplete or uncertain Parkinsonism. Additional application of DaTScan enables the categorization of Parkinsonian disease with dementia (PDD), and its differentiation from pure AD, and may further contribute to change the therapeutic decision. The aim of this study was to analyze the vascular contribution towards dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated the utility of DaTScan for the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a clinical vascular component, and the association between neuropsychological function, vascular component and dopaminergic function on DaTScan. One-hundred and five patients with MCI or the initial phases of dementia were studied prospectively. We developed an initial assessment using neurologic examination, blood tests, cognitive function tests, structural neuroimaging and DaTScan. The vascular component was later quantified in two ways: clinically, according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and by structural neuroimaging using Wahlund Scale Total Score (WSTS). Early diagnosis of dementia was associated with an abnormal DaTScan. A significant association was found between a high WSTS and an abnormal DaTScan (p < 0.01). Mixed AD was the group with the highest vascular component, followed by the VaD group, while MCI and pure AD showed similar WSTS. No significant associations were found between neuropsychological impairment and DaTScan independently of associated vascular component. DaTScan seems to be a good tool to discriminate, in a first clinical assessment, patients with MCI from those with established dementia. There was bigger general vascular affectation observable in MRI or CT in patients with abnormal dopaminergic uptake seen on Da

  9. The pars intermedia: an anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response to female genital arousal.

    PubMed

    Shih, Cheryl; Cold, Christopher J; Yang, Claire C

    2013-06-01

    The pars intermedia is an area of the vulva that has been inconsistently described in the literature. We conducted anatomic studies to better describe the tissues and vascular structures of the pars intermedia and proposed a functional rationale of the pars intermedia in the female sexual response. Nine cadaveric vulvectomy specimens were used. Each was serially sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. Histologic ultrastructural description of the pars intermedia. The pars intermedia contains veins traveling longitudinally in the angle of the clitoris, supported by collagen-rich stromal tissues. These veins drain the different vascular compartments of the vulva, including the clitoris, the bulbs, and labia minora; also, the interconnecting veins link the different vascular compartments. The pars intermedia is not composed of erectile tissue, distinguishing it from the erectile tissues of the corpora cavernosa of the clitoris as well as the corpus spongiosum of the clitoral (vestibular) bulbs. The venous communications of the pars intermedia, linking the erectile tissues with the other vascular compartments of the vulva, appear to provide the anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response during female sexual arousal. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Myeloid Cell 5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein Modulates the Response to Vascular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhou; Ricciotti, Emanuela; Miwa, Takashi; Liu, Shulin; Ihida-Stansbury, Kaori; Landersberg, Gavin; Jones, Peter L.; Scalia, Rosario; Song, Wenchao; Assoian, Richard K.; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Human genetics have implicated the 5- lipoxygenase (5-LO) enzyme in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and an inhibitor of the 5-LO activating protein (FLAP) is in clinical development for asthma. Objective Here we determined whether FLAP deletion modifies the response to vascular injury. Methods and Results Vascular remodeling was characterized 4 weeks after femoral arterial injury in FLAP knockout (FLAP KO) mice and wild type (WT) controls. Both neointimal hyperplasia and the intima/media ratio of the injured artery were significantly reduced in the FLAP KOs while endothelial integrity was preserved. Lesional myeloid cells were depleted and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, as reflected by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, was markedly attenuated by FLAP deletion. Inflammatory cytokine release from FLAP KO macrophages was depressed and their restricted ability to induce VSMC migration ex vivo was rescued with leukotriene B4 (LTB4). FLAP deletion restrained injury and attenuated upregulation of the extracellular matrix protein, tenascin C (TNC), which affords a scaffold for VSMC migration. Correspondingly, the phenotypic modulation of VSMC to a more synthetic phenotype, reflected by morphological change, loss of α-smooth muscle cell actin and upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) -1 was also suppressed in FLAP KO mice. Transplantation of FLAP replete myeloid cells rescued the proliferative response to vascular injury. Conclusion Expression of lesional FLAP in myeloid cells promotes LTB4 dependent VSMC phenotypic modulation, intimal migration and proliferation. PMID:23250985

  11. Early treatment with losartan effectively ameliorates hypertension and improves vascular remodeling and function in a prehypertensive rat model.

    PubMed

    He, De-Hua; Lin, Jin-Xiu; Zhang, Liang-Min; Xu, Chang-Sheng; Xie, Qiang

    2017-03-15

    Pharmacological treatment of prehypertension may ameliorate hypertension and improve vascular structure and function. This study investigated 1) whether early treatment with either losartan or amlodipine at the onset of prehypertension can prevent hypertension and 2) whether losartan and amlodipine equally improve vascular remodeling and function in a rat model of hypertension. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats were administered losartan, amlodipine or saline for 6 or 16weeks at the onset of prehypertension. Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as a control. All groups were observed for 40weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured using the tail-cuff method. Vascular structure and function were determined by microscopy and vascular ring contractility assays, respectively. Angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone (Aldo) were measured by radioimmunoassays. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression was measured by western blot. Losartan effectively reduced progression from prehypertension to hypertension as well as vascular remodeling and improved vascular contractility in SHRSP rats. Long-term losartan (16weeks) had greater benefits than short-term (6weeks) treatment. Losartan increased Ang II and decreased Aldo levels in the serum and vessel walls of resistance vessels in a time-dependent manner. Losartan significantly decreased AT1R and increased AT2R vascular expression. Amlodipine had no effect on vascular AT1R and AT2R expression. Losartan administered at the onset of prehypertension is more effective than amlodipine in ameliorating hypertension and improving vascular remodeling and function, which is likely mediated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nicolaus Copernicus and the rapid vascular responses to aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias; Meyer, Matthias R

    2015-08-01

    For decades, rapid steroid responses initiated by membrane receptors have been a primary research focus. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is activated by 17β-estradiol and participates in functional crosstalk with other steroid receptors. With reference to the physician and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), who used rigorous scientific approaches to shift paradigms and change dogma, we discuss whether GPER can also be considered an aldosterone receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulmonary vascular responsiveness in rats following neonatal exposure to high altitude or carbon monoxide

    SciT

    Tucker, A.; Penney, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of adult and neonatal rats to high altitude increases pulmonary vascular responsiveness during the exposure. A study was undertaken to determine if a short exposure of neonatal rats to either high-altitude or carbon monoxide (CO) hypoxia would cause persistent alterations in pulmonary vascular responsiveness postexposure. One-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were obtained as 16 litters of 10-12 pups each. At 2 days of age, 4 litters were exposed to CO (500 ppm) for 32 days, and 4 litters were exposed to ambient air (AIR) in Detroit (200 m). Another 4 litters were exposed to 3500 m altitude (ALT) in amore » chamber for 32 days, and 3 litters were exposed to ambient conditions in Fort Collins (CON, 1524 m). After the exposures, all rats were maintained at 1524 m. At 2, 40, 76 and 112 days postexposure, lungs were isolated and perfused with Earle's salt solution (+Ficoll, 4 g%). Pulmonary vascular responsiveness was assessed by dose responses to angiotensin II (AII, 0.025-0.40 [mu]g) and acute hypoxia (3% O[sub 2] for 3 min). AII responses were higher in ALT vs CON rats at 2 and 40 days postexposure, but no differences were noted between CO and AIR rats. Baseline pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure (in isolated lungs) were higher in ALT rats at all four ages compared to the other three groups. Both the ALT and CO rats displayed hypertrophy of the right ventricle (RV) and the left ventricle (LV) at the termination of treatment and elevated hematocrit. LV hypertrophy and polycythemia regressed with time, but RV hypertrophy remained significant in the ALT rats through 112 days postexposure. The results indicate that neonatal exposure to ALT, but no CO, causes a persistent increase in pulmonary vascular responsiveness and RV hypertrophy for at least 112 days after termination of the exposure. 40 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  14. Pre-clinical longitudinal monitoring of hemodynamic response to anti-vascular chemotherapy by hybrid diffuse optics.

    PubMed

    Farzam, Parisa; Johansson, Johannes; Mireles, Miguel; Jiménez-Valerio, Gabriela; Martínez-Lozano, Mar; Choe, Regine; Casanovas, Oriol; Durduran, Turgut

    2017-05-01

    The longitudinal effect of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) antibody (DC 101) therapy on a xenografted renal cell carcinoma (RCC) mouse model was monitored using hybrid diffuse optics. Two groups of immunosuppressed male nude mice (seven treated, seven controls) were measured. Tumor microvascular blood flow, total hemoglobin concentration and blood oxygenation were investigated as potential biomarkers for the monitoring of the therapy effect twice a week and were related to the final treatment outcome. These hemodynamic biomarkers have shown a clear differentiation between two groups by day four. Moreover, we have observed that pre-treatment values and early changes in hemodynamics are highly correlated with the therapeutic outcome demonstrating the potential of diffuse optics to predict the therapy response at an early time point.

  15. Leg Vascular Responsiveness During Acute Orthostasis Following Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blamick, Cynthia A.; Goldwater, Danielle J.; Convertino, Victor A.

    1988-01-01

    Ten men (35-49 years old) underwent lower body negative pressure (LBNP) exposures before and offer 10 d of continuous 6 degrees head-down bedrest in order to predict the effect of weightlessness on the responsiveness of leg vasculature to an orthostatic stress. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and Impedance rheographic indices of arterial pulse volume (APV) of the legs were measured during rest and at 1 min at -30 mm Hg LBNP. Bedrest-induced deconditioning was manifested by decreases (p less than 0.06) in plasma volume (17%), peak oxygen uptake (16%), and LBNP tolerance (17%). Resting HR was unchanged after bedrest, but HR was higher (p less than 0.05) at 1 min of -30 mm Hg LBNP after, compared with before bedrest. Responses of MAP to -30 mm Hg LBNP were not altered by bodrest. Resting APV was decreased (p less than 0.05) by simulated weightlessness. However, APV was reduced (p less than 0.05) from rest to 1 min -30 mm Hg LBNP by the same relative magnitude before and after bodrest (-21.4 +/- 3.4% and -20.5 +/- 2.7%, respectively). We conclude that peripheral arterial vasoconstriction, as indicated by reductions in APV during LBNP, was not affected by bedrest. These results suggest that there was no apparent alteration in responsiveness of the leg vasculature following simulated weightlessness. Therefore, it appears unlikely that control mechanisms of peripheral resistance contribute significantly to reduced orthostatic tolerance following space-flight.

  16. Peripheral vascular responses to heat stress after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looft-Wilson, Robin C.; Gisolfi, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether hindlimb suspension (which simulates the effects of microgravity) results in impaired hemodynamic responses to heat stress or alterations in mesenteric small artery sympathetic nerve innervation. METHODS: Over 28 d, 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were hindlimb-suspended, and 13 control rats were housed in the same type of cage. After the treatment, mean arterial pressure (MAP), colonic temperature (Tcol), and superior mesenteric and iliac artery resistances (using Doppler flowmetry) were measured during heat stress [exposure to 42 degrees C until the endpoint of 80 mm Hg blood pressure was reached (75 +/- 9 min); endpoint Tcore = 43.6 +/- 0.2] while rats were anesthetized (sodium pentobarbital, 50 mg x kg(-1) BW). RESULTS: Hindlimb-suspended and control rats exhibited similar increases in Tcol, MAP, and superior mesenteric artery resistance, and similar decreases in iliac resistance during heat stress (endpoint was a fall in MAP below 80 mm Hg). Tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining indicated similar sympathetic nerve innervation in small mesenteric arteries from both groups. CONCLUSION: Hindlimb suspension does not alter the hemodynamic or thermoregulatory responses to heat stress in the anesthetized rat or mesenteric sympathetic nerve innervation, suggesting that this sympathetic pathway is intact.

  17. Uric acid promotes vascular stiffness, maladaptive inflammatory responses and proteinuria in western diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Aroor, Annayya R; Jia, Guanghong; Habibi, Javad; Sun, Zhe; Ramirez-Perez, Francisco I; Brady, Barron; Chen, Dongqing; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Manrique, Camila; Nistala, Ravi; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Demarco, Vincent G; Meininger, Gerald A; Sowers, James R

    2017-09-01

    Aortic vascular stiffness has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in obese individuals. However, the mechanism promoting these adverse effects are unclear. In this context, promotion of obesity through consumption of a western diet (WD) high in fat and fructose leads to excess circulating uric acid. There is accumulating data implicating elevated uric acid in the promotion of CVD and CKD. Accordingly, we hypothesized that xanthine oxidase(XO) inhibition with allopurinol would prevent a rise in vascular stiffness and proteinuria in a translationally relevant model of WD-induced obesity. Four-week-old C57BL6/J male mice were fed a WD with excess fat (46%) and fructose (17.5%) with or without allopurinol (125mg/L in drinking water) for 16weeks. Aortic endothelial and extracellular matrix/vascular smooth muscle stiffness was evaluated by atomic force microscopy. Aortic XO activity, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and aortic endothelial sodium channel (EnNaC) expression were evaluated along with aortic expression of inflammatory markers. In the kidney, expression of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and fibronectin were assessed along with evaluation of proteinuria. XO inhibition significantly attenuated WD-induced increases in plasma uric acid, vascular XO activity and oxidative stress, in concert with reductions in proteinuria. Further, XO inhibition prevented WD-induced increases in aortic EnNaC expression and associated endothelial and subendothelial stiffness. XO inhibition also reduced vascular pro-inflammatory and maladaptive immune responses induced by consumption of a WD. XO inhibition also decreased WD-induced increases in renal TLR4 and fibronectin that associated proteinuria. Consumption of a WD leads to elevations in plasma uric acid, increased vascular XO activity, oxidative stress, vascular stiffness, and proteinuria all of which are attenuated with allopurinol administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  18. Contribution of perfusion pressure to vascular resistance response during head-up tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imadojemu, V. A.; Lott, M. E.; Gleeson, K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Ray, C. A.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2001-01-01

    We measured brachial and femoral artery flow velocity in eight subjects and peroneal and median muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in five subjects during tilt testing to 40 degrees. Tilt caused similar increases in MSNA in the peroneal and median nerves. Tilt caused a fall in femoral artery flow velocity, whereas no changes in flow velocity were seen in the brachial artery. Moreover, with tilt, the increase in the vascular resistance employed (blood pressure/flow velocity) was greater and more sustained in the leg than in the arm. The ratio of the percent increase in vascular resistance in leg to arm was 2.5:1. We suggest that the greater vascular resistance effects in the leg were due to an interaction between sympathetic nerve activity and the myogenic response.

  19. Changes in forearm muscle temperature alter renal vascular responses to isometric handgrip.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Nathan T; Sauder, Charity L; Kearney, Matthew L; Ray, Chester A

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of heating and cooling the forearm muscles on renal vascular responses to ischemic isometric handgrip (IHG). It was hypothesized that heating and cooling the forearm would augment and attenuate, respectively, renal vascular responses to IHG. Renal vascular responses to IHG were studied during forearm heating at 39 degrees C (n = 15, 26 +/- 1 yr) and cooling at 26 degrees C (n = 12, 26 +/- 1 yr). For a control trial, subjects performed the experimental protocol while the forearm was normothermic (approximately 34 degrees C). Muscle temperature (measured by intramuscular probe) was controlled by changing the temperature of water cycling through a water-perfused sleeve. The experimental protocol was as follows: 3 min at baseline, 1 min of ischemia, ischemic IHG to fatigue, and 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia. At rest, renal artery blood velocity (RBV; Doppler ultrasound) and renal vascular conductance (RVC = RBV/mean arterial blood pressure) were not different between normothermia and the two thermal conditions. During ischemic IHG, there were greater decreases in RBV and RVC in the heating trial. However, RBV and RVC were similar during postexercise muscle ischemia during heating and normothermia. RVC decreased less during cooling than in normothermia while the subjects performed the ischemic IHG protocol. During postexercise muscle ischemia, RVC was greater during cooling than in normothermia. These results indicate that heating augments mechanoreceptor-mediated renal vasoconstriction whereas cooling blunts metaboreceptor-mediated renal vasoconstriction.

  20. Can microRNAs control vascular smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and the response to injury?

    PubMed Central

    Albinsson, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation are critical events in vascular proliferative diseases. Recent studies have established microRNAs (miRNAs) as important mediators for the modulation of VSMC phenotype by targeting transcription factors and the cytoskeleton, which act as molecular switches for VSMC differentiation. The importance of miRNAs for VSMC development, differentiation, and function is evident by the fact that loss of the miRNA processing enzyme Dicer in VSMCs results in embryonic lethality due to severe vascular abnormalities. Similar abnormalities are observed in adult miR-143/145 knockout mice, indicating that these miRNAs are important for VSMC differentiation and function. However, since miR-143/145 knockout is not embryonically lethal, additional miRNA must be required during embryonic development of VSMCs. In addition, specific miRNAs such as miR-145, miR-21, and miR-221 have been found to regulate neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury, which provides interesting possibilities for future therapeutical targets against vascular disease. Herein, we summarize recent advances regarding the role of miRNAs in VSMC phenotype modulation and response to injury. PMID:20841497

  1. Characterization of airway and vascular responses in murine lungs

    PubMed Central

    Held, Heinz-Dieter; Martin, Christian; Uhlig, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    We characterized the responses of murine airways and pulmonary vessels to a variety of endogenous mediators in the isolated perfused and ventilated mouse lung (IPL) and compared them with those in precision-cut lung slices. Airways: The EC50 (μM) for contractions of airways in IPL/slices was methacholine (Mch), 6.1/1.5>serotonin, 0.7/2.0>U46619 (TP-receptor agonist), 0.1/0.06>endothelin-1, 0.1/0.05. In the IPL, maximum increase in airway resistance (RL) was 0.6, 0.4, 0.8 and 11 cmH2O s ml−1, respectively. Adenosine (⩽1 mM), bombesin (⩽100 μM), histamine (⩽10 mM), LTC4 (⩽1 μM), PAF (0.25 μM) and substance P (⩽100 μM) had only weak effects (<5% of Mch) on RL. Vessels: The EC50 (μM) for vasoconstriction in the IPL was LTC4, 0.06>U46619, 0.05response to Mch 5 fold and the maximum PAF-induced vasoconstriction 4 fold. Conclusion: Murine precision-cut lung slices maintain important characteristics of the whole organ. The maximum reagibility of murine airways to endogenous mediators is serotonin

  2. Measures of total stress-induced blood pressure responses are associated with vascular damage.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro, Pietro; Seccia, Teresa; Vulpis, Vito; Schirosi, Gabriella; Serio, Gabriella; Battista, Loredana; Pirrelli, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The role of cardiovascular reactivity to study hypertension, and the assessment methods, are still controversial. We aimed to verify the association of hypertension and vascular damage with several measures of cardiovascular response. We studied 40 patients with normal-high (132 +/- 1/87 +/- 1 mm Hg) blood pressure (Group 1) and 80 untreated hypertensive subjects. Postischemic forearm vascular resistance (mFVR) served to differentiate hypertensive subjects (142 +/- 2/92 +/- 1 mm Hg v 143 +/- 2/94 +/- 2 mm Hg, P = NS) with a lower (Group 2) and higher (Group 3) hemodynamic index of vascular damage (4.8 +/- .05 v 6.3 +/- .09, P < .001). Reactivity was induced by Stroop (5') and cold pressor (90") tests. We measured muscular contraction and skin conductance as indices of emotional arousal, blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow, and vascular resistance. Reactivity measures included: a) change from baseline, b) residualized score, c) cumulative change from baseline and residualized score, and d) total reactivity as area-under-the-curve (AUC), including changes occurring during baseline and recovery phases. The AUC of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mFVR progressively increased in the groups (P < .001). Corrections of anthropometric and metabolic confounders were introduced in the Pearson equation between mFVR and reactivity measures. The AUC of SBP, DBP, and forearm blood flow and resistance demonstrated the highest (P < .001) correlation. On multiple regression analysis, AUC of SBP (beta = 0.634) and forearm blood flow (beta = -0.337) were predictive (P < .001) of vascular damage. Total blood pressure stress response, as AUC, including baseline and recovery phases, was significantly better associated with hypertension and vascular damage than the other reactivity measures studied.

  3. Single passive leg movement-induced hyperemia: a simple vascular function assessment without a chronotropic response.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Massimo; Layec, Gwenael; Trinity, Joel; Hart, Corey R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Richardson, Russell S

    2017-01-01

    Passive leg movement (PLM)-induced hyperemia is a novel approach to assess vascular function, with a potential clinical role. However, in some instances, the varying chronotropic response induced by PLM has been proposed to be a potentially confounding factor. Therefore, we simplified and modified the PLM model to require just a single PLM (sPLM), an approach that may evoke a peripheral hemodynamic response, allowing a vascular function assessment, but at the same time minimizing central responses. To both characterize and assess the utility of sPLM, in 12 healthy subjects, we measured heart rate (HR), stroke volume, cardiac output (CO), mean arterial pressure (MAP), leg blood flow (LBF), and calculated leg vascular conductance (LVC) during both standard PLM, consisting of passive knee flexion and extension performed at 1 Hz for 60 s, and sPLM, consisting of only a single passive knee flexion and extension over 1 s. During PLM, MAP transiently decreased (5 ± 1 mmHg), whereas both HR and CO increased from baseline (6.0 ± 1.1 beats/min, and 0.8 ± 0.01 l/min, respectively). Following sPLM, MAP fell similarly (5 ± 2 mmHg; P = 0.8), but neither HR nor CO responses were identifiable. The peak LBF and LVC response was similar for PLM (993 ± 189 ml/min; 11.9 ± 1.5 ml·min -1 ·mmHg -1 , respectively) and sPLM (878 ± 119 ml/min; 10.9 ± 1.6 ml·min -1 ·mmHg -1 , respectively). Thus sPLM represents a variant of the PLM approach to assess vascular function that is more easily performed and evokes a peripheral stimulus that induces a significant hyperemia, but does not generate a potentially confounding, chronotropic response, which may make sPLM more useful clinically. Using the single passive leg movement (PLM) technique, a variant of the vascular function assessment PLM, we have identified a novel peripheral vascular assessment method that is more easily performed than PLM, which, by not evoking potentially confounding central hemodynamic responses, may be more

  4. Visualization of tumor vascular reactivity in response to respiratory challenges by optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hoon Sup; Lee, Songhyun; Lee, Kiri; Eom, Tae Joong; Kim, Jae G.

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported the potential of using vascular reactivity during respiratory challenges as a marker to predict the response of breast tumor to chemotherapy in a rat model by using a continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy. However, it cannot visualize how the vascular reactivity from tumor vessel can predict the tumor response to its treatment. In this study, we utilized a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system to visualize vascular reactivity of both tumor and normal vasculature during respiratory challenges in a mouse model. We adapted intensity based Doppler variance algorithm to draw angiogram from the ear of mouse (8-week-old Balb/c nu/nu). Animals were anesthetized using 1.5% isoflurane, and the body temperature was maintained by a heating pad. Inhalational gas was switched from air (10min) to 100% oxygen (10min), and a pulse oximeter was used to monitor arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate. OCT angiograms were acquired 5 min after the onset of each gas. The vasoconstriction effect of hyperoxic gas on vasculature was shown by subtracting an en-face image acquired during 100% oxygen from the image acquired during air inhalation. The quantitative change in the vessel diameter was measured from the en-face OCT images of the individual blood vessels. The percentage of blood vessel diameter reduction varied from 1% to 12% depending on arterial, capillary, or venous blood vessel. The vascular reactivity change during breast tumor progression and post chemotherapy will be monitored by OCT angiography.

  5. Ophthalmic Vascular Events after Primary Unilateral Intra-arterial Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma in Early and Recent Eras.

    PubMed

    Dalvin, Lauren A; Ancona-Lezama, David; Lucio-Alvarez, J Antonio; Masoomian, Babak; Jabbour, Pascal; Shields, Carol L

    2018-06-16

    To assess risk factors for ophthalmic vascular events after intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma. Retrospective cohort study. Patients who received unilateral IAC as primary treatment for retinoblastoma from January 1, 2009, to November 30, 2017, at a single center. Records were reviewed for patient demographics, tumor features, IAC parameters, and treatment-related vascular events in the early IAC era (2009-2011) compared with the recent era (2012-2017) using the t test and Fisher exact test. Change in event rates over time was assessed using Poisson regression analysis, with Spearman's rho used to test correlation. Rate of IAC-induced ophthalmic vascular events. There were 243 chemotherapy infusions in 76 eyes of 76 patients, divided into early (22 eyes, 57 infusions) and recent (54 eyes, 186 infusions) eras. Intra-arterial chemotherapy consisted of melphalan (243 infusions), topotecan (124 infusions), and carboplatin (9 infusions). A comparison (early vs. recent era) revealed fewer mean number of infusions (2.6 vs. 3.4, P = 0.02) with similar mean patient age and presenting tumor features. Event rates decreased over time (P < 0.01), with fewer ophthalmic vascular events (early era vs. recent era) in the recent era (59% vs. 9% per eye, 23% vs. 3% per infusion, P < 0.01), including peripheral retinal nonperfusion (5% vs. 2% per eye, P = 0.50), vitreous hemorrhage (9% vs. 2%, P = 0.20), subretinal hemorrhage (0% vs. 2%, P = 0.99), branch retinal vein occlusion (5% vs. 0%, P = 0.29), choroidal ischemia (14% vs. 4%, P = 0.14), and ophthalmic artery spasm/occlusion (27% vs. 0%, P < 0.01). Events did not correlate to patient age (P = 0.75), tumor diameter (P = 0.32), tumor thickness (P = 0.59), or cumulative dosage of melphalan (P = 0.13) or topotecan (P = 0.59). There were no IAC-induced vascular events in 72 infusions of 21 consecutively treated eyes in 2016 to 2017. Ophthalmic vascular events after IAC have decreased from the early era

  6. Origin and Evolution of The Early- Silurian Land Vascular Plants: Evidence From Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, R.

    2016-12-01

    Origin and early evolution of land vascular plants, is one of the most intriguing hotspots in the life science research. During the 1970s and 1980s,Pinnatiramosus qianensis was found in early-Silurian strata in guizhou of south China.43 years have passed. But so far, the biological characteristics and belonging of the age of this unique plant have been debated again and again, up in the air.Biomarkers have a good stability in the process of organic evolution, no more or less changed, so they have a special `function of mark'. While biomarkers can provide information about organic matter of hydrocarbon source rock (the source), the period of deposition and burial (diagenesis) environmental conditions, and many other aspects of information.This paper obtained the sedimentary environment, source of organic matter input and other relevant information, through extracting and analyzing biomarkers of the 26 samples in the late Ordovician to early Silurian strata in NorthGuizhou areas. According to the results, Pr/Ph of late Ordovician Meitan Fm-early Silurian Hanjiadian Fm is high.It manifests more pristane, characterized by reductive environment. At the bottom of the Hanjiadian Fm, Pr/Ph has a volatility.Some huge environmental changes may have taken place in the corresponding period. N-alkanes do not have parity advantage or has even carbon advantage slightly.The peak carbon is mainly in low carbon number.(C21 + C22)/(C28 + C29) is high.Aquatic organisms is a major source of organic matter during this period,C21-/C22+ is low.This may be caused by the relatively serious loss of light hydrocarbon during the separation of components. In the Hanjiadian Fm,information of C29/C27 sterane ratios and oleanane index showed a trend of rising at the same time, indicating that during this period, there was a gradual increase input in the number of higher plants.The stable carbon isotope of saturated hydrocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon in the Hanjiadian Fm also gradually become

  7. Transhepatic Hilar Approach for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Significance of Early Judgment of Resectability and Safe Vascular Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Naohisa; Isaji, Shuji; Tanemura, Akihiro; Iizawa, Yusuke; Kato, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasuhiro; Azumi, Yoshinori; Kishiwada, Masashi; Mizuno, Shugo; Usui, Masanobu; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    In the most common surgical procedure for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, the margin status of the proximal bile duct is determined at the final step. Our procedure, the transhepatic hilar approach, confirms a cancer-negative margin status of the proximal bile duct first. We first performed a partial hepatic parenchymal transection to expose the hilar plate, and then transected the proximal bile duct to confirm margin status. Then, divisions of the hepatic artery and portal vein of the future resected liver are performed, followed by the residual hepatic parenchymal transection. The transhepatic hilar approach offers a wide surgical field for safe resection and reconstruction of the portal vein in the middle of the hepatectomy. We reviewed 23 patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma who underwent major hepatectomy using our procedure from 2011 to 2015. A combined vascular resection and reconstruction was carried out in 14 patients (60.9%). R0 resection was achieved in 17 patients (73.9%), and the overall 3-year survival rate was 52.9% (median survival time 52.4 months). The transhepatic hilar approach is useful and practicable regardless of local tumor extension, enabling us to determine tumor resectability and perform safe resection and reconstruction of the portal vein early in the operation.

  8. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in the early development of the vascular system

    PubMed Central

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2006-01-01

    The cardiovascular system plays a critical role in vertebrate development and homeostasis. Vascular development is a highly organized sequence of events that requires the correct spatial and temporal expression of specific sets of genes leading to the development of a primary vascular network. There have been intensive efforts to determine the molecular mechanisms regulating vascular growth and development, and much of the rationale for this has stemmed from the increasing clinical importance and therapeutic potential of modulating vascular formation during various disease states. PMID:16441559

  9. Role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the vascular responses to inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kvietys, Peter R.; Granger, D. Neil

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex and potentially life-threatening condition that involves the participation of a variety of chemical mediators, signaling pathways, and cell types. The microcirculation, which is critical for the initiation and perpetuation of an inflammatory response, exhibits several characteristic functional and structural changes in response to inflammation. These include vasomotor dysfunction (impaired vessel dilation and constriction), the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes, endothelial barrier dysfunction (increased vascular permeability), blood vessel proliferation (angiogenesis), and enhanced thrombus formation. These diverse responses of the microvasculature largely reflect the endothelial cell dysfunction that accompanies inflammation and the central role of these cells in modulating processes as varied as blood flow regulation, angiogenesis, and thrombogenesis. The importance of endothelial cells in inflammation-induced vascular dysfunction is also predicated on the ability of these cells to produce and respond to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Inflammation seems to upset the balance between nitric oxide and superoxide within (and surrounding) endothelial cells, which is necessary for normal vessel function. This review is focused on defining the molecular targets in the vessel wall that interact with reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide to produce the characteristic functional and structural changes that occur in response to inflammation. This analysis of the literature is consistent with the view that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species contribute significantly to the diverse vascular responses in inflammation and supports efforts that are directed at targeting these highly reactive species to maintain normal vascular health in pathological conditions that are associated with acute or chronic inflammation. PMID:22154653

  10. Vascular response of ruthenium tetraamines in aortic ring from normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Conceição-Vertamatti, Ana Gabriela; Ramos, Luiz Alberto Ferreira; Calandreli, Ivy; Chiba, Aline Nunes; Franco, Douglas Wagner; Tfouni, Elia; Grassi-Kassisse, Dora Maria

    2015-03-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) tetraamines are being increasingly used as nitric oxide (NO) carriers. In this context, pharmacological studies have become highly relevant to better understand the mechanism of action involved. To evaluate the vascular response of the tetraamines trans-[Ru(II)(NH3)4(Py)(NO)](3+), trans-[Ru(II)(Cl)(NO) (cyclan)](PF6)2, and trans-[Ru(II)(NH3)4(4-acPy)(NO)](3+). Aortic rings were contracted with noradrenaline (10(-6) M). After voltage stabilization, a single concentration (10(-6) M) of the compounds was added to the assay medium. The responses were recorded during 120 min. Vascular integrity was assessed functionally using acetylcholine at 10(-6) M and sodium nitroprusside at 10(-6) M as well as by histological examination. Histological analysis confirmed the presence or absence of endothelial cells in those tissues. All tetraamine complexes altered the contractile response induced by norepinephrine, resulting in increased tone followed by relaxation. In rings with endothelium, the inhibition of endothelial NO caused a reduction of the contractile effect caused by pyridine NO. No significant responses were observed in rings with endothelium after treatment with cyclan NO. In contrast, in rings without endothelium, the inhibition of guanylate cyclase significantly reduced the contractile response caused by the pyridine NO and cyclan NO complexes, and both complexes caused a relaxing effect. The results indicate that the vascular effect of the evaluated complexes involved a decrease in the vascular tone induced by norepinephrine (10(-6) M) at the end of the incubation period in aortic rings with and without endothelium, indicating the slow release of NO from these complexes and suggesting that the ligands promoted chemical stability to the molecule. Moreover, we demonstrated that the association of Ru with NO is more stable when the ligands pyridine and cyclan are used in the formulation of the compound.

  11. Adenosine triphosphate as a molecular mediator of the vascular response to injury.

    PubMed

    Guth, Christy M; Luo, Weifung; Jolayemi, Olukemi; Chadalavada, Kalyan S; Komalavilas, Padmini; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Brophy, Colleen M

    2017-08-01

    Human saphenous veins used for arterial bypass undergo stretch injury at the time of harvest and preimplant preparation. Vascular injury promotes intimal hyperplasia, the leading cause of graft failure, but the molecular events leading to this response are largely unknown. This study investigated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a potential molecular mediator in the vascular response to stretch injury, and the downstream effects of the purinergic receptor, P2X7R, and p38 MAPK activation. A subfailure stretch rat aorta model was used to determine the effect of stretch injury on release of ATP and vasomotor responses. Stretch-injured tissues were treated with apyrase, the P2X7R antagonist, A438079, or the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, and subsequent contractile forces were measured using a muscle bath. An exogenous ATP (eATP) injury model was developed and the experiment repeated. Change in p38 MAPK phosphorylation after stretch and eATP tissue injury was determined using Western blotting. Noninjured tissue was incubated in the p38 MAPK activator, anisomycin, and subsequent contractile function and p38 MAPK phosphorylation were analyzed. Stretch injury was associated with release of ATP. Contractile function was decreased in tissue subjected to subfailure stretch, eATP, and anisomycin. Contractile function was restored by apyrase, P2X7R antagonism, and p38-MAPK inhibition. Stretch, eATP, and anisomycin-injured tissue demonstrated increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Taken together, these data suggest that the vascular response to stretch injury is associated with release of ATP and activation of the P2X7R/P38 MAPK pathway, resulting in contractile dysfunction. Modulation of this pathway in vein grafts after harvest and before implantation may reduce the vascular response to injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissociation between neural and vascular responses to sympathetic stimulation : contribution of local adrenergic receptor function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J.; Robertson, D.; Biaggioni, I.

    2000-01-01

    Sympathetic activation produced by various stimuli, eg, mental stress or handgrip, evokes regional vascular responses that are often nonhomogeneous. This phenomenon is believed to be the consequence of the recruitment of differential central neural pathways or of a sympathetically mediated vasodilation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar heterogeneous response occurs with cold pressor stimulation and to test the hypothesis that local differences in adrenergic receptor function could be in part responsible for this diversity. In 8 healthy subjects, local norepinephrine spillover and blood flow were measured in arms and legs at baseline and during sympathetic stimulation induced by baroreflex mechanisms (nitroprusside infusion) or cold pressor stimulation. At baseline, legs had higher vascular resistance (27+/-5 versus 17+/-2 U, P=0.05) despite lower norepinephrine spillover (0.28+/-0.04 versus 0.4+/-0.05 mg. min(-1). dL(-1), P=0.03). Norepinephrine spillover increased similarly in both arms and legs during nitroprusside infusion and cold pressor stimulation. On the other hand, during cold stimulation, vascular resistance increased in arms but not in legs (20+/-9% versus -7+/-4%, P=0.03). Increasing doses of isoproterenol and phenylephrine were infused intra-arterially in arms and legs to estimate beta-mediated vasodilation and alpha-induced vasoconstriction, respectively. beta-Mediated vasodilation was significantly lower in legs compared with arms. Thus, we report a dissociation between norepinephrine spillover and vascular responses to cold stress in lower limbs characterized by a paradoxical decrease in local resistance despite increases in sympathetic activity. The differences observed in adrenergic receptor responses cannot explain this phenomenon.

  13. Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of microvasculature detects difference in lower limb vascular responsiveness in obese compared to lean individuals.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rogério Nogueira; Murias, Juan M

    2018-07-01

    Microvascular dysfunction is an early complication in obesity-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) that can lead to changes in hemodynamic function and endothelial cell expression throughout the vasculature that is vessel specific. This study aimed to evaluate whether the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with a vascular occlusion (VOT) assessment was capable of detecting differences in vascular responsiveness within the microvasculature of the lower limb between lean and obese individuals. Twenty lean (BMI = 21.6 ± 1.3) and 17 obese individuals (BMI = 33.9 ± 1.1) participated in the study. Individuals underwent a VOT (5 min of baseline, 5 min of occlusion, and 8 min following cuff release) and vascular responsiveness was evaluated by the Slope 2 (Slope 2 StO 2 ) and the area under the curve (StO 2AUC ) of oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) signal during reperfusion. The difference between the minimal and the maximal value of StO 2 was calculated as the Amplitude of the StO 2 response. The Slope 2 StO 2 of the obese individuals was smaller (0.68 ± 0.07%·s -1 ) than the Slope 2 StO 2 of the lean individuals (1.08 ± 0.13%·s -1 ;P < 0.05). The StO2 AUC of the obese was smaller (978 ± 169%·s -1 ) than the StO2 AUC of the lean individuals (1708 ± 168%·s -1 ; P < 0.001). The amplitude of StO 2 was smaller in obese individuals than the lean ones (30.4 ± 2.9 vs 21.6 ± 1.3 StO 2 (%), respectively; P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between Slope 2 StO 2 and StO2 AUC for lean individuals (r = 0.745; P < 0.001). This study demonstrated differences in vascular responses within the microvasculature of the lower limb between lean and obese individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Post-treatment Vascular Leakage and Inflammatory Responses around Brain Cysts in Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Orrego, Miguel Angel; Mayta, Holger; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2015-01-01

    Cysticidal treatment of neurocysticercosis, an infection of humans and pig brains with Taenia solium, results in an early inflammatory response directed to cysts causing seizures and focal neurological manifestations. Treatment-induced pericystic inflammation and its association with blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, as determined by Evans blue (EB) extravasation, was studied in infected untreated and anthelmintic-treated pigs. We compared the magnitude and extent of the pericystic inflammation, presence of EB-stained capsules, the level of damage to the parasite, expression of genes for proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, chemokines, and tissue remodeling by quantitative PCR assays between treated and untreated infected pigs and between EB-stained (blue) and non stained (clear) cysts. Inflammatory scores were higher in pericystic tissues from EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts from untreated pigs and also from anthelmintic-treated pigs 48 hr and 120 hr after treatment. The degree of inflammation correlated with the severity of cyst wall damage and both increased significantly at 120 hours. Expression levels of the proinflammatory genes for IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α were higher in EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts and unaffected brain tissues, and were generally highest at 120 hr. Additionally, expression of some markers of immunoregulatory activity (IL-10, IL-2Rα) were decreased in EB-stained capsules. An increase in other markers for regulatory T cells (CTLA4, FoxP3) was found, as well as significant increases in expression of two metalloproteases, MMP1 and MMP2 at 48 hr and 120 hr post-treatment. We conclude that the increase in severity of the inflammation caused by treatment is accompanied by both a proinflammatory and a complex regulatory response, largely limited to pericystic tissues with compromised vascular integrity. Because treatment induced inflammation occurs in porcine NCC similar to that in human cases, this model can be used to

  15. Suppressive effects of lysozyme on polyphosphate-mediated vascular inflammatory responses

    SciT

    Chung, Jiwoo; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Lee, Suyeon

    Lysozyme, found in relatively high concentration in blood, saliva, tears, and milk, protects us from the ever-present danger of bacterial infection. Previous studies have reported proinflammatory responses of endothelial cells to the release of polyphosphate(PolyP). In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of lysozyme and its effects on PolyP-induced septic activities in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. The survival rates, septic biomarker levels, behavior of human neutrophils, and vascular permeability were determined in PolyP-activated HUVECs and mice. Lysozyme suppressed the PolyP-mediated vascular barrier permeability, upregulation of inflammatory biomarkers, adhesion/migration of leukocytes, and activation and/ormore » production of nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, lysozyme demonstrated protective effects on PolyP-mediated lethal death and the levels of the related septic biomarkers. Therefore, these results indicated the therapeutic potential of lysozyme on various systemic inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis or septic shock. -- Highlights: •PolyP is shown to be an important mediator of vascular inflammation. •Lysozyme inhibited PolyP-mediated hyperpermeability. •Lysozyme inhibited PolyP-mediated septic response. •Lysozyme reduced PolyP-induced septic mortality.« less

  16. Postural vascular response in human skin: passive and active reactions to alteration of transmural pressure.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, H; Gaehtgens, P

    1993-09-01

    Laser-Doppler (LD) fluxmetry was performed in the palmar finger skin of healthy subjects to study the mechanisms contributing to the postural vascular response. Local transmural pressure in the skin blood vessels of the region studied was altered for 1 min in two experimental series either by passive movement of the arm to different vertical hand positions relative to heart level or by application of external pressure (-120-180 mmHg) to the finger. Heart and respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, and LD flux in the contralateral finger (kept at heart level) were measured. The measurements suggest a compound reaction of local (myogenic) and systemic (neurogenic) mechanisms: the local regulatory component appears as a graded active vascular response elicited by passive vessel distension or compression. A systemic component, associated with a single deep inspiration, is frequently observed during the actual movement of the arm. In addition, prolonged holding of the test hand in a given vertical position also elicits a delayed vascular response in the control hand at heart level, which may be generated by volume receptors in the intrathoracic low-pressure system.

  17. Genetic determination of the vascular reactions in humans in response to the diving reflex.

    PubMed

    Baranova, Tatiana I; Berlov, Dmitrii N; Glotov, Oleg S; Korf, Ekaterina A; Minigalin, Alexey D; Mitrofanova, Alla V; Ahmetov, Ildus I; Glotov, Andrey S

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms of the defense vascular reactions in response to the diving reflex in humans with polymorphisms in the genes ADBR2, ACE, AGTR1, BDKRB2 , and REN We hypothesized that protective vascular reactions, in response to the diving reflex, are genetically determined and are distinguished in humans with gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin and kinin-bradykinin system. A total of 80 subjects (19 ± 1.4 yr) participated in the study. The intensity of the vascular response was estimated using photoplethysmogram. The I/D polymorphism (rs4340) of ACE was analyzed by PCR. REN (G/A, rs2368564), AGTR1 (A/C, rs5186), BDKRB2 (T/C, rs1799722), and ADBR2 (A/G, rs1042713) polymorphisms were examined using the two-step multiplex PCR followed by carrying allele hybridization on the biochip. Subjects with the BDKRB2 (C/C), ACE (D/D), and ADBR2 (G/G, G/A) genotypes exhibited the strongest peripheral vasoconstriction in response to diving. In subjects with a combination of the BDKRB2 (C/C) plus ACE (D/D) genotypes, we observed the lowest pulse wave amplitude and pulse transit time values and the highest arterial blood pressure during face immersion compared with the heterozygous individuals, suggesting that these subjects are more susceptible to diving hypoxia. This study observed that humans with gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin and kinin-bradykinin systems demonstrate various expressions of protective vascular reactions in response to the diving reflex. The obtained results might be used in estimation of resistance to hypoxia of any origin in human beings or in a medical practice. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study demonstrates that the vascular reactions in response to the diving reflex are genetically determined and depend on gene polymorphisms of the kinin-bradykinin and the renin-angiotensin systems. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Involvement of proteinase activated receptor-2 in the vascular response to sphingosine 1-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Roviezzo, Fiorentina; De Angelis, Antonella; De Gruttola, Luana; Bertolino, Antonio; Sullo, Nikol; Brancaleone, Vincenzo; Bucci, Mariarosaria; De Palma, Raffaele; Urbanek, Konrad; D'Agostino, Bruno; Ianaro, Angela; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Cirino, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) represents one of the key latest additions to the list of vasoactive substances that modulate vascular tone. PAR-2 (proteinase activated receptor-2) has been shown to be involved in cardiovascular function. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of PAR-2 in S1P-induced effect on vascular tone. The present study has been performed by using isolated mouse aortas. Both S1P and PAR-2 agonists induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) and wortmannin abrogated the S1P-induced vasorelaxatioin, while significantly inhibiting the PAR-2-mediated effect. Either ENMD1068, a PAR-2 antagonist, or gabexate, a serine protease inhibitor, significantly inhibited S1P-induced vasorelaxation. Aortic tissues harvested from mice overexpressing PAR-2 displayed a significant increase in vascular response to S1P as opposed to PAR-2-null mice. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that S1P(1) interacted with PAR-2 and co-localized with PAR-2 on the vascular endothelial surface. Furthermore, S1P administration to vascular tissues triggered PAR-2 mobilization from the plasma membrane to the perinuclear area; S1P-induced translocation of PAR-2 was abrogated when aortic rings were pre-treated with ENMD1068 or when caveolae dysfunction occurred. Similarly, experiments performed in cultured endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) showed a co-localization of S1P(1) and PAR2, as well as the ability of S1P to induce PAR-2 trafficking. Our results suggest that S1P induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation mainly through S1P(1) and involves PAR-2 transactivation.

  19. Early diagnosis of diabetic vascular complications: impairment of red blood cell deformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sehyun; Ku, Yunhee; Park, Cheol-Woo; Suh, Jang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Reduced deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) may play an important role on the pathogenesis of chronic vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. However, available techniques for measuring RBC deformability often require washing process after each measurement, which is not optimal for day-to-day clinical use at point of care. The objectives of the present study are to develop a device and to delineate the correlation of impaired RBC deformability with diabetic nephropathy. We developed a disposable ektacytometry to measure RBC deformability, which adopted a laser diffraction technique and slit rheometry. The essential features of this design are its simplicity (ease of operation and no moving parts) and a disposable element which is in contact with the blood sample. We studied adult diabetic patients divided into three groups according to diabetic complications. Group I comprised 57 diabetic patients with normal renal function. Group II comprised 26 diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Group III consisted of 30 diabetic subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. According to the renal function for the diabetic groups, matched non-diabetic groups were served as control. We found substantially impaired red blood cell deformability in those with normal renal function (group I) compared to non-diabetic control (P = 0.0005). As renal function decreases, an increased impairment in RBC deformability was found. Diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (group II) when compared to non-diabetic controls (CRF) had an apparently greater impairment in RBC deformability (P = 0.07). The non-diabetic cohort (CRF), on the other hand, manifested significant impairment in red blood cell deformability compared to healthy control (P = 0.0001). The newly developed slit ektacytometer can measure the RBC deformability with ease and accuracy. In addition, progressive impairment in cell deformability is associated with renal function loss in all

  20. Social Support Versus Social Evaluation: Unique Effects on Vascular and Myocardial Response Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.; Stoney, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the effects of companion presence and evaluation on cardiovascular reactivity to an acute stressor. Methods Eighty-two women completed a speech task in one of four conditions: with an evaluative companion present, with a nonevaluative companion present, alone while being evaluated by a companion with a video camera, or alone while the companion waited outside. Results A significant interaction between companion condition and evaluative condition on systolic blood pressure was found; women who were evaluated while alone demonstrated significantly greater reactivity than did women who were in the nonevaluative alone condition. Furthermore, both potential for evaluation and the presence of a companion had important influences on hemodynamic parameters underlying the blood pressure response. Specifically, those in evaluative conditions showed greater myocardial responding than those in nonevaluative conditions and those in alone conditions showed greater vascular responding than did those with companions present. Taken together, those in the evaluative alone condition demonstrated systolic blood pressure responses reflecting both myocardial and vascular contributions. Conclusions Social support and social evaluation have unique effects on vascular and myocardial responding. The implications for future research include focus on the stress-buffering model of social support and the value of including impedance cardiography measures in investigations of cardiovascular functioning. PMID:17079702

  1. The Unfolded Protein Response in Retinal Vascular Diseases: Implications and Therapeutic Potential Beyond Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sarah X.; Ma, Jacey H.; Bhatta, Maulasri; Fliesler, Steven J.; Wang, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex, step-wise process of new vessel formation that is involved in both normal embryonic development as well as postnatal pathological processes, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Aberrant blood vessel growth, also known as neovascularization, in the retina and the choroid is a major cause of vision loss in severe eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and central and branch retinal vein occlusion. Yet, retinal neovascularization is causally and dynamically associated with vasodegeneration, ischemia, and vascular remodeling in retinal tissues. Understanding the mechanisms of retinal neovascularization is an urgent unmet need for developing new treatments for these devastating diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests a vital role for the unfolded protein response (UPR) in regulation of angiogenesis, in part through coordinating the secretion of pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as VEGF, and modulating endothelial cell survival and activity. Herein, we summarize current research in the context of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and UPR signaling in retinal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, highlighting potential implications of targeting these stress response pathways in the prevention and treatment of retinal vascular diseases that result in visual deficits and blindness. PMID:25529848

  2. Vascular Nox (NADPH Oxidase) Compartmentalization, Protein Hyperoxidation, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Livia L; Harvey, Adam P; Rios, Francisco J; Tsiropoulou, Sofia; Da Silva, Renée de Nazaré Oliveira; Cao, Zhenbo; Graham, Delyth; McMaster, Claire; Burchmore, Richard J; Hartley, Richard C; Bulleid, Neil; Montezano, Augusto C; Touyz, Rhian M

    2018-07-01

    response is regulated by Nox4/reactive oxygen species and plays a role in the hyperproliferative VSMC phenotype in SHR. Our study highlights the importance of Nox subcellular compartmentalization and interplay between cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species and ER stress response, which contribute to the VSMC oxidative proteome and vascular dysfunction in hypertension. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. The origin and early evolution of vascular plant shoots and leaves.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C Jill; Morris, Jennifer L

    2018-02-05

    The morphology of plant fossils from the Rhynie chert has generated longstanding questions about vascular plant shoot and leaf evolution, for instance, which morphologies were ancestral within land plants, when did vascular plants first arise and did leaves have multiple evolutionary origins? Recent advances combining insights from molecular phylogeny, palaeobotany and evo-devo research address these questions and suggest the sequence of morphological innovation during vascular plant shoot and leaf evolution. The evidence pinpoints testable developmental and genetic hypotheses relating to the origin of branching and indeterminate shoot architectures prior to the evolution of leaves, and demonstrates underestimation of polyphyly in the evolution of leaves from branching forms in 'telome theory' hypotheses of leaf evolution. This review discusses fossil, developmental and genetic evidence relating to the evolution of vascular plant shoots and leaves in a phylogenetic framework.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. The origin and early evolution of vascular plant shoots and leaves

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The morphology of plant fossils from the Rhynie chert has generated longstanding questions about vascular plant shoot and leaf evolution, for instance, which morphologies were ancestral within land plants, when did vascular plants first arise and did leaves have multiple evolutionary origins? Recent advances combining insights from molecular phylogeny, palaeobotany and evo–devo research address these questions and suggest the sequence of morphological innovation during vascular plant shoot and leaf evolution. The evidence pinpoints testable developmental and genetic hypotheses relating to the origin of branching and indeterminate shoot architectures prior to the evolution of leaves, and demonstrates underestimation of polyphyly in the evolution of leaves from branching forms in ‘telome theory’ hypotheses of leaf evolution. This review discusses fossil, developmental and genetic evidence relating to the evolution of vascular plant shoots and leaves in a phylogenetic framework. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue ‘The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited’. PMID:29254961

  5. Biomimetic microenvironment complexity to redress the balance between biodegradation and de novo matrix synthesis during early phase of vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Vatankhah, Elham; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-12-01

    Physiological functionality of a tissue engineered vascular construct depends on the phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) cultured into the scaffold and mechanical robust of the construct relies on two simultaneous mechanisms including scaffold biodegradation and de novo matrix synthesis by SMCs which both can be influenced by scaffold properties and culture condition. Our focus in this study was to provide an appropriate environmental condition within tissue engineering context to meet foregoing requisites for a successful vascular regeneration. To this end, SMCs seeded onto electrospun Tecophilic/gelatin (TP(70)/gel(30)) scaffolds were subjected to orbital shear stress. Given the improvement in mechanical properties of dynamically stimulated cell-seeded constructs after a span of 10days, effect of fluctuating shear stress on scaffold biodegradation and SMC behavior was investigated. Compared to static condition, SMCs proliferated more rapidly and concomitantly built up greater collagen content in response to dynamic culture, suggesting a reasonable balance between scaffold biodegradation and matrix turnover for maintaining the structural integrity and mechanical support to seeded cells during early phase of vascular tissue engineering. Despite higher proliferation of SMCs under dynamic condition, cells preserved nearly spindle like morphology and contractile protein expression likely thanks to composition of the scaffold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exposure to experimental preeclampsia in mice enhances the vascular response to future injury.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Dafina; Khankin, Eliyahu V; Blanton, Robert M; Aronovitz, Mark; Burke, Suzanne D; McCurley, Amy; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Jaffe, Iris Z

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading killer of women in developed nations. One sex-specific risk factor is preeclampsia, a syndrome of hypertension and proteinuria that complicates 5% of pregnancies. Although preeclampsia resolves after delivery, exposed women are at increased long-term risk of premature CVD and mortality. Pre-existing CVD risk factors are associated with increased risk of developing preeclampsia but whether preeclampsia merely uncovers risk or contributes directly to future CVD remains a critical unanswered question. A mouse preeclampsia model was used to test the hypothesis that preeclampsia causes an enhanced vascular response to future vessel injury. A preeclampsia-like state was induced in pregnant CD1 mice by overexpressing soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, a circulating antiangiogenic protein that induces hypertension and glomerular disease resembling human preeclampsia. Two months postpartum, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 levels and blood pressure normalized and cardiac size and function by echocardiography and renal histology were indistinguishable in preeclampsia-exposed compared with control mice. Mice were then challenged with unilateral carotid injury. Preeclampsia-exposed mice had significantly enhanced vascular remodeling with increased vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation (180% increase; P<0.01) and vessel fibrosis (216% increase; P<0.001) compared with control pregnancy. In the contralateral uninjured vessel, there was no difference in remodeling after exposure to preeclampsia. These data support a new model in which vessels exposed to preeclampsia retain a persistently enhanced vascular response to injury despite resolution of preeclampsia after delivery. This new paradigm may contribute to the substantially increased risk of CVD in woman exposed to preeclampsia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Exposure to Experimental Preeclampsia in Mice Enhances the Vascular Response to Future Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pruthi, Dafina; Khankin, Eliyahu V.; Blanton, Robert M.; Aronovitz, Mark; Burke, Suzanne D.; McCurley, Amy; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading killer of women in developed nations. One gender-specific risk factor is preeclampsia (PE), a syndrome of hypertension and proteinuria that complicates 5% of pregnancies. Although PE resolves after delivery, exposed women are at increased long term risk of premature CVD and mortality. Preexisting CVD risk factors are associated with increased risk of developing PE but whether PE merely uncovers risk or contributes directly to future CVD remains a critical unanswered question. A mouse PE model was used to test the hypothesis that PE causes an enhanced vascular response to future vessel injury. A PE-like state was induced in pregnant CD1 mice by overexpressing soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), a circulating anti-angiogenic protein that induces hypertension and glomerular disease resembling human PE. Two months post-partum, sFlt-1 levels and blood pressure normalized and cardiac size and function by echocardiography and renal histology were indistinguishable in PE-exposed compared to control mice. Mice were then challenged with unilateral carotid injury. PE-exposed mice had significantly enhanced vascular remodeling with increased vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation (180% increase, P<0.01) and vessel fibrosis (216% increase, P<0.001) compared to control pregnancy. In the contralateral uninjured vessel, there was no difference in remodeling after exposure to PE. These data support a new model in which vessels exposed to PE retain a persistently enhanced vascular response to injury despite resolution of PE after delivery. This new paradigm may contribute to the substantially increased risk of CVD in woman exposed to PE. PMID:25712723

  8. Inflammatory and vascular placental lesions are associated with neonatal amplitude integrated EEG recording in early premature neonates

    PubMed Central

    Goshen, Sharon; Richardson, Justin; Drunov, VIadimir; Staretz Chacham, Orna; Shany, Eilon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Placental histologic examination can assist in revealing the mechanism leading to preterm birth. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between intrauterine pathological processes, morbidity and mortality of premature infants, and their long term outcome. Neonatal brain activity is increasingly monitored in neonatal intensive care units by amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) and indices of background activity and sleep cycling patterns were correlated with long term outcome. We hypothesized an association between types of placental lesions and abnormal neonatal aEEG patterns. Objective To determine the association between the placental lesions observed in extreme preterm deliveries, and their neonatal aEEG patterns and survival. Patients and methods This prospective cohort study included extreme premature infants, who were born ≤ 28 weeks of gestation, their placentas were available for histologic examination, and had a continues aEEG, soon after birth)n = 34). Infants and maternal clinical data were collected. aEEG data was assessed for percentage of depressed daily activity in the first 3 days of life and for sleep cycling. Associations of placental histology with clinical findings and aEEG activity were explored using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results Twenty two out of the 34 newborns survived to discharge. Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) or chorioamnionitis were associated with placental lesions consistent with fetal amniotic fluid infection (AFI) or maternal under perfusion (MUP) (P < 0.05). Lesions consistent with fetal response to AFI were associated with absence of SWC pattern during the 1st day of life. Fetal-vascular-thrombo-occlusive lesions of inflammatory type were negatively associated with depressed cerebral activity during the 1st day of life, and with aEEG cycling during the 2nd day of life (P<0.05). Placental lesions associated with MUP were associated with depressed neonatal cerebral activity during

  9. Early alterations in vascular contractility associated to changes in fatty acid composition and oxidative stress markers in perivascular adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Alejandro; Rebolledo, Oscar R; Marra, Carlos A; García, María E; Roldán Palomo, Ana R; Rimorini, Laura; Gagliardino, Juan J

    2010-10-21

    To test the early effect of fructose-induced changes in fatty acid composition and oxidative stress markers in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) upon vascular contractility. Adult male Wistar rats were fed a commercial diet without (CD) or with 10% fructose (FRD) in the drinking water for 3 weeks. We measured plasma metabolic parameters, lipid composition and oxidative stress markers in aortic PVAT. Vascular contractility was measured in aortic rings sequentially, stimulated with serotonin (5-HT) and high K+-induced depolarization using intact and thereafter PVAT-deprived rings. Comparable body weights were recorded in both groups. FRD rats had increased plasma triglyceride and fructosamine levels. Their PVAT had an increased saturated to mono- or poly-unsaturated fatty acid ratio, a significant decrease in total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and in the total content of glutathione. Conversely, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), nitric oxide content, and gluthathione reductase activity were significantly higher, indicating an increase in oxidative stress. In aortic rings, removal of PVAT increased serotonin-induced contractions, but the effect was significantly lower in rings from FRD rats. This effect was no longer observed when the two contractions were performed in PVAT-deprived rings. PVAT did not affect the contractions triggered by high K+-induced depolarization either in CD or FRD rats. FRD induces multiple metabolic and endocrine systemic alterations which also alter PVAT and the vascular relaxant properties of this tissue. The changes in PVAT would affect its paracrine modulation of vascular function.

  10. Early alterations in vascular contractility associated to changes in fatty acid composition and oxidative stress markers in perivascular adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aim To test the early effect of fructose-induced changes in fatty acid composition and oxidative stress markers in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) upon vascular contractility. Methods Adult male Wistar rats were fed a commercial diet without (CD) or with 10% fructose (FRD) in the drinking water for 3 weeks. We measured plasma metabolic parameters, lipid composition and oxidative stress markers in aortic PVAT. Vascular contractility was measured in aortic rings sequentially, stimulated with serotonin (5-HT) and high K+-induced depolarization using intact and thereafter PVAT-deprived rings. Results Comparable body weights were recorded in both groups. FRD rats had increased plasma triglyceride and fructosamine levels. Their PVAT had an increased saturated to mono- or poly-unsaturated fatty acid ratio, a significant decrease in total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and in the total content of glutathione. Conversely, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), nitric oxide content, and gluthathione reductase activity were significantly higher, indicating an increase in oxidative stress. In aortic rings, removal of PVAT increased serotonin-induced contractions, but the effect was significantly lower in rings from FRD rats. This effect was no longer observed when the two contractions were performed in PVAT-deprived rings. PVAT did not affect the contractions triggered by high K+-induced depolarization either in CD or FRD rats. Conclusions FRD induces multiple metabolic and endocrine systemic alterations which also alter PVAT and the vascular relaxant properties of this tissue. The changes in PVAT would affect its paracrine modulation of vascular function. PMID:20964827

  11. Analysis of responses to valerian root extract in the feline pulmonary vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Fields, Aaron M; Richards, Todd A; Felton, Jason A; Felton, Shaili K; Bayer, Erin Z; Ibrahim, Ikhlass N; Kaye, Alan David

    2003-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary vascular response to valerian (Valeriana officinalis) in the feline pulmonary vasculature under constant flow conditions. In separate experiments, the effects of NG-L-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NIO), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, glibenclamide, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K+) channel blocker, meclofenamate, a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, and saclofen, a GABA(B) antagonist, were investigated on pulmonary arterial responses to various agonists in the feline pulmonary vascular bed. These agonists included valerian, muscimol, a GABA(A) agonist, SKF-97541 a GABA(B) agonist, acetylcholine (ACh), and bradykinin, both inducers of nitric oxide synthase, arachidonic acid, a COX substrate, and pinacidil, an ATP-sensitive K+ channel activator, during increased tone conditions induced by the thromboxane A2 mimic, U46619. Laboratory investigation. Mongrel cats of either gender. Injections of the abovementioned agonists and antagonists were given. Baseline pulmonary tone, responses to the agonists, and responses to the agonists after injections of antagonists were all measured via a pulmonary catheter transducer and recorded. Valerian root extract is a potent smooth muscle dilator in the feline pulmonary vascular bed. The vasodilatory effects of valerian root extract were unchanged after the administration of L-NIO, glibenclamide, and meclofenamate. These effects were ablated, however, by both saclofen and bicuculline. The ability of saclofen and bicuculline to modulate the dilatory effects of valerian root extract was not statistically different. The vasodilatory effects of valerian root extract are mediated by a nonselective GABA mechanism.

  12. Baroreflex-mediated heart rate and vascular resistance responses 24 h after maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Plasma volume, heart rate (HR) variability, and stimulus-response relationships for baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and HR were studied in eight healthy men after and without performing a bout of maximal exercise to test the hypotheses that acute expansion of plasma volume is associated with 1) reduction in baroreflex-mediated HR response, and 2) altered operational range for central venous pressure (CVP). METHODS: The relationship between stimulus (DeltaCVP) and vasoconstrictive reflex response (DeltaFVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors was assessed with lower-body negative pressure (LBNP, 0, -5, -10, -15, -20 mm Hg). The relationship between stimulus (Deltamean arterial pressure (MAP)) and cardiac reflex response (DeltaHR) during loading of arterial baroreceptors was assessed with steady-state infusion of phenylephrine (PE) designed to increase MAP by 15 mm Hg alone and during application of LBNP (PE+LBNP) and neck pressure (PE+LBNP+NP). Measurements of vascular volume and autonomic baroreflex responses were conducted on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested 24 h after graded cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, measurement of baroreflex response was repeated with no exercise (control). The order of exercise and control treatments was counterbalanced. RESULTS: Baseline CVP was elevated (P = 0.04) from a control value of 10.5 +/- 0.4 to 12.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg 24 h after exercise. Average DeltaFVR/DeltaCVP during LBNP was not different (P = 0.942) between the exercise (-1.35 +/- 0.32 pru x mm Hg-1) and control (-1.32 +/- 0.36 pru x mm Hg-1) conditions. However, maximal exercise caused a shift along the reflex response relationship to a higher CVP and lower FVR. HR baroreflex response (DeltaHR/DeltaMAP) to PE+LBNP+NP was lower (P = 0.015) after maximal exercise (-0.43 +/- 0.15 beats x min-1 x mm Hg-1) compared with the control

  13. Pulmonary vascular responses during acute and sustained respiratory alkalosis or acidosis in intact newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J B; Rehorst-Paea, L A; Hoffman, G M; Nelin, L D

    1999-12-01

    Acute alkalosis-induced pulmonary vasodilation and acidosis-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction have been well described, but responses were generally measured within 5-30 min of changing pH. In contrast, several in vitro studies have found that relatively brief periods of sustained alkalosis can enhance, and sustained acidosis can decrease, vascular reactivity. In this study of intact newborn piglets, effects of acute (20 min) and sustained (60-80 min) alkalosis or acidosis on baseline (35% O2) and hypoxic (12% O2) pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared with control piglets exposed only to eucapnia. Acute alkalosis decreased hypoxic PVR, but sustained alkalosis failed to attenuate either baseline PVR or the subsequent hypoxic response. Acute acidosis did not significantly increase hypoxic PVR, but sustained acidosis markedly increased both baseline PVR and the subsequent hypoxic response. Baseline PVR was similar in all piglets after resumption of eucapnic ventilation, but the final hypoxic response was greater in piglets previously exposed to alkalosis than in controls. Thus, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was not attenuated during sustained alkalosis, but was accentuated during sustained acidosis and after the resumption of eucapnia in alkalosis-treated piglets. Although extrapolation of data from normal piglets to infants and children with pulmonary hypertension must be done with caution, this study suggests that sustained alkalosis may be of limited efficacy in treating acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and the risks of pulmonary hypertension must be considered when using ventilator strategies resulting in permissive hypercapnic acidosis.

  14. Phloem Transport Velocity Varies over Time and among Vascular Bundles during Early Cucumber Seedling Development1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jessica A.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Holbrook, N. Michele

    2013-01-01

    We use a novel dye-tracing technique to measure in vivo phloem transport velocity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants during early seedling development. We focus on seedlings because of their importance in plant establishment and because they provide a simple source and sink model of phloem transport. The dye-tracing method uses a photodiode to track the movement of a bleach front of fluorescent dye traveling in the phloem from the cotyledons (source) to the roots (sink). During early seedling development, phloem transport velocity in this direction can change 2-fold depending on vascular connectivity and the number of actively growing sinks. Prior to leaf expansion, vascular bundles attached to the first developing leaf demonstrate a decline in basipetal phloem transport that can be alleviated by the leaf’s removal. At this stage, seedlings appear carbon limited and phloem transport velocity is correlated with cotyledon area, a pattern that is apparent both during cotyledon expansion and after source area manipulation. When the first leaf transitions to a carbon source, seedling growth rate increases and basipetal phloem transport velocity becomes more stable. Because bundles appear to operate autonomously, transport velocity can differ among vascular bundles. Together, these results demonstrate the dynamic and heterogeneous nature of phloem transport and underline the need for a better understanding of how changes in phloem physiology impact growth and allocation at this critical stage of development. PMID:24072581

  15. Carbon nanotubes as VEGF carriers to improve the early vascularization of porcine small intestinal submucosa in abdominal wall defect repair

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengni; Feng, Xueyi; Wang, Huichun; Ma, Jun; Liu, Wei; Cui, Daxiang; Gu, Yan; Tang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient early vascularization in biological meshes, resulting in limited host tissue incorporation, is thought to be the primary cause for the failure of abdominal wall defect repair after implantation. The sustained release of exogenous angiogenic factors from a biocompatible nanomaterial might be a way to overcome this limitation. In the study reported here, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were functionalized by plasma polymerization to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165). The novel VEGF165-controlled released system was incorporated into porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) to construct a composite scaffold. Scaffolds incorporating varying amounts of VEGF165-loaded functionalized MWNT were characterized in vitro. At 5 weight percent MWNT, the scaffolds exhibited optimal properties and were implanted in rats to repair abdominal wall defects. PSIS scaffolds incorporating VEGF165-loaded MWNT (VEGF–MWNT–PSIS) contributed to early vascularization from 2–12 weeks postimplantation and obtained more effective collagen deposition and exhibited improved tensile strength at 24 weeks postimplantation compared to PSIS or PSIS scaffolds, incorporating MWNT without VEGF165 loading (MWNT–PSIS). PMID:24648727

  16. Saxagliptin Restores Vascular Mitochondrial Exercise Response in the Goto-Kakizaki Rat

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Amy C.; Knaub, Leslie A.; Miller, Matthew W.; Birdsey, Nicholas; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality are largely predicted by physical fitness. Exercise stimulates vascular mitochondrial biogenesis through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), sirtuins, and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a response absent in diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesized that an agent regulating eNOS in the context of diabetes could reconstitute exercise-mediated signaling to mitochondrial biogenesis. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulates eNOS and blood flow; we used saxagliptin, an inhibitor of GLP-1 degradation, to test whether vascular mitochondrial adaptation to exercise in diabetes could be restored. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese, type 2 diabetes model, and Wistar controls were exposed to an 8-day exercise intervention with or without saxagliptin (10 mg·kg−1·d−1). We evaluated the impact of exercise and saxagliptin on mitochondrial proteins and signaling pathways in aorta. Mitochondrial protein expression increased with exercise in the Wistar aorta and decreased or remained unchanged in the GK animals. GK rats treated with saxagliptin plus exercise showed increased expression of mitochondrial complexes, cytochrome c, eNOS, nNOS, PGC-1α, and UCP3 proteins. Notably, a 3-week saxagliptin plus exercise intervention significantly increased running time in the GK rats. These data suggest that saxagliptin restores vascular mitochondrial adaptation to exercise in a diabetic rodent model and may augment the impact of exercise on the vasculature. PMID:25264749

  17. Saxagliptin restores vascular mitochondrial exercise response in the Goto-Kakizaki rat.

    PubMed

    Keller, Amy C; Knaub, Leslie A; Miller, Matthew W; Birdsey, Nicholas; Klemm, Dwight J; Reusch, Jane E B

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality are largely predicted by physical fitness. Exercise stimulates vascular mitochondrial biogenesis through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), sirtuins, and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a response absent in diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesized that an agent regulating eNOS in the context of diabetes could reconstitute exercise-mediated signaling to mitochondrial biogenesis. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulates eNOS and blood flow; we used saxagliptin, an inhibitor of GLP-1 degradation, to test whether vascular mitochondrial adaptation to exercise in diabetes could be restored. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese, type 2 diabetes model, and Wistar controls were exposed to an 8-day exercise intervention with or without saxagliptin (10 mg·kg·d). We evaluated the impact of exercise and saxagliptin on mitochondrial proteins and signaling pathways in aorta. Mitochondrial protein expression increased with exercise in the Wistar aorta and decreased or remained unchanged in the GK animals. GK rats treated with saxagliptin plus exercise showed increased expression of mitochondrial complexes, cytochrome c, eNOS, nNOS, PGC-1α, and UCP3 proteins. Notably, a 3-week saxagliptin plus exercise intervention significantly increased running time in the GK rats. These data suggest that saxagliptin restores vascular mitochondrial adaptation to exercise in a diabetic rodent model and may augment the impact of exercise on the vasculature.

  18. Simvastatin attenuates the cerebral vascular endothelial inflammatory response in a rat traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Han-Jung; Lu, Kang; Liliang, Po-Chou; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Tsai, Yu-Duan; Cho, Chung-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to important and deleterious inflammation, as evidenced by edema, cytokine production, induction of nitric oxide synthase, and leukocyte infiltration. After TBI, the activation of cerebral vascular endothelial cells plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that the activation of cerebral vascular endothelial cells plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation and outcome after TBI. It may represent a key cellular target for statin therapy. In our study, cortical contusions were induced, and the effect of continuous treatment of simvastatin on behavior and inflammation in adult rats following experimental TBI was evaluated. The treatment group received 15 mg/kg of simvastatin daily for 3 days. Neurological function was assessed with the grip test. The results showed that the non-treatment control group had a significantly greater increase in ICAM-1 expression from pre-injury to the post-injury 72 h time point as compared to the expression in treatment group. The treatment group had better neurological function as evidenced in a grip test performed from baseline to 72 h. The analysis of a western blot test and pathology also demonstrated reduced ICAM-1 expression and a smaller area of damage and tissue loss. Our findings suggest that simvastatin could attenuate the activation of cerebral vascular endothelial inflammatory response and decrease the loss of neurological function and brain tissue.

  19. Identification of chemical components of combustion emissions that affect pro-atherosclerotic vascular responses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Seilkop, Steven K.; Campen, Matthew J.; Lund, Amie K.; McDonald, Jacob D.; Mauderly, Joe L.

    2012-01-01

    Combustion emissions cause pro-atherosclerotic responses in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE/−) mice, but the causal components of these complex mixtures are unresolved. In studies previously reported, ApoE−/− mice were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 50 consecutive days to multiple dilutions of diesel or gasoline exhaust, wood smoke, or simulated “downwind” coal emissions. In this study, the analysis of the combined four-study database using the Multiple Additive Regression Trees (MART) data mining approach to determine putative causal exposure components regardless of combustion source is reported. Over 700 physical–chemical components were grouped into 45 predictor variables. Response variables measured in aorta included endothelin-1, vascular endothelin growth factor, three matrix metalloproteinases (3, 7, 9), metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, heme-oxygenase-1, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Two or three predictors typically explained most of the variation in response among the experimental groups. Overall, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide were most highly predictive of responses, although their rankings differed among the responses. Consistent with the earlier finding that filtration of particles had little effect on responses, particulate components ranked third to seventh in predictive importance for the eight response variables. MART proved useful for identifying putative causal components, although the small number of pollution mixtures (4) can provide only suggestive evidence of causality. The potential independent causal contributions of these gases to the vascular responses, as well as possible interactions among them and other components of complex pollutant mixtures, warrant further evaluation. PMID:22486345

  20. Identification of chemical components of combustion emissions that affect pro-atherosclerotic vascular responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Seilkop, Steven K; Campen, Matthew J; Lund, Amie K; McDonald, Jacob D; Mauderly, Joe L

    2012-04-01

    Combustion emissions cause pro-atherosclerotic responses in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE/⁻) mice, but the causal components of these complex mixtures are unresolved. In studies previously reported, ApoE⁻/⁻ mice were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 50 consecutive days to multiple dilutions of diesel or gasoline exhaust, wood smoke, or simulated "downwind" coal emissions. In this study, the analysis of the combined four-study database using the Multiple Additive Regression Trees (MART) data mining approach to determine putative causal exposure components regardless of combustion source is reported. Over 700 physical-chemical components were grouped into 45 predictor variables. Response variables measured in aorta included endothelin-1, vascular endothelin growth factor, three matrix metalloproteinases (3, 7, 9), metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, heme-oxygenase-1, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Two or three predictors typically explained most of the variation in response among the experimental groups. Overall, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide were most highly predictive of responses, although their rankings differed among the responses. Consistent with the earlier finding that filtration of particles had little effect on responses, particulate components ranked third to seventh in predictive importance for the eight response variables. MART proved useful for identifying putative causal components, although the small number of pollution mixtures (4) can provide only suggestive evidence of causality. The potential independent causal contributions of these gases to the vascular responses, as well as possible interactions among them and other components of complex pollutant mixtures, warrant further evaluation.

  1. Short-term vascular hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise in young adults and in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Renee; Bolignano, Davide; Sijbrands, Eric; Pucci, Giacomo; Mattace-Raso, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Vascular aging is known to induce progressive stiffening of the large elastic arteries, altering vascular hemodynamics under both rest and stress conditions. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in vascular hemodynamics in response to isometric handgrip exercise across ages. We included 62 participants, who were divided into three age categories: 20-40 (n=22), 41-60 (n=20), and 61-80 (n=20) years. Vascular hemodynamics were measured using the Mobil-o-Graph ® based on the pulsatile pressure changes in the brachial artery. One-way ANOVA test was performed to analyze the changes induced by isometric handgrip exercise. After isometric handgrip exercise, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) increased by 0.10 m/s in the youngest, 0.06 m/s in the middle-age, and 0.02 m/s in the oldest age category. Changes in PWV strongly correlated with those in central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) ( r =0.878, P <0.01). After isometric exercise, the mean change of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was -1.9% in the youngest, 0.6% in the middle-aged, and 8.2% in the oldest subjects. Increasing handgrip strength was associated with an increase in SBP and cSBP (1.08 and 1.37 mmHg per 1 kg increase in handgrip strength, respectively, P =0.01). Finally, PWV was significantly associated with increasing handgrip strength with an increase of 0.05 m/s per 1 kg higher handgrip strength ( P =0.01). This study found increased blood pressure levels after isometric challenge and a strong association between handgrip strength and change in blood pressure levels and aortic stiffness in elderly subjects.

  2. Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1 Modulates the Response to Vascular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Ihida-Stansbury, Kaori; Kothapalli, Devashish; Tamby, Mathieu C.; Yu, Zhou; Chen, Lihong; Grant, Gregory; Cheng, Yan; Lawson, John A.; Assoian, Richard K.; Jones, Peter L.; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsomal (m) prostaglandin (PG) E2 synthase (S)-1 catalyzes the formation of PGE2 from PGH2, a cyclooxygenase (COX) product that is derived from arachidonic acid. Previous studies in mice suggest that targeting mPGES-1 may be less likely to cause hypertension or thrombosis than COX-2 selective inhibition or deletion in vivo. Indeed, deletion of mPGES-1 retards atherogenesis and angiotensin II-induced aortic aneurysm formation. The role of mPGES-1 in the response to vascular injury is unknown. Methods and Results Mice were subjected to wire injury of the femoral artery. Both neointimal area and vascular stenosis were reduced significantly four weeks after injury in mPGES-1 knock out (KO) mice compared to wild type (WT) controls (65.6±5.7 vs 37.7±5.1×103 pixel area and 70.5±13.4% vs 47.7±17.4%, respectively; p < 0.01). Induction of tenascin C (TN-C) after injury, a pro-proliferative and promigratory extracellular matrix protein, was attenuated in the KOs. Consistent with in vivo rediversion of PG biosynthesis, mPGES-1 deleted vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) generated less PGE2, but more PGI2 and expressed reduced TN-C when compared with WT cells. Both suppression of PGE2 and augmentation of PGI2 attenuate TN-C expression, VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro. Conclusions Deletion of mPGES-1 in mice attenuates neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury, in part by regulating TN-C expression. This raises for consideration the therapeutic potential of mPGES-1 inhibitors as adjuvant therapy for percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:21282500

  3. Contact area affects frequency-dependent responses to vibration in the peripheral vascular and sensorineural systems.

    PubMed

    Krajnak, Kristine; Miller, G R; Waugh, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is associated with development of peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunctions. These disorders and symptoms associated with it are referred to as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Although the symptoms of the disorder have been well characterized, the etiology and contribution of various exposure factors to development of the dysfunctions are not well understood. Previous studies performed using a rat-tail model of vibration demonstrated that vascular and peripheral nervous system adverse effects of vibration are frequency-dependent, with vibration frequencies at or near the resonant frequency producing the most severe injury. However, in these investigations, the amplitude of the exposed tissue was greater than amplitude typically noted in human fingers. To determine how contact with vibrating source and amplitude of the biodynamic response of the tissue affects the risk of injury occurring, this study compared the influence of frequency using different levels of restraint to assess how maintaining contact of the tail with vibrating source affects the transmission of vibration. Data demonstrated that for the most part, increasing the contact of the tail with the platform by restraining it with additional straps resulted in an enhancement in transmission of vibration signal and elevation in factors associated with vascular and peripheral nerve injury. In addition, there were also frequency-dependent effects, with exposure at 250 Hz generating greater effects than vibration at 62.5 Hz. These observations are consistent with studies in humans demonstrating that greater contact and exposure to frequencies near the resonant frequency pose the highest risk for generating peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunction.

  4. Neural and vascular variability and the fMRI-BOLD response in normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Kannurpatti, Sridhar S.; Motes, Michael A.; Rypma, Bart; Biswal, Bharat B.

    2010-01-01

    Neural, vascular and structural variables contributing to the BOLD signal response variability were investigated in younger and older humans. Twelve younger healthy human subjects (6M and 6F; mean age: 24 years; range: 19–27 years) and twelve older healthy subjects (5M and 7F; mean age: 58 years; range: 55–71 years) with no history of head trauma and neurological disease were scanned. FMRI measurements using the BOLD contrast were made when participants performed a motor, cognitive or a breath hold task. Activation volume and the BOLD response amplitude were estimated for the younger and older at both group and subject levels. Mean activation volume was reduced by 45, 40 and 38% in the elderly group during the motor, cognitive and breath hold tasks respectively compared to the younger. Reduction in activation volume was substantially higher compared to the reduction in the gray matter volume of 14% in the older compared to the younger. A significantly larger variability in the inter-subject BOLD signal change occurred during the motor task, compared to the cognitive task. BH-induced BOLD signal change between subjects was significantly less-variable in the motor task-activated areas in the younger compared to older whereas such a difference between age groups was not observed during the cognitive task. Hemodynamic scaling using the BH signal substantially reduced the BOLD signal variability during the motor task compared to the cognitive task. The results indicate that the origin of the BOLD signal variability between subjects was predominantly vascular during the motor task while being principally a consequence of neural variability during the cognitive task. Thus, in addition to gray matter differences, the type of task performed can have different vascular variability weighting that can influence age-related differences in brain functional response. PMID:20117893

  5. Neural and vascular variability and the fMRI-BOLD response in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Kannurpatti, Sridhar S; Motes, Michael A; Rypma, Bart; Biswal, Bharat B

    2010-05-01

    Neural, vascular and structural variables contributing to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal response variability were investigated in younger and older humans. Twelve younger healthy human subjects (six male and six female; mean age: 24 years; range: 19-27 years) and 12 older healthy subjects (five male and seven female; mean age: 58 years; range: 55-71 years) with no history of head trauma and neurological disease were scanned. Functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements using the BOLD contrast were made when participants performed a motor, cognitive or a breath hold (BH) task. Activation volume and the BOLD response amplitude were estimated for the younger and older at both group and subject levels. Mean activation volume was reduced by 45%, 40% and 38% in the elderly group during the motor, cognitive and BH tasks, respectively, compared to the younger. Reduction in activation volume was substantially higher compared to the reduction in the gray matter volume of 14% in the older compared to the younger. A significantly larger variability in the intersubject BOLD signal change occurred during the motor task, compared to the cognitive task. BH-induced BOLD signal change between subjects was significantly less-variable in the motor task-activated areas in the younger compared to older whereas such a difference between age groups was not observed during the cognitive task. Hemodynamic scaling using the BH signal substantially reduced the BOLD signal variability during the motor task compared to the cognitive task. The results indicate that the origin of the BOLD signal variability between subjects was predominantly vascular during the motor task while being principally a consequence of neural variability during the cognitive task. Thus, in addition to gray matter differences, the type of task performed can have different vascular variability weighting that can influence age-related differences in brain functional response. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Coronary endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle proliferation are programmed by early-gestation dexamethasone exposure in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Kenneth A.; Roghair, Robert D.; Jung, Felicia; Scholz, Thomas D.; Lamb, Fred S.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of the early-gestation ovine fetus to exogenous glucocorticoids induces changes in postnatal cardiovascular physiology. We sought to characterize coronary artery vascular function in this model by elucidating the contribution of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species to altered coronary vascular reactivity and examining the proliferative potential of coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells. Dexamethasone (dex, 0.28 mg·kg−1·day−1 for 48 h) was administered to pregnant ewes at 27–28-day gestation (term 145 days). Coronary arteries were isolated from 1- to 2-wk-old dex-exposed offspring and aged-matched controls. Compared with controls, coronary arteries from dex-exposed lambs demonstrated enhanced vasoconstriction to endothelin-1 and ACh that was abolished by endothelial removal or preincubation with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NNA, membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase + catalase, or apamin + charybdotoxin, but not indomethacin. The rate of coronary vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation was also significantly greater in dex-exposed lambs. Protein levels of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen were increased and α-smooth muscle actin decreased in dex-exposed coronary VSMC, consistent with a proliferative state. Finally, expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox 4, but not Nox 1, mRNA was also decreased in coronary VSMC from dex-exposed lambs. These findings suggest an important interaction exists between early-gestation glucocorticoid exposure and reactive oxygen species that is associated with alterations in endothelial function and coronary VSMC proliferation. These changes in coronary physiology are consistent with those associated with the development of atherosclerosis and may provide an important link between an adverse intrauterine environment and increased risk for coronary artery disease. PMID:20335378

  7. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy duration on thermal and cardio-vascular response.

    PubMed

    Fonda, Borut; De Nardi, Massimo; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-05-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is the exposure of minimally dressed participants to very cold air, either in a specially designed chamber (cryo-chamber) or cabin (cryo-cabin), for a short period of time. Practitioners are vague when it comes to recommendations on the duration of a single session. Recommended exposure for cryo-chamber is 150s, but no empirically based recommendations are available for a cryo-cabin. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine thermal and cardio-vascular responses after 90, 120, 150 and 180s of WBC in a cryo-cabin. Our hypothesis was that skin temperature would be significantly lower after longer exposers. Twelve male participants (age 23.9±4.2 years) completed four WBC of different durations (90, 120, 150 and 180s) in a cryo-cabin. Thermal response, heart rate and blood pressure were measured prior, immediately after, 5min after and 30min after the session. Skin temperature differed significantly among different durations, except between 150 and 180s. There was no significant difference in heart rate and blood pressure. Thermal discomfort during a single session displayed a linear increase throughout the whole session. Our results indicate that practitioners and clinicians using cryo-cabin for WBC do not need to perform sessions longer than 150s. We have shown that longer sessions do not substantially affect thermal and cardio-vascular response, but do increase thermal discomfort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Repetitive muscle compression reduces vascular mechano-sensitivity and the hyperemic response to muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Messere, A; Turturici, M; Millo, G; Roatta, S

    2017-06-01

    Animal studies have shown that the rapid hyperemic response to external muscle compression undergoes inactivation upon repetitive stimulation, but this phenomenon has never been observed in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether 1) the vascular mechano-sensitivity underlying muscle compression-induced hyperemia is inactivated in an inter-stimulus interval (ISI)-dependent fashion upon repetitive stimulation, as suggested by animal studies, and 2) whether such inactivation also attenuates contraction-induced hyperemia. Brachial artery blood flow was measured by echo Doppler sonography in 13 healthy adults in response to 1) single and repetitive cuff muscle compression (CMC) of the forearm (20 CMCs, 1 s ISI); 2) a sequence of CMC delivered at decreasing ISI from 120 to 2 s; and 3) electrically-stimulated contraction of the forearm muscles before and after repetitive CMC. The peak amplitude of hyperemia in response to CMC normalized to baseline decreased from 2.2 ± 0.6 to 1.4 ± 0.4 after repetitive CMC and, in general, was decreased at ISI < 240 s. The peak amplitude of contraction-induced hyperemia was attenuated after as compared to before repeated CMC (1.7 ± 0.4 and 2.6 ± 0.6, respectively). Mechano-sensitivity of the vascular network can be conditioned by previous mechanical stimulation, and such preconditioning may substantially decrease contraction-induced hyperemia.

  9. Renal responses to central vascular expansion are suppressed at night in conscious primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kass, D. A.; Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    The renal and hemodynamic responses of squirrel monkeys to central vascular volume expansion induced by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) during the day and night are investigated. Twelve unanesthetized animals trained to sit in a metabolism chair in which they were restrained only at the waist by a partition separating upper and lower body chambers were subjected to 4 h of continuous LBPP during the day and night, and hemodynamic, urinary and drinking data were monitored. LBPP during day and night is found to induce similar increases in central venous pressure, rises in heart rate and elevations in mean arterial blood pressure. However, although daytime LBPP induced a significant increase in urine flow and sodium excretion, a marked nocturnal inhibition of the renal response to LBPP is observed. Analysis of the time course and circadian regulation patterns of the urinary responses suggests that several separate efferent control pathways are involved.

  10. Nitro-oleic acid inhibits vascular endothelial inflammatory responses and the endothelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Ambrozova, Gabriela; Fidlerova, Tana; Verescakova, Hana; Koudelka, Adolf; Rudolph, Tanja K; Woodcock, Steven R; Freeman, Bruce A; Kubala, Lukas; Pekarova, Michaela

    2016-11-01

    Inflammatory-mediated pathological processes in the endothelium arise as a consequence of the dysregulation of vascular homeostasis. Of particular importance are mediators produced by stimulated monocytes/macrophages inducing activation of endothelial cells (ECs). This is manifested by excessive soluble pro-inflammatory mediator production and cell surface adhesion molecule expression. Nitro-fatty acids are endogenous products of metabolic and inflammatory reactions that display immuno-regulatory potential and may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to treat inflammatory diseases. The purpose of our study was to characterize the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) on inflammatory responses and the endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in ECs that is a consequence of the altered healing phase of the immune response. The effect of OA-NO2 on inflammatory responses and EndMT was determined in murine macrophages and murine and human ECs using Western blotting, ELISA, immunostaining, and functional assays. OA-NO2 limited the activation of macrophages and ECs by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production and adhesion molecule expression through its modulation of STAT, MAPK and NF-κB-regulated signaling. OA-NO2 also decreased transforming growth factor-β-stimulated EndMT and pro-fibrotic phenotype of ECs. These effects are related to the downregulation of Smad2/3. The study shows the pleiotropic effect of OA-NO2 on regulating EC-macrophage interactions during the immune response and suggests a role for OA-NO2 in the regulation of vascular endothelial immune and fibrotic responses arising during chronic inflammation. These findings propose the OA-NO2 may be useful as a novel therapeutic agent for treatment of cardiovascular disorders associated with dysregulation of the endothelial immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the influence of antivibration glove on digital vascular responses to acute hand-arm vibration.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Md H; Yokoyama, Kenjiro; Laskar, Md S; Inoue, Masaiwa; Takahashi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Shinji; Harada, Noriaki

    2007-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the influence of an antivibration glove on digital vascular responses in healthy subjects exposed to short-term grasping of a vibrating handle. To measure finger blood flow (FBF) and finger skin temperature (FST) once at the end of every min, a blood flowmeter sensor was attached to the dorsum and a thermistor sensor was attached to the medial surface of the subject's middle phalanx of the third finger of the right hand. After 5 min of baseline measurements without or with an antivibration glove meeting ISO standard 10819, worn on the right hand, subjects gripped a vibrating handle with the same hand for a period of 5 min. Vibration was generated at two frequencies of 31.5 Hz and 250 Hz with a frequency weighted rms acceleration of 5.5 m/s(2). FBF and FST continued to be recorded for a further 5 min after release of the vibrating handle. Statistical analysis showed no significant change after vibration exposure in either FST or FBF at 250 Hz, compared to baseline (control) measurements while using the antivibration glove. At 31.5 Hz, FBF data exhibited a significant difference between before and after grasping of vibrating handle, which was less under the condition of wearing the antivibration glove than under the condition of bare hand. The results provide evidence that the antivibration glove considerably influenced finger vascular changes in healthy subjects induced by vibration exposure, especially against high frequency vibration. Further studies are required to assess finger vascular responses to hand-transmitted vibration with antivibration gloves of different manufacturers.

  12. Early cannulation prosthetic graft (Acuseal) for arteriovenous access: a useful option to provide a personal vascular access solution.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Emma L; Jackson, Andrew J; Kingsmore, David B

    2014-01-01

    Early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (ecAVGs), such as the GORE Acuseal, have "low bleed" properties permitting cannulation within 24 hours of insertion. They may provide an alternative to tunneled central venous catheters (and associated line complications) in patients requiring urgent vascular access. We present our early experience of 37 patients treated with the GORE Acuseal ecAVG. A total of 11 upper limb, 24 lower limb and 2 complex graft procedures were performed. Indications for ecAVG were as follows: bridge to transplantation (21.6%); bridge to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation (8.1%); AVF salvage (8.1%); no native options (67.6%, including 17 patients with bilateral central vein stenosis); 36 AVGs (97.3%) were successfully cannulated. Mean time to first cannulation: 30.4±23.4 hours (range: 2-192). Primary and secondary patency rates at 3, 6 and 12 months were 64.9%, 48.6%, 32.4% and 70.2%, 59.4%, 40.5% respectively. The systemic bacteremia rate was 0.2 per 1,000 access days. There was one perioperative death. Other complications included hematoma at cannulation sites (n=9), pseudoaneurysm (n=3) and local infection at graft site (n=6). A total of 26 of 37 patients (70.6%) achieved a "personal vascular access solution": bridge to transplantation (n=8), bridge to functioning AVF/interposition AVG (n=5), maintenance hemodialysis via ecAVG (n=13); death with functioning AVG (n=1). Early experience with the GORE Acuseal is encouraging. Patency and bacteremia rates are at least comparable to standard polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. ecAVGs have permitted cannulation within 24 hours of insertion and line avoidance in the majority of patients. Nearly three-quarters of patients achieved a definitive "personal vascular access solution" from their ecAVG.

  13. Comparison of in vivo immune responses following transplantation of vascularized and non-vascularized human dermo-epidermal skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Klar, Agnes S; Biedermann, Thomas; Simmen-Meuli, Claudia; Reichmann, Ernst; Meuli, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Autologous bio-engineered dermo-epidermal skin substitutes (DESS) represent an alternative therapeutic option for a definitive treatment of skin defects in human patients. Largely, the interaction of host immune cells with transplanted DESS is considered to be essential for the granulation tissue formation, graft take, and its functionality. The aim of this study was to compare the spatiotemporal distribution and density of host-derived monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes in vascularized (vascDESS) versus non-vascularized DESS (non-vascDESS) in a rat model. Keratinocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were derived from human skin or human adipose tissue, respectively. Human SVF containing both endothelial and mesenchymal/stromal progenitors was used to develop a vascularized collagen type I-based dermal component in vitro. The donor-matched, monolayer-expanded adipose stromal cells lacking endothelial cells were used as a negative control. Subsequently, human keratinocytes were seeded on top of hydrogels to build dermo-epidermal skin grafts. After transplantation onto full-thickness skin wounds on the back of immuno-incompetent rats, grafts were excised and analyzed after 1 and 3 weeks. The expression of distinct inflammatory cell markers specific for host-derived monocytes/macrophages (CD11b, CD68) or granulocytes (HIS48) was analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy. All skin grafts were infiltrated by host-derived monocytes/macrophages (CD11b + , CD68 + ) and granulocytes (HIS48 + ) between 1-3 week post-transplantation. When compared to non-vascDESS, the vascDESS showed an increased granulocyte infiltration at all time points analyzed with the majority of cells scattered throughout the whole dermal part. Whereas a moderate number of rat monocytes/macrophages (CD11b + , CD68 + ) were found in vascDESS at 1 week, only a few cells were detected in non-vascDESS. We observed a time-dependent decrease of monocytes/macrophages in all transplants at 3

  14. Calcium antagonism: aldosterone and vascular responses to catecholamines and angiotensin II in man.

    PubMed

    Elliott, H L

    1993-12-01

    Effects of calcium antagonists on pressor mechanisms: A number of differences have been reported in the variable extent to which calcium antagonists interfere with various pressor mechanisms. In theory, high lipid solubility, membrane-binding characteristics and a prolonged duration of action appear to be requirements for a calcium antagonist to affect mechanisms such as vasodilation, endogenous vasoconstrictor responses, hormone release and natriuretic activity. Reduction in peripheral vascular resistance: A reduction in peripheral vascular resistance is fundamental to the antihypertensive effect not only of calcium antagonists but also of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists. However, only the calcium antagonists interfere directly with the pressor responses mediated by both the adrenergic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system. Mechanism of lacidipine effects: Preliminary results with the new dihydropyridine calcium antagonist lacidipine indicate that it not only has vasodilator activity but that it also interferes with both adrenergic and non-adrenergic endogenous vasoconstrictor mechanisms. This may provide additional potentially beneficial cardiovascular effects, particularly in relation to left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction.

  15. Pressor response to intravenous tyramine is a marker of cardiac, but not vascular, adrenergic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meck, Janice V.; Martin, David S.; D'Aunno, Dominick S.; Waters, Wendy W.

    2003-01-01

    Intravenous injections of the indirect sympathetic amine, tyramine, are used as a test of peripheral adrenergic function. The authors measured the time course of increases in ejection fraction, heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressure, popliteal artery flow, and greater saphenous vein diameter before and after an injection of 4.0 mg/m(2) body surface area of tyramine in normal human subjects. The tyramine caused moderate, significant increases in systolic pressure and significant decreases in total peripheral resistance. The earliest changes were a 30% increase in ejection fraction and a 16% increase in systolic pressure, followed by a 60% increase in popliteal artery flow and a later 11% increase in greater saphenous vein diameter. There were no changes in diastolic pressure or heart rate. These results suggest that pressor responses during tyramine injections are primarily due to an inotropic response that increases cardiac output and pressure and causes a reflex decrease in vascular resistance. Thus, tyramine pressor tests are a measure of cardiac, but not vascular, sympathetic function.

  16. Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibition Reduces Vascular Damage and Modulates Innate Immune Responses in Murine Models of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jason S.; Luo, Wei; O’Dell, Alexander A.; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Zhao, Wenpu; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Guo, Chiao; Grenn, Robert C.; Thompson, Paul R.; Eitzman, Daniel T.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation promotes vascular damage, thrombosis, and activation of interferon-α-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells in diseased arteries. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition is a strategy that can decrease in vivo NET formation. Objective To test whether peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition, a novel approach to targeting arterial disease, can reduce vascular damage and inhibit innate immune responses in murine models of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Apolipoprotein-E (Apoe)−/− mice demonstrated enhanced NET formation, developed autoantibodies to NETs, and expressed high levels of interferon-α in diseased arteries. Apoe−/− mice were treated for 11 weeks with daily injections of Cl-amidine, a peptidylarginine deiminase inhibitor. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition blocked NET formation, reduced atherosclerotic lesion area, and delayed time to carotid artery thrombosis in a photochemical injury model. Decreases in atherosclerosis burden were accompanied by reduced recruitment of netting neutrophils and macrophages to arteries, as well as by reduced arterial interferon-α expression. Conclusions Pharmacological interventions that block NET formation can reduce atherosclerosis burden and arterial thrombosis in murine systems. These results support a role for aberrant NET formation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis through modulation of innate immune responses. PMID:24425713

  17. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition reduces vascular damage and modulates innate immune responses in murine models of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jason S; Luo, Wei; O'Dell, Alexander A; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Zhao, Wenpu; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Guo, Chiao; Grenn, Robert C; Thompson, Paul R; Eitzman, Daniel T; Kaplan, Mariana J

    2014-03-14

    Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation promotes vascular damage, thrombosis, and activation of interferon-α-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells in diseased arteries. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition is a strategy that can decrease in vivo NET formation. To test whether peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition, a novel approach to targeting arterial disease, can reduce vascular damage and inhibit innate immune responses in murine models of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein-E (Apoe)(-/-) mice demonstrated enhanced NET formation, developed autoantibodies to NETs, and expressed high levels of interferon-α in diseased arteries. Apoe(-/-) mice were treated for 11 weeks with daily injections of Cl-amidine, a peptidylarginine deiminase inhibitor. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition blocked NET formation, reduced atherosclerotic lesion area, and delayed time to carotid artery thrombosis in a photochemical injury model. Decreases in atherosclerosis burden were accompanied by reduced recruitment of netting neutrophils and macrophages to arteries, as well as by reduced arterial interferon-α expression. Pharmacological interventions that block NET formation can reduce atherosclerosis burden and arterial thrombosis in murine systems. These results support a role for aberrant NET formation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis through modulation of innate immune responses.

  18. Reflex vascular responses to alterations in abdominal arterial pressure and flow in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Drinkhill, M J; Doe, C P; Myers, D S; Self, D A; Hainsworth, R

    1997-11-01

    The existence of abdominal arterial baroreceptors has long been controversial. Previously difficulties have been encountered in localizing a stimulus to abdominal arteries without affecting reflexogenic areas elsewhere. In these experiments, using anaesthetized dogs, the abdomen was vascularly isolated at the level of the diaphragm, perfused through the aorta, and drained from the inferior vena cava to a reservoir. Changes in abdominal arterial pressure were effected by changing the perfusion pump speed. During this procedure the flow back to the animal from the venous outflow reservoir was held constant. Increases and decreases in abdominal arterial pressure resulted, respectively, in decreases and increases in perfusion pressure to a vascularly isolated hind-limb and in some dogs also a forelimb. Responses were significantly larger when carotid sinus pressure was high (120-180 mmHg) than when it was low (60 mmHg). Responses were still obtained after cutting vagus, phrenic and splanchnic nerves, but were abolished by spinal cord lesion at T12. These experiments provide evidence for the existence of abdominal arterial baroreceptors. The afferent pathway for the reflex vasodilatation appears to run in the spinal cord.

  19. Tobacco-induced suppression of the vascular response to dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Buduneli, Nurcan; Scott, David A

    2018-05-16

    Cigarette smoking presents oral health professionals with a clinical and research conundrum: reduced periodontal vascular responsiveness to the oral biofilm accompanied by increased susceptibility to destructive periodontal diseases. This presents a significant problem, hampering diagnosis and complicating treatment planning. The aim of this review is to summarize contemporary hypotheses that help explain mechanistically the phenomenon of a suppressed bleeding response to dysbiotic plaque in the periodontia of smokers. The influence of smoke exposure on angiogenesis, innate cell function, the production of inflammatory mediators including cytokines and proteases, tobacco-bacterial interactions and potential genetic predisposition, are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Responses of enzymatically isolated mammalian vascular smooth muscle cells to pharmacological and electrical stimuli.

    PubMed

    DeFeo, T T; Morgan, K G

    1985-05-01

    A modified method for enzymatically isolating mammalian vascular smooth muscle cells has been developed and tested for ferret portal vein smooth muscle. This method produces a high proportion of fully relaxed cells and these cells appear to have normal pharmacological responsiveness. The ED50 values for both alpha stimulation and potassium depolarization are not significantly different in the isolated cells from those obtained from intact strips of ferret portal vein, suggesting that the enzymatic treatment does not destroy receptors or alter the electrical responsiveness of the cells. It was also possible to demonstrate a vasodilatory action of papaverine, nitroprusside and adenosine directly on the isolated cells indicating that the pathways involved are intact in the isolated cells. This method should be of considerable usefulness, particularly in combination with the new fluorescent indicators and cell sorter techniques which require isolated cells.

  1. Hemodynamic Flow-Induced Mechanotransduction Signaling Influences the Radiation Response of the Vascular Endothelium.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Mohan; Aravindan, Natarajan; Sprague, Eugene A; Mohan, Sumathy

    2016-08-01

    Hemodynamic shear stress is defined as the physical force exerted by the continuous flow of blood in the vascular system. Endothelial cells, which line the inner layer of blood vessels, sense this physiological force through mechanotransduction signaling and adapt to maintain structural and functional homeostasis. Hemodynamic flow, shear stress and mechanotransduction signaling are, therefore, an integral part of endothelial pathophysiology. Although this is a well-established concept in the cardiovascular field, it is largely dismissed in studies aimed at understanding radiation injury to the endothelium and subsequent cardiovascular complications. We and others have reported on the differential response of the endothelium when the cells are under hemodynamic flow shear compared with static culture. Further, we have demonstrated significant differences in the gene expression of static versus shear-stressed irradiated cells in four key pathways, reinforcing the importance of shear stress in understanding radiation injury of the endothelium. This article further emphasizes the influence of hemodynamic shear stress and the associated mechanotransduction signaling on physiological functioning of the vascular endothelium and underscores its significance in understanding radiation injury to the vasculature and associated cardiac complications. Studies of radiation effect on endothelial biology and its implication on cardiotoxicity and vascular complications thus far have failed to highlight the significance of these factors. Factoring in these integral parts of the endothelium will enhance our understanding of the contribution of the endothelium to radiation biology. Without such information, the current approaches to studying radiation-induced injury to the endothelium and its consequences in health and disease are limited.

  2. Expression and Function of Anti-Inflammatory Interleukins: The Other Side of the Vascular Response to Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cuneo, Anthony A.; Autieri, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Common to multiple vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, interventional restenosis, and transplant vasculopathy, is a localized inflammatory reaction. Activated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) respond to local inflammation and migrate from the media into the lumen of the vessel where they proliferate and synthesize cytokines which they respond to in an autocrine fashion, sustaining the progression of the lesion. The deleterious effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly immunomodulatory interleukins, on vascular pathophysiology and development of these maladaptive processes have been the subject of intense study. Although a great deal of attention has been given to the negative effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interleukins, relatively little has been reported on the potentially beneficial paracrine and autocrine effects of anti-inflammatory interleukins on the vascular response to injury. The vast majority of emphasis on secretion and function of anti-inflammatory mediators has been placed on leukocytes. Consequently, the role of non-immune cells, and direct effects of anti-inflammatory interleukins on vascular cells is poorly understood. We will review the molecular mechanisms whereby anti-inflammatory interleukins inhibit signal transduction and gene expression in inflammatory cells. We will review studies in which beneficial “indirect” effects of anti-inflammatory interleukins on progression of vascular disease are achieved by modulation of immune function. We will also present the limited studies in which “direct” effects of these interleukins on VSMC and endothelial cells dampen the vascular response to injury. We propose that expression of immunomodulatory cytokines by activated vasculature may represent an auto-regulatory feed back mechanism to promote resolution of the vascular response to injury. PMID:19601851

  3. Vascular and inflammatory high fat meal responses in young healthy men; a discriminative role of IL-8 observed in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Esser, Diederik; Oosterink, Els; op 't Roodt, Jos; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2013-01-01

    High fat meal challenges are known to induce postprandial low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. This assumption is largely based on studies performed in older populations or in populations with a progressed disease state and an appropriate control meal is often lacking. Young healthy individuals might be more resilient to such challenges. We therefore aimed to characterize the vascular and inflammatory response after a high fat meal in young healthy individuals. In a double-blind randomized cross-over intervention study, we used a comprehensive phenotyping approach to determine the vascular and inflammatory response after consumption of a high fat shake and after an average breakfast shake in 20 young healthy subjects. Both interventions were performed three times. Many features of the vascular postprandial response, such as FMD, arterial stiffness and micro-vascular skin blood flow were not different between shakes. High fat/high energy shake consumption was associated with a more pronounced increase in blood pressure, heart rate, plasma concentrations of IL-8 and PBMCs gene expression of IL-8 and CD54 (ICAM-1), whereas plasma concentrations of sVCAM1 were decreased compared to an average breakfast. Whereas no difference in postprandial response were observed on classical markers of endothelial function, we did observe differences between consumption of a HF/HE and an average breakfast meal on blood pressure and IL-8 in young healthy volunteers. IL-8 might play an important role in dealing with high fat challenges and might be an early marker for endothelial stress, a stage preceding endothelial dysfunction.

  4. Increased vascularization during early healing after biologic augmentation in repair of chronic rotator cuff tears using autologous leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF): a prospective randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Zumstein, Matthias A; Rumian, Adam; Lesbats, Virginie; Schaer, Michael; Boileau, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs using leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in a standardized, modified protocol is technically feasible and results in a higher vascularization response and watertight healing rate during early healing. Twenty patients with chronic rotator cuff tears were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups. In the test group (N = 10), L-PRF was added in between the tendon and the bone during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The second group served as control (N = 10). They received the same arthroscopic treatment without the use of L-PRF. We used a double-row tension band technique. Clinical examinations including subjective shoulder value, visual analog scale, Constant, and Simple Shoulder Test scores and measurement of the vascularization with power Doppler ultrasonography were made at 6 and 12 weeks. There have been no postoperative complications. At 6 and 12 weeks, there was no significant difference in the clinical scores between the test and the control groups. The mean vascularization index of the surgical tendon-to-bone insertions was always significantly higher in the L-PRF group than in the contralateral healthy shoulders at 6 and 12 weeks (P = .0001). Whereas the L-PRF group showed a higher vascularization compared with the control group at 6 weeks (P = .001), there was no difference after 12 weeks of follow-up (P = .889). Watertight healing was obtained in 89% of the repaired cuffs. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with the application of L-PRF is technically feasible and yields higher early vascularization. Increased vascularization may potentially predispose to an increased and earlier cellular response and an increased healing rate. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Intervention of Didang Decoction on MLCK Signaling Pathways in Vascular Endothelial Cells of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhenqiang; Li, Jing; Li, Chunshen

    2016-01-01

    In the study, type 2 diabetic rat model was established using streptozotocin (STZ) combined with a high-fat diet, and the rats were divided into control and diabetic groups. Diabetic groups were further divided into nonintervening, simvastatin, Didang Decoction (DDD) early-phase intervening, DDD mid-phase intervening, and DDD late-phase intervening groups. The expression level of MLCK was detected using Western Blot analysis, and the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein kinase A (PKA) were examined using Real Time PCR. Under the electron microscope, the cells in the early-DDD-intervention group and the simvastatin group were significantly more continuous and compact than those in the diabetic group. Compared with the control group, the expression of cAMP-1 and PKA was decreased in all diabetic groups, whereas the expression of MLCK and PKC was increased in early- and mid-phase DDD-intervening groups (P < 0.05); compared with the late-phase DDD-intervening group, the expression of cAMP-1 and PKA was higher, but the level of MLCK and PKC was lower in early-phase DDD-intervening group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the early use of DDD improves the permeability of vascular endothelial cells by regulating the MLCK signaling pathway. PMID:27703477

  6. [Use of magnetic therapy for treatment of early symptoms of vascular-type vibration syndrome in forestry workers].

    PubMed

    Karczewska, M

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the use of magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of therapeutic parameters in the treatment of early symptoms of vascular-type vibration syndrome in forestry workers. The study covered 96 forestry workers, and the control group was composed of 29 sawyers who underwent a simulated treatment. Each worker was granted sick leave and applied 20 procedures by employing an Aplhatron 4100 device under the ambulatory conditions. The outcome of the treatment was evaluated directly after the last procedure and 3 months later. A diversified positive influence on individual subjective and objective pathological changes in regard to both direct and late effects was observed. The abatement of subjective disorders right after termination of the treatment was observed in 67.7% and objective disorders in 57.3%. A long-term improvement (after 3 months) was found in a smaller proportion of persons as the abatement of subjective disorders was reported by 59.3% while objective disorders persisted in 43.7%. The results obtained prove that the application of variable magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of therapeutic parameters is useful in the prophylaxis and treatment of pathological changes during the period of prodromal symptoms and early pathological changes in vascular-type vibration syndrome induced by local magnetic vibrations.

  7. Vascular mechanisms of cyanidin-3-glucoside response in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Sima; Roghani, Mehrdad; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Rabani, Tahereh; Balvardi, Mahboubeh

    2011-09-01

    Considering the high incidence of cardiovascular disorders in diabetes mellitus and some evidence on the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), this study was conducted to evaluate the possible beneficial effect of C3G administration on vascular reactivity of isolated thoracic aorta in diabetic rats and some of its underlying mechanisms. Male diabetic rats received C3G (10mg/kg; i.p.) on alternate days for 8 weeks one week after streptozotocin (STZ) diabetes induction. It was found out that treatment of diabetic rats with C3G exerted a hypoglycaemic effect and attenuated the increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in aortic tissue. Maximum contractile response of endothelium-intact aortic rings to phenylephrine (PE) was significantly lower in C3G-treated diabetic rats relative to untreated diabetics and endothelium removal abolished this difference. Meanwhile, endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) was significantly higher in C3G-treated diabetic rats as compared to diabetic group. Chronic treatment with C3G may prevent some diabetes-related changes in vascular reactivity observed in diabetic rats directly and/or indirectly due to its hypoglycaemic effect and attenuation of lipid peroxidation and through endothelial-derived factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Whole-body heating decreases skin vascular response to low orthostatic stress in the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Nakayama, Yoshiro; Sone, Ryoko

    2006-04-01

    To elucidate the influence of heat stress on cutaneous vascular response in the lower extremities during orthostatic stress, a head-up tilt (HUT) test at angles of 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees for 4 min each was conducted under normothermic control conditions followed by whole-body heat stress produced by a hot water-perfused suit in healthy volunteers. Skin blood flows (SkBF) in the forearm, thigh, and calf were monitored using laser-Doppler flowmetry throughout the experiment. Furthermore, to elucidate the effects of increased core and local skin temperatures on the local vascular response in calf skin under increasing orthostatic stress, the thigh was occluded at 20, 30, 50, 70, and 80 mmHg with a cuff in both the normothermic condition and the whole-body or local heating condition. Significant decreases in forearm SkBF during HUT were observed at an angle of 60 degrees during normothermia and at 30 degrees or more during heating. SkBF in the thigh and calf was decreased significantly by HUT at 15 degrees and above during normothermia, and there was no significant reduction of SkBF in these sites during HUT at the lower angles (15 degrees -45 degrees ) during whole-body heating. Significant decreases of calf SkBF were observed at cuff pressures of 20 mmHg and above during normothermia and of 30 mmHg and above during whole-body and local heating, respectively. These results suggest that SkBF in the lower extremities shows a marked reduction compared with the upper extremities during low orthostatic stress in normothermia, and the enhanced skin vasoconstrictor response in the lower extremities is diminished by both whole-body and local heat stress.

  9. Effectiveness of evaluating tumor vascularization using 3D power Doppler ultrasound with high-definition flow technology in the prediction of the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer: a preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shia, Wei-Chung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Huang, Yu-Len; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Kuo, Shou-Jen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced ultrasound (US) imaging of vascular flow and morphological features in the prediction of a pathologic complete response (pCR) and a partial response (PR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with T2 breast cancer treated with six courses of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler US with high-definition flow (HDF) technology was used to investigate the blood flow in and morphological features of the tumors. Six vascularity quantization features, three morphological features, and two vascular direction features were selected and extracted from the US images. A support vector machine was used to evaluate the changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and pCR and PR were predicted on the basis of these changes. The most accurate prediction of pCR was achieved after the first chemotherapy cycle, with an accuracy of 93.1% and a specificity of 85.5%, while that of a PR was achieved after the second cycle, with an accuracy of 79.31% and a specificity of 72.22%. Vascularity data can be useful to predict the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Determination of changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 3D power Doppler US with HDF can generate accurate predictions of the patient response, facilitating early decision-making.

  10. Rate dependency and role of nitric oxide in the vascular response to direct cooling in human skin.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko; Zhao, Kun; Alvarez, Guy E; Kosiba, Wojciech A; Johnson, John M

    2006-01-01

    Local cooling of nonglabrous skin without functional sympathetic nerves causes an initial vasodilation followed by vasoconstriction. To further characterize these responses to local cooling, we examined the importance of the rate of local cooling and the effect of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in intact skin and in skin with vasoconstrictor function inhibited. Release of norepinephrine was blocked locally (iontophoresis) with bretylium tosylate (BT). Skin blood flow was monitored from the forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as the ratio of LDF to blood pressure. Local temperature was controlled over 6.3 cm2 around the sites of LDF measurement. Local cooling was applied at -0.33 or -4 degrees C/min. At -4 degrees C/min, CVC increased (P < 0.05) at BT sites in the early phase. At -0.33 degrees C/min, there was no early vasodilator response, but there was a delay in the onset of vasoconstriction relative to intact skin. The NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (intradermal microdialysis) decreased (P < 0.05) CVC by 28.3 +/- 3.8% at untreated sites and by 46.9 +/- 6.3% at BT-treated sites from the value before infusion. Rapid local cooling (-4 degrees C/min) to 24 degrees C decreased (P < 0.05) CVC at both untreated (saline) sites and L-NAME only sites from the precooling levels, but it transiently increased (P < 0.05) CVC at both BT + saline sites and BT + L-NAME sites in the early phase. After 35-45 min of local cooling, CVC decreased at BT + saline sites relative to the precooling levels (P < 0.05), but at BT + L-NAME sites CVC was not reduced below the precooling level (P = 0.29). These findings suggest that the rate of local cooling, but not functional NOS, is an important determinant of the early non-adrenergic vasodilator response to local cooling and that functional NOS, adrenergic nerves, as well as other mechanisms play roles in vasoconstriction during prolonged local

  11. Angiogenesis for tumor vascular normalization of Endostar on hepatoma 22 tumor-bearing mice is involved in the immune response.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingyu; Gu, Junfei; Lv, You; Yuan, Jiarui; Yang, Nan; Chen, Juan; Wang, Chunfei; Hou, Xuefeng; Jia, Xiaobin; Feng, Liang; Yin, Guowen

    2018-03-01

    Tumor vascular normalization involved in immune response is beneficial to the chemotherapy of tumors. Recombinant human endostatin (Endostar), an angiogenesis inhibitor, has been demonstrated to be effective in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). However, its vascular normalization in HCC and the role of the immune response in angiogenesis were unclear. In the present study, effects of Endostar on tumor vascular normalization were evaluated in hepatoma 22 (H22) tumor-bearing mice. Endostar was able to inhibit the proliferation and infiltration of tumor cells and improve α-fetoprotein, tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclic adenosine 5'-phosphate levels in the serum of H22-bearing mice, as well as the protein expression levels of the immune factors interferon-γ and cluster of differentiation (CD)86 in liver tissue. Endostar also exhibited more marked downregulation of the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, CD31, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and interleukin-17 during day 3-9 treatment, resulting in short-term normalization of tumor blood vessels. The period of vascular normalization was 3-9 days. The results of the present study demonstrated that Endostar was able to induce the period of vascular normalization, contributing to a more efficacious means of HCC treatment combined with other chemotherapy, and this effect was associated with the immune response. It may be concluded that Endostar inhibited immunity-associated angiogenesis behaviors of vascular endothelial cells in response to HCC. The results of the present study provided more reasonable possibility for the combination therapy of Endostar for the treatment of HCC.

  12. Antioxidative response in variegated Pelargonium zonale leaves and generation of extracellular H2O2 in (peri)vascular tissue induced by sunlight and paraquat.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Marija; Morina, Filis; Prokić, Ljiljana; Milić-Komić, Sonja; Živanović, Bojana; Jovanović, Sonja Veljović

    2016-11-01

    In this study we exposed variegated leaves of Pelargonium zonale to strong sunlight (>1100μmolm -2 s -1 of photosynthetically active radiation) with and without paraquat (Pq), with the aim to elucidate the mechanisms of H 2 O 2 regulation in green and white tissues with respect to the photosynthetically-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sunlight induced marked accumulation of H 2 O 2 in the apoplast of vascular and (peri)vascular tissues only in green sectors. This effect was enhanced by the addition of Pq. In the presence of diphenyl iodide, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, H 2 O 2 accumulation was abolished. Distinct light-induced responses were observed: in photosynthetic cells, sunlight rapidly provoked ascorbate (Asc) biosynthesis and an increase of glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase activities, while in non-photosynthetic cells, early up-regulation of soluble ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and GR activities was observed. Paraquat addition stimulated DHAR and GR activities in green sectors, while in white sectors activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase, DHAR and class III peroxidases, as well as Asc content rapidly increased. Differential antioxidative responses in the two tissues in the frame of their contrasting metabolisms, and the possible role of (peri)vascular H 2 O 2 in signaling were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Aldosterone and angiotensin II synergistically induce mitogenic response in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Li-Juan; Mogi, Masaki; Li, Jian-Mei; Iwanami, Jun; Iwai, Masaru; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2005-09-02

    Interaction between aldosterone (Aldo) and angiotensin II (Ang II) in the cardiovascular system has been highlighted; however, its detailed signaling mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we examined the cross-talk of growth-promoting signaling between Aldo and Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Treatment with a lower dose of Aldo (10(-12) mol/L) and with a lower dose of Ang II (10(-10) mol/L) significantly enhanced DNA synthesis, whereas Aldo or Ang II alone at these doses did not affect VSMC proliferation. This effect of a combination of Aldo and Ang II was markedly inhibited by a selective AT1 receptor blocker, olmesartan, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone, an MEK inhibitor, PD98059, or an EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG1478. Treatment with Aldo together with Ang II, even at noneffective doses, respectively, synergistically increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, reaching 2 peaks at 10 to 15 minutes and 2 to 4 hours. The early ERK peak was effectively blocked by olmesartan or an EGF receptor kinase inhibitor, AG1478, but not by spironolactone, whereas the late ERK peak was completely inhibited by not only olmesartan, but also spironolactone. Combined treatment with Aldo and Ang II attenuated mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression and increased Ki-ras2A expression. The late ERK peak was not observed in VSMC treated with Ki-ras2A-siRNA. Interestingly, the decrease in MKP-1 expression and the increase in Ki-ras2A expression were restored by PD98059 or AG1478. These results suggest that Aldo exerts a synergistic mitogenic effect with Ang II and support the notion that blockade of both Aldo and Ang II could be more effective to prevent vascular remodeling.

  14. Effect of melatonin on vascular responses in aortic rings of aging rats.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Toso, Carlos F; Obaya-Naredo, Daniel; Ricci, Conrado R; Planells, Fernando M; Pinto, Jorge E; Linares, Laura M; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2007-04-01

    In old animals a marked reduction in endothelium-dependent relaxation occurs. Since there is evidence that the endothelial dysfunction associated with aging may be partly related to the local formation of reactive oxygen species, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the natural antioxidant melatonin (10(-5)mol/l) on in vitro contractility of aged aortic rings under conditions of increased oxidative stress (40 m mol/l glucose concentration in medium). Experiments were carried out in 18-20 months old, Wistar male rats, using adult (6-7 months old) animals as controls. A higher plasma lipid peroxidation was found in aged rats as compared to the younger ones. In a first experiment, dose-response curves for acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aortic rings were conducted. Analyzed as a main factor in a factorial ANOVA, age decreased and melatonin augmented the relaxing response to acetylcholine. melatonin's restoring effect on aortic ring relaxation was found in aged aortic rings only and was more pronounced in the presence of a high glucose medium. In a second experiment, the effect of melatonin on the contractility response to phenylephrine of intact or endothelium-denuded aortic rings obtained from aged or control rats was examined in normal or high glucose medium. A main factor analysis in the factorial ANOVA indicated that age and operation augmented, and melatonin decreased, aortic ring contractility response to phenylephrine. Melatonin's restoring effect on aortic contractility was seen in aged aortic rings. The effect of age or a high glucose medium on phenylephrine-induced contractility was more pronounced in the absence of an intact endothelium. Aging did not affect the relaxant response of intact or endothelium-denuded rings to sodium nitroprusside. The results support the improvement by melatonin of vascular response in aging rats, presumably via its antioxidant activity.

  15. Relationship of ovarian stimulation response with vascular endothelial growth factor and degree of granulosa cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Quintana, R; Kopcow, L; Marconi, G; Sueldo, C; Speranza, G; Barañao, R I

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in follicular fluid and in granulosa cell cultures in relation to the degree of apoptosis in granulosa cells from patients with different types of ovarian response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. We studied 30 women who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte retrieval. Group A comprised patients with 1-4 follicles (n = 10), group B patients with 5-14 follicles (n = 10) and group C patients with >15 follicles (n = 10). Mean (+/-SD) VEGF concentrations in follicular fluid were 1232 +/- 209, 813 +/- 198 and 396 +/- 103 pg/ml for groups A, B and C respectively (P > 0.01). Concentrations of VEGF in granulosa cell supernatant were 684 +/- 316, 1101 +/- 295 and 1596 +/- 227 pg/ml respectively (P < 0.05). Percentages of apoptotic cells in granulosa cells culture was 55.02 +/- 7.5, 23.98 +/- 4.4 and 14.2 +/- 2.3% respectively (A versus B, P < 0.01, A versus C, P < 0.006, B versus C, NS). Our findings showed that in patients with decreased ovarian response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, follicular fluid VEGF concentration is elevated, the concentration from granulosa cells culture supernatant is decreased and the percentage of apoptotic granulosa cells is increased, while opposite findings occurred in patients with normal or hyper-responses.

  16. The three-dimensional feto-maternal vascular interrelationship during early bovine placental development: a scanning electron microscopical study

    PubMed Central

    PFARRER, CHRISTIANE; EBERT, BRIGITTE; MIGLINO, MARIA ANGELICA; KLISCH, KARL; LEISER, RUDOLF

    2001-01-01

    Both the fetal and maternal microvasculature of bovine placentomes was examined by scanning electron microscopy of vascular casts. So far the development of the vascular architecture of the bovine placentome in early gestation has only been studied 2-dimensionally due to technical difficulties arising from the fragility of the early placental blood vessels. Repeated experiments led to the selection of the microvascular corrosion casts presented here. The vasculature of the maternal compartment is supplied by large caruncular stalk or spiral arteries, which release short maternal stem arteries. In the 3rd month of gestation, these arteries branch into several arterioles at their base, thus providing the vascular framework for the lower part of the septal walls of the primary crypts. In the 4th month, due to progressive longitudinal growth of the stem arteries, branching into arterioles occurs not only at the base, but over the whole length of the stem arteries. These arterioles supply the capillary complexes of the septa which resemble the major part of the septal vasculature and face the secondary crypts. Further indentation results in the formation of tertiary crypt capillary complexes, encircling the earlier secondary unit. From the 6th month of gestation the architecture resembles the fully developed maternal placenta with stem arteries running directly to the fetal side to branch into 4 to 6 arterioles, which turn back to enter secondary and tertiary septa. Maternal venules, collecting the blood from the capillary bed of secondary and tertiary septa, converge onto stem veins leaving the caruncle via branches of the uterine vein. The fetal part of the placentome is supplied by the cotyledonary arteries, which branch into fetal stem arteries that are the tributary to single villous trees. Over their whole course towards the maternal side, these give off arterioles entering secondary villi. The tertiary or terminal villous vasculature consists of capillaries

  17. An early validation of the Society for Vascular Surgery lower extremity threatened limb classification system.

    PubMed

    Cull, David L; Manos, Ginger; Hartley, Michael C; Taylor, Spence M; Langan, Eugene M; Eidt, John F; Johnson, Brent L

    2014-12-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) recently established the Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System, a staging system using Wound characteristic, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) to stratify the risk for limb amputation at 1 year. Although intuitive in nature, this new system has not been validated. The purpose of the following study was to determine whether the WIfI system is predictive of limb amputation and wound healing. Between 2007 and 2010, we prospectively obtained data related to wound characteristics, extent of infection, and degree of postrevascularization ischemia in 139 patients with foot wounds who presented for lower extremity revascularization (158 revascularization procedures). After adapting those data to the WIfI classifications, we analyzed the influence of wound characteristics, extent of infection, and degree of ischemia on time to wound healing; empirical Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared with theoretical outcomes predicted by WIfI expert consensus opinion. Of the 158 foot wounds, 125 (79%) healed. The median time to wound healing was 2.7 months (range, 1-18 months). Factors associated with wound healing included presence of diabetes mellitus (P = .013), wound location (P = .049), wound size (P = .007), wound depth (P = .004), and degree of ischemia (P < .001). The WIfI clinical stage was predictive of 1-year limb amputation (stage 1, 3%; stage 2, 10%; stage 3, 23%; stage 4, 40%) and wound nonhealing (stage 1, 8%; stage 2, 10%; stage 3, 23%; stage 4, 40%) and correlated with the theoretical outcome estimated by the SVS expert panel. The theoretical framework for risk stratification among patients with critical limb ischemia provided by the SVS expert panel appears valid. Further validation of the WIfI classification system with multicenter data is justified. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulmonary vascular response to exercise in symptomatic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, Frederik H; Dupont, Matthias; Bertrand, Philippe B; Nijst, Petra; Grieten, Lars; Dens, Joseph; Verhaert, David; Janssens, Stefan; Tang, W H Wilson; Mullens, Wilfried

    2015-03-01

    To study pulmonary vascular response patterns to exercise in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and pulmonary hypertension (PH). In this prospective single-centre cohort study, consecutive symptomatic HFrEF patients (n = 40) with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) ≥25 mmHg, pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) >15 mmHg, and cardiac index <2.5 L/min.m(2) , received protocol-driven titrated sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and diuretics to reach mean arterial blood pressure 65-75 mmHg and PAWP ≤15 mmHg. Patients performed symptom-limited supine bicycle testing under continued SNP administration. Afterwards, SNP was gradually withdrawn, renin-angiotensin system blockers uptitrated, and hydralazine added to maintain haemodynamic targets. Subsequently, bicycle testing was repeated. Patients presented with pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) = 3.8 ± 1.4 Wood Units at rest, decreasing to 2.9 ± 0.9 Wood Units after decongestion, with PH was completely reversed (MPAP <25 mmHg) in 22%. From rest to maximal exercise, the cardiac index did not change significantly (P = 0.334 under SNP; P-value = 0.552 under oral therapy). A dynamic exercise-induced PVR increase >3.5 Wood Units was noted in 19 patients (48%) under oral therapy vs. five (13%) under SNP. Such exercise-induced PVR increase was associated with a 33% relative decrease in right ventricular stroke work index (P = 0.037). Even after thorough decongestion and under continuous afterload reduction, PH secondary to HFrEF is completely reversible in only a minority of patients. Others demonstrate an exercise-induced PVR increase, associated with impaired right ventricular stroke work, which might be ameliorated by nitric oxide donor support. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  19. The Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis: Challenges and Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, William F.

    2007-12-01

    Ruddiman (2003) proposed that late Holocene anthropogenic intervention caused CH4 and CO2 increases that kept climate from cooling and that preindustrial pandemics caused CO2 decreases and a small cooling. Every aspect of this early anthropogenic hypothesis has been challenged: the timescale, the issue of stage 11 as a better analog, the ability of human activities to account for the gas anomalies, and the impact of the pandemics. This review finds that the late Holocene gas trends are anomalous in all ice timescales; greenhouse gases decreased during the closest stage 11 insolation analog; disproportionate biomass burning and rice irrigation can explain the methane anomaly; and pandemics explain half of the CO2 decrease since 1000 years ago. Only ˜25% of the CO2 anomaly can, however, be explained by carbon from early deforestation. The remainder must have come from climate system feedbacks, including a Holocene ocean that remained anomalously warm because of anthropogenic intervention.

  20. Vascular growth responses to chronic arterial occlusion are unaffected by myeloid specific focal adhesion kinase (FAK) deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuslein, Joshua L.; Murrell, Kelsey P.; Leiphart, Ryan J.; Llewellyn, Ryan A.; Meisner, Joshua K.; Price, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    Arteriogenesis, or the lumenal expansion of pre-existing arterioles in the presence of an upstream occlusion, is a fundamental vascular growth response. Though alterations in shear stress stimulate arteriogenesis, the migration of monocytes into the perivascular space surrounding collateral arteries and their differentiation into macrophages is critical for this vascular growth response to occur. Focal adhesion kinase’s (FAK) role in regulating cell migration has recently been expanded to primary macrophages. We therefore investigated the effect of the myeloid-specific conditional deletion of FAK on vascular remodeling in the mouse femoral arterial ligation (FAL) model. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, whole mount imaging of vascular casted gracilis muscles, and immunostaining for CD31 in gastrocnemius muscles cross-sections, we found that there were no statistical differences in perfusion recovery, arteriogenesis, or angiogenesis 28 days after FAL. We therefore sought to determine FAK expression in different myeloid cell populations. We found that FAK is expressed at equally low levels in Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo blood monocytes, however expression is increased over 2-fold in bone marrow derived macrophages. Ultimately, these results suggest that FAK is not required for monocyte migration to the perivascular space and that vascular remodeling following arterial occlusion occurs independently of myeloid specific FAK.

  1. Association of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression with Tumor Angiogenesis and with Early Relapse in Primary Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoshina, Seigo; Takayanagi, Toshiaki; Tominaga, Takeshi

    1994-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer. In this report, the relationship between expression of vascular endothclial growth factor (VEGF; a selective mitogen for endothelial cells) and the microvessel density was examined in 103 primary breast cancers. The expression of VEGF was evaluated by immunocytochemical staining using anti‐VEGF antibody. The microvessel density, which was determined by immunostaining for factor VIII antigen, in VEGF‐rich tumors was clearly higher than that in VEGF‐poor tumors (P<0.01). There was a good correlation between VEGF expression and the increment of microvessel density. Furthermore, postoperative survey demonstrated that the relapse‐free survival rate of VEGF‐rich tumors was significantly worse than that of VEGF‐poor tumors. It was suggested that the expression of VEGF is closely associated with the promotion of angiogenesis and with early relapse in primary breast cancer. PMID:7525523

  2. Response of local vascular volumes to lower body negative pressure stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolthuis, R. A.; Leblanc, A.; Carpentier, W. A.; Bergman, S. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present study involved an intravenous injection of radioactive iodinated serum albumin, equilibration of this isotope within the vascular space, and the continuous measurement of isotope activity over selected anatomical areas before, during and following multiple human LBNP tests. Both rate and magnitude of vascular pooling were distinctly different within each of five selected lower body anatomical areas. In the upper body, all areas except the abdomen showed depletions from their resting vascular volumes during LBNP. The presence of uniquely different pooling patterns in the lower body, the apparent stability of abdominal vascular volumes, and a possible decrease in cerebral blood volume during LBNP represent the major findings of this study.

  3. Uterine and placenta characteristics during early vascular development in the pig from day 22 to 42 of gestation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Elane C; Miles, Jeremy R; Lents, Clay A; Rempel, Lea A

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient placenta development is one of the primary causes of fetal death and reduced fetal growth after 35 days of gestation. Between day 22 and 42 the placenta consists of a central highly vascular placenta (HVP), adjacent to the fetus, a less vascular placenta (LVP), on either side of the fetus, and necrotic tips (NT). The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate uterine-placenta characteristics during early gestation in the gilt and determine time points and physiological changes. Gilts (n=25) were artificially inseminated at first detection of estrus (day 0) and 24h later, and harvested at 22, 27, 32, 37 or 42 days of gestation. Litter size, 12.1±3.4, was similar for all days of gestation. Fetal and placenta weight increased with day of gestation. The greatest increase in placenta weight occurred between 37 and 42 days of gestation. The LVP zones had no measurable fold formation until day 27. Necrotic tips became apparent after 27 days of gestation. Unoccupied areas of the uterus developed folds with changes in endometrial cell size and morphology from day 32 to 42 of gestation. Limited changes occurred in either fetal growth or placenta weight from day 27 through 32 of gestation; however, significant morphological changes occur at the maternal-fetal interface, demonstrating the dynamic architecture of the developing porcine placenta during early gestation. This work establishes fundamental time points in placenta development corresponding to fetal growth and microfold formation that may influence fetal growth and impact fetal survival. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of healthy aging on renal vascular responses to local cooling and apnea

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hardikkumar M.; Mast, Jessica L.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetically mediated renal vasoconstriction may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension in older adults, but empirical data in support of this concept are lacking. In 10 young (26 ± 1 yr) and 11 older (67 ± 2 yr) subjects, we quantified acute hemodynamic responses to three sympathoexcitatory stimuli: local cooling of the forehead, cold pressor test (CPT), and voluntary apnea. We hypothesized that all stimuli would increase mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and renal vascular resistance index (RVRI) and that aging would augment these effects. Beat-by-beat MAP, heart rate (HR), and renal blood flow velocity (from Doppler) were measured in the supine posture, and changes from baseline were compared between groups. In response to 1°C forehead cooling, aging was associated with an augmented MAP (20 ± 3 vs. 6 ± 2 mmHg) and RVRI (35 ± 6 vs. 16 ± 9%) but not HR. In older adults, there was a positive correlation between the cold-induced pressor response and forehead pain (R = 0.726), but this effect was not observed in young subjects. The CPT raised RVRI in both young (56 ± 13%) and older (45 ± 8%) subjects, but this was not different between groups. Relative to baseline, end-expiratory apnea increased RVRI to a similar extent in both young (46 ± 14%) and older (41 ± 9%) subjects. During sympathetic activation, renal vasoconstriction occurred in both groups. Forehead cooling caused an augmented pressor response in older adults that was related to pain perception. PMID:23640587

  5. Chronic treatment with fluoxetine modulates vascular adrenergic responses by inhibition of pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Camila A; Rodrigues, Fernanda L; Ruginsk, Silvia G; Zanotto, Camila Z; Rodrigues, José A; Duarte, Diego A; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Resstel, Leonardo B; Carneiro, Fernando S; Tostes, Rita C

    2017-04-05

    Fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has other effects in addition to blocking serotonin reuptake, including changes in the vasomotor tone. Whereas many studies focused on the acute effects of fluoxetine in the vasculature, its chronic effects are still limited. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment modulates adrenergic vascular responses by interfering with post- and pre-synaptic mechanisms. Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (water) or chronic fluoxetine (10mg/kg/day) for 21 days. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were measured. Vascular reactivity was evaluated in perfused mesenteric arterial beds (MAB) and in mesenteric resistance arteries. Protein expression by western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry, β-arrestin recruitment by BRET and calcium influx by FLIPR assay. Fluoxetine treatment decreased phenylephrine (PE)-induced, but not electrical-field stimulation (EFS)-induced vasoconstriction. Fluoxetine-treated rats exhibited increased KCl-induced vasoconstriction, which was abolished by prazosin. Desipramine, an inhibitor of norepinephrine (NA) reuptake, increased EFS-induced vasoconstrictor response in vehicle-treated, but not in fluoxetine-treated rats. Chronic treatment did not alter vascular expression of α 1 adrenoceptor, phosphorylation of PKCα or ERK 1/2 and RhoA. On the other hand, vascular contractions to calcium (Ca 2+ ) as well as Ca 2+ influx in mesenteric arteries were increased, while intracellular Ca 2+ storage was decreased by the chronic treatment with fluoxetine. In vitro, fluoxetine decreased vascular contractions to PE, EFS and Ca 2+ , but did not change β-arrestin activity. In conclusion, chronic treatment with fluoxetine decreases sympathetic-mediated vascular responses by mechanisms that involve inhibition of NA release/reuptake and decreased Ca 2+ stores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental investigation of the early interaction between cyanobacterial soil crusts and vascular plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemens Zaplata, Markus; Veste, Maik; Pohle, Ina; Schümberg, Sabine; Abreu Schonert, Iballa; Hinz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    While there are hints that biological soil crusts (BSCs) can constitute physical barriers for the emergence of vascular plants, a conceptual approach for the quantitative evaluation of these effects is still missing. Here we present an experimental design to test the emergence of seedlings in situ with (i) capping natural intact, (ii) destroyed and (iii) removed BSC. The selected field site is directly adjacent to the constructed Hühnerwasser catchment (Lusatia, Germany). This site exists since the end of 2008 and consists of loamy sand. Serving as proxy for seedling thrust, we inserted pre-germinated seeds of three confamiliar plant species with different seed masses (members of the Fabaceae family: Lotus corniculatus L., Ornithopus sativus Brot., and Glycine max (L.) Merr.). In each treatment as well as in the control group planting depths were 10 mm. We took care that experimental plots had identical crust thickness, slightly less than 4 mm, serving as proxy for mechanical resistance. A plot became established as follows: Firstly, the pristine crusted surface was vertically cut. To the windward side the BSC remained intact (i: "with BSC" stripe). To the downwind side soil material was temporarily excavated for laterally inserting the seeds beneath the surface of the first stripe. Then at the thereby disturbed second stripe pulverised BSC material became filled as a top layer (ii: "BSC mix" stripe). From the next stripe the BSC was removed (iii: "no BSC" stripe). Thus each plot had each experimental group in spatial contiguity (within 50 cm × 50 cm). The overall 50 plots were distributed across an area of 40 m × 12 m. When individuals of a species either emerged at all stripes, "× × ×", or at no stripe of a plot, "- - -", there was no reason to suppose any effect of a crust. The "- × ×" emergence pattern (depicting the appearance of seedlings in both stripes possessing manipulated surfaces) points towards hindrance more clearly than "- × -" or "- -

  7. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK-PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciT

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Hyoung Chul, E-mail: hcchoi@med.yu.ac.kr

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN was induced by metformin and inhibited by compound C and AMPK siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound C and bpv (pic) increased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B activation was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AMPK and PTEN regulated TNF-{alpha}-induced ROS production in VSMCs. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), amore » key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK-PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2 mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 {mu}M) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-{kappa}B activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting

  8. Role of cyclooxygenase in the vascular responses to extremity cooling in Caucasian and African males.

    PubMed

    Maley, Matthew J; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J; Eglin, Clare M

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Compared with Caucasians, African individuals are more susceptible to non-freezing cold injury and experience greater cutaneous vasoconstriction and cooler finger skin temperatures upon hand cooling. We investigated whether the enzyme cyclooxygenase is, in part, responsible for the exaggerated response to local cooling. What is the main finding and its importance? During local hand cooling, individuals of African descent experienced significantly lower finger skin blood flow and skin temperature compared with Caucasians irrespective of cyclooxygenase inhibition. These data suggest that in young African males the cyclooxygenase pathway appears not to be the primary reason for the increased susceptibility to non-freezing cold injury. Individuals of African descent (AFD) are more susceptible to non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) and experience an exaggerated cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to hand cooling compared with Caucasians (CAU). Using a placebo-controlled, cross-over design, this study tested the hypothesis that cyclooxygenase (COX) may, in part, be responsible for the exaggerated vasoconstrictor response to local cooling in AFD. Twelve AFD and 12 CAU young healthy men completed foot cooling and hand cooling (separately, in 8°C water for 30 min) with spontaneous rewarming in 30°C air after placebo or aspirin (COX inhibition) treatment. Skin blood flow, expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (as flux per millimetre of mercury), and skin temperature were measured throughout. Irrespective of COX inhibition, the responses to foot cooling, but not hand cooling, were similar between ethnicities. Specifically, during hand cooling after placebo, AFD experienced a lower minimal skin blood flow [mean (SD): 0.5 (0.1) versus 0.8 (0.2) flux mmHg -1 , P < 0.001] and a lower minimal finger skin temperature [9.5 (1.4) versus 10.7 (1.3)°C, P = 0.039] compared with CAU. During spontaneous rewarming, average skin blood

  9. The role of the hypoxia response in shaping retinal vascular development in the absence of Norrin/Frizzled4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Rattner, Amir; Wang, Yanshu; Zhou, Yulian; Williams, John; Nathans, Jeremy

    2014-11-20

    To define the role of hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in modifying the pattern, density, and permeability of the retinal vasculature in mouse models in which Norrin/Frizzled4 signaling is impaired. Retinal vascular structure was analyzed in mice with mutation of Ndp (the gene coding for Norrin) or Frizzle4 (Fz4) with or without three additional perturbations: (1) retinal hyperoxia and reduction of VEGF, (2) reduced induction of VEGF in response to hypoxia, or (3) reduced responsiveness of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) to VEGF. These perturbations were produced, respectively, by (1) genetic ablation of rod photoreceptors in the retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) mutant background, (2) conditional deletion of the gene coding for hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2alpha either in all neural retina cells or specifically in Müller glia, and (3) conditional deletion of the VEGF coreceptor neuropilin1 (NRP1) in ECs. All three conditions reduced vascular proliferation. Eliminating HIF2-alpha in Müller glia blocked VEGF induction in the inner nuclear layer, identifying HIF2-alpha as the transcription factor responsible for the hypoxia response in these cells. When Norrin/Frizzled4 signaling was eliminated, a secondary elevation in VEGF levels was required to compromise the barrier to transendothelial movement of high molecular weight compounds. In the absence of Norrin or Frizzled4, the vascular phenotype is determined by the primary defect in Norrin/Frizzled4 signaling (i.e., canonical Wnt signaling) and compensatory responses resulting from hypoxia. This work may be useful in guiding therapeutic strategies for the treatment of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  10. Early Campus Response to Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Linda J.; Zdziarski, Eugene L.

    2008-01-01

    As major events define generations and tragedies define and refine protocol response to significant incidents, a sense of comfort and confidence is attained as the authors train individually and organizationally to respond to extreme events, and yet those who have experienced them know that no plan goes as it should. There are, however, steps or…

  11. Menarche: Responses of Early Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrory, Arlene

    1990-01-01

    Investigated responses of menarcheal age females to menarche. Results from 95 girls indicated that premenarcheal girls thought menses was more debilitating than did postmenarcheal girls. Subjects who had been menstruating longer considered menses natural event but denied its effects. Found no significant difference in overall self-esteem and…

  12. The relationship of systemic markers of renal function and vascular function with retinal blood vessel responses.

    PubMed

    Heitmar, R; Varma, C; De, P; Lau, Y C; Blann, A D

    2016-11-01

    To test the hypothesis of a significant relationship between systemic markers of renal and vascular function (processes linked to cardiovascular disease and its development) and retinal microvascular function in diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Ocular microcirculatory function was measured in 116 patients with diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease using static and continuous retinal vessel responses to three cycles of flickering light. Endothelial function was evaluated by von Willebrand factor (vWf), endothelial microparticles and soluble E selectin, renal function by serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). HbA1c was used as a control index. Central retinal vein equivalence and venous maximum dilation to flicker were linked to HbA1c (both p < 0.05). Arterial reaction time was linked to serum creatinine (p = 0.036) and eGFR (p = 0.039); venous reaction time was linked to creatinine clearance (p = 0.018). Creatinine clearance and eGFR were linked to arterial maximum dilatation (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively) and the dilatation amplitude (p = 0.038 and p = 0.048, respectively) responses in the third flicker cycle. Of venous responses to the first flicker cycle, HbA1c was linked to the maximum dilation response (p = 0.004) and dilatation amplitude (p = 0.017), vWf was linked to the maximum constriction response (p = 0.016), and creatinine clearance to the baseline diameter fluctuation (p = 0.029). In the second flicker cycle, dilatation amplitude was linked to serum creatinine (p = 0.022). Several retinal blood vessel responses to flickering light are linked to glycaemia and renal function, but only one index is linked to endothelial function. Renal function must be considered when interpreting retinal vessel responses.

  13. Early blood pressure lowering treatment in acute stroke. Ordinal analysis of vascular events in the Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial (SCAST).

    PubMed

    Jusufovic, Mirza; Sandset, Else Charlotte; Bath, Philip M; Berge, Eivind

    2016-08-01

    Early blood pressure-lowering treatment appears to be beneficial in patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage and potentially in ischaemic stroke. We used a new method for analysis of vascular events in the Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial to see if the effect was dependent on the timing of treatment. Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial was a randomized controlled and placebo-controlled trial of candesartan within 30 h of ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Of 2029 patients, 231 (11.4%) had a vascular event (vascular death, nonfatal stroke or nonfatal myocardial infarction) during the first 6 months. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score following a vascular event was used to categorize vascular events in order of severity: no event (n = 1798), minor (mRS 0-2, n = 59), moderately severe (mRS 3-4, n = 57) and major event (mRS 5-6, n = 115). We used ordinal logistic regression for analysis and adjusted for predefined prognostic variables. Candesartan had no overall effect on vascular events (adjusted common odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.84-1.47, P = 0.48), and the effects were the same in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Among the patients treated within 6 h, the adjusted common odds ratio for vascular events was 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.84, P = 0.02, and there was no heterogeneity of effect between ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Ordinal analysis of vascular events showed no overall effect of candesartan in the subacute phase of stroke. The effect of treatment given within 6 h of stroke onset appears promising, and will be addressed in ongoing trials. Ordinal analysis of vascular events is feasible and can be used in future trials.

  14. Experimental investigation on the vascular thermal response to near-infrared laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Chen, Bin; Wu, Wenjuan; Ying, Zhaoxia

    2017-12-01

    Port wine stains (PWS) are congenital vascular malformations that progressively darken and thicken with age. To improve the effect of laser therapy in clinical practice, thermal response of blood vessel to a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser with controlled energy doses and pulse durations was evaluated using the dorsal skin chamber model. A total of 137 vessels with 30-300 μm diameters were selected from the dorsal skin of the mouse to match those capillaries in port wine stains. Experimental results showed that the thermal response of blood vessels to 1064 nm laser irradiation can be classified as follows: vessel dilation, coagulation, constriction with decreased diameter, complete constriction, hemorrhage, and collagen damage with increasing laser radiant exposure. In most cases, that is, 83 of 137 blood vessels (60.6%), Nd:YAG laser irradiation was characterized by complete constriction (immediate blood vessel disappearance). To reveal the possible damage mechanisms and evaluate blood vessel photocoagulation patterns, theoretical investigation using bioheat transfer equation was conducted in mouse skin with a depth of 1000 μm. Complete constriction as the dominant thermal response as evidenced by uniform blood heating within the vessel lumen was noted in both experimental observation and theoretical investigation. To achieve the ideal clinical effect using the Nd:YAG laser treatment, the radiant exposure should not only be high enough to induce complete constriction of the blood vessels but also controlled carefully to avoid surrounding collagen damage. The short pulse duration of 1-3 ms is better than long pulse durations because hemorrhaging of small capillaries is occasionally observed postirradiation with pulse durations longer than 10 ms.

  15. DEPTOR regulates vascular endothelial cell activation and proinflammatory and angiogenic responses.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, Sarah; Nakayama, Hironao; Woda, Craig B; Flynn, Evelyn A; Briscoe, David M

    2013-09-05

    The maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis and the prevention of chronic inflammatory disease are dependent on the active process of inflammation resolution. In endothelial cells (ECs), proinflammation results from the activation of intracellular signaling responses and/or the inhibition of endogenous regulatory/pro-resolution signaling networks that, to date, are poorly defined. In this study, we find that DEP domain containing mTOR interacting protein (DEPTOR) is expressed in different microvascular ECs in vitro and in vivo, and using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown approach, we find that it regulates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 activation in part through independent mechanisms. Moreover, using limited gene arrays, we observed that DEPTOR regulates EC activation including mRNA expression of the T-cell chemoattractant chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CX3CL1, CCL5, and CCL20 and the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (P < .05). DEPTOR siRNA-transfected ECs also bound increased numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P < .005) and CD3+ T cells (P < .005) in adhesion assays in vitro and had increased migration and angiogenic responses in spheroid sprouting (P < .01) and wound healing (P < .01) assays. Collectively, these findings define DEPTOR as a critical upstream regulator of EC activation responses and suggest that it plays an important role in endogenous mechanisms of anti-inflammation and pro-resolution.

  16. DEPTOR regulates vascular endothelial cell activation and proinflammatory and angiogenic responses

    PubMed Central

    Bruneau, Sarah; Nakayama, Hironao; Woda, Craig B.; Flynn, Evelyn A.

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis and the prevention of chronic inflammatory disease are dependent on the active process of inflammation resolution. In endothelial cells (ECs), proinflammation results from the activation of intracellular signaling responses and/or the inhibition of endogenous regulatory/pro-resolution signaling networks that, to date, are poorly defined. In this study, we find that DEP domain containing mTOR interacting protein (DEPTOR) is expressed in different microvascular ECs in vitro and in vivo, and using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown approach, we find that it regulates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 activation in part through independent mechanisms. Moreover, using limited gene arrays, we observed that DEPTOR regulates EC activation including mRNA expression of the T-cell chemoattractant chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CX3CL1, CCL5, and CCL20 and the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (P < .05). DEPTOR siRNA-transfected ECs also bound increased numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P < .005) and CD3+ T cells (P < .005) in adhesion assays in vitro and had increased migration and angiogenic responses in spheroid sprouting (P < .01) and wound healing (P < .01) assays. Collectively, these findings define DEPTOR as a critical upstream regulator of EC activation responses and suggest that it plays an important role in endogenous mechanisms of anti-inflammation and pro-resolution. PMID:23881914

  17. Cardiac and Vascular Responses to Thigh Cuffs and Respiratory Maneuvers on Crewmembers of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Garcia, Kathleen; Ebert, Douglas; Whitson, Peggy A.; Feiveson, Alan; Alferova, Irina V.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Matveev, Vladimir P.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The transition to microgravity eliminates the hydrostatic gradients in the vascular system. The resulting fluid redistribution commonly manifests as facial edema, engorgement of the external neck veins, and a decrease in leg diameter. This experiment examined the responses to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound (ECHO) in a baseline steady state and during preload reduction introduced with thigh occlusion cuffs used as a counter-measure device (Braslet cuffs) measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound examinations. Methods: Nine International Space Station crewmember subjects (Expeditions 16 - 20) were examined in 15 experiment sessions 101 +/- 46.days after launch (mean +/- SD; 33 - 185). Twenty Seven cardiac and vascular parameters were obtained with/without respiratory maneuvers before and after tightening of the Braslet cuffs. Results: Non-physicians performed diagnostic-quality cardiac and vascular ultrasound examinations using remote guidance. Three of 27 combinations of maneuvers and Braslet or Braslet alone were identified as being significant changed when compared to baseline. Eleven of 81 differences between combinations of Mueller, Valsalva or baseline were significant and related to cardiac preload reduction or increase in lower extremity venous volume. Conclusions: Acute application of Braslet occlusion cuffs causes lower extremity fluid sequestration and exerts commensurate measurable effects on cardiac performance in microgravity. Ultrasound techniques to measure the hemodynamic effects of thigh cuffs in combination with respiratory maneuvers may serve as an invaluable tool in determining the volume status of the cardiac patient at the 'microgravity bedside'.

  18. Effectiveness of diffusion tensor imaging in differentiating early-stage subcortical ischemic vascular disease, Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing.

    PubMed

    Tu, Min-Chien; Lo, Chung-Ping; Huang, Ching-Feng; Hsu, Yen-Hsuan; Huang, Wen-Hui; Deng, Jie Fu; Lee, Yung-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    .8% in discriminating patients with SIVD from those with AD. In combined analysis of the patients with SIVD and AD (n = 75), the total FAB score was positively correlated with FA within the bilateral forceps minor, genu of the corpus callosum, left forceps major, left uncinate fasciculus, and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (p = 0.001 ~ 0.038), and inversely correlated with MD within the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, genu and body of the corpus callosum, bilateral forceps minor, right uncinate fasciculus, and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (p = 0.003 ~ 0.040). Our findings suggest the effectiveness of DTI measurements in distinguishing patients with early-stage AD from those with SIVD, with discernible changes in spatial distribution and magnitude of significance of the DTI parameters. Strategic FA assessments provided the most robust discriminative power to differentiate SIVD from AD, and FAB may serve as an additional cognitive marker. We also identified the neuronal substrates responsible for FAB performance.

  19. A biphasic endothelial stress-survival mechanism regulates the cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor A

    SciT

    Latham, Antony M.; Odell, Adam F.; Mughal, Nadeem A.

    2012-11-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is an essential cytokine that regulates endothelial function and angiogenesis. VEGF-A binding to endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases such as VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 triggers cellular responses including survival, proliferation and new blood vessel sprouting. Increased levels of a soluble VEGFR1 splice variant (sFlt-1) correlate with endothelial dysfunction in pathologies such as pre-eclampsia; however the cellular mechanism(s) underlying the regulation and function of sFlt-1 are unclear. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a biphasic stress response in endothelial cells, using serum deprivation as a model of endothelial dysfunction. The early phase is characterized by a highmore » VEGFR2:sFlt-1 ratio, which is reversed in the late phase. A functional consequence is a short-term increase in VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling. In the late phase, sFlt-1 is secreted and deposited at the extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that under stress, increased endothelial sFlt-1 levels reduce VEGF-A bioavailability: VEGF-A treatment induces sFlt-1 expression at the cell surface and VEGF-A silencing inhibits sFlt-1 anchorage to the extracellular matrix. Treatment with recombinant sFlt-1 inhibits VEGF-A-stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and sFlt-1 silencing enhances this process. In this response, increased VEGFR2 levels are regulated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and PKB/Akt signaling pathways and increased sFlt-1 levels by the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. We conclude that during serum withdrawal, cellular sensing of environmental stress modulates sFlt-1 and VEGFR2 levels, regulating VEGF-A bioavailability and ensuring cell survival takes precedence over cell proliferation and migration. These findings may underpin an important mechanism contributing to endothelial dysfunction in pathological states. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cells mount a stress response under conditions of low serum. Black

  20. Optical spectroscopy of radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy responses in normal rat skin shows vascular breakdown products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teles de Andrade, Cintia; Nogueira, Marcelo S.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Marra, Kayla; Gunn, Jason; Andreozzi, Jacqueline; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radiotherapy are non-systemic cancer treatment options with different mechanisms of damage. So combining these techniques has been shown to have some synergy, and can mitigate their limitations such as low PDT light penetration or radiotherapy side effects. The present study monitored the induced tissue changes after PDT, radiotherapy, and a combination protocol in normal rat skin, using an optical spectroscopy system to track the observed biophysical changes. The Wistar rats were treated with one of the protocols: PDT followed by radiotherapy, PDT, radiotherapy and radiotherapy followed by PDT. Reflectance spectra were collected in order to observe the effects of these combined therapies, especially targeting vascular response. From the reflectance, information about oxygen saturation, met-hemoglobin and bilirubin concentration, blood volume fraction (BVF) and vessel radius were extracted from model fitting of the spectra. The rats were monitored for 24 hours after treatment. Results showed that there was no significant variation in the vessel size or BVF after the treatments. However, the PDT caused a significant increase in the met-hemoglobin and bilirubin concentrations, indicating an important blood breakdown. These results may provide an important clue on how the damage establishment takes place, helping to understand the effect of the combination of those techniques in order to verify the existence of a known synergistic effect.

  1. Exploring early public responses to geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Nick; Corner, Adam; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa; Butler, Catherine; Poortinga, Wouter

    2012-09-13

    Proposals for geoengineering the Earth's climate are prime examples of emerging or 'upstream' technologies, because many aspects of their effectiveness, cost and risks are yet to be researched, and in many cases are highly uncertain. This paper contributes to the emerging debate about the social acceptability of geoengineering technologies by presenting preliminary evidence on public responses to geoengineering from two of the very first UK studies of public perceptions and responses. The discussion draws upon two datasets: qualitative data (from an interview study conducted in 42 households in 2009), and quantitative data (from a subsequent nationwide survey (n=1822) of British public opinion). Unsurprisingly, baseline awareness of geoengineering was extremely low in both cases. The data from the survey indicate that, when briefly explained to people, carbon dioxide removal approaches were preferred to solar radiation management, while significant positive correlations were also found between concern about climate change and support for different geoengineering approaches. We discuss some of the wider considerations that are likely to shape public perceptions of geoengineering as it enters the media and public sphere, and conclude that, aside from technical considerations, public perceptions are likely to prove a key element influencing the debate over questions of the acceptability of geoengineering proposals.

  2. Early diagenesis of vascular plant tissues: Lignin and cutin decomposition and biogeochemical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opsahl, Stephen; Benner, Ronald

    1995-12-01

    Long-term subaqueous decomposition patterns of five different vascular plant tissues including mangrove leaves and wood ( Avicennia germinans), cypress needles and wood ( Taxodium distichum) and smooth cordgrass ( Spartina alternifora) were followed for a period of 4.0 years, representing the longest litter bag decomposition study to date. All tissues decomposed under identical conditions and final mass losses were 97, 68, 86, 39, and 93%, respectively. Analysis of the lignin component of herbaceous tissues using alkaline CuO oxidation was complicated by the presence of a substantial ester-bound phenol component composed primarily of cinnamyl phenols. To overcome this problem, we introduce a new parameter to represent lignin, Λ6. Λ6 is comprised only of the six syringyl and vanillyl phenols and was found to be much less sensitive to diagenetic variation than the commonly used parameter Λ, which includes the cinnamyl phenols. Patterns of change in lignin content were strongly dependent on tissue type, ranging from 77% enrichment in smooth cordgrass to 6% depletion in cypress needles. In contrast, depletion of cutin was extensive (65-99%) in all herbaceous tissues. Despite these differences in the overall reactivity of lignin and cutin, both macromolecules were extensively degraded during the decomposition period. The long-term decomposition series also provided very useful information about the compositional parameters which are derived from the specific oxidation products of both lignin and cutin. The relative lability of ester-bound cinnamyl phenols compromised their use in parameters to distinguish woody from herbaceous plant debris. The dimer to monomer ratios of lignin-derived phenols indicated that most intermonomeric linkages in lignin degraded at similar rates. Acid to aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl phenols became elevated, particularly during the latter stages of decomposition supporting the use of these parameters as indicators of diagenetic

  3. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E

    2016-12-15

    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s -1 ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s -1 ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA across

  4. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G.; Hissen, Sarah L.; Joyner, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress.In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders.Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex‐mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA‐driven.This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Abstract Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post‐exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s−1) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s−1; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood

  5. The Effects of Endurance Exercise Training on the Coronary Vascular Responsiveness to Intracoronary Acetylcholine in Swine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-09

    systems. The mechanisms of sympathet ic innervation involve a-adrenergic-mediated coronary vascular smooth muscle contraction, and (1- adrenergic-mediated...may cause muscarinic-mediated relaxation or contraction of vascular smooth muscle , depending on the animal species and presence of endothelial...both cardiac muscle layers receive equal flows over a cardiac cycle, regardless of the differences from systo lic compression (Buckberg and Kattus

  6. Hypertrophy of the vasa vasorum: vascular response to the hungry brain.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Ji; Roh, Hong Gee; Chun, Young Il; Moon, Chang Taek; Chung, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hahn Young

    2012-05-01

    The vasa vasorum is a network of microvessels that supplies nutrients to the vessel wall itself. In pathologic conditions, the vasa vasorum can develop as potential collateral channels. Previous research documents revascularization through hypertrophy of the vasa vasorum after occlusion of the carotid artery. However, the relationship between the cerebral vascular demands and the hypertrophy of the vasa vasorum has not been well delineated by functional studies. A 66-year-old man presented with left hemiparesis, dysarthria, and hemineglect. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an acute infarction in the vascular territory of the right middle cerebral artery. Transfemoral cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the right proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). Single-photon emission computed tomography study showed decreased vascular reserve in the right cerebral hemisphere. Right superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass surgery was performed in an attempt to improve hemispheric perfusion. Follow-up angiography 1 year later showed revascularization of the distal ICA by the hypertrophied vasa vasorum. Follow-up single-photon emission computed tomography study showed persistent decreased vascular reserve. In cases of ICA occlusion, a 1-year or less hungry period for the cerebral vascular demand may activate potential collateral channels of the vasa vasorum. In addition to the metabolic demand of the occluded vessel wall itself, the vascular demands of the hypoperfused brain may be a trigger factor that leads to hypertrophy of the vasa vasorum as collateral channels.

  7. Chronic thalidomide administration enhances vascular responsiveness to vasopressin in portal-systemic collaterals of bile duct-ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Wang, Sun-Sang; Huang, Hui-Chun; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Jing-Yi; Chen, Yi-Chou; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2009-05-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) controls gastroesophageal variceal bleeding, partly due to its vasoconstrictive effect on portal-systemic collaterals. It has been shown that chronic thalidomide treatment decreases portal pressure, attenuates hyperdynamic circulation and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in partially portal vein-ligated rats. This study investigated the effects of chronic thalidomide treatment on portal-systemic collateral vascular responsiveness to AVP in common bile duct-ligated (CBDL) cirrhotic rats. In the first series, CBDL-induced cirrhotic rats received thalidomide (50 mg/kg/day orally) or distilled water (control) from the 35th to 42nd day after ligation. On the 43rd day after ligation, the body weight, mean arterial pressure, portal pressure, and heart rate were measured. An in situ collateral vascular perfusion model was used to obtain the cumulative concentration-response curves of collateral vessels to AVP (10(-10) to 3 x 10(-7) M). Plasma levels of VEGF and TNF-alpha were measured, and expressions of VEGF and TNF-alpha mRNA in the left adrenal veins were also determined. In the second series, the cumulative concentration-response curves of collateral vessels to AVP in CBDL rats with or without thalidomide (10(-5) M) preincubation in the perfusate were obtained. The thalidomide and control groups were not significantly different in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure and portal pressure (p > 0.05). The collateral vascular perfusion pressure change to AVP was significantly enhanced at 10(-8) M after thalidomide treatment (p = 0.041). Compared with the control group, thalidomide-treated rats had significantly lower plasma VEGF levels (p < 0.001), accompanied by an insignificant reduction in plasma TNF-alpha levels (p > 0.05). The expressions of VEGF and TNF-alpha mRNA in the left adrenal veins of thalidomide-treated CBDL rats were not significantly changed compared with those of the

  8. Stent design favorably influences the vascular response in normal porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Carter, A J; Scott, D; Rahdert, D; Bailey, L; De Vries J; Ayerdi, K; Turnlund, T; Jones, R; Virmani, R; Fischell, T A

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the arterial response following implantation of a stainless-steel, balloon-expandable, tubular slotted stent with that of a novel computer-designed, multi-cellular stent in normal porcine coronary arteries. Intracoronary stent placement has evolved into the primary strategy for percutaneous revascularization of symptomatic coronary arterial lesions. Presently there is intense interest in developing new stent designs to improve stent delivery and biocompatability. Computer-assisted design was utilized to develop a balloon-expandable stent with symmetric expansion properties, uniform arterial wall coverage, longitudinal flexibility and radial strength. Quantitative coronary angiography and histological assessment of the stented arteries was used to evaluate the acute and chronic vascular responses to a stainless-steel, balloon-expandable, tubular slotted stent as compared to the computer-designed BX stent in the normolipemic swine. Forty stents (24 BX, 16 tubular slotted) were implanted in 19 miniature swine at a mean inflation pressure of 9 atm using identical delivery systems. Eight of the BX and none of the tubular slotted stents were post-dilated with a non-compliant balloon at 12-14 atm. The mean stent-to-artery ratio was similar for the BX (1.03 +/- 0.06) and tubular slotted (1.04 +/- 0.11; p = 0.59) designs. Protrusion or asymmetric radial flaring of a strut at the stent margin was present in 1 of 23 BX stents (4.3%) and 10 of 15 tubular slotted stents (66.7%; p < 0.0001). The mean arterial injury score was significantly less for the BX stent (0.2 +/- 0.2) as compared with the tubular slotted stents (0.4 +/- 0.4; p = 0.025). At 3 days, thrombus area was similar for the BX and tubular slotted designs (0.42 +/- 0.16 mm2 versus 0.44 +/- 0.18 mm2, respectively; p = 0.88). The mean neointimal area was significantly less for the BX at 2 months (1.09 +/- 0.25 mm2 versus 2.93 +/- 2.26 mm2 in the tubular slotted stent) and at 6

  9. [Vascular steal syndrome due to the creation of an arteriovenous shunt for hemodialysis, patient information and nephrologist responsibility].

    PubMed

    Seidowsky, Alexandre; Vilaine, Eve; Adoff, Sarah; Dupuis, Emmanuel; Bidault, Caroline; Villain, Cédric; Coscas, Raphaël

    2017-06-01

    Although responsibility is a fundamental determinant in medical practice, physicians are generally unfamiliar with its principles. The same is true for disclosure requirements and requests for compensation in the event of physical injury. We report on a representative survey of iatrogenic complications that may arise after the implementation of vascular access for haemodialysis and that illustrate's the physician's responsibility and obligation to inform the patient. Vascular access steal syndrome is a serious complication of arteriovenous fistulas, and physicians may not be sufficiently aware of the likelihood of its occurrence. Diabetes (via medial calcific sclerosis) and placement in the brachial artery (with excessively high flow rates) are the main risk factors. The precariousness of vascular status in dialysis patients threatens to increase the incidence of this complication. The therapeutic challenge is to resolve ischemic events while maintaining vascular access. The presence of gangrene of the fingers is a formal indication for surgery. The borderline between therapeutic risk (the risk inherent in a medical procedure and which cannot be controlled) and liability for injury is blurred. The French Patient's Rights Act (voted on March 4th, 2002) emphasizes the physician's duty to inform the patient of treatment-associated risks and the fact that the physician now bears the burden of proof. We suggest that a patient information sheet on the benefits and risks of vascular access should be published on the French Society of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation's website. Copyright © 2017 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. PET Study of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Expression in Response to Vascular Inflammation in a Rat Model of Carotid Injury

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Hui; Jin, Hongjun; Yue, Xuyi; ...

    2017-01-30

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) activation plays a key role in vascular inflammatory response. Here, we report in vivo validation of [ 11C]TZ3321, a potent S1PR1 radioligand, for imaging vascular inflammation in a rat model of carotid injury. The right common carotid artery of male adult Sprague-Dawley rats was injured by balloon overinflation that denuded the endothelium and distended the vessel wall. Animals received a 60-minute micro-positron emission tomography (micro PET) scan with [ 11C]TZ3321 at 72 hours after injury. Ex vivo autoradiography was also conducted. The expression and cellular location of S1PR1 were examined by immunohistological analysis. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction ofmore » the first 100-second microPET/computed tomography (CT) image indicated the location of bilateral common carotid arteries. [ 11C]TZ3321 displayed significantly higher accumulation (standardized uptake values: 0.93 ± 0.07 vs 0.78 ± 0.09, n = 6, P = .001) in the injured carotid artery than in the contralateral side. Increased tracer uptake in the injured artery was confirmed by autoradiography (photostimulated luminescence measures: 85.5 ± 0.93 vs 71.48 ± 6.22, n = 2). Concordantly, high S1PR1expression was observed in infiltrated inflammatory cells in the injured artery. Our studies demonstrate [ 11C]TZ3321 microPET is able to detect the acute upregulation of S1PR1 expression in inflamed carotid artery. Therefore, [ 11C]TZ3321 has potential to be a PET radiotracer for detecting early inflammatory response and monitoring therapeutic efficacy of vascular inflammation.« less

  11. PET Study of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Expression in Response to Vascular Inflammation in a Rat Model of Carotid Injury

    SciT

    Liu, Hui; Jin, Hongjun; Yue, Xuyi

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) activation plays a key role in vascular inflammatory response. Here, we report in vivo validation of [ 11C]TZ3321, a potent S1PR1 radioligand, for imaging vascular inflammation in a rat model of carotid injury. The right common carotid artery of male adult Sprague-Dawley rats was injured by balloon overinflation that denuded the endothelium and distended the vessel wall. Animals received a 60-minute micro-positron emission tomography (micro PET) scan with [ 11C]TZ3321 at 72 hours after injury. Ex vivo autoradiography was also conducted. The expression and cellular location of S1PR1 were examined by immunohistological analysis. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction ofmore » the first 100-second microPET/computed tomography (CT) image indicated the location of bilateral common carotid arteries. [ 11C]TZ3321 displayed significantly higher accumulation (standardized uptake values: 0.93 ± 0.07 vs 0.78 ± 0.09, n = 6, P = .001) in the injured carotid artery than in the contralateral side. Increased tracer uptake in the injured artery was confirmed by autoradiography (photostimulated luminescence measures: 85.5 ± 0.93 vs 71.48 ± 6.22, n = 2). Concordantly, high S1PR1expression was observed in infiltrated inflammatory cells in the injured artery. Our studies demonstrate [ 11C]TZ3321 microPET is able to detect the acute upregulation of S1PR1 expression in inflamed carotid artery. Therefore, [ 11C]TZ3321 has potential to be a PET radiotracer for detecting early inflammatory response and monitoring therapeutic efficacy of vascular inflammation.« less

  12. The effects of proton pump inhibitor on hepatic vascular responsiveness and hemodynamics in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Hsin, I-Fang; Hsu, Shao-Jung; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Huo, Teh-Ia; Huang, Hui-Chun; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Ho, Hsin-Ling; Chang, Shu-Yu; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2018-05-17

    Liver cirrhosis is associated with increased intrahepatic resistance due to hepatic fibrosis and exaggerated vasoconstriction. Recent studies have indicated that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), in addition to acid suppression, modulate vasoactive substances and vasoresponsiveness. PPIs are frequently prescribed in patients with cirrhosis due to a higher prevalence of peptic ulcers, however other impacts are unknown. Liver cirrhosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with common bile duct ligation (BDL). On the 29th day after BDL and after hemodynamic measurements, the intrahepatic vascular responsiveness to high concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) was evaluated after preincubation with (1) Krebs solution (vehicle), (2) esomeprazole (30 μM), or (3) esomeprazole plus N ω -nitro l-arginine (NNA, a non-selective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 10 -4  M). After perfusion, the hepatic protein expressions of endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, endothelin-1, DDAH-1 (dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1, ADMA inhibitor), DDAH-2, ADMA (asymmetrical dimethyl arginine, NOS inhibitor) were evaluated. In the chronic model, the BDL rats received (1) vehicle; or (2) esomeprazole (3.6 mg/kg/day, oral gavage) from the 1st to 28th day after BDL. On the 29th day and after hemodynamic measurements, plasma liver biochemistry and liver fibrosis were evaluated. Esomeprazole did not affect hepatic ET-1 vasoresponsiveness. The hepatic protein expressions of the aforementioned factors were not significantly different among the groups. There were no significant differences in hemodynamics, liver biochemistry and hepatic fibrosis after chronic esomeprazole administration. PPIs did not affect hepatic vasoresponsiveness or the release of vasoactive substances. Furthermore, they did not influence hemodynamics, liver biochemistry or severity of hepatic fibrosis in the cirrhotic rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  13. Liver-Specific Knockdown of IGF-1 Decreases Vascular Oxidative Stress Resistance by Impairing the Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Response: A Novel Model of Vascular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bailey-Downs, Lora C.; Mitschelen, Matthew; Sosnowska, Danuta; Toth, Peter; Pinto, John T.; Ballabh, Praveen; Valcarcel-Ares, M.Noa; Farley, Julie; Koller, Akos; Henthorn, Jim C.; Bass, Caroline; Sonntag, William E.; Csiszar, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that age-related dysfunction of NF-E2–related factor-2 (Nrf2)–driven pathways impairs cellular redox homeostasis, exacerbating age-related cellular oxidative stress and increasing sensitivity of aged vessels to oxidative stress–induced cellular damage. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 decline during aging, which significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases in humans. To test the hypothesis that adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency impairs Nrf2-driven pathways in the vasculature, we utilized a novel mouse model with a liver-specific adeno-associated viral knockdown of the Igf1 gene using Cre-lox technology (Igf1f/f + MUP-iCre-AAV8), which exhibits a significant decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels (∼50%). In the aortas of IGF-1–deficient mice, there was a trend for decreased expression of Nrf2 and the Nrf2 target genes GCLC, NQO1 and HMOX1. In cultured aorta segments of IGF-1–deficient mice treated with oxidative stressors (high glucose, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and H2O2), induction of Nrf2-driven genes was significantly attenuated as compared with control vessels, which was associated with an exacerbation of endothelial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress, and apoptosis, mimicking the aging phenotype. In conclusion, endocrine IGF-1 deficiency is associated with dysregulation of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses in the vasculature, which likely promotes an adverse vascular phenotype under pathophysiological conditions associated with oxidative stress (eg, diabetes mellitus, hypertension) and results in accelerated vascular impairments in aging. PMID:22021391

  14. Post-translational control of nitrate reductase activity responding to light and photosynthesis evolved already in the early vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Nemie-Feyissa, Dugassa; Królicka, Adriana; Førland, Nina; Hansen, Margarita; Heidari, Behzad; Lillo, Cathrine

    2013-05-01

    Regulation of nitrate reductase (NR) by reversible phosphorylation at a conserved motif is well established in higher plants, and enables regulation of NR in response to rapid fluctuations in light intensity. This regulation is not conserved in algae NR, and we wished to test the evolutionary origin of the regulatory mechanism by physiological examination of ancient land plants. Especially a member of the lycophytes is of interest since their NR is candidate for regulation by reversible phosphorylation based on sequence analysis. We compared Selaginella kraussiana, a member of the lycophytes and earliest vascular plants, with the angiosperm Arabidopsis thaliana, and also tested the moss Physcomitrella patens. Interestingly, optimization of assay conditions revealed that S. kraussiana NR used NADH as an electron donor like A. thaliana, whereas P. patens NR activity depended on NADPH. Examination of light/darkness effects showed that S. kraussiana NR was rapidly regulated similar to A. thaliana NR when a differential (Mg(2+) contra EDTA) assay was used to reveal activity state of NR. This implies that already existing NR enzyme was post-translationally activated by light in both species. Light had a positive effect also on de novo synthesis of NR in S. kraussiana, which could be shown after the plants had been exposed to a prolonged dark period (7 days). Daily variations in NR activity were mainly caused by post-translational modifications. As for angiosperms, the post-translational light activation of NR in S. kraussiana was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1*1-dimethylurea (DCMU), an inhibitor of photosynthesis and stomata opening. Evolutionary, a post-translational control mechanism for NR have occurred before or in parallel with development of vascular tissue in land plants, and appears to be part of a complex mechanisms for coordination of CO2 and nitrogen metabolism in these plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Early results of percutaneous arteriovenous fistula creation with the Ellipsys Vascular Access System.

    PubMed

    Mallios, Alexandros; Jennings, William C; Boura, Benoit; Costanzo, Alessandro; Bourquelot, Pierre; Combes, Myriam

    2018-04-18

    We reviewed our initial experience creating a percutaneous arteriovenous fistula (pAVF) using a thermal resistance anastomosis device with proximal radial artery inflow. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent a pAVF creation procedure between May 2017 and October 2017. Primary end points of the study were technical success, patency by Doppler ultrasound examination or angiography, flow levels achieved, time to first use, and pAVF-related complications. A pAVF was attempted in 34 patients with technical success in 33 individuals (97%). Patency of the pAVF was 94%. Mean access flow was 946 mL/min (brachial artery measurement) at the latest follow-up visit (53-229 days; average, 141 days). At 6 weeks, all fistulas have been used or were ready for dialysis by clinical examination or ultrasound examination. Only one patient required superficialization of the upper arm cephalic vein by lipectomy. There were no adverse events related to the pAVF creation or use, nor was there need for further interventions. Successful pAVFs with proximal radial artery inflow were created with excellent initial results regarding technical success, patency, and safety. Advantages include avoidance of a surgical incision, short procedure times, good acceptance by patients, prompt access maturation, moderate flow, and low-pressure access, with possible reduction of risk for ischemic complications. Avoidance of vessel manipulation and side branch ligation might reduce risk of thrombosis and improve long-term patency and reduce need for further interventions. These early findings need to be confirmed in larger and longer follow-up studies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vascular development of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence rachis in response to flower number, plant growth regulators and defoliation.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; McCully, Margaret E; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2017-09-01

    The grapevine inflorescence is a determinate panicle and as buds emerge, shoot, flower and rachis development occur simultaneously. The growth and architecture of the rachis is determined by genetic and environmental factors but here we examined the role of flower and leaf number as well as hormones on its elongation and vascular development. The consequences of rachis morphology and vascular area on berry size and composition were also assessed. One week prior to anthesis, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon field vines were exposed to manual flower removal, exogenous plant growth regulators or pre-bloom leaf removal. Manual removal of half the flowers along the vertical axis of the inflorescence resulted in a shorter rachis in both cultivars. Conversely, inflorescences treated with gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and the synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) resulted in a longer rachis while pre-bloom removal of all leaves on the inflorescence-bearing shoot did not alter rachis length relative to untreated inflorescences. Across the treatments, the cross-sectional areas of the conducting xylem and phloem in the rachis were positively correlated to rachis girth, flower number at anthesis, bunch berry number, bunch berry fresh mass and bunch sugar content at harvest. Conversely, average berry size and sugar content were not linked to rachis vascular area. These data indicate that the morphological and vascular development of the rachis was more responsive to flower number and plant growth regulators than to leaf removal.

  17. Blood gene expression profiling of an early acetaminophen response.

    PubMed

    Bushel, P R; Fannin, R D; Gerrish, K; Watkins, P B; Paules, R S

    2017-06-01

    Acetaminophen can adversely affect the liver especially when overdosed. We used whole blood as a surrogate to identify genes as potential early indicators of an acetaminophen-induced response. In a clinical study, healthy human subjects were dosed daily with 4 g of either acetaminophen or placebo pills for 7 days and evaluated over the course of 14 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for responders to acetaminophen increased between days 4 and 9 after dosing, and 12 genes were detected with expression profiles significantly altered within 24 h. The early responsive genes separated the subjects by class and dose period. In addition, the genes clustered patients who overdosed on acetaminophen apart from controls and also predicted the exposure classifications with 100% accuracy. The responsive genes serve as early indicators of an acetaminophen exposure, and their gene expression profiles can potentially be evaluated as molecular indicators for further consideration.

  18. Blood Gene Expression Profiling of an Early Acetaminophen Response

    PubMed Central

    Bushel, Pierre R.; Fannin, Rick D.; Gerrish, Kevin; Watkins, Paul B.; Paules, Richard S.

    2018-01-01

    Acetaminophen can adversely affect the liver especially when overdosed. We used whole blood as a surrogate to identify genes as potential early indicators of an acetaminophen-induced response. In a clinical study, healthy human subjects were dosed daily with 4g of either acetaminophen or placebo pills for 7 days and evaluated over the course of 14 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for responders to acetaminophen increased between days 4 and 9 after dosing and 12 genes were detected with expression profiles significantly altered within 24 hrs. The early responsive genes separated the subjects by class and dose period. In addition, the genes clustered patients who overdosed on acetaminophen apart from controls and also predicted the exposure classifications with 100% accuracy. The responsive genes serve as early indicators of an acetaminophen exposure and their gene expression profiles can potentially be evaluated as molecular indicators for further consideration. PMID:26927286

  19. Frequency of early vascular aging and associated risk factors among an adult population in Latin America: the OPTIMO study.

    PubMed

    Botto, Fernando; Obregon, Sebastian; Rubinstein, Fernando; Scuteri, Angelo; Nilsson, Peter M; Kotliar, Carol

    2018-03-01

    The main objective was to estimate the frequency of early vascular aging (EVA) in a sample of subjects from Latin America, with emphasis in young adults. We included 1416 subjects from 12 countries in Latin America who provided information about lifestyle, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), and anthropometrics. We measured pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arterial stiffness, and blood pressure (BP) using an oscillometric device (Mobil-O-Graph). To determine the frequency of EVA, we used multiple linear regression to estimate each subject's PWV expected for his/her age and systolic BP, and compared with observed values to obtain standardized residuals (z-scores). We defined EVA when z-score was ≥1.96. Finally, a multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine baseline characteristics associated with EVA. Mean age was 49.9 ± 15.5 years, male gender was 50.3%. Mean PWV was 7.52 m/s (SD 1.97), mean systolic BP was 125.3 mmHg (SD 16.7) and mean diastolic BP was 78.9 mmHg (SD 12.2). The frequency of EVA was 5.7% in the total population, 9.8% in adults of 40 years or less and 18.7% in those 30 years or less. In these young adults, multiple logistic regression analyses demonstrated that dyslipidemia and hypertension showed an independent association with EVA, and smoking a borderline association (p  =  0.07). In conclusion, the frequency of EVA in a sample from Latin America was around 6%, with higher rates in young adults. These results would support the search of CVRF and EVA during early adulthood.

  20. Branding of vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Perler, Bruce A

    2008-03-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery surveyed primary care physicians (PCPs) to understand how PCPs make referral decisions for their patients with peripheral vascular disease. Responses were received from 250 PCPs in 44 states. More than 80% of the respondents characterized their experiences with vascular surgeons as positive or very positive. PCPs perceive that vascular surgeons perform "invasive" procedures and refer patients with the most severe vascular disease to vascular surgeons but were more than twice as likely to refer patients to cardiologists, believing they are better able to perform minimally invasive procedures. Nevertheless, PCPs are receptive to the notion of increasing referrals to vascular surgeons. A successful branding campaign will require considerable education of referring physicians about the totality of traditional vascular and endovascular care increasingly provided by the contemporary vascular surgical practice and will be most effective at the local grassroots level.

  1. Response of photosynthetic carbon gain to ecosystem retrogression of vascular plants and mosses in the boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sheel; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A

    2012-07-01

    In the long-term absence of rejuvenating disturbances, forest succession frequently proceeds from a maximal biomass phase to a retrogressive phase characterized by reduced nutrient availability [notably nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] and net primary productivity. Few studies have considered how retrogression induces changes in ecophysiological responses associated with photosynthetic carbon (C) gain, and only for trees. We tested the hypothesis that retrogression would negatively impact photosynthetic C gain of four contrasting species, and that this impact would be greater for vascular plants (i.e., trees and shrubs) than for non-vascular plants (i.e., mosses). We used a 5,000-year-old chronosequence of forested islands in Sweden, where retrogression occurs in the long-term absence of lightning-ignited wildfires. Despite fundamental differences in plant form and ecological niche among species, vascular plants and mosses showed similar ecophysiological responses to retrogression. The most common effects of retrogression were reductions in photosynthesis and respiration per unit foliar N, increases in foliar N, δ(13)C and δ(15)N, and decreases in specific leaf areas. In contrast, photosynthesis per unit mass or area generally did not change along the chronosequence, but did vary many-fold between vascular plants and mosses. The consistent increases in foliar N without corresponding increases in mass- or area-based photosynthesis suggest that other factor(s), such as P co-limitation, light conditions or water availability, may co-regulate C gain in retrogressive boreal forests. Against our predictions, traits of mosses associated with C and N were generally highly responsive to retrogression, which has implications for how mosses influence ecosystem processes in boreal forests.

  2. Redox Signaling and Its Impact on Skeletal and Vascular Responses to Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahimic, Candice; Globus, Ruth K.

    2018-01-01

    Spaceflight entails exposure to numerous environmental challenges with the potential to contribute to both musculoskeletal and vascular dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to describe current understanding of microgravity and radiation impacts on the mammalian skeleton and associated vasculature at the level of the whole organism. Recent experiments from spaceflight and groundbased models have provided fresh insights into how these environmental stresses influence mechanisms that are related to redox signaling, oxidative stress, and tissue dysfunction. Emerging mechanistic knowledge on cellular defenses to radiation and other environmental stressors, including microgravity, are useful for both screening and developing interventions against spaceflight-induced deficits in bone and vascular function.

  3. Redox Signaling and Its Impact on Skeletal and Vascular Responses to Spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Tahimic, Candice G T; Globus, Ruth K

    2017-10-16

    Spaceflight entails exposure to numerous environmental challenges with the potential to contribute to both musculoskeletal and vascular dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to describe current understanding of microgravity and radiation impacts on the mammalian skeleton and associated vasculature at the level of the whole organism. Recent experiments from spaceflight and ground-based models have provided fresh insights into how these environmental stresses influence mechanisms that are related to redox signaling, oxidative stress, and tissue dysfunction. Emerging mechanistic knowledge on cellular defenses to radiation and other environmental stressors, including microgravity, are useful for both screening and developing interventions against spaceflight-induced deficits in bone and vascular function.

  4. Joint scientific statement of the European Association for the Study of Obesity and the European Society of Hypertension: Obesity and early vascular ageing.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jens; Nilsson, Peter M; Kotsis, Vasilios; Olsen, Michael H; Grassi, Guido; Yumuk, Volkan; Hauner, Hans; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara; Toplak, Hermann; Engeli, Stefan; Finer, Nick

    2015-03-01

    Current cardiovascular risk scores do not include obesity or fat distribution as independent factors, and may underestimate risk in obese individuals. Assessment of early vascular ageing (EVA) biomarkers including arterial stiffness, central blood pressure, carotid intima-media thickness and flow-mediated vasodilation may help to refine risk assessment in obese individuals in whom traditional cardiovascular risk scores and factors suggest no need for specific medical attention. A number of issues need to be addressed before this approach is ready for translation into routine clinical practice. Methodologies for measurements of vascular markers need to be further standardized and less operator-dependent. The utility of these nontraditional risk factors will also need to be proven in sufficiently large and properly designed interventional studies. Indeed, published studies on vascular markers in obesity and weight loss vary in quality and study design, are sometimes conducted in small populations, use a variety of differing methodologies and study differing vascular beds. Finally, current vascular measurements are still crude and may not be sufficient to cover the different aspects of EVA in obesity.

  5. Exercise facilitates early recognition of cardiac and vascular remodeling in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in swine.

    PubMed

    Stam, Kelly; van Duin, Richard W B; Uitterdijk, André; Cai, Zongye; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2018-03-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) develops in 4% of patients after pulmonary embolism and is accompanied by an impaired exercise tolerance, which is ascribed to the increased right ventricular (RV) afterload in combination with a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch in the lungs. The present study aimed to investigate changes in arterial Po 2 and hemodynamics in response to graded treadmill exercise during development and progression of CTEPH in a novel swine model. Swine were chronically instrumented and received multiple pulmonary embolisms by 1) microsphere infusion (Spheres) over 5 wk, 2) endothelial dysfunction by administration of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) for 7 wk, 3) combined pulmonary embolisms and endothelial dysfunction (L-NAME + Spheres), or 4) served as sham-operated controls (sham). After a 9 wk followup, embolization combined with endothelial dysfunction resulted in CTEPH, as evidenced by mean pulmonary artery pressures of 39.5 ± 5.1 vs. 19.1 ± 1.5 mmHg (Spheres, P < 0.001), 22.7 ± 2.0 mmHg (L-NAME, P < 0.001), and 20.1 ± 1.5 mmHg (sham, P < 0.001), and a decrease in arterial Po 2 that was exacerbated during exercise, indicating V/Q mismatch. RV dysfunction was present after 5 wk of embolization, both at rest (trend toward increased RV end-systolic lumen area, P = 0.085, and decreased stroke volume index, P = 0.042) and during exercise (decreased stroke volume index vs. control, P = 0.040). With sustained pulmonary hypertension, RV hypertrophy (Fulton index P = 0.022) improved RV function at rest and during exercise, but this improvement was insufficient in CTEPH swine to result in an exercise-induced increase in cardiac index. In conclusion, embolization in combination with endothelial dysfunction results in CTEPH in swine. Exercise increased RV afterload, exacerbated the V/Q mismatch, and unmasked RV dysfunction. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here, we present the first

  6. Nitrate decreases xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated nitrite reductase activity and attenuates vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite.

    PubMed

    Damacena-Angelis, Célio; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Crevelin, Eduardo J; Portella, Rafael L; Moraes, Luiz Alberto B; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2017-08-01

    Nitrite and nitrate restore deficient endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production as they are converted back to NO, and therefore complement the classic enzymatic NO synthesis. Circulating nitrate and nitrite must cross membrane barriers to produce their effects and increased nitrate concentrations may attenuate the nitrite influx into cells, decreasing NO generation from nitrite. Moreover, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) mediates NO formation from nitrite and nitrate. However, no study has examined whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated NO generation from nitrite. We hypothesized that nitrate attenuates the vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite either by interfering with nitrite influx into vascular tissue, or by competing with nitrite for XOR, thus inhibiting XOR-mediated NO generation. We used two independent vascular function assays in rats (aortic ring preparations and isolated mesenteric arterial bed perfusion) to examine the effects of sodium nitrate on the concentration-dependent responses to sodium nitrite. Both assays showed that nitrate attenuated the vascular responses to nitrite. Conversely, the aortic responses to the NO donor DETANONOate were not affected by sodium nitrate. Further confirming these results, we found that nitrate attenuated the acute blood pressure lowering effects of increasing doses of nitrite infused intravenously in freely moving rats. The possibility that nitrate could compete with nitrite and decrease nitrite influx into cells was tested by measuring the accumulation of nitrogen-15-labeled nitrite ( 15 N-nitrite) by aortic rings using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Nitrate exerted no effect on aortic accumulation of 15 N-nitrite. Next, we used chemiluminescence-based NO detection to examine whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate significantly shifted the Michaelis Menten saturation curve to the right, with a 3-fold increase in the

  7. Changes in Ultrasonographic Vascularity Upon Initiation of Adalimumab Combination Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients With an Inadequate Response to Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Midori J.; Goyal, Janak R.; MacCarter, Daryl K.; Wells, Alvin F.; Chen, Su; Kupper, Hartmut; Kalabic, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess joint disease activity by ultrasound (US) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) initiating treatment with adalimumab (ADA) plus methotrexate (MTX). Methods Data for this post hoc analysis originated from the MUSICA trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01185288), which evaluated the efficacy of initiating ADA (40 mg every other week) plus 7.5 or 20 mg/week MTX in 309 patients with RA with an inadequate response to MTX. Synovial vascularization over 24 weeks was assessed bilaterally at metacarpophalangeal joint 2 (MCP2), MCP3, MCP5, metatarsophalangeal joint 5, and the wrists by power Doppler US (PDUS). A semiquantitative 4‐grade scale was used. Disease activity was assessed using the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the C‐reactive protein level (DAS28‐CRP) and Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI). The correlation between continuous variables was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results After 24 weeks of treatment with ADA plus MTX, rapid improvements in the mean synovial vascularity score were observed; the greatest improvements were in MCP2 (−0.5), MCP3 (−0.4), and the wrist (−0.4). At week 24, patients with the lowest DAS28‐CRP (<2.6) had the lowest mean 5‐joint and 3‐joint composite synovial vascularity scores. The 5‐joint and 3‐joint scores were strongly correlated (ρ > 0.9). Synovial vascularity scores correlated poorly with DAS28, swollen joint count in 66 joints (SJC66), SJC28, tender joint count in 68 joints (TJC68), TJC28, Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), SDAI, physician's global assessment, patient's global assessment of pain, and disease duration (ρ < 0.2). Thirty‐two (70%) of 46 patients with a DAS28‐CRP of <2.6, and 11 (58%) of 19 patients with an SDAI indicating remission had at least 1 joint with a synovial vascularity score of ≥1. Conclusion PDUS detects changes in synovial vascularity in RA patients treated with ADA plus MTX, and residual synovial

  8. Changes in Ultrasonographic Vascularity Upon Initiation of Adalimumab Combination Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients With an Inadequate Response to Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Kaeley, Gurjit S; Nishio, Midori J; Goyal, Janak R; MacCarter, Daryl K; Wells, Alvin F; Chen, Su; Kupper, Hartmut; Kalabic, Jasmina

    2016-11-01

    To assess joint disease activity by ultrasound (US) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) initiating treatment with adalimumab (ADA) plus methotrexate (MTX). Data for this post hoc analysis originated from the MUSICA trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01185288), which evaluated the efficacy of initiating ADA (40 mg every other week) plus 7.5 or 20 mg/week MTX in 309 patients with RA with an inadequate response to MTX. Synovial vascularization over 24 weeks was assessed bilaterally at metacarpophalangeal joint 2 (MCP2), MCP3, MCP5, metatarsophalangeal joint 5, and the wrists by power Doppler US (PDUS). A semiquantitative 4-grade scale was used. Disease activity was assessed using the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the C-reactive protein level (DAS28-CRP) and Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI). The correlation between continuous variables was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. After 24 weeks of treatment with ADA plus MTX, rapid improvements in the mean synovial vascularity score were observed; the greatest improvements were in MCP2 (-0.5), MCP3 (-0.4), and the wrist (-0.4). At week 24, patients with the lowest DAS28-CRP (<2.6) had the lowest mean 5-joint and 3-joint composite synovial vascularity scores. The 5-joint and 3-joint scores were strongly correlated (ρ > 0.9). Synovial vascularity scores correlated poorly with DAS28, swollen joint count in 66 joints (SJC66), SJC28, tender joint count in 68 joints (TJC68), TJC28, Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), SDAI, physician's global assessment, patient's global assessment of pain, and disease duration (ρ < 0.2). Thirty-two (70%) of 46 patients with a DAS28-CRP of <2.6, and 11 (58%) of 19 patients with an SDAI indicating remission had at least 1 joint with a synovial vascularity score of ≥1. PDUS detects changes in synovial vascularity in RA patients treated with ADA plus MTX, and residual synovial vascularity in patients in whom clinical disease control has

  9. Mast Cell Dependent Vascular Changes Associated with an Acute Response to Cold Immersion in Primary Contact Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Joseph; Gorbach, Alexander M.; Liu, Wei-Min; Medic, Nevenka; Young, Michael; Nelson, Celeste; Arceo, Sarah; Desai, Avanti; Metcalfe, Dean D.; Komarow, Hirsh D.

    2013-01-01

    Background While a number of the consequences of mast cell degranulation within tissues have been documented including tissue-specific changes such as bronchospasm and the subsequent cellular infiltrate, there is little known about the immediate effects of mast cell degranulation on the associated vasculature, critical to understanding the evolution of mast cell dependent inflammation. Objective To characterize the microcirculatory events that follow mast cell degranulation. Methodology/Principal Findings Perturbations in dermal blood flow, temperature and skin color were analyzed using laser-speckle contrast imaging, infrared and polarized-light colorimetry following cold-hand immersion (CHI) challenge in patients with cold-induced urticaria compared to the response in healthy controls. Evidence for mast cell degranulation was established by documentation of serum histamine levels and the localized release of tryptase in post-challenge urticarial biopsies. Laser-speckle contrast imaging quantified the attenuated response to cold challenge in patients on cetirizine. We found that the histamine-associated vascular response accompanying mast cell degranulation is rapid and extensive. At the tissue level, it is characterized by a uniform pattern of increased blood flow, thermal warming, vasodilation, and recruitment of collateral circulation. These vascular responses are modified by the administration of an antihistamine. Conclusions/Significance Monitoring the hemodynamic responses within tissues that are associated with mast cell degranulation provides additional insight into the evolution of the acute inflammatory response and offers a unique approach to assess the effectiveness of treatment intervention. PMID:23451084

  10. Early disrupted neurovascular coupling and changed event level hemodynamic response function in type 2 diabetes: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Duarte, João V; Pereira, João M S; Quendera, Bruno; Raimundo, Miguel; Moreno, Carolina; Gomes, Leonor; Carrilho, Francisco; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients develop vascular complications and have increased risk for neurophysiological impairment. Vascular pathophysiology may alter the blood flow regulation in cerebral microvasculature, affecting neurovascular coupling. Reduced fMRI signal can result from decreased neuronal activation or disrupted neurovascular coupling. The uncertainty about pathophysiological mechanisms (neurodegenerative, vascular, or both) underlying brain function impairments remains. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated if the hemodynamic response function (HRF) in lesion-free brains of patients is altered by measuring BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent) response to visual motion stimuli. We used a standard block design to examine the BOLD response and an event-related deconvolution approach. Importantly, the latter allowed for the first time to directly extract the true shape of HRF without any assumption and probe neurovascular coupling, using performance-matched stimuli. We discovered a change in HRF in early stages of diabetes. T2DM patients show significantly different fMRI response profiles. Our visual paradigm therefore demonstrated impaired neurovascular coupling in intact brain tissue. This implies that functional studies in T2DM require the definition of HRF, only achievable with deconvolution in event-related experiments. Further investigation of the mechanisms underlying impaired neurovascular coupling is needed to understand and potentially prevent the progression of brain function decrements in diabetes.

  11. Aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy combined with topically applied vascular disrupting agent vadimezan leads to enhanced antitumor responses.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Allison; Becker, Theresa; Sunar, Ulas; Morgan, Janet; Bellnier, David

    2011-01-01

    The tumor vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) vadimezan (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid, DMXAA) has been shown to potentiate the antitumor activity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using systemically administered photosensitizers. Here, we characterized the response of subcutaneous syngeneic Colon26 murine colon adenocarcinoma tumors to PDT using the locally applied photosensitizer precursor aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in combination with a topical formulation of vadimezan. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), a noninvasive method for monitoring blood flow, was utilized to determine tumor vascular response to treatment. In addition, correlative CD31-immunohistochemistry to visualize endothelial damage, ELISA to measure induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and tumor weight measurements were also examined in separate animals. In our previous work, DCS revealed a selective decrease in tumor blood flow over time following topical vadimezan. ALA-PDT treatment also induced a decrease in tumor blood flow. The onset of blood flow reduction was rapid in tumors treated with both ALA-PDT and vadimezan. CD31-immunostaining of tumor sections confirmed vascular damage following topical application of vadimezan. Tumor weight measurements revealed enhanced tumor growth inhibition with combination treatment compared with ALA-PDT or vadimezan treatment alone. In conclusion, vadimezan as a topical agent enhances treatment efficacy when combined with ALA-PDT. This combination could be useful in clinical applications. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  12. Use of a photographic manipulation tool to assess corneal vascular response.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jill; Jones, Lyndon; Woods, Craig; Schneider, Simone; Fonn, Desmond

    2012-02-01

    Corneal vasculature change in contact lens wearers has been linked to the level of hypoxia within the cornea.To assess the impact a treatment has on limbal vessels, a sensitive method of measurement and quantification is required. A group of 21 highly myopic, hydrogel wearers, with preexisting signs of corneal hypoxia, were enrolled into a study where they wore sifilcon A penetrated hydrogel lenses (Dk/t ± 117), on a daily wear basis for 9 months. At all scheduled visits, photographs were taken of the superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal limbal regions which were then imported into Adobe Photoshop. A red-free filter was applied to enhance the contrast of the blood columns. In each quadrant, the length of the longest visible blood column was measured and the blood columns that penetrated 0.5 mm into the cornea were counted. A control group of 11 non-lens wearers was recruited. Their photographs were taken at the beginning of the study and 9 months later. An independent, masked observer assessed the photographs. There was a significant decrease in the maximum penetration of the blood column in all quadrants (p = 0.001) from baseline to the 9-month visit (e.g., superior: baseline 0.84 ± 0.39 mm; 9 months 0.63 ± 0.20 mm). There was also significant reduction in the number of visible blood columns longer than 0.5 mm in each quadrant (p = 0.001) from baseline to 9 months in all quadrants (e.g., superior: baseline 14.0 ± 8.2; 9 months 6.5 ± 6.0). The control group showed no change over time for the maximum blood column length (p = 0.638) or the number of columns 0.5 mm (p = 0.341). A group of highly myopic subjects exhibited reduction in the maximum length and number of blood columns in the cornea when ref it with a highly permeable silicone hydrogel material. The use of photography, along with Adobe Photoshop software, provides a reliable way of measuring corneal vascular responses over time.

  13. Potentiation of the vascular response to kinins by inhibition of myocardial kininases.

    PubMed

    Dendorfer, A; Wolfrum, S; Schäfer, U; Stewart, J M; Inamura, N; Dominiak, P

    2000-01-01

    Inhibitors of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) are very efficacious in the potentiation of the actions of bradykinin (BK) and are able to provoke a B(2) receptor-mediated vasodilation even after desensitization of this receptor. Because this activity cannot be easily explained only by an inhibition of kinin degradation, direct interactions of ACE inhibitors with the B(2) receptor or its signal transduction have been hypothesized. To clarify the significance of degradation-independent potentiation, we studied the vasodilatory effects of BK and 2 degradation-resistant B(2) receptor agonists in the isolated rat heart, a model in which ACE and aminopeptidase P (APP) contribute equally to the degradation of BK. Coronary vasodilation to BK and to a peptidic (B6014) and a nonpeptidic (FR190997) degradation-resistant B(2) agonist was assessed in the presence or absence of the ACE inhibitor ramiprilat, the APP inhibitor mercaptoethanol, or both. Ramiprilat or mercaptoethanol induced leftward shifts in the BK dose-response curve (EC(50)=3.4 nmol/L) by a factor of 4.6 or 4.9, respectively. Combined inhibition of ACE and APP reduced the EC(50) of BK to 0.18 nmol/L (ie, by a factor of 19) but potentiated the activity of B6014 (EC(50)=1.9 nmol/L) only weakly without altering that of FR190997 (EC(50)=0.34 nmol/L). Desensitization of B(2) receptors was induced by the administration of BK (0.2 micromol/L) or FR190997 (0.1 micromol/L) for 30 minutes; the vascular reactivity to ramiprilat or increasing doses of BK was tested thereafter. After desensitization with BK, but not FR190997, an additional application of ramiprilat provoked a B(2) receptor-mediated vasodilation. High BK concentrations were still effective at the desensitized receptor. The process of desensitization was not altered by ramiprilat. These results show that in this model, all potentiating actions of ACE inhibitors on kinin-induced vasodilation are exclusively related to the reduction in BK breakdown and are

  14. Vascular biomarkers to predict response to exercise in Alzheimer's disease: the study protocol.

    PubMed

    Li, Danni; Thomas, Robin; Tsai, Michael Y; Li, Ling; Vock, David M; Greimel, Susan; Yu, Fang

    2016-12-30

    Exercise interventions are a promising treatment for improving cognition in persons with Alzheimer's disease. This is similar to Alzheimer's disease pharmacotherapies in which only 18-48% of treated patients demonstrate improvement in cognition. Aerobic exercise interventions positively affect brain structure and function through biologically sound pathways. However, an under-studied mechanism of aerobic exercise's effects is n-3 fatty acids in plasma. The objective of this pilot study is to inform a future large-scale study to develop n-3 fatty acids-based prediction of cognitive responses to aerobic exercise treatment in Alzheimer's disease. This study will recruit and follow a cohort of 25 subjects enrolled in the FIT-AD Trial, an ongoing randomised controlled trial that investigates the effects of a 6-month moderate-intensity cycling intervention on cognition and hippocampal volume in older adults with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease over a year. This study will collect blood from subjects at baseline and at 3 and 6 months to assay vascular biomarkers (ie, plasma fatty acids). Global cognition as measured by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition (ADAS-Cog) at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months will be used as the main outcome. A multiple linear-regression model will be used with 12-month change in cognition as the outcome and baseline measure of n-3 fatty acids or changes in the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty-acid levels in plasma at 3 and/or 6 months, randomised treatment group, and their interaction as predictors. We have obtained Institutional Review Board approval for our study. We obtain consent or assent/surrogate consent from all subjects depending on their consenting capacity assessment. Data of this study are/will be stored in the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap). We plan to present and publish our study findings through presentations and manuscripts. NCT01954550. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  15. Hydroxy-oleic acid, but not oleic acid, inhibits pharmacologic vascular responsiveness in isolated aortic tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oleic acid (OA) and other fatty acids can become abundant in the systemic circulation after air pollution exposure as endogenously released lipolysis byproducts or by entering the body as a component of air pollution. Vascular damage has been observed with OA infusion, but it is ...

  16. Hydroxy-oleic acid, but not oleic acid, inhibits vascular responsiveness in isolated aortic tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oleic acid (OA) and other fatty acids can become abundant in circulation after air pollution exposure as endogenously released lipolysis byproducts or by entering the body as a component of air pollution. Vascular damage has been observed with OA infusion, but it is not yet estab...

  17. Baroreflex-Mediated Heart Rate and Vascular Resistance Responses 24 h after Maximal Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    of normal physiological function in bedridden patients and astronauts. The implication for failure of CVP and plasma volume to return to baseline... FUNCTION , BLOOD PRES- SURE, CENTRAL VENOUS PRESSURE, PHENYLEPHRINE, NECK PRESSURE, LOWER BODY NEGATIVE PRESSURE, COUNTERMEASURES Increased incidence of...orthostatic hypotension and intol-erance in humans is associated with vascular hypovole-mia and attenuated cardiovascular reflex functions

  18. Early response to psychological trauma--what GPs can do.

    PubMed

    Wade, Darryl; Howard, Alexandra; Fletcher, Susan; Cooper, John; Forbes, David

    2013-09-01

    There is a high prevalence of psychological trauma exposure among primary care patients. General practitioners are well placed to provide appropriate support for patients coping with trauma. This article outlines an evidence-based early response to psychological trauma. Psychological first aid is the preferred approach in providing early assistance to patients who have experienced a traumatic event. General practitioners can be guided by five empirically derived principles in their early response: promoting a sense of safety, calming, self efficacy, connectedness and hope. Structured psychological interventions, including psychological debriefing, are not routinely recommended in the first few weeks following trauma exposure. General practitioner self care is an important aspect of providing post-trauma patient care.

  19. Early Twentieth Century Responses to the Drug Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfennig, Dennis Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Describes early twentieth-century responses to the drug problem in the United States. Discusses pressure from the media and reformers to control the availability of drugs such as opium and cocaine that were widely available in over-the-counter medications. Focuses on New York State, which took the lead in enacting drug control legislation. (DK)

  20. A Comparison of Responsive Interventions on Kindergarteners' Early Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mary E.; Rawlinson, D'Ann; Simmons, Deborah C.; Kim, Minjung; Kwok, Oi-man; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Simmons, Leslie E.; Fogarty, Melissa; Oslund, Eric; Coyne, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effects of Tier 2 reading interventions that operated in response-to-intervention contexts. Kindergarten children (N = 90) who were identified as at risk for reading difficulties were stratified by school and randomly assigned to receive (a) Early Reading Intervention (ERI; Pearson/Scott Foresman, 2004) modified in response…

  1. A Framework for Providing Culturally Responsive Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework that offers a way for early intervention (EI) service providers to better meet the needs of the culturally diverse children and families they serve. This framework was created to organize existing research and literature on cultural responsiveness in a way that fit the unique context of EI. The…

  2. The Reasons behind Early Adolescents' Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55% girls) from two urban middle schools and 254…

  3. ALD1 Regulates Basal Immune Components and Early Inducible Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Nicolás M; Jung, Ho Won; Engle, Nancy L; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Greenberg, Jean T

    2015-04-01

    Robust immunity requires basal defense machinery to mediate timely responses and feedback cycles to amplify defenses against potentially spreading infections. AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN 1 (ALD1) is needed for the accumulation of the plant defense signal salicylic acid (SA) during the first hours after infection with the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and is also upregulated by infection and SA. ALD1 is an aminotransferase with multiple substrates and products in vitro. Pipecolic acid (Pip) is an ALD1-dependent bioactive product induced by P. syringae. Here, we addressed roles of ALD1 in mediating defense amplification as well as the levels and responses of basal defense machinery. ALD1 needs immune components PAD4 and ICS1 (an SA synthesis enzyme) to confer disease resistance, possibly through a transcriptional amplification loop between them. Furthermore, ALD1 affects basal defense by controlling microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptor levels and responsiveness. Vascular exudates from uninfected ALD1-overexpressing plants confer local immunity to the wild type and ald1 mutants yet are not enriched for Pip. We infer that, in addition to affecting Pip accumulation, ALD1 produces non-Pip metabolites that play roles in immunity. Thus, distinct metabolite signals controlled by the same enzyme affect basal and early defenses versus later defense responses, respectively.

  4. Influence of myocardial oxygen demand on the coronary vascular response to arterial blood gas changes in humans.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Tyler Dennis; Boulet, Lindsey M; Stembridge, Mike; Williams, Alexandra Mackenzie; Anholm, James D; Subedi, Prajan; Gasho, Chris; Ainslie, Philip N; Feigl, Eric O; Foster, Glen Edward

    2018-03-30

    It remains unclear if the human coronary vasculature is inherently sensitive to changes in arterial PO 2 and PCO 2 or if coronary vascular responses are the result of concomitant increases in myocardial O 2 consumption/demand (MVO 2 ). We hypothesized that the coronary vascular response to PO 2 and PCO 2 would be attenuated in healthy men when MVO 2 was attenuated with β 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade. Healthy men (n=11; age: 25 {plus minus} 1 years) received intravenous esmolol (β 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist) or volume-matched saline in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, and were exposed to poikilocapnic hypoxia, isocapnic hypoxia, and hypercapnic hypoxia. Measurements made at baseline and following 5-min of steady state at each gas manipulation included left anterior descending coronary blood velocity (LAD V ; Doppler echocardiography), heart rate and arterial blood pressure. LAD V values at the end of each hypoxic condition were compared between esmolol and placebo. Rate pressure product (RPP) and left-ventricular mechanical energy (ME LV ) were calculated as indices of MVO 2 . All gas manipulations augmented RPP, ME LV , and LAD V but only RPP and ME LV were attenuated (4-18%) following β 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade (P<0.05). Despite attenuated RPP and MELV responses, β 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade did not attenuate the mean LADV vasodilatory response when compared to placebo during poikilocapnic hypoxia (29.4{plus minus}2.2 vs. 27.3{plus minus}1.6 cm/s) and isocapnic hypoxia (29.5{plus minus}1.5 vs. 30.3{plus minus}2.2 cm/s). Hypercapnic hypoxia elicited a feed-forward coronary dilation that was blocked by β 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade. These results indicate a direct influence of arterial PO 2 on coronary vascular regulation that is independent of MVO 2 .

  5. Quantifying the vascular response to ischemia with speckle variance optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Kristin M.; McCormack, Devin R.; Patil, Chetan A.; Duvall, Craig L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal monitoring techniques for preclinical models of vascular remodeling are critical to the development of new therapies for pathological conditions such as ischemia and cancer. In models of skeletal muscle ischemia in particular, there is a lack of quantitative, non-invasive and long term assessment of vessel morphology. Here, we have applied speckle variance optical coherence tomography (OCT) methods to quantitatively assess vascular remodeling and growth in a mouse model of peripheral arterial disease. This approach was validated on two different mouse strains known to have disparate rates and abilities of recovering following induction of hind limb ischemia. These results establish the potential for speckle variance OCT as a tool for quantitative, preclinical screening of pro- and anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:25574425

  6. Temporal Alterations in Vascular Angiotensin Receptors and Vasomotor Response in Offspring of Protein-restricted Rat Dams

    PubMed Central

    SATHISHKUMAR, Kunju; BALAKRISHNAN, Meena; CHINNATHAMBI, Vijayakumar; GAO, Haijun; YALLAMPALLI, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine temporal alterations in vascular angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors (AT1R and AT2R) and determine vascular response to ANG II in growth-restricted offspring. Study design Offspring of pregnant rats fed low-protein (6%) and control (20%) diet were compared. Results Prenatal protein restriction reprogrammed AT1aR mRNA expression in males’ mesenteric arteries to cause 1.7- and 2.3-fold increases at 3 and 6 months of age associated with arterial pressure increases of 10 and 33 mmHg, respectively; however, in females, increased AT1aR expression (2-fold) and arterial pressure (15 mmHg) occurred only at 6 months. Prenatal protein restriction did not affect AT2R expression. Losartan abolished hypertension, suggesting that AT1aR plays a primary role in arterial pressure elevation. Vasoconstriction to ANG II was exaggerated in all protein-restricted offspring, with greater potency and efficacy in males. Conclusion Prenatal protein restriction increased vascular AT1R expression and vasoconstriction to ANG II, possibly contributing to programmed hypertension. PMID:22537420

  7. Assessment of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness as an Early Marker Of Vascular Damage In Hypertensive Children.

    PubMed

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Baroncini, Camila Varotto; Pecoits, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    The increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) correlates with the presence of atherosclerosis in adults and describes vascular abnormalities in both hypertensive children and adolescents. To assess CIMT as an early marker of atherosclerosis and vascular damage in hypertensive children and adolescents compared with non-hypertensive controls and to evaluate the influence of gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) on CIMT on each group. Observational cohort study. A total of 133 hypertensive subjects (male, n = 69; mean age, 10.5 ± 4 years) underwent carotid ultrasound exam for assessment of CIMT. One hundred and twenty-one non-hypertensive subjects (male, n = 64; mean age, 9.8 ± 4.1 years) were selected as controls for gender, age (± 1 year), and BMI (± 10%). There were no significant difference regarding gender (p = 0.954) and age (p = 0.067) between groups. Hypertensive subjects had higher BMI when compared to control group (p = 0.004), although within the established range of 10%. Subjects in the hypertensive group had higher CIMT values when compared to control group (0.46 ± 0.05 versus 0.42 ± 0.05 mm, respectively, p < 0.001; one-way ANOVA). Carotid IMT values were not significantly influenced by gender, age, and BMI when analyzed in both groups separately (Student's t-test for independent samples). According to the adjusted determination coefficient (R²) only 11.7% of CIMT variations were accounted for by group variations, including age, gender, and BMI. Carotid intima-media thickness was higher in hypertensive children and adolescents when compared to the control group. The presence of hypertension increased CIMT regardless of age, gender, and BMI. O aumento da espessura médio-intimal carotídea (EMIC) correlaciona-se com a presença de aterosclerose em adultos e descreve anormalidades vasculares em crianças e adolescentes hipertensos. Avaliar a EMIC como marcador precoce de aterosclerose e dano vascular em crianças e adolescentes hipertensos em

  8. Structural and vascular response of normal and obstructed rabbit whole bladders to distension.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Chichester, Paul; Kogan, Barry A; Levin, Robert M

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the structural and morphologic effect of distension after partial outlet obstruction in rabbits. Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were separated into two groups: control (sham) and partial outlet obstruction (3 weeks). Three rabbits from each group were distended to 5%, 25%, 50%, 100%, and 125% of capacity. Each bladder was fixed at the volume in buffered formalin for 6 to 8 hours. Sections of dorsal and ventral bladder were blocked, and cross sections were evaluated. Quantitative morphometry was performed, and CD31 immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the vascularity. Partial outlet obstruction resulted in increased bladder weight and capacity and increased thickness of the mucosa, submucosa, detrusor, and serosa. In the control bladder, the greatest thinning was seen between 5% and 25% capacity, and in the obstructed group, the greatest thinning occurred between 25% and 50%. The level of vascular collapse was significantly greater for the control bladders than for the obstructed bladders at all levels of distension. Finally, the obstructed bladders showed a significantly greater level of vascularity in the submucosa than the control bladders. Normal bladder distension resulted in significant morphologic changes when the bladder was distended to 25% of capacity but changed relatively little between 25% and 125%. However, distension of the obstructed bladder resulted in significant morphologic changes when the bladder was distended from 25% to 50% of capacity but changed relatively little between 50% and 125%.

  9. Defective interplay between mTORC1 activity and endoplasmic reticulum stress-unfolded protein response in uremic vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dibyendu K; Bai, Xiuying; Sabbagh, Yves; Zhang, Yan; Zaun, Hans-Christian; Karellis, Angeliki; Koromilas, Antonis E; Lipman, Mark L; Karaplis, Andrew C

    2018-06-01

    Vascular calcification increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Increased activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-unfolded protein response (UPR) are independently reported to partake in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification in CKD. However, the association between mTORC1 activity and ER stress-UPR remains unknown. We report here that components of the uremic state [activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and hyperphosphatemia] potentiate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification by inducing persistent and exaggerated activity of mTORC1. This gives rise to prolonged and excessive ER stress-UPR as well as attenuated levels of sestrin 1 ( Sesn1) and Sesn3 feeding back to inhibit mTORC1 activity. Activating transcription factor 4 arising from the UPR mediates cell death via expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (c/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), impairs the generation of pyrophosphate, a potent inhibitor of mineralization, and potentiates VSMC transdifferentiation to the osteochondrocytic phenotype. Short-term treatment of CKD mice with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, or tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a bile acid that restores ER homeostasis, normalized mTORC1 activity, molecular markers of UPR, and calcium content of aortas. Collectively, these data highlight that increased and/or protracted mTORC1 activity arising from the uremic state leads to dysregulated ER stress-UPR and VSMC calcification. Manipulation of the mTORC1-ER stress-UPR pathway opens up new therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of vascular calcification in CKD.

  10. Age-related differences in memory-encoding fMRI responses after accounting for decline in vascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peiying; Hebrank, Andrew C.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Section, Jarren; Park, Denise C.; Lu, Hanzhang

    2013-01-01

    BOLD fMRI has provided a wealth of information about the aging brain. A common finding is that posterior regions of the brain manifest an age-related decrease in activation while the anterior regions show an age-related increase. Several neurocognitive models have been proposed to interpret these findings. However, one issue that has not been sufficiently considered to date is that the BOLD signal is based on vascular responses secondary to neural activity. Thus the above findings could be in part due to a vascular change, especially in view of the expected decline of vascular health with age. In the present study, we aim to examine age-related differences in memory-encoding fMRI response in the context of vascular aging. One hundred and thirty healthy subjects ranging from 20 to 89 years old underwent a scene-viewing fMRI task and, in the same session, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was measured in each subject using a CO2-inhalation task. Without accounting for the influence of vascular changes, the task-activated fMRI signal showed the typical age-related decrease in visual cortex and medial temporal lobe (MTL), but manifested an increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In the same individuals, an age-related CVR reduction was observed in all of these regions. We then used a previously proposed normalization approach to calculate a CVR-corrected fMRI signal, which was defined as the uncorrected signal divided by CVR. Based on the CVR-corrected fMRI signal, an age-related increase is now seen in both the left and right side of IFG; and no brain regions showed a signal decrease with age. We additionally used a model-based approach to examine the fMRI data in the context of CVR, which again suggested an age-related change in the two frontal regions, but not in the visual and MTL regions. PMID:23624491

  11. Role of ROS signaling in differential hypoxic Ca2+ and contractile responses in pulmonary and systemic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Xiao; Zheng, Yun-Min

    2010-12-31

    Hypoxia causes a large increase in [Ca2+]i and attendant contraction in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), but not in systemic artery SMCs. The different responses meet the respective functional needs in these two distinct vascular myocytes; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well known. We and other investigators have provided extensive evidence to reveal that voltage-dependent K+ (KV) channels, canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels, ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels (RyRs), cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose, FK506 binding protein 12.6, protein kinase C, NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the essential effectors and signaling intermediates in the hypoxic increase in [Ca2+]i in PASMCs and HPV, but they may not primarily underlie the diverse cellular responses in pulmonary and systemic vascular myocytes. Hypoxia significantly increases mitochondrial ROS generation in PASMCs, which can induce intracellular Ca2+ release by opening RyRs, and may also cause extracellular Ca2+ influx by inhibiting KV channels and activating TRPC channels, leading to a large increase in [Ca2+]i in PASMCs and HPV. In contrast, hypoxia has no or a minor effect on mitochondrial ROS generation in systemic SMCs, thereby causing no change or a negligible increase in [Ca2+]i and contraction. Further preliminary work indicates that Rieske iron-sulfur protein in the mitochondrial complex III may perhaps serve as a key initial molecular determinant for the hypoxic increase in [Ca2+]i in PASMCs and HPV, suggesting its potential important role in different cellular changes to respond to hypoxic stimulation in pulmonary and systemic artery myocytes. All these findings have greatly improved our understanding of the molecular processes for the differential hypoxic Ca2+ and contractile responses in vascular SMCs from distinct pulmonary and systemic circulation systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Peripheral vascular reactivity and serum BDNF responses to aerobic training are impaired by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Lemos, José R; Alves, Cleber R; de Souza, Sílvia B C; Marsiglia, Julia D C; Silva, Michelle S M; Pereira, Alexandre C; Teixeira, Antônio L; Vieira, Erica L M; Krieger, José E; Negrão, Carlos E; Alves, Guilherme B; de Oliveira, Edilamar M; Bolani, Wladimir; Dias, Rodrigo G; Trombetta, Ivani C

    2016-02-01

    Besides neuronal plasticity, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also important in vascular function. The BDNF has been associated with angiogenesis through its specific receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB). Additionally, Val66Met polymorphism decreases activity-induced BDNF. Since BDNF and TrkB are expressed in vascular endothelial cells and aerobic exercise training can increase serum BDNF, this study aimed to test the hypotheses: 1) Serum BDNF levels modulate peripheral blood flow; 2) The Val66Met BDNF polymorphism impairs exercise training-induced vasodilation. We genotyped 304 healthy male volunteers (Val66Val, n = 221; Val66Met, n = 83) who underwent intense aerobic exercise training on a running track three times/wk for 4 mo. We evaluated pre- and post-exercise training serum BDNF and proBDNF concentration, heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MBP), forearm blood flow (FBF), and forearm vascular resistance (FVR). In the pre-exercise training, BDNF, proBDNF, BDNF/proBDNF ratio, FBF, and FVR were similar between genotypes. After exercise training, functional capacity (V̇o2 peak) increased and HR decreased similarly in both groups. Val66Val, but not Val66Met, increased BDNF (interaction, P = 0.04) and BDNF/proBDNF ratio (interaction, P < 0.001). Interestingly, FBF (interaction, P = 0.04) and the FVR (interaction, P = 0.01) responses during handgrip exercise (HG) improved in Val66Val compared with Val66Met, even with similar responses of HR and MBP. There were association between BDNF/proBDNF ratio and FBF (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) and FVR (r = -0.58, P < 0.001) during HG exercise. These results show that peripheral vascular reactivity and serum BDNF responses to exercise training are impaired by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and such responsiveness is associated with serum BDNF concentrations in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Association of Genetic Variants With Response to Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Lorés-Motta, Laura; Riaz, Moeen; Grunin, Michelle; Corominas, Jordi; van Asten, Freekje; Pauper, Marc; Leenders, Mathieu; Richardson, Andrea J; Muether, Philipp; Cree, Angela J; Griffiths, Helen L; Pham, Connie; Belanger, Marie-Claude; Meester-Smoor, Magda A; Ali, Manir; Heid, Iris M; Fritsche, Lars G; Chakravarthy, Usha; Gale, Richard; McKibbin, Martin; Inglehearn, Chris F; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Omar, Amer; Chen, John; Koenekoop, Robert K; Fauser, Sascha; Guymer, Robyn H; Hoyng, Carel B; de Jong, Eiko K; Lotery, Andrew J; Mitchell, Paul; den Hollander, Anneke I; Baird, Paul N; Chowers, Itay

    2018-05-31

    Visual acuity (VA) outcomes differ considerably among patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs. Identification of pharmacogenetic associations may help clinicians understand the mechanisms underlying this variability as well as pave the way for personalized treatment in nAMD. To identify genetic factors associated with variability in the response to anti-VEGF therapy for patients with nAMD. In this multicenter genome-wide association study, 678 patients with nAMD with genome-wide genotyping data were included in the discovery phase; 1380 additional patients with nAMD were genotyped for selected common variants in the replication phase. All participants received 3 monthly injections of bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Clinical data were evaluated for inclusion/exclusion criteria from October 2014 to October 2015, followed by data analysis from October 2015 to February 2016. For replication cohort genotyping, clinical data collection and analysis (including meta-analysis) was performed from March 2016 to April 2017. Change in VA after the loading dose of 3 monthly anti-VEGF injections compared with baseline. Of the 2058 included patients, 1210 (58.8%) were women, and the mean (SD) age across all cohorts was 78 (7.4) years. Patients included in the discovery cohort and most of the patients in the replication cohorts were of European descent. The mean (SD) baseline VA was 51.3 (20.3) Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) score letters, and the mean (SD) change in VA after the loading dose of 3 monthly injections was a gain of 5.1 (13.9) ETDRS score letters (ie, 1-line gain). Genome-wide single-variant analyses of common variants revealed 5 independent loci that reached a P value less than 10 × 10-5. After replication and meta-analysis of the lead variants, rs12138564 located in the CCT3 gene remained nominally associated with a better treatment outcome (ETDRS letter

  14. Cutaneous vascular and core temperature responses to sustained cold exposure in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Grant H; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Minson, Christopher T; Halliwill, John R

    2011-10-01

    We tested the effect of hypoxia on cutaneous vascular regulation and defense of core temperature during cold exposure. Twelve subjects had two microdialysis fibres placed in the ventral forearm and were immersed to the sternum in a bathtub on parallel study days (normoxia and poikilocapnic hypoxia with an arterial O(2) saturation of 80%). One fibre served as the control (1 mM propranolol) and the other received 5 mM yohimbine (plus 1 mM propranolol) to block adrenergic receptors. Skin blood flow was assessed at each site (laser Doppler flowmetry), divided by mean arterial pressure to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), and scaled to baseline. Cold exposure was first induced by a progressive reduction in water temperature from 36 to 23°C over 30 min to assess cutaneous vascular regulation, then by clamping the water temperature at 10°C for 45 min to test defense of core temperature. During normoxia, cold stress reduced CVC in control (-44 ± 4%) and yohimbine sites (-13 ± 7%; both P < 0.05 versus precooling). Hypoxia caused vasodilatation prior to cooling but resulted in greater reductions in CVC in control (-67 ± 7%) and yohimbine sites (-35 ± 11%) during cooling (both P < 0.05 versus precooling; both P < 0.05 versus normoxia). Core cooling rate during the second phase of cold exposure was unaffected by hypoxia (-1.81 ± 0.23°C h(-1) in normoxia versus -1.97 ± 0.33°C h(-1) in hypoxia; P > 0.05). We conclude that hypoxia increases cutaneous (non-noradrenergic) vasoconstriction during prolonged cold exposure, while core cooling rate is not consistently affected.

  15. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery

    PubMed Central

    Klimberg, V. Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas EP

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. Methods In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post‐absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Results Major surgery resulted in an up‐regulation of post‐absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2 = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non‐cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. Conclusions The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the

  16. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Klimberg, V Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas Ep

    2017-06-01

    Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post-absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Major surgery resulted in an up-regulation of post-absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2  = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non-cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the anabolic response to meal intake within 24 h after

  17. Alterations of myocardial and vascular adrenergic receptor-mediated responses in Escherichia coli-induced septic shock in the rat.

    PubMed

    Boillot, A; Massol, J; Maupoil, V; Grelier, R; Capellier, G; Berthelot, A; Barale, F

    1996-08-01

    To investigate responsiveness to exogenous catecholamines in rat bacteremic shock by studying both myocardial and vascular functional parameters; to determine in the same study the relationship of these parameters with other relevant biological parameters of the adrenergic pathway, such as myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP); and to indirectly approach the roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide. Experimental, comparative study. Laboratory in a university hospital. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 270 to 320 g. Intravenous injection of live Escherichia coli DH5 alpha (2 x 10(10) organisms/kg) or saline (0.6 mL) and comparison of the two groups. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded, and circulating TNF-alpha concentrations were measured, during the first 3 hrs after E. coli administration. Myocardial and vascular functional parameters were obtained, respectively, from Langendorff-perfused hearts and isolated aortic rings. Adrenergic biochemical parameters (catecholamines, density and affinity of beta-receptors, and isoproterenol-stimulated myocardial cAMP) were determined 3 hrs after E. coli injection. Mean arterial pressure decreased within 5 to 60 mins after bacteria injection and returned to basal levels in the last 2 hrs; HR was unchanged. Serum TNF-alpha concentrations peaked at 120 mins (7333 +/- 672 pg/mL) and were still increased at 3 hrs. Plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly (p < .05) increased. Baseline values for differential left ventricular pressure and coronary flow were significantly (p < .0001, p < .001, respectively) reduced; HR remained unchanged. Isoproterenol induced a similar increase in differential left ventricular pressure and in HR. There was no decrease in the functional myocardial response to adrenergic stimulation. beta-adrenergic receptors were similar in density and in affinity in the two groups. Isoproterenol

  18. Vascular responsiveness measured by tissue oxygen saturation reperfusion slope is sensitive to different occlusion durations and training status.

    PubMed

    McLay, Kaitlin M; Gilbertson, James E; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Paterson, Donald H; Murias, Juan M

    2016-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? Is the near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measure of tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) reperfusion slope sensitive to a range of ischaemic conditions, and do differences exist between trained and untrained individuals? What is the main finding and its importance? The StO2 reperfusion rate is sensitive to different occlusion durations, and changes in the reperfusion slope in response to a variety of ischaemic challenges can be used to detect differences between two groups. These data indicate that near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measures of StO2, specifically the reperfusion slope following a vascular occlusion, can be used as a sensitive measure of vascular responsiveness. The reperfusion rate of near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measures of tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) represents vascular responsiveness. This study examined whether the reperfusion slope of StO2 is sensitive to different ischaemic conditions (i.e. a dose-response relationship) and whether differences exist between two groups of different fitness levels. Nine healthy trained (T; age 25 ± 3 years; maximal oxygen uptake 63.4 ± 6.7 ml kg -1  min -1 ) and nine healthy untrained men (UT; age 21 ± 1 years; maximal oxygen uptake 46.6 ± 2.5 ml kg -1  min -1 ) performed a series of vascular occlusion tests of different durations (30 s, 1, 2, 3 and 5 min), each separated by 30 min. The StO2 was measured over the tibialis anterior using near-infrared spectroscopy, with the StO2 reperfusion slope calculated as the upslope during 10 s following cuff release. The reperfusion slope was steeper in T compared with UT at all occlusion durations (P < 0.05). For the T group, the reperfusion slopes for 30 s and 1 min occlusions were less than for all longer durations (P < 0.05). The reperfusion slope following 2 min occlusion was similar to that for 3 min (P > 0.05), but both were less steep than for 5 min of occlusion. In UT, the

  19. The unsuitability of implantable Doppler probes for the early detection of renal vascular complications – a porcine model for prevention of renal transplant loss

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Bente; Møldrup, Ulla; Keller, Anna K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Vascular occlusion is a rare, but serious complication after kidney transplantation often resulting in graft loss. We therefore aimed to develop an experimental porcine model for stepwise reduction of the renal venous blood flow and to compare an implantable Doppler probe and microdialysis for fast detection of vascular occlusion. Methods In 20 pigs, implantable Doppler probes were placed on the renal artery and vein and a microdialysis catheter was placed in the renal cortex. An arterial flowprobe served as gold standard. Following two-hour baseline measurements, the pigs were randomised to stepwise venous occlusion, complete venous occlusion, complete arterial occlusion or controls. Results All parameters were stable through baseline measurements. Glutamate and lactate measured by microdialysis increased significantly (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03 respectively) 30 minutes after a 2/3 (66%) reduction in renal blood flow. The implantable Doppler probe was not able to detect flow changes until there was total venous occlusion. Microdialysis detected changes in local metabolism after both arterial and venous occlusion; the implantable Doppler probe could only detect vascular occlusions on the vessel it was placed. Conclusions We developed a new model for stepwise renal venous blood flow occlusion. Furthermore, the first comparison of the implantable Doppler probe and microdialysis for detection of renal vascular occlusions was made. The implantable Doppler probe could only detect flow changes after a complete occlusion, whereas microdialysis detected changes earlier, and could detect both arterial and venous occlusion. Based on these results, the implantable Doppler probe for early detection of vascular occlusions cannot be recommended. PMID:28542429

  20. Microparticles (CD146) and Arterial Stiffness Versus Carotid Intima Media Thickness as an Early Predictors of Vascular Affection in Systemic Lupus Patients.

    PubMed

    Nassef, Sahar; El Guindey, Hala; Fawzy, Mary; Nasser, Amal; Reffai, Rasha; Shemiy, Doa

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate cluster of differentiation 146 (CD146) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as non-invasive methods for prediction of early vascular affection in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients without symptoms of vascular disease, to detect the outcome and reproducibility of these methods, and to correlate CD146 and PWV with lipid profile, intima media thickness (IMT), and ankle brachial index. Thirty female SLE patients (mean age 26.6±6.6 years; range 15 to 35 years) fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology 1997 revised criteria for SLE classification, and 15 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. All participants were performed full clinical assessments including measurement of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, lipid profile, CD146, carotid IMT, PWV, and rise time as an indication of how fast the waveform rises. Cluster of differentiation 146 levels were elevated in patients with SLE compared to controls (p<0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between patients and controls in the femoral, lower thigh, and ankle rise time. There was a statistically significant correlation between IMT and ages of patients, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, and brachial-below knee PWV, while there was no correlation between IMT and disease duration, lipid profile, brachial-femoral PWV, and brachial-ankle PWV. There was statistically significant correlations between brachial-femoral PWV and serum cholesterol level, and between brachial-ankle PWV and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our results showed that SLE vascular affection is more pronounced in small arteries. Also, elevated CD146 and brachial-femoral PWV are useful early markers of vascular affection in SLE as well as rise time may be a marker for arterial stiffness.

  1. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Marie K.; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Steven B.; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1−/− mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1−/− mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1−/− callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677

  2. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair.

    PubMed

    Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early stage response problem for post-disaster incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Shin, Youngchul; Lee, Gyu M.; Moon, Ilkyeong

    2018-07-01

    Research on evacuation plans for reducing damages and casualties has been conducted to advise defenders against threats. However, despite the attention given to the research in the past, emergency response management, designed to neutralize hazards, has been undermined since planners frequently fail to apprehend the complexities and contexts of the emergency situation. Therefore, this study considers a response problem with unique characteristics for the duration of the emergency. An early stage response problem is identified to find the optimal routing and scheduling plan for responders to prevent further hazards. Due to the complexity of the proposed mathematical model, two algorithms are developed. Data from a high-rise building, called Central City in Seoul, Korea, are used to evaluate the algorithms. Results show that the proposed algorithms can procure near-optimal solutions within a reasonable time.

  4. Placenta growth factor not vascular endothelial growth factor A or C can predict the early recurrence after radical resection of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Chih; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lee, Hsinyu; Hsieh, Fon-Jou; Shun, Chia-Tung; Chang, Chi-Lun; Lai, Yeun-Tyng; Lee, Po-Huang

    2007-06-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the expression of PlGF in tumor tissue and clinical outcomes in HCC patients. Tumor PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and VEGF-C mRNA were analyzed. Results demonstrated that patients with PlGF expression levels higher than median tended to have early recurrence compared to patients with PlGF expression lower than median (P=.031). In patients with AJCC stage II-III disease, this difference was even more significant (P=.002). In contrast, VEGF-A and VEGF-C could not predict early recurrence-free survival. Since PlGF expression correlated with early recurrence of HCC, PlGF may be an important prognostic indicator in HCC.

  5. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8. Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia), and 28 (75.7%) completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (P<0.0001) and in positive (P<0.0001), negative (P<0.0001), and general subscale scores (P<0.0001). In terms of percentage improvement of PANSS total scores from baseline to week 8, 64.9% of patients showed a ≥20% reduction in the PANSS total score and 48.6% showed a ≥30% reduction. However, 8.1% of patients experienced at least one adverse event. Using the 20% reduction in the PANSS total score at week 4 as a definition of an early response, the negative predictive values for later responses (ie, reductions of ≥30 and ≥40 in the PANSS total scores) were 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. The specificities were 80.0% and 51.6%, respectively. Our results suggest that the blonanserin response at week 4 could predict the later response at week 8.

  6. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Background Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. Methods An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8. Results Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia), and 28 (75.7%) completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (P<0.0001) and in positive (P<0.0001), negative (P<0.0001), and general subscale scores (P<0.0001). In terms of percentage improvement of PANSS total scores from baseline to week 8, 64.9% of patients showed a ≥20% reduction in the PANSS total score and 48.6% showed a ≥30% reduction. However, 8.1% of patients experienced at least one adverse event. Using the 20% reduction in the PANSS total score at week 4 as a definition of an early response, the negative predictive values for later responses (ie, reductions of ≥30 and ≥40 in the PANSS total scores) were 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. The specificities were 80.0% and 51.6%, respectively. Conclusion Our results suggest that the blonanserin response at week 4 could predict the later response at week 8. PMID:25285009

  7. Metabolic response of granulocytes and platelets to synthetic vascular grafts: preliminary results with an in vitro technique.

    PubMed

    Pärsson, H; Nässberger, L; Thörne, J; Norgren, L

    1995-04-01

    The metabolism of granulocytes as well as platelets evoked by incubation with different synthetic vascular grafts was monitored during 6-h batch experiments using microcalorimetry. Standard knitted Dacron grafts, ePTFE-grafts, knitted Dacron grafts with collagen impregnation, and knitted Dacron grafts with external collagen-coating were used. The heat production per cell was calculated. A rapid increase of metabolic activity followed by a gradual decrease was demonstrated with both granulocyte suspension and platelet concentrate. Significant differences were obtained between the materials with a maximum response of Dacron grafts with collagen impregnation for both granulocyte and platelet response. The materials had different surface morphologies regarding cell adhesion after incubation as demonstrated with scanning electron microscopy with more pronounced adhesion on the collagen-impregnated grafts. The results suggest that microcalorimetry may be useful for the evaluation of cellular reactions on different biomaterials. However, further studies have to reveal the specificity of the reactions.

  8. Relationships of methacholine and adenosine monophosphate responsiveness with serum vascular endothelial growth factor in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young; Choi, Ic Sun; Byeon, Jung Hye; Lee, Seung Min; La, Kyong Suk; Choi, Byung Min; Park, Sang Hee; Choung, Ji Tae

    2010-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness, which is a characteristic feature of asthma, is usually measured by means of bronchial challenge with direct or indirect stimuli. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increases vascular permeability and angiogenesis, leads to mucosal edema, narrows the airway diameter, and reduces airway flow. To examine the relationships between serum VEGF level and airway responsiveness to methacholine and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in children with asthma. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts, serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) concentrations, and serum VEGF concentrations were measured in 31 asthmatic children and 26 control subjects. Methacholine and AMP bronchial challenges were performed on children with asthma. Children with asthma had a significantly higher mean (SD) level of VEGF than controls (361.2 [212.0] vs 102.7 [50.0] pg/mL; P < .001). Blood eosinophil counts and serum ECP levels significantly correlated inversely with AMP provocation concentration that caused a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 20% (PC20) (r = -0.474, P =.01; r = -0.442, P =.03, respectively), but not with methacholine PC20 (r = -0.228, P = .26; r = -0.338, P =.10, respectively). Serum VEGF levels significantly correlated with airway responsiveness to AMP (r = -0.462; P = .009) but not to methacholine (r = -0.243; P = .19). Serum VEGF levels were increased in children with asthma and were related to airway responsiveness to AMP but not to methacholine. Increased VEGF levels in asthmatic children may result in increased airway responsiveness by mechanisms related to airway inflammation or increased permeability of airway vasculature.

  9. Phasic negative intrathoracic pressures enhance the vascular responses to stimulation of pulmonary arterial baroreceptors in closed-chest anaesthetized dogs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jonathan P; Hainsworth, Roger; Drinkhill, Mark J

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the reflex responses to stimulation of pulmonary arterial baroreceptors were altered by intrathoracic pressure changes similar to those encountered during normal breathing. Dogs were anaesthetized with α-chloralose, a cardiopulmonary bypass was established, and the pulmonary trunk and its main branches as far as the first lobar arteries were vascularly isolated and perfused with venous blood. The chest was closed following connection to the perfusion circuit and pressures distending the aortic arch, carotid sinus and coronary artery baroreceptors were controlled. Changes in the descending aortic (systemic) perfusion pressure (SPP; flow constant) were used to assess changes in systemic vascular resistance. Values of SPP were plotted against mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and sigmoid functions applied. From these curves we derived the threshold pressures (corresponding to 5% of the overall response of SPP), the maximum slopes (equivalent to peak gain) and the corresponding PAP (equivalent to ‘set point’). Stimulus–response curves were compared between data obtained with intrathoracic pressure at atmospheric and with a phasic intrathoracic pressure ranging from atmospheric to around −10 mmHg (18 cycles min−1). Results were obtained from seven dogs and are given as means ±s.e.m. Compared to the values obtained when intrathoracic pressure was at atmospheric, the phasic intrathoracic pressure decreased the pulmonary arterial threshold pressure in five dogs; average change from 28.4 ± 5.9 to 19.3 ± 5.9 mmHg (P > 0.05). The inflexion pressure was significantly reduced from 37.8 ± 4.8 to 27.4 ± 4.0 mmHg (P < 0.03), but the slopes of the curves were not consistently changed. These results have shown that a phasic intrathoracic pressure, which simulates respiratory oscillations, displaces the stimulus–response curve of the pulmonary arterial baroreceptors to lower pressures so that it lies within a physiological range of

  10. Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning and Rapid Response System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, M. O.; Fahjan, Y.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Aydin, M.; Gul, M.

    2003-12-01

    As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) are compared with specified threshold levels. When any acceleration or CAV (on any channel) in a given station exceeds specific threshold values it is considered a vote. Whenever we have 2 station votes within selectable time interval, after the first vote, the first alarm is declared. In order to specify the appropriate threshold levels a data set of near field strong ground motions records form Turkey and the world has been analyzed. Correlations among these thresholds in terms of the epicenter distance the magnitude of the earthquake have been studied. The encrypted early warning signals will be communicated to the respective end users by UHF systems through a "service provider" company. The users of the early warning signal will be power and gas companies, nuclear research facilities, critical chemical factories, subway system and several high-rise buildings. Depending on the location of the earthquake (initiation of fault rupture) and the recipient facility the alarm time can be as high as about 8s. For the rapid response system one hundred 18 bit-resolution strong motion accelerometers were placed in quasi-free field locations (basement of small buildings) in the populated areas of the city, within an area of approximately 50x30km, to constitute a network that will enable early

  11. LPA1 receptor-mediated thromboxane A2 release is responsible for lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Dancs, Péter Tibor; Ruisanchez, Éva; Balogh, Andrea; Panta, Cecília Rita; Miklós, Zsuzsanna; Nüsing, Rolf M; Aoki, Junken; Chun, Jerold; Offermanns, Stefan; Tigyi, Gábor; Benyó, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been recognized recently as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, but several lines of evidence indicate that it may also stimulate vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), thereby contributing to vasoregulation and remodeling. In the present study, mRNA expression of all 6 LPA receptor genes was detected in murine aortic VSMCs, with the highest levels of LPA 1 , LPA 2 , LPA 4 , and LPA 6 In endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) segments, 1-oleoyl-LPA and the LPA 1-3 agonist VPC31143 induced dose-dependent vasoconstriction. VPC31143-induced AA contraction was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX), the LPA 1&3 antagonist Ki16425, and genetic deletion of LPA 1 but not that of LPA 2 or inhibition of LPA 3 , by diacylglycerol pyrophosphate. Surprisingly, vasoconstriction was also diminished in vessels lacking cyclooxygenase-1 [COX1 knockout (KO)] or the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor (TP KO). VPC31143 increased thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) release from TA of wild-type, TP-KO, and LPA 2 -KO mice but not from LPA 1 -KO or COX1-KO mice, and PTX blocked this effect. Our findings indicate that LPA causes vasoconstriction in VSMCs, mediated by LPA 1 -, G i -, and COX1-dependent autocrine/paracrine TXA 2 release and consequent TP activation. We propose that this new-found interaction between the LPA/LPA 1 and TXA 2 /TP pathways plays significant roles in vasoregulation, hemostasis, thrombosis, and vascular remodeling.-Dancs, P. T., Ruisanchez, E., Balogh, A., Panta, C. R., Miklós, Z., Nüsing, R. M., Aoki, J., Chun, J., Offermanns, S., Tigyi, G., Benyó, Z. LPA 1 receptor-mediated thromboxane A 2 release is responsible for lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction. © FASEB.

  12. Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imroze; Agashe, Deepa; Rolff, Jens

    2017-03-15

    Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing tissue damage to Malpighian tubules (MTs; functionally equivalent to the human kidney), in turn accelerating ageing. In support of this hypothesis, we found that RNAi knockdown of phenoloxidase (PO) transcripts in young adults possibly reduced inflammation-induced autoreactive tissue damage to MTs, and increased adult lifespan. Our work thus suggests a causative link between immunopathological costs of early-life inflammation and faster ageing. We also reasoned that if natural selection weakens with age, older individuals should display increased immunopathological costs associated with an immune response. Indeed, we found that while old infected individuals cleared infection faster than young individuals, possibly they also displayed exacerbated immunopathological costs (larger decline in MT function) and higher post-infection mortality. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PO response partially rescued MTs function in older beetles and resulted in increased lifespan after infection. Taken together, our data are consistent with a direct role of immunopathological consequences of immune response during ageing in insects. Our work is also the first report that highlights the pervasive role of tissue damage under diverse contexts of ageing and immune response. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Early life adversity influences stress response association with smoking relapse.

    PubMed

    al'Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Westra, Ruth; Allen, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that stress-related blunting of cortisol in smokers is particularly pronounced in those with a history of severe life adversity. The two aims of this study were first to examine hormonal, craving, and withdrawal symptoms during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence in smokers who experienced high or low levels of adversity. Second, we sought to examine the relationship between adversity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones to predict relapse during the first month of a smoking cessation attempt. Hormonal and self-report measures were collected from 103 smokers (49 women) during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence. HPA hormones were measured during baseline rest and in response to acute stress in both conditions. All smokers were interested in smoking cessation, and we prospectively used stress response measures to predict relapse during the first 4 weeks of the smoking cessation attempt. The results showed that high adversity was associated with higher distress and smoking withdrawal symptoms. High level of early life adversity was associated with elevated HPA activity, which was found in both salivary and plasma cortisol. Enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stress response was evident in high-adversity but not in low-adversity relapsers. This study demonstrated that early life adversity is associated with stress-related HPA responses. The study also demonstrated that, among smokers who experienced a high level of life adversity, heightened ACTH and cortisol responses were linked with increased risk for smoking relapse.

  14. Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing tissue damage to Malpighian tubules (MTs; functionally equivalent to the human kidney), in turn accelerating ageing. In support of this hypothesis, we found that RNAi knockdown of phenoloxidase (PO) transcripts in young adults possibly reduced inflammation-induced autoreactive tissue damage to MTs, and increased adult lifespan. Our work thus suggests a causative link between immunopathological costs of early-life inflammation and faster ageing. We also reasoned that if natural selection weakens with age, older individuals should display increased immunopathological costs associated with an immune response. Indeed, we found that while old infected individuals cleared infection faster than young individuals, possibly they also displayed exacerbated immunopathological costs (larger decline in MT function) and higher post-infection mortality. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PO response partially rescued MTs function in older beetles and resulted in increased lifespan after infection. Taken together, our data are consistent with a direct role of immunopathological consequences of immune response during ageing in insects. Our work is also the first report that highlights the pervasive role of tissue damage under diverse contexts of ageing and immune response. PMID:28275145

  15. Reproductive organ and vascular specific promoter of the rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase mediates environmental stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Huda, Kazi Md Kamrul; Banu, Mst Sufara Akhter; Pathi, Krishna Mohan; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and helps in removal of calcium (Ca(2+)) from the cell, hence regulating Ca(2+) level within cells. Though plant Ca(2+)ATPases have been shown to be involved in plant stress responses but their promoter regions have not been well studied. The 1478 bp promoter sequence of rice plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase contains cis-acting elements responsive to stresses and plant hormones. To identify the functional region, serial deletions of the promoter were fused with the GUS sequence and four constructs were obtained. These were differentially activated under NaCl, PEG cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate treatments. We demonstrated that the rice plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase promoter is responsible for vascular-specific and multiple stress-inducible gene expression. Only full-length promoter showed specific GUS expression under stress conditions in floral parts. High GUS activity was observed in roots with all the promoter constructs. The -1478 to -886 bp flanking region responded well upon treatment with salt and drought. Only the full-length promoter presented cold-induced GUS expression in leaves, while in shoots slight expression was observed for -1210 and -886 bp flanking region. The -1210 bp deletion significantly responded to exogenous methyl viologen and abscisic acid induction. The -1210 and -886 bp flanking region resulted in increased GUS activity in leaves under methyl jasmonate treatments, whereas in shoots the -886 bp and -519 bp deletion gave higher expression. Salicylic acid failed to induce GUS activities in leaves for all the constructs. The rice plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase promoter is a reproductive organ-specific as well as vascular-specific. This promoter contains drought, salt, cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate related cis-elements, which regulated gene expression. Overall, the tissue-specificity and inducible nature of this

  16. Effects of reduced oxygen availability on the vascular response and oxygen consumption of the activated human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Barreto, Felipe; Mangia, Silvia; Garrido Salmon, Carlos Ernesto

    2017-07-01

    To identify the impact of reduced oxygen availability on the evoked vascular response upon visual stimulation in the healthy human brain by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional MRI techniques based on arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD), and vascular space occupancy (VASO)-dependent contrasts were utilized to quantify the BOLD signal, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and volume (CBV) from nine subjects at 3T (7M/2F, 27.3 ± 3.6 years old) during normoxia and mild hypoxia. Changes in visual stimulus-induced oxygen consumption rates were also estimated with mathematical modeling. Significant reductions in the extension of activated areas during mild hypoxia were observed in all three imaging contrasts: by 42.7 ± 25.2% for BOLD (n = 9, P = 0.002), 33.1 ± 24.0% for ASL (n = 9, P = 0.01), and 31.9 ± 15.6% for VASO images (n = 7, P = 0.02). Activated areas during mild hypoxia showed responses with similar amplitude for CBF (58.4 ± 18.7% hypoxia vs. 61.7 ± 16.1% normoxia, P = 0.61) and CBV (33.5 ± 17.5% vs. 25.2 ± 13.0%, P = 0.27), but not for BOLD (2.5 ± 0.8% vs. 4.1 ± 0.6%, P = 0.009). The estimated stimulus-induced increases of oxygen consumption were smaller during mild hypoxia as compared to normoxia (3.1 ± 5.0% vs. 15.5 ± 15.1%, P = 0.04). Our results demonstrate an altered vascular and metabolic response during mild hypoxia upon visual stimulation. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:142-149. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Regional early and progressive loss of brain pericytes but not vascular smooth muscle cells in adult mice with disrupted platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Nikolakopoulou, Angeliki Maria; Zhao, Zhen; Montagne, Axel; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2017-01-01

    Pericytes regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. Studies in pericyte-deficient transgenic mice with aberrant signaling between endothelial-derived platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in pericytes have contributed to better understanding of the role of pericytes in the brain. Here, we studied PdgfrβF7/F7 mice, which carry seven point mutations that disrupt PDGFRβ signaling causing loss of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the developing brain. We asked whether these mice have a stable or progressive vascular phenotype after birth, and whether both pericyte and VSMCs populations are affected in the adult brain. We found an early and progressive region-dependent loss of brain pericytes, microvascular reductions and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, which were more pronounced in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum than in the thalamus, whereas VSMCs population remained unaffected at the time when pericyte loss was already established. For example, compared to age-matched controls, PdgfrβF7/F7 mice between 4-6 and 36-48 weeks of age developed a region-dependent loss in pericyte coverage (22-46, 24-44 and 4-31%) and cell numbers (36-49, 34-64 and 11-36%), reduction in capillary length (20-39, 13-46 and 1-30%), and an increase in extravascular fibrinogen-derived deposits (3.4-5.2, 2.8-4.1 and 0-3.6-fold) demonstrating BBB breakdown in the cortex, hippocampus and thalamus, respectively. Capillary reductions and BBB breakdown correlated with loss of pericyte coverage. Our data suggest that PdgfrβF7/F7 mice develop an aggressive and rapid vascular phenotype without appreciable early involvement of VSMCs, therefore providing a valuable model to study regional effects of pericyte loss on brain vascular and neuronal functions. This model could be a useful tool for future studies directed at understanding the role of pericytes in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders

  18. Evasion of Early Antiviral Responses by Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Suazo, Paula A.; Ibañez, Francisco J.; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R.; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; González, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency. PMID:25918478

  19. Responses of Vascular Endothelial Cells to Photoembossed Topographies on Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Films

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lin; Hughes-Brittain, Nanayaa F.; Bastiaansen, Cees W. M.; Peijs, Ton; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Failures of vascular grafts are normally caused by the lack of a durable and adherent endothelium covering the graft which leads to thrombus and neointima formation. A promising approach to overcome these issues is to create a functional, quiescent monolayer of endothelial cells on the surface of implants. The present study reports for the first time on the use of photoembossing as a technique to create polymer films with different topographical features for improved cell interaction in biomedical applications. For this, a photopolymer is created by mixing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and trimethylolpropane ethoxylate triacrylate (TPETA) at a 1:1 ratio. This photopolymer demonstrated an improvement in biocompatibility over PMMA which is already known to be biocompatible and has been extensively used in the biomedical field. Additionally, photoembossed films showed significantly improved cell attachment and proliferation compared to their non-embossed counterparts. Surface texturing consisted of grooves of different pitches (6, 10, and 20 µm) and heights (1 µm and 2.5 µm). The 20 µm pitch photoembossed films significantly accelerated cell migration in a wound-healing assay, while films with a 6 µm pitch inhibited cells from detaching. Additionally, the relief structure obtained by photoembossing also changed the surface wettability of the substrates. Photoembossed PMMA-TPETA systems benefited from this change as it improved their water contact angle to around 70°, making it well suited for cell adhesion. PMID:27941669

  20. Computer-assisted analysis of the vascular endothelial cell motile response to injury.

    PubMed

    Askey, D B; Herman, I M

    1988-12-01

    We have developed an automated, user-friendly method to track vascular endothelial cell migration in vitro using an IBM PC/XT with MS DOS. Analog phase-contrast images of the bovine aortic endothelial cells are converted into digital images (8 bit, 250 x 240 pixel resolution) using a Tecmar Video VanGogh A/D board. Digitized images are stored at selected time points following mechanical injury in vitro. FORTRAN and assembly language subroutines have been implemented to automatically detect the wound edge and the edge of each cell nucleus in the phase-contrast, light-microscope field. Detection of the wound edge is accomplished by intensity thresholding following noise reduction in the image and subsequent sampling of the wound. After the range of wound intensities is determined, the entire image is sampled and a histogram of intensities is formed. The histogram peak corresponding to the wound intensities is subtracted, leaving a histogram peak that gives the range of intensities corresponding to the cell nuclei. Rates of cell migration, as well as cellular trajectories and cell surface areas, can be automatically quantitated and analyzed. This inexpensive, automated cell-tracking system should be widely applicable in a variety of cell biologic applications.

  1. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  2. Diffusion MRI in early cancer therapeutic response assessment

    PubMed Central

    Galbán, C. J.; Hoff, B. A.; Chenevert, T. L.; Ross, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging biomarkers for the predictive assessment of treatment response in patients with cancer earlier than standard tumor volumetric metrics would provide new opportunities to individualize therapy. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI), highly sensitive to microenvironmental alterations at the cellular level, has been evaluated extensively as a technique for the generation of quantitative and early imaging biomarkers of therapeutic response and clinical outcome. First demonstrated in a rodent tumor model, subsequent studies have shown that DW-MRI can be applied to many different solid tumors for the detection of changes in cellularity as measured indirectly by an increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water molecules within the lesion. The introduction of quantitative DW-MRI into the treatment management of patients with cancer may aid physicians to individualize therapy, thereby minimizing unnecessary systemic toxicity associated with ineffective therapies, saving valuable time, reducing patient care costs and ultimately improving clinical outcome. This review covers the theoretical basis behind the application of DW-MRI to monitor therapeutic response in cancer, the analytical techniques used and the results obtained from various clinical studies that have demonstrated the efficacy of DW-MRI for the prediction of cancer treatment response. PMID:26773848

  3. The lack of effect of oxytetracycline on responses to sympathetic nerve stimulation and catecholamines in vascular tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Kalsner, S

    1976-01-01

    The effects of oxytetracycline, an inhibitor of amine binding in connective tissue, on the responses of perfused rabbit ear arteries to sympathetic nerve stimulation and to intraluminally administered noradrenaline were examined. The contractions of aortic strips to catecholamines in the presence of oxytetracycline were also examined. Oxytetracycline (0.1 mM) had no discernable effect on the magnitude of constrictions, measured as reductions in flow, produced by either nerve stimulation (0.5-10 Hz) or noradrenaline (0.5-50 ng) in the ear artery. In addition, the time taken for vessels to recover towards control flow values after endogenously released or exogenously applied noradrenaline had acted was not increased by oxytetracycline. Oxytetracycline (0.1 mM) did not alter the position or shape of the concentration-response curve to noradrenaline nor did it enhance the amplitude of individual responses to catecholamines in aortic strips. It is concluded, contrary to the observations of Powis (1973), that oxytetracycline does not increase the magnitude or duration of responses to sympathetic nerve activation or to catecholamines and that binding to connective tissue is of no material consequence in terminating their action in vascular tissue. PMID:974389

  4. Α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Protects Early Diabetic Retina from Blood-Retinal Barrier Breakdown and Vascular Leakage via MC4R.

    PubMed

    Cai, Siwei; Yang, Qianhui; Hou, Mengzhu; Han, Qian; Zhang, Hanyu; Wang, Jiantao; Qi, Chen; Bo, Qiyu; Ru, Yusha; Yang, Wei; Gu, Zhongxiu; Wei, Ruihua; Cao, Yunshan; Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and vascular leakage is the leading cause of blindness of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are primary pathogenic factors of this severe DR complication. An effective interventional modality against the pathogenic factors during early DR is needed to curb BRB breakdown and vascular leakage. This study sought to examine the protective effects of α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on early diabetic retina against vascular hyperpermeability, electrophysiological dysfunction, and morphological deterioration in a rat model of diabetes and probe the mechanisms underlying the α-MSH's anti-hyperpermeability in both rodent retinas and simian retinal vascular endothelial cells (RF6A). Sprague Dawley rats were injected through tail vein with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The rats were intravitreally injected with α-MSH or saline at Week 1 and 3 after hyperglycemia. In another 2 weeks, Evans blue assay, transmission electron microscopy, electroretinogram (ERG), and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were performed to examine the protective effects of α-MSH in diabetic retinas. The expression of pro-inflammatory factors and tight junction at mRNA and protein levels in retinas was analyzed. Finally, the α-MSH's anti-hyperpermeability was confirmed in a high glucose (HG)-treated RF6A cell monolayer transwell culture by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-Dextran assay. Universal or specific melanocortin receptor (MCR) blockers were also employed to elucidate the MCR subtype mediating α-MSH's protection. Evans blue assay showed that BRB breakdown and vascular leakage was detected, and rescued by α-MSH both qualitatively and quantitatively in early diabetic retinas; electron microscopy revealed substantially improved retinal and choroidal vessel ultrastructures in α-MSH-treated diabetic retinas; scotopic ERG suggested

  5. Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on local sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during exercise in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuro; Okushima, Dai; Breese, Brynmor C; Bailey, Stephen J; Koga, Shunsaku; Kondo, Narihiko

    2018-05-15

    We investigated the influence of inorganic nitrate ([Formula: see text]) supplementation on local sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during exercise in hot conditions. Eight healthy, young subjects were assigned in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design to receive [Formula: see text]-rich beetroot (BR) juice (140 mL/day, containing ~ 8 mmol of [Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text]-depleted placebo (PL) juice (140 mL/day, containing ~ 0.003 mmol of [Formula: see text]) for 3 days. On day 3 of supplementation, subjects cycled at an intensity corresponding to 55% of [Formula: see text]O 2max for 30 min in hot conditions (30 °C, 50% relative humidity). Chest and forearm sweat rate (SR) and skin blood flow (SkBF), were measured continuously. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated by SkBF/mean arterial pressure (MAP). Prior to exercise, plasma [Formula: see text] (21 ± 6 and 581 ± 161 µM) and nitrite ([Formula: see text], 87 ± 28 and 336 ± 156 nM) concentrations were higher after BR compared to PL supplementation (P ≤ 0.011, n = 6). Oesophageal, mean skin, and mean body temperatures during exercise were not different between conditions. In addition, BR supplementation did not affect SR, SkBF, and CVC during exercise. A lower MAP was found after 30 min of exercise following BR supplementation (112 ± 6 and 103 ± 6 mmHg for PL and BR, respectively, P = 0.021). These results suggest that inorganic [Formula: see text] supplementation, which increases the potential for O 2 -independent NO production, does not affect local sweating and cutaneous vascular responses, but attenuates blood pressure in young healthy subjects exercising in a hot environment.

  6. Selective blockade by nicergoline of vascular responses elicited by stimulation of alpha 1A-adrenoceptor subtype in the rat.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Guerra, M; Bertholom, N; Garay, R P

    1999-01-01

    The alpha 1-adrenergic blocking activity of nicergoline was re-examined in rats, with a particular emphasis on alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes. In pithed rats, nicergoline and prazosin infused at a single small dose (0.5 microgram/kg/min i.v.) produced a substantial and identical shift to the right of the control dose pressor response curve to the specific alpha 1-agonist cirazoline (ED50 = 4.0 +/- 0.1, 4.0 +/- 0.1 and 0.9 +/- 0.01 microgram/kg i.v. for nicergoline, prazosin and vehicle respectively). In the isolated perfused mesenteric vascular bed, nicergoline strongly inhibited the pressor responses elicited by cirazoline, with approximately 40-fold higher potency (pA2 = 11.1 +/- 0.3) than prazosin (pA2 = 9.5 +/- 0.3). Conversely, nicergoline was 20-fold less potent than prazosin to antagonize the contractile effects of cirazoline in isolated endothelium-denuded aorta (pA2 = 8.6 +/- 0.2 and 9.9 +/- 0.2 for nicergoline and prazosin respectively). Pretreatment of mesenteric vascular beds with chloroethylclonidine did not significantly modify nicergoline antagonistic potency (pA2 = 10.6 +/- 0.2). Nicergoline displaced [3H]-prazosin bound to rat forebrain membranes pretreated with chloroethylclonidine (pKi = 9.9 +/- 0.2) at concentrations 60-fold lower than in rat liver membranes (pKi = 8.1 +/- 0.2). Finally, of the nicergoline metabolites studied, lumilysergol acted as a modest alpha 1 antagonist (bromonicotinic acid was devoid of alpha 1 antagonist activity). In conclusion, nicergoline is a potent and selective alpha 1A-adrenoceptor subtype antagonist, an alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype which is mainly represented in resistance arteries.

  7. Early thrombus removal strategies for acute deep venous thrombosis: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Mark H; Gloviczki, Peter; Comerota, Anthony J; Dalsing, Michael C; Eklof, Bo G; Gillespie, David L; Lohr, Joann M; McLafferty, Robert B; Murad, M Hassan; Padberg, Frank; Pappas, Peter; Raffetto, Joseph D; Wakefield, Thomas W

    2012-05-01

    The anticoagulant treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been historically directed toward the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. However, such treatment imperfectly protects against late manifestations of the postthrombotic syndrome. By restoring venous patency and preserving valvular function, early thrombus removal strategies can potentially decrease postthrombotic morbidity. A committee of experts in venous disease was charged by the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum to develop evidence-based practice guidelines for early thrombus removal strategies, including catheter-directed pharmacologic thrombolysis, pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, and surgical thrombectomy. Evidence-based recommendations are based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relevant literature, supplemented when necessary by less rigorous data. Recommendations are made according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, incorporating the strength of the recommendation (strong: 1; weak: 2) and an evaluation of the level of the evidence (A to C). On the basis of the best evidence currently available, we recommend against routine use of the term "proximal venous thrombosis" in favor of more precise characterization of thrombi as involving the iliofemoral or femoropopliteal venous segments (Grade 1A). We further suggest the use of early thrombus removal strategies in ambulatory patients with good functional capacity and a first episode of iliofemoral DVT of <14 days in duration (Grade 2C) and strongly recommend their use in patients with limb-threatening ischemia due to iliofemoral venous outflow obstruction (Grade 1A). We suggest pharmacomechanical strategies over catheter-directed pharmacologic thrombolysis alone if resources are available and that surgical thrombectomy be considered if thrombolytic therapy is contraindicated (Grade 2C). Most data regarding early thrombus removal

  8. Dual channel photoplethysmography studies of cardio-vascular response to the body position changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erts, R.; Kukulis, I.; Spigulis, J.; Kere, L.

    2005-08-01

    The dual-channel photoplethysmography studies of physiological responses during 3-stage orthostatic test were performed. Clear differences in heartbeat rate, pulse wave transit time and blood pressure variations of healthy volunteers and diabetic patients have been observed.

  9. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers.

  10. Intracranial baroreflex yielding an early cushing response in human.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, E A; Czosnyka, Z; Momjian, S; Czosnyka, M; Bech, R A; Pickard, J D

    2005-01-01

    The Cushing response is a pre-terminal sympatho-adrenal systemic response to very high ICP. Animal studies have demonstrated that a moderate rise of ICP yields a reversible pressure-mediated systemic response. Infusion studies are routine procedures to investigate, by infusing CSF space with saline, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biophysics in patients suspected of hydrocephalus. Our study aims at assessing systemic and cerebral haemodynamic changes during moderate rise of ICP in human. Infusion studies were performed in 34 patients. This is a routine test perform in patients presenting with symptoms of NPH during their pre-shunting assessment. Arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (FV) were non-invasively monitored with photoplethysmography and transcranial Doppler. The rise in ICP (8.2 +/- 5.1 mmHg to 25 +/- 8.3 mmHg) was followed by a significant rise in ABP (106.6 +/- 29.7 mmHg to 115.2 +/- 30.1 mmHg), drop in CPP (98.3 +/- 29 mmHg to 90.2 +/- 30.7 mmHg) and decrease in FV (55.6 +/- 17 cm/s to 51.1 +/- 16.3 cm/s). Increasing ICP did not alter heart rate (70.4 +/- 10.4/min to 70.3 +/- 9.1/min) but augmented the heart rate variance (0.046 +/- 0.058 to 0.067 +/- 0.075/min). In a population suspected of hydrocephalus, our study demonstrated that a moderate rise of ICP yields a reversible pressure-mediated systemic response, demonstrating an early Cushing response in human and a putative intracranial baroreflex.

  11. The cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factors requires co-ordinated signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gina A.; Fearnley, Gareth W.; Tomlinson, Darren C.; Harrison, Michael A.; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    VEGFs (vascular endothelial growth factors) are a family of conserved disulfide-linked soluble secretory glycoproteins found in higher eukaryotes. VEGFs mediate a wide range of responses in different tissues including metabolic homoeostasis, cell proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis. Such responses are initiated by VEGF binding to soluble and membrane-bound VEGFRs (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases) and co-receptors. VEGF and receptor splice isoform diversity further enhances complexity of membrane protein assembly and function in signal transduction pathways that control multiple cellular responses. Different signal transduction pathways are simultaneously activated by VEGFR–VEGF complexes with membrane trafficking along the endosome–lysosome network further modulating signal output from multiple enzymatic events associated with such pathways. Balancing VEGFR–VEGF signal transduction with trafficking and proteolysis is essential in controlling the intensity and duration of different intracellular signalling events. Dysfunction in VEGF-regulated signal transduction is important in chronic disease states including cancer, atherosclerosis and blindness. This family of growth factors and receptors is an important model system for understanding human disease pathology and developing new therapeutics for treating such ailments. PMID:26285805

  12. Cerebro vascular reactivity (CVR) of middle cerebral artery in response to CO2 5% inhalation in preeclamptic women.

    PubMed

    Sariri, Elaheh; Vahdat, Mansoureh; Behbahani, Afsaneh Shariati; Rohani, Mohammad; Kashanian, Maryam

    2013-07-01

    To compare the cerebro vascular reactivity (CVR) of middle cerebral artery (MCA) in response to CO2 5% inhalation between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women, also, between mild and severe preeclampsia. A comparative study was performed on 61 women with preeclampsia and 65 normotensive pregnant women who were in the third trimester of gestation. MCA transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to measure CVR in response to CO2 5% inhalation. Pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), blood pressure, maternal age, gestational age and gravidity were also recorded. Baseline PI and RI were lower in the preeclamptic group (p < 0.05). Inhalation of CO2 5% caused significant increase in CVR among normotensive pregnant women in comparison with preeclamptic group (1.006 ± 0.229 versus 0.503 ± 0.209, p = 0.0001). Significantly, more cerebral vasodilatation was found among mild preeclamptic women in comparison with severe preeclamptic women (0.583 ± 0.193 versus 0.383 ± 0.173, p = 0.0001). The receiver operating characteristics curve analysis revealed acceptable difference between CO2 stimulation test of preeclamptic and normotensive women (Area under curve = 0.973, p = 0.0001). CVR in response to CO2 5% is less in preeclamptic pregnant women than normotensives, also, in severe preeclampsia, it is less than mild preeclampsia.

  13. Impact of Disease Duration on Vascular Surrogates of Early Atherosclerosis in Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Barsalou, Julie; Bradley, Timothy J; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Slorach, Cameron; Ng, Lawrence W K; Levy, Deborah M; Silverman, Earl D

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether longer disease duration negatively impacts carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a cohort of patients with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to compare CIMT, FMD, and PWV in patients with childhood-onset SLE with those in healthy children and explore determinants of vascular test results in childhood-onset SLE. Cross-sectional analysis was performed in a prospective longitudinal cohort of patients with childhood-onset SLE at the latest followup visit. Clinical and laboratory data were collected for patients with childhood-onset SLE. CIMT, FMD, and PWV were measured using standardized protocols in patients with childhood-onset SLE and healthy children. Correlations between disease duration and results of the 3 vascular tests were performed. Vascular data in patients with childhood-onset SLE were compared with those in healthy children. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify determinants of CIMT, FMD, and PWV in childhood-onset SLE. Patients with childhood-onset SLE (n = 149) and healthy controls (n = 178) were enrolled. The median age of the patients was 17.2 years (interquartile range [IQR] 15.7-17.9 years), and their median disease duration was 3.2 years (IQR 1.8-4.9 years). The median age of the healthy children was 14.7 years (IQR 13.1-15.9 years). Longer disease duration correlated with worse FMD (r = -0.2, P = 0.031) in patients with childhood-onset SLE. Patients with childhood-onset SLE had smaller (better) CIMT, higher (better) FMD, and similar PWV compared with healthy controls. Linear regression analysis explained <24% of the variation in vascular test results in patients with childhood-onset SLE, suggesting that other variables should be explored as important determinants of CIMT, FMD, and PWV. In this cohort of 149 patients with childhood-onset SLE, patients did not have worse CIMT, FMD, or PWV than did healthy controls

  14. Effects of age and caloric restriction in the vascular response of renal arteries to endothelin-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Amor, Sara; García-Villalón, Angel Luis; Rubio, Carmen; Carrascosa, Jose Ma; Monge, Luis; Fernández, Nuria; Martín-Carro, Beatriz; Granado, Miriam

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular alterations are the most prevalent cause of impaired physiological function in aged individuals with kidney being one the most affected organs. Aging-induced alterations in renal circulation are associated with a decrease in endothelium-derived relaxing factors such as nitric oxide (NO) and with an increase in contracting factors such as endothelin-1(ET-1). As caloric restriction (CR) exerts beneficial effects preventing some of the aging-induced alterations in cardiovascular system, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of age and caloric restriction in the vascular response of renal arteries to ET-1 in aged rats. Vascular function was studied in renal arteries from 3-month-old Wistar rats fed ad libitum (3m) and in renal arteries from 8-and 24-month-old Wistar rats fed ad libitum (8m and 24m), or subjected to 20% caloric restriction during their three last months of life (8m-CR and 24m-CR). The contractile response to ET-1 was increased in renal arteries from 8m and 24m compared to 3m rats. ET-1-induced contraction was mediated by ET-A receptors in all experimental groups and also by ET-B receptors in 24m rats. Caloric restriction attenuated the increased contraction to ET-1 in renal arteries from 8m but not from 24m rats possibly through NO release proceeding from ET-B endothelial receptors. In 24m rats, CR did not attenuate the aging-increased response of renal arteries to ET-1, but it prevented the aging-induced increase in iNOS mRNA levels and the aging-induced decrease in eNOS mRNA levels in arterial tissue. In conclusion, aging is associated with an increased response to ET-1 in renal arteries that is prevented by CR in 8m but not in 24m rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Response to Early AED Therapy and Its Prognostic Implications

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline A.

    2002-01-01

    Determining the prognosis of patients when they first present with epilepsy is a difficult task. Several clinical studies have shed light on this very important topic. Potential predictors of the refractory state, including seizure etiology, duration of epilepsy before treatment, and epilepsy type, have not been successful indicators of long-term outcome. One predictor of the refractory state appears to be early response to AED therapy. Inadequate seizure control after initial treatment is a poor prognostic sign. Recent research into genetic causes of the refractory state has included investigation of the multiple drug resistance gene, and polymorphisms at drug targets. More work is needed to determine the causes and predictors of drug resistance. PMID:15309146

  16. Infusing Culturally Responsive Science Curriculum into Early Childhood Teacher Preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jiyoon; Martin, Leisa A.

    2017-08-01

    Previous research studies in early childhood teacher education have indicated that teacher candidates are not adequately prepared to demonstrate the knowledge and skills needed to teach science to all children including culturally and linguistically diverse students. To address this issue, the researchers provided 31 early childhood teacher candidates with instructions through a culturally responsive science education curriculum that integrates American and Korean science curriculum corresponding to the American and Korean standards for teacher education. The results showed a statistically significant increase in their Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PSTE). In addition, the teacher candidates were able to create a multicultural/diverse lesson in the developing and proficiency levels based on Ambrosio's lesson matrix. This study provides teacher candidates' knowledge as well as an additional resource for developing their self-efficacy and understanding the role of multicultural/diverse lesson planning for science instruction. Also, teacher candidates could be better prepared by understanding how other countries approach science education and integrating this knowledge to enrich their own science instruction.

  17. Early disaster response in Haiti: the Israeli field hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, Yitshak; Merin, Ofer; Peleg, Kobi; Levy, Gad; Vinker, Shlomo; Sagi, Ram; Abargel, Avi; Bartal, Carmi; Lin, Guy; Bar, Ariel; Bar-On, Elhanan; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Ash, Nachman

    2010-07-06

    The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 caused an estimated 230,000 deaths and injured approximately 250,000 people. The Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps Field Hospital was fully operational on site only 89 hours after the earthquake struck and was capable of providing sophisticated medical care. During the 10 days the hospital was operational, its staff treated 1111 patients, hospitalized 737 patients, and performed 244 operations on 203 patients. The field hospital also served as a referral center for medical teams from other countries that were deployed in the surrounding areas. The key factor that enabled rapid response during the early phase of the disaster from a distance of 6000 miles was a well-prepared and trained medical unit maintained on continuous alert. The prompt deployment of advanced-capability field hospitals is essential in disaster relief, especially in countries with minimal medical infrastructure. The changing medical requirements of people in an earthquake zone dictate that field hospitals be designed to operate with maximum flexibility and versatility regarding triage, staff positioning, treatment priorities, and hospitalization policies. Early coordination with local administrative bodies is indispensable.

  18. The vascular disrupting agent ZD6126 shows increased antitumor efficacy and enhanced radiation response in large, advanced tumors

    SciT

    Siemann, Dietmar W.; Rojiani, Amyn M.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: ZD6126 is a vascular-targeting agent that induces selective effects on the morphology of proliferating and immature endothelial cells by disrupting the tubulin cytoskeleton. The efficacy of ZD6126 was investigated in large vs. small tumors in a variety of animal models. Methods and Materials: Three rodent tumor models (KHT, SCCVII, RIF-1) and three human tumor xenografts (Caki-1, KSY-1, SKBR3) were used. Mice bearing leg tumors ranging in size from 0.1-2.0 g were injected intraperitoneally with a single 150 mg/kg dose of ZD6126. The response was assessed by morphologic and morphometric means as well as an in vivo to in vitromore » clonogenic cell survival assay. To examine the impact of tumor size on the extent of enhancement of radiation efficacy by ZD6126, KHT sarcomas of three different sizes were irradiated locally with a range of radiation doses, and cell survival was determined. Results: All rodent tumors and human tumor xenografts evaluated showed a strong correlation between increasing tumor size and treatment effect as determined by clonogenic cell survival. Detailed evaluation of KHT sarcomas treated with ZD6126 showed a reduction in patent tumor blood vessels that was {approx}20% in small (<0.3 g) vs. >90% in large (>1.0 g) tumors. Histologic assessment revealed that the extent of tumor necrosis after ZD6126 treatment, although minimal in small KHT sarcomas, became more extensive with increasing tumor size. Clonogenic cell survival after ZD6126 exposure showed a decrease in tumor surviving fraction from approximately 3 x 10{sup -1} to 1 x 10{sup -4} with increasing tumor size. When combined with radiotherapy, ZD6126 treatment resulted in little enhancement of the antitumor effect of radiation in small (<0.3 g) tumors but marked increases in cell kill in tumors larger than 1.0 g. Conclusions: Because bulky neoplastic disease is typically the most difficult to manage, the present findings provide further support for the continued development of

  19. Effect of hexamethonium on the vascular response to noradrenaline in man

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, R. L.; Whelan, R. F.

    1962-01-01

    Intra-arterial infusion of hexamethonium into the brachial artery had no potentiating effect on the constrictor response of the vessels of the forearm or hand to noradrenaline given by the same route. The response of the hand vessels to intravenous infusion of noradrenaline was enhanced after intra-arterial hexamethonium, but this was attributed to entry of the blocking agent into the general circulation resulting in blockade of baroreceptor reflexes since the potentiation was seen to an equal degree on both sides. It is concluded that if increased sensitivity to noradrenaline plays a part in the phenomenon of tolerance to hexamethonium this must be a slowly developing effect. PMID:13907950

  20. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity is Associated with Divergent Regulation of Calponin-1 in Conductance and Resistance Arteries in Hypertension-induced Early Vascular Dysfunction and Remodelling.

    PubMed

    Parente, Juliana M; Pereira, Camila A; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Tanus-Santos, José E; Tostes, Rita C; Castro, Michele M

    2017-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 participates in hypertension-induced maladaptive vascular remodelling by degrading extra- and intracellular proteins. The consequent extracellular matrix rearrangement and phenotype switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) lead to increased cellular migration and proliferation. As calponin-1 degradation by MMP-2 may lead to VSMC proliferation during hypertension, the hypothesis of this study is that increased MMP-2 activity contributes to early hypertension-induced maladaptive remodelling in conductance and resistance arteries via regulation of calponin-1. The main objective was to analyse whether MMP-2 exerts similar effects on the structure and function of the resistance and conductance arteries during early hypertension. Two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive male rats and corresponding controls were treated with doxycycline (30 mg/kg/day) or water until reaching one week of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure was increased in 2K-1C rats, and doxycycline did not reduce it. Aortas and mesenteric arteries were analysed. MMP-2 activity and expression were increased in both arteries, and doxycycline reduced it. Significant hypertrophic remodelling and VSMC proliferation were observed in aortas but not in mesenteric arteries of 2K-1C rats. The contractility of mesenteric arteries to phenylephrine was increased in 2K-1C rats, and doxycycline prevented this alteration. The potency of phenylephrine to contract aortas of 2K-1C rats was increased, and doxycycline decreased it. Whereas calponin-1 expression was increased in 2K-1C mesenteric arteries, calponin-1 was reduced in aortas. Doxycycline treatment reverted changes in calponin-1 expression. MMP-2 contributes to hypertrophic remodelling in aortas by decreasing calponin-1 levels, which may result in VSMC proliferation. On the other hand, MMP-2-dependent increased calponin-1 in mesenteric arteries may contribute to vascular hypercontractility in 2K-1C rats. Divergent

  1. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Induce Pulmonary and Vascular Response Following Intratracheal Instillation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon-based nanotubes have been shown to induce varying degrees of pulmonary response in rodents influenced by the dose, the extent of agglomeration, the chemistry of the suspension solution, and the functional properties. We hypothesized that low concentrations of non-modified ...

  2. Human cutaneous vascular responses to whole-body tilting, Gz centrifugation, and LBNP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Breit, Gregory A.; Buckley, Theresa M.; Ballard, Richard E.; Murthy, Gita; Hargens, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesized that gravitational stimuli elicit cardiovascular responses in the following order with gravitational stress equalized at the level of the feet, from lowest to highest response: short-(SAC) and long-arm centrifugation (LAC), tilt, and lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Up to 15 healthy subjects underwent graded application of the four stimuli. Laser-Doppler flowmetry measured regional skin blood flow. At 0.6 G(z) (60 mmHg LBNP), tilt and LBNP similarly reduced leg skin blood flow to approximately 36% of supine baseline levels. Flow increased back toward baseline levels at 80-100 mmHg LBNP yet remained stable during 0.8-1.0 G(z) tilt. Centrifugation usually produced less leg vasoconstriction than tilt or LBNP. Surprisingly, SAC and LAC did not differ significantly. Thigh responses were less definitive than leg responses. No gravitational vasoconstriction occurred in the neck. All conditions except SAC increased heart rate, according to our hypothesized order. LBNP may be a more effective and practical means of simulating cardiovascular effects of gravity than centrifugation.

  3. Preoperative partitioning of pulmonary vascular resistance correlates with early outcome after thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nick H S; Fesler, Pierre; Channick, Richard N; Knowlton, Kirk U; Ben-Yehuda, Ori; Lee, Stephen H; Naeije, Robert; Rubin, Lewis J

    2004-01-06

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) is the preferred treatment for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), but persistent pulmonary hypertension after PTE, as a result of either inaccessible distal thrombotic material or coexistent intrinsic small-vessel disease, remains a major determinant of poor outcome. Conventional preoperative evaluation is unreliable in identifying patients at risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension or predicting postoperative hemodynamic outcome. We postulated that pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure waveform analysis, a technique that has been used for partitioning pulmonary vascular resistance, might identify CTEPH patients with significant distal, small-vessel disease. Twenty-six patients underwent preoperative right heart catheterization before PTE. Pulmonary artery occlusion waveform recordings were performed in triplicate. Postoperative hemodynamics after PTE were compared with preoperative partitioning of pulmonary vascular resistance derived from the occlusion data. Preoperative assessment of upstream resistance (Rup) correlated with both postoperative total pulmonary resistance index (R2=0.79, P<0.001) and postoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure (R2=0.75, P<0.001). All 4 postoperative deaths occurred in patients with a preoperative Rup <60%. Pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure waveform analysis may identify CTEPH patients at risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension and poor outcome after PTE. Patients with CTEPH and Rup value <60% appear to be at highest risk.

  4. Microvasculature of the nasal salt gland of the duckling, Anas platyrhynchos: quantitative responses to osmotic adaptation and deadaptation studied with vascular corrosion casting.

    PubMed

    Hossler, F E; Olson, K R

    1990-06-01

    The three-dimensional microvasculature of the nasal salt gland of the duckling was studied by vascular corrosion casting and scanning electron microscopy. Changes in the vascular volume of the gland in response to osmotic stress were also determined using cast weights and densities. The richly vascularized gland is supplied on its medial surface by large branches of the supraorbital and ethmoidal arteries. Numerous arterial branches enter the gland and distribute to lobes via the interlobar connective tissue. Lobar arterioles penetrate to the periductal areas of the lobes before dividing into capillaries supplying the ductal epithelium and secretory tubules. Capillaries envelope the secretory tubules and run radially from the ducts toward the lobe periphery, so that blood flows counter to the tubular secretion. Blood is collected via venous plexuses seen as distinct drainage units on the periphery of each lobe. Veins exhibit large numbers of bicuspid valves. Following 1 day and 4 days of osmotic loading (feeding 1% NaCl), vascular volume of the gland increased fivefold and ninefold, respectively, a response that precedes and exceeds that of the gland weight or Na,K-ATPase activity. When salt water-adapted ducklings were fed fresh water for only 24 hr (deadaptation), vascular volume fell to 2.8 times the control level. Changes in blood flow to the gland during osmotic adaptation and deadaptation are rapid and dramatic and may represent the initial steps in the control of gland secretion.

  5. Dynamic Changes of Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Markers in the Early Healing Process of Dacron Vascular Grafts in the Dog, Using RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Ishida; Wu; Shi; Fujita; Sauvage; Hammond; Wijelath

    2000-03-01

    Previous studies of neointima formation on Dacron vascular grafts mainly focused on the late stages using immunohistochemistry staining for von Willebrand factor (vWF) and smooth muscle (SM) alpha-actin. However, it is impossible to use immunohistochemistry to study the early events of neointima formation, because graft samples lack sufficient cellular material. Therefore, we used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to demonstrate dynamic changes of SM and endothelial markers during the early stages of neointima formation. Preclotted Dacron grafts were implanted in the descending thoracic aorta of 14 mongrel dogs. Specimens were retrieved at 1-4 weeks. Total RNAs were extracted from mid-portion of graft flow surfaces, and RT-PCR for vWF, SM myosin heavy chain (MHC), and SM alpha-actin were performed and expressed as a ratio to the ribosome s17 signal. SM MHC and vWF mRNA expression was low at 1-2 weeks but elevated at 3-4 weeks (P < 0.05). However, SM alpha-actin mRNA levels were expressed consistently throughout the study period. At 3-4 weeks, vWF mRNA expression was inversely correlated to thrombus formation on the graft flow surface. Increased expressions of SM MHC and vWF mRNA corresponded to the formation of neointima and an endothelial layer at the later stages. However, SM alpha-actin mRNA expression did not vary during the healing process. The application of RT-PCR should permit further studies of gene regulation in the early vascular graft healing process in vivo. This model can also be used to study the molecular events that are involved in SM cell differentiation.

  6. Reduced telomere length is not associated with early signs of vascular aging in young men born after intrauterine growth restriction: a paradox?

    PubMed

    Laganović, Mario; Bendix, Laila; Rubelj, Ivica; Kirhmajer, Majda Vrkić; Slade, Neda; Lela, Ivana Vuković; Premužić, Vedran; Nilsson, Peter M; Jelaković, Bojan

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms that increase cardiovascular risk in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are not well understood. Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a predictor of disease onset. Our aim was to determine whether impaired intrauterine growth is associated with early signs of vascular aging and whether telomere length could be a biomarker of this pathway. One hundred and fourteen healthy young men born SGA or after normal pregnancy [appropriate for gestational age (AGA)] were enrolled. Patient data were gathered from questionnaires and clinical exams, including blood pressure (BP) measurement routine laboratory analyses, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was assessed by quantitative PCR. Birth data were obtained from medical records. The SGA group had significantly higher pulse pressure and cIMT, and a trend to increased SBP and heart rate in comparison to the AGA group. Interestingly, SGA men exhibited a 42% longer LTL than the AGA group. LTL was inversely associated with age, BMI, BP and birth parameters. In multiple regression analysis, BMI was the key determinant of SBP and cIMT. Young men born SGA show early signs of vascular aging. Unexpectedly, in our cohort, the SGA group had longer telomeres than the normal controls. Although longer telomeres are predictive of better health in the future, our findings could indicate a faster telomere attrition rate and probable early onset of cardiovascular risk in SGA participants. Follow-up of this cohort will clarify hypothesis and validate telomere dynamics as indicators of future health risks.

  7. Vascular ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... with aberrant subclavian and left ligamentum ateriosus; Congenital heart defect - vascular ring; Birth defect heart - vascular ring ... accounts for less than 1% of all congenital heart problems. The condition occurs as often in males ...

  8. Reproductive Organ and Vascular Specific Promoter of the Rice Plasma Membrane Ca2+ATPase Mediates Environmental Stress Responses in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Huda, Kazi Md. Kamrul; Banu, Mst. Sufara Akhter; Pathi, Krishna Mohan; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and helps in removal of calcium (Ca2+) from the cell, hence regulating Ca2+ level within cells. Though plant Ca2+ATPases have been shown to be involved in plant stress responses but their promoter regions have not been well studied. Results The 1478 bp promoter sequence of rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase contains cis-acting elements responsive to stresses and plant hormones. To identify the functional region, serial deletions of the promoter were fused with the GUS sequence and four constructs were obtained. These were differentially activated under NaCl, PEG cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate treatments. We demonstrated that the rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase promoter is responsible for vascular-specific and multiple stress-inducible gene expression. Only full-length promoter showed specific GUS expression under stress conditions in floral parts. High GUS activity was observed in roots with all the promoter constructs. The −1478 to −886 bp flanking region responded well upon treatment with salt and drought. Only the full-length promoter presented cold-induced GUS expression in leaves, while in shoots slight expression was observed for −1210 and −886 bp flanking region. The −1210 bp deletion significantly responded to exogenous methyl viologen and abscisic acid induction. The −1210 and −886 bp flanking region resulted in increased GUS activity in leaves under methyl jasmonate treatments, whereas in shoots the −886 bp and −519 bp deletion gave higher expression. Salicylic acid failed to induce GUS activities in leaves for all the constructs. Conclusions The rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase promoter is a reproductive organ-specific as well as vascular-specific. This promoter contains drought, salt, cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate related cis-elements, which regulated gene expression. Overall, the tissue

  9. Monitoring early tumor response to drug therapy with diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexman, Molly L.; Vlachos, Fotios; Kim, Hyun Keol; Sirsi, Shashank R.; Huang, Jianzhong; Hernandez, Sonia L.; Johung, Tessa B.; Gander, Jeffrey W.; Reichstein, Ari R.; Lampl, Brooke S.; Wang, Antai; Borden, Mark A.; Yamashiro, Darrell J.; Kandel, Jessica J.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    Although anti-angiogenic agents have shown promise as cancer therapeutics, their efficacy varies between tumor types and individual patients. Providing patient-specific metrics through rapid noninvasive imaging can help tailor drug treatment by optimizing dosages, timing of drug cycles, and duration of therapy--thereby reducing toxicity and cost and improving patient outcome. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive three-dimensional imaging modality that has been shown to capture physiologic changes in tumors through visualization of oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations, using non-ionizing radiation with near-infrared light. We employed a small animal model to ascertain if tumor response to bevacizumab (BV), an anti-angiogenic agent that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), could be detected at early time points using DOT. We detected a significant decrease in total hemoglobin levels as soon as one day after BV treatment in responder xenograft tumors (SK-NEP-1), but not in SK-NEP-1 control tumors or in non-responder control or BV-treated NGP tumors. These results are confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry and lectin perfusion studies. Noninvasive DOT imaging may allow for earlier and more effective control of anti-angiogenic therapy.

  10. Reproducibility of the retinal vascular response to flicker light in Asians.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh T; Kreis, Andreas J; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wang, Jie Jin; Seifert, Bernd-U; Vilser, Walthard; Nagel, Edgar; Wong, Tien Y

    2009-12-01

    Dilation of retinal vessels in response to diffuse luminance flicker may reflect endothelial function. Although this has previously been shown to be reproducible in whites, there have been no similar data in Asians. We assess the reproducibility of repeated measurements of this response in Asians. Healthy Asians (n = 33) with normal vision and no history of glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, cataract, or retinal arterial/venous occlusion participated in this study. Repeated measures from the same subjects were taken 30-60 min apart using the Dynamic Vessel Analyser (DVA, IMEDOS, Jena, Germany). Modification was made to the shape of the light source for Asian participants. Correlations of the first and second measures were assessed using Pearson correlation (R(2)), and agreement between the two measures was shown using Bland-Altman plots. After modification to the shape of the light source, almost perfect correlation was found between the 1st and 2nd measurements of baseline arteriolar (R(2) = 0.95) and venular diameters (R(2) = 0.98) of arteriolar maximum dilation (R(2) = 0.85). Substantially high correlation between the 1st and 2nd measurements of venular maximum dilation was found (R(2) = 0.80). Measurements of the dilation response of retinal vessels to diffuse luminance flicker an Asian sample using the DVA show high reproducibility for repeated measures over a short period of time. Such measurements may allow non-invasive quantification of endothelial function to study its association with systemic and ocular diseases.

  11. The early epigenetic response to ozone: impacts on DNA ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epigenetics have been increasingly recognized as a mechanism linking environment and gene expression. Despite awareness of the role of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation as potential drivers of the response to air pollutants, very little work has been performed investigating the direct epigenetic effects following exposure to ambient air pollution. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the early epigenetic response to ozone in comparison to the epigenetic modifier 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) in rats. 12 week old, male Long-Evans rats (n=16) were exposed to 4 hours of whole-body 1.0 ppm ozone or air and immediately euthanized. A subset of animals were additionally treated with 5-Aza (n=16) to serve as an epigenetic control to ozone exposure. Neither 5-Aza nor ozone by itself induced changes to the global methylome or hydroxmethylome of the lung measured by ELISA. Despite this finding, ozone exposure induced a significant increase in the activity of the DNA methyltransferase enzymes in the lung which was reversed with 5-Aza treatment. Interestingly, a significant interaction between 5-Aza treatment and ozone exposure was found in a large array of data. The interaction between 5-Aza and ozone produced indicators of pulmonary edema and elevated lung damage. Along with these adverse changes, expression of major epigenetic enzymes (Tet 1-3, Dnmt3 a-b) were found to be perturbed in both the lung and hepatic tissues. While ozone exposure appears to in

  12. Early response to therapy and survival in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Schaar, C G; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; le Cessie, S; Franck, P F H; te Marvelde, M C; Wijermans, P W

    2004-04-01

    Whether the response to chemotherapy is a prognosticator in multiple myeloma (MM) is still not known. Therefore, the relationship between survival and the rate of monoclonal protein (M-protein) decrement during the first cycles of therapy was prospectively assessed in 262 patients with newly diagnosed MM that were included in a phase III trial (HOVON-16). M-proteins were collected monthly during melphalan-prednisone therapy (MP: melphalan 0.25 mg/kg, prednisone 1.0 mg/kg orally for 5 d every 4 weeks). Patients with light chain disease (n = 18), immunoglobulin M (IgM)-MM (n = 1) and no immunotyping (n = 1) were excluded. Of the 242 patients studied, 75% had IgG M-protein and 25% IgA; MM stages: I: 1%, II: 35% and III: 64%. The median M-protein decrease after the first cycle of MP was 21% for IgG and 27% for IgA, and declined to < 5% after four cycles. An obvious survival advantage was seen for patients who had an M-protein decrease of at least 30% after the first MP cycle, which became significant when an M-protein decrease of 40% or more was reached. As established prognostic parameters (Salmon & Durie stage, serum creatinine, and haemoglobin) also remained prognostically significant, we concluded that early response to MP predicts for survival in MM.

  13. Determining arterial wave transit time from a single aortic pressure pulse in rats: vascular impulse response analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ru-Wen; Chang, Chun-Yi; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Wu, Ming-Shiou; Young, Tai-Horng; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chang, Kuo-Chu

    2017-01-19

    Arterial wave transit time (τ w ) in the lower body circulation is an effective biomarker of cardiovascular risk that substantially affects systolic workload imposed on the heart. This study evaluated a method for determining τ w from the vascular impulse response on the basis of the measured aortic pressure and an assumed triangular flow (Q tri ). The base of the unknown Q tri was constructed with a duration set equal to ejection time. The timing of the peak triangle was derived using a fourth-order derivative of the pressure waveform. Values of τ w s obtained using Q tri were compared with those obtained from the measure aortic flow wave (Q m ). Healthy rats (n = 27), rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD; n = 22), and rats with type 1 (n = 22) or type 2 (n = 11) diabetes were analyzed. The cardiovascular conditions in the CKD rats and both diabetic groups were characterized by a decrease in τ w s. The following significant relation was observed (P < 0.0001): τ w triQ  = -1.5709 + 1.0604 × τ w mQ (r 2  = 0.9641). Our finding indicates that aortic impulse response can be an effective method for the estimation of arterial τ w by using a single pressure recording together with the assumed Q tri .

  14. Effect of airway acidosis and alkalosis on airway vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to albuterol.

    PubMed

    Cancado, Jose E; Mendes, Eliana S; Arana, Johana; Horvath, Gabor; Monzon, Maria E; Salathe, Matthias; Wanner, Adam

    2015-04-02

    In vitro and animal experiments have shown that the transport and signaling of β2-adrenergic agonists are pH-sensitive. Inhaled albuterol, a hydrophilic β2-adrenergic agonist, is widely used for the treatment of obstructive airway diseases. Acute exacerbations of obstructive airway diseases can be associated with changes in ventilation leading to either respiratory acidosis or alkalosis thereby affecting albuterol responsiveness in the airway. The purpose of this study was to determine if airway pH has an effect on albuterol-induced vasodilation in the airway. Ten healthy volunteers performed the following respiratory maneuvers: quiet breathing, hypocapnic hyperventilation, hypercapnic hyperventilation, and eucapnic hyperventilation (to dissociate the effect of pH from the effect of ventilation). During these breathing maneuvers, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH and airway blood flow response to inhaled albuterol (ΔQ̇aw) were assessed. Mean ± SE EBC pH (units) and ΔQ̇aw (μl.min(-1).mL(-1)) were 6.4 ± 0.1 and 16.8 ± 1.9 during quiet breathing, 6.3 ± 0.1 and 14.5 ± 2.4 during eucapnic hyperventilation, 6.6 ± 0.2 and -0.2 ± 1.8 during hypocapnic hyperventilation (p = 0.02 and <0.01 vs. quiet breathing), and 5.9 ± 0.1 and 2.0 ± 1.5 during hypercapnic hyperventilation (p = 0.02 and <0.02 vs quiet breathing). Albuterol responsiveness in the airway as assessed by ΔQ̇aw is pH sensitive. The breathing maneuver associated with decreased and increased EBC pH both resulted in a decreased responsiveness independent of the level of ventilation. These findings suggest an attenuated response to hydrophilic β2-adrenergic agonists during airway disease exacerbations associated with changes in pH. Registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01216748 .

  15. Co-ordination of physiological and morphological responses of stomata to elevated [CO2] in vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Matthew; Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    Plant stomata display a wide range of short-term behavioural and long-term morphological responses to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]). The diversity of responses suggests that plants may have different strategies for controlling gas exchange, yet it is not known whether these strategies are co-ordinated in some way. Here, we test the hypothesis that there is co-ordination of physiological (via aperture change) and morphological (via stomatal density change) control of gas exchange by plants. We examined the response of stomatal conductance (G(s)) to instantaneous changes in external [CO(2)] (C(a)) in an evolutionary cross-section of vascular plants grown in atmospheres of elevated [CO(2)] (1,500 ppm) and sub-ambient [O(2)] (13.0 %) compared to control conditions (380 ppm CO(2), 20.9 % O(2)). We found that active control of stomatal aperture to [CO(2)] above current ambient levels was not restricted to angiosperms, occurring in the gymnosperms Lepidozamia peroffskyana and Nageia nagi. The angiosperm species analysed appeared to possess a greater respiratory demand for stomatal movement than gymnosperm species displaying active stomatal control. Those species with little or no control of stomatal aperture (termed passive) to C(a) were more likely to exhibit a reduction in stomatal density than species with active stomatal control when grown in atmospheres of elevated [CO(2)]. The relationship between the degree of stomatal aperture control to C(a) above ambient and the extent of any reduction in stomatal density may suggest the co-ordination of physiological and morphological responses of stomata to [CO(2)] in the optimisation of water use efficiency. This trade-off between stomatal control strategies may have developed due to selective pressures exerted by the costs associated with passive and active stomatal control.

  16. Retinal Vascular and Oxygen Temporal Dynamic Responses to Light Flicker in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Felder, Anthony E.; Wanek, Justin; Blair, Norman P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To mathematically model the temporal dynamic responses of retinal vessel diameter (D), oxygen saturation (SO2), and inner retinal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) to light flicker and to describe their responses to its cessation in humans. Methods In 16 healthy subjects (age: 60 ± 12 years), retinal oximetry was performed before, during, and after light flicker stimulation. At each time point, five metrics were measured: retinal arterial and venous D (DA, DV) and SO2 (SO2A, SO2V), and OEF. Intra- and intersubject variability of metrics was assessed by coefficient of variation of measurements before flicker within and among subjects, respectively. Metrics during flicker were modeled by exponential functions to determine the flicker-induced steady state metric values and the time constants of changes. Metrics after the cessation of flicker were compared to those before flicker. Results Intra- and intersubject variability for all metrics were less than 6% and 16%, respectively. At the flicker-induced steady state, DA and DV increased by 5%, SO2V increased by 7%, and OEF decreased by 13%. The time constants of DA and DV (14, 15 seconds) were twofold smaller than those of SO2V and OEF (39, 34 seconds). Within 26 seconds after the cessation of flicker, all metrics were not significantly different from before flicker values (P ≥ 0.07). Conclusions Mathematical modeling revealed considerable differences in the time courses of changes among metrics during flicker, indicating flicker duration should be considered separately for each metric. Future application of this method may be useful to elucidate alterations in temporal dynamic responses to light flicker due to retinal diseases. PMID:29098297

  17. Association of Lp-PLA2-A and early recurrence of vascular events after TIA and minor stroke.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinxi; Zheng, Hongwei; Cucchiara, Brett L; Li, Jiejie; Zhao, Xingquan; Liang, Xianhong; Wang, Chunxue; Li, Hao; Mullen, Michael T; Johnston, S Claiborne; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2015-11-03

    To determine the association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) measured in the acute period and the short-term risk of recurrent vascular events in patients with TIA or minor stroke. We measured Lp-PLA2 activity (Lp-PLA2-A) in a subset of 3,201 participants enrolled in the CHANCE (Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients with Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events) trial. Participants with TIA or minor stroke were enrolled within 24 hours of symptom onset and randomized to single or dual antiplatelet therapy. In the current analysis, the primary outcome was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days. The composite endpoint occurred in 299 of 3,021 participants (9.9%). The population average Lp-PLA2-A level was 209 ± 59 nmol/min/mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 207-211). Older age, male sex, and current smoking were associated with higher Lp-PLA2-A levels. Lp-PLA2-A was significantly associated with the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13 for every 30 nmol/min/mL increase). Similar results were seen for ischemic stroke alone. Adjustment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol attenuated the association between Lp-PLA2-A and the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio 1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.11 for every 30 nmol/min/mL increase). Higher levels of Lp-PLA2-A in the acute period are associated with increased short-term risk of recurrent vascular events. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Short-term sensory and cutaneous vascular responses to therapeutic ultrasound in the forearms of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Shaguftha Sultana; MacDermid, Joy C; Birmingham, Trevor; Grewal, Ruby; Farooq, Baseer

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound (US) is used for a variety of clinical pathologies and is thought to accelerate tissue repair and help with pain reduction via its thermal and nonthermal effects. The evidence on physiological effects of US on both sensory and vascular functions in humans is incomplete. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the short-term impact of two doses of US (3 MHz, 1:4, 0.25 W/cm(2), 5 min; 1 MHz, continuous, 0.8 W/cm(2), 3 min), on sensory and vascular responses in the healthy forearms. Twenty healthy subjects were recruited (mean age, 29.6 ± 8.8 years) for the study. Superficial blood flow (SBF) in the distal forearms was determined using the tissue viability imaging system. Sensory perception thresholds (SPT) were determined from ring finger (C7, C8) to assess A-beta (at 2,000 Hz) and C fiber function (at 5 Hz), using a Neurometer CPT/C device. Subject's two hands were randomly allocated to group order (AB/BA). Scores were obtained before and immediately after the application of US and control. Differences in these were analyzed using repeated measures. Both 3 MHz pulsed US and 1 MHz continuous US showed small to moderate (effect size = 0.12 to 0.68), statistically significant reductions in SBF (3 MHz, mean change = 2.8 AU and 1 MHz, mean change = 3.9 AU, p < 0.05 respectively), skin temperature (2.5°C and 1.1°C, p < 0.05), and SPT at 5 Hz (1.3 and 1 mA, p < 0.05) across time. SPT at 2,000 Hz remained unaltered by all three conditions (p > 0.05). Age and gender also had no effect on all outcome measures (p > 0.05). This study demonstrated minor reductions in skin blood flow, skin temperatures, and C fiber perception thresholds immediately after 3 MHz, and 1 MHz US. The responses observed may have been due to a thermo-cooling effect of the gel or due to the direct effect of US on C fibers of median and ulnar nerves. US had a negligible effect on A-beta fibres. This would suggest that future studies looking at physiological effects

  19. Concurrent Drought Stress and Vascular Pathogen Infection Induce Common and Distinct Transcriptomic Responses in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Ranjita; Gupta, Aarti; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2017-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum); the second largest legume grown worldwide is prone to drought and various pathogen infections. These drought and pathogen stresses often occur concurrently in the field conditions. However, the molecular events in response to that are largely unknown. The present study examines the transcriptome dynamics in chickpea plants exposed to a combination of water-deficit stress and Ralstonia solanacearum infection. R. solanacearum is a potential wilt disease causing pathogen in chickpea. Drought stressed chickpea plants were infected with this pathogen and the plants were allowed to experience progressive drought with 2 and 4 days of R. solanacearum infection called short duration stress (SD stresses) and long duration stress (LD stresses), respectively. Our study showed that R. solanacearum multiplication decreased under SD-combined stress compared to SD-pathogen but there was no significant change in LD-combined stress compared to LD-pathogen. The microarray analysis during these conditions showed that 821 and 1039 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were unique to SD- and LD-combined stresses, respectively, when compared with individual stress conditions. Three and fifteen genes were common among all the SD-stress treatments and LD-stress treatments, respectively. Genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, alkaloid biosynthesis, defense related proteins, and osmo-protectants were up-regulated during combined stress. The expression of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis were specifically up-regulated in SD-combined, LD-combined, and LD-pathogen stress. A close transcriptomic association of LD-pathogen stress with SD-combined stress was observed in this study which indicates that R. solanacearum infection also exerts drought stress along with pathogen stress thus mimics combined stress effect. Furthermore the expression profiling of candidate genes using real-time quantitative PCR validated the microarray data. The

  20. The effect of ethnicity on the vascular responses to cold exposure of the extremities.

    PubMed

    Maley, Matthew J; Eglin, Clare M; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Cold injuries are more prevalent in individuals of African descent (AFD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of extremity cooling on skin blood flow (SkBF) and temperature (T sk) between ethnic groups. Thirty males [10 Caucasian (CAU), 10 Asian (ASN), 10 AFD] undertook three tests in 30 °C air whilst digit T sk and SkBF were measured: (i) vasomotor threshold (VT) test--arm immersed in 35 °C water progressively cooled to 10 °C and rewarmed to 35 °C to identify vasoconstriction and vasodilatation; (ii) cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) test--hand immersed in 8 °C water for 30 min followed by spontaneous warming; (iii) cold sensitivity (CS) test--foot immersed in 15 °C water for 2 min followed by spontaneous warming. Cold sensory thresholds of the forearm and finger were also assessed. In the VT test, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation occurred at a warmer finger T sk in AFD during cooling [21.2 (4.4) vs. 17.0 (3.1) °C, P = 0.034] and warming [22.0 (7.9) vs. 12.1 (4.1) °C, P = 0.002] compared with CAU. In the CIVD test, average SkBF during immersion was greater in CAU [42 (24) %] than ASN [25 (8) %, P = 0.036] and AFD [24 (13) %, P = 0.023]. Following immersion, SkBF was higher and rewarming faster in CAU [3.2 (0.4) °C min(-1)] compared with AFD [2.5 (0.7) °C min(-1), P = 0.037], but neither group differed from ASN [3.0 (0.6) °C min(-1)]. Responses to the CS test and cold sensory thresholds were similar between groups. AFD experienced a more intense protracted finger vasoconstriction than CAU during hand immersion, whilst ASN experienced an intermediate response. This greater sensitivity to cold may explain why AFD are more susceptible to cold injuries.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis manipulates pulmonary APCs subverting early immune responses.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Romo, Gina S; Pedroza-Gonzalez, Alexander; Lambrecht, Bart N; Aguilar-Leon, Diana; Estrada-Garcia, Iris; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2013-03-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) and dendritic cells (DCs) are the main antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the respiratory tract. Whereas macrophages have been extensively studied in tuberculosis, in situ interactions of DC with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are poorly explored. We aimed to characterize lung APCs during pulmonary tuberculosis in Balb/C mice infected with Mtb H37Rv. Mtb-infection via the airways induced a delayed and continuous accumulation of DCs and AM in the lungs. While lung DCs increased after day 3 post-infection, macrophages increased after 2-3 weeks. Although both populations accumulated in lungs during the infection, DCs decreased in the late stages. Infection induced differential expression of co-stimulatory molecules in these lung APCs, decreasing to basal levels in both APCs in the late stages. A remarkable segregation was found regarding bacillary burden. Many macrophages contained numerous bacilli, but DC contained scarce mycobacteria or none. Mtb-infection also induced delayed accumulation of DC in draining lymph nodes. This delayed recruitment was not associated with a lack of IL-12p40, which was detected from day 3 post-infection. Although AM and lung DCs behave differently during pulmonary tuberculosis, Mtb apparently manipulates both lung APCs subverting early protective responses resulting in disease progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Language experience enhances early cortical pitch-dependent responses

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Pitch processing at cortical and subcortical stages of processing is shaped by language experience. We recently demonstrated that specific components of the cortical pitch response (CPR) index the more rapidly-changing portions of the high rising Tone 2 of Mandarin Chinese, in addition to marking pitch onset and sound offset. In this study, we examine how language experience (Mandarin vs. English) shapes the processing of different temporal attributes of pitch reflected in the CPR components using stimuli representative of within-category variants of Tone 2. Results showed that the magnitude of CPR components (Na-Pb and Pb-Nb) and the correlation between these two components and pitch acceleration were stronger for the Chinese listeners compared to English listeners for stimuli that fell within the range of Tone 2 citation forms. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the Na-Pb component was more than twice as important as Pb-Nb in grouping listeners by language affiliation. In addition, a stronger stimulus-dependent, rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group at the temporal, but not frontal, electrode sites. This finding may reflect selective recruitment of experience-dependent, pitch-specific mechanisms in right auditory cortex to extract more complex, time-varying pitch patterns. Taken together, these findings suggest that long-term language experience shapes early sensory level processing of pitch in the auditory cortex, and that the sensitivity of the CPR may vary depending on the relative linguistic importance of specific temporal attributes of dynamic pitch. PMID:25506127

  3. The UK Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Interventional Anaemia Response (CAVIAR) Study: protocol for an observational cohort study to determine the impact and effect of preoperative anaemia management in cardiac and vascular surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Chau, Marisa; Richards, Toby; Evans, Caroline; Butcher, Anna; Collier, Timothy; Klein, Andrew

    2017-04-18

    Preoperative anaemia is linked to poor postsurgical outcome, longer hospital stays, greater risk of complications and mortality. Currently in the UK, some sites have developed anaemia clinics or pathways that use intravenous iron to correct iron deficiency anaemia prior to surgery as their standard of care. Although intravenous iron has been observed to be effective in a variety of patient settings, there is insufficient evidence in its use in cardiac and vascular patients. The aim of this study is to observe the impact and effect of anaemia and its management in patients undergoing cardiac and vascular surgery. In addition, the UK Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Interventional Anaemia Response (CAVIAR) Study is also a feasibility study with the aim to establish anaemia management pathways in the preoperative setting to inform the design of future randomised controlled trials. The UK CAVIAR Study is a multicentre, stepped, observational study, in patients awaiting major cardiac or vascular surgery. We will be examining different haematological variables (especially hepcidin), functional capacity and patient outcome. Patients will be compared based on their anaemia status, whether they received intravenous iron in accordance to their hospital's preoperative pathway, and their disease group. The primary outcomes are the change in haemoglobin levels from baseline (before treatment) to before surgery; and the number of successful patients recruited and consented (feasibility). The secondary outcomes will include changes in biomarkers of iron deficiency, length of stay, quality of life and postoperative recovery. The study protocol was approved by the London-Westminster Research Ethics Committee (15/LO/1569, 27 November 2015). NHS approval was also obtained with each hospital trust. The findings of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Clinical Trials registry (NCT02637102) and the ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN55032357). © Article author(s) (or their employer

  4. The UK Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Interventional Anaemia Response (CAVIAR) Study: protocol for an observational cohort study to determine the impact and effect of preoperative anaemia management in cardiac and vascular surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Marisa; Richards, Toby; Evans, Caroline; Butcher, Anna; Collier, Timothy; Klein, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Preoperative anaemia is linked to poor postsurgical outcome, longer hospital stays, greater risk of complications and mortality. Currently in the UK, some sites have developed anaemia clinics or pathways that use intravenous iron to correct iron deficiency anaemia prior to surgery as their standard of care. Although intravenous iron has been observed to be effective in a variety of patient settings, there is insufficient evidence in its use in cardiac and vascular patients. The aim of this study is to observe the impact and effect of anaemia and its management in patients undergoing cardiac and vascular surgery. In addition, the UK Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Interventional Anaemia Response (CAVIAR) Study is also a feasibility study with the aim to establish anaemia management pathways in the preoperative setting to inform the design of future randomised controlled trials. Methods and analysis The UK CAVIAR Study is a multicentre, stepped, observational study, in patients awaiting major cardiac or vascular surgery. We will be examining different haematological variables (especially hepcidin), functional capacity and patient outcome. Patients will be compared based on their anaemia status, whether they received intravenous iron in accordance to their hospital’s preoperative pathway, and their disease group. The primary outcomes are the change in haemoglobin levels from baseline (before treatment) to before surgery; and the number of successful patients recruited and consented (feasibility). The secondary outcomes will include changes in biomarkers of iron deficiency, length of stay, quality of life and postoperative recovery. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the London-Westminster Research Ethics Committee (15/LO/1569, 27 November 2015). NHS approval was also obtained with each hospital trust. The findings of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number Clinical Trials registry (NCT

  5. Effects of nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and indices of intestinal growth and vascularity in primiparous ewes at parturition and during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A M; Reed, J J; Neville, T L; Taylor, J B; Reynolds, L P; Redmer, D A; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S

    2012-08-01

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and intestinal growth and vascularization in ewes at parturition and during early lactation. Primiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 84) were allocated to 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included dietary Se [adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 μg/kg BW)], nutritional plane [60% (restricted; RES), 100% (control; CON), or 140% (high; HIH)], and physiological stage at necropsy (parturition or d 20 of lactation). At parturition, lambs were removed and 42 ewes (7 per treatment) were necropsied. Remaining ewes were transitioned to a common diet which met lactation requirements and mechanically milked for 20 d. In the absence of interactions (P > 0.10), main effects are reported. At parturition, stomach complex and liver masses were greatest for HIH, intermediate for CON, and least for RES (P < 0.02). Small intestinal mass was greater (P ≤ 0.002) for HIH than RES and CON, and greater (P < 0.01) for ASe than HSe. During early lactation, RES and CON gastrointestinal masses increased disproportionally to BW (P < 0.05). At parturition, jejunal mucosal density was less (P ≤ 0.01) for RES than CON and HIH, whereas CON had greater (P < 0.003) jejunal mucosal RNA concentration and RNA:DNA than RES and HIH. Although there were no differences (P > 0.17) at parturition, jejunal cell percent proliferation was greatest in RES, intermediate in CON, and least in HIH (P ≤ 0.09) at d 20 lactation. At both stages, RES had less (P = 0.01) jejunal capillary area density than HIH and less (P ≤ 0.03) capillary surface density than CON and HIH. During lactation, jejunal capillary size was greater (P = 0.04) for ewes previously fed HSe compared with ASe. At parturition, ASe-HIH had greater (P < 0.02) jejunal mucosal endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 mRNA than all other treatments and greater (P = 0.10) vascular endothelial growth

  6. Pulmonary Vascular Response Patterns During Exercise in Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction Predict Exercise Capacity and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gregory D.; Murphy, Ryan M.; Shah, Ravi V.; Pappagianopoulos, Paul P.; Malhotra, Rajeev; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Systrom, David M.; Semigran, Marc J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevated resting pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) purports a poor prognosis. However, PAP response patterns to exercise in LVSD and their relationship to functional capacity and outcomes have not been characterized. Methods and Results Sixty consecutive patients with LVSD (age 60±12 years, LV ejection fraction 0.31±0.07, mean±SD) and 19 controls underwent maximum incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing with simultaneous hemodynamic monitoring. During low-level exercise (30 Watts), LVSD subjects compared to controls, had greater augmentation in mean PAPs (15±1 vs. 5±1 mmHg), transpulmonary gradients (5±1 vs. 1±1 mmHg), and effective PA elastance (0.05±0.02 vs. −0.03±0.01 mmHg/ml, p<0.0001 for all). A linear increment in PAP relative to work (0.28±0.12 mmHg/watt) was observed in 65% of LVSD patients, which exceeded that observed in controls (0.07±0.02 mmHg/watt, P<0.0001). Exercise capacity and survival was worse in patients with a PAP/watt slope above the median than in patients with a lower slope. In the remaining 35% of LVSD patients, exercise induced a steep initial increment in PAP (0.41±0.16 mmHg/watt) followed by a plateau. The plateau pattern, compared to a linear pattern, was associated with reduced peak VO2 (10.6±2.6 vs. 13.1±4.0 ml/kg/min, P=0.005), lower right ventricular stroke work index augmentation with exercise (5.7±3.8 vs. 9.7±5.0 g/m2, P=0.002), and increased mortality (HR 8.1, 95% CI 2.7-23.8, P<0.001). Conclusions A steep increment in PAP during exercise and failure to augment PAP throughout exercise are associated with decreased exercise capacity and survival in patients with LVSD, and may therefore represent therapeutic targets. Clinical Trial Information URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00309790) PMID:21292991

  7. The use of plasma-activated covalent attachment of early domains of tropoelastin to enhance vascular compatibility of surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Hiob, Matti A.; Wise, Steven G.; Kondyurin, Alexey; Waterhouse, Anna; Bilek, Marcela M.; Ng, Martin K. C.; Weiss, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    All current metallic vascular prostheses, including stents, exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility. Improving the re-endothelialization and reducing the thrombogenicity of these devices would substantially improve their clinical efficacy. Tropoelastin (TE), the soluble precursor of elastin, mediates favorable endothelial cell interactions while having low thrombogenicity. Here we show that constructs of TE corresponding to the first 10 (“N10”) and first 18 (“N18”) N-terminal domains of the molecule facilitate endothelial cell attachment and proliferation equivalent to the performance of full-length TE. This N-terminal ability contrasts with the known role of the C-terminus of TE in facilitating cell attachment, particularly of fibroblasts. When immobilized on a plasma-activated coating (“PAC”), N10 and N18 retained their bioactivity and endothelial cell interactive properties, demonstrating attachment and proliferation equivalent to full-length TE. In whole blood assays, both N10 and N18 maintained the low thrombogenicity of PAC. Furthermore, these N-terminal constructs displayed far greater resistance to protease degradation by blood serine proteases kallikrein and thrombin than did full-length TE. When immobilized onto a PAC surface, these shorter constructs form a modified metal interface to establish a platform technology for biologically compatible, implantable cardiovascular devices. PMID:23863453

  8. Effect of Circular ANRIL on the Inflammatory Response of Vascular Endothelial Cells in a Rat Model of Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Chun-Li; Wang, Jin-Peng; Xue, Xin; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hao; Zhao, Zhuo; Liu, Jian-Gen; Zhang, Chun-Peng; Piao, Zhe-Hao; Liu, Yang; Yang, Yi-Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of circular antisense non-coding RNA at the INK4 locus (cANRIL) in the inflammatory response of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in a rat model of coronary atherosclerosis (AS). A rat model of AS was established with rats that were injected with a large dose of vitamin D3 and fed a high-fat diet. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control, model, empty vector, over-expressed cANRIL and low-expressed cANRIL groups (12 rats in each group). Sixteen weeks later, the ultrastructure of their coronary arteries was observed via transmission electron microscopy. Rat serum lipid levels were analyzed using an automatic biochemical analyzer, and their atherogenic index (AI) values were calculated. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe the endothelial morphology of rats. Additionally, rat EC apoptosis was tested via a TUNEL assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were applied to measure serum levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The cANRIL, Bax, bcl-2 and caspase-3 mRNA expression levels were measured with a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The protein expression levels of Bax, bcl-2 and caspase-3 were detected using immunohistochemistry. In the control group, ECs were closely arranged with normal structures, and there was no proliferation. In the model, empty vector and over-expressed cANRIL groups, some cells were not present, and atherosclerotic plaques and thrombi appeared. However, in the under-expressed cANRIL group, the cells had a normal structure. Compared with the model and empty vector groups, the levels of total cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein (LDL), IL-1, IL-6, MMP-9, CRP, cANRIL, Bax, and caspase-3, AI values, and rates of EC apoptosis decreased in the low-expressed cANRIL group, while HDL (high density lipoprotein) levels and mRNA and protein expression levels of

  9. Right ventricular pressure response to exercise in adults with isolated ventricular septal defect closed in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Moller, Thomas; Lindberg, Harald; Lund, May Brit; Holmstrom, Henrik; Dohlen, Gaute; Thaulow, Erik

    2018-06-01

    We previously demonstrated an abnormally high right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise in 50% of adolescents operated on for isolated ventricular septal defect. The present study investigated the prevalence of abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response in 20 adult (age 30-45 years) patients who underwent surgery for early ventricular septal defect closure and its association with impaired ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. The patients underwent cardiopulmonary tests, including exercise stress echocardiography. Five of 19 patients (26%) presented an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise ⩾ 52 mmHg. Right ventricular systolic function was mixed, with normal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and fractional area change, but abnormal tricuspid annular systolic motion velocity (median 6.7 cm/second) and isovolumetric acceleration (median 0.8 m/second2). Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function was normal at rest as measured by the peak systolic velocity of the lateral wall and isovolumic acceleration, early diastolic velocity, and ratio of early diastolic flow to tissue velocity, except for ejection fraction (median 53%). The myocardial performance index was abnormal for both the left and right ventricle. Peak oxygen uptake was normal (mean z score -0.4, 95% CI -2.8-0.3). There was no association between an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response during exercise and right or left ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. Abnormal right ventricular pressure response is not more frequent in adult patients compared with adolescents. This does not support the theory of progressive pulmonary vascular disease following closure of left-to-right shunts.

  10. Oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in aging.

    PubMed

    El Assar, Mariam; Angulo, Javier; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2013-12-01

    Vascular aging, a determinant factor for cardiovascular disease and health status in the elderly, is now viewed as a modifiable risk factor. Impaired endothelial vasodilation is a early hallmark of arterial aging that precedes the clinical manifestations of vascular dysfunction, the first step to cardiovascular disease and influencing vascular outcomes in the elderly. Accordingly, the preservation of endothelial function is thought to be an essential determinant of healthy aging. With special attention on the effects of aging on the endothelial function, this review is focused on the two main mechanisms of aging-related endothelial dysfunction: oxidative stress and inflammation. Aging vasculature generates an excess of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, that compromise the vasodilatory activity of nitric oxide (NO) and facilitate the formation of the deleterious radical, peroxynitrite. Main sources of ROS are mitochondrial respiratory chain and NADPH oxidases, although NOS uncoupling could also account for ROS generation. In addition, reduced antioxidant response mediated by erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downregulation of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) contributes to the establishment of chronic oxidative stress in aged vessels. This is accompanied by a chronic low-grade inflammatory phenotype that participates in defective endothelial vasodilation. The redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), is upregulated in vascular cells from old subjects and drives a proinflammatory shift that feedbacks oxidative stress. This chronic NF-κB activation is contributed by increased angiotensin-II signaling and downregulated sirtuins and precludes adequate cellular response to acute ROS generation. Interventions targeted to recover endogenous antioxidant capacity and cellular stress response rather than exogenous antioxidants could reverse oxidative stress-inflammation vicious cycle in

  11. Extramural vascular invasion and response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer: Influence of the CpG island methylator phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Jeremy Stuart; Jones, Huw Geraint; Williams, Namor; Griffiths, Anthony Paul; Jenkins, Gareth; Beynon, John; Harris, Dean Anthony

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify whether CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is predictive of response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and outcomes in rectal cancer. METHODS Patients undergoing NACRT and surgical resection for rectal cancer in a tertiary referral centre between 2002-2011 were identified. Pre-treatment tumour biopsies were analysed for CIMP status (high, intermediate or low) using methylation specific PCR. KRAS and BRAF status were also determined using pyrosequencing analysis. Clinical information was extracted from case records and cancer services databases. Response to radiotherapy was measured by tumour regression scores determined upon histological examination of the resected specimen. The relationship between these molecular features, response to NACRT and oncological outcomes were analysed. RESULTS There were 160 patients analysed with a median follow-up time of 46.4 mo. Twenty-one (13%) patients demonstrated high levels of CIMP methylation (CIMP-H) and this was significantly associated with increased risk of extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) compared with CIMP-L [8/21 (38%) vs 15/99 (15%), P = 0.028]. CIMP status was not related to tumour regression after radiotherapy or survival, however EMVI was significantly associated with adverse survival (P < 0.001). Intermediate CIMP status was significantly associated with KRAS mutation (P = 0.01). There were 14 (9%) patients with a pathological complete response (pCR) compared to 116 (73%) patients having no or minimal regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Those patients with pCR had median survival of 106 mo compared to 65.8 mo with minimal regression, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.26). Binary logistic regression analysis of the relationship between EMVI and other prognostic features revealed, EMVI positivity was associated with poor overall survival, advanced “T” stage and CIMP-H but not nodal status, age, sex, KRAS mutation status and presence of local or

  12. Extramural vascular invasion and response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer: Influence of the CpG island methylator phenotype.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jeremy Stuart; Jones, Huw Geraint; Williams, Namor; Griffiths, Anthony Paul; Jenkins, Gareth; Beynon, John; Harris, Dean Anthony

    2017-05-15

    To identify whether CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is predictive of response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and outcomes in rectal cancer. Patients undergoing NACRT and surgical resection for rectal cancer in a tertiary referral centre between 2002-2011 were identified. Pre-treatment tumour biopsies were analysed for CIMP status (high, intermediate or low) using methylation specific PCR. KRAS and BRAF status were also determined using pyrosequencing analysis. Clinical information was extracted from case records and cancer services databases. Response to radiotherapy was measured by tumour regression scores determined upon histological examination of the resected specimen. The relationship between these molecular features, response to NACRT and oncological outcomes were analysed. There were 160 patients analysed with a median follow-up time of 46.4 mo. Twenty-one (13%) patients demonstrated high levels of CIMP methylation (CIMP-H) and this was significantly associated with increased risk of extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) compared with CIMP-L [8/21 (38%) vs 15/99 (15%), P = 0.028]. CIMP status was not related to tumour regression after radiotherapy or survival, however EMVI was significantly associated with adverse survival ( P < 0.001). Intermediate CIMP status was significantly associated with KRAS mutation ( P = 0.01). There were 14 (9%) patients with a pathological complete response (pCR) compared to 116 (73%) patients having no or minimal regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Those patients with pCR had median survival of 106 mo compared to 65.8 mo with minimal regression, although this was not statistically significant ( P = 0.26). Binary logistic regression analysis of the relationship between EMVI and other prognostic features revealed, EMVI positivity was associated with poor overall survival, advanced "T" stage and CIMP-H but not nodal status, age, sex, KRAS mutation status and presence of local or systemic recurrence. We

  13. Ventilatory gas exchange and early response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Olson, Lyle J; Shen, Win K; Cha, Yong-Mei; Johnson, Bruce D

    2015-11-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an accepted intervention for chronic heart failure (HF), although approximately 30% of patients are non-responders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise respiratory gas exchange obtained before CRT implantation predicts early response to CRT. Before CRT implantation, patients were assigned to either a mild-moderate group (Mod G, n = 33, age 67 ± 10 years) or a moderate-severe group (Sev G, n = 31, age 67 ± 10 years), based on abnormalities in exercise gas exchange. Severity of impaired gas exchange was based on a score from the measures of VE/VCO(2) slope, resting PETCO(2) and change of PETCO(2) from resting to peak. All measurements were performed before and 3 to 4 months after CRT implantation. Although Mod G did not have improved gas exchange (p > 0.05), Sev G improved significantly (p < 0.05) post-CRT. In addition, Mod G did not show improved right ventricular systolic pressure (RSVP; pre vs post: 37 ± 14 vs 36 ± 11 mm Hg, p > 0.05), yet Sev G showed significantly improved RVSP, by 23% (50 ± 14 vs 42 ± 12 mm Hg, p < 0.05). Both groups had improved left ventricular ejection fraction (p < 0.05), New York Heart Association class (p < 0.05) and quality of life (p < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed between groups (p > 0.05). No significant changes were observed in brain natriuretic peptide in either group post-CRT. Based on pre-CRT implantation ventilatory gas exchange, subjects with the most impaired values appeared to have more improvement post-CRT, possibly associated with a decrease in RVSP. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy can detect differences in vascular responsiveness to a hyperglycaemic challenge in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rogério Nogueira; Reimer, Raylene A; Alenezi, Zaid; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Murias, Juan Manuel

    2018-01-01

    To examine whether the near-infrared spectroscopy combined with vascular occlusion test technique could detect differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity. A total of 16 normal-weight individuals (body mass index, 21.3 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ) and 13 individuals with obesity (body mass index, 34.4 ± 2.0 kg/m 2 ) were submitted to five vascular occlusion tests (Pre, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose challenge). Vascular responsiveness was determined by the Slope 2 (Slope 2 StO 2 ) and the area under the curve (StO 2AUC ) of oxygen saturation derived from near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test. The Slope 2 StO 2 increased from 1.07 ± 0.16%/s (Pre) to 1.53 ± 0.21%/s at 90 min ( p < 0.05) in the control group, while in obese it increased from 0.71 ± 0.09%/s (Pre) to 0.92 ± 0.14%/s at 60 min ( p < 0.05), and to 0.97 ± 0.10%/s ( p < 0.01) at 120 min after glucose ingestion. The StO 2AUC decreased from 1729 ± 214% . sec (Pre) to 1259 ± 232% . sec at 60 min ( p < 0.05) and to 1034 ± 172% . sec at 90 min ( p < 0.05) in the normal-weight group, whereas it decreased at 90 min (637 ± 98% . sec; p < 0.05) and at 120 min (590 ± 93% . sec; p < 0.01) compared to 30 min (1232 ± 197% . sec) after glucose ingestion in individuals with obesity. Near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test technique was capable of detecting differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity.

  15. Culturally Responsive Literacy Practices in an Early Childhood Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Susan V.; Gunn, AnnMarie Alberton; Gayle-Evans, Guda; Barrera, Estanislado S.; Leung, Cynthia B.

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood educators continue to see an increase in their culturally diverse student population. As our country continues to grow as a multicultural nation, it is imperative that our early childhood classrooms embrace this rich diversity and provide experiences that affirm all students, families and communities. We (teacher educators)…

  16. Effects of nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and indices of intestinal growth and vascularity in primiparous ewes at parturition and during early lactation.

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and intestinal growth and vascularization in ewes at parturition and during early lactation. Primiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 84) were allocated to 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of tr...

  17. Early skin toxicity predicts better outcomes, and early tumor shrinkage predicts better response after cetuximab treatment in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, T; Doi, A; Shimokawa, M; Fouad, T M; Osuga, T; Tamura, F; Mizushima, T; Kimura, T; Abe, S; Ihara, H; Kukitsu, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yoshizaki, N; Hirayama, M; Sasaki, T; Kawarada, Y; Kitashiro, S; Okushiba, S; Kondo, H; Tsuji, Y

    2015-03-01

    Cetuximab-containing treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer have been shown to have higher overall response rates and longer progression-free and overall survival than other systemic therapies. Cetuximab-related manifestations, including severe skin toxicity and early tumor shrinkage, have been shown to be predictors of response to cetuximab. We hypothesized that early skin toxicity is a predictor of response and better outcomes in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated 62 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who had unresectable tumors and were treated with cetuximab in our institution. Skin toxicity grade was evaluated on each treatment day. Tumor size was evaluated using computed tomography prior to treatment and 4-8 weeks after the start of treatment with cetuximab.Patients with early tumor shrinkage after starting treatment with cetuximab had a significantly higher overall response rate (P = 0.0001). Patients with early skin toxicity showed significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.0305), and patients with higher skin toxicity grades had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0168).We have shown that early tumor shrinkage, early onset of skin toxicity, and high skin toxicity grade are predictors of treatment efficacy and/or outcome in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with cetuximab.

  18. Early Life Exposure to Undernutrition Induces ER Stress, Apoptosis, and Reduced Vascularization in Ovaries of Adult Rat Offspring1

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kaitlyn A.; Bernal, Angelica B.; Vickers, Mark H.; Gohir, Wajiha; Petrik, Jim J.; Sloboda, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maternal nutritional restriction has been shown to induce impairments in a number of organ systems including the ovary. We have previously shown that maternal undernutrition induces fetal growth restriction and low birth weight, and results in an offspring ovarian phenotype characteristic of premature ovarian aging with reduced ovarian reserve. In the present study, we set out to investigate the underlying mechanisms that lead offspring of undernourished mothers to premature ovarian aging. Pregnant dams were randomized to 1) a standard diet throughout pregnancy and lactation (control), 2) a calorie-restricted (50% of control) diet during pregnancy, 3) a calorie-restricted (50% of control) diet during pregnancy and lactation, or 4) a calorie-restricted (50% of control) diet during lactation alone. The present study shows that early life undernutrition-induced reduction of adult ovarian follicles may be mediated by increased ovarian endoplasmic reticulum stress in a manner that increased follicular apoptosis but not autophagy. These changes were associated with a loss of ovarian vessel density and are consistent with an accelerated ovarian aging phenotype. Whether these changes are mediated specifically by a reduction in the local antioxidant environment is unclear, although our data suggest the possibility that ovarian melatonin may play a part in early life nutritional undernutrition and impaired offspring folliculogenesis. PMID:25810471

  19. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-1 inhibits migration of human monocytic THP-1 cells in response to VEGF.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cansheng; Xiong, Zhaojun; Chen, Xiaohong; Lu, Zhengqi; Zhou, Guoyu; Wang, Dunjing; Bao, Jian; Hu, Xueqiang

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the regulation and contribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and sFlt-1(1-3) to human monocytic THP-1 migration. Ad-sFlt-1/FLAG, a recombinant adenovirus carrying the human sFlt-1(1-3) (the first three extracellular domains of FLT-1, the hVEGF receptor-1) gene, was constructed. L929 cells were infected with Ad-sFlt-1/FLAG and the expression of sFlt-1 was detected by immunofluorescent assay and ELISA. Corning(®) Transwell(®) Filter Inserts containing polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes with pore sizes of 3 μm were used as an experimental model to simulate THP-1 migration. Five VEGF concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml), four concentrations of sFlt-1(1-3)/FLAG expression supernatants (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, 10 ng/ml) were used to test the ability of THP-1 cells to migrate through PET membranes. The sFlt-1(1-3) gene was successfully recombined into Ad-sFlt-1/FLAG. sFlt-1(1-3) was expressed in L929 cells transfected with Ad-sFlt-1/FLAG. THP-1 cell migration increased with increasing concentrations of VEGF, while cell migration decreased with increasing concentrations of sFlt1(1-3)/FLAG. sFlt1(1-3)/FLAG had no effect on MCP-1-induced cell migration. This study demonstrated that VEGF is able to elicit a migratory response in THP-1 cells, and that sFlt-1(1-3) is an effective inhibitor of THP-1 migration towards VEGF.

  20. From genetics to response to injury: vascular smooth muscle cells in aneurysms and dissections of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Jondeau, Guillaume; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2018-03-15

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) play a crucial role in both the pathogenesis of Aneurysms and Dissections of the ascending thoracic aorta (TAAD) in humans and in the associated adaptive compensatory responses, since thrombosis and inflammatory processes are absent in the majority of cases. Aneurysms and dissections share numerous characteristics, including aetiologies and histopathological alterations: vSMC disappearance, medial areas of mucoid degeneration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) breakdown. Three aetiologies predominate in TAAD in humans: (i) genetic causes in heritable familial forms, (ii) an association with bicuspid aortic valves, and (iii) a sporadic degenerative form linked to the aortic aging process. Genetic forms include mutations in vSMC genes encoding for molecules of the ECM or the TGF-β pathways, or participating in vSMC tone. On the other hand, aneurysms and dissections, whatever their aetiologies, are characterized by an increase in wall permeability leading to transmural advection of plasma proteins which could interact with vSMCs and ECM components. In this context, blood-borne plasminogen appears to play an important role, because its outward convection through the wall is increased in TAAD, and it could be converted to active plasmin at the vSMC membrane. Active plasmin can induce vSMC disappearance, proteolysis of adhesive proteins, activation of MMPs and release of TGF-β from its ECM storage sites. Conversely, vSMCs could respond to aneurysmal biomechanical and proteolytic injury by an epigenetic phenotypic switch, including constitutional overexpression and nuclear translocation of Smad2 and an increase in antiprotease and ECM protein synthesis. In contrast, such an epigenetic phenomenon is not observed in dissections. In this context, dysfunction of proteins involved in vSMC tone are interesting to study, particularly in interaction with plasma protein transport through the wall and TGF-β activation, to establish the

  1. [Effects of low molecular weight heparin on the inflammatory response and vascular injury in rat after electric burn].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nanhong; Xie, Weiguo; Wang, Hui; Jin, Dongmei; Tan, Hong; Zhao, Chaoli

    2014-04-01

    To observe the effects of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on the inflammatory response and vascular injury in rat after electric burn. A homemade regulator and transformer apparatus was used to reproduce the model of electric burn (0.5 cm×0.5 cm in size) with depth from full-thickness to full-thickness skin plus muscle and bone on the middle of the inside of right hind limb in 60 Wistar rats. The open wounds were covered with 20 g/L sulfadiazine silver paste immediately after injury. The wound condition was observed every day. The injured rats were divided into group LMWH and control group (C) according to the random number table, with 30 rats in each group. Rats in group LMWH were given subcutaneous injection of LMWH (1 U/g) in abdominal wall, 2 times a day. No other treatment was given in rats in group C. On post burn day (PBD) 3, 5, and 10, 10 rats respectively of two groups were sacrificed. The damaged tissue of wound and that around the wound (1.0 cm×0.5 cm in size) were excised, and heart blood was obtained. The pathological changes and thrombosis in damaged tissue were observed with HE, Masson, and aldehyde fuchsin staining, and the thrombosis rate was calculated. Serum contents of TNF-α and endothelin-1 were determined with ELISA. The mRNA expression of TNF-α in damaged tissue was detected with RT-PCR. Data were processed with Levene homogeneity test, analysis of variance of factorial design, LSD- t test, SNK- q test, and Friedman M nonparametric test. (1) The injured limb of rats was obviously swollen after electric burn, which reached deeply to the muscle and bone. Compared with those of group C, the swelling of rats subsided slightly faster and the inflammatory response was lighter in group LMWH at each time point. (2) The necrosis of damaged tissue and profuse infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed. Dilatation of blood vessels, congestion and thrombosis, and swelling, necrosis, and desquamation of vascular endothelial cells were

  2. Improvement of insulin sensitivity in response to exercise training in type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with vascular endothelial growth factor A expression.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Henrik; Fischer, Helene; Degerblad, Marie; Alvarsson, Michael; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Insulin sensitivity changes in response to exercise training demonstrate a large variation. Vascular endothelial growth factor A could promote increased insulin sensitivity through angiogenesis. We investigated associations between changes in expression of key genes and insulin sensitivity, aerobic capacity and glycaemic control following exercise training in diabetes mellitus type 2. Subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 underwent 12 weeks of structured exercise. Euglycaemic clamp, exercise test and HbA1c were performed. Muscle biopsies were obtained for mRNA expression. A total of 16 subjects completed the study. Change in vascular endothelial growth factor A expression was positively associated with an increase in insulin sensitivity (p = 0.004) and with a decrease in HbA1c (p = 0.034). Vascular endothelial growth factor A receptor-1 expression showed similar associations. The variation in physical adaptation to exercise training in diabetes mellitus type 2 was associated with changes in expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A in muscle. This difference in induced gene expression could contribute to the variation in exercise training effects on insulin sensitivity. Measures of capillary blood flow need to be assessed in future studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Altered Evoked Gamma-Band Responses Reveal Impaired Early Visual Processing in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2010-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…

  4. Differential regulations of fibronectin and laminin in Smad2 activation in vascular endothelial cells in response to disturbed flow.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tung-Lin; Lee, Pei-Ling; Lee, Ding-Yu; Wang, Wei-Li; Wei, Shu-Yi; Lee, Chih-I; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann

    2018-01-02

    Atherosclerosis occurs in arterial curvatures and branches, where the flow is disturbed with low and oscillatory shear stress (OSS). The remodeling and alterations of extracellular matrices (ECMs) and their composition is the critical step in atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of different ECM proteins on the regulation of mechanotransduction in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in response to OSS. Through the experiments ranging from in vitro cell culture studies on effects of OSS on molecular signaling to in vivo examinations on clinical specimens from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), we elucidated the roles of integrins and different ECMs, i.e., fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LM), in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptor (TβR)-mediated Smad2 activation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in ECs in response to OSS and hence atherogenesis. OSS at 0.5±12 dynes/cm 2 induces sustained increases in the association of types I and II TβRs with β1 and β3 integrins in ECs grown on FN, but it only transient increases in ECs grown on LM. OSS induces a sustained activation of Smad2 in ECs on FN, but only a transient activation of Smad2 in ECs on LM. OSS-activation of Smad2 in ECs on FN regulates downstream NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression through the activation of β1 integrin and its association with TβRs. In contrast, OSS induces transient activations of β1 and β3 integrins in ECs on LM, which associate with type I TβR to regulate Smad2 phosphorylation, resulting in transient induction of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory gene expression. In vivo investigations on diseased human coronary arteries from CAD patients revealed that Smad2 is highly activated in ECs of atherosclerotic lesions, which is accompanied by the concomitant increase of FN rather than LM in the EC layer and neointimal region of atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of how OSS regulates Smad2

  5. Cellular dysfunction in the diabetic fibroblast: impairment in migration, vascular endothelial growth factor production, and response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Oren Z; Galiano, Robert D; Armour, Mary; Levine, Jamie P; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2003-01-01

    Although it is known that systemic diseases such as diabetes result in impaired wound healing, the mechanism for this impairment is not understood. Because fibroblasts are essential for wound repair, we compared the in vitro behavior of fibroblasts cultured from diabetic, leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice with wild-type fibroblasts from mice of the same genetic background in processes important during tissue repair. Adult diabetic mouse fibroblast migration exhibited a 75% reduction in migration compared to normal fibroblasts (P < 0.001) and was not significantly stimulated by hypoxia (1% O(2)), whereas wild-type fibroblast migration was up-regulated nearly twofold in hypoxic conditions (P < 0.05). Diabetic fibroblasts produced twice the amount of pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 as normal fibroblasts, as measured by both gelatin zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (P < 0.05). Adult diabetic fibroblasts exhibited a sevenfold impairment in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production (4.5 +/- 1.3 pg/ml versus 34.8 +/- 3.3 pg/ml, P < 0.001) compared to wild-type fibroblasts. Moreover, wild-type fibroblast production of VEGF increased threefold in response to hypoxia, whereas diabetic fibroblast production of VEGF was not up-regulated in hypoxic conditions (P < 0.001). To address the question whether these differences resulted from chronic hyperglycemia or absence of the leptin receptor, fibroblasts were harvested from newborn db/db mice before the onset of diabetes (4 to 5 weeks old). These fibroblasts showed no impairments in VEGF production under basal or hypoxic conditions, confirming that the results from db/db fibroblasts in mature mice resulted from the diabetic state and were not because of alterations in the leptin-leptin receptor axis. Markers of cellular viability including proliferation and senescence were not significantly different between diabetic and wild-type fibroblasts. We conclude that, in vitro, diabetic fibroblasts show

  6. Responses of adventitial CD34+ vascular wall-resident stem/progenitor cells and medial smooth muscle cells to carotid injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Wu, Yan; Zheng, Yong; Ao, Feng; Kang, Kai; Wan, Yu; Song, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Cell culture and carotid injury studies with SD rats were performed to investigate the roles of CD34 + vascular wall-resident stem/progenitor cells (VRS/Pcs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in neointimal formation. In vitro, the media-isolated SM MHC + SMCs occupied 93.92±8.62% of total BrdU + cells, whereas the CD34 + cells, only 2.61±0.82%, indicating that the cell expansion in SMC culture was attributed to SM MHC + SMCs. The adventitia-isolated CD34 + VRS/Pcs responded to PDGF-BB by differentiating into SMC-like cells which expressed SM22α (an early stage SMC marker), but seldom SM MHC (a late stage SMC marker). In carotid injury model, the CD34 + VRS/Pcs differentiated SMC-like cells migrated in very few numbers into only the outer layer of the media, and this was further confirmed by a cell tracking analysis. While the neointimal cells were consistently SM MHC + and CD34 - SMCs during whole course of the post-injury remodeling. Thus it is speculated that the adventitial CD34 + VRS/Pcs, at least in rat model, do not directly participate in neointimal formation, but function to maintain homeostasis of the media during injury-induced vascular wall remodeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estrogen, vascular estrogen receptor and hormone therapy in postmenopausal vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-12-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject's age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estrogen, Vascular Estrogen Receptor and Hormone Therapy in Postmenopausal Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject’s age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:24099797

  9. Elevated Amygdala Response to Faces following Early Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tottenham, N.; Hare, T. A.; Millner, A.; Gilhooly, T.; Zevin, J. D.; Casey, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    A functional neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing conditions in humans as they relate to socio-emotional development. Previously institutionalized (PI) children and a same-aged comparison group were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an Emotional Face Go/Nogo…

  10. Adaptive neuroplastic responses in early and late hemispherectomized monkeys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mark W; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Behavioural recovery in children who undergo medically required hemispherectomy showcase the remarkable ability of the cerebral cortex to adapt and reorganize following insult early in life. Case study data suggest that lesions sustained early in childhood lead to better recovery compared to those that occur later in life. In these children, it is possible that neural reorganization had begun prior to surgery but was masked by the dysfunctional hemisphere. The degree of neural reorganization has been difficult to study systematically in human infants. Here we present a 20-year culmination of data on our nonhuman primate model (Chlorocebus sabeus) of early-life hemispherectomy in which behavioral recovery is interpreted in light of plastic processes that lead to the anatomical reorganization of the early-damaged brain. The model presented here suggests that significant functional recovery occurs after the removal of one hemisphere in monkeys with no preexisting neurological dysfunctions. Human and primate studies suggest a critical role for subcortical and brainstem structures as well as corticospinal tracts in the neuroanatomical reorganization which result in the remarkable behavioral recovery following hemispherectomy. The non-human primate model presented here offers a unique opportunity for studying the behavioral and functional neuroanatomical reorganization that underlies developmental plasticity.

  11. Investigating Early Years Teachers' Understanding and Response to Children's Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambouri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on young children's scientific preconceptions and discusses teachers' identification of these preconceptions when teaching science in the early years, on which research is still limited. This paper is based on the theoretical framework of constructivism and it defines preconceptions as children's erroneous concepts prior to…

  12. The lipodystrophic hotspot lamin A p.R482W mutation deregulates the mesodermal inducer T/Brachyury and early vascular differentiation gene networks.

    PubMed

    Briand, Nolwenn; Guénantin, Anne-Claire; Jeziorowska, Dorota; Shah, Akshay; Mantecon, Matthieu; Capel, Emilie; Garcia, Marie; Oldenburg, Anja; Paulsen, Jonas; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; Vigouroux, Corinne; Collas, Philippe

    2018-04-15

    The p.R482W hotspot mutation in A-type nuclear lamins causes familial partial lipodystrophy of Dunnigan-type (FPLD2), a lipodystrophic syndrome complicated by early onset atherosclerosis. Molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial cell dysfunction conferred by the lamin A mutation remain elusive. However, lamin A regulates epigenetic developmental pathways and mutations could perturb these functions. Here, we demonstrate that lamin A R482W elicits endothelial differentiation defects in a developmental model of FPLD2. Genome modeling in fibroblasts from patients with FPLD2 caused by the lamin A R482W mutation reveals repositioning of the mesodermal regulator T/Brachyury locus towards the nuclear center relative to normal fibroblasts, suggesting enhanced activation propensity of the locus in a developmental model of FPLD2. Addressing this issue, we report phenotypic and transcriptional alterations in mesodermal and endothelial differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells we generated from a patient with R482W-associated FPLD2. Correction of the LMNA mutation ameliorates R482W-associated phenotypes and gene expression. Transcriptomics links endothelial differentiation defects to decreased Polycomb-mediated repression of the T/Brachyury locus and over-activation of T target genes. Binding of the Polycomb repressor complex 2 to T/Brachyury is impaired by the mutated lamin A network, which is unable to properly associate with the locus. This leads to a deregulation of vascular gene expression over time. By connecting a lipodystrophic hotspot lamin A mutation to a disruption of early mesodermal gene expression and defective endothelial differentiation, we propose that the mutation rewires the fate of several lineages, resulting in multi-tissue pathogenic phenotypes.

  13. Response of Vascular Plant Communities to Harvest in Southern Appalachian Mixed-Oak Forests: Two-Year Results

    Bryan W. Wender; Sharon M. Hood; David W. Smith; Shepard M. Zedaker; David L. Loftis

    1999-01-01

    A long-term study has been established to monitor the effects of seven silvicultural prescriptions on vascular flora community attributes. Treatments include a control, understory vegetation control, group selection, two levels of shelterwoods, leave-tree, and clearcut. Second growing season. post-treatment results are compared to pre-harvest values for residual~...

  14. Effects of early overnutrition on the renal response to Ang II and expression of RAAS components in rat renal tissue.

    PubMed

    Granado, M; Amor, S; Fernández, N; Carreño-Tarragona, G; Iglesias-Cruz, M C; Martín-Carro, B; Monge, L; García-Villalón, A L

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of early overnutrition (EON) on the expression of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) components in renal cortex, renal arteries and renal perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), as well as the vascular response of renal arteries to Angiotensin II (Ang II). On birth day litters were adjusted to twelve (L12-control) or three (L3-overfed) pups per mother. Half of the animals were sacrificed at weaning (21 days old) and the other half at 5 months of age. Ang II-induced vasoconstriction of renal artery segments increased in young overfed rats and decreased in adult overfed rats. EON decreased the gene expression of angiotensinogen (Agt), Ang II receptors AT1 and AT2 and eNOS in renal arteries of young rats, while it increased the mRNA levels of AT-2 and ET-1 in adult rats. In renal PVAT EON up-regulated the gene expression of COX-2 and TNF-α in young rats and the mRNA levels of renin receptor both in young and in adult rats. On the contrary, Ang II receptors mRNA levels were downregulated at both ages. Renal cortex of overfed rats showed increased gene expression of Agt in adult rats and of AT1 in young rats. However the mRNA levels of AT1 were decreased in the renal cortex of overfed adult rats. EON is associated with alterations in the vascular response of renal arteries to Ang II and changes in the gene expression of RAAS components in renal tissue. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Vascular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol Smoking Obesity Losing weight, eating healthy foods, being active and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.

  16. Hepatic overexpression of the prodomain of furin lessens progression of atherosclerosis and reduces vascular remodeling in response to injury.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xia; Basu, Debapriya; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Maoxiang; Rudic, R Dan; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Jin, Weijun

    2014-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex disease, involving elevated LDL-c, lipid accumulation in the blood vessel wall, foam cell formation and vascular dysfunction. Lowering plasma LDL-c is the cornerstone of current management of cardiovascular disease. However, new approaches which reduce plasma LDL-c and lessen the pathological vascular remodeling occurring in the disease should also have therapeutic value. Previously, we found that overexpression of profurin, the 83-amino acid prodomain of the proprotein convertase furin, lowered plasma HDL levels in wild-type mice. The question that remained was whether it had effects on apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-containing lipoproteins. Adenovirus mediated overexpression of hepatic profurin in Ldlr(-/-)mice and wild-type mice were used to evaluate effects of profurin on ApoB-containing lipoproteins, atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Hepatic profurin overexpression resulted in a significant reduction in atherosclerotic lesion development in Ldlr(-/-)mice and a robust reduction in plasma LDL-c. Metabolic studies revealed lower secretion of ApoB and triglycerides in VLDL particles. Mechanistic studies showed that in the presence of profurin, hepatic ApoB, mainly ApoB100, was degraded by proteasomes. There was no effect on ApoB mRNA expression. Importantly, short-term hepatic profurin overexpression did not result in hepatic lipid accumulation. Blood vessel wall thickening caused by either wire-induced femoral artery injury or common carotid artery ligation was reduced. Profurin expression inhibited proliferation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. These results indicate that a profurin-based therapy has the potential to treat atherosclerosis by improving metabolic lipid profiles and reducing both atherosclerotic lesion development and pathological vascular remodeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early feeding and early life housing conditions influence the response towards a noninfectious lung challenge in broilers.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2015-09-01

    Early life conditions such as feed and water availability immediately post hatch (PH) and housing conditions may influence immune development and therefore immune reactivity later in life. The current study addressed the consequences of a combination of these 2 early life conditions for immune reactivity, i.e., the specific antibody response towards a non-infectious lung challenge. Broiler chicks received feed and water either immediately p.h. or with a 72 h delay and were either reared in a floor or a cage system. At 4 weeks of age, chicks received either an intra-tracheally administered Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Human Serum Albumin (HUSA) challenge or a placebo, and antibody titers were measured up to day 14 after administration of the challenge. Chicks housed on the floor and which had a delayed access to feed p.h. showed the highest antibody titers against HuSA. These chicks also showed the strongest sickness response and poorest performance in response to the challenge, indicating that chicks with delayed access to feed might be more sensitive to an environment with higher antigenic pressure. In conclusion, results from the present study show that early life feeding strategy and housing conditions influence a chick's response to an immune challenge later in life. These 2 early life factors should therefore be taken into account when striving for a balance between disease resistance and performance in poultry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound in the early assessment of response to concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zhu, Lijing; Ru, Tong; Wang, Huanhuan; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-09-01

    Background Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound (3D-PDU) imaging has been widely applied to the differentiation of benign and malignant cervical lesions; however, its potential value for predicting response to chemo-radiotherapy has not been fully explored. Purpose To investigate the feasibility of 3D-PDU imaging in predicting treatment response in patients receiving concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced cervical cancer. Material and Methods Fifty-two patients with advanced cervical cancer who received CCRT underwent 3D-PDU examinations at four timepoints: pre-therapy (baseline), 1 week and 2 weeks during, as well as immediately post CCRT. Final tumor response was determined by change in tumor size using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cervical tumor volumes and vascular indices were calculated and compared with the clinical outcome. Results Of the 52 patients, 32 patients who completed all four examinations were included in the analyses: 21 were classified as complete response (CR) and 11 as partial response (PR). During the treatment, the CR group showed that 3D vascular indices (VI and VFI) significantly increased at 1 week ( P = 0.028, P = 0.017, respectively) then decreased at 2 weeks and obviously decreased at therapy completion (both P < 0.001), whereas tumors significantly decreased in volume at 2 weeks after therapy initiation ( P < 0.05). However, no significant differences in 3D vascular indices values were seen in the PR group during the treatment course (all P > 0.05). Conclusion Prospective longitudinal 3D-PDU imaging may have potentials in monitoring early therapeutic response to CCRT in patients with cervical cancer.

  19. The Effects of Responsive Stimulation in Early Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Craig T.; Finkelstein, Neal W.

    This study investigated whether infants who were given increased amounts of response-contingent stimulation would evidence positive and nonspecific transfer of learning to situations requiring new responses to control environmental events. Subjects were thirty 3-month-old biologically normal home-reared infants. Infants in the group assigned to a…

  20. Adverse prognostic value of peritumoral vascular invasion: is it abrogated by adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy? Results from two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials of chemoendocrine adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Viale, G.; Giobbie-Hurder, A.; Gusterson, B. A.; Maiorano, E.; Mastropasqua, M. G.; Sonzogni, A.; Mallon, E.; Colleoni, M.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Regan, M. M.; Brown, R. W.; Golouh, R.; Crivellari, D.; Karlsson, P.; Öhlschlegel, C.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Peritumoral vascular invasion (PVI) may assist in assigning optimal adjuvant systemic therapy for women with early breast cancer. Patients and methods: Patients participated in two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials testing chemoendocrine adjuvant therapies in premenopausal (trial VIII) or postmenopausal (trial IX) node-negative breast cancer. PVI was assessed by institutional pathologists and/or central review on hematoxylin–eosin-stained slides in 99% of patients (analysis cohort 2754 patients, median follow-up >9 years). Results: PVI, present in 23% of the tumors, was associated with higher grade tumors and larger tumor size (trial IX only). Presence of PVI increased locoregional and distant recurrence and was significantly associated with poorer disease-free survival. The adverse prognostic impact of PVI in trial VIII was limited to premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors randomized to therapies not containing goserelin, and conversely the beneficial effect of goserelin was limited to patients whose tumors showed PVI. In trial IX, all patients received tamoxifen: the adverse prognostic impact of PVI was limited to patients with receptor-negative tumors regardless of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy appears to abrogate the adverse impact of PVI in node-negative disease, while PVI may identify patients who will benefit particularly from adjuvant therapy. PMID:19633051

  1. Sensing of Vascular Permeability in Inflamed Vessel of Live Animal.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang A; Jeong, Soi; Choe, Young Ho; Hyun, Young-Min

    2018-01-01

    Increase in vascular permeability is a conclusive response in the progress of inflammation. Under controlled conditions, leukocytes are known to migrate across the vascular barriers to the sites of inflammation without severe vascular rupture. However, when inflammatory state becomes excessive, the leakage of blood components may occur and can be lethal. Basically, vascular permeability can be analyzed based on the intensity of blood outflow. To evaluate the amount and rate of leakage in live mice, we performed cremaster muscle exteriorization to visualize blood flow and neutrophil migration. Using two-photon intravital microscopy of the exteriorized cremaster muscle venules, we found that vascular barrier function is transiently and locally disrupted in the early stage of inflammatory condition induced by N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Measurement of the concentration of intravenously (i.v.) injected Texas Red dextran inside and outside the vessels resulted in clear visualization of real-time increases in transient and local vascular permeability increase in real-time manner. We successfully demonstrated repeated leakage from a target site on a blood vessel in association with increasing severity of inflammation. Therefore, compared to other methods, two-photon intravital microscopy more accurately visualizes and quantifies vascular permeability even in a small part of blood vessels in live animals in real time.

  2. Communication and Alert Maintenance Program for Early Response Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Richardson, Laura [D-CA-37

    2011-09-07

    House - 09/27/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Response and Communications. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Early and late mammalian responses to heavy charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    This overview summarizes murine results on acute lethality responses, inactivation of marrow CFU-S and intestinal microcolonies, testes weight loss, life span shortening, and posterior lens opacification in mice irradiated with heavy charged particles. RBE-LET relationships for these mammalian responses are compared with results from in vitro studies. The trend is that the maximum RBE for in vivo responses tends to be lower and occurs at a lower LET than for inactivation of V79 and T-1 cells in culture. Based on inactivation cross sections, the response of CFU-S in vivo conforms to expectations from earlier studies with prokaryotic systems and mammalian cells in culture. Effects of heavy ions are compared with fission spectrum neutrons, and the results are consistent with the interpretation that RBEs are lower than for fission neutrons at about the same LET, probably due to differences in track structure.

  4. Histology atlas of the developing mouse hepatobiliary hemolymphatic vascular system with emphasis on embryonic days 11.5-18.5 and early postnatal development

    A critical event in fetal development is the proper formation of the vascular system, of which the hepatobiliary system plays a pivotal role. This has lead pathologists and scientists to utilize transgenic mice to identify developmental disorders associated with the hepatobiliary vascular system. Va...

  5. Early life socioeconomic position and immune response to persistent infections among elderly Latinos.

    PubMed

    Meier, Helen C S; Haan, Mary N; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Simanek, Amanda M; Dowd, Jennifer B; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-10-01

    Persistent infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), are common in the U.S. but their prevalence varies by socioeconomic status. It is unclear if early or later life socioeconomic position (SEP) is a more salient driver of disparities in immune control of these infections. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, we examined whether early or later life SEP was the strongest predictor of immune control later in life by contrasting two life course models, the critical period model and the chain of risk model. Early life SEP was measured as a latent variable, derived from parental education and occupation, and food availability. Indicators for SEP in later life included education level and occupation. Individuals were categorized by immune response to each pathogen (seronegative, low, medium and high) with increasing immune response representing poorer immune control. Cumulative immune response was estimated using a latent profile analysis with higher total immune response representing poorer immune control. Structural equation models were used to examine direct, indirect and total effects of early life SEP on each infection and cumulative immune response, controlling for age and gender. The direct effect of early life SEP on immune response was not statistically significant for the infections or cumulative immune response. Higher early life SEP was associated with lower immune response for T. gondii, H. pylori and cumulative immune response through pathways mediated by later life SEP. For CMV, higher early life SEP was both directly associated and partially mediated by later life SEP. No association was found between SEP and HSV-1. Findings from this study support a chain of risk model, whereby early life SEP acts through later life SEP to affect immune response to persistent infections in older age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Fructose intake exacerbates the contractile response elicited by norepinephrine in mesenteric vascular bed of rats via increased endothelial prostanoids.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Glauciene J; Oliveira, Phablo Wendell C; Nogueira, Breno V; Melo, Antônio F; Faria, Thaís de Oliveira; Meira, Eduardo Frizera; Mill, José G; Bissoli, Nazaré S; Baldo, Marcelo P

    2017-10-01

    Chronic fructose intake induces major cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances and is associated with the development of hypertension due to changes in vascular function. We hypothesized that high fructose intake for 6 weeks would cause metabolic syndrome and lead to initial vascular dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were assigned to receive fructose (FRU, 10%) or drinking water (CON) for 6 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was evaluated by tail plethysmography. Fasting glucose, insulin and glucose tolerance were measured at the end of the follow-up. Mesenteric vascular bed reactivity was tested before and after pharmacological blockade. Western blot analysis was performed for iNOS, eNOS, Nox2 and COX-2. DHE staining was used for vascular superoxide anion detection. Vessel structure was evaluated by optical and electronic microscopy. Fructose intake did not alter blood pressure, but did increase visceral fat deposition and fasting glucose as well as impair insulin and glucose tolerance. Fructose increased NE-induced vasoconstriction compared with CON, and this difference was abrogated by indomethacin perfusion as well as endothelium removal. ACh-induced relaxation was preserved, and the NO modulation tested after L-NAME perfusion was similar between groups. SNP-induced relaxation was not altered. Inducible NOS was increased; however, there were no changes in eNOS, Nox2 or COX-2 protein expression. Basal or stimulated superoxide anion production was not changed by fructose intake. In conclusion, high fructose intake increased NE-induced vasoconstriction through the endothelial prostanoids even in the presence of a preserved endothelium-mediated relaxation. No major changes in vessel structure were detected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EMMPRIN-Mediated Induction of Uterine and Vascular Matrix Metalloproteinases during Pregnancy and in Response to Estrogen and Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yiping; Li, Wei; Tran, Victoria; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with uteroplacental and vascular remodeling in order to adapt for the growing fetus and the hemodynamic changes in the maternal circulation. We have previously shown upregulation of uterine matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during pregnancy. Whether pregnancy-associated changes in MMPs are localized to the uterus or are generalized in feto-placental and maternal circulation is unclear. Also, the mechanisms causing the changes in uteroplacental and vascular MMPs during pregnancy are unclear. MMPs expression, activity and tissue distribution were measured in uterus, placenta and aorta of virgin, mid-pregnant (mid-Preg) and late pregnant (late-Preg) rats. Western blots and gelatin zymography revealed increases in MMP-2 and -9 in uterus and aorta of late-Preg compared with virgin and mid-Preg rats. In contrast, MMP-2 and -9 were decreased in placenta of late-Preg versus mid-Preg rats. Extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN) was increased in uterus and aorta of pregnant rats, but was less in placenta of late-Preg than mid-Preg rats. Prolonged treatment of uterus or aorta of virgin rats with 17β-estradiol and progesterone increased the amount of EMMPRIN, MMP-2 and -9, and the sex hormone-induced increases in MMPs were prevented by EMMPRIN neutralizing antibody. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MMP-2 and -9 and EMMPRIN increased in uterus and aorta of pregnant rats, but decreased in placenta of late-Preg versus mid-Preg rats. Thus pregnancy-associated upregulation of uterine MMPs is paralleled by increased vascular MMPs, and both are mediated by EMMPRIN and induced by estrogen and progesterone, suggesting similar role of MMPs in uterine and vascular tissue remodeling and function during pregnancy. The decreased MMPs and EMMPRIN in placenta of late-Preg rats suggests reduced role of MMPs in feto-placental circulation during late pregnancy. PMID:23856290

  8. EMMPRIN-mediated induction of uterine and vascular matrix metalloproteinases during pregnancy and in response to estrogen and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yiping; Li, Wei; Tran, Victoria; Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-09-15

    Pregnancy is associated with uteroplacental and vascular remodeling in order to adapt for the growing fetus and the hemodynamic changes in the maternal circulation. We have previously shown upregulation of uterine matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during pregnancy. Whether pregnancy-associated changes in MMPs are localized to the uterus or are generalized in feto-placental and maternal circulation is unclear. Also, the mechanisms causing the changes in uteroplacental and vascular MMPs during pregnancy are unclear. MMPs expression, activity and tissue distribution were measured in uterus, placenta and aorta of virgin, mid-pregnant (mid-Preg) and late pregnant (late-Preg) rats. Western blots and gelatin zymography revealed increases in MMP-2 and -9 in uterus and aorta of late-Preg compared with virgin and mid-Preg rats. In contrast, MMP-2 and -9 were decreased in placenta of late-Preg versus mid-Preg rats. Extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN) was increased in uterus and aorta of pregnant rats, but was less in placenta of late-Preg than mid-Preg rats. Prolonged treatment of uterus or aorta of virgin rats with 17β-estradiol and progesterone increased the amount of EMMPRIN, MMP-2 and -9, and the sex hormone-induced increases in MMPs were prevented by EMMPRIN neutralizing antibody. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MMP-2 and -9 and EMMPRIN increased in uterus and aorta of pregnant rats, but decreased in placenta of late-Preg versus mid-Preg rats. Thus pregnancy-associated upregulation of uterine MMPs is paralleled by increased vascular MMPs, and both are mediated by EMMPRIN and induced by estrogen and progesterone, suggesting similar role of MMPs in uterine and vascular tissue remodeling and function during pregnancy. The decreased MMPs and EMMPRIN in placenta of late-Preg rats suggests reduced role of MMPs in feto-placental circulation during late pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Vascular Lesions of Vocal Folds - Part 2: Perpendicular Vascular Lesions].

    PubMed

    Arens, C; Glanz, H; Voigt-Zimmermann, S

    2015-11-01

    The present work aims at a systematic pathogenetic description of perpendicular vascular changes in the vocal folds. Unlike longitudinal vascular changes, like ectasia and meander, perpendicular vascular changes can be observed in bening lesions. They predominantly occur as typical vascular loops in exophytic lesions, especially in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), pre-cancerous and cancerous diseases of the larynx and vocal folds. Neoangiogenesis is caused by an epithelial growth stimulus in the early phase of cancerous genesis. In RRP the VVC impress by a single, long vessel loop with a narrow angle turning point in the each single papilla of the papilloma. In pre- and cancerous lesions the vascular loop is located directly underneath the epithelium. During progressive tumor growth, vascular loops develop an increasingly irregular, convoluted, spirally shape. The arrangement of the vascular loops is primarily still symmetrical. In the preliminary stage of tumor development occurs by neoangiogenesis to a microvascular compression. In advanced vocal fold carcinoma the regular vascular vocal fold structure is destroyed. The various stages of tumor growth are also characterized by typical primary epithelial and secondary connective tissue changes. The characteristic triad of vascular, epithelial and connective tissue changes therefore plays an important role in differential diagnosis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Comparison of the post-mortem interval on the effect of vascular responses to the activation of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors.

    PubMed

    Bloch-Bogusławska, Elżbieta; Grześk, Elżbieta; Grześk, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    The contractibility of blood vessels depends on their normal structure and the availability of calcium ions; it changes under the influence of numerous contracting and relaxing factors, which control the activities of various pathways of intracellular and intercellular signaling. The main aim of the study was to investigate, by means of perfusion pressure in rat tail arteries, the role of Ca 2+ in vascular response to α-1 adrenoceptor activation by phenylephrine (PHE) and Bay K8644 agonist of the L-type calcium channel and caffeine before and after a post-mortem interval (PMI) of 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. A phasic increase of perfusion pressure in rat tail arteries, as induced by PHE or caffeine, in Ca 2+ -free solutions was used as an indicator of intracellular Ca 2+ release through the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and ryanodine receptor pathways, respectively. In Ca 2+ -free-ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and in Ca 2+ -EGTA-PSS, the PHE induced elevation of perfusion pressure significantly decreased. Vascular responses to caffeine (20 mmol/1) in Ca 2+ -free-EGTA-PSS, with an increase of PMI from 2-8 h, did not change significantly. A similar effect was observed with vascular responses to KCl 40 mmol/1 in Ca 2+ -EGTA-PSS. To confirm whether the inhibitory effect of 2, 4, 6 and 8 h PMI was mediated through the formation of NO, nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), a potent NO synthase inhibitor, was used. Exposure to L-NNA (10 -5 M) blocked the inhibition induced by an increase of PMI. The blocked effects of L-NNA were reversed by L-arginine (10 -4 M). In conclusion, these patterns of change in artery responses provide insight into the post-mortem change in the receptor-mediated signaling components in epithelial and smooth muscle cells, and support the further study of post-mortem vascular responses triggered by G protein-coupled receptors (metabotropic) and channel-linked receptors (ionotropic) as potential markers for estimating short and

  11. Early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease pathology in urban children: Friend versus Foe responses--it is time to face the evidence.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Kavanaugh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to particulate matter air pollution is known to cause inflammation leading to respiratory- and cardiovascular-related sickness and death. Mexico City Metropolitan Area children exhibit an early brain imbalance in genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and innate and adaptive immune responses. Early dysregulated neuroinflammation, brain microvascular damage, production of potent vasoconstrictors, and perturbations in the integrity of the neurovascular unit likely contribute to progressive neurodegenerative processes. The accumulation of misfolded proteins coincides with the anatomical distribution observed in the early stages of both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We contend misfolding of hyperphosphorylated tau (HPπ), alpha-synuclein, and beta-amyloid could represent a compensatory early protective response to the sustained systemic and brain inflammation. However, we favor the view that the chronic systemic and brain dysregulated inflammation and the diffuse vascular damage contribute to the establishment of neurodegenerative processes with childhood clinical manifestations. Friend turns Foe early; therefore, implementation of neuroprotective measures to ameliorate or stop the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes is warranted in exposed children. Epidemiological, cognitive, structural, and functional neuroimaging and mechanistic studies into the association between air pollution exposures and the development of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in children are of pressing importance for public health.

  12. Spectral imaging based in vivo model system for characterization of tumor microvessel response to vascular targeting agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankhede, Mamta

    Functional vasculature is vital for tumor growth, proliferation, and metastasis. Many tumor-specific vascular targeting agents (VTAs) aim to destroy this essential tumor vasculature to induce indirect tumor cell death via oxygen and nutrition deprivation. The tumor angiogenesis-inhibiting anti-angiogenics (AIs) and the established tumor vessel targeting vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) are the two major players in the vascular targeting field. Combination of VTAs with conventional therapies or with each other, have been shown to have additive or supra-additive effects on tumor control and treatment. Pathophysiological changes post-VTA treatment in terms of structural and vessel function changes are important parameters to characterize the treatment efficacy. Despite the abundance of information regarding these parameters acquired using various techniques, there remains a need for a quantitative, real-time, and direct observation of these phenomenon in live animals. Through this research we aspired to develop a spectral imaging based mouse tumor system for real-time in vivo microvessel structure and functional measurements for VTA characterization. A model tumor system for window chamber studies was identified, and then combinatorial effects of VDA and AI were characterized in model tumor system. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  13. The Development of Attention and Response Inhibition in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartgis, Jami; Thomas, David G.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the development of attention and response inhibition from ages 5 to 7. Forty children (20 5-year-olds and 20 7-year-olds) completed four counterbalanced phases of a continuous performance task. Phase 1 was designed to measure attention without distraction, Phase 2 was designed to measure attention with…

  14. Evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Prognostic Marker for Local Relapse in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciT

    Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu; Yang Qifeng; Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of China

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important protein involved in the process of angiogenesis that has been found to correlate with relapse-free and overall survival in breast cancer, predominantly in locally advanced and metastatic disease. A paucity of data is available on the prognostic implications of VEGF in early-stage breast cancer; specifically, its prognostic value for local relapse after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to assess VEGF expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with BCT and to correlate the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes with overexpressionmore » of VEGF. Methods and Materials: After obtaining institutional review board approval, the paraffin specimens of 368 patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT between 1975 and 2005 were constructed into tissue microarrays with twofold redundancy. The tissue microarrays were stained for VEGF and read by a trained pathologist, who was unaware of the clinical details, as positive or negative according the standard guidelines. The clinical and pathologic data, long-term outcomes, and results of VEGF staining were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 6.5 years. VEGF expression was positive in 56 (15%) of the 368 patients. Although VEGF expression did not correlate with age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, histologic type, family history, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or HER-2 status, a trend was seen toward increased VEGF expression in the black cohort (26% black vs. 13% white, p = .068). Within the margin-negative cohort, VEGF did not predict for local relapse-free survival (RFS) (96% vs. 95%), nodal RFS (100% vs. 100%), distant metastasis-free survival (91% vs. 92%), overall survival (92% vs. 97%), respectively (all p >.05). Subset analysis revealed that VEGF was highly predictive of local RFS in node-positive, margin

  15. Frameworks for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood: Description and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication Disorders Quarterly, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In February, 2013, the Division of Early Childhood, the National Association for the Education of Young Children, and the National Head Start Association released a collaborative paper to provide clarification and assistance regarding the relationship of response to intervention (RTI) with the field of early childhood (EC). In addition to…

  16. Response to Therapy Following Retreatment of Serofast Early Syphilis Patients With Benzathine Penicillin

    PubMed Central

    Seña, Arlene C.; Wolff, Mark; Behets, Frieda; Van Damme, Kathleen; Martin, David H.; Leone, Peter; McNeil, Linda; Hook, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent nontreponemal titers after treatment are common among patients with early syphilis. We retreated 82 human immunodeficiency virus–negative early syphilis participants who were serofast at 6 months using benzathine penicillin. Only 27% exhibited serological response after retreatment and after an additional 6 months of follow-up. PMID:23118269

  17. Multidecadal response of naturally regenerated southern pine to early competition control and commercial thinning

    Andrew S. Nelson; Don C. Bragg

    2016-01-01

    Multidecadal responses to early competition control are poorly documented in naturally regenerated southern pine stands. This study examined the effects of the following early herbicide treatments in thinned southern pine stands through age 31: (1) no control (CK), (2) herbaceous vegetation control only (HC), (3) woody vegetation control only (WC), and (4) total (woody...

  18. Assessment of biomarkers of cardiovascular risk among HIV type 1-infected adolescents: role of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule as an early indicator of endothelial inflammation.

    PubMed

    Syed, Salma S; Balluz, Rula S; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Meyer, William A; Lukas, Susan; Wilson, Craig M; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Nachman, Sharon A; Sleasman, John W

    2013-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers were examined in a cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adolescents who participated in Adolescent Trials Network study 083 utilizing samples from the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care cohort, a longitudinal study of youth infected through adult risk behavior. Nonfasting blood samples from 97 HIV-infected and 81 HIV-uninfected adolescents infected by adult risk behaviors were analyzed for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-I, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), myeloperoxidase, and neopterin at baseline and 18 months later. Results were analyzed using ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed-rank, and paired t tests. Among infected subjects 67 received antiretroviral therapy and 30 were treatment naive. The HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects were similar in gender, ethnicity, and cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and obesity. In all groups lipid parameters were within accepted guidelines for cardiovascular risk. Among HIV-infected youth on antiretroviral therapy (ART), HDL and apoprotein A-I were significantly lower when compared to uninfected youth. hsCRP was not elevated and thus not predictive for risk in any group. sVCAM-1 levels were significantly elevated in both HIV-infected groups: 1,435 ng/ml and 1,492 ng/ml in untreated and treated subjects, respectively, and 1,064 ng/ml in the uninfected group (p<0.0001). Across all groups neopterin correlated with sVCAM at 18 months (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.58, p<0.0001). Only 9% of ART-treated subjects fully suppressed virus. Lipid profiles and hsCRP, traditional markers of cardiovascular disease, are not abnormal among HIV-infected youth but elevated sVCAM may be an early marker of atherosclerosis.

  19. A novel immediate-early response gene of endothelium is induced by cytokines and encodes a secreted protein.

    PubMed

    Holzman, L B; Marks, R M; Dixit, V M

    1990-11-01

    We have previously described the cloning of a group of novel cellular immediate-early response genes whose expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells is induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in the presence of cycloheximide. These genes are likely to participate in mediating the response of the vascular endothelium to proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we further characterized one of these novel gene products named B61. Sequence analysis of cDNA clones encoding B61 revealed that its protein product has no significant homology to previously described proteins. Southern analysis suggested that B61 is an evolutionarily conserved single-copy gene. B61 is primarily a hydrophilic molecule but contains both a hydrophobic N-terminal and a hydrophobic C-terminal region. The N-terminal region is typical of a signal peptide, which is consistent with the secreted nature of the protein. The mature form of the predicted protein consists of 187 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 22,000. Immunoprecipitation of metabolically labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cell preparations revealed that B61 is a 25-kilodalton secreted protein which is markedly induced by tumor necrosis factor.

  20. A novel immediate-early response gene of endothelium is induced by cytokines and encodes a secreted protein.

    PubMed Central

    Holzman, L B; Marks, R M; Dixit, V M

    1990-01-01

    We have previously described the cloning of a group of novel cellular immediate-early response genes whose expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells is induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in the presence of cycloheximide. These genes are likely to participate in mediating the response of the vascular endothelium to proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we further characterized one of these novel gene products named B61. Sequence analysis of cDNA clones encoding B61 revealed that its protein product has no significant homology to previously described proteins. Southern analysis suggested that B61 is an evolutionarily conserved single-copy gene. B61 is primarily a hydrophilic molecule but contains both a hydrophobic N-terminal and a hydrophobic C-terminal region. The N-terminal region is typical of a signal peptide, which is consistent with the secreted nature of the protein. The mature form of the predicted protein consists of 187 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 22,000. Immunoprecipitation of metabolically labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cell preparations revealed that B61 is a 25-kilodalton secreted protein which is markedly induced by tumor necrosis factor. Images PMID:2233719

  1. Defining Clinical Response Criteria and Early Response Criteria for Precision Oncology: Current State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Vivek; Chuang, Hubert H; Gambhire, Dhiraj; Kairemo, Kalevi

    2017-02-15

    In this era of precision oncology, there has been an exponential growth in the armamentarium of genomically targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Evaluating early responses to precision therapy is essential for "go" versus "no go" decisions for these molecularly targeted drugs and agents that arm the immune system. Many different response assessment criteria exist for use in solid tumors and lymphomas. We reviewed the literature using the Medline/PubMed database for keywords "response assessment" and various known response assessment criteria published up to 2016. In this article we review the commonly used response assessment criteria. We present a decision tree to facilitate selection of appropriate criteria. We also suggest methods for standardization of various response assessment criteria. The relevant response assessment criteria were further studied for rational of development, key features, proposed use and acceptance by various entities. We also discuss early response evaluation and provide specific case studies of early response to targeted therapy. With high-throughput, advanced computing programs and digital data-mining it is now possible to acquire vast amount of high quality imaging data opening up a new field of "omics in radiology"-radiomics that complements genomics for personalized medicine. Radiomics is rapidly evolving and is still in the research arena. This cutting-edge technology is poised to move soon to the mainstream clinical arena. Novel agents with new mechanisms of action require advanced molecular imaging as imaging biomarkers. There is an urgent need for development of standardized early response assessment criteria for evaluation of response to precision therapy.

  2. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Suppresses the Early Proinflammatory Immune Response to a Severe Cutaneous Burn Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Burn wound model Mice were anaesthetised using isoflurane inha- lation. After shaving the dorsum, the exposed skin was washed gently with room...Extracorporeal shock wave therapy suppresses the early proinflammatory immune response to a severe cutaneous burn injury* Thomas A Davis, Alexander...S, Peoples GE, Tadaki D, Elster EA. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy suppresses the early proinflammatory immune response to a severe cutaneous burn

  3. Fluorocopolymer-coated nitinol self-expanding paclitaxel-eluting stent: pharmacokinetics and vascular biology responses in a porcine iliofemoral model.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dongming; Huibregtse, Barbara A; Eppihimer, Michael; Stoffregen, William; Kocur, Gordon; Hitzman, Cory; Stejskal, Elizabeth; Heil, John; Dawkins, Keith D

    2016-08-20

    Our aim was to evaluate arterial responses to paclitaxel and a novel fluorocopolymer-coated nitinol low-dose paclitaxel-eluting stent (FP-PES). Human smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration was assessed after exposure to paclitaxel in vitro. For pharmacokinetics and vascular response, FP-PES or bare metal stents (BMS) were implanted in porcine iliofemoral arteries. Paclitaxel significantly inhibited human coronary and femoral artery SMC migration at doses as low as 1 pM. Inhibition was significantly greater for femoral compared with coronary artery SMCs from 1 pM to 1 μM. Pharmacokinetics showed consistent paclitaxel release from FP-PES over the study duration. The peak arterial wall paclitaxel level was 3.7 ng/mg at 10 days, with levels decreasing to 50% of peak at 60 days and 10% at 180 days. Paclitaxel was not detected in blood or remote organs. Arteriogram and histomorphometry analyses showed FP-PES significantly inhibits neointimal proliferation versus BMS at 30 and 90 days. Re-endothelialisation scores were not different between groups. Paclitaxel affected femoral artery SMC migration at lower concentrations and to a greater degree than it did coronary artery SMCs. The novel FP-PES used in this preclinical study demonstrated a vascular healing response similar to BMS, while significantly inhibiting neointimal formation up to 90 days.

  4. Dual function of CD70 in viral infection: modulator of early cytokine responses and activator of adaptive responses1

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Atef; Swiecki, Melissa; Vermi, William; Ashwell, Jonathan D.; Colonna, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The role of the tumor necrosis factor family member CD70 in adaptive T cell responses has been intensively studied but its function in innate responses is still under investigation. Here we show that CD70 inhibits the early innate response to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) but is essential for the optimal generation of virus-specific CD8 T cells. CD70-/- mice reacted to MCMV infection with a robust type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine response. This response was sufficient for initial control of MCMV, although at later time points, CD70-/- mice became more susceptible to MCMV infection. The heightened cytokine response during the early phase of MCMV infection in CD70-/- mice was paralleled by a reduction in regulatory T cells (Treg). Treg from naïve CD70-/- mice were not as efficient at suppressing T cell proliferation compared to Treg from naïve WT mice and depletion of Treg during MCMV infection in Foxp3-DTR mice or in WT mice recapitulated the phenotype observed in CD70-/- mice. Our study demonstrates that while CD70 is required for the activation of the antiviral adaptive response, it has a regulatory role in early cytokine responses to viruses such as MCMV, possibly through maintenance of Treg survival and function. PMID:24913981

  5. A Platform to Monitor Tumor Cellular and Vascular Response to Radiation Therapy by Optical Coherence Tomography and Fluorescence Microscopy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Michael Ka Kit

    Radiotherapy plays a significant role in cancer treatment, and is thought to be curative by mainly killing tumor cells through damage to their genetic material. However, recent findings indicate that the tumor's vascular blood supply is also a major determinant of radiation response. The goals of this thesis are to: (1) develop an experimental platform for small animals to deliver ionizing radiation and perform high-resolution optical imaging to treatment targets, and (2) use this toolkit to longitudinally monitor the response of tumors and the associated vasculature. The thesis has achieved: (1) customization of a novel micro-irradiator for mice, (2) technical development of an improved optical coherence tomography imaging system, (3) comprehensive experimental protocol and imaging optimization for optical microscopy in a specialized animal model, and (4) completion of a feasibility study to demonstrate the capabilities of the experimental platform in monitoring the response of tumor and vasculature to radiotherapy.

  6. Dual effects of fructose on ChREBP and FoxO1/3α are responsible for AldoB up-regulation and vascular remodelling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Chang, Tuanjie; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Rui; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-02-01

    Increased production of methylglyoxal (MG) in vascular tissues is one of the causative factors for vascular remodelling in different subtypes of metabolic syndrome, including hypertension and insulin resistance. Fructose-induced up-regulation of aldolase B (AldoB) contributes to increased vascular MG production but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Serum levels of MG and fructose were determined in diabetic patients with hypertension. MG level had significant positive correlations with blood pressure and fructose level respectively. C57BL/6 mice were fed with control or fructose-enriched diet for 3 months and ultrasonographic and histologic analyses were performed to evaluate arterial structural changes. Fructose-fed mice exhibited hypertension and high levels of serum MG with normal glucose level. Fructose intake increased blood vessel wall thickness and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Western blotting and real-time PCR analysis revealed that AldoB level was significantly increased in both the aorta of fructose-fed mice and the fructose-treated VSMCs, whereas aldolase A (AldoA) expression was not changed. The knockdown of AldoB expression prevented fructose-induced MG overproduction and VSMC proliferation. Moreover, fructose significantly increased carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), phosphorylated FoxO1/3α and Akt1 levels. Fructose induced translocation of ChREBP from the cytosol to nucleus and activated AldoB gene expression, which was inhibited by the knockdown of ChREBP. Meanwhile, fructose caused FoxO1/3α shuttling from the nucleus to cytosol and inhibited its binding to AldoB promoter region. Fructose-induced AldoB up-regulation was suppressed by Akt1 inhibitor but enhanced by FoxO1/3α siRNA. Collectively, fructose activates ChREBP and inactivates FoxO1/3α pathways to up-regulate AldoB expression and MG production, leading to vascular remodelling. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on

  7. Vascular Cures

    MedlinePlus

    ... SV Gives Search ©2017 Vascular Cures is a tax-exempt, nonprofit organization tax ID#: 94-2825216 as described in the Section ... 3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Donations are tax deductible. 274 Redwood Shores Parkway, #717, Redwood City, ...

  8. Separating neural and vascular effects of caffeine using simultaneous EEG–FMRI: Differential effects of caffeine on cognitive and sensorimotor brain responses

    PubMed Central

    Diukova, Ana; Ware, Jennifer; Smith, Jessica E.; Evans, C. John; Murphy, Kevin; Rogers, Peter J.; Wise, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of caffeine are mediated through its non-selective antagonistic effects on adenosine A1 and A2A adenosine receptors resulting in increased neuronal activity but also vasoconstriction in the brain. Caffeine, therefore, can modify BOLD FMRI signal responses through both its neural and its vascular effects depending on receptor distributions in different brain regions. In this study we aim to distinguish neural and vascular influences of a single dose of caffeine in measurements of task-related brain activity using simultaneous EEG–FMRI. We chose to compare low-level visual and motor (paced finger tapping) tasks with a cognitive (auditory oddball) task, with the expectation that caffeine would differentially affect brain responses in relation to these tasks. To avoid the influence of chronic caffeine intake, we examined the effect of 250 mg of oral caffeine on 14 non and infrequent caffeine consumers in a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study. Our results show that the task-related BOLD signal change in visual and primary motor cortex was significantly reduced by caffeine, while the amplitude and latency of visual evoked potentials over occipital cortex remained unaltered. However, during the auditory oddball task (target versus non-target stimuli) caffeine significantly increased the BOLD signal in frontal cortex. Correspondingly, there was also a significant effect of caffeine in reducing the target evoked response potential (P300) latency in the oddball task and this was associated with a positive potential over frontal cortex. Behavioural data showed that caffeine also improved performance in the oddball task with a significantly reduced number of missed responses. Our results are consistent with earlier studies demonstrating altered flow-metabolism coupling after caffeine administration in the context of our observation of a generalised caffeine-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow demonstrated by arterial spin labelling (19

  9. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J. B.; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    MAPK pathways plays a role in early T-cell activation and induction of IL-2, IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) gene expression.

  10. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J B; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-09-01

    MAPK pathways plays a role in early T-cell activation and induction of IL-2, IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) gene expression.

  11. Predictors of Responsiveness to Early Literacy Intervention: A 10-Year Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Elizabeth A.; McMaster, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to update previous reviews on factors related to students' responsiveness to early literacy intervention. The 14 studies in this synthesis used experimental designs, provided small-group or one-on-one reading interventions, and analyzed factors related to responsiveness to those interventions. Participants were…

  12. Evidence-Based Early Reading Practices within a Response to Intervention System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursuck, Bill; Blanks, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    Many students who experience reading failure are inappropriately placed in special education. A promising response to reducing reading failure and the overidentification of students for special education is Response to Intervention (RTI), a comprehensive early detection and prevention system that allows teachers to identify and support struggling…

  13. Selection of an early biomarker for vascular normalization using dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to predict outcomes of metastatic patients treated with bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Lassau, N.; Coiffier, B.; Kind, M.; Vilgrain, V.; Lacroix, J.; Cuinet, M.; Taieb, S.; Aziza, R.; Sarran, A.; Labbe-Devilliers, C.; Gallix, B.; Lucidarme, O.; Ptak, Y.; Rocher, L.; Caquot, L. M.; Chagnon, S.; Marion, D.; Luciani, A.; Feutray, S.; Uzan-Augui, J.; Benatsou, B.; Bonastre, J.; Koscielny, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (DCE-US) has been used for evaluation of tumor response to antiangiogenic treatments. The objective of this study was to assess the link between DCE-US data obtained during the first week of treatment and subsequent tumor progression. Patients and methods Patients treated with antiangiogenic therapies were included in a multicentric prospective study from 2007 to 2010. DCE-US examinations were available at baseline and at day 7. For each examination, a 3 min perfusion curve was recorded just after injection of a contrast agent. Each perfusion curve was modeled with seven parameters. We analyzed the correlation between criteria measured up to day 7 on freedom from progression (FFP). The impact was assessed globally, according to tumor localization and to type of treatment. Results The median follow-up was 20 months. The mean transit time (MTT) evaluated at day 7 was the only criterion significantly associated with FFP (P = 0.002). The cut-off point maximizing the difference between FFP curves was 12 s. Patients with at least a 12 s MTT had a better FFP. The results according to tumor type were significantly heterogeneous: the impact of MTT on FFP was more marked for breast cancer (P = 0.004) and for colon cancer (P = 0.025) than for other tumor types. Similarly, the differences in FFP according to MTT at day 7 were marked (P = 0.004) in patients receiving bevacizumab. Conclusion The MTT evaluated with DCE-US at day 7 is significantly correlated to FFP of patients treated with bevacizumab. This criterion might be linked to vascular normalization. AFSSAPS No 2007-A00399-44. PMID:27502701

  14. Selection of an early biomarker for vascular normalization using dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to predict outcomes of metastatic patients treated with bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Lassau, N; Coiffier, B; Kind, M; Vilgrain, V; Lacroix, J; Cuinet, M; Taieb, S; Aziza, R; Sarran, A; Labbe-Devilliers, C; Gallix, B; Lucidarme, O; Ptak, Y; Rocher, L; Caquot, L M; Chagnon, S; Marion, D; Luciani, A; Feutray, S; Uzan-Augui, J; Benatsou, B; Bonastre, J; Koscielny, S

    2016-10-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (DCE-US) has been used for evaluation of tumor response to antiangiogenic treatments. The objective of this study was to assess the link between DCE-US data obtained during the first week of treatment and subsequent tumor progression. Patients treated with antiangiogenic therapies were included in a multicentric prospective study from 2007 to 2010. DCE-US examinations were available at baseline and at day 7. For each examination, a 3 min perfusion curve was recorded just after injection of a contrast agent. Each perfusion curve was modeled with seven parameters. We analyzed the correlation between criteria measured up to day 7 on freedom from progression (FFP). The impact was assessed globally, according to tumor localization and to type of treatment. The median follow-up was 20 months. The mean transit time (MTT) evaluated at day 7 was the only criterion significantly associated with FFP (P = 0.002). The cut-off point maximizing the difference between FFP curves was 12 s. Patients with at least a 12 s MTT had a better FFP. The results according to tumor type were significantly heterogeneous: the impact of MTT on FFP was more marked for breast cancer (P = 0.004) and for colon cancer (P = 0.025) than for other tumor types. Similarly, the differences in FFP according to MTT at day 7 were marked (P = 0.004) in patients receiving bevacizumab. The MTT evaluated with DCE-US at day 7 is significantly correlated to FFP of patients treated with bevacizumab. This criterion might be linked to vascular normalization. 2007-A00399-44. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Children's cortisol responses to a social evaluative laboratory stressor from early to middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Leppert, Katherine A; Kushner, Marissa; Smith, Victoria C; Lemay, Edward P; Dougherty, Lea R

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the stability of children's cortisol responses to a social evaluative laboratory stressor from early to middle childhood. Ninety-six children (51 males) completed stress-inducing laboratory tasks and provided five salivary cortisol samples in early (W1) and middle (W2) childhood. Although W1 cortisol responses did not predict W2 cortisol responses, children's cortisol responses demonstrated change: compared to their W1 cortisol responses, children's W2 cortisol responses demonstrated an increased slope and more negative quadratic curvature. Furthermore, child psychiatric symptoms at W1 moderated the stability of children's cortisol responses. Children with fewer preschool psychiatric symptoms demonstrated greater inter-individual and intra-individual stability, whereas children with higher preschool psychiatric symptoms and comorbidity demonstrated systematic inter-individual and intra-individual instability in cortisol responses over time. Findings suggest a developmental shift toward increasing cortisol stress responses from early to middle childhood and highlight preschool psychopathology as a moderator of stability in children's cortisol responses over time. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Early improvements in anxiety, depression, and anger/hostility symptoms and response to antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Farabaugh, Amy; Sonawalla, Shamsah; Johnson, Daniel P; Witte, Janet; Papakostas, George I; Goodness, Tracie; Clain, Alisabet; Baer, Lee; Mischoulon, David; Fava, Maurizio; Harley, Rebecca

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether treatment response to fluoxetine by depressed outpatients was predicted by early improvement on any of 3 subscales (Anxiety, Depression, and Anger/Hostility) of the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). We evaluated 169 depressed outpatients (52.6% female) between ages 18 and 65 (mean age, 40.3 +/- 10.6 years) meeting DSM-IIIR criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). All patients completed the SQ at baseline (week 0) and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment with fluoxetine 20 mg/d. We defined treatment response as a > or= 50% reduction in score on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and early improvement on 3 SQ subscales (Anxiety, Depression, and Anger/Hostility) as a >30% reduction in score by week 2. The percentage of patients with significant early improvement in anger was significantly greater than the percentage of those with early improvements in anxiety or depression. When early improvement on the Anxiety, Depression, and Anger/Hostility subscales of the SQ were assessed independently by logistic regression, all 3 subscales were predictors of response to treatment. Early improvement in anger, anxiety, and depressive symptoms may predict response to antidepressant treatment among outpatients with MDD.

  17. IGF-1 deficiency in a critical period early in life influences the vascular aging phenotype in mice by altering miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation: implications for the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Tarantini, Stefano; Giles, Cory B; Wren, Jonathan D; Ashpole, Nicole M; Valcarcel-Ares, M Noa; Wei, Jeanne Y; Sonntag, William E; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological findings support the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, suggesting that early-life hormonal influences during a sensitive period of development have a fundamental impact on vascular health later in life. The endocrine changes that occur during development are highly conserved across mammalian species and include dramatic increases in circulating IGF-1 levels during adolescence. The present study was designed to characterize the effect of developmental IGF-1 deficiency on the vascular aging phenotype. To achieve that goal, early-onset endocrine IGF-1 deficiency was induced in mice by knockdown of IGF-1 in the liver using Cre-lox technology (Igf1 f/f mice crossed with mice expressing albumin-driven Cre recombinase). This model exhibits low-circulating IGF-1 levels during the peripubertal phase of development, which is critical for the biology of aging. Due to the emergence of miRNAs as important regulators of the vascular aging phenotype, the effect of early-life IGF-1 deficiency on miRNA expression profile in the aorta was examined in animals at 27 months of age. We found that developmental IGF-1 deficiency elicits persisting late-life changes in miRNA expression in the vasculature, which significantly differed from those in mice with adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency (TBG-Cre-AAV8-mediated knockdown of IGF-1 at 5 month of age in Igf1 f/f mice). Using a novel computational approach, we identified miRNA target genes that are co-expressed with IGF-1 and associate with aging and vascular pathophysiology. We found that among the predicted targets, the expression of multiple extracellular matrix-related genes, including collagen-encoding genes, were downregulated in mice with developmental IGF-1 deficiency. Collectively, IGF-1 deficiency during a critical period during early in life results in persistent changes in post-transcriptional miRNA-mediated control of genes critical targets for vascular health, which likely contribute to the

  18. Health responsibility and workplace health promotion among women: early detection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, T; Rabinowitz, S; Melamed, S; Weisberg, E; Ribak, J

    1995-01-01

    The importance of health responsibility as one aspect of a health-promoting lifestyle has been emphasized repeatedly. Yet there are only a few empirical studies of its role in preventive behavior. We examined the relationship between health responsibility and early-detection practices for breast and cervical cancer. A group of 253 women employees of a large industrial company participated in a cancer screening program subsidized by the employer. They completed questionnaires assessing health responsibility and reported early-detection practices: frequency of breast self-examination and physician breast examinations, frequency of Pap tests, and time lapsed since last Pap test and breast examinations. Health responsibility was a significant independent predictor of breast examination indicators but not of Pap tests. Education level was an important predictor for Pap tests, and age predicted most early-detection practices. The findings lend some support to the role of health responsibility in initiating breast examinations. Better prediction of early-detection practices could be achieved by adding cognitive and emotional components to the existing responsibility scale and by distinguishing between retrospective and prospective responsibility.

  19. Targeting vascular (endothelial) dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Steven, Sebastian; Weber, Alina; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Laher, Ismail; Li, Huige; Lamas, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are major contributors to global deaths and disability‐adjusted life years, with hypertension a significant risk factor for all causes of death. The endothelium that lines the inner wall of the vasculature regulates essential haemostatic functions, such as vascular tone, circulation of blood cells, inflammation and platelet activity. Endothelial dysfunction is an early predictor of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. We review the prognostic value of obtaining measurements of endothelial function, the clinical techniques for its determination, the mechanisms leading to endothelial dysfunction and the therapeutic treatment of endothelial dysfunction. Since vascular oxidative stress and inflammation are major determinants of endothelial function, we have also addressed current antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory therapies. In the light of recent data that dispute the prognostic value of endothelial function in healthy human cohorts, we also discuss alternative diagnostic parameters such as vascular stiffness index and intima/media thickness ratio. We also suggest that assessing vascular function, including that of smooth muscle and even perivascular adipose tissue, may be an appropriate parameter for clinical investigations. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress in Health and Disease. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.12/issuetoc PMID:27187006

  20. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 mediates phosphorylation of vascular endothelial cadherin and nuclear localization of β-catenin in response to homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Beard, Richard S; Reynolds, Jason J; Bearden, Shawn E

    2012-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for vascular disease and stroke in part by causing generalized endothelial dysfunction. A receptor that is sensitive to Hcy and its intracellular signaling systems has not been identified. β-catenin is a pleiotropic regulator of transcription and cell function. Using a brain microvascular endothelial cell line (bEnd.3), we tested the hypothesis that Hcy causes receptor-dependent nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Hcy increased phosphorylation of Y731 on vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), a site involved in coupling β-catenin to VE-cadherin. This was blocked by inhibition of either metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) or ionotropic glutamate receptor (NMDAr) and by shRNA knockdown of mGluR5. Expression of these receptors was confirmed by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting. Directed pharmacology with specific agonists elucidated a signaling cascade where Hcy activates mGluR5 which activates NMDAr with subsequent PKC activation and uncoupling of the VE-cadherin/β-catenin complex. Moreover, Hcy caused a shift in localization of β-catenin from membrane-bound VE-cadherin to the cell nucleus, where it bound DNA, including a regulatory region of the gene for claudin-5, leading to reduced expression of claudin-5. Nuclear localization, DNA binding of β-catenin, and reduced claudin-5 expression were blocked by inhibition of mGluR5. Knockdown of mGluR5 expression with shRNA also rescued claudin-5 expression from the effects of Hcy treatment. These data uniquely identify mGluR5 as a master switch that drives β-catenin nuclear localization in vascular endothelium and regulates cell-cell coupling in response to elevated Hcy levels. These studies dissect a pharmacological opportunity for developing new therapeutic strategies in HHcy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential Responses of Vascular Plants from the Pristine "Lost World" of the Neotropical Guayana Highlands to Global Warming: Review and New Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rull, Valentí; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The neotropical Guayana Highlands (GH) are one of the few remaining pristine environments on Earth, and they host amazing biodiversity with a high degree endemism, especially among vascular plants. Despite the lack of direct human disturbance, GH plants and their communities are threatened with extinction from habitat loss due to global warming (GW). Geographic information systems simulations involving the entire known vascular GH flora (>2430 species) predict potential GW-driven extinctions on the order of 80% by the end of this century, including nearly half of the endemic species. These estimates and the assessment of an environmental impact value for each species led to the hierarchization of plants by their risk of habitat loss and the definition of priority conservation categories. However, the predictions assume that all species will respond to GW by migrating upward and at equal rates, which is unlikely, so current estimates should be considered preliminary and incomplete (although they represent the best that can be done with the existing information). Other potential environmental forcings (i.e., precipitation shifts, an increase in the atmospheric CO 2 concentration) and idiosyncratic plant responses (i.e., resistance, phenotypic acclimation, rapid evolution) should also be considered, so detailed eco-physiological studies of the more threatened species are urgently needed. The main obstacles to developing such studies are the remoteness and inaccessibility of the GH and, especially, the difficulty in obtaining official permits for fieldwork.

  2. Vascular Proteomics Reveal Novel Proteins Involved in SMC Phenotypic Change: OLR1 as a SMC Receptor Regulating Proliferation and Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Hoon; Choi, Mina; Chang, Soyoung; Lee, Min Young; Lee, Doo Jae; Choi, Kyungsun; Park, Junseong; Han, Eun Chun; Hwang, Daehee; Kwon, Kihwan; Jo, Hanjoong; Choi, Chulhee; Kang, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) plays a critical role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and in-stent restenosis, but the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. We performed a proteomics study to identify novel signaling molecules organizing the VSMC hyperplasia. The differential proteomics analysis in a balloon-induced injury model of rat carotid artery revealed that the expressions of 44 proteins are changed within 3 days post injury. The combination of cellular function assays and a protein network analysis further demonstrated that 27 out of 44 proteins constitute key signaling networks orchestrating the phenotypic change of VSMC from contractile to epithelial-like synthetic. Among the list of proteins, the in vivo validation specifically revealed that six proteins (Rab15, ITR, OLR1, PDHβ, PTPε) are positive regulators for VSMC hyperplasia. In particular, the OLR1 played dual roles in the VSMC hyperplasia by directly mediating oxidized LDL-induced monocyte adhesion via NF-κB activation and by assisting the PDGF-induced proliferation/migration. Importantly, OLR1 and PDGFRβ were associated in close proximity in the plasma membrane. Thus, this study elicits the protein network organizing the phenotypic change of VSMC in the vascular injury diseases such as atherosclerosis and discovers OLR1 as a novel molecular link between the proliferative and inflammatory responses of VSMCs. PMID:26305474

  3. Potential Responses of Vascular Plants from the Pristine “Lost World” of the Neotropical Guayana Highlands to Global Warming: Review and New Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Valentí; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The neotropical Guayana Highlands (GH) are one of the few remaining pristine environments on Earth, and they host amazing biodiversity with a high degree endemism, especially among vascular plants. Despite the lack of direct human disturbance, GH plants and their communities are threatened with extinction from habitat loss due to global warming (GW). Geographic information systems simulations involving the entire known vascular GH flora (>2430 species) predict potential GW-driven extinctions on the order of 80% by the end of this century, including nearly half of the endemic species. These estimates and the assessment of an environmental impact value for each species led to the hierarchization of plants by their risk of habitat loss and the definition of priority conservation categories. However, the predictions assume that all species will respond to GW by migrating upward and at equal rates, which is unlikely, so current estimates should be considered preliminary and incomplete (although they represent the best that can be done with the existing information). Other potential environmental forcings (i.e., precipitation shifts, an increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration) and idiosyncratic plant responses (i.e., resistance, phenotypic acclimation, rapid evolution) should also be considered, so detailed eco-physiological studies of the more threatened species are urgently needed. The main obstacles to developing such studies are the remoteness and inaccessibility of the GH and, especially, the difficulty in obtaining official permits for fieldwork. PMID:28179913

  4. Visual enhancement of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with 3-charge coupled device camera: assessing intraoperative tissue perfusion and vascular anatomy by visible hemoglobin spectral response.

    PubMed

    Crane, Nicole J; Gillern, Suzanne M; Tajkarimi, Kambiz; Levin, Ira W; Pinto, Peter A; Elster, Eric A

    2010-10-01

    We report the novel use of 3-charge coupled device camera technology to infer tissue oxygenation. The technique can aid surgeons to reliably differentiate vascular structures and noninvasively assess laparoscopic intraoperative changes in renal tissue perfusion during and after warm ischemia. We analyzed select digital video images from 10 laparoscopic partial nephrectomies for their individual 3-charge coupled device response. We enhanced surgical images by subtracting the red charge coupled device response from the blue response and overlaying the calculated image on the original image. Mean intensity values for regions of interest were compared and used to differentiate arterial and venous vasculature, and ischemic and nonischemic renal parenchyma. The 3-charge coupled device enhanced images clearly delineated the vessels in all cases. Arteries were indicated by an intense red color while veins were shown in blue. Differences in mean region of interest intensity values for arteries and veins were statistically significant (p >0.0001). Three-charge coupled device analysis of pre-clamp and post-clamp renal images revealed visible, dramatic color enhancement for ischemic vs nonischemic kidneys. Differences in the mean region of interest intensity values were also significant (p <0.05). We present a simple use of conventional 3-charge coupled device camera technology in a way that may provide urological surgeons with the ability to reliably distinguish vascular structures during hilar dissection, and detect and monitor changes in renal tissue perfusion during and after warm ischemia. Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Vascular Pathogen Verticillium longisporum Does Not Affect Water Relations and Plant Responses to Drought Stress of Its Host, Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Lopisso, Daniel Teshome; Knüfer, Jessica; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a host-specific vascular pathogen of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) that causes economic crop losses by impairing plant growth and inducing premature senescence. This study investigates whether plant damage through Verticillium stem striping is due to impaired plant water relations, whether V. longisporum affects responses of a susceptible B. napus variety to drought stress, and whether drought stress, in turn, affects plant responses to V. longisporum. Two-factorial experiments on a susceptible cultivar of B. napus infected or noninfected with V. longisporum and exposed to three watering levels (30, 60, and 100% field capacity) revealed that drought stress and V. longisporum impaired plant growth by entirely different mechanisms. Although both stresses similarly affected plant growth parameters (plant height, hypocotyl diameter, and shoot and root dry matter), infection of B. napus with V. longisporum did not affect any drought-related physiological or molecular genetic plant parameters, including transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency, relative leaf water content, leaf proline content, or the expression of drought-responsive genes. Thus, this study provides comprehensive physiological and molecular genetic evidence explaining the lack of wilt symptoms in B. napus infected with V. longisporum. Likewise, drought tolerance of B. napus was unaffected by V. longisporum, as was the level of disease by drought conditions, thus excluding a concerted action of both stresses in the field. Although it is evident that drought and vascular infection with V. longisporum impair plant growth by different mechanisms, it remains to be determined by which other factors V. longisporum causes crop loss.

  6. Cortisol Response to Psychosocial Stress in Chinese Early Puberty Girls: Possible Role of Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Deng, Fang; Liu, Yang; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The present study aimed at investigating unique patterns of salivary cortisol reactivity and recovery in response to a social stressor among girls with early puberty and exploring possible role of depressive symptom in this association. Design. Case-control study. Patients. Fifty-six girls with early puberty and age- and body mass index- (BMI-) matched normal puberty controls (n = 56) were selected. Measurements. Salivary cortisol was measured in response to the Groningen Social Stress Test for Children. Results. Girls with early puberty had higher cortisol concentration at the end of the GSST (C3), cortisol concentration 20 min after the end of the GSST (C4), and AUC increment (AUCi) compared to non-early puberty girls. Depressive symptoms correlated with blunted HPA reactivity among girls with early puberty. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the disturbance effect of objectively examined early pubertal timing on HPA axis responses. It also suggested that stress reactivity might be blunted for individuals with depressive symptoms.

  7. Exposure to dim light at night during early development increases adult anxiety-like responses.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; McHenry, Zachary D; Abi Salloum, Bachir A; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-06-22

    Early experiences produce effects that may persist throughout life. Therefore, to understand adult phenotype, it is important to investigate the role of early environmental stimuli in adult behavior and health. Artificial light at night (LAN) is an increasingly common phenomenon throughout the world. However, animals, including humans, evolved under dark night conditions. Many studies have revealed affective, immune, and metabolic alterations provoked by aberrant light exposure and subsequent circadian disruption. Pups are receptive to entraining cues from the mother and then light early during development, raising the possibility that the early life light environment may influence subsequent behavior. Thus, to investigate potential influences of early life exposure to LAN on adult phenotype, we exposed mice to dim (~5 lux; full spectrum white light) or dark (~0 lux) nights pre- and/or postnatally. After weaning at 3 weeks of age, all mice were maintained in dark nights until adulthood (9 weeks of age) when behavior was assessed. Mice exposed to dim light in early life increased anxiety-like behavior and fearful responses on the elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. These mice also displayed reduced growth rates, which ultimately normalized during adolescence. mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin previously linked to early life environment and adult phenotype, was not altered in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus by early life LAN exposure. Serum corticosterone concentrations were similar between groups at weaning, suggesting that early life LAN does not elicit a long-term physiologic stress response. Dim light exposure did not influence behavior on the open field, novel object, sucrose anhedonia, or forced swim tests. Our data highlight the potential deleterious consequences of low levels of light during early life to development and subsequent behavior. Whether these changes are due to altered maternal behavior

  8. Cytocompatibility and early inflammatory response of human endothelial cells in direct culture with Mg-Zn-Sr alloys

    PubMed Central

    Cipriano, Aaron F.; Sallee, Amy; Tayoba, Myla; Cortez Alcaraz, Mayra C.; Lin, Alan; Guan, Ren-Guo; Zhao, Zhan-Yong; Liu, Huinan

    2018-01-01

    Crystalline Mg-Zinc (Zn)-Strontium (Sr) ternary alloys consist of elements naturally present in the human body and provide attractive mechanical and biodegradable properties for a variety of biomedical applications. The first objective of this study was to investigate the degradation and cytocompatibility of four Mg-4Zn-xSr alloys (x = 0.15, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 wt%; designated as ZSr41A, B, C, and D respectively) in the direct culture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. The second objective was to investigate, for the first time, the early-stage inflammatory response in cultured HUVECs as indicated by the induction of vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). The results showed that the 24-h in vitro degradation of the ZSr41 alloys containing a β-phase with a Zn/Sr at% ratio ~1.5 was significantly faster than the ZSr41 alloys with Zn/Sr at% ~1. Additionally, the adhesion density of HUVECs in the direct culture but not in direct contact with the ZSr41 alloys for up to 24 h was not adversely affected by the degradation of the alloys. Importantly, neither culture media supplemented with up to 27.6 mM Mg2+ ions nor media intentionally adjusted up to alkaline pH 9 induced any detectable adverse effects on HUVEC responses. In contrast, the significantly higher, yet non-cytotoxic, Zn2+ ion concentration from the degradation of ZSr41D alloy was likely the cause for the initially higher VCAM-1 expression on cultured HUVECs. Lastly, analysis of the HUVEC-ZSr41 interface showed near-complete absence of cell adhesion directly on the sample surface, most likely caused by either a high local alkalinity, change in surface topography, and/or surface composition. The direct culture method used in this study was proposed as a valuable tool for studying the design aspects of Zn-containing Mg-based biomaterials in vitro, in order to engineer solutions to address current shortcomings of Mg alloys for vascular device applications. PMID:27746360

  9. Hass avocado modulates postprandial vascular reactivity and postprandial inflammatory responses to a hamburger meal in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoping; Wong, Angela; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Jones, Alexis; Zerlin, Alona; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David

    2013-02-26

    Hass avocados are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid) and antioxidants (carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols) and are often eaten as a slice in a sandwich containing hamburger or other meats. Hamburger meat forms lipid peroxides during cooking. After ingestion, the stomach functions as a bioreactor generating additional lipid peroxides and this process can be inhibited when antioxidants are ingested together with the meat. The present pilot study was conducted to investigate the postprandial effect of the addition of 68 g of avocado to a hamburger on vasodilation and inflammation. Eleven healthy subjects on two separate occasions consumed either a 250 g hamburger patty alone (ca. 436 cal and 25 g fat) or together with 68 grams of avocado flesh (an additional 114 cal and 11 g of fat for a total of 550 cal and 36 g fat), a common culinary combination, to assess effects on vascular health. Using the standard peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method to calculate the PAT index, we observed significant vasoconstriction 2 hours following hamburger ingestion (2.19 ± 0.36 vs. 1.56 ± 0.21, p = 0.0007), which did not occur when the avocado flesh was ingested together with the burger (2.17 ± 0.57 vs. 2.08 ± 0.51, NS p = 0.68). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from postprandial blood samples and the Ikappa-B alpha (IκBα) protein concentration was determined to assess effects on inflammation. At 3 hours, there was a significant preservation of IκBα (131% vs. 58%, p = 0.03) when avocado was consumed with the meat compared to meat alone, consistent with reduced activation of the NF-kappa B (NFκB) inflammatory pathway. IL-6 increased significantly at 4 hours in postprandial serum after consumption of the hamburger, but no change was observed when avocado was added. Postprandial serum triglyceride concentration increased, but did not further increase when avocado was ingested with the burger compared to burger alone despite the added fat and

  10. Effects of aerobic exercise intensity on ambulatory blood pressure and vascular responses in resistant hypertension: a crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Santos, Lucas P; Moraes, Ruy S; Vieira, Paulo J C; Ash, Garrett I; Waclawovsky, Gustavo; Pescatello, Linda S; Umpierre, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Resistant hypertension often exposes patients to poor blood pressure (BP) control, resulting in clinical vulnerability, possible need for device-based procedures (denervation) and increased therapy costs. Regular exercise markedly benefits patients with hypertension, including resistant patients. However, little is known about short-term exercise effects in resistant hypertension. To evaluate acute hemodynamic effects of exercise in resistant hypertension. After maximal exercise testing, 20 patients (54.0 ± 5.7 years, 30.2 ± 4.9 kg/m) with resistant hypertension participated in three crossover interventions, in random order, and on separate days: control (45' of rest), and light intensity and moderate intensity (45' of aerobic exercise at 50 and 75% of maximum heart rate, respectively). Ambulatory BP, forearm blood flow (with subsequent calculation of vascular resistance), and reactive hyperemia were measured before and after interventions trough venous occlusion plethysmography. Compared with control, both exercise intensities reduced ambulatory systolic pressure over 5 h (light: -7.7 ± 2.4 mmHg and moderate: -9.4 ± 2.8 mmHg, P < 0.01), whereas only light intensity reduced diastolic pressure (-5.7 ± 2.2 mmHg, P < 0.01). Light intensity also lowered systolic and diastolic pressures over 10-h daytime (-3.8 ± 1.3 and -4.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.02), night-time (-6.0 ± 2.4 and -6.1 ± 1.6 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.05), and diastolic pressure over 19 h (-4.8 ± 1.2 mmHg, P < 0.01). Forearm blood flow changed (decreased) compared with baseline only at 50 min after light intensity (P < 0.05). After the control and light intensity sessions, vascular resistance increased at the end of 1 h, and after moderate intensity, it decreased only at the moment (∼2 min) immediately after intervention (P < 0.05). A single session of light or moderate aerobic exercise acutely

  11. [Inflammasome and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at early stage of burns].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Li, Jiahui; Xia, Zhaofan

    2014-06-01

    Inflammasomes are large multi-protein complexes that serve as a platform for caspase-1 activation, and this process induces subsequent maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, as well as pyroptosis. As an important component of the innate immune system, early activation of inflammasomes in a variety of immune cell subsets can mediate inflammatory response and immunological conditions after burn injury. Here, we review the current knowledge of inflammasomes and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at the early stage of burn injury.

  12. The tonic response to the infant knee jerk as an early sign of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Elisa G; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Boxum, Anke G; Dijkstra, Linze J; Hielkema, Tjitske; Jeroen Vermeulen, R; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2018-04-01

    Early identification of infants at risk of cerebral palsy (CP) is desirable in order to provide early intervention. We previously demonstrated differences in knee jerk responses between 3-month-old high risk and typically developing infants. To improve early identification by investigating whether the presence of tonic responses (continuous muscle activity occurring after the typical phasic response), clonus or contralateral responses to the knee jerk during infancy is associated with CP. Longitudinal EMG-study. We included 34 high-risk infants (median gestational age 31.9 weeks) who participated in the LEARN2MOVE 0-2 years trial. Video-recorded knee jerk EMG-assessments were performed during infancy (1-4 times). Developmental outcome was assessed at 21 months corrected age (CA). Binomial generalized estimating equations models with repeated measurements were fitted using predictor variables. Infants who later were diagnosed with CP (n = 18) showed more often than infants who were not diagnosed with CP i) tonic responses - from 4 months CA onwards, ii) clonus - from 13 months CA onwards, and iii) contralateral responses - from 15 months CA onwards. The main limitation is the relatively small sample size. The assessment of tonic responses to the knee jerk using EMG may be a valuable add-on tool to appraise a high risk of CP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Negative affective spillover from daily events predicts early response to cognitive therapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lawrence H; Gunthert, Kathleen C; Butler, Andrew C; Parrish, Brendt P; Wenze, Susan J; Beck, Judith S

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the predictive role of depressed outpatients' (N = 62) affective reactivity to daily stressors in their rates of improvement in cognitive therapy (CT). For 1 week before treatment, patients completed nightly electronic diaries that assessed daily stressors and negative affect (NA). The authors used multilevel modeling to compute each patient's within-day relationship between daily stressors and daily NA (within-day reactivity), as well as the relationship between daily stressors and next-day NA (next-day reactivity; affective spillover). In growth model analyses, the authors evaluated the predictive role of patients' NA reactivity in their early (Sessions 1-4) and late (Sessions 5-12) response to CT. Within-day NA reactivity did not predict early or late response to CT. However, next-day reactivity predicted early response to CT, such that patients who had greater NA spillover in response to negative events had a slower rate of symptom change during the first 4 sessions. Affective spillover did not influence later response to CT. The findings suggest that depressed patients who have difficulty bouncing back the next day from their NA reactions to a relative increase in daily negative events will respond less quickly to the early sessions of CT.

  14. The prognostic and predictive value of vascular response parameters measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced-CT, -MRI and -US in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving sunitinib.

    PubMed

    Hudson, John M; Bailey, Colleen; Atri, Mostafa; Stanisz, Greg; Milot, Laurent; Williams, Ross; Kiss, Alex; Burns, Peter N; Bjarnason, Georg A

    2018-06-01

    To identify dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging parameters from MRI, CT and US that are prognostic and predictive in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) receiving sunitinib. Thirty-four patients were monitored by DCE imaging on day 0 and 14 of the first course of sunitinib treatment. Additional scans were performed with DCE-US only (day 7 or 28 and 2 weeks after the treatment break). Perfusion parameters that demonstrated a significant correlation (Spearman p < 0.05) with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models/ratios (HR) and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. A higher baseline and day 14 value for Ktrans (DCE-MRI) and a lower pre-treatment vascular heterogeneity (DCE-US) were significantly associated with a longer PFS (HR, 0.62, 0.37 and 5.5, respectively). A larger per cent decrease in blood volume on day 14 (DCE-US) predicted a longer OS (HR, 1.45). We did not find significant correlations between any of the DCE-CT parameters and PFS/OS, unless a cut-off analysis was used. DCE-MRI, -CT and ultrasound produce complementary parameters that reflect the prognosis of patients receiving sunitinib for mRCC. Blood volume measured by DCE-US was the only parameter whose change during early anti-angiogenic therapy predicted for OS and PFS. • DCE-CT, -MRI and ultrasound are complementary modalities for monitoring anti-angiogenic therapy. • The change in blood volume measured by DCE-US was predictive of OS/PFS. • Baseline vascular heterogeneity by DCE-US has the strongest prognostic value for PFS.

  15. Use of placental vascularization indices and uterine artery peak systolic velocity in early detection of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes, chronic or gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia at risk.

    PubMed

    Altorjay, Ábel T; Surányi, Andrea; Nyári, Tibor; Németh, Gábor

    2017-04-14

    We aimed to investigate correlations between uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV), and placental vascularization in groups of normal blood pressure (NBP) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (chronic hypertension (CHT), gestational hypertension (GHT) and preeclampsia (PE)) alone or in combination with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and hypothesized that AUtPSV rises when GDM complicates pregnancy hypertension. Placental 3-dimensional power Doppler indices, such as vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI), and uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV) were measured in CHT (N=43), CHT+GDM (N=15), GHT (N=57), GHT+GDM (N=23) and PE (N=17) pregnancies, and compared to NBP (N=109). Correlations were analyzed between vascularization indices, AUtPSV, pregestational BMI and adverse pregnancy outcome rates. In our results VI was higher in CHT (P=0.010), while FI was lower in CHT (P=0.009), GHT and PE (P=0.001) compared to NBP. In case of VFI, significant difference was found between CHT and GHT (P=0.002), and NBP and PE (P=0.001). FI was found prognostic for umbilical pH and neonatal birth weight. Pre-gestational BMI was significantly higher in GHT+GDM compared to GHT, and in CHT+GDM compared to the CHT group. As for AUtPSV, significant difference was found between NBP and CHT (P=0.012), NBP and CHT+GDM (P=0.045), NBP and GHT+GDM (P=0.007), NBP and PE (P=0.032), and GHT and GHT+GDM (P=0.048) groups. Our study revealed that vascularization indices and AUtPSV show significant differences due to gestational pathology, and can be useful in detection of pregnancies at risk.

  16. Early Change in Stroke Size Performs Best in Predicting Response to Therapy.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Alexis Nétis; Dias, Christian; Norato, Gina; Kim, Eunhee; Leigh, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Reliable imaging biomarkers of response to therapy in acute stroke are needed. The final infarct volume and percent of early reperfusion have been used for this purpose. Early fluctuation in stroke size is a recognized phenomenon, but its utility as a biomarker for response to therapy has not been established. This study examined the clinical relevance of early change in stroke volume and compared it with the final infarct volume and percent of early reperfusion in identifying early neurologic improvement (ENI). Acute stroke patients, enrolled between 2013 and 2014 with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (pretreatment baseline, 2 h post, and 24 h post), who received thrombolysis were included in the analysis. Early change in stroke volume, infarct volume at 24 h on diffusion, and percent of early reperfusion were calculated from the baseline and 2 h MRI scans were compared. ENI was defined as ≥4 point decrease in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scales within 24 h. Logistic regression models and receiver operator characteristics analysis were used to compare the efficacy of 3 imaging biomarkers. Serial MRIs of 58 acute stroke patients were analyzed. Early change in stroke volume was significantly associated with ENI by logistic regression analysis (OR 0.93, p = 0.048) and remained significant after controlling for stroke size and severity (OR 0.90, p = 0.032). Thus, for every 1 mL increase in stroke volume, there was a 10% decrease in the odds of ENI, while for every 1 mL decrease in stroke volume, there was a 10% increase in the odds of ENI. Neither infarct volume at 24 h nor percent of early reperfusion were significantly associated with ENI by logistic regression. Receiver-operator characteristic analysis identified early change in stroke volume as the only biomarker of the 3 that performed significantly different than chance (p = 0.03). Early fluctuations in stroke size may represent a more reliable biomarker for response to therapy than the

  17. Auditory-neurophysiological responses to speech during early childhood: Effects of background noise

    PubMed Central

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Davies, Evan C.; Thompson, Elaine C.; Carr, Kali Woodruff; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R.; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical period of auditory learning, during which children are constantly mapping sounds to meaning. But learning rarely occurs under ideal listening conditions—children are forced to listen against a relentless din. This background noise degrades the neural coding of these critical sounds, in turn interfering with auditory learning. Despite the importance of robust and reliable auditory processing during early childhood, little is known about the neurophysiology underlying speech processing in children so young. To better understand the physiological constraints these adverse listening scenarios impose on speech sound coding during early childhood, auditory-neurophysiological responses were elicited to a consonant-vowel syllable in quiet and background noise in a cohort of typically-developing preschoolers (ages 3–5 yr). Overall, responses were degraded in noise: they were smaller, less stable across trials, slower, and there was poorer coding of spectral content and the temporal envelope. These effects were exacerbated in response to the consonant transition relative to the vowel, suggesting that the neural coding of spectrotemporally-dynamic speech features is more tenuous in noise than the coding of static features—even in children this young. Neural coding of speech temporal fine structure, however, was more resilient to the addition of background noise than coding of temporal envelope information. Taken together, these results demonstrate that noise places a neurophysiological constraint on speech processing during early childhood by causing a breakdown in neural processing of speech acoustics. These results may explain why some listeners have inordinate difficulties understanding speech in noise. Speech-elicited auditory-neurophysiological responses offer objective insight into listening skills during early childhood by reflecting the integrity of neural coding in quiet and noise; this paper documents typical response properties

  18. Early-Life Persistent Vitamin D Deficiency Alters Cardiopulmonary Responses to Particulate Matter-Enhanced Atmospheric Smog in Adult Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrates that early-life persistent vitamin D deficiency alters the cardiopulmonary response to smog in mice and may increase risk of adverse effects. Early life nutritional deficiencies can lead to increased cardiovascular susceptibility to environme...

  19. Population Response Profiles in Early Visual Cortex Are Biased in Favor of More Valuable Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Saproo, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary and stimulus-driven shifts of attention can modulate the representation of behaviorally relevant stimuli in early areas of visual cortex. In turn, attended items are processed faster and more accurately, facilitating the selection of appropriate behavioral responses. Information processing is also strongly influenced by past experience and recent studies indicate that the learned value of a stimulus can influence relatively late stages of decision making such as the process of selecting a motor response. However, the learned value of a stimulus can also influence the magnitude of cortical responses in early sensory areas such as V1 and S1. These early effects of stimulus value are presumed to improve the quality of sensory representations; however, the nature of these modulations is not clear. They could reflect nonspecific changes in response amplitude associated with changes in general arousal or they could reflect a bias in population responses so that high-value features are represented more robustly. To examine this issue, subjects performed a two-alternative forced choice paradigm with a variable-interval payoff schedule to dynamically manipulate the relative value of two stimuli defined by their orientation (one was rotated clockwise from vertical, the other counterclockwise). Activation levels in visual cortex were monitored using functional MRI and feature-selective voxel tuning functions while subjects performed the behavioral task. The results suggest that value not only modulates the relative amplitude of responses in early areas of human visual cortex, but also sharpens the response profile across the populations of feature-selective neurons that encode the critical stimulus feature (orientation). Moreover, changes in space- or feature-based attention cannot easily explain the results because representations of both the selected and the unselected stimuli underwent a similar feature-selective modulation. This sharpening in the population

  20. Tissue factor-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor production by human fibroblasts in response to activated factor VII.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, V; Bentolila, S; Chabbat, J; Hakim, J; de Prost, D

    1998-04-15

    The transmembrane protein tissue factor (TF) is the cell surface receptor for coagulation factor VII (FVII) and activated factor VII (FVIIa). Recently, TF has been identified as a regulator of angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. This study was designed to link the binding of FVII(a) to its receptor, TF, with the subsequent triggering of angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by human lung fibroblasts. We report that incubation of fibroblasts, which express constitutive surface TF, with FVII(a) induces VEGF synthesis. FVII(a)-induced VEGF secretion, assessed by a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was time- and concentration-dependent. VEGF secretion was maximal after 24 hours of incubation of the cells with 100 nmol/L FVII(a) and represented a threefold induction of the basal VEGF level. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of VEGF detected three mRNA species of 180, 312, and 384 bp corresponding, respectively, to VEGF121, VEGF165, and VEGF189. A 2.5- to 3.5-fold increase was observed for the 180- and 312-bp transcripts at 12 and 24 hours, respectively. FVII(a)-dependent VEGF production was inhibited by a pool of antibodies against TF, pointing to the involvement of this receptor. On specific active-site inhibition with dansyl-glutamyl-glycinyl-arginyl chloromethyl ketone, FVIIa lost 70% of its capacity to elicit VEGF production. Consistent with this, the native form (zymogen) of FVII only had a 1.8-fold stimulating effect. Protein tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C are involved in signal transduction leading to VEGF production, as shown by the inhibitory effects of genistein and GF 109203X. The results of this study indicate that TF is essential for VIIa-induced VEGF production by human fibroblasts and that its role is mainly linked to the proteolytic activity of the TF-VIIa complex.

  1. Effect of altered arterial perfusion pressure on vascular conductance and muscle blood flow dynamic response during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Villar, Rodrigo; Hughson, Richard L

    2013-03-01

    Changes in vascular conductance (VC) are required to counter changes in muscle perfusion pressure (MPP) to maintain muscle blood flow (MBF) during exercise. We investigated the recruitment of VC as a function of peak VC measured in three body positions at two different work rates to test the hypothesis that adaptations in VC compensated changes in MPP at low-power output (LPO), but not at high-power output (HPO). Eleven healthy volunteers exercised at LPO and HPO (repeated plantar flexion contractions at 20-30% maximal voluntary contraction, respectively) in horizontal (HOR), 35° head-down tilt (HDT), and 45° head-up tilt (HUT). Muscle blood flow velocity and popliteal diameter were measured by ultrasound to determine MBF, and VC was estimated by dividing MBF flow by MPP. Peak VC was unaffected by body position. The rates of increase in MBF and VC were significantly faster in HUT and slower in HDT than HOR, and rates were faster in LPO than HPO. During LPO exercise, the increase in, and steady-state values of, MBF were less for HUT and HDT than HOR; the increase in VC was less in HUT than HOR and HDT. During HPO exercise, MBF in the HDT was reduced compared with HOR and HUT, even though VC reached 92% VC peak, which was greater than HOR, which was, in turn, greater than HUT. Reduced MBF during HPO HDT exercise had the functional consequence of a significant increase in muscle electromyographic index, revealing the effects of MPP on O2 delivery during exercise.

  2. Peripheral vascular response to mild indirect cooling in patients with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease and the frequency of painful crisis.

    PubMed

    Mohan, J; Marshall, J M; Reid, H L; Thomas, P W; Hambleton, I; Serjeant, G R

    1998-02-01

    1. In homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease, skin cooling is a common precipitating factor of the painful crisis which is associated with avascular necrosis of active bone marrow. Since skin cooling does not directly induce sickling, we have investigated the nature of the reflex vascular responses to mild cooling in SS patients in a steady state of the disease and compared them with their history of painful crises. 2. Experiments were performed in Jamaica on 60 male SS patients and 30 matched control subjects with normal haemoglobin (AA) genotype. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography and mean arterial pressure (MAP) by a Finapres device: forearm vascular resistance (FVR) was calculated as MAP/FBF. Cutaneous erythrocyte flux in forearm and hand was monitored by a laser Doppler meter. The contralateral hand was immersed in cool water at 16 degrees C for 2 min, 6 times, at random intervals of 0.5-3 min. 3. The first cool immersion evoked an increase in MAP, cutaneous vasoconstriction and a net increase in FVR in both AA and SS subjects. However, the direction of change in FVR varied between individuals such that 18 AA subjects showed an increase in FVR (constrictor group) while 12 showed a decrease in FVR, indicating vasodilatation in forearm muscle (dilator group). In contrast, 50 SS subjects showed an increase in FVR and only 10 showed a decrease in FVR. The proportion of subjects who showed net vasoconstriction was significantly greater in the SS than in the AA group (83% versus 60%, P = 0.03, chi 2 test). 4. By the sixth cool stimulus, the 'dilator' group of AA subjects showed no change in FVR while the 'dilator' group of SS patients showed an increase in FVR. We suggest that forearm muscle vasodilatation was the characteristic component of the alerting/defence response to novel or noxious stimuli which habituates on repetition. 5. In the whole group of SS patients, baseline values of cutaneous vascular resistance and FVR

  3. The bradykinin B2 receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection.

    PubMed

    Kaman, Wendy E; Wolterink, Arthur F W M; Bader, Michael; Boele, Linda C L; van der Kleij, Desiree

    2009-02-01

    The endogenous danger signal bradykinin was recently found implicated in the development of immunity against parasites via dendritic cells. We here report an essential role of the B(2) (B(2)R) bradykinin receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection. Mice deficient in B(2)R (B(2)R(-/-) mice) were shown to suffer from increased hepatic bacterial burden and concomitant dramatic weight loss during infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Levels of cytokines known to play a pivotal role in the early phase immune response against L. monocytogenes, IL-12p70 and IFN-gamma, were reduced in B(2)R(-/-) mice. To extend these findings to the human system, we show that bradykinin potentiates the production of IL-12p70 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Thus, we show that bradykinin and the B(2)R play a role in early innate immune functions during bacterial infection.

  4. Photoacoustic Imaging of Cancer Treatment Response: Early Detection of Therapeutic Effect from Thermosensitive Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Wirtzfeld, Lauren A.; Undzys, Elijus; Li, Shyh-Dar; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging methods capable of indicating the potential for success of an individualized treatment course, during or immediately following the treatment, could improve therapeutic outcomes. Temperature Sensitive Liposomes (TSLs) provide an effective way to deliver chemotherapeutics to a localized tumoral area heated to mild-hyperthermia (HT). The high drug levels reached in the tumor vasculature lead to increased tumor regression via the cascade of events during and immediately following treatment. For a TSL carrying doxorubicin (DOX) these include the rapid and intense exposure of endothelial cells to high drug concentrations, hemorrhage, blood coagulation and vascular shutdown. In this study, ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging was used to probe the changes to tumors following treatment with the TSL, HaT-DOX (Heat activated cytoToxic). Levels of oxygen saturation (sO2) were studied in a longitudinal manner, from 30 min pre-treatment to 7 days post-treatment. The efficacious treatments of HT-HaT-DOX were shown to induce a significant drop in sO2 (>10%) as early as 30 min post-treatment that led to tumor regression (in 90% of cases); HT-Saline and non-efficacious HT-HaT-DOX (10% of cases) treatments did not show any significant change in sO2 at these timepoints. The changes in sO2 were further corroborated with histological data, using the vascular and perfusion markers CD31 and FITC-lectin. These results allowed us to further surmise a plausible mechanism of the cellular events taking place in the TSL treated tumor regions over the first 24 hours post-treatment. The potential for using photoacoustic imaging to measure tumor sO2 as a surrogate prognostic marker for predicting therapeutic outcome with a TSL treatment is demonstrated. PMID:27788199

  5. Exploring Higher Education's Response to the Early Childhood Education Teacher Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matczak, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative single case study attempt is to explore how one institution of higher education can be responsive in meeting the needs of a teacher shortage in early childhood education and the factors impacting (hindering and helping) the collaborative partner process of designing an Applied Bachelor's in Science Degree in Elementary Education…

  6. Designing a Measurement Framework for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott R.; Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Roloff, Tracy A.; Rodriguez, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The overall architecture and major components of a measurement system designed and evaluated to support Response to Intervention (RTI) in the areas of language and literacy in early childhood programs are described. Efficient and reliable measurement is essential for implementing any viable RTI system, and implementing such a system in early…

  7. Effectiveness of Community-Based Early Intervention Based on Pivotal Response Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Isabel M.; Flanagan, Helen E.; Garon, Nancy; Bryson, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Preschoolers (n = 118) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participated in this prospective effectiveness study of an early intervention program. Treatment entailed parent training and therapist-implemented components, incorporating Pivotal Response Treatment and Positive Behaviour Support. Standardized ability and behavioural measures were…

  8. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

  9. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  10. Caregiver Responsiveness during Preschool Supports Cooperation in Kindergarten: Moderation by Children's Early Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Megan E.; Lipscomb, Shannon T.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined how children's parent-reported compliance at age 3 (36 months) moderated the effects of 2 dimensions of directly observed early care and education (ECE) process quality (positivity/responsivity and cognitive stimulation) during the prekindergarten year (54 months) on teacher reports of children's…

  11. [Health threats and health system crises. An approach to early warning and response. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    PubMed

    Simón Soria, Fernando; Guillén Enríquez, Francisco Javier

    2008-04-01

    The world is changing more and faster than ever before. New diseases are coming to light each year, controlled diseases are reemerging as potential threats, and natural or man-made disasters are increasingly affecting human health. The "International Health Regulations (2005)" reflect the changes in the response of public health to this new situation. Surveillance of specific diseases and predefined control measures have been replaced by surveillance of public health events of international concern and control measures adapted to each situation. The public health events of international interest are characterized by their seriousness, predictability, the risk of international spread and potential for travel or trade restrictions. The development of the European Early Warning and Response System in 1998 and the creation of the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control in 2005 demonstrate political commitment in Europe, with early detection of and response to public health threats. However, timely risk evaluation and response at a national level requires improved data digitalization and accessibility, automatic notification processes, data analysis and dissemination of information, the combination of information from multiple sources and adaptation of public health services. The autonomous regions in Spain are initiating this adaptation process, but interoperability between systems and the development of guidelines for a coordinated response should be steered by the National Interregional Health Council and coordinated by the Ministry of Health. Efficient early warning systems of health threats that allow for a timely response and reduce uncertainty about information would help to minimize the risk of public health crises. The profile of public health threats is nonspecific. Early detection of threats requires access to information from multiple sources and efficient risk assessment. Key factors for improving the response to public health threats are the

  12. Vascular reactivity and ACE activity response to exercise training are modulated by the +9/-9 bradykinin B₂ receptor gene functional polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cléber Rene; Alves, Guilherme Barreto; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Dias, Rodrigo Gonçalves; Mota, Glória F A; Fernandes, Tiago; Krieger, José Eduardo; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2013-06-17

    The bradykinin receptor B₂ (BDKRB₂) gene +9/-9 polymorphism has been associated with higher gene transcriptional activity, and characteristics of cardiovascular phenotypes and physical performance. We hypothesized that vasodilation and ACE activity response to exercise training is modulated by BDKRB₂ gene. We genotyped 71 healthy volunteers were genotyped for the BDKRB₂ gene polymorphism. Heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MBP), and forearm blood flow (FBF) were evaluated. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) activity was measured by fluorescence. Aerobic training was performed for 16 wk. All variables were reassessed after completion of the training period. In pretraining period, HR, MBP, FBF, and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) were similar among all genotypes. After physical training, the FBF and the FVC response during handgrip exercise such as area under the curve were higher in -9/-9 carriers than the other two groups. However, there were no changes in HR and MBP for all three groups. In addition, in posttraining period the decrease in ACE activity was higher in the -9/-9 group than the other two groups. These results suggest that reflex muscle vasodilation and ACE activity in response to exercise training are modulated by BDKRB₂ gene +9/-9 polymorphism in healthy individuals.

  13. Relative value unit-based compensation incentivization in an academic vascular practice improves productivity with no early adverse impact on quality.

    PubMed

    Awad, Nadia; Caputo, Francis J; Carpenter, Jeffrey P; Alexander, James B; Trani, José L; Lombardi, Joseph V

    2017-02-01

    Given the increased pressure from governmental programs to restructure reimbursements to reflect quality metrics achieved by physicians, review of current reimbursement schemes is necessary to ensure sustainability of the physician's performance while maintaining and ultimately improving patient outcomes. This study reviewed the impact of reimbursement incentives on evidence-based care outcomes within a vascular surgical program at an academic tertiary care center. Data for patients with a confirmed 30-day follow-up for the vascular surgery subset of our institution's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program submission for the years 2013 and 2014 were reviewed. The outcomes reviewed included 30-day mortality, readmission, unplanned returns to the operating room, and all major morbidities. A comparison of both total charges and work relative value units (RVUs) generated was performed before and after changes were made from a salary-based to a productivity-based compensation model. P value analysis was used to determine if there were any statistically significant differences in patient outcomes between the two study years. No statistically significant difference in outcomes of the core measures studied was identified between the two periods. There was a trend toward a lower incidence of respiratory complications, largely driven by a lower incidence in pneumonia between 2013 and 2014. The vascular division had a net increase of 8.2% in total charges and 5.7% in work RVUs after the RVU-based incentivization program was instituted. Revenue-improving measures can improve sustainability of a vascular program without negatively affecting patient care as evidenced by the lack of difference in evidence-based core outcome measures in our study period. Further studies are needed to elucidate the long-term effects of incentivization programs on both patient care and program viability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Abnormal early brain responses during visual search are evident in schizophrenia but not bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    VanMeerten, Nicolaas J; Dubke, Rachel E; Stanwyck, John J; Kang, Seung Suk; Sponheim, Scott R

    2016-01-01

    People with schizophrenia show deficits in processing visual stimuli but neural abnormalities underlying the deficits are unclear and it is unknown whether such functional brain abnormalities are present in other severe mental disorders or in individuals who carry genetic liability for schizophrenia. To better characterize brain responses underlying visual search deficits and test their specificity to schizophrenia we gathered behavioral and electrophysiological responses during visual search (i.e., Span of Apprehension [SOA] task) from 38 people with schizophrenia, 31 people with bipolar disorder, 58 biological relatives of people with schizophrenia, 37 biological relatives of people with bipolar disorder, and 65 non-psychiatric control participants. Through subtracting neural responses associated with purely sensory aspects of the stimuli we found that people with schizophrenia exhibited reduced early posterior task-related neural responses (i.e., Span Endogenous Negativity [SEN]) while other groups showed normative responses. People with schizophrenia exhibited longer reaction times than controls during visual search but nearly identical accuracy. Those individuals with schizophrenia who had larger SENs performed more efficiently (i.e., shorter reaction times) on the SOA task suggesting that modulation of early visual cortical responses facilitated their visual search. People with schizophrenia also exhibited a diminished P300 response compared to other groups. Unaffected first-degree relatives of people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed an amplified N1 response over posterior brain regions in comparison to other groups. Diminished early posterior brain responses are associated with impaired visual search in schizophrenia and appear to be specifically associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Early host response in the mammary gland after experimental Streptococcus uberis challenge in heifers.

    PubMed

    de Greeff, Astrid; Zadoks, Ruth; Ruuls, Lisette; Toussaint, Mathilda; Nguyen, Thi Kim Anh; Downing, Alison; Rebel, Johanna; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Smith, Hilde

    2013-06-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a highly prevalent causative agent of bovine mastitis, which leads to large economic losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to examine the host response during acute inflammation after experimental challenge with capsulated Strep. uberis. Gene expression in response to Strep. uberis was compared between infected and control quarters in 3 animals. All quarters (n=16) were sampled at 16 different locations. Microarray data showed that 239 genes were differentially expressed between infected and control quarters. No differences in gene expression were observed between the different locations. Microarray data were confirmed for several genes using quantitative PCR analysis. Genes differentially expressed due to early Strep. uberis mastitis represented several stages of the process of infection: (1) pathogen recognition; (2) chemoattraction of neutrophils; (3) tissue repair mechanisms; and (4) bactericidal activity. Three different pathogen recognition genes were induced: ficolins, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, and toll-like receptor 2. Calgranulins were found to be the most strongly upregulated genes during early inflammation. By histology and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that changes in gene expression in response to Strep. uberis were induced both in infiltrating somatic milk cells and in mammary epithelial cells, demonstrating that the latter cell type plays a role in milk production as well as immune responsiveness. Given the rapid development of inflammation or mastitis after infection, early diagnosis of (Strep. uberis) mastitis is required for prevention of disease and spread of the pathogen. Insight into host responses could help to design immunomodulatory therapies to dampen inflammation after (early) diagnosis of Strep. uberis mastitis. Future research should focus on development of these early diagnostics and immunomodulatory components for mastitis treatment. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science

  16. Electrical and mechanical responses to inhibition of cell respiration in vascular smooth muscle of the rat portal vein.

    PubMed

    Ekmehag, B L

    1989-09-01

    Metabolic regulation of contractility in vascular smooth muscle was studied in the spontaneously active rat portal vein using respiratory depression by cyanide (0.2-2.0 mM) as a model for tissue hypoxia. Intracellular recordings of electrical activity were done with concomitant registration of force development. Average membrane potential in the absence of cyanide was -61 +/- 1 mV (n = 27). Addition of cyanide to normal Krebs solution resulted in a reduction of force amplitude and the number of action potentials per burst, with a relatively more pronounced effect on the mechanical activity. At moderate levels of inhibition of force amplitude the frequency of spontaneous bursts of action potentials transiently increased concomitant with a slight depolarization, but after prolonged (15-20 min) exposure to cyanide the membrane repolarized to the level prior to cyanide addition and the burst frequency decreased to be equal to or lower than that in the absence of cyanide. Higher concentrations of cyanide totally inhibited spontaneous mechanical and electrical activity. In contrast to the results with glucose, it was found that when beta-hydroxybutyrate was used as substrate the addition of 2 mM cyanide led to a marked hyperpolarization (13 +/- 1 mV) after total inhibition of spontaneous activity. The hyperpolarization was not prevented by administration of 4-aminopyridine (2.5 mM) or tetraethylammonium (4-6 mM) prior to the addition of cyanide. To investigate the effects of increased metabolic demand on the relation between force and membrane potential in cyanide-treated muscle, high-K+ (40 mM) contractures were studied. Contractures were associated with depolarization of 34 +/- 3 mV (n = 5). 1 mM cyanide reduced the amplitude of the contractures to about 9% of control with a moderate reduction in the amount of depolarization (28 +/- 1 mV, n = 5). It is concluded that the decrease of mechanical activity during respiratory inhibition may partly reflect a reduction in the

  17. Effects of losartan on whole-body, skeletal muscle, and vascular insulin responses in obesity/insulin resistance without hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lteif, AA; Chisholm, RL; Gilbert, K; Considine, RV; Mather, KJ

    2011-01-01

    Aims Renin-angiotensin system antagonists have been found to improve glucose metabolism in obese hypertensive and type 2 diabetic subjects. The mechanism of these effects is not well understood. We hypothesized that the angiotensin receptor antagonist losartan would improve insulin-mediated vasodilation, and thereby improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant subjects. Materials and Methods We studied subjects with obesity and insulin resistance but without hypertension, hypercholesterolemia or dysglycemia (age 39.0±9.6 yrs [mean±SD], BMI 33.2±5.9 kg/m2, BP 115.8±12.2/70.9±7.2 mmHg, LDL 2.1±0.5 mmol/L). Subjects were randomized to 12 weeks’ double-blind treatment with losartan 100 mg once daily (n=9) or matching placebo (n=8). Before and after treatment, under hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp conditions we measured whole-body insulin stimulated glucose disposal, insulin-mediated vasodilation, and insulin-stimulated leg glucose uptake by the limb balance technique. Results Whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was not significantly increased by losartan. Insulin-mediated vasodilation was augmented following both treatments (increase in leg vascular conductance: pre-treatment 0.7±0.3 L*min−1*mmHg−1[losartan, mean ±SEM] and 0.9±0.3 [placebo], post-treatment 1.0±0.4 [losartan] and 1.3±0.6 [placebo]) but not different between treatment groups (p=0.53). Insulin’s action to augment NO production and to augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation were also not improved. Leg glucose uptake was not significantly changed by treatments, and not different between groups (p=0.11). Conclusions These findings argue against the hypothesis that losartan might improve skeletal muscle glucose metabolism by improving insulin-mediated vasodilation in normotensive insulin resistant obese subjects. The metabolic benefits of angiotensin receptor blockers may require the presence of hypertension in addition to obesity

  18. Vascular Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Taghinia, Amir H; Upton, Joseph

    2018-06-12

    Vascular anomalies encompass a wide variety of clinical conditions involving the vasculature. Over the past several decades, the terminology has changed as our understanding of these conditions has improved. A well-accepted classification scheme has evolved with constant additions, updates, and revisions. Imaging techniques have also advanced with greater resolution and a better understanding of the correlation between imaging, clinical behavior, and natural history. Meanwhile, the treatment of these conditions has also changed, with greater focus on minimally invasive techniques as opposed to radical surgery. Despite these changes, surgical intervention remains a high-value option for select patients. With greater understanding of the molecular basis of these diseases, medical treatment has improved especially in severe cases where options remain limited. A multidisciplinary approach to comprehensive patient care usually yields the best outcome and is strongly encouraged. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vascular lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  20. Early- and Late-Onset Depression in Late Life: A Prospective Study on Clinical and Structural Brain Characteristics and Response to Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dols, Annemiek; Bouckaert, Filip; Sienaert, Pascal; Rhebergen, Didi; Vansteelandt, Kristof; Ten Kate, Mara; de Winter, Francois-Laurent; Comijs, Hannie C; Emsell, Louise; Oudega, Mardien L; van Exel, Eric; Schouws, Sigfried; Obbels, Jasmien; Wattjes, Mike; Barkhof, Frederik; Eikelenboom, Piet; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Stek, Max L

    2017-02-01

    The clinical profile of late-life depression (LLD) is frequently associated with cognitive impairment, aging-related brain changes, and somatic comorbidity. This two-site naturalistic longitudinal study aimed to explore differences in clinical and brain characteristics and response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in early- (EOD) versus late-onset (LOD) late-life depression (respectively onset <55 and ≥55 years). Between January 2011 and December 2013, 110 patients aged 55 years and older with ECT-treated unipolar depression were included in The Mood Disorders in Elderly treated with ECT study. Clinical profile and somatic health were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed before the first ECT and visually rated. Response rate was 78.2% and similar between the two sites but significantly higher in LOD compared with EOD (86.9 versus 67.3%). Clinical, somatic, and brain characteristics were not different between EOD and LOD. Response to ECT was associated with late age at onset and presence of psychotic symptoms and not with structural MRI characteristics. In EOD only, the odds for a higher response were associated with a shorter index episode. The clinical profile, somatic comorbidities, and brain characteristics in LLD were similar in EOD and LOD. Nevertheless, patients with LOD showed a superior response to ECT compared with patients with EOD. Our results indicate that ECT is very effective in LLD, even in vascular burdened patients. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute Response of Circulating Vascular Regulating MicroRNAs during and after High-Intensity and High-Volume Cycling in Children.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Yvonne; Wehmeier, Udo F; Wahl, Patrick; Mester, Joachim; Hilberg, Thomas; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the response of vascular circulating microRNAs (miRNAs; miR-16, miR-21, miR-126) and the VEGF mRNA following an acute bout of HIIT and HVT in children. Twelve healthy competitive young male cyclists (14.4 ± 0.8 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1) peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of high intensity 4 × 4 min intervals (HIIT) at 90-95% peak power output (PPO), each interval separated by 3 min of active recovery, and one high volume session (HVT) consisting of a constant load exercise for 90 min at 60% PPO. Capillary blood from the earlobe was collected under resting conditions, during exercise (d1 = 20 min, d2 = 30 min, d3 = 60 min), and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after the exercise to determine miR-16, -21, -126, and VEGF mRNA. HVT significantly increased miR-16 and miR-126 during and after the exercise compared to pre-values, whereas HIIT showed no significant influence on the miRNAs compared to pre-values. VEGF mRNA significantly increased during and after HIIT (d1, 30', 60', 180') and HVT (d3, 0', 60'). RESULTS of the present investigation suggest a volume dependent exercise regulation of vascular regulating miRNAs (miR-16, miR-21, miR-126) in children. In line with previous data, our data show that acute exercise can alter circulating miRNAs profiles that might be used as novel biomarkers to monitor acute and chronic changes due to exercise in various tissues.

  2. Predicting the severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)-associated coagulopathy with hemostatic molecular markers and vascular endothelial injury markers.