Levitt, Michael R; McGah, Patrick M; Moon, Karam; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G; Kalani, M Yashar S; Kim, Louis J; Aliseda, Alberto
Background and Purpose Idiopathic intracranial hypertension has been associated with dural venous sinus stenosis in some patients, but the hemodynamic environment of the dural venous sinuses has not been quantitatively described. Here, we present the first such computational fluid dynamics model using patient-specific blood pressure measurements. Materials and Methods Six patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and at least one stenosis or atresia at the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction underwent MRV followed by cerebral venography and manometry throughout the dural venous sinuses. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics models were created using MRV anatomy, with venous pressure measurements as boundary conditions. Blood flow and wall shear stress were calculated for each patient. Results Computational models of dural venous sinuses were successfully reconstructed in all six patients with patient-specific boundary conditions. Three patients demonstrated a pathologic pressure gradient (≥ 8 mm Hg) across four dural venous sinus stenoses. Small sample size precludes statistical comparisons, but average overall flow throughout the dural venous sinuses of patients with pathologic pressure gradients was higher than in those without (1041.00 ± 506.52 vs. 358.00 ± 190.95 mL/min). Wall shear stress was also higher across stenoses in patients with pathologic pressure gradients (37.66 ± 48.39 vs 7.02 ± 13.60 Pa). Conclusion The hemodynamic environment of the dural venous sinuses can be computationally modeled using patient-specific anatomy and physiological measurements in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. There was substantially higher blood flow and wall shear stress in patients with pathological pressure gradients. PMID:27197986
Javid Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S M; Cassel, Kevin; Boghosian, Michael; Hammes, Mary; Coe, Fredric
The surgical creation of vascular accesses for renal failure patients provides an abnormally high flow rate conduit in the patient's upper arm vasculature that facilitates the hemodialysis treatment. These vascular accesses, however, are very often associated with complications that lead to access failure and thrombotic incidents, mainly due to excessive neointimal hyperplasia (NH) and subsequently stenosis. Development of a framework to monitor and predict the evolution of the venous system post access creation can greatly contribute to maintaining access patency. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been exploited to inspect the non-homeostatic wall shear stress (WSS) distribution that is speculated to trigger NH in the patient cohort under investigation. Thereafter, CFD in liaison with a gradient-free shape optimization method has been employed to analyze the deformation modes of the venous system enduring non-physiological hemodynamics. It is observed that the optimally evolved shapes and their corresponding hemodynamics strive to restore the homeostatic state of the venous system to a normal, pre-surgery condition. It is concluded that a CFD-shape optimization coupling that seeks to regulate the WSS back to a well-defined physiological WSS target range can accurately predict the mode of patient-specific access failure.
Kotoda, Atsushi; Akimoto, Tetsu; Kato, Maki; Kanazawa, Hidenori; Nakata, Manabu; Sugase, Taro; Ogura, Manabu; Ito, Chiharu; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Muto, Shigeaki; Kusano, Eiji
It is widely assumed that central venous stenosis (CVS) is most commonly associated with previous central venous catheterization among the chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. We evaluated the validity of this assumption in this retrospective study. The clinical records from 2,856 consecutive HD patients with vascular access failure during a 5-year period were reviewed, and a total of 26 patients with symptomatic CVS were identified. Combined with radiological findings, their clinical characteristics were examined. Only seven patients had a history of internal jugular dialysis catheterization. Diagnostic multidetector row computed tomography angiography showed that 7 of the 19 patients with no history of catheterization had left innominate vein stenosis due to extrinsic compression between the sternum and arch vessels. These patients had a shorter period from the time of creation of the vascular access to the initial referral (9.2 ± 7.6 months) than the rest of the patients (35.5 ± 18.6 months, p = 0.0017). Our findings suggest that cases without a history of central venous catheterization may not be rare among the HD patients with symptomatic CVS. However, those still need to be confirm by larger prospective studies of overall chronic HD patients with symptomatic CVS.
Shin, H Stella; Towbin, Alexander J; Zhang, Bin; Johnson, Neil D; Goldstein, Stuart L
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) can lead to development of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis. The presence of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis may preclude children with chronic medical conditions from receiving lifesaving therapies, from hemodialysis in end-stage renal disease to total parenteral nutrition in short bowel syndrome. Several adult studies have found an association between PICCs and venous thrombosis and/or stenosis, but none has evaluated for this association in children. To determine the incidence of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis after PICC placement and identify factors that increase the risk of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis after PICC placement in children. We conducted a retrospective review of children ages 1-18 years with a PICC placed between January 2010 and July 2013 at our center, and included those who had at least one vascular imaging study of the ipsilateral extremity (Doppler ultrasound, venogram or MR angiogram) after PICC placement. Logistic regression was applied to determine risk factors for development of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis. One thousand, one hundred and ten upper extremity PICCs were placed, with 703 PICCs in the right and 407 PICCs in the left. Eight hundred fifty-one imaging studies (609 Doppler ultrasounds, 193 contrast venograms and 49 MR angiograms) were performed in 376 patients. The incidence of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis in the imaged cohort was 26.3%. PICC laterality, insertion site, duration, patient height to PICC diameter ratio, and number of PICCs per patient were not associated with development of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis. Additionally, primary diagnosis and symptoms at the time of imaging did not predict findings of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis. However, patients exposed to non-PICC central venous catheters (CVC) were more likely to develop venous thrombosis and/or stenosis (odds ratio 1.95, 1.10-3.45). More than a quarter of the vascular imaging studies
Rangel, Lynsey E; Lyden, Sean P; Clair, Daniel G
The aim of this study is to evaluate central venous stenosis (CVS) etiologies and presentation within a vascular surgery practice. We evaluated endovascular treatment modalities and the patency rates of our interventions. Five-year retrospective review of endovascular intervention for CVS. Patient demographics, medical comorbidities, and variables were collected including etiology, indwelling device, previous upper extremity (UE) deep venous thrombosis, long-term UE indwelling device (defined as >30 days), malignancy status, hypercoagulable disorders, history of radiation or mediastinal fibrosis or masses, and anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet therapy. Follow-up variables included symptoms, imaging, and anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet utilization. Living patients without recent follow-up were contacted with a telephone survey regarding current symptoms. Patency was evaluated by imaging or clinically by recurrence of signs or symptoms through January 2016. A total of 61 patients underwent attempted endovascular CVS interventions from January 2007 to 2013. Forty-seven (83%) patients had successful interventions. There were 22 (36%) end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The primary etiology in 79% of patients was benign CVS secondary to an indwelling device. Eighty-nine percent of the interventions were primary angioplasty (PTA). The overall primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were 49%, 34%, and 24%, respectively. Secondary patency rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were 97%, 93%, and 88%, respectively. There were no statistical differences in demographics or outcomes in patients treated successfully with PTA or those requiring stenting. There was no statistical difference in the patency rates between ESRD and non-ESRD patients. Previous interventions were not a predictor of loss of patency. Our study supported the rising trend of benign CVS predominantly secondary to indwelling devices. We demonstrated acceptable secondary patency with PTA alone
Schaible, Rolf; Textor, Jochen; Decker, Pan
We report the case of a 37-year-old man with necrotizing pancreatitis associated with inflammatory extrahepatic portal vein stenosis and progressive ascites. Four months after the acute onset, when no signs of infection were present, portal decompression was performed to treat refractory ascites. Transjugulartranshepatic venoplasty failed to dilate the stenosis in the extrahepatic portion of the portal vein sufficiently. Therefore a Wallstent was implanted, resulting in almost normal diameter of the vessel. In follow-up imaging studies the stent and the portal vein were still patent 12 months after the intervention and total resolution of the ascites was observed.
Qureshi, Adnan I; Khan, Asif A; Capistrant, Rachel; Qureshi, Mushtaq H; Xie, Kevin; Suri, M Fareed K
To report upon technique of concurrent placement of angioplasty balloon at the internal jugular vein and sigmoid venous sinus junction to facilitate stent delivery in two patients in whom stent delivery past the jugular bulb was not possible. A 21-year-old woman and a 41-year-old woman with worsening headaches, visual obscuration or diplopia were treated for pseudotumor cerebri associated with transverse venous stenosis. Both patients had undergone primary angioplasty, which resulted in improvement in clinical symptoms followed by the recurrence of symptoms with restenosis at the site of angioplasty. After multiple attempts at stent delivery through jugular venous bulb were unsuccessful, a second guide catheter was placed in the ipsilateral internal jugular vein through contralateral femoral venous approach. A 6 mm × 20 mm (left) or 5 × 15 mm (right) angioplasty balloon was placed across the internal jugular vein and sigmoid sinus junction and partially inflated until the inflation and relative straightening of the junction was observed. In both patients, the internal jugular vein and sigmoid sinus junction was successfully traversed by the stent delivery system in a parallel alignment to inflated balloon. Balloon mounted stent was deployed at the site of restenosis with near complete resolution of lumen narrowing delivery and improvement in clinical symptoms. We report a technique for realignment and diameter change with concurrent placement and partial inflation of angioplasty balloon at the jugular venous bulb to facilitate stent delivery into the sigmoid and transverse venous sinuses in circumstances where multiple attempts at stent delivery are unsuccessful.
Starke, Robert M.; Durst, Christopher R.; Crowley, R. Webster; Chalouhi, Nohra; Hasan, David M.; Dumont, Aaron S.; Jabbour, Pascal; Liu, Kenneth C.
Introduction. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) may result in a chronic debilitating disease. Dural venous sinus stenosis with a physiologic venous pressure gradient has been identified as a potential etiology in a number of IIH patients. Intracranial venous stenting has emerged as a potential treatment alternative. Methods. A systematic review was carried out to identify studies employing venous stenting for IIH. Results. From 2002 to 2014, 17 studies comprising 185 patients who underwent 221 stenting procedures were reported. Mean prestent pressure gradient was 20.1 mmHg (95% CI 19.4–20.7 mmHg) with a mean poststent gradient of 4.4 mmHg (95% CI 3.5–5.2 mmHg). Complications occurred in 10 patients (5.4%; 95% CI 4.7–5.4%) but were major in only 3 (1.6%). At a mean clinical follow-up of 22 months, clinical improvement was noted in 130 of 166 patients with headaches (78.3%; 95% CI 75.8–80.8%), 84 of 89 patients with papilledema (94.4%; 95% CI 92.1–96.6%), and 64 of 74 patients with visual symptoms (86.5%; 95% CI 83.0–89.9%). In-stent stenosis was noted in six patients (3.4%; 95% CI 2.5–4.3%) and stent-adjacent stenosis occurred in 19 patients (11.4%; 95% CI 10.4–12.4), resulting in restenting in 10 patients. Conclusion. In IIH patients with venous sinus stenosis and a physiologic pressure gradient, venous stenting appears to be a safe and effective therapeutic option. Further studies are necessary to determine the long-term outcomes and the optimal management of medically refractory IIH. PMID:26146651
Oguzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri; Yildirim, Sedat; Torun, Dilek
To evaluate dialysis history, imaging findings and outcome of endovascular treatment in six patients with central venous stenosis without a history of previous catheter placement. Between April 2000 and June 2004, six (10%) of 57 haemodialysis patients had stenosis of a central vein without a previous central catheter placement. Venography findings and outcome of endovascular treatment in these six patients were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were three women (50%) and three men aged 32-60 years (mean age: 45 years) and all had massive arm swelling as the main complaint. The vascular accesses were located at the elbow in five patients and at the wrist in one patient. Three patients had stenosis of the left subclavian vein and three patients had stenosis of the left brachiocephalic vein. The mean duration of the vascular accesses from the time of creation was 25.1 months. Flow volumes of the vascular access were very high in four patients who had flow volume measurement. The mean flow volume was 2347 ml/min. One of three patients with brachiocephalic vein stenosis had compression of the vein by the brachiocephalic artery. All the lesions were first treated with balloon angioplasty and two patients required stent placement on long term. Number of interventions ranged from 1 to 4 (mean: 2.1). Symptoms resolved in five patients and improved in one patient who had a stent placed in the left BCV. Central venous stenosis in haemodialysis patients without a history of central venous catheterization tends to occur or be manifested in patients with a proximal permanent vascular access with high flow rates. Balloon angioplasty with or without stent placement offers good secondary patency rates in mid-term.
Shi, Ya-xue; Ye, Meng; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Yi-ping; Zhang, Ji-wei
Central venous stenosis and obstruction (CVD) is a serious and prevalent challenge to both resolve the venous hypertension symptoms and maintain the pantency of the ipsilateral hemodialysis access in hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to summarize our experience of the endovascular management of the central venous stenosis or obstruction in hemodialysis patients. Twenty-four haemodialysis cases of central vein stenosis or obstruction with ipsilateral functional vascular access in our hospital between July 2006 and February 2012 were treated by interventional therapy and the data were analyzed retrospectively. Eighteen males and six females with mean age of (66.4 ± 13.8) years and manifesting with arm swelling and venous hypertension were enrolled; 62.5% of them had a history of catheterization. Venography showed stenotic lesion in 10 cases including eight cases of brachiocephalic vein stenosis and two cases of subclavian vein stenosis and 14 cases of obstruction lesions including seven cases of short brachiocephalic obstruction and seven cases of long segment obstruction. Interventional therapy was performed and the technique success rate was 83.3%. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed in nine cases and stent was performed in 11 cases firstly. The symptoms of venous hypertension were resolved after intervention in all the cases. There was no major complication and death perioperatively. During follow-up, reintervention was done, the primary patency rates were (88.9 ± 10.5)%, (64.8 ± 10.5)% and (48.6 ± 18.7)% at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after treatment in the PTA group; (90.0 ± 9.5)% and (77.1 ± 14.4)% at 6 months and 1 year after treatment in the stent group, respectively. The secondary patency rates were (48.6 ± 18.7)% in the PTA group and (83.3 ± 15.2)% in the stent group 1 year after treatment, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (primary patency, P = 0.20; secondary patency, P = 0
Kim, Kyung Rae; Ko, Gi-Young; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Yoon, Hyun-Ki
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of stent placement in the management of portal venous stenosis after curative surgery for pancreatic and biliary neoplasms. From September 1995 to April 2007, percutaneous transhepatic portal venous stent placement was attempted in 19 patients with postoperative portal venous stenosis. Portal venous stenosis was a complication of surgery in 11 patients and caused by tumor recurrence in eight patients. The clinical manifestations were ascites, hematochezia, melena, esophageal varices, and abnormal liver function. Stents were placed in the stenotic or occluded lesions after percutaneous transhepatic portography. Technical and clinical success, stent patency, and complications were evaluated. Stent placement was successful in 18 patients (technical success rate, 95%). Clinical manifestations improved in 16 patients (clinical success rate, 84%). The mean patency period among the 18 patients with technical success was 21.3 ± 23.2 months. The mean patency period of the benign stenosis group (30.1 ± 25.6 months) was longer than that of the tumor recurrence group (7.3 ± 7.7 months), and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.038). There were two cases of a minor complication (transient fever) and three cases of major complications (septicemia, liver abscess, and acute portal venous thrombosis). Percutaneous transhepatic stent placement can be safe and effective in relieving portal venous stenosis after curative surgery for pancreatic and biliary neoplasms. Patients with benign stenosis had more favorable results than did those with tumor recurrence.
Nieves Torres, Evelyn C; Yang, Binxia; Roy, Bhaskar; Janardhanan, Rajiv; Brahmbhatt, Akshaar; Leof, Ed; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Misra, Sanjay
Hemodialysis vascular access can develop venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) causing stenosis. Recent clinical and experimental data has demonstrated that there is increased expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase thrombospondin motifs-1 (ADAMTS-1) at site of VNH. The experiments outlined in the present paper were designed to test the hypothesis that targeting of the adventitia of the outflow vein of murine arteriovenous fistula (AVF) using a small hairpin RNA that inhibits ADAMTS-1 expression (LV-shRNA-ADAMTS-1) at the time of fistula creation will decrease VNH. At early time points, ADAMTS-1 expression was significantly decreased associated with a reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (LV-shRNA-ADAMTS-1 transduced vessels vs. controls). These changes in gene and protein expression resulted in favorable vascular remodeling with a significant increase in mean lumen vessel area, decrease in media/adventitia area, with a significant increase in TUNEL staining accompanied with a decrease in cellular proliferation accompanied with a reduction in CD68 staining. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ADAMTS-1 transduced vessels of the outflow vein of AVF have positive vascular remodeling.
Janardhanan, Rajiv; Brahmbhatt, Akshaar; Leof, Ed; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Misra, Sanjay
Hemodialysis vascular access can develop venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) causing stenosis. Recent clinical and experimental data has demonstrated that there is increased expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase thrombospondin motifs-1 (ADAMTS-1) at site of VNH. The experiments outlined in the present paper were designed to test the hypothesis that targeting of the adventitia of the outflow vein of murine arteriovenous fistula (AVF) using a small hairpin RNA that inhibits ADAMTS-1 expression (LV-shRNA-ADAMTS-1) at the time of fistula creation will decrease VNH. At early time points, ADAMTS-1 expression was significantly decreased associated with a reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (LV-shRNA-ADAMTS-1 transduced vessels vs. controls). These changes in gene and protein expression resulted in favorable vascular remodeling with a significant increase in mean lumen vessel area, decrease in media/adventitia area, with a significant increase in TUNEL staining accompanied with a decrease in cellular proliferation accompanied with a reduction in CD68 staining. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ADAMTS-1 transduced vessels of the outflow vein of AVF have positive vascular remodeling. PMID:24732590
Osman, Osama O; El-Magzoub, Abdul-Rahman A; Elamin, Sarra
Central vein stenosis (CVS) is a common complication of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. In this study we evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CVS among hemodialysis (HD) patients in a single center in Sudan, using Doppler ultrasound as a screening tool. The study included 106 prevalent HD patients. For every patient, we performed Duplex Doppler for the right and left jugular, subclavian and femoral veins. A patient was considered to have hemodynamically significant stenosis if the pre-stenosis to the post-stenosis velocities ratio was ≥ 2.5 or they had complete vein occlusion. Overall, 28.3% of patients had Doppler detected CVS, including 25.5% with hemodynamically significant stenosis and 2.8% with compromised flow. The prevalence of CVS was 68.4% among symptomatic patients compared to 19.5% in asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of CVS among patients with history of 0-1, 2-3 and ≥ 4 central venous catheters was 3.4%, 29.4% and 53.8% respectively (p=0.00). CVS was not more common in patients with history of previous/current jugular or femoral vein catheterization compared to no catheter placement in these veins (28.3% vs 28.6% and 35% vs 26.7% respectively; p >0.1). However, CVS was significantly more common in patients with previous/ current subclavian vein catheterization compared to no catheter placement in this vein (47.8% vs 22.9%, p = 0.02). CVS is highly prevalent among studied HD patients, particularly in the presence of suggestive clinical signs. The number of HD catheter placements and subclavian vein utilization for dialysis access impose a significantly higher risk of CVS.
Tucker, Trevor W
This paper hypothesizes that a stenosis or obstruction at a lower extremity of an internal jugular vein (IJV) would, in accordance with the physics of fluid dynamics, cause a standing pressure wave within the vein. This pressure wave would possess regions of large pressure fluctuations and other regions of relatively little fluctuation which also have substantially lower peak pressure values. If the wavelength of the hypothesized pressure wave is comparable to the distance from the obstruction to the venule end of the capillary bed, then a region of high pressure fluctuation would exist at the venules. Depending on the degree of obstruction, the pressure fluctuations at the venules of the capillary bed would be substantially greater than those that would exist in a healthy unobstructed vein. This increase in blood pressure fluctuation located at the venule end of the capillary bed, which would be equivalent to local hypertension, is predicted to reduce the pressure drop across the bed which, in turn, would reduce blood flow through the bed in accordance with Darcy's Law. Such a reduction in blood flow through the bed would be accompanied by a reduction in the transfer of oxygen, glucose and other nutrients into the brain tissue in accordance with Fick's Principle. The reduction in oxygen levels in the brain tissue (i.e. hypoxia), would, in turn, be associated with increased fatigue and decreased mental acuity in the subject patient. Also the deprivation of oxygen in the brain tissue may result in the death of oligodendrocyte cells, which, in turn would result in the deterioration of the myelin surrounding the brain's neural axons. In addition, the paper also predicts that, in cases of extreme obstruction, the predicted localized hypertension at the venule end of the capillary bed may be sufficiently high to cause a localized disruption in the blood-brain barrier. Such a disruption of the blood-brain barrier could then allow the migration of leukocytes (auto
Kotoda, Atsushi; Akimoto, Tetsu; Sugase, Taro; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Kusano, Eiji
Central venous stenosis (CVS) is a serious complication for chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Previous reports of CVS have focused on prior central venous catheterization, because of the higher prevalence and potential for prevention of such an event. However, recent studies have demonstrated that CVS may also develop without a history of central venous catheterization. Although information about the etiological backgrounds regarding the development of CVS without previous central venous catheterization have gradually accumulated, the clinical impact of the chronic compression of the central venous system by the surrounding structures, which may likely determine the central venous susceptibility to CVS, remains poorly understood. This study proposes the hypothesis that the combination of chronic venous compression at the level of thoracic outlet characterized by the natural physique and elevated venous flow induced by the creation of vascular access should be evaluated as a potential factor for the development of CVS, since they may accelerate the development of venous stenosis, presumably through the stimulation of intimal hyperplasia, and thereby the subclavian venous susceptibility to CVS should be determined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shan, Hong; Xiao, Xiang-Sheng; Huang, Ming-Sheng; Ouyang, Qiang; Jiang, Zai-Bo
To evaluate the value of endovascular stent in the treatment of portal hypertension caused by benign main portal vein stenosis. Portal vein stents were implanted in six patients with benign main portal vein stenosis (inflammatory stenosis in three cases, postprocedure of liver transplantation in another three cases). Changes in portal vein pressure, portal vein patency, relative clinical symptoms, complications, and survival were evaluated. Six metallic stents were successfully placed across the portal vein stenotic or obstructive lesions in six patients. Mean portal venous pressure decreased significantly after stent implantation from (37.3+/-4.7) cm H(2)O to (18.0+/-1.9) cm H(2)O. The portal blood flow restored and the symptoms caused by portal hypertension were eliminated. There were no severe procedure-related complications. The patients were followed up for 1-48 mo. The portal vein remained patent during follow-up. All patients survived except for one patient who died of other complications of liver transplantation. Percutaneous portal vein stent placement for the treatment of portal hypertension caused by benign main portal vein stenosis is safe and effective.
Kim, Young Chul; Won, Jong Yun, E-mail: email@example.com; Choi, Sun Young
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of endovascular treatment of central venous stenosis in patients with arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) for hemodialysis. Five hundred sixty-three patients with AVFs who were referred for a fistulogram were enrolled in this study. Among them, 44 patients showed stenosis (n = 35) or occlusions (n = 9) in the central vein. For the initial treatment, 26 patients underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and 15 patients underwent stent placements. Periods between AVF formation and first intervention ranged from 3 to 144 months. Each patient was followed for 14 to 60 months.more » Procedures were successful in 41 of 44 patients (93.2%). Primary patency rates for PTA at 12 and 36 months were 52.1% and 20.0%, and assisted primary patency rates were 77.8% and 33.3%, respectively. Primary patency rates for stent at 12 and 36 months were 46.7% and 6.7%, and assisted primary patency rates were 60.0% and 20.0%, respectively. Fifteen of 26 patients with PTAs underwent repeated interventions because of restenosis. Fourteen of 15 patients with a stent underwent repeated interventions because of restenosis and combined migration (n = 1) and shortening (n = 6) of the first stent. There was no significant difference in patency between PTAs and stent placement (p > 0.05). Average AVF patency duration was 61.8 months and average number of endovascular treatments was 2.12. In conclusion, endovascular treatments of central venous stenosis could lengthen the available period of AVFs. There was no significant difference in patency between PTAs and stent placement.« less
Meiklejohn, Duncan A; Chan, Dylan K; Lalakea, M Lauren
Subtotal parathyroidectomy may be indicated in patients with chronic renal failure and tertiary hyperparathyroidism, a population at increased risk for central venous stenosis (CVS) due to repeated vascular access. Here we report a case of complete upper airway obstruction precipitated by subtotal parathyroidectomy with ligation of anterior jugular vein collaterals in a patient with occult CVS. This case demonstrates a previously unreported risk of anterior neck surgery in patients with chronic renal failure. We present a review of the literature and discuss elements of the history and physical examination suggestive of occult CVS, with additional workup proposed for appropriate cases. Recommendations are discussed for perioperative and postoperative care in patients at increased risk for CVS.
Petersen, Sven; Hellmich, Gunter; Schumann, Dietrich; Schuster, Anja; Ludwig, Klaus
Background Within the last years, stapled rectal mucosectomy (SRM) has become a widely accepted procedure for second and third degree hemorrhoids. One of the delayed complications is a stenosis of the lower rectum. In order to evaluate the specific problem of rectal stenosis following SRM we reviewed our data with special respect to potential predictive factors or stenotic events. Methods A retrospective analysis of 419 consecutive patients, which underwent SRM from December 1998 to August 2003 was performed. Only patients with at least one follow-up check were evaluated, thus the analysis includes 289 patients with a mean follow-up of 281 days (±18 days). For statistic analysis the groups with and without stenosis were evaluated using the Chi-Square Test, using the Kaplan-Meier statistic the actuarial incidence for rectal stenosis was plotted. Results Rectal stenosis was observed in 9 patients (3.1%), eight of these stenoses were detected within the first 100 days after surgery; the median time to stenosis was 95 days. Only one patient had a rectal stenosis after more than one year. 8 of the 9 patients had no obstructive symptoms, however the remaining patients complained of obstructive defecation and underwent surgery for transanal strictureplasty with electrocautery. A statistical analysis revealed that patients with stenosis had significantly more often prior treatment for hemorrhoids (p < 0.01). According to the SRM only severe postoperative pain was significantly associated with stenoses (p < 0.01). Other factors, such as gender (p = 0.11), surgical technique (p = 0.25), revision (p = 0.79) or histological evidence of squamous skin (p = 0.69) showed no significance. Conclusion Rectal stenosis is an uncommon event after SRM. Early stenosis will occur within the first three months after surgery. The majority of the stenoses are without clinical relevance. Only one of nine patients had to undergo surgery for a relevant stenosis. The predictive factor for
Santoshi, Ratnam K N; Lakhanpal, Sanjiv; Satwah, Vinay; Lakhanpal, Gaurav; Malone, Michael; Pappas, Peter J
Reflux in the ovarian veins, with or without an obstructive venous outflow component, is reported to be the primary cause of pelvic venous insufficiency (PVI). The degree to which venous outflow obstruction plays a role in PVI is currently ill-defined. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 227 women with PVI who presented to the Center for Vascular Medicine from January 2012 to September 2015. Assessments and interventions consisted of an evaluation for other causes of chronic pelvic pain by a gynecologist; preintervention and postintervention visual analog scale (VAS) pain score; complete venous duplex ultrasound examination; and Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology classification. All patients underwent diagnostic venography of their pelvic and left ovarian veins as well as intravascular ultrasound of their iliac veins. Patients were treated in one of six ways: ovarian vein embolization (OVE) alone (chemical ± coils), OVE with staged iliac vein stenting, OVE with simultaneous iliac vein stenting, iliac vein stenting alone, OVE with venoplasty, and venoplasty alone. Of the 227 women treated, the average age and number of pregnancies was 46.4 ± 10.4 years and 3.36 ± 1.99, respectively. Treatment distribution was the following: OVE, n = 39; OVE with staged stenting, n = 94; OVE with simultaneous stenting, n = 33; stenting alone, n = 50; OVE with venoplasty, n = 8; and venoplasty alone, n = 3. Seven patients in the OVE and stenting groups (staged) and one patient in the OVE + venoplasty group required a second embolization of the left ovarian vein. Eighty percent (181/227) of patients demonstrated an iliac stenosis >50% by intravascular ultrasound. Average VAS scores for the entire cohort before and after intervention were 8.45 ± 1.11 and 1.86 ± 1.61 (P ≤ .001). In the staged group, only 9 of 94 patients reported a decrease in the VAS score with OVE alone. VAS score decreased from 8.6 ± 0.89 before OVE to 7.97 ± 2.10 after OVE
Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S. M. Javid; Cassel, Kevin; Hammes, Mary; Boghosian, Michael; Illinois Institute of Technology Team; University of Chicago Team
Venous stenosis developed after the growth of excessive neointimal hyperplasia (NH) in chronic dialysis treatment is a major cause of mortality in renal failure patients. It has been hypothesized that the low wall shear stress (WSS) triggers an adaptive response in patients' venous system that through the growth of neointimal hyperplastic lesions restores WSS and transmural pressure, which also regulates the blood flow rate back to physiologically acceptable values which is violated by dialysis treatment. A strong coupling of three-dimensional CFD and shape optimization analyses were exploited to elucidate and forecast this adaptive response which correlates very well topographically with patient-specific clinical data. Based on the framework developed, a medical protocol is suggested to predict and prevent dialysis treatment failure in clinical practice. Supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (R01 DK90769).
Patel, Darshan; Ray, Charles E.; Lokken, R. Peter; Bui, James T.; Lipnik, Andrew J.; Gaba, Ron C.
Surgically placed dialysis access is an important component of dialysis replacement therapy. The vast majority of patients undergoing dialysis will have surgically placed accesses at some point in the course of their disease, and for many patients these accesses may represent their definitive renal replacement option. Most, if not all, arteriovenous fistulae and grafts will require interventions at some point in time. Percutaneous angioplasty is the typical first treatment performed for venous stenoses, with stents and stent grafts being reserved for patients in whom angioplasty and surgical options are exhausted. In some salvage situations, stent graft placement may be the only or best option for patients. This article describes, using case illustrations, placement of stent grafts in such patients; a focus will also be made on the techniques utilized in such salvage situations. PMID:27011426
Yang, Binxia; Janardhanan, Rajiv; Vohra, Pawan; Greene, Eddie L; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Withers, Sarah; Roy, Bhaskar; Nieves Torres, Evelyn C; Mandrekar, Jaywant; Leof, Edward B; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Misra, Sanjay
Venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) causes hemodialysis vascular access failure. Here we tested whether VNH formation occurs in part due to local vessel hypoxia caused by surgical trauma to the vasa vasorum of the outflow vein at the time of arteriovenous fistula placement. Selective targeting of the adventitia of the outflow vein at the time of fistula creation was performed using a lentivirus-delivered small-hairpin RNA that inhibits VEGF-A expression. This resulted in significant increase in mean lumen vessel area, decreased media/adventitia area, and decreased constrictive remodeling with a significant increase in apoptosis (increase in caspase 3 activity and TUNEL staining) accompanied with decreased cellular proliferation and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α at the outflow vein. There was significant decrease in cells staining positive for α-smooth muscle actin (a myofibroblast marker) and VEGFR-1 expression with a decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9. These results were confirmed in animals that were treated with humanized monoclonal antibody to VEGF-A with similar results. Since hypoxia can cause fibroblast to differentiate into myofibroblasts, we silenced VEGF-A gene expression in fibroblasts and subjected them to hypoxia. This decreased myofibroblast production, cellular proliferation, cell invasion, MMP-2 activity, and increased caspase 3. Thus, VEGF-A reduction at the time of arteriovenous fistula placement results in increased positive vascular remodeling.
Yang, Binxia; Janardhanan, Rajiv; Vohra, Pawan; Greene, Eddie L; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Withers, Sarah; Roy, Bhaskar; Nieves Torres, Evelyn C; Mandrekar, Jaywant; Leof, Edward B; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Misra, Sanjay
Venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) causes hemodialysis vascular access failure. Here we tested whether VNH formation occurs in part due to local vessel hypoxia caused by surgical trauma to the vasa vasorum of the outflow vein at the time of arteriovenous fistula placement. Selective targeting of the adventitia of the outflow vein at the time of fistula creation was performed using a lentivirus-delivered small-hairpin RNA that inhibits VEGF-A expression. This resulted in significant increase in mean lumen vessel area, decreased media/adventitia area, and decreased constrictive remodeling with a significant increase in apoptosis (increase in caspase 3 activity and TUNEL staining) accompanied with decreased cellular proliferation and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α at the outflow vein. There was significant decrease in cells staining positive for α-smooth muscle actin (a myofibroblast marker) and VEGFR-1 expression with a decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9. These results were confirmed in animals that were treated with humanized monoclonal antibody to VEGF-A with similar results. Since hypoxia can cause fibroblast to differentiate into myofibroblasts, we silenced VEGF-A gene expression in fibroblasts and subjected them to hypoxia. This decreased myofibroblast production, cellular proliferation, cell invasion, MMP-2 activity, and increased caspase 3. Thus, VEGF-A reduction at the time of arteriovenous fistula placement results in increased positive vascular remodeling. PMID:23924957
Casanegra, Ana I; McBane, Robert D; Bjarnason, Haraldur
The post thrombotic syndrome is one of the most dreaded complications of proximal deep vein thrombosis. This syndrome leads to pain and suffering with leg swelling, recalcitrant ulceration and venous claudication which greatly impairs mobility and quality of life. The prevalence can be high in patients with iliofemoral venous involvement particularly in the setting of a proximal venous stenosis, such as occurs in May Thurner syndrome. Anticoagulation alone does not reduce the likelihood of this outcome. Compression therapy may be effective but garment discomfort limits its implementation. Pharmacomechanical thrombectomy, which combines catheter-directed thrombolysis with mechanical thrombus dissolution, provides an attractive treatment strategy for such patients. The rationale and delivery of pharmacomechanical thrombectomy, including patient selection and adjunctive antithrombotic therapy, will be reviewed in addition to tips and tricks for managing difficult patient scenarios. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lansley, J A; Tucker, W; Eriksen, M R; Riordan-Eva, P; Connor, S E J
Pulsatile tinnitus is experienced by most patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The pathophysiology remains uncertain; however, transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence have been proposed as potential etiologies. We aimed to determine whether the prevalence of transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence was increased in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and pulsatile tinnitus relative to those without pulsatile tinnitus and a control group. CT vascular studies of patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension with pulsatile tinnitus ( n = 42), without pulsatile tinnitus ( n = 37), and controls ( n = 75) were independently reviewed for the presence of severe transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence according to published criteria. The prevalence of transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension with pulsatile tinnitus was compared with that in the nonpulsatile tinnitus idiopathic intracranial hypertension group and the control group. Further comparisons included differing degrees of transverse sinus stenosis (50% and 75%), laterality of transverse sinus stenosis/sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence, and ipsilateral transverse sinus stenosis combined with sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence. Severe bilateral transverse sinus stenoses were more frequent in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension than in controls ( P < .001), but there was no significant association between transverse sinus stenosis and pulsatile tinnitus within the idiopathic intracranial hypertension group. Sigmoid sinus dehiscence (right- or left-sided) was also more common in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension compared with controls ( P = .01), but there was no significant association with pulsatile tinnitus within the idiopathic intracranial hypertension group. While our data
Merwick, Áine; Albers, Gregory W; Arsava, Ethem M; Ay, Hakan; Calvet, David; Coutts, Shelagh B; Cucchiara, Brett L; Demchuk, Andrew M; Giles, Matthew F; Mas, Jean-Louis; Olivot, Jean Marc; Purroy, Francisco; Rothwell, Peter M; Saver, Jeffrey L; Sharma, Vijay K; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kelly, Peter J
Background and Purpose Statins reduce stroke risk when initiated months after TIA/stroke and reduce early vascular events in acute coronary syndromes, possibly via pleiotropic plaque-stabilisation. Few data exist regarding acute statin use in TIA. We aimed to determine if statin pre-treatment at TIA onset modified early stroke risk in carotid stenosis. Methods We analyzed data from 2770 TIA patients from 11 centres, 387 with ipsilateral carotid stenosis. ABCD2 score, abnormal DWI, medication pre-treatment, and early stroke were recorded. Results In patients with carotid stenosis, 7-day stroke risk was 8.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.7–11.1) compared with 2.7% [CI 2.0–3.4%] without stenosis (p<0.0001) (90-day risks 17.8% and 5.7% [p<0.0001]). Among carotid stenosis patients, non-procedural 7-day stroke risk was 3.8% [CI 1.2–9.7%] with statin treatment at TIA onset, compared to 13.2% [CI 8.5–19.8%] in those not statin pre-treated (p=0.01) (90-day risks 8.9% versus 20.8% [p=0.01]). Statin pre-treatment was associated with reduced stroke risk in carotid stenosis patients (OR for 90-day stroke 0.37, CI 0.17–0.82), but not non-stenosis patients (OR 1.3, CI 0.8–2.24) (p for interaction 0.008). On multivariable logistic regression, the association remained after adjustment for ABCD2 score, smoking, antiplatelet treatment, recent TIA, and DWI hyperintensity (adjusted p for interaction 0.054). Conclusion In acute symptomatic carotid stenosis, statin pre-treatment was associated with reduced stroke risk, consistent with findings from randomized trials in acute coronary syndromes. These data support the hypothesis that statins started acutely after TIA symptom onset may also be beneficial to prevent early stroke. Randomized trials addressing this question are required. PMID:23908061
Rausch, Manuel K.; Humphrey, Jay D.
Accumulative damage may be an important contributor to many cases of thrombotic disease progression. Thus, a complete understanding of the pathological role of thrombus requires an understanding of its mechanics and in particular mechanical consequences of damage. In the current study, we introduce a novel microstructurally inspired constitutive model for thrombus that considers a non-uniform distribution of microstructural fibers at various crimp levels and employs one of the distribution parameters to incorporate stretch-driven damage on the microscopic level. To demonstrate its ability to represent the mechanical behavior of thrombus, including a recently reported Mullins type damage phenomenon, we fit our model to uniaxial tensile test data of early venous thrombus. Our model shows an agreement with these data comparable to previous models for damage in elastomers with the added advantages of a microstructural basis and fewer model parameters. We submit that our novel approach marks another important step toward modeling the evolving mechanics of intraluminal thrombus, specifically its damage, and hope it will aid in the study of physiological and pathological thrombotic events. PMID:26523784
Fornarino, Stefania; Rossi, Daniela Paola; Severino, Mariasavina; Pistorio, Angela; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Martelli, Simona; Doria Lamba, Laura; Lanteri, Paola
To evaluate the contribution of somatosensory evoked potentials after median nerve (MN-SEPs) and posterior tibial nerve (PTN-SEPs) stimulation in functional assessment of cervical and lumbar spinal stenosis in children with achondroplasia. We reviewed MN-SEPs, PTN-SEPs, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations performed in 58 patients with achondroplasia (25 males, 33 females; age range 21d-16y 10mo; mean age 4y 3mo [SD 4y 1mo]). Patients were subdivided into four age categories: <2 years, between 2 to 4 years, between 4 to 8 years, and ≥8 years. The peak latency of P37 for PTN-SEPs, the peak latencies of N11, N13, P14, and N20, and the N13-N20 interpeak latency (IPL) for MN-SEPs were collected; the diagnostic accuracy measures of these parameters (analysis of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curves) with respect to the presence of foramen magnum or lumbar spinal stenosis were analysed in each age category. The ROC curve analysis showed that the most sensitive parameter in detecting the presence of foramen magnum stenosis was P37 latency in the first two age categories (<2y and ≥2-4y; sensitivity 0.63, specificity 1.00, and sensitivity 1.00, specificity 0.75 respectively). In the third age category (≥4-8y), the most sensitive parameter in detecting the presence of foramen magnum stenosis was IPLs N13-N20 (sensitivity 0.73, specificity 0.87), whereas in the last age category (≥8y), the most important parameter was N20 latency (sensitivity 0.75, specificity 0.77). In children with achondroplasia, the cortical component of PTN-SEPs is more sensitive than the cortical component and central conduction time of MN-SEPs in detection of cervical spinal cord compression at early ages. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.
Meissner, Mark H; Gloviczki, Peter; Comerota, Anthony J; Dalsing, Michael C; Eklof, Bo G; Gillespie, David L; Lohr, Joann M; McLafferty, Robert B; Murad, M Hassan; Padberg, Frank; Pappas, Peter; Raffetto, Joseph D; Wakefield, Thomas W
The anticoagulant treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been historically directed toward the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. However, such treatment imperfectly protects against late manifestations of the postthrombotic syndrome. By restoring venous patency and preserving valvular function, early thrombus removal strategies can potentially decrease postthrombotic morbidity. A committee of experts in venous disease was charged by the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum to develop evidence-based practice guidelines for early thrombus removal strategies, including catheter-directed pharmacologic thrombolysis, pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, and surgical thrombectomy. Evidence-based recommendations are based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relevant literature, supplemented when necessary by less rigorous data. Recommendations are made according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, incorporating the strength of the recommendation (strong: 1; weak: 2) and an evaluation of the level of the evidence (A to C). On the basis of the best evidence currently available, we recommend against routine use of the term "proximal venous thrombosis" in favor of more precise characterization of thrombi as involving the iliofemoral or femoropopliteal venous segments (Grade 1A). We further suggest the use of early thrombus removal strategies in ambulatory patients with good functional capacity and a first episode of iliofemoral DVT of <14 days in duration (Grade 2C) and strongly recommend their use in patients with limb-threatening ischemia due to iliofemoral venous outflow obstruction (Grade 1A). We suggest pharmacomechanical strategies over catheter-directed pharmacologic thrombolysis alone if resources are available and that surgical thrombectomy be considered if thrombolytic therapy is contraindicated (Grade 2C). Most data regarding early thrombus removal
Bozkurt, Engin; Keleş, Telat; Durmaz, Tahir; Akçay, Murat; Ayhan, Hüseyin; Bayram, Nihal Akar; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Baştuğ, Serdal; Bilen, Emine
Introduction Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a promising alternative to high risk surgical aortic valve replacement. The procedure is mainly indicated in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who cannot undergo surgery or who are at very high surgical risk. Aim Description early results of our single-center experience with balloon expandable aortic valve implantation. Material and methods Between July 2011 and August 2012, we screened in total 75 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis and high risk for surgery. Twenty-one of them were found ineligible for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) because of various reasons, and finally we treated a total of 54 patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) who could not be treated by open heart surgery (inoperable) because of high-risk criteria. The average age of the patients was 77.4 ±7.1; 27.8% were male and 72.2% were female. The number of patients in NYHA class II was 7 while the number of patients in class III and class IV was 47. Results The average mortality score of patients according to the STS scoring system was 8.5%. Pre-implantation mean and maximal aortic valve gradients were measured as 53.2 ±14.1 mm Hg and 85.5 ±18.9 mm Hg, respectively. Post-implantation mean and maximal aortic valve gradients were 9.0 ±3.0 and 18.2 ±5.6, respectively (p < 0.0001). The left ventricular ejection fraction was calculated as 54.7 ±14.4% before the operation and 58.0 ±11.1% after the operation (p < 0.0001). The duration of discharge after the operation was 5.29 days, and a statistically significant correlation between the duration of discharge after the operation and STS was found (r = 0385, p = 0.004). Conclusions We consider that with decreasing cost and increasing treatment experience, TAVI will be used more frequently in broader indications. Our experience with TAVI using the Edwards-Sapien XT (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) devices suggests that this is an
Chandra, Dinesh; Gupta, Anubhav; Nath, Ranjit K.; kazmi, Aamir; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay K.
Background The anatomical variability in patients with anomalous pulmonary venous connection to superior vena cava presents a surgical challenge. The problem is further compounded by the common occurrence of postoperative complications like arrhythmias and obstruction of the superior vena cava or pulmonary veins. We present our experience of managing this subset using the two patch and Warden's techniques. Patients and methods Between June 2011 and September 2012, 7 patients with APVC to the SVC were operated in our institute. After delineating the anatomy, five of them had a two patch repair and two were managed with Warden's technique. Results There was no in-hospital mortality or early mortality over a mean follow-up of 9.66 ± 3.88 months (range 6–15 months). All the patients on follow-up had unobstructed pulmonary venous and SVC drainage on echocardiography and all of them were in normal sinus rhythm. Conclusions Anomalous pulmonary venous connection to superior vena cava is a challenging subset of patients in whom the surgical management needs to be individualized. The detailed anatomy must be delineated using echocardiography with or without CT angiography before deciding the surgical plan. This entity can be repaired with excellent immediate and early results. However, these patients must be closely followed up for complications like systemic and pulmonary venous obstruction and sinus node dysfunction. PMID:24206880
Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Hsieh, Fang-I; Yeh, Hsu-Ling; Chen, Wei-Hung; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Tang, Sung-Chun; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Lin, Huey-Juan; Hsu, Shih-Pin; Lo, Yuk-Keung; Chan, Lung; Chen, Chih-Hung; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Chen, Yu-Wei; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sun, Ming-Hui; Lai, Ta-Chang; Sun, Yu; Sun, Mu-Chien; Chen, Po-Lin; Chiang, Tsuey-Ru; Lin, Shinn-Kuang; Yip, Bak-Sau; Chen, Chin-I; Bai, Chi-Huey; Chen, Sien-Tsong; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Lien, Li-Ming; Hsu, Chung Y.
Background Asians have higher frequency of intracranial arterial stenosis. The present study aimed to compare the clinical features and outcomes of ischemic stroke patients with and without middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis, assessed by transcranial sonography (TCS), based on the Taiwan Stroke Registry (TSR). Methods Patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack registered in the TSR, and received both carotid duplex and TCS assessment were categorized into those with stenosis (≥50%) and without (<50%) in the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and MCA, respectively. Logistic regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model were applied to assess relevant variables between groups. Results Of 6003 patients, 23.3% had MCA stenosis, 10.1% ICA stenosis, and 3.9% both MCA and ICA stenosis. Patients with MCA stenosis had greater initial NIHSS, higher likelihood of stroke-in-evolution, and more severe disability than those without (all p<0.001). Patients with MCA stenosis had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Patients with combined MCA and extracranial ICA stenosis had even higher NIHSS, worse functional outcome, higher risk of stroke recurrence or death (hazard ratio, 2.204; 95% confidence intervals, 1.440–3.374; p<0.001) at 3 months after stroke than those without MCA stenosis. Conclusions In conclusion, MCA stenosis was more prevalent than extracranial ICA stenosis in ischemic stroke patients in Taiwan. Patients with MCA stenosis, especially combined extracranial ICA stenosis, had more severe neurological deficit and worse outcome. PMID:28388675
Ucar, Adem, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Yahyayev, Aghakishi, E-mail: email@example.com; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.
Gatzoulis, M A; Shinebourne, E A; Redington, A N; Rigby, M L; Ho, S Y; Shore, D F
To show that abnormal systemic venous channels in patients who undergo cavopulmonary anastomoses can become manifest and haemodynamically important only after surgery despite detailed preoperative investigation. Descriptive study of patients fulfilling the above criteria selected from hospital records over the past three years. A tertiary referral centre. Of the three cases identified, two were isomeric, one with left atrial isomerism and hemiazygos continuation of the inferior vena cava who underwent bilateral bidirectional Glenn anastomoses and one with right isomerism who underwent total cavopulmonary anastomosis. Case 3 had absent left atrioventricular connection with a hypoplastic left lung and underwent a classic right Glenn procedure. All three cases presented with progressive cyanosis in the early postoperative period. Postoperative angiography in case 1 showed a remnant of a left inferior vena cava draining to the atrium to have become grossly dilated causing cyanosis, which resolved after redirection of this vessel and of the hepatic veins into the right pulmonary artery with an intra-atrial baffle. Cyanosis in case 2 was caused by intra-hepatic shunting to a hepatic vein draining to the left of the intra-atrial baffle. The diagnosis was made at necropsy, being overlooked on postoperative angiography. Repeat angiography in case 3 showed progressive dilatation of a small left superior vena cava to coronary sinus. Test occlusion with a view to embolisation revealed hitherto an undemonstrated hemiazygos continuation of inferior caval to brachiocephalic vein. The patient underwent surgical ligation of these two venous channels. Despite appropriate investigation some "abnormal" venous pathways manifest themselves, dilate, and become haemodynamically important only after surgical cavopulmonary anastomoses. In the presence of early postoperative cyanosis "new" systemic venous collateral channels should be considered as a possible cause, which may require
... valve . Learn about the different types of stenosis: Aortic stenosis Tricuspid stenosis Pulmonary stenosis Mitral stenosis Outlook for ... Disease "Innocent" Heart Murmur Problem: Valve Stenosis - Problem: Aortic Valve Stenosis - Problem: Mitral Valve Stenosis - Problem: Tricuspid Valve Stenosis - ...
Hallbergson, Anna; Esch, Jesse J; Tran, Trang X; Lock, James E; Marshall, Audrey C
We have taken a novel approach using oral rapamycin - sirolimus - as a medical adjunct to percutaneous therapy in patients with in-stent stenosis and high risk of right ventricular failure. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis can result in right ventricular hypertension, dysfunction, and death. Percutaneous pulmonary artery angioplasty and stent placement acutely relieve obstructions, but patients frequently require re-interventions due to re-stenosis. In patients with tetralogy of Fallot or arteriopathy, the problem of in-stent stenosis contributes to the rapidly recurrent disease. Rapamycin was administered to 10 patients (1.5-18 years) with peripheral pulmonary stenosis and in-stent stenosis and either right ventricular hypertension, pulmonary blood flow maldistribution, or segmental pulmonary hypertension. Treatment was initiated around the time of catheterisation and continued for 1-3 months. Potential side-effects were monitored by clinical review and blood tests. Target serum rapamycin level (6-10 ng/ml) was accomplished in all patients; eight of the nine patients who returned for clinically indicated catheterisations demonstrated reduction in in-stent stenosis, and eight of the 10 patients experienced no significant side-effects. Among all, one patient developed diarrhoea requiring drug discontinuation, and one patient experienced gastrointestinal bleeding while on therapy that was likely due to an indwelling feeding tube and this patient tolerated rapamycin well following tube removal. Our initial clinical experience supports that patients with peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis can be safely treated with rapamycin. Systemic rapamycin may provide a novel medical approach to reduce in-stent stenosis.
Agarwal, Anil K
Central vein stenosis (CVS) is a common complication of the central venous catheter (CVC) placement. The prevalence of CVS has mostly been studied in those who present with symptoms such as swelling of the extremity, neck and breast. CVS compromises arteriovenous access and can be resistant to treatment. A previous history of CVC placement is the most important risk factor for the development of CVS later. Pacemaker and defibrillator wires are associated with a high incidence of CVS. Increasingly liberal use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) is likely to increase the incidence of CVS. The trauma and inflammation related to the catheter placement is thought to result in microthrombi formation, intimal hyperplasia and fibrotic response, with development of CVS. Treatment of CVS by endovascular procedures involves angioplasty of the stenosis. An elastic or recurrent stenosis may require a stent placement. The long-term benefits of the endovascular procedures, although improved with newer technology, remain modest. Surgical options are usually limited. Future studies to explore the pathogenesis and the use of novel therapies to prevent and treat CVS are needed. The key to reducing the prevalence of CVS is in reducing CVC placement and placement of arteriovenous accesses prior to initiating dialysis. Early referral of the patients to the nephrologists by the primary care physicians is important. Timely vein mapping and referral to the surgeon for fistula creation can obviate the need for a CVC and decrease incidence of CVS.
BACKGROUND: To determine potential mechanisms of the transition from hypertrophy to very early failure, we examined apoptosis in a model of ascending aortic stenosis (AS) in male FVB/n mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Compared with age-matched controls, 4-week and 7-week AS animals (n=12 to 16 per group) had increased ratios of left ventricular weight to body weight (4.7+/-0.7 versus 3.1+/-0.2 and 5. 7+/-0.4 versus 2.7+/-0.1 mg/g, respectively, P<0.05) with similar body weights. Myocyte width was also increased in 4-week and 7-week AS mice compared with controls (19.0+/-0.8 and 25.2+/-1.8 versus 14. 1+/-0.5 microm, respectively, P<0.01). By 7 weeks, AS myocytes displayed branching with distinct differences in intercalated disk size and staining for beta(1)-integrin on both cell surface and adjacent extracellular matrix. In vivo left ventricular systolic developed pressure per gram as well as endocardial fractional shortening were similar in 4-week AS and controls but depressed in 7-week AS mice. Myocyte apoptosis estimated by in situ nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was extremely rare in 4-week AS and control mice; however, a low prevalence of TUNEL-positive myocytes and DNA laddering were detected in 7-week AS mice. The specificity of TUNEL labeling was confirmed by in situ ligation of hairpin oligonucleotides. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that myocyte apoptosis develops during the transition from hypertrophy to early failure in mice with chronic biomechanical stress and support the hypothesis that the disruption of normal myocyte anchorage to adjacent extracellular matrix and cells, a process called anoikis, may signal apoptosis.
Wen, Jing; Lu, Zhongsheng; Liu, Qingsen
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for the treatment of esophageal mucosal lesions is associated with a risk of esophageal stenosis, especially for near-circumferential or circumferential esophageal mucosal defects. Here, we review historic and modern studies on the prevention and treatment of esophageal stenosis after ESD. These methods include prevention via pharmacological treatment, endoscopic autologous cell transplantation, endoscopic esophageal dilatation, and stent placement. This short review will focus on direct prevention and treatment, which may help guide the way forward. PMID:25386186
... stenosis; LBP - stenosis Patient Instructions Spine surgery - discharge Images Sciatic nerve Spinal stenosis Spinal stenosis References Försth P, Ólafsson G, Carlsson T, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of fusion surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. N Engl J ...
Cherian, Laurel J; Smith, Eric E; Schwamm, Lee H; Fonarow, Gregg C; Schulte, Phillip J; Xian, Ying; Wu, Jingjing; Prabhakaran, Shyam K
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Guidelines recommend early VTE prophylaxis. To determine characteristics associated with early chemoprophylaxis (CP) after ICH in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke registry. In this observational cohort study, we identified patients with ICH between January 1, 2009 and September 30, 2013, who (1) were non-ambulatory and/or not comfort care measures by hospital day 2; (2) were not transferred to another acute care facility; and (3) had known VTE prophylaxis status at end of hospital day 2. Categories for VTE prophylaxis were as follows: (1) mechanical non-CP or (2) CP with or without mechanical prophylaxis. Early prophylaxis was defined as occurring by hospital day 2. Using multivariable logistic regression, we assessed patient, hospital, and geographic factors independently associated with early CP use. Among 74 283 patients with ICH from 1358 hospitals, 5929 (7.9%) received early CP, 66 444 (89.4%) received early mechanical/non-CP, and 1910 (2.6%) had no prophylaxis, mechanical or CP, within the first 2 days. There was no increase in early CP use over the study period; 60% of hospitals provided early CP to <9% of patients. In multivariable analysis, female sex, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, coronary, carotid, and peripheral artery disease, prior ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, hospital size >500 beds, and geographic region were independently associated with early vs no early CP use. Nationwide, the large majority of ICH patients receive early mechanical VTE prophylaxis only, without CP. Patient comorbidities and hospital characteristics such as geographic location are determinants of higher use of early CP. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Yang, Bo; DeBenedictus, Christina; Watt, Tessa; Farley, Sean; Salita, Alona; Hornsby, Whitney; Wu, Xiaoting; Herbert, Morley; Likosky, Donald; Bolling, Steven F
To provide initial evidence on the management of mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension (PH) based on short-term and long-term outcomes following mitral valve surgery. Consecutive patients with mitral stenosis (n = 317) who had undergone mitral valve surgery between 1992 and 2014 with recorded pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) data were reviewed. PH severity, based on systolic PAP, was categorized as mild (35 to 44 mm Hg), moderate (45 to 59 mm Hg), or severe (>60 mm Hg). Primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and long-term survival. There were no significant between-group differences in age or preoperative comorbidities. Mitral valve surgery included mitral valve replacement (78%) and repair (22%). The severe PH group had more mitral valve replacement (81%; P = .04), severe tricuspid valve regurgitation (31%; P = .003), right heart failure (17%; P = .02), and concomitant tricuspid valve procedures (46%; P < .001). For severe PH, 30-day mortality was 9%, with no significant group differences. Ten- and 12-year survival were significantly worse in the moderate-severe PH group (58% and 51%, respectively) compared with the normal PAP-mild PH group (83% and 79%, respectively) with a hazard ratio of 2.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.55-5.75; P = .001). Ten-year survival after mitral valve surgery for mitral stenosis was inversely associated with preoperative PAP. Mitral valve surgery can be performed with acceptable 30-day mortality for patients with mitral stenosis and moderate to severe PH, but long-term survival is impaired by moderate to severe PH. Patients with mitral stenosis and mild PH (systolic PAP 35-44 mm Hg) should be considered for mitral valve surgery. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hyperglycemia-Induced Modulation of the Physiognomy and Angiogenic Potential of Fibroblasts Mediated by Matrix Metalloproteinase-2: Implications for Venous Stenosis Formation Associated with Hemodialysis Vascular Access in Diabetic Milieu.
Janardhanan, Rajiv; Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Leof, Edward B; Misra, Sanjay
It is hypothesized that venous stenosis formation associated with hemodialysis vascular-access failure is caused by hypoxia-mediated fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation accompanied by proliferation and migration, and that diabetic patients have worse clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the functional and gene expression outcomes of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (Mmp-2) silencing in fibroblasts cultured under hyperglycemia and euglycemia with hypoxic and normoxic stimuli. AKR-2B fibroblasts were stably transduced using lentivirus-mediated shRNA-Mmp-2 or scrambled controls and subjected to hypoxia or normoxia under hyperglycemic or euglycemic conditions for 24 and 72 h. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A), Vegfr-1, Mmp-2, Mmp-9 and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (Timps) were determined by RT-PCR. Collagen I and IV secretion and cellular proliferation and migration were determined. Under hyperglycemic conditions, there is a significant reduction in the average gene expression of Vegf-A and Mmp-9, with an increase in Timp-1 at 24 h of hypoxia (p < 0.05) in Mmp-2-silenced fibroblasts when compared to controls. In addition, there is a decrease in collagen I and IV secretion and cellular migration. The euglycemic cells were able to reverse these findings. These findings demonstrate the rationale for using anti-Mmp-2 therapy in dialysis patients with hemodialysis vascular access in helping to reduce stenosis formation. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Yamamoto, Junkoh; Kakeda, Shingo; Takahashi, Mayu; Idei, Masaru; Nakano, Yoshiteru; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Saito, Takeshi; Akiba, Daisuke; Shibata, Eiji; Korogi, Yukunori; Nishizawa, Shigeru
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) rarely induces subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). During late pregnancy and puerperium, CVT is an uncommon but important cause of stroke. However, severe SAH resulting from CVT is extremely rare during early pregnancy. We report on a rare case of severe SAH due to CVT, and discuss the potential pitfalls of CVT diagnosis in early pregnancy. A 32-year-old pregnant woman (9th week of pregnancy) presented with slight head dullness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed focal, abnormal signal intensity in the left thalamus. Nine days later, the patient developed a generalized seizure and severe SAH was detected with computed tomography (CT) scan. MRI and cerebral angiography revealed a completely thrombosed superior sagittal sinus, vein of Galen, straight sinus, and right transverse sinus. Transvaginal sonography indicated a missed abortion. The day after admission, the patient presented again with a progressive loss of consciousness and signs of herniation. The patient underwent emergency decompressive craniotomy, followed by intrauterine curettage. Two months later, she made an excellent recovery except for a slight visual field defect. A rare case of severe SAH due to CVT is reported, with emphasis on the potential pitfalls of CVT diagnosis in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Qi; Duan, Jiangang; Fan, Zhaoyang; Qu, Xiaofeng; Xie, Yibin; Nguyen, Christopher; Du, Xiangying; Bi, Xiaoming; Li, Kuncheng; Ji, Xunming; Li, Debiao
Background and Purpose Early diagnosis of cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVT) is currently a major clinical challenge. We proposed a novel MR black-blood thrombus imaging technique(MRBTI) for detection and quantification of CVT. Methods MRBTI was performed on 23 patients with proven CVT and 24 patients with negative CVT confirmed by conventional imaging techniques. Patients were divided into two groups based on the duration of clinical onset: ≤ 7 days (group 1); between 7 and 30 days (group 2). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated for the detected thrombus and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured between thrombus and lumen, and also between thrombus and brain tisssue. The feasibility of using MRBTI for thrombus volume measurement was explored and total thrombus volume was calculated for each patient. Results In 23 patients with proven CVT, MRBTI correctly identified 113 out of 116 segments with a sensitivity of 97.4%. Thrombus SNR was 153±57 and 261±95 for group 1(n=10) and group 2(n=13), respectively(P<0.01). Thrombus to lumen CNR was 149±57 and 256±94 for group 1 and group 2. Thrombus to brain tissue CNR was 41±36 and 120±63 (P<0.01), respectively. Quantification of thrombus volume was successfully conducted in all patients with CVT, and mean volume of thrombus was 10.5±6.9cc. Conclusions The current findings support that with effectively suppressed blood signal, MRBTI allows selective visualization of thrombus as opposed to indirect detection of venous flow perturbation and can be used as a promising first line diagnostic imaging tool. PMID:26670082
Müller-Hülsbeck, S; Jahnke, T; Grimm, J; Behm, C; Hilbert, C; Frahm, C; Biederer, J; Brossmann, J; Heller, M
To evaluate the technical feasibility of a new monorail-stent-balloon device for treatment of renal artery stenosis (RAS). During a study period of 18 months, 38 patients with proven RAS in 41 cases (hypertension n = 36, renal insufficiency n = 13) and indication for stenting (calicified ostial lesions n = 35, insufficient PTA n = 4, dissection n = 2) were enrolled into this prospective evaluation. Pre-mounted stents (Rx-Herculink(TM) 5 mm = 13, 6 mm = 34, 7 mm = 1) were implanted a transfemoral (n = 35) or transbrachial approach (n = 6). Mean grade and lengths of stenosis measured were 88 % plus minus 10 and 9 mm plus minus 5. Renal stent implantation was technically successful in all cases (100 %). In 7 cases a second stent had to be implanted to cover the entire lesion. The transstenotic pressure drop decreased from 88 mmHg plus minus 10 before to 1 mmHg plus minus 1.8 after the procedure. Remaining stenosis measured 0.7 % plus minus 4.2. Serum creatine levels decreased from 1.9 mm/dl to 1.5 mg/dl (n. s.), blood pressure decreased from 178/94 mmHg to 148/79 mmHg (p < 0.0001) after the intervention. Primary and secondary patency rates at 6 months were 72 % (Standard Error 9.8 %) and 77 (% (Standard Error 9.2 %), respectively. With the used monorail-stend-balloon device a technically easy, secure and exact renal stent placement is guaranteed, patency rates are similar to those described in the current literature.
... Overview Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spaces within your spine, which can put pressure on ... stenosis, doctors may recommend surgery to create additional space for the spinal cord or nerves. Types of ...
Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Loebe, Matthias; Davies, Mark G
To report the safety and short-term efficacy of endovascular interventions for symptomatic lung transplant-related anastomotic pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS). From February 2008 to December 2011, 354 lung transplants were performed. Pulmonary arteriography was performed in 19 patients (63% men; age, 57 y ± 21, mean ± SD; seven double-lung transplants) because of respiratory decompensation (mean 6.7 mo after transplant). Seven arteriograms were normal, and 12 showed significant PAS. One patient (5%) underwent angioplasty alone, and 11 patients (57%) underwent stent placement. All patients underwent general anesthesia, and femoral access was used for the intervention. Technical success was 100% in the 12 patients treated. Symptoms improved in all patients who underwent intervention, with resolution in 11 of 12 (92%). There were no major or minor complications. Three patients (16%) had recurrent symptoms after discharge secondary to chronic rejection or pneumonia. Two patients died as a result of sepsis and multiorgan failure at 2 days and 14 days, respectively, after undergoing only pulmonary arteriography. In-stent stenosis occurred in 1 (9%) patient who required additional stent placement. During a mean follow-up period of 11 months, the remaining stents were patent, and the patients were asymptomatic. Endovascular stent placement provides an alternative to open repair for transplant-related anastomotic PAS. It has low mortality and morbidity rates, and it has shown excellent short-term functional and anatomic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ylikotila, Pauli; Ketola, Raimo A; Timonen, Susanna; Malm, Heli; Ruuskanen, Jori O
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke, accounting to less than 1% of all strokes. We describe a pregnant woman with a massive CVT in early pregnancy, complicated by status epilepticus. The mother was treated with levetiracetam, lacosamide, and enoxaparin throughout pregnancy. A male infant was born on pregnancy week 36, weighing 2.2kg. Both levetiracetam and and lacosamide were present in cord blood in levels similar to those in maternal blood. The infant was partially breast-fed and experienced poor feeding and sleepiness, starting to resolve after two first weeks. Milk samples were drawn 5 days after the delivery and a blood sample from the infant 3 days later. Lacosamide level in milk was low, resulting in an estimated relative infant dose of 1.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted daily dose in a fully breast-fed infant. This is the first case describing lacosamide use during pregnancy and lactation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Azaïs, Henri; Bresson, Lucie; Bassil, Alfred; Katdare, Ninad; Merlot, Benjamin; Houpeau, Jean-Louis; El Bedoui, Sophie; Meurant, Jean-Pierre; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Narducci, Fabrice
Totally implantable venous access port systems (TIVAPS) are a widely used and an essential tool in the efficient delivery of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drug extravasation (CDE) can have dire consequences and will delay treatment. The purpose of this study is to both clarify the management of CDE and show the effectiveness of early surgical lavage (ESL). Patients who had presented to the Cancer Center of Lille (France) with TIVAPS inserted between January 2004 and April 2013 and CDE had their medical records reviewed retrospectively. Thirty patients and 33 events were analyzed. Implicated agents were vesicants (51.5%), irritants (45.5%) and non-vesicants (3%). Huber needle malpositionning was involved in 27 cases. Surgery was performed in 97% of cases, 87.5% of which were for ESL with 53.1% of the latter requiring TIVAPS extraction. Six patients required a second intervention due to adverse outcomes (severe cases). Vesicants were found to be implicated in four out of six severe cases and oxaliplatin in two others. Extravasated volume was above 50 ml in 80% of cases. Only one patient required a skin graft. CDEs should be managed in specialized centers. ESL allows for limited tissue contact of the chemotherapy drug whilst using a simple, widely accessible technique. The two main factors that correlate with adverse outcome seem to be the nature of the implicated agent (vesicants) and the extravasated volume (above 50 ml) leading to worse outcomes. Oxaliplatin should be considered as a vesicant.
Saha, N; Saha, D K; Rahman, M A; Aziz, M A; Islam, M K
This prospective comparative study was conducted with an initial experience in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital during the period of December 2007 to January 2009, with the infants of 2-12 weeks age, diagnosed as Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Patients selection was done by simple random technique by means of lottery. For open pyloromyotomy conventional method & for laparoscopic pyloromyotomy three trocher techniques was applied. In this study, among 60 cases with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, 30 cases were finally selected for analysis irrespectively both in laparoscopic (Group A) & in open pyloromyotomy (Group B) group. Patients were studied under variables of operative time, required time of full feeds after operation, post operative hospital stay & both per and post operative complications. Regarding operative time, in Group A, mean±SD operating time (in minutes) was 61.59±51.73 whereas in Group B it was 28.33±8.40 & P value was 0.001. The result was statistically significant. The mean±SD time (in hours) of full feeds (ad libitum) was 35.00±31.70 hours in Group A compared to 28.95±10.99 hours in Group B and P value was found 0.342ns which was not statistically significant. On study of total length (in days) of post operative hospital stay, mean±SD was 3.09±2.25 & 2.58±1.15days in laparoscopic group & open pyloromyotomy group respectively. The p value was 0.355ns, which was statistically insignificant. Again, on study of complications, per operatively 6(19.5%) patients had developed haemorrage, 1(3.33%) had mucosal perforation & 4(13.36%) had developed duodenal serosal injury in laparoscopic group whereas only 1(3.33%) patient in open pyloromyotomy group had nothing else except simple hemorrhage. The p value (0.051ns) was also statistically insignificant. In regard to post operative complications, 2(6.6%) patients had developed wound hematoma, 2(6.6%) had wound infection, 1(3.33 %) had developed wound
Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Di Bella, Gianluca; Di Tommaso, Eleonora; Pagano, Giuseppina Tindara; Coglitore, Sebastiano
Pulmonary stenosis comprises variable pathologic features from the right ventricular outflow tract to the peripheral pulmonary arteries. Most frequently, the obstruction occurs at the level of the pulmonary valve; however, it occurs less frequently at the infindibular level. It can occur as part of more congenital cardiac malformations such as tetralogy of Fallot, complete transposition of great arteries, or atrial septal defect. Proximal pulmonary artery stenosis has also been reported as an acquired lesion in infants treated for congenital heart disease. Primary isolated supravalvular pulmonary stenosis is less common. We present a case of primary isolated pulmonary artery stenosis in an asymptomatic 25-day-old newborn infant.
Gao, X H; Li, P J; Cao, W
Objective: To investigate the prognostic significance of central venous-arterial carbon dioxide tension to arterial-venous oxygen content ratio (Pcv-aCO(2)/Ca-cvO(2)) combined with lactate clearance rate (LCR) as early resuscitation goals of septic shock. Methods: One hundred and forty-five septic shock patients admitted to Second Department of Critical Care Medicine of Lanzhou University Second Hospital from March 2013 to May 2017 were enrolled in this study.All septic shock patients received an initial resuscitation therapy according to early goal-directed therapy.The arterial and central venous blood gases were measured simultaneously at baseline (T0) and 6 hours after resuscitation (T6). Pcv-aCO(2)/Ca-cvO(2) and LCR were calculated.Patients were classified into four groups according to Pcv-aCO(2)/Ca-cvO(2) and LCR at T6: group A, Pcv-aCO(2)/Ca-cvO(2)>1.8 and LCR<30%; group B, Pcv-aCO(2)/Ca-cvO(2)>1.8 and LCR≥30%; group C, Pcv-aCO(2)/Ca-cvO(2)≤1.8 and LCR<30%; group D, Pcv-aCO(2)/Ca-cvO(2)≤1.8 and LCR≥30%.General demographics, hemodynamic parameters, oxygen metabolism parameters, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE Ⅱ) scores, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and 28-day mortality rate were compared among the 4 groups.A Kaplan-Meier curve showed the survival probabilities at day 28 using a log-rank test for multiple comparisons.Parameters were introduced into a Cox's proportional hazards regression model to analyze the prediction of 28-day mortality.Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of Pcv-aCO(2)/Ca-cvO(2), LCR, Pcv-aCO(2)/Ca-cvO(2) combined with LCR at T6 to predict 28-day mortality. Results: Compared with patients in group A, patients from group D had the lower APACHE Ⅱ and SOFA score at day 3 ( t =-2.909, -3.630, both P <0.05), shorter ICU stay ( t =-2.575, P =0.011), and lower mortality rate at day 28 (χ(2)=3.124, P
Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; D'Urso, A; Mancini, P; Papaspyropoulos, V; Ceccanei, G; Lorusso, R; Vietri, F
A series of 9 patients of a mean age of 48 years, operated on for compression of the ilio-femoral venous axis is reported. The cause of obstruction was external compression in 3 cases, a retroperitoneal sarcoma in 1 case, and an infrarenal aortic aneurysm in 2. Two patients presented with a Cockett's syndrome, 3 with a chronic ilio-femoral thrombosis, and one with a post-traumatic segmentary stenosis. Treatment consisted in a resection/Dacron grafting of 2 infrarenal aortic aneurysms, one femoro-caval bypass graft, 2 transpositions of the right common iliac artery in the left hypogastric artery for Cockett's syndrome, 3 Palma's operations for chronic thrombosis, and one internal jugular vein interposition for segmentary stenosis. There were no postoperative deaths and no early thromboses of venous reconstructions performed. All the patients were relieved of symptoms during the follow-up period, whose mean length was 38 months. The cause of venous obstruction and the presence of symptoms which are resistant to medical treatment are the main indications to ilio-femoral venous revascularization. The choice of the optimal treatment in each single case yields satisfactory results.
Janardhanan, Rajiv; Yang, Binxia; Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Leof, Edward B; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Misra, Sanjay
To determine if a second dose of a lentivirus mediated small hairpin RNA that inhibits Vegf-A gene expression (LV-shRNA-Vegf-A) can improve lumen vessel area (LVA) of the outflow vein of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and decrease venous neointimal hyperplasia. Chronic kidney disease was created in C57BL/6 mice; 28 days later, an AVF was created by connecting the right carotid artery to the ipsilateral jugular vein. Immediately after AVF creation, 5 × 10(6) plaque-forming units of LV-shRNA-Vegf-A or control shRNA was administered to the adventitia of the outflow vein, and a second dose of the same treatment was administered 14 days later. Animals were sacrificed at 21 days, 28 days, and 42 days after AVF creation for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and histomorphometric analyses. By day 21, there was a 125% increase in the average LVA (day 21, P = .11), with a decrease in cell proliferation (day 21, P = .0079; day 28, P = .28; day 42, P = .5), decrease in α-smooth muscle cell actin staining (day 21, P < .0001; day 28, P < .05; day 42, P = .59), and decrease in hypoxic stress (day 21, P < .001; day 28, P = .28; day 42, P = .46) in LV versus control shRNA vessels. A second dose of LV-shRNA-Vegf-A administration results in a moderate improvement in LVA at day 21. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guliamov, D S; Amanov, A A; Andres, Iu P; Bazhenova, T F
Investigations performed in 172 patients have shown that the state of the myocardium (such parameters as the heart volume, degree of lung hypertension, end-diastolic pressure in the right and left ventricles) is of great importance in pathogenesis of the development of acute heart failure in the early postoperative period in patients with mitral stenosis of the IIIrd and IVth stage of the blood circulation insufficiency.
... clean and dry. Avoid exposing the newly circumcised penis to any irritants. They may cause inflammation and ... Meatal stenosis References Elder JS. Anomalies of the penis and urethra. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...
Silveira, C.F.S.M.P.; Campos, D.H.S.; Freire, P.P.; Deus, A.F.; Okoshi, K.; Padovani, C.R.; Cicogna, A.C.
Cardiac remodeling is defined as changes in shape and function of the heart in response to aggression (pressure overload). The sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase cardiac isoform 2a (SERCA2a) is a known factor that influences function. A wide spectrum of studies report a decrease in SERCA2a in heart failure, but none evaluate it's the role in early isolated diastolic dysfunction in supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS). Our hypothesis was that SERCA2a participates in such dysfunction. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats (60-80 g) were divided into AoS and Sham groups, which were submitted to surgery with or without aorta clipping, respectively. After 6 weeks, the animals were submitted to echocardiogram and functional analysis by isolated papillary muscle (IPM) in basal condition, hypoxia, and SERCA2a blockage with cyclopiazonic acid at calcium concentrations of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mM. Western-blot analyses were used for SERCA2a and phospholamban detection. Data analysis was carried out with Student's t-test and ANOVA. AoS enhanced left atrium and E and A wave ratio, with preserved ejection fraction. Basal condition in IPM showed similar increases in developed tension (DT) and resting tension (RT) in AoS, and hypoxia was similar between groups. After cyclopiazonic acid blockage, final DT was equally decreased and RT was similar between groups, but the speed of relaxation was decreased in the AoS group. Western-blot was uniform in all evaluations. The hypothesis was confirmed, since functional parameters regarding SERCA2a were changed in the AoS group. PMID:28423119
Becker, François; Fourgeau, Patrice; Carpentier, Patrick H; Ouchène, Amina
We postulate that blue telangiectasia and brownish pigmentation at ankle level, early markers of chronic venous insufficiency, can be quantified for longitudinal studies of chronic venous disease in Caucasian people. Objectives and methods To describe a photographic technique specially developed for this purpose. The pictures were acquired using a dedicated photo stand to position the foot in a reproducible way, with a normalized lighting and acquisition protocol. The image analysis was performed with a tool developed using algorithms optimized to detect and quantify blue telangiectasia and brownish pigmentation and their relative surface in the region of interest. To test the short-term reproducibility of the measures. Results The quantification of the blue telangiectasia and of the brownish pigmentation using an automated digital photo analysis is feasible. The short-term reproducibility is good for blue telangiectasia quantification. It is a less accurate for the brownish pigmentation. Conclusion The blue telangiectasia of the corona phlebectatica and the ankle flare can be assessed using a clinimetric approach based on the automated digital photo analysis.
Temme, Sebastian; Grapentin, Christoph; Quast, Christine; Jacoby, Christoph; Grandoch, Maria; Ding, Zhaoping; Owenier, Christoph; Mayenfels, Friederike; Fischer, Jens W; Schubert, Rolf; Schrader, Jürgen; Flögel, Ulrich
Noninvasive detection of deep venous thrombi and subsequent pulmonary thromboembolism is a serious medical challenge, since both incidences are difficult to identify by conventional ultrasound techniques. Here, we report a novel technique for the sensitive and specific identification of developing thrombi using background-free 19F magnetic resonance imaging, together with α2-antiplasmin peptide (α2AP)-targeted perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFCs) as contrast agent, which is cross-linked to fibrin by active factor XIII. Ligand functionality was ensured by mild coupling conditions using the sterol-based postinsertion technique. Developing thrombi with a diameter<0.8 mm could be visualized unequivocally in the murine inferior vena cava as hot spots in vivo by simultaneous acquisition of anatomic matching 1H and 19F magnetic resonance images at 9.4 T with both excellent signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios (71±22 and 17±5, respectively). Furthermore, α2AP-PFCs could be successfully applied for the diagnosis of experimentally induced pulmonary thromboembolism. In line with the reported half-life of factor XIIIa, application of α2AP-PFCs>60 minutes after thrombus induction no longer resulted in detectable 19F magnetic resonance imaging signals. Corresponding results were obtained in ex vivo generated human clots. Thus, α2AP-PFCs can visualize freshly developed thrombi that might still be susceptible to pharmacological intervention. Our results demonstrate that 1H/19F magnetic resonance imaging, together with α2AP-PFCs, is a sensitive, noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of acute deep venous thrombi and pulmonary thromboemboli. Furthermore, ligand coupling by the sterol-based postinsertion technique represents a unique platform for the specific targeting of PFCs for in vivo 19F magnetic resonance imaging. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
... or back Numbness, weakness, cramping, or pain in your arms or legs Pain going down the leg Foot problems Doctors diagnose spinal stenosis with a physical exam and imaging tests. Treatments include medications, physical therapy, braces, and surgery. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis ...
Helmy, Tamer Abdallah; El-Reweny, Ehab Mahmoud; Ghazy, Farahat Gomaa
The partial pressure of venous to arterial carbon dioxide gradient (PCO 2 gap) is considered as an alternative marker of tissue hypoperfusion and has been used to guide treatment for shock. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference during early resuscitation of patients with septic shock and compared it with that of lactate clearance and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score. Forty patients admitted to one Intensive Care Unit were enrolled. APACHE-II score was calculated on admission. An arterial blood gas, central venous, and lactate samples were obtained on admission and after 6 h, and lactate clearance was calculated. Patients were classified retrospectively into Group I (survivors) and Group II (nonsurvivors). Pv-aCO 2 difference in the two groups was evaluated. Data were fed to the computer and analyzed using IBM SPSS software package version 20.0. At T0, Group II showed high PCO 2 gap (8.37 ± 1.36 mmHg) than Group I (7.55 ± 0.95 mmHg) with statistically significant difference ( P = 0.030). While at T6, Group II showed higher PCO 2 gap (9.48 ± 1.47 mmHg) with statistically significant difference ( P < 0.001) and higher mean lactate values (62.71 ± 23.66 mg/dl) with statistically significant difference ( P < 0.001) than Group I where PCO 2 gap and mean lactate values became much lower, 5.91 ± 1.12 mmHg and 33.61 ± 5.80 mg mg/dl, respectively. Group I showed higher lactate clearance (25.42 ± 6.79%) with statistically significant difference ( P < 0.001) than Group II (-69.40-15.46%). High PCO 2 gap >7.8 mmHg after 6 h from resuscitation of septic shock patients is associated with high mortality.
Prognostic Value of Transthoracic Doppler Echocardiography Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve in Patients with Nonculprit Stenosis of Intermediate Severity Early after Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.
Tesic, Milorad; Djordjevic-Dikic, Ana; Giga, Vojislav; Stepanovic, Jelena; Dobric, Milan; Jovanovic, Ivana; Petrovic, Marija; Mehmedbegovic, Zlatko; Milasinovic, Dejan; Dedovic, Vladimir; Zivkovic, Milorad; Juricic, Stefan; Orlic, Dejan; Stojkovic, Sinisa; Vukcevic, Vladan; Stankovic, Goran; Nedeljkovic, Milan; Ostojic, Miodrag; Beleslin, Branko
Treatment of nonculprit coronary stenosis during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction may be beneficial, but the mode and timing of the intervention are still controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the significance and prognostic value of preserved coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in patients with nonculprit intermediate stenosis early after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Two hundred thirty patients with remaining intermediate (50%-70%) stenosis of non-infarct-related arteries, in whom CFVR was performed within 7 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention, were prospectively enrolled. Twenty patients with reduced CFVR and positive results on stress echocardiography or impaired fractional flow reserve underwent revascularization and were not included in further analysis. The final study population of 210 patients (mean age, 58 ± 10 years; 162 men) was divided into two groups on the basis of CFVR: group 1, CFVR > 2 (n = 174), and group 2, CFVR ≤ 2 (n = 36). Cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and revascularization of the evaluated vessel were considered adverse events. Mean follow-up duration was 47 ± 16 months. Mean CFVR for the whole group was 2.36 ± 0.40. There were six adverse events (3.4%) related to the nonculprit coronary artery in group 1, including one cardiac death, one ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and four revascularizations. In group 2, there were 30 adverse events (83.3%, P < .001 vs group 1), including two cardiac deaths, two ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions, and 26 revascularizations. In patients with CFVR > 2 of the intermediate nonculprit coronary lesion, deferral of revascularization is safe and associated with excellent long-term clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Murlidhar, Vasudha; Reddy, Rishindra M; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Zhao, Lili; Ishikawa, Martin K; Grabauskiene, Svetlana; Zhang, Zhuo; Lin, Jules; Chang, Andrew C; Carrott, Philip; Lynch, William R; Orringer, Mark B; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Beer, David G; Wicha, Max S; Ramnath, Nithya; Azizi, Ebrahim; Nagrath, Sunitha
Early detection of metastasis can be aided by circulating tumor cells (CTC), which also show potential to predict early relapse. Because of the limited CTC numbers in peripheral blood in early stages, we investigated CTCs in pulmonary vein blood accessed during surgical resection of tumors. Pulmonary vein (PV) and peripheral vein (Pe) blood specimens from patients with lung cancer were drawn during the perioperative period and assessed for CTC burden using a microfluidic device. From 108 blood samples analyzed from 36 patients, PV had significantly higher number of CTCs compared with preoperative Pe ( P < 0.0001) and intraoperative Pe ( P < 0.001) blood. CTC clusters with large number of CTCs were observed in 50% of patients, with PV often revealing larger clusters. Long-term surveillance indicated that presence of clusters in preoperative Pe blood predicted a trend toward poor prognosis. Gene expression analysis by RT-qPCR revealed enrichment of p53 signaling and extracellular matrix involvement in PV and Pe samples. Ki67 expression was detected in 62.5% of PV samples and 59.2% of Pe samples, with the majority (72.7%) of patients positive for Ki67 expression in PV having single CTCs as opposed to clusters. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment of cell migration and immune-related pathways in CTC clusters, suggesting survival advantage of clusters in circulation. Clusters display characteristics of therapeutic resistance, indicating the aggressive nature of these cells. Thus, CTCs isolated from early stages of lung cancer are predictive of poor prognosis and can be interrogated to determine biomarkers predictive of recurrence. Cancer Res; 77(18); 5194-206. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
van de Wetering, M D; van Woensel, J B M; Kremer, L C M; Caron, H N
Long-term tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVC) are increasingly used in oncology patients. Infections are a frequent complication of TCVC, mostly caused by Gram-positive bacteria. The objective of this review is to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics in the prevention of early Gram-positive TCVC infections, in oncology patients. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to July 2003. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCT) evaluating prophylactic antibiotics prior to insertion of the TCVC, and the combination of an antibiotic and heparin to flush the TCVC, in paediatric and adult oncology patients. The primary outcome was documented Gram-positive bacteraemia in patients with a TCVC. All trials identified were assessed and the data extracted independently by two reviewers. There were nine trials included. Four trials reported on vancomycin/teicoplanin prior to insertion of the TCVC compared to no antibiotics. There was no reduction in the number of Gram-positive TCVC infections with an Odds ratio of 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.13-1.31). Five trials studied flushing of the TCVC with a vancomycin/heparin solution compared to heparin flushing only. This method decreased the number of TCVC infections significantly with an Odds ratio of 0.43 (95% CI 0.21-0.87). Flushing the TCVC with a vancomycin/heparin solution reduced the incidence of Gram-positive infections.
Xu, Kan; Yu, Tiecheng; Yuan, Yongjie; Yu, Jinlu
The intracranial venous sinus is an important component of vascular disease. Many diseases involve the venous sinus and are accompanied by venous sinus stenosis (VSS), which leads to increased venous pressure and high intracranial pressure. Recent research has focused on stenting as a treatment for VSS related to these diseases. However, a systematic understanding of venous sinus stenting (VS-Stenting) is lacking. Herein, the literature on idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), venous pulsatile tinnitus, sinus thrombosis, high draining venous pressure in dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and tumor-caused VSS was reviewed and analyzed to summarize experiences with VS-Stenting as a treatment. The literature review showed that satisfactory therapeutic effects can be achieved through stent angioplasty. Thus, the present study suggests that selective stent release in the venous sinus can effectively treat these diseases and provide new possibilities for treating intracranial vascular disease. PMID:26516306
Martin-Rojas, Tatiana; Mourino-Alvarez, Laura; Gil-Dones, Felix; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Rosello-Lleti, Esther; Laborde, Carlos M; Rivera, Miguel; Lopez-Almodovar, Luis Fernando; Lopez, Juan Antonio; Akerstrom, Finn; Padial, Luis R; Barderas, Maria G
Calcific aortic stenosis (CAS) is the most common heart valve disease in the elderly, representing an important economic and social burden in developed countries. Currently, there is no way to predict either the onset or progression of CAS, emphasizing the need to identify useful biomarkers for this condition. We performed a multi-proteomic analysis on different kinds of samples from CAS patients and healthy donors: tissue, secretome and plasma. The results were validated in an independent cohort of subjects by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and selected reaction monitoring. Alpha 1 antichymotrypsin (AACT) abundance was altered in the CAS samples, as confirmed in the validation phase. The significant changes observed in the amounts of this protein strongly suggest that it could be involved in the molecular mechanisms underlying CAS. In addition, our results suggest there is enhanced release of AACT into the extracellular fluids when the disease commences. The significant increase of AACT in CAS patients suggests it fulfils an important role in the physiopathology of this disease. These results permit us to propose that AACT may serve as a potential marker for the diagnosis of CAS, with considerable clinical value.
Holmes, David; Velappan, Priya; Kern, Morton J
The disappearance of a dichrotic notch on the peripheral arterial pulse wave has been associated with significant peripheral vascular disease. A similar observation has not been reported in the distal coronary pressure waveform. The purpose of this study was to investigate the significance of a coronary pressure notch distal to a coronary stenosis and its relationship to fractional flow reserve. Ninety-seven patients with 131 angiographically indeterminate lesions (40-80% diameter narrowing) underwent FFR measurements for physiological significance. Hemodynamic tracings were recorded prior to the administration of adenosine and visually analyzed for the presence or absence of a dicrotic notch in the distal coronary artery pressure tracing. The stenoses were then divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of a notch. Of the 54 lesions without a distal coronary pressure notch, 31 had a FFR greater than or equal to 0.75 and of the 77 lesions with a notch, 75 had a FFR greater than or equal to 0.76. The sensitivity and specificity of a pressure notch was 94% and 74%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 57% and 97%, respectively. The presence of a distal coronary pressure notch was predictive of a FFR greater than or equal to 0.76. The distal dicrotic pressure notch may be used as an additional parameter without requiring hyperemia for FFR measurements of uncertain clinical significance.
Herzig, David W; Stemer, Andrew B; Bell, Randy S; Liu, Ai-Hsi; Armonda, Rocco A; Bank, William O
Stenosis of central veins (brachiocephalic vein [BCV] and superior vena cava) occurs in 30% of hemodialysis patients, rarely producing intracranial pathology. The authors present the first cases of BCV stenosis causing perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and myoclonic epilepsy. In the first case, a 73-year-old man on hemodialysis presented with headache and blurry vision, and was admitted with presumed idiopathic intracranial hypertension after negative CT studies and confirmatory lumbar puncture. The patient mildly improved until hospital Day 3, when he experienced a seizure; emergency CT scans showed perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography failed to find any vascular abnormality, but demonstrated venous congestion. A fistulogram found left BCV occlusion with jugular reflux. The occlusion could not be reopened percutaneously and required open fistula ligation. Postoperatively, symptoms resolved and the patient remained intact at 7-month follow-up. In the second case, a 67-year-old woman on hemodialysis presented with right arm weakness and myoclonic jerks. Admission MRI revealed subcortical edema and a possible dural arteriovenous fistula. Cerebral angiography showed venous engorgement, but no vascular malformation. A fistulogram found left BCV stenosis with jugular reflux, which was immediately reversed with angioplasty and stent placement. Postprocedure the patient was seizure free, and her strength improved. Seven months later the patient presented in myoclonic status epilepticus, and a fistulogram revealed stent occlusion. Angioplasty successfully reopened the stent and she returned to baseline; she was seizure free at 4-month follow-up. Central venous stenosis is common with hemodialysis, but rarely presents with neurological findings. Prompt recognition and endovascular intervention can restore normal venous drainage and resolve symptoms.
Agarwal, Anil K
Central vein stenosis is common because of the placement of venous access and cardiac intravascular devices and compromises vascular access for dialysis. Endovascular intervention with angioplasty and/or stent placement is the preferred approach, but the results are suboptimal and limited. Primary patency after angioplasty alone is poor, but secondary patency can be maintained with repeated angioplasty. Stent placement is recommended for quick recurrence or elastic recoil of stenosis. Primary patency of stents is also poor, though covered stents have recently shown better patency than bare metal stents. Secondary patency requires repeated intervention. Recanalization of occluded central veins is tedious and not always successful. Placement of hybrid graft-catheter with a combined endovascular surgical approach can maintain patency in many cases. In the presence of debilitating symptoms, palliative approach with endovascular banding or occlusion of the access may be necessary. Prevention of central vein stenosis is the most desirable strategy.
Ribeiro, Phillip; Patel, Swetal; Qazi, Rizwan A
Central venous stenosis is a well-known complication in patients with vascular access for hemodialysis. We report two cases involving patients on hemodialysis with arteriovenous fistulas who developed reversible unilateral conductive hearing loss secondary to critical stenosis of central veins draining the arteriovenous dialysis access. A proposed mechanism for the patients' reversible unilateral hearing loss is pterygoid venous plexus congestion leading to decreased Eustachian tube patency. Endovascular therapy was conducted to treat the stenosis and the hearing loss of both patients was returned to near normal after successful central venous angioplasty.
Wang, Jian; Wang, Weici; Jin, Bi; Zhang, Yanrong; Xu, Ping; Xiang, Feixiang; Zheng, Yi; Chen, Juan; Sheng, Shi; Ouyang, Chenxi; Li, Yiqing
Purpose. To investigate the alternation in cerebral and ocular blood flow velocity (BFV) in patients of carotid stenosis (CS) with or without contralateral carotid occlusion (CO) early after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Patients and Methods. Nineteen patients underwent CEA for ≥50% CS. Fourteen patients had the unilateral CS, and five patients had the ipsilateral CS and the contralateral CO. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and Color Doppler Imaging (CDI) were performed before and early after CEA. Results. In patients with unilateral CS, significant improvements in BFV were observed in anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) on the ipsilateral side after CEA. In patients of ipsilateral CS and contralateral CO, significant improvements in BFV were observed in the ACA and MCA not only on the ipsilateral side but also on the contralateral side postoperatively. The ipsilateral ophthalmic artery (OA) retrograde flows in two patients were recovered to anterograde direction following CEA. The BFV in short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA) of the ipsilateral side significantly increased postoperatively irrespective of the presence of contralateral CO. Conclusions. CEA improved cerebral anterior circulation hemodynamics especially in patients of unilateral CS and contralateral CO, normalized the OA reverse flow, and increased the blood perfusion of SPCA.
Caprini, J.A.; Partsch, H.; Simman, R.
Venous leg ulcers are the most frequent form of wounds seen in patients. This article presents an overview on some practical aspects concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Duplex ultrasound investigations are essential to ascertain the diagnosis of the underlying venous pathology and to treat venous refluxes. Differential diagnosis includes mainly other vascular lesions (arterial, microcirculatory causes), hematologic and metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, malignancies. Patients with superficial venous incompetence may benefit from endovenous or surgical reflux abolition diagnosed by Duplex ultrasound. The most important basic component of the management is compression therapy, for which we prefer materials with low elasticity applied with high initial pressure (short-stretch bandages and Velcro-strap devices). Local treatment should be simple, absorbing and not sticky dressings keeping adequate moisture balance after debridement of necrotic tissue and biofilms are preferred. After the ulcer is healed compression therapy should be continued in order to prevent recurrence. PMID:26236636
Kim, Hyeun Sung; Patel, Ravish; Paudel, Byapak; Jang, Jee-Soo; Jang, Il-Tae; Oh, Seong-Hoon; Park, Jae Eun; Lee, Sol
Percutaneous endoscopic contralateral interlaminar lumbar foraminotomy (PECILF) for lumbar degenerative spinal stenosis is an established procedure. Better preservation of contralateral facet joint compared with that of the approach side has been shown with uniportal bilateral decompression. The aim of this retrospective case series was to analyze the early clinical and radiologic outcomes of stand-alone contralateral foraminotomy and lateral recess decompression using PECILF. Twenty-six consecutive patients with unilateral lower limb radiculopathy underwent contralateral foraminotomy and lateral recess decompression using PECILF. Their clinical outcomes were evaluated with visual analog scale leg pain score, Oswestry Disability Index, and the MacNab criteria. Completeness of decompression was documented with a postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Mean age for the study group was 62.9 ± 9.2 years and the male/female ratio was 4:9. A total of 30 levels were decompressed, with 18 patients (60%) undergoing decompression at L4-L5, 9 at L5-S1 (30%), 2 at L3-L4 (6.7%), and 1 at L2-L3 (3.3%). Mean estimated blood loss was 27 ± 15 mL per level. Mean operative duration was 48 ± 12 minutes/level. Visual analog scale leg score improved from 7.7 ± 1 to 1.8 ± 0.8 (P < 0.0001). Oswestry Disability Index improved from 64.4 ± 5.8 to 21 ± 4.5 (P < 0.0001). Mean follow-up of the study was 13.7 ± 2.7 months. According to the MacNab criteria, 10 patients (38.5%) had good results, 14 patients (53.8%) had excellent results, and 2 patients (7.7%) had fair results. One patient required revision surgery. Facet-preserving contralateral foraminotomy and lateral recess decompression with PECILF is effective for treatment of lateral recess and foraminal stenosis. Thorough decompression with acceptable early clinical outcomes and minimal perioperative morbidity can be obtained with the contralateral endoscopic approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitral stenosis is a heart valve disorder that narrows or obstructs the mitral valve opening. Narrowing of the ... to the body. The main risk factor for mitral stenosis is a history of rheumatic fever but it ...
Krishna, Vinay Narasimha; Eason, Joseph B; Allon, Michael
Central venous stenosis (CVS) is encountered frequently among hemodialysis patients. Prior ipsilateral central venous catheterization and cardiac rhythm device insertions are common risk factors, but CVS can also occur in the absence of this history. Chronic CVS can cause thrombosis with partial or complete occlusion of the central vein at the site of stenosis. CVS is frequently asymptomatic and identified as an incidental finding during imaging studies. Symptomatic CVS presents most commonly as an upper- or lower-extremity edema ipsilateral to the CVS. Previously unsuspected CVS may become symptomatic after placement of an ipsilateral vascular access. The likelihood of symptomatic CVS may be affected by the central venous catheter (CVC) location; CVC side; duration of CVC dependence; type, location, and blood flow of the ipsilateral access; and extent of collateral veins. Venous angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement can improve the stenosis and alleviate symptoms, but CVS typically recurs frequently, requiring repeated interventions. Refractory symptomatic CVS may require ligation of the ipsilateral vascular access. Because no available treatment option is curative, the goal should be to prevent CVS by minimizing catheters and central vein instrumentation in patients with chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guo, W-Y; Lee, C-C J; Lin, C-J; Yang, H-C; Wu, H-M; Wu, C-C; Chung, W-Y; Liu, K-D
Sinus stenosis occasionally occurs in dural arteriovenous fistulas. Sinus stenosis impedes venous outflow and aggravates intracranial hypertension by reversing cortical venous drainage. This study aimed to analyze the likelihood of sinus stenosis and its impact on cerebral hemodynamics of various types of dural arteriovenous fistulas. Forty-three cases of dural arteriovenous fistula in the transverse-sigmoid sinus were reviewed and divided into 3 groups: Cognard type I, type IIa, and types with cortical venous drainage. Sinus stenosis and the double peak sign (occurrence of 2 peaks in the time-density curve of the ipsilateral drainage of the internal jugular vein) in dural arteriovenous fistula were evaluated. "TTP" was defined as the time at which a selected angiographic point reached maximum concentration. TTP of the vein of Labbé, TTP of the ipsilateral normal transverse sinus, trans-fistula time, and trans-stenotic time were compared across the 3 groups. Thirty-six percent of type I, 100% of type IIa, and 84% of types with cortical venous drainage had sinus stenosis. All sinus stenosis cases demonstrated loss of the double peak sign that occurs in dural arteriovenous fistula. Trans-fistula time (2.09 seconds) and trans-stenotic time (0.67 seconds) in types with cortical venous drainage were the most prolonged, followed by those in type IIa and type I. TTP of the vein of Labbé was significantly shorter in types with cortical venous drainage. Six patients with types with cortical venous drainage underwent venoplasty and stent placement, and 4 were downgraded to type IIa. Sinus stenosis indicated dysfunction of venous drainage and is more often encountered in dural arteriovenous fistula with more aggressive types. Venoplasty ameliorates cortical venous drainage in dural arteriovenous fistulas and serves as a bridge treatment to stereotactic radiosurgery in most cases. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Cheung, Alfred K; Imrey, Peter B; Alpers, Charles E; Robbin, Michelle L; Radeva, Milena; Larive, Brett; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Allon, Michael; Dember, Laura M; Greene, Tom; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Terry, Christi M; Vazquez, Miguel A; Kusek, John W; Feldman, Harold I
Intimal hyperplasia and stenosis are often cited as causes of arteriovenous fistula maturation failure, but definitive evidence is lacking. We examined the associations among preexisting venous intimal hyperplasia, fistula venous stenosis after creation, and clinical maturation failure. The Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study prospectively observed 602 men and women through arteriovenous fistula creation surgery and their postoperative course. A segment of the vein used to create the fistula was collected intraoperatively for histomorphometric examination. On ultrasounds performed 1 day and 2 and 6 weeks after fistula creation, we assessed fistula venous stenosis using pre-specified criteria on the basis of ratios of luminal diameters and peak blood flow velocities at certain locations along the vessel. We determined fistula clinical maturation using criteria for usability during dialysis. Preexisting venous intimal hyperplasia, expressed per 10% increase in a hyperplasia index (range of 0%-100%), modestly associated with lower fistula blood flow rate (relative change, -2.5%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -4.6% to -0.4%; P =0.02) at 6 weeks but did not significantly associate with stenosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.16; P =0.07) at 6 weeks or failure to mature clinically without procedural assistance (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.15; P =0.07). Fistula venous stenosis at 6 weeks associated with maturation failure (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.25 to 3.12; P =0.004) after controlling for case mix factors, dialysis status, and fistula location. These findings suggest that postoperative fistula venous stenosis associates with fistula maturation failure. Preoperative venous hyperplasia may associate with maturation failure but if so, only modestly. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Xiong, Chengjie; Li, Tao; Kang, Hui; Hu, Hao; Han, Jing; Xu, Feng
Traditional open approach is an efficient way to treat lumbar spinal stenosis (SS) combined with disk herniation (DH); however, risk factors such as advanced age, osteoporosis etc. are associated with the complications after the surgery. This study aims to analyze the early clinical and radiological outcomes of treatment on SS&DH by using newly developed minimal invasive TESSYS-ISEE technique. Patients with limp and unilateral lower limb radiculopathy underwent minimal invasive surgery by using TESSYS-ISEE technique. The visual analogue scale score (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were evaluated before operation and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. The clinical global outcomes were also evaluated using modified MacNab criteria after surgery. A total of 32 cases underwent operation by using TESSYS-ISEE technique from December 2016 to December 2017. The mean age for the study group was 53.9 ± 11.14 years and the ratio between male and female was 1.29:1; Mean follow-up of the study was 7.78 ± 3.48 months and mean estimated blood loss was 11.41 ± 4.79 mL per-level. VAS leg score improved from 8.44 ± 0.98 to 2.18 ± 0.75 (P < 0.001), VAS back score improved from 4.44 ± 0.95 to 1.57 ± 0.54 (P < 0.001), and ODI improved from 73.88 ± 5.95 to 29.04 ± 7.48 (P < 0.001). The success rate was 90.7%. There were no serious complications during follow-up. Two patients experienced dysesthesia and one patient required revision surgery. It is safe and minimal-invasively to treat SS&DH by using TESSYS-ISEE technique. However, potential complications still require careful consideration and further evaluation. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary material.
Ozmen, Evrim; Algin, Oktay
Venous anomalies are diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Subclavian or superior vena cava stenosis can be developed and venous return can be achieved via cardiac veins and coronary sinus in patients with central venous catheter for long-term hemodialysis. These types of abnormalities are not extremely rare especially in patients with a history of central venous catheter placement. Detection of these anomalies and subclavian vein stenosis before the surgical creation of hemodialysis fistulae or tunneled central venous catheter placement may prevent unnecessary interventions in those patients. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) technique can give further information when compared with fluoroscopy or digital subtraction angiography in the management of these patients. This case report describes interesting aspects of central vein complications in hemodialysis patients. As a conclusion, there are limited data about thoracic venous return, and further prospective studies with large patient number are required. MDCT with 3D reconstruction is particularly useful for the accurate evaluation of venous patency, variations, and collateral circulation. Also it is an excellent tool for choosing and planning treatment.
Liu, Kenneth C; Starke, Robert M; Durst, Christopher R; Wang, Tony R; Ding, Dale; Crowley, R Webster; Newman, Steven A
OBJECTIVE Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) may cause blindness due to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Venous sinus stenosis has been identified in select patients, leading to stenting as a potential treatment, but its effects on global ICP have not been completely defined. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the effects of venous sinus stenting on ICP in a small group of patients with IIH. METHODS Ten patients for whom medical therapy had failed were prospectively followed. Ophthalmological examinations were assessed, and patients with venous sinus stenosis on MR angiography proceeded to catheter angiography, venography with assessment of pressure gradient, and ICP monitoring. Patients with elevated ICP measurements and an elevated pressure gradient across the stenosis were treated with stent placement. RESULTS All patients had elevated venous pressure (mean 39.5 ± 14.9 mm Hg), an elevated gradient across the venous sinus stenosis (30.0 ± 13.2 mm Hg), and elevated ICP (42.2 ± 15.9 mm Hg). Following stent placement, all patients had resolution of the stenosis and gradient (1 ± 1 mm Hg). The ICP values showed an immediate decrease (to a mean of 17.0 ± 8.3 mm Hg), and further decreased overnight (to a mean of 8 ± 4.2 mm Hg). All patients had subjective and objective improvement, and all but one improved during follow-up (median 23.4 months; range 15.7-31.6 months). Two patients developed stent-adjacent stenosis; retreatment abolished the stenosis and gradient in both cases. Patients presenting with papilledema had resolution on follow-up funduscopic imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and improvement on visual field testing. Patients presenting with optic atrophy had optic nerve thinning on follow-up OCT, but improved visual fields. CONCLUSIONS For selected patients with IIH and venous sinus stenosis with an elevated pressure gradient and elevated ICP, venous sinus stenting results in resolution of the venous pressure
Parvathy, Usha T; Rajan, Rajesh; Faybushevich, Alexander Georgevich
It is well known that mitral stenosis (MS) is complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH) of varying degrees. The hemodynamic derangement is associated with structural changes in the pulmonary vessels and parenchyma and also functional derangements. This article analyzes the pulmonary function derangements in 25 patients with isolated/predominant mitral stenosis of varying severity. THE AIM OF THE STUDY WAS TO CORRELATE THE PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST (PFT) DERANGEMENTS (DONE BY SIMPLE METHODS) WITH: a) patient demographics and clinical profile, b) severity of the mitral stenosis, and c) severity of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) and d) to evaluate its significance in preoperative assessment. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 patients with mitral stenosis who were selected for mitral valve (MV) surgery. The patients were evaluated for clinical class, echocardiographic severity of mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension, and with simple methods of assessment of pulmonary function with spirometry and blood gas analysis. The diagnosis and classification were made on standardized criteria. The associations and correlations of parameters, and the difference in groups of severity were analyzed statistically with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), using nonparametric measures. THE SPIROMETRIC PARAMETERS SHOWED SIGNIFICANT CORRELATION WITH INCREASING NEW YORK HEART ASSOCIATION (NYHA) FUNCTIONAL CLASS (FC): forced vital capacity (FVC, r = -0.4*, p = 0.04), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, r = -0.5*, p = 0.01), FEV1/FVC (r = -0.44*, p = 0.02), and with pulmonary venous congestion (PVC): FVC (r = -0.41*, p = 0.04) and FEV1 (r = -0.41*, p = 0.04). Cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) correlated only with FEV1 (r = -0.461*, p = 0.02) and peripheral saturation of oxygen (SPO2, r = -0.401*, p = 0.04). There was no linear correlation to duration of symptoms, mitral valve orifice area, or pulmonary hypertension, except for MV gradient with PCO2 (r
Lucaya, J.; Enriquez, G.; Delgado, R.
Of 11,500 children who underwent excretory urography during a 17-year period, three were found to have the rare renal malformation infundibulopelvic stenosis, characterized by caliceal dilatation, infundibular stenosis, and hypoplasia or stenosis of the renal pelvis. The contralateral kidney was absent in two cases and normal in the other. Voiding cystourethrograms were normal in all three. Renal sonography showed a variable degree of caliceal dilatation without associated pelvic dilatation. The diagnosis was confirmed by retrograde ureteropyelography in one case. Two patients were followed for 12 and 18 months, respectively; both remained asymptomatic with normal renal function, and sequential sonographic examinationsmore » of their kidneys have shown no significant changes. The third patient died of an unrelated condition. Infundibulopelvic stenosis has highly characteristic radiographic features, and prognosis is good for most affected patients.« less
Omran, A.S.; Arifi, Ahmed A.; Mohamed, A.A.
Echocardiography plays a major role in diagnosis, etiology and severity of Mitral Stenosis (MS), analysis of valve anatomy and decision-making for intervention. This technique has also a crucial role to assess consequences of MS and follow up of patients after medical or surgical intervention. In this article we review the role of conventional echocardiography in assessment of mitral stenosis and future direction of this modality using 3D echocardiography. PMID:23960637
Contreras Rodríguez, R; Rodríguez Velasco, A; Flores Miranda, J R; Ramos Amaro, J
We studied the role of bacterial endocarditis in the development of aortic valve stenosis. A femoral arterio venous shunt was performed in nine dogs with the method previously proposed by Lillehei. We induced bacteremic infection with the administration of streptococcus mitis (1 x 10(10)) 10 ml once a day for 15 days these bacterium were sensible to penicillin. All dogs were treated with 1,000,000 U of benzatinic penicillin and sacrificed between 28-102 days after the bacterial inoculation ended. In one dog we observed bacterial endocarditis in the mitral and aortic valves and in other three dogs there was an aortic valve stenosis with calcium deposits in the body and in the free edges of the aortic valve with evident irregular stenosis as seen in man.
Alozie, Anthony; Paranskaya, Liliya; Westphal, Bernd; Kaminski, Alexander; Steinhoff, Gustav; Sherif, Mohammad; Ince, Hüseyin; Öner, Alper
Surgical mitral valve repair is the gold standard for treatment of mitral regurgitation. Recently, the transcatheter treatment of mitral regurgitation with the MitraClip ® device (Abbot Vascular Structural Heart, Menlo Park, CA) has demonstrated promising results in treating patients not amenable for surgical correction of mitral valve regurgitation. Most patients reported in the literature requiring surgical bailout after MitraClip treatment presented with residual or recurrent mitral valve regurgitation. Mitral valve stenosis after MitraClip treatment has been rarely reported. From February 2010 to December 2014, four patients out of 165 patients who underwent MitraClip therapy developed symptomatic mitral valve stenosis (2.4%) and needed surgical correction. Data of the four patients were reviewed retrospectively. Follow-up data were obtained from each patient's general practitioner/cardiologist by phone calls and facsimile and were complete in all patients. All four patients were treated with ≥ 2 MitraClip (MC) devices during their initial presentation. All four patients underwent MV replacement with a tissue valve. The postoperative course was uneventful and there was no 30-day mortality. At 6-month follow-up, all patients were alive and in NYHA class I-III. Placement of multiple clip devices may lead to slightly elevated transmitral gradients. This may not necessarily interpret into symptomatic mitral stenosis. However, in some cases this is possible. Caution should be exercised at this phase of the learning curve of the percutaneous MC treatment, especially in use of multiple MC devices. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koda, Yoichi; Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Fujita, Motoki; Miyauchi, Takashi; Kaneda, Kotaro; Todani, Masaki; Aoki, Tetsuya; Shitara, Masaki; Izumi, Tomonori; Kasaoka, Shunji; Yuasa, Makoto; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of moderate hypothermia (MH) on generation of jugular venous superoxide radical (O2-.), oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury in forebrain ischemia/reperfusion (FBI/R) rats. Twenty-one Wistar rats were allocated to a control group (n=7, 37 degrees C), a pre-MH group (n=7, 32 degrees C before ischemia), and a post-MH group (n=7, 32 degrees C after reperfusion). MH was induced before induction of ischemia in the pre-MH group and just after reperfusion in the post-MH group. Forebrain ischemia was induced by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries with hemorrhagic hypotension for 10 min, followed by reperfusion. O(2)(-)(.) in the jugular vein was measured from the produced current using a novel O2-. sensor. The O2-. current showed a gradual increase during forebrain ischemia in the control and post-MH groups but was attenuated in the pre-MH group. Following reperfusion, the current showed a marked increase in the control group but was strongly attenuated in the pre- and post-MH groups. Concentrations of malondialdehyde, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the brain and plasma 120 min after reperfusion in the pre- and post-MH groups were significantly lower than those in the control group, except for plasma HMGB1 in the post-MH group. In conclusion, MH suppressed O2-. measured in the jugular vein, oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury in FBI/R rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Munoz-Mendoza, Jerson; Pinto Miranda, Veronica; Tanawuttiwat, Tanyanan; Badiye, Amit; Chaparro, Sandra V
A 21-year-old woman in the 16th week of pregnancy was admitted due to acute presentation of severe exertional dyspnea. She had undergone mitral valve replacement (MVR) with bioprosthetic valve for infective endocarditis 2 years ago. She developed congestive heart failure from mitral bioprosthetic valve stenosis due to early structural valve deterioration. She also had severe pulmonary hypertension and underwent a redo MVR using a mechanical valve prosthesis with good maternal outcome but fetal demise. This report brings up the debate about what type of valve should be used in women in reproductive age, and discusses the management of severe mitral stenosis and stenosis of a bioprosthetic valve during pregnancy. Surgical options can almost always be delayed until fetal maturity is achieved and a simultaneous cesarean section can be performed. However, under certain circumstances when the maternal welfare is in jeopardy the surgical intervention is mandatory even before the fetus reaches viability.
Yetkin, Ertan; Waltenberger, Johannes
Calcific aortic stenosis is the most common cause of aortic valve replacement in developed countries, and this condition increases in prevalence with advancing age. The fibrotic thickening and calcification are common eventual endpoint in both non-rheumatic calcific and rheumatic aortic stenoses. New observations in human aortic valves support the hypothesis that degenerative valvular aortic stenosis is the result of active bone formation in the aortic valve, which may be mediated through a process of osteoblast-like differentiation in these tissues. Additionally histopathologic evidence suggests that early lesions in aortic valves are not just a disease process secondary to aging, but an active cellular process that follows the classical "response to injury hypothesis" similar to the situation in atherosclerosis. Although there are similarities with the risk factor and as well as with the process of atherogenesis, not all the patients with coronary artery disease or atherosclerosis have calcific aortic stenosis. This review mainly focuses on the potential vascular and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of aortic valve stenosis. Namely extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis, inflammation, and eventually osteoblast-like differentiation resulting in bone formation have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of calcific aortic stenosis. Several mediators related to underlying mechanisms, including growth factors especially transforming growth factor-beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factors, angiogenesis, cathepsin enzymes, adhesion molecules, bone regulatory proteins and matrix metalloproteinases have been demonstrated, however the target to be attacked is not defined yet.
Wigle, E. Douglas; Auger, Pierre; Marquis, Yves
Two types of intraventricular pressure differences within the left ventricle of man are described. The first is encountered in cases of muscular (or fibrous) subaortic stenosis, in which the outflow tract pressure distal to the stenosis (and proximal to the aortic valve) is low, whereas all pressures recorded in the left ventricle proximal to the stenosis, including that just inside the mitral valve (the initial inflow tract pressure) are high. The second type of intraventricular pressure difference may be recorded in patients without muscular subaortic stenosis when a heart catheter is advanced to the left ventricular wall in such a manner that it becomes imbedded or entrapped by cardiac muscle in systole. Such an entrapped catheter records a high intraventricular pressure that is believed to reflect intramyocardial tissue pressure, which normally exceeds intracavitary pressure. In such cases the initial inflow tract pressure is not high and is precisely equal to the outflow tract systolic pressure, i.e. both are recording intracavity pressure. This type of intramyocardial to intracavitary pressure difference may also be encountered in the left ventricle of dogs. The recent suggestion that intraventricular pressure differences in the left ventricle of cases of muscular subaortic stenosis are due to catheter entrapment by cardiac muscle is refuted by using the initial inflow tract pressure as the means of differentiation between the two types of intraventricular pressure differences outlined. PMID:5951625
Antoni, G; Morange, P-E; Luo, Y; Saut, N; Burgos, G; Heath, S; Germain, M; Biron-Andreani, C; Schved, J-F; Pernod, G; Galan, P; Zelenika, D; Alessi, M-C; Drouet, L; Visvikis-Siest, S; Wells, P S; Lathrop, M; Emmerich, J; Tregouet, D-A; Gagnon, F
Factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) are two known quantitative risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). To identify new loci that could contribute to VTE susceptibility and to modulating FVIII and/or VWF levels. A pedigree linkage analysis was first performed in five extended French-Canadian families, including 253 individuals, to identify genomic regions linked to FVIII or VWF levels. Identified regions were further explored using 'in silico' genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data on VTE (419 patients and 1228 controls), and two independent case-control studies (MARTHA and FARIVE) for VTE, gathering 1166 early-onset patients and 1408 healthy individuals. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with VTE risk were further investigated in relation to plasma levels of FVIII and VWF in a cohort of 108 healthy nuclear families. Four main linkage regions were identified, among which the well-characterized ABO locus, the recently identified STAB 2 gene, and a third one, on chromosome 6q13-14, harbouring four non-redundant SNPs, associated with VTE at P < 10(-4) in the GWAS dataset. The association of one of these SNPs, rs9363864, with VTE was further replicated in the MARTHA and FARIVE studies. The rs9363864-AA genotype was associated with a lower risk for VTE (OR = 0.58 [0.42-0.80], P = 0.0005) but mainly in non-carriers of the FV Leiden mutation. This genotype was further found to be associated with the lowest levels of FVIII (P = 0.006) and VWF (P = 0.001). The BAI3 locus where the rs9363864 maps is a new candidate for VTE risk. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Aitken, Emma; Iqbal, Kashfa; Thomson, Peter; Kasthuri, Ram; Kingsmore, David
Early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (ecAVGs) are advocated as an alternative to tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVCs). A real-time observational "virtual study" and budget impact model was performed to evaluate a strategy of ecAVG as a replacement to TCVC as a bridge to definitive access creation. Data on complications and access-related bed days was collected prospectively for all TCVCs inserted over a six-month period (n = 101). The feasibility and acceptability of an alternative strategy (ecAVGs) was also evaluated. A budget impact model comparing the two strategies was performed. Autologous access in the form of native fistula was the goal wherever possible. We found 34.7% (n = 35) of TCVCs developed significant complications (including 17 culture-proven bacteraemia and one death from line sepsis). Patients spent an average of 11.9 days/patient/year in hospital as a result of access-related complications. The wait for TCVC insertion delayed discharge in 35 patients (median: 6 days). The ecAVGs were a practical and acceptable alternative to TCVCs in over 80% of patients. Over a 6-month period, total treatment costs per patient wereGBP5882 in the TCVC strategy and GBP4954 in the ecAVG strategy, delivering potential savings ofGBP927 per patient. The ecAVGs had higher procedure and re-intervention costs (GBP3014 vs. GBP1836); however, these were offset by significant reductions in septicaemia treatment costs (GBP1322 vs. GBP2176) and in-patient waiting time bed costs (GBP619 vs. GBP1870). Adopting ecAVGs as an alternative to TCVCs in patients requiring immediate access for haemodialysis may provide better individual patient care and deliver cost savings to the hospital.
Gerlis, L M; Wilson, N; Dickinson, D F; Scott, O
Twenty three morphological specimens of truncus arteriosus were examined for evidence of stenosis of the semilunar valve. One third showed good evidence of stenosis as judged by careful measurement of the valve orifice, the valve ring, and the maximum diameter of the truncus. Correlation with measured pressure gradients was poor, but angiography and cross sectional echocardiography were better predictors of stenosis. Stenosis was invariably associated with cusp dysplasia and was more common in valves with two or four cusps. Images PMID:6477783
... build up and harden the arteries, limiting the flow of blood to the brain. Facts About Carotid Artery Stenosis Carotid artery stenosis is one of many risk factors for stroke, a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. However, carotid artery stenosis is uncommon—about ½ ...
Oller, Mar; Esteban, Carlos; Pérez, Paulina; Parera, M Àngels; Lerma, Rosa; Llagostera, Secundino
Severe carotid stenosis may be associated with uncommon clinical symptoms. We report a case of ocular ischemic syndrome and subsequent rubeosis iridis due to a high-grade carotid stenosis. The patient recovered visual acuity and his normal iris coloring after carotid endarterectomy. Rubeosis iridis may be the only clinical sign associated with severe carotid stenosis, making it mandatory to rule out the presence of carotid narrowing when it is detected. Establishing an early diagnosis is essential to improve quality of life, prognosis, and patients' outcome. Copyright © 2012 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Brisinda, Giuseppe; Vanella, Serafino; Cadeddu, Federica; Marniga, Gaia; Mazzeo, Pasquale; Brandara, Francesco; Maria, Giorgio
Anal stenosis is a rare but serious complication of anorectal surgery, most commonly seen after hemorrhoidectomy. Anal stenosis represents a technical challenge in terms of surgical management. A Medline search of studies relevant to the management of anal stenosis was undertaken. The etiology, pathophysiology and classification of anal stenosis were reviewed. An overview of surgical and non-surgical therapeutic options was developed. Ninety percent of anal stenosis is caused by overzealous hemorrhoidectomy. Treatment, both medical and surgical, should be modulated based on stenosis severity. Mild stenosis can be managed conservatively with stool softeners or fiber supplements. Sphincterotomy may be quite adequate for a patient with a mild degree of narrowing. For more severe stenosis, a formal anoplasty should be performed to treat the loss of anal canal tissue. Anal stenosis may be anatomic or functional. Anal stricture is most often a preventable complication. Many techniques have been used for the treatment of anal stenosis with variable healing rates. It is extremely difficult to interpret the results of the various anaplastic procedures described in the literature as prospective trials have not been performed. However, almost any approach will at least improve patient symptoms. PMID:19399922
Gans, Stephen L.
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, a relatively common condition, is caused by hyperplasia of the musculature of the pylorus. The diagnosis is made by a history of projectile vomiting and failure to gain weight, the observation of gastric peristaltic waves, and the palpation of a pyloric “tumor.” A method of palpating this tumor is described in detail. Roentgenological studies are rarely indicated. Pylorotomy for treatment of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis was not successful until the development of necessary supporting measures. Preparation for operation consists of intravenous administration of fluids and electrolytes and sometimes serum or whole blood. The position of the tumor governs the choice between two different incisions. The operative procedure herein described is essentially that devised by Ramstedt many years ago, with modifications to facilitate the procedure. PMID:13651960
Matloob, Samir A; Toma, Ahmed K; Thompson, Simon D; Gan, Chee L; Robertson, Fergus; Thorne, Lewis; Watkins, Laurence D
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterised by an increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of any central nervous system disease or structural abnormality and by normal CSF composition. Management becomes complicated once surgical intervention is required. Venous sinus stenosis has been suggested as a possible aetiology for IIH. Venous sinus stenting has emerged as a possible interventional option. Evidence for venous sinus stenting is based on elimination of the venous pressure gradient and clinical response. There have been no studies demonstrating the immediate effect of venous stenting on ICP. Patients with a potential or already known diagnosis of IIH were investigated according to departmental protocol. ICP monitoring was performed for 24 h. When high pressures were confirmed, CT venogram and catheter venography were performed to look for venous stenosis to demonstrate a pressure gradient. If positive, venous stenting would be performed and ICP monitoring would continue for a further 24 h after deployment of the venous stent. Ten patients underwent venous sinus stenting with concomitant ICP monitoring. Nine out of ten patients displayed an immediate reduction in their ICP that was maintained at 24 h. The average reduction in mean ICP and pulsatility was significant (p = 0.003). Six out of ten patients reported a symptomatic improvement within the first 2 weeks. Venous sinus stenting results in an immediate reduction in ICP. This physiological response to venous stenting has not previously been reported. Venous stenting could offer an alternative treatment option in correctly selected patients with IIH.
Novikov, Yu V; Shormanov, S V; Kulikov, S V
Modeling of pulmonary trunk stenosis leads to an increase in hepatic vascular resistance because of veno-arterial and veno-venous reactions. During the compensation phase, bundles of intimal musculature and myoelastic sphincters appear in the arteries, while in the efferent veins hypertrophy of the muscle rolls is observed. The decompensation phase of stenosis is characterized by relaxation of hepatic vascular walls, reduction of the number of arteries with intimal muscles and sphincter structures, and atrophy of muscle rolls in hepatic veins. Sclerotic changes develop in the vascular bed. Failure of the compensatory reactions results in development of chronic hepatic venous plethora with typical morphological manifestations.
Jain, Shreepal; Bachani, Neeta S; Pinto, Robin J; Dalvi, Bharat V
Surgical repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) can be complicated by the development of pulmonary venous stenosis later on. In addition, the vertical vein, if left unligated, can remain patent and lead to hemodynamically significant left to right shunting. We report an infant who required transcatheter correction of both these problems after surgical repair of TAPVC.
Fabiani, Iacopo; Conte, Lorenzo; Pugliese, Nicola Riccardo; Calogero, Enrico; Barletta, Valentina; Di Stefano, Rossella; Santoni, Tatiana; Scatena, Cristian; Bortolotti, Uberto; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Di Bello, Vitantonio
Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is associated with significant myocardial fibrosis (MF). Global longitudinal strain (GLS) is a sensible indicator of systolic dysfunction. ST2 is a member of the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family and a modulator of hypertrophic and fibrotic responses. We aimed at assessing: (a) the association between adverse LV remodeling, LV functional parameters (including GLS) and sST2 level. (b) The association between MF (detected by endo-myocardial biopsy) and sST2 in patients with AVS undergoing surgical valve replacement. Twenty-two patients with severe AVS and preserved EF underwent aortic valve replacement. They performed laboratory analysis, including serum ST2 (sST2), echocardiography and inter-ventricular septum biopsy to assess MF (%). We included ten controls for comparison. Compared to controls, patients showed higher sST2 levels (p < 0.0001). sST2 showed correlation with Age (r = 0.58; p = 0.0004), E/e' average (r = 0.58; p = 0.0007), GLS (r = 0.61; p = 0.0002), LAVi (r = 0.51; p = 0.003), LVMi (r = 0.43; p = 0.01), sPAP (r = 0.36; p = 0.04) and SVi (r = -0.47; p < 0.005). No correlation was found between MF and sST2. At ROC analysis, a sST2 ≥ 284 ng/mL had the best accuracy to discriminate controls from patients with impaired GLS, i.e. GLS ≤ 17% (AUC 0.80; p = 0.003; sensitivity 95%; specificity 83%) and increased E/e' average (AUC 0.87; p = 0.0001; sensitivity 96%; specificity 74%). At multivariate regression analysis GLS resulted the only independent predictor of sST2 levels (R 2 = 0.35; p = 0.0004). Patients with severe AVS present elevated sST2 levels. LV GLS resulted the only independent predictor of sST2 levels.
Linge, Fabian; Hye, Md Abdul; Paul, Manosh C
Pulsatile spiral blood flow in a modelled three-dimensional arterial stenosis, with a 75% cross-sectional area reduction, is investigated by using numerical fluid dynamics. Two-equation k-ω model is used for the simulation of the transitional flow with Reynolds numbers 500 and 1000. It is found that the spiral component increases the static pressure in the vessel during the deceleration phase of the flow pulse. In addition, the spiral component reduces the turbulence intensity and wall shear stress found in the post-stenosis region of the vessel in the early stages of the flow pulse. Hence, the findings agree with the results of Stonebridge et al. (2004). In addition, the results of the effects of a spiral component on time-varying flow are presented and discussed along with the relevant pathological issues.
von Lueder, Thomas; Steine, Kjetil; Nerdrum, Tone; Steen, Torkel; Bay, Dag; Humerfelt, Sjur; Atar, Dan
This report describes a patient with a perihilar mass and mediastinal lymphadenopathy mimicking advanced lung cancer. The patient, a 45-year old regular smoker, was admitted to hospital for dyspnea and tachyarrhythmia, and during hospitalization he was diagnosed with severe rheumatic mitral valve stenosis (MVS) and aortic regurgitation as well as pulmonary venous hypertension. Surgical valve replacement and removal of an atrial thrombus was delayed considerably by diagnostic work-up for suspected malignancy. After cardiac surgery had been performed, recovery was uneventful. On follow-up 1 year later, echocardiography showed well-functioning prosthetic mitral and aortic valves, and normal findings on chest X-ray. Perihilar masses and mediastinal lymphadenopathy presented in this case constitute infrequent yet established findings in MVS, resulting from pulmonary venous congestion and hypertension, and focal lymphedema.
Park, Kwang Bo; Do, Young Soo; Shin, Sung Wook; Cho, Sung Gi; Choo, In-Wook
Objective We wanted to valuate the mid-term therapeutic results of percutaneous transhepatic balloon angioplasty for portal vein stenosis after liver transplantation. Materials and Methods From May 1996 to Feb 2005, 420 patients underwent liver transplantation. Percutaneous transhepatic angioplasty of the portal vein was attempted in six patients. The patients presented with the clinical signs and symptoms of portal venous hypertension or they were identified by surveillance doppler ultrasonography. The preangioplasty and postangioplasty pressure gradients were recorded. The therapeutic results were monitored by the follow up of the clinical symptoms, the laboratory values, CT and ultrasonography. Results The overall technical success rate was 100%. The clinical success rate was 83% (5/6). A total of eight sessions of balloon angioplasty were performed in six patients. The mean pressure gradient decreased from 14.5 mmHg to 2.8 mmHg before and after treatment, respectively. The follow up periods ranged from three months to 64 months (mean period; 32 months). Portal venous patency was maintained in all six patients until the final follow up. Combined hepatic venous stenosis was seen in one patient who was treated with stent placement. One patient showed puncture tract bleeding, and this patient was treated with coil embolization of the right portal puncture tract via the left transhepatic portal venous approach. Conclusion Percutaneous transhepatic balloon angioplasty is an effective treatment for the portal vein stenosis that occurs after liver transplantation, and our results showed good mid-term patency with using this technique. PMID:16145291
Hacker, Robert I.; Garcia, Lorena De Marco; Chawla, Ankur; Panetta, Thomas F.
Fibrin sheaths are a heterogeneous matrix of cells and debris that form around catheters and are a known cause of central venous stenosis and catheter failure. A total of 50 cases of central venous catheter fibrin sheath angioplasty (FSA) after catheter removal or exchange are presented. A retrospective review of an outpatient office database identified 70 eligible patients over a 19-month period. After informed consent was obtained, the dialysis catheter exiting the skin was clamped, amputated, and a wire was inserted. The catheter was then removed and a 9-French sheath was inserted into the superior vena cava, a venogram was performed. If a fibrin sheath was present, angioplasty was performed using an 8 × 4 or 10 × 4 balloon along the entire length of the fibrin sheath. A completion venogram was performed to document obliteration of the sheath. During the study, 50 patients were diagnosed with a fibrin sheath, and 43 had no pre-existing central venous stenosis. After FSA, 39 of the 43 patient's (91%) central systems remained patent without the need for subsequent interventions; 3 patients (7%) developed subclavian stenoses requiring repeat angioplasty and stenting; 1 patent (2.3%) developed an occlusion requiring a reintervention. Seven patients with prior central stenosis required multiple angioplasties; five required stenting of their central lesions. Every patient had follow-up fistulograms to document long-term patency. We propose that FSA is a prudent and safe procedure that may help reduce the risk of central venous stenosis from fibrin sheaths due to central venous catheters. PMID:23997555
Gonsalves, Carin F., E-mail: Carin.Gonsalves@mail.tju.edu; Eschelman, David J.; Sullivan, Kevin L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of central vein stenosis and occlusion following upper extremity placement of peripherally inserted central venous catheters(PICCs) and venous ports. One hundred fifty-four patients who underwent venography of the ipsilateral central veins prior to initial and subsequent venous access device insertion were retrospectively identified. All follow-up venograms were interpreted at the time of catheter placement by one interventional radiologist over a 5-year period and compared to the findings on initial venography. For patients with central vein abnormalities, hospital and home infusion service records and radiology reports were reviewed to determine cathetermore » dwelltime and potential alternative etiologies of central vein stenosis or occlusion. The effect of catheter caliber and dwell time on development of central vein abnormalities was evaluated. Venography performed prior to initial catheter placement showed that 150 patients had normal central veins. Three patients had central vein stenosis, and one had central vein occlusion. Subsequent venograms (n = 154)at the time of additional venous access device placement demonstrated 8 patients with occlusions and 10 with stenoses. Three of the 18 patients with abnormal follow-up venograms were found to have potential alternative causes of central vein abnormalities. Excluding these 3 patients and the 4 patients with abnormal initial venograms, a 7% incidence of central vein stenosis or occlusion was found in patients with prior indwelling catheters and normal initial venograms. Catheter caliber showed no effect on the subsequent development of central vein abnormalities. Patients who developed new or worsened central vein stenosis or occlusion had significantly (p =0.03) longer catheter dwell times than patients without central vein abnormalities. New central vein stenosis or occlusion occurred in 7% of patients following upper arm placement of venous access
Stamou, A. C.; Buick, J. M.
A numerical scheme is proposed to simulate the early stages of stenosis development based on the properties of blood flow in the carotid artery, computed using the lattice Boltzmann method. The model is developed on the premise, supported by evidence from the literature, that the stenosis develops in regions of low velocity and low wall shear stress. The model is based on two spatial parameters which relate to the extent to which the stenosis can grow in each development phase. Simulations of stenosis development are presented for a range of the spacial parameters to determine suitable ranges for their application. Flow fields are also presented which indicate that the stenosis is developing in a realistic manner, providing evidence that stenosis development is indeed influenced by the low shear stress, rather than occurring in such areas coincidentally.
Williams, Timothy K; Clouse, W Darrin
Extremity venous injury management remains controversial. The purpose of this communication is to offer perspective as well as experiential and technical insight into extremity venous injury repair. Available literature is reviewed and discussed. Historical context is provided. Indication, the decision process for repair, including technical conduct, is delineated. In particular, the authors' experiences in both civilian and wartime injury are used for perspective. Extremity venous injury repair was championed within data from the Vietnam Vascular Registry. However, patterns of extremity venous injury differ between combat and civilian settings. Since Vietnam, civilian descriptive series opine the benefits and potential complications associated with both venous injury repair and ligation. These surround extremity edema, chronic venous insufficiency, thromboembolism, and limb loss. Whereas no clear superiority in either approach has been identified to date, there appears to be no increased risk of pulmonary embolism or chronic venous changes with repair. Newer data from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and meta-analysis have reinforced this and also have suggested limb salvage benefit for extremity venous repair in combined arterial and venous injuries in modern settings. The patient's physiologic state and associated injury drive five triage categories suggesting vein injury management. Vein repair thrombosis occurs in a significant proportion, yet many recanalize and possibly have a positive impact on limb venous return. Further, early decompression favors reduced blood loss, acute edema, and inflammation, supporting collateral development. Large soft tissue injury minimizing collateral capacity increases the importance of repair. Constructs of repair are varied with modest differences in patency. Venous shunting is feasible, but specific roles remain nebulous. An aggressive posture toward extremity venous injury repair seems justified today because of the likely
Chan, Keith T; Popat, Rita A; Sze, Daniel Y; Kuo, William T; Kothary, Nishita; Louie, John D; Hovsepian, David M; Hwang, Gloria L; Hofmann, Lawrence V
To test the hypothesis that a common iliac vein (CIV) stenosis may impair embolization of a large deep venous thrombosis (DVT) to the lungs, decreasing the incidence of a symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). Between January 2002 and August 2007, 75 patients diagnosed with unilateral DVT were included in a single-institution case-control study. Minimum CIV diameters were measured 1 cm below the inferior vena cava (IVC) bifurcation on computed tomography (CT) images. A significant stenosis in the CIV ipsilateral to the DVT was defined as having either a diameter 4 mm or less or a greater than 70% reduction in lumen diameter. A symptomatic PE was defined as having symptoms and imaging findings consistent with a PE. The odds of symptomatic PE versus CIV stenosis were assessed using logistic regression models. The associations between thrombus location, stenosis, and symptomatic PE were assessed using a stratified analysis. Of 75 subjects, 49 (65%) presented with symptomatic PE. There were 17 (23%) subjects with a venous lumen 4 mm or less and 12 (16%) subjects with a greater than 70% stenosis. CIV stenosis of 4 mm or less resulted in a decreased odds of a symptomatic PE compared with a lumen greater than 4 mm (odds ratio [OR] 0.17, P = .011), whereas a greater than 70% stenosis increased the odds of DVT involving the CIV (OR 7.1, P = .047). Among patients with unilateral DVT, those with an ipsilateral CIV lumen of 4 mm or less have an 83% lower risk of developing symptomatic PE compared with patients with a CIV lumen greater than 4 mm. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mukherjee, Meenakshi; Jones, Jeryl C; Yao, Jianbo
Canine lumbosacral stenosis is defined as narrowing of the caudal lumbar and/or sacral vertebral canal. A risk factor for neurologic problems in many large sized breeds, lumbosacral stenosis can also cause early retirement in Labrador retriever military working dogs. Though vital for conservative management of the condition, early detection is complicated by the ambiguous nature of clinical signs of lumbosacral stenosis in stoic and high-drive Labrador retriever military working dogs. Though clinical diagnoses of lumbosacral stenosis using CT imaging are standard, they are usually not performed unless dogs present with clinical symptoms. Understanding the underlying genomic mechanisms would be beneficial in developing early detection methods for lumbosacral stenosis, which could prevent premature retirement in working dogs. The exomes of 8 young Labrador retriever military working dogs (4 affected and 4 unaffected by lumbosacral stenosis, phenotypically selected by CT image analyses from 40 dogs with no reported clinical signs of the condition) were sequenced to identify and annotate exonic variants between dogs negative and positive for lumbosacral stenosis. Two-hundred and fifty-two variants were detected to be homozygous for the wild allele and either homozygous or heterozygous for the variant allele. Seventeen non-disruptive variants were detected that could affect protein effectiveness in 7 annotated (SCN1B, RGS9BP, ASXL3, TTR, LRRC16B, PTPRO, ZBBX) and 3 predicted genes (EEF1A1, DNAJA1, ZFX). No exonic variants were detected in any of the canine orthologues for human lumbar spinal stenosis candidate genes. TTR (transthyretin) gene could be a possible candidate for lumbosacral stenosis in Labrador retrievers based on previous human studies that have reported an association between human lumbar spinal stenosis and transthyretin protein amyloidosis. Other genes identified with exonic variants in this study but with no known published association with lumbosacral
Carvalho, Marta; Oliveira, Ana; Azevedo, Elsa; Bastos-Leite, António J
Intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS) is usually attributable to atherosclerosis and corresponds to the most common cause of stroke worldwide. It is very prevalent among African, Asian, and Hispanic populations. Advancing age, systolic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and metabolic syndrome are some of its major risk factors. IAS may be associated with transient or definite neurological symptoms or can be clinically asymptomatic. Transcranial Doppler and magnetic resonance angiography are the most frequently used ancillary examinations for screening and follow-up. Computed tomography angiography can either serve as a screening tool for the detection of IAS or increasingly as a confirmatory test approaching the diagnostic accuracy of catheter digital subtraction angiography, which is still considered the gold (confirmation) standard. The risk of stroke in patients with asymptomatic atherosclerotic IAS is low (up to 6% over a mean follow-up period of approximately 2 years), but the annual risk of stroke recurrence in the presence of a symptomatic stenosis may exceed 20% when the degree of luminal narrowing is 70% or more, recently after an ischemic event, and in women. It is a matter of controversy whether there is a specific type of treatment other than medical management (including aggressive control of vascular risk factors and antiplatelet therapy) that may alter the high risk of stroke recurrence among patients with symptomatic IAS. Endovascular treatment has been thought to be helpful in patients who fail to respond to medical treatment alone, but recent data contradict such expectation. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xu, Yu; Bi, Yufang; Li, Mian; Wang, Tiange; Sun, Kun; Xu, Min; Lu, Jieli; Yu, Yi; Li, Xiaoying; Lai, Shenghan; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang
OBJECTIVE To evaluate coronary artery stenosis in early diabetes or prediabetes asymptomatic of myocardial ischemia in community-dwelling Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Age- and sex-matched participants with normal glucose regulation (NGR), prediabetes, or diabetes diagnosed within 5 years, asymptomatic of coronary artery disease (CAD), were randomly selected from a community-dwelling Chinese population aged 40–60 years. Dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography was used to evaluate the existence and extent of coronary stenosis, which was considered significant if >50% narrowing of vessel lumen was detected. RESULTS After excluding uninterpretable segments attributable to motion artifacts, a total of 135 participants with NGR, 132 with prediabetes, and 134 with diabetes participated in data analysis. Significant coronary stenosis was detected in 10 (7.4%), 10 (7.6%), and 22 (16.4%) individuals with NGR, prediabetes, and diabetes, respectively (P for trend = 0.029). Diabetes, rather than prediabetes, was associated with a significant 2.34-fold elevated risk [odds ratio (OR) 2.34 (95% CI 1.01–5.43); P = 0.047] of significant coronary stenosis as compared with that associated with NGR. Levels of glucose evaluation were independently and significantly associated with risks of significant coronary stenosis in diabetes. Each 1-SD increase in fasting plasma glucose, 2-h postload plasma glucose, and HbA1c conveyed 2.11-fold, 1.73-fold, and 1.81-fold higher risks of significant coronary stenosis, respectively, after adjustment for other conventional cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS Using a noninvasive CAD diagnostic modality such as dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography, we detected a markedly elevated risk of significant coronary stenosis with early diabetes in asymptomatic Chinese adults. PMID:23462666
Latteri, S; Vecchio, R; Angilello, A
Pathogenetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of postoperative bile duct injuries are reviewed. Treatment options are discussed in relation to the time of diagnosis. Lesions detected during the same operation must be immediately repaired through an end-to-end biliary anastomosis or a bilioenteric anastomosis. In limited lesions of the bile duct a T-tube placement should be sufficient. Bile duct lesions recognized postoperatively can be managed through a multimodal surgical, endoscopic, and radiologic approach. In the early postoperative period, surgery is indicated when a complete section of the biliary tract or a severe peritonitis is recognized, or when endoscopic and radiologic treatment has failed. Surgery is also the treatment of choice in the late complete stenosis of the bile duct. Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy is the most common surgical procedure for the treatment of bile duct lesions and strictures. However, in high bile duct lesions, especially if the risk of anastomotic dehiscence is increased the Authors emphasize the Rodney-Smith technique for the reconstruction of the biliary tract.
Veronesi, Marco; Mancini, Elena; Salvati, Filippo; Santoro, Antonio
A 67-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease (polycystic kidney disease) who had been on dialysis for 10 years came to our department for a second opinion about upper left arm edema homolateral to the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Because of the suspicion of venous stenosis she had already been submitted to angiographic examination of the AVF which, however, did not show any occlusive process. In addition to the kidney problem, the clinical history included dilated cardiomyopathy, and 2 years earlier a biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) had been placed. The patient had never had a central venous catheter (CVC). She presented a typical superior vena cava syndrome picture with arm, neck and hemifacial edema and superficial cutaneous venous reticulum. The venous pressure during extracoroporeal circulation was high and blood recirculation was documented. Angio-CT was performed to look for a compressive process in the chest, but this was excluded. We then performed a new trans-AVF angiography to study extensively the axillary-subclavian-superior vena cava district. At first, no stenosis or thrombosis was observed, but the presence of ICD and its leads (left-sided implanted) in the anonymous vein created obstacles to diagnosis. Repeated injections of contrast medium and focusing imaging on the leads route allowed us to highlight a venous stenosis in the anonymous vein. Transluminal angioplasty was successfully carried out during the same procedure. 1) In hemodialysis patients the appearance of signs of intrathoracic vein drainage obstacles is not always associated with previous CVC implantation; 2) in the hemodialysis patient, any device (PM, ICD) should be implanted contralaterally to the fistula arm in order to avoid the risk that a venous stenosis may cause AVF dysfunction.
Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan
Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers? Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recurrence. Implementation: Potential pitfalls to avoid are: Failure to exclude underlying arterial disease before application of compression.Unusual-looking ulcers or those slow to heal should be biopsied to exclude malignant transformation. PMID:21673869
Jiang, Kun; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Sang, Hong-Fei; Qian, Ai-Min; Rong, Jian-Jie; Li, Cheng-Long
Purposes of the study To evaluate the benefit of stenting the iliac vein in patients with residual iliac vein stenosis treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis. Procedures In this randomized prospective study, patients with a first-time acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis that had persisted <14 days were treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis. After catheter-directed thrombolysis, patients with >50% residual iliac vein stenosis were randomly divided into two groups: catheter-directed thrombolysis + Stent Group and catheter-directed thrombolysis Alone Group. Patients received urokinase thrombolysis and low-molecular-weight heparin/oral warfarin during the hospitalization period and were administrated oral warfarin after discharge. Cumulative deep vein patency, the Clinical Etiology Anatomic Pathophysiologic classification system, the Venous Clinical Severity Score and the Chronic Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire score were evaluated. Findings The cumulative deep vein patency rate was 74.07% in the catheter-directed thrombolysis + Stent Group and 46.59% in the catheter-directed thrombolysis Alone Group. The mean postoperative Clinical Etiology Anatomic Pathophysiologic classification and Venous Clinical Severity Score was significantly lower in the catheter-directed thrombolysis + Stent Group than in the catheter-directed thrombolysis Alone Group. The mean postoperative Chronic Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire score was significantly higher in the catheter-directed thrombolysis + Stent Group than the catheter-directed thrombolysis Alone Group. Conclusions Placement of an iliac vein stent in patients with residual iliac vein stenosis after catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis increases iliac vein patency and improves clinical symptoms and health-related quality of life at mid-term follow-up compared to patients treated with catheter
Magne, Julien; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Piérard, Luc A
The management and the clinical decision making in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis are challenging. An "aggressive" management, including early aortic valve replacement, is debated in these patients. However, the optimal timing for surgery remains controversial due to the lack of prospective data on the determinants of aortic stenosis progression, multicenter studies on risk stratification, and randomized studies on patient management. Exercise stress testing with or without imaging is strictly contraindicated in symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis. Exercise stress test is now recommended by current guidelines in asymptomatic patients and may provide incremental prognostic value. Indeed, the development of symptoms during exercise or an abnormal blood pressure response are associated with poor outcome and should be considered as an indication for surgery, as suggested by the most recently updated European Society of Cardiology 2012 guidelines. Exercise stress echocardiography may also improve the risk stratification and identify asymptomatic patients at higher risk of a cardiac event. When the test is combined with imaging, echocardiography during exercise should be recommended rather than post-exercise echocardiography. During exercise, an increase >18 to 20 mm Hg in mean pressure gradient, absence of improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (i.e., absence of contractile reserve), and/or a systolic pulmonary arterial pressure >60 mm Hg (i.e., exercise pulmonary hypertension) are suggestive signs of advanced stages of the disease and impaired prognosis. Hence, exercise stress test may identify resting asymptomatic patients who develop exercise abnormalities and in whom surgery is recommended according to current guidelines. Exercise stress echocardiography may further unmask a subset of asymptomatic patients (i.e., without exercise stress test abnormalities) who are at high risk of reduced cardiac event free survival. In these
Drury, Nigel E; Veldtman, Gruschen R; Benson, Lee N
Neonatal aortic stenosis is a complex and heterogeneous condition, defined as left ventricular outflow tract obstruction at valvular level, presenting and often requiring treatment in the first month of life. Initial presentation may be catastrophic, necessitating hemodynamic, respiratory and metabolic resuscitation. Subsequent management is focused on maintaining systemic blood flow, either via a univentricular Norwood palliation or a biventricular route, in which the effective aortic valve area is increased by balloon dilation or surgical valvotomy. In infants with aortic annular hypoplasia but adequately sized left ventricle, the Ross-Konno procedure is also an attractive option. Outcomes after biventricular management have improved in recent years as a consequence of better patient selection, perioperative management and advances in catheter technology. Exciting new developments are likely to significantly modify the natural history of this disorder, including fetal intervention for the salvage of the hypoplastic left ventricle; 3D echocardiography providing better definition of valve morphology and aiding patient selection for a surgical or catheter-based intervention; and new transcutaneous approaches, such as duel beam echo, to perforate the valve.
Mousa, Albeir Y; Broce, Mike; Yacoub, Michael; AbuRahma, Ali F
Treatment of venous ulcers is demanding for patients, as well as clinicians, and the investigation of underlying venous hypertension is the cornerstone of therapy. We propose that occult iliac vein stenosis should be ruled out by iliac vein interrogation (IVI) in patients with advanced venous stasis. We conducted a systematic retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of patients who presented with CEAP (clinical, etiological, anatomical, and pathophysiological) 6 venous disease. All patients had great saphenous vein ablation, compressive treatment, wound care (including Unna boot compression), and perforator closure using ablation therapy. Iliac vein stenosis was defined as ≥50% stenosis in cross-sectional surface area on intravascular ultrasound. Primary outcomes include time of venous ulcer healing and/or measurable change in the Venous Clinical Severity Score. Twenty-two patients with CEAP 6 venous disease met the inclusion criteria (active ulcers >1.5 cm in diameter). The average age and body mass index were 62.2 ± 9.2 years and 41.7 ± 16.7, respectively. The majority were female (72.7%) with common comorbidities, such as hyperlipidemia (54.5%), hypertension (36.4%), and diabetes mellitus (27.3%). Twenty-nine ulcers with an average diameter of 3.4 ± 1.9 cm and a depth of 2.2 ± 0.5 mm were treated. The majority of the ulcers occurred on the left limb (n = 17, 58.6%). Average perforator venous reflux was 3.6 ± 0.8 sec, while common femoral reflux was 1.8 ± 1.6. The majority (n = 19, 64.5%) of the perforator veins were located at the base of the ulcer, while the remainder (n = 10, 34.5%) were within 2 cm from the base. Of the 13 patients who underwent IVI, 8 patients (61.5%) had stenosis >50% that was corrected with iliac vein angioplasty and stenting (IVAS). There was a strong trend toward shorter healing time in the IVI group (7.9 ± 9.5 weeks) than for patients in the no iliac vein interrogation (NIVI) group (20.2 ± 15
Kargiotis, Odysseas; Siahos, Simos; Safouris, Apostolos; Feleskouras, Agisilaos; Magoufis, Georgios; Tsivgoulis, Georgios
The subclavian-vertebral artery steal syndrome (SSS) is the hemodynamic phenomenon of blood flow reversal in the vertebral artery due to significant stenosis or occlusion of the proximal subclavian artery or the innominate artery. Occasionally, SSS is diagnosed in patients not harboring arterial stenosis. With the exception of arterial congenital malformations, the limited case reports of SSS with intact subclavian artery are attributed to dialysis arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). Interestingly, these cases are more frequently symptomatic than those with the classical atherosclerotic SSS forms. On the other hand, the disclosure of SSS due to subclavian/innominate artery atherosclerotic stenosis, even in the absence of accompanying symptoms, should prompt a thorough cardiovascular work-up for the early detection of coexisting coronary, carotid, or peripheral artery disease. Herein, we review the incidence, clinical presentation, sonographic findings, and therapeutic interventions related to SSS with and without subclavian/innominate artery stenosis. We also review the currently available data in the literature regarding the association of SSS and dialysis AVF. In addition, we present a patient with bilateral symptomatic SSS as the result of an arteriovenous graft (AVG) that was introduced after the preexisting AVF in the contralateral arm became nonfunctional. SSS due to subclavian or innominate artery stenosis/occlusion is rarely symptomatic warranting interventional treatment. In contrast, when it is attributed to AVF, surgical correction is frequently necessary. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
Agematsu, Kouta; Naito, Yuji; Aoki, Mitsuru; Fujiwara, Tadashi
The presented case was a 3-year-old boy diagnosed with asplenia (SLL), double outlet right ventricle, pulmonary stenosis, atrioventricular septal defect, hypoplastic left ventricle and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection was repaired by translocation of pulmonary artery to avoid pulmonary venous obstruction when Glenn anastomosis was performed. Total cavo-pulmonary connection was established by re-routing the inferior vena cava to pulmonary artery using the atrial septal remnant and the left atrium free wall flap.
Yoshikawa, Yukihiro; Yoshikawa, Masato; Kawabata, Ryohei; Yoshida, Yuta; Kawada, Masahiro; Yasuyama, Akinobu; Watase, Chikashi; Koga, Chikato; Hitora, Toshiki; Murakami, Masahiro; Hirota, Masaki; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Shimizu, Junzo; Hasegawa, Junichi
A 68-year-old man underwent esophagectomy for early esophageal cancer. Postoperative upper gastrointestinal series and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed gastric tube stenosis. To improve passage, a removable self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) was placed across the stenotic lesion. Two weeks later, the stent was removed, and passage through the gastric tube improved. The patient has no symptoms of stenosis. A removable SEMS could be an option for the treatment of gastric tube stenosis after esophagectomy.
Sabău, Alexandru-Dan; Hassan, Noor; Smarandache, Cătălin Gabriel; Miheţiu, Alin; Ţîţu, Ștefan; Sabău, Dan
An original technique using laparoscopic instruments in a gastric endocavitary work chamber with potential for esophagus, stomach and D1 vizualisation. The main purpose of laparagastroscopy is to improve the quality of life of the patient disabling by the esophageal tumor. This method has several advantages: providing physiological feeding, harvesting materials for histopathological examination, solving eso-tracheal fistulas concurrently with the proposed operation and hemostatic role through compression, low energy and plastic consumption, rapid socio-economic reintegration, mental psychological care of the patient. Patients and Methods: The paper deals with 162 cases with different tumors of the esophagus, patients with different grades of esophageal stenosis, different stages of esophageal neoplasm. Both the patients with eso-tracheal fistulas and those with gastro- or jejunostoma were included. Results: From 162 cases, 33 cases (20%) with cervical esophageal neoplasm, 66 (41%) cases with thoracic esophageal neoplasm and 63 (39%) cases with abdominal esophageal neoplasm. The histopathological type is 37% adenocarcinomas and 63% squamous carcinomas. From total number of cases, 87 (54%) had no metastasis, and 75 (46%) had secondary determinations. The most frequent localization of metastasis was pulmonary, followed by liver (Fig. 1) and bone. The analysis of this intervention has shown that complications have been much lower both in terms of their numerical value and their severity, a longer survival time with a much higher satisfaction index is ensured. Esophageal endoprosthesis (EPE) through laparagastroscopic approach should be a a reserve procedure instead of a disabling gastrostomy or jejunostomy. EPE is an extremely effective procedure specially by keeping the physiology of food bowl. The approach is minimally invasive with minimal attack on the body with significant plastic and aesthetic reductions. This procedure allows the prosthesis to be viewed both
López-Reyes, Raquel; García-Ortega, Alberto; Torrents, Ana; Feced, Laura; Calvillo, Pilar; Libreros-Niño, Eugenia Alejandra; Escrivá-Peiró, Juan; Nauffal, Dolores
Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis (PVT) is a rare and underdiagnosed entity produced by local mechanical nature mechanisms, vascular torsion or direct injury to the vein. PVT has been described in clinical cases or small multicenter series mainly in relation to pulmonary vein stenosis, metastatic carcinoma, fibrosing mediastinitis, as an early surgical complication of lung transplantation lobectomy and radiofrequency ablation performed in patients with atrial fibrillation, although in some cases the cause is not known. We report the case of a 57 years old male with history of atrial fibrillation treated by radiofrequency ablation who was admitted in our center because of a two-week history of consistent pleuritic pain in the left hemithorax and low-grade hemoptysis and a lung consolidation treated as a pneumonia with antibiotic but not responding to medical therapy. In view of the poor evolution of the patient, computed tomography angiography was performed with findings of PVT and secondary venous infarction and anticoagulation therapy was optimized. At the end, pulmonary resection was performed due to hemorrhagic recurrence. PVT remains a rare complication of radiofrequency ablation and other procedures involving pulmonary veins. Clinical suspicion and early diagnosis is crucial because is a potentially life-threatening entity.
Pham, Xuan-Binh D; Ihenachor, Ezinne J; Wu, Hoover; Kim, Jerry J; Kaji, Amy H; Koopmann, Matthew C; Ryan, Timothy J; de Virgilio, Christian
Current guidelines recommend vascular mapping ultrasound (US) prior to arteriovenous fistula creation. Blunted venous waveforms (BVWs) suggest central venous stenosis; however, this relationship and one between BVWs and the presence of a central venous catheter (CVC) remain unclear. All patients who received upper extremity vascular mapping US between January 2013 and October 2014 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, US results, pacemaker history, and CVC status were collected. Waveforms were assessed at the proximal subclavian vein/distal axillary vein and interpreted by radiologists. Patients were determined to have central venous stenosis (CVS) if detected by venography within 6 months of US. There were 342 patients, of which 165 (48%) had a current CVC and 29 (8.5%) had BVW of at least 1 arm. Right-sided BVW were associated with a history of a prior ipsilateral CVC (odds ratio [OR] = 4.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-12.6, P = 0.009). Of the 342 patients, 69 (20%) had a venogram within 6 months. Seventeen (25%) of the 69 patients had CVS, with 7 involving the left subclavian vein, 8 the right subclavian vein, and 3 the superior vena cava (one patient had tandem stenoses). A BVW on the left side was not associated with any CVS. A BVW on the right side was associated with an ipsilateral CVS (OR = 5.8, 95% CI = 1.2-27.4, P = 0.04). This association persisted in the setting of a prior CVC (relative risk = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.9-2, P = 0.01). There are associations between right-sided BVW and an ipsilateral subclavian vein stenosis. We recommend that hemodialysis access planning includes venography to rule out central vein stenosis in patients with BVW, especially if right-sided and in the setting of a prior CVC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ghezzi, A; Comi, G; Federico, A
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. In the last years, it has been suggested that an abnormal venous drainage due to stenosis or malformation of the internal jugular and/or azygous veins may play a major pathogenetic role in MS. This abnormality called chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) could result in increased permeability of blood brain barrier, local iron deposition and secondary multifocal inflammation. In the present paper, literature data in favour and against this hypothesis are reported. A great variability of CCSVI has been found in both MS patients (ranging from 0 to 100%) and in control subjects (from 0 to 23%). This large variability is explained by methodological aspects, problems in assessing CCSVI, and differences among clinical series. It is urgent to perform appropriate epidemiological studies to define the possible relationship between CCSVI and MS.
Rosenhek, Raphael; Zilberszac, Robert; Schemper, Michael; Czerny, Martin; Mundigler, Gerald; Graf, Senta; Bergler-Klein, Jutta; Grimm, Michael; Gabriel, Harald; Maurer, Gerald
We sought to assess the outcome of asymptomatic patients with very severe aortic stenosis. We prospectively followed 116 consecutive asymptomatic patients (57 women; age, 67 + or - 16 years) with very severe isolated aortic stenosis defined by a peak aortic jet velocity (AV-Vel) > or = 5.0 m/s (average AV-Vel, 5.37 + or - 0.35 m/s; valve area, 0.63 + or - 0.12 cm(2)). During a median follow-up of 41 months (interquartile range, 26 to 63 months), 96 events occurred (indication for aortic valve replacement, 90; cardiac deaths, 6). Event-free survival was 64%, 36%, 25%, 12%, and 3% at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 years, respectively. AV-Vel but not aortic valve area was shown to independently affect event-free survival. Patients with an AV-Vel > or = 5.5 m/s had an event-free survival of 44%, 25%, 11%, and 4% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively, compared with 76%, 43%, 33%, and 17% for patients with an AV-Vel between 5.0 and 5.5 m/s (P<0.0001). Six cardiac deaths occurred in previously asymptomatic patients (sudden death, 1; congestive heart failure, 4; myocardial infarction, 1). Patients with an initial AV-Vel > or = 5.5 m/s had a higher likelihood (52%) of severe symptom onset (New York Heart Association or Canadian Cardiovascular Society class >II) than those with an AV-Vel between 5.0 and 5.5 m/s (27%; P=0.03). Despite being asymptomatic, patients with very severe aortic stenosis have a poor prognosis with a high event rate and a risk of rapid functional deterioration. Early elective valve replacement surgery should therefore be considered in these patients.
Fruchter, Oren; Abed El Raouf, Bayya; Rosengarten, Dror; Kramer, Mordechai R
Whereas stents are considered an excellent treatment for proximal central major airway stenosis, the value of stenting for distal lobar airway stenosis is still controversial. Our aim was to explore the short-term and long-term outcome of metallic stents placed for benign and malignant lobar airway stenosis. Between July 2007 and July 2014, 14 patients underwent small airway stent insertion. The clinical follow-up included serial semiannual physical examinations, pulmonary function tests, imaging, and bronchoscopy. The etiologies for airway stenosis were: early post-lung transplantation bronchial stenosis (N=5), sarcoidosis (N=1), amyloidosis (N=1), anthracofibrosis (N=1), right middle lobe syndrome due to external lymph node compression (N=1), lung cancer (N=4), and stenosis of the left upper lobe of unknown etiology (N=1). Stents were placed in the right upper lobe bronchus (N=2), right middle lobe bronchus (N=6), left upper lobe bronchus (N=4), linguar bronchus (N=1), and left lower lobe bronchus (N=1). The median follow-up period ranged from 2 to 72 months (median 18 mo). Immediate relief of symptoms was achieved in the vast majority of patients (13/14, 92%). Out of 10 patients with benign etiology for stenosis, 9 (90%) experienced sustained and progressive improvement in pulmonary function tests and clinical condition. We describe our positive experience with small stents for lobar airway stenosis; further prospective trials are required to evaluate the value of this novel modality of treatment.
Lesimple, T; Béguec, J F; Levêque, J M
Many treatments administered to cancer patients require venous access either via a peripheral vein or a larger central vein at the risk of local or systemic infection, thrombus formation or venous occlusion and dysfunction. Insertion of a central catheter is an invasive procedure which must be conducted under conditions of rigorous asepsia. Strict rules based on well-defined protocols must be applied throughout its use. Local or systemic infectious complications account for 18 to 25% of all nosocomial infections and are often related to colonisation of the puncture site by a Gram positive germ. In case of infection, ablation of the central catheter is not mandatory for diagnosis or antibiotic treatment. Reported at varying frequencies in the literature from 4 to 42%, thrombus formation is unpredictable and often difficult to diagnose. Anticoagulants or fibrolytic agents are indicated but it may also be necessary to withdraw the catheter. Displacement, rupture, obstruction and extravasation are frequent complications. Back flow must be checked in all venous accesses and free flow carefully verified. The access must remain patent throughout the period of use, guaranteed by a standard heparinization and rinsing protocol. This complications must not mask the important progress achieved with the use of central venous access for specific and symptomatic treatment in cancer patients.
Khandenahally, Ravindranath S; Deora, Surender; Math, Ravi S
Total anomalous systemic venous drainage is an extremely rare congenital heart defect. In this study we describe an 11-year-old girl who presented with a history of fatigue and central cyanosis that she had had since early childhood with unremarkable precordial examination results. Investigations revealed left heterotaxy with all systemic venous drainage to the left-sided atrium with non-compaction of the left ventricle.
Whitehead, M T; Wien, M; Lee, B; Bass, N; Gropman, A
MELAS syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder typified by recurrent stroke-like episodes, seizures, and progressive brain injury. Abnormal mitochondria have been found in arterial walls implicating a vasculogenic etiology. We have observed abnormal cortical vein T2/FLAIR signal in MELAS patients, potentially representing wall thickening and sluggish flow. We sought to examine the relationship of hyperintense veins and brain lesions in MELAS. Imaging databases at two children's hospitals were searched for brain MRIs from MELAS patients. Artifact, sedated exams, and lack of 2D-T2/FLAIR sequences were exclusion criteria. Each exam was assigned a venous score based on number of T2/FLAIR hyperintense veins: 1 = <10, 2 = 10 to 20, 3 = >20. Cumulative brain lesions and venous score in MELAS and aged-matched normal exams were compared by Mann-Whitney test. A total of 106 exams from 14 unique MELAS patients (mean 16 ± 3 years) and 30 exams from normal aged-matched patients (mean 15 ± 3 years) were evaluated. Median venous score between MELAS and control patients significantly differed (3 versus 1; p < 0.001). In the MELAS group, venous score correlated with presence (median = 3) or absence (median = 1) of cumulative brain lesions. In all 8 MELAS patients who developed lesions, venous hyperintensity was present prior to, during, and after lesion onset. Venous score did not correlate with brain lesion acuity. Abnormal venous signal correlates with cumulative brain lesion severity in MELAS syndrome. Cortical venous stenosis, congestion, and venous ischemia may be mechanisms of brain injury. Identification of cortical venous pathology may aid in diagnosis and could be predictive of lesion development.
Samaraweera, Sahan Asela; Gibbons, Berwyck; Gour, Anami; Sedgwick, Philip
This study assessed the agreement between arterial and venous blood lactate and pH levels in children with sepsis. This retrospective, three-year study involved 60 PICU patients, with data collected from electronic or paper patient records. The inclusion criteria comprised of children (≤17 years old) with sepsis and those who had a venous blood gas taken first with an arterial blood gas taken after within one hour. The lactate and pH values measured through each method were analysed. There is close agreement between venous and arterial lactate up to 2 mmol/L. As this value increases, this agreement becomes poor. The limits of agreement (LOA) are too large (±1.90 mmol/L) to allow venous and arterial lactate to be used interchangeably. The mean difference and LOA between both methods would be much smaller if derived using lactate values under 2.0 mmol/L. There is close agreement between arterial and venous pH (MD = -0.056, LOA ± 0.121). However, due to extreme variations in pH readings during sepsis, pH alone is an inadequate marker. A venous lactate ≤2 mmol/L can be used as a surrogate for arterial lactate during early management of sepsis in children. However, if the value exceeds 2 mmol/L, an arterial sample must confirm the venous result. What is known: • In children with septic shock, a blood gas is an important test to show the presence of acidosis and high lactic acid. Hyperlactataemia on admission is an early predictor of outcome and is associated with a greater mortality risk. • An arterial sample is the standard for lactate measurement, however getting a sample may be challenging in the emergency department or a general paediatric ward. Venous samples are quicker and easier to obtain. Adult studies generally advise caution in replacing venous lactate values for the arterial standard, whilst paediatric studies are limited in this area. What is new: • This is the first study assessing the agreement between arterial and peripheral venous
Ma, Kiet; Alhassan, Sulaiman; Sharara, Rihab; Young, Meilin; Singh, Anil C; Bihler, Eric
Venous thromboembolisms are major risk factors for many of our hospitalized patients. These events, however, can be prevented with prophylactic measurements when administered appropriately and on a timely basis. As patients are admitted, discharged, transferred, and scheduled for procedures on an hourly basis, anticoagulation and deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis are held or discontinued in anticipation for possible procedures. This results in delay of care and intervals where patients may not be covered with any prophylactic measurements. Similarly, alterations in clinical status can quickly change such as an increase in creatinine levels or the development of a new bleed, thus requiring a revision in their deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. Nurses, therefore, play an integral role in not only administering the medicine but also routinely assessing the patients' clinical status and, therefore, their deep vein thrombosis prophylactic regimens as well. This article will review the indications, scoring systems, common prophylactic methods, and special populations at increased risks for venous thromboembolisms.
Heit, John A.
Thrombosis can affect any venous circulation. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep-vein thrombosis of the leg or pelvis, and its complication, pulmonary embolism. VTE is a fairly common disease, particularly in older age, and is associated with reduced survival, substantial health-care costs, and a high rate of recurrence. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and various risk factors. Major risk factors for incident VTE include hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, active cancer, neurological disease with leg paresis, nursing-home confinement, trauma or fracture, superficial vein thrombosis, and—in women—pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent risk factors for incident VTE and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be fairly constant, or even increasing. PMID:26076949
Heit, John A
Thrombosis can affect any venous circulation. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep-vein thrombosis of the leg or pelvis, and its complication, pulmonary embolism. VTE is a fairly common disease, particularly in older age, and is associated with reduced survival, substantial health-care costs, and a high rate of recurrence. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and various risk factors. Major risk factors for incident VTE include hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, active cancer, neurological disease with leg paresis, nursing-home confinement, trauma or fracture, superficial vein thrombosis, and-in women-pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent risk factors for incident VTE and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be fairly constant, or even increasing.
Biernacka, Jadwiga; Nestorowicz, Andrzej; Wach, Małgorzata
Central venous access represents one of the most basic therapeutic procedures in modern medicine. Unfortunately, numerous advantages that result from maintaining a central venous line are accompanied by some complications among which the venous thrombosis is the most significant clinically. The study was designed to assess frequency and natural history of this complication in the setting at a multi profile clinical hospital. Central venous cannulation was performed by a fully qualified anaesthesiologist in every case. There were 887 cannulations and only 5 patients with clinically significant venous thrombosis. The analysis of the collected data allowed us to state that the frequency of intravascular thrombosis is low, but this complication is often associated with extensive impairment of patency of the central veins. Full recanalization is not always achieved regardless of the treatment applied. Pulmonary embolism in the course of central venous thrombosis was diagnosed in one patient only and appeared as a multiple and fine X-ray infiltrates. It seems that in the presence of permanent or even life threatening complications of central venous thrombosis their risk should be minimized by frequent examination of the cannulation site and early initiation of antithrombotic treatment.
Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids
Duran, Cihan; Sagbas, Ertan; Caynak, Baris; Sanisoglu, Ilhan; Akpinar, Belhhan; Gulbaran, Murat
The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of multislice computed tomography in detecting graft stenosis or occlusion after coronary artery bypass grafting, using coronary angiography as the standard. From January 2005 through May 2006, 25 patients (19 men and 6 women; mean age, 54 ± 11.3 years) underwent diagnostic investigation of their bypass grafts by multislice computed tomography within 1 month of coronary angiography. The mean time elapsed after coronary artery bypass grafting was 6.2 years. In these 25 patients, we examined 65 bypass conduits (24 arterial and 41 venous) and 171 graft segments (the shaft, proximal anastomosis, and distal anastomosis). Compared with coronary angiography, the segment-based sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of multislice computed tomography in the evaluation of stenosis were 89%, 100%, 100%, and 99%, respectively. The patency rate for multislice compu-ted tomography was 85% (55/65: 3 arterial and 7 venous grafts were occluded), with 100% sensitivity and specificity. From these data, we conclude that multislice computed tomography can accurately evaluate the patency and stenosis of bypass grafts during outpatient follow-up. PMID:17948078
Chang, Kevin; Yokose, Chio; Tenner, Craig; Oh, Cheongeun; Donnino, Robert; Choy-Shan, Alana; Pike, Virginia C; Shah, Binita D; Lorin, Jeffrey D; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Sedlis, Steven P; Pillinger, Michael H
An independent association between gout and coronary artery disease is well established. The relationship between gout and valvular heart disease, however, is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the association between gout and aortic stenosis. We performed a retrospective case-control study. Aortic stenosis cases were identified through a review of outpatient transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) reports. Age-matched controls were randomly selected from patients who had undergone TTE and did not have aortic stenosis. Charts were reviewed to identify diagnoses of gout and the earliest dates of gout and aortic stenosis diagnosis. Among 1085 patients who underwent TTE, 112 aortic stenosis cases were identified. Cases and nonaortic stenosis controls (n = 224) were similar in age and cardiovascular comorbidities. A history of gout was present in 21.4% (n = 24) of aortic stenosis subjects compared with 12.5% (n = 28) of controls (unadjusted odds ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.48, P = .038). Multivariate analysis retained significance only for gout (adjusted odds ratio 2.08, 95% confidence interval 1.00-4.32, P = .049). Among subjects with aortic stenosis and gout, gout diagnosis preceded aortic stenosis diagnosis by 5.8 ± 1.6 years. The age at onset of aortic stenosis was similar among patients with and without gout (78.7 ± 1.8 vs 75.8 ± 1.0 years old, P = .16). Aortic stenosis patients had a markedly higher prevalence of precedent gout than age-matched controls. Whether gout is a marker of, or a risk factor for, the development of aortic stenosis remains uncertain. Studies investigating the potential role of gout in the pathophysiology of aortic stenosis are warranted and could have therapeutic implications. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chang, Kevin; Yokose, Chio; Tenner, Craig; Oh, Cheongeun; Donnino, Robert; Choy-Shan, Alana; Pike, Virginia C.; Shah, Binita D.; Lorin, Jeffrey D.; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Sedlis, Steven P.; Pillinger, Michael H.
Background An independent association between gout and coronary artery disease is well established. The relationship between gout and valvular heart disease, however, is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the association between gout and aortic stenosis. Methods We performed a retrospective case-control study. Aortic stenosis cases were identified through a review of outpatient transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) reports. Age-matched controls were randomly selected from patients who had undergone TTE and did not have aortic stenosis. Charts were reviewed to identify diagnoses of gout and the earliest dates of gout and aortic stenosis diagnosis. Results Among 1085 patients who underwent TTE, 112 aortic stenosis cases were identified. Cases and non-aortic stenosis controls (n=224) were similar in age and cardiovascular comorbidities. A history of gout was present in 21.4% (n=24) of aortic stenosis subjects compared with 12.5% (n=28) of controls (unadjusted OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.05–3.48, p=0.038). Multivariate analysis retained significance only for gout (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.00–4.32, p=0.049). Among subjects with aortic stenosis and gout, gout diagnosis preceded aortic stenosis diagnosis by 5.8 ± 1.6 years. The age at onset of aortic stenosis was similar among patients with and without gout (78.7 ± 1.8 vs. 75.8 ± 1.0 years old, p=0.16). Conclusions Aortic stenosis patients had a markedly higher prevalence of precedent gout than age-matched controls. Whether gout is a marker of, or a risk factor for the development of aortic stenosis remains uncertain. Studies investigating the potential role of gout in the pathophysiology of aortic stenosis are warranted and could have therapeutic implications. PMID:27720853
Thiago, Luciana; Tsuji, Selma Rumiko; Nyong, Jonathan; Puga, Maria Eduarda Dos Santos; Góis, Aécio Flávio Teixeira de; Macedo, Cristiane Rufino; Valente, Orsine; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib
Aortic valve stenosis is the most common type of valvular heart disease in the USA and Europe. Aortic valve stenosis is considered similar to atherosclerotic disease. Some studies have evaluated statins for aortic valve stenosis. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of statins in aortic valve stenosis. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS - IBECS, Web of Science and CINAHL Plus. These databases were searched from their inception to 24 November 2015. We also searched trials in registers for ongoing trials. We used no language restrictions.Selection criteria: Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing statins alone or in association with other systemic drugs to reduce cholesterol levels versus placebo or usual care. Data collection and analysis: Primary outcomes were severity of aortic valve stenosis (evaluated by echocardiographic criteria: mean pressure gradient, valve area and aortic jet velocity), freedom from valve replacement and death from cardiovascular cause. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization for any reason, overall mortality, adverse events and patient quality of life.Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The GRADE methodology was employed to assess the quality of result findings and the GRADE profiler (GRADEPRO) was used to import data from Review Manager 5.3 to create a 'Summary of findings' table. We included four RCTs with 2360 participants comparing statins (1185 participants) with placebo (1175 participants). We found low-quality evidence for our primary outcome of severity of aortic valve stenosis, evaluated by mean pressure gradient (mean difference (MD) -0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.88 to 0.80; participants = 1935; studies = 2), valve area (MD -0.07, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.14; participants = 127; studies = 2), and aortic jet velocity (MD -0.06, 95% CI -0.26 to 0
Meziani, F; Debbal, S M; Atbi, A
The heart is the principal organ that circulates blood. In normal conditions it produces four sounds for each cardiac cycle. However, most often only two sounds appear essential: S1 and S2. Two other sounds: S3 and S4, with lower amplitude than S1 or S2, appear occasionally in the cardiac cycle by the effect of disease or age. The presence of abnormal sounds in one cardiac cycle provide valuable information on various diseases. The aortic stenosis (AS), as being a valvular pathology, is characterized by a systolic murmur due to a narrowing of the aortic valve. The mitral stenosis (MS) is characterized by a diastolic murmur due to a reduction in the mitral valve. Early screening of these diseases is necessary; it's done by a simple technique known as: phonocardiography. Analysis of phonocardiograms signals using signal processing techniques can provide for clinicians useful information considered as a platform for significant decisions in their medical diagnosis. In this work two types of diseases were studied: aortic stenosis (AS) and mitral stenosis (MS). Each one presents six different cases. The application of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to analyse pathological severity of the (AS and MS was presented. Then, the calculation of various parameters was performed for each patient. This study examines the possibility of using the DWT in the analysis of pathological severity of AS and MS.
Rudge, C. J.; Bewick, M.; McColl, I.
Three patients are described who developed hydrothorax as a complication of central venous catheterization. Respiratory distress associated with physical signs of fluid in the chest should arouse suspicion that the venous catheter has perforated the wall of the vein. The complications of central venous catheterization are reviewed and three cases of hydrothorax are presented. Comments on the prevention of these complications, their diagnosis and treatment if they occur, are made. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4717421
Lok, Zoe S Y; Goldstein, Jacob; Smith, Julian A
Alkaptonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of tyrosine metabolism, which results in accumulation of unmetabolized homogentisic acid and its oxidized product in various tissues, including the heart. Cardiovascular involvement is a rare but serious complication of the disease. We present two patients who have undergone successful aortic valve replacement for alkaptonuria-associated aortic stenosis along with a review of the literature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lurie, Jon; Tomkins-Lane, Christy
Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) affects more than 200,000 adults in the United States, resulting in substantial pain and disability. It is the most common reason for spinal surgery in patients over 65 years. Lumbar spinal stenosis is a clinical syndrome of pain in the buttocks or lower extremities, with or without back pain. It is associated with reduced space available for the neural and vascular elements of the lumbar spine. The condition is often exacerbated by standing, walking, or lumbar extension and relieved by forward flexion, sitting, or recumbency. Clinical care and research into lumbar spinal stenosis is complicated by the heterogeneity of the condition, the lack of standard criteria for diagnosis and inclusion in studies, and high rates of anatomic stenosis on imaging studies in older people who are completely asymptomatic. The options for non-surgical management include drugs, physiotherapy, spinal injections, lifestyle modification, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation. However, few high quality randomized trials have looked at conservative management. A systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any specific type of non-surgical treatment. Several different surgical procedures are used to treat patients who do not improve with non-operative therapies. Given that rapid deterioration is rare and that symptoms often wax and wane or gradually improve, surgery is almost always elective and considered only if sufficiently bothersome symptoms persist despite trials of less invasive interventions. Outcomes (leg pain and disability) seem to be better for surgery than for non-operative treatment, but the evidence is heterogeneous and often of limited quality. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd 2015.
Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K
Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, Gerard K.; Monahan, John F. W.; Davis, Gabrielle B.; Lee, Yong Suk; Ragina, Neli P.; Wang, Charles; Zhou, Zhao Y.; Hong, Young Kwon; Spivak, Ryan M.; Wong, Alex K.
The field of reconstructive microsurgery is experiencing tremendous growth, as evidenced by recent advances in face and hand transplantation, lower limb salvage after trauma, and breast reconstruction. Common to all of these procedures is the creation of a nutrient vascular supply by microsurgical anastomosis between a single artery and vein. Complications related to occluded arterial inflow and obstructed venous outflow are not uncommon, and can result in irreversible tissue injury, necrosis, and flap loss. At times, these complications are challenging to clinically determine. Since early intervention with return to the operating room to re-establish arterial inflow or venous outflow is key to flap salvage, the accurate diagnosis of early stage complications is essential. To date, there are no biochemical markers or serum assays that can predict these complications. In this study, we utilized a rat model of flap ischemia in order to identify the transcriptional signatures of venous congestion and arterial ischemia. We found that the critical ischemia time for the superficial inferior epigastric fasciocutaneus flap was four hours and therefore performed detailed analyses at this time point. Histolgical analysis confirmed significant differences between arterial and venous ischemia. The transcriptome of ischemic, congested, and control flap tissues was deciphered by performing Affymetrix microarray analysis and verified by qRT-PCR. Principal component analysis revealed that arterial ischemia and venous congestion were characterized by distinct transcriptomes. Arterial ischemia and venous congestion was characterized by 408 and 1536>2-fold differentially expressed genes, respectively. qRT-PCR was used to identify five candidate genes Prol1, Muc1, Fcnb, Il1b, and Vcsa1 to serve as biomarkers for flap failure in both arterial ischemia and venous congestion. Our data suggests that Prol1 and Vcsa1 may be specific indicators of venous congestion and allow clinicians to
Parakh, R; Kakkar, V V; Kakkar, A K
Venous Thromboembolism is an important healthcare problem the world over, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality and resource expenditure. The rationale for use of thromboprophylaxis is based on solid principles and scientific evidence. Indian perspective on this topic is lacking due to the non-availability of published Indian data. This document reviews the available International and Indian data and discusses the relevance of recommendations for prevention and management of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) in the Indian context. Meetings of various specialists from different Indian hospitals in the field of Gastrointestinal Surgery, General and Vascular Surgery, Hematology, Intensive Care, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oncology and Orthopedics were held in the months of August 2005 to January 2006. The guidelines published by American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), the International Union of Angiology (IUA), and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RCOG), were discussed during these meetings. The relevance of these guidelines and the practical implications of following these in a developing country like India were also discussed. Any published data from India was collected from data base searches and the results, along with personal experiences of the participating specialists were discussed. The experiences and impressions of the experts during these meetings have been included in this document. Data from recent sources (International Union of Angiology and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Practice guidelines in Oncology on Venous thromboembolic disease) was subsequently also included in this document. The suggestions formulated in this document are practical, and would intend to serve as a useful practical reference. A number of unanswered questions remain in the field of thromboprophylaxis, and carefully designed research protocols may help answer some of these. Implementation of the suggestions outlined in the document
Al Sabah, Salman; Al Haddad, Eliana; Siddique, Iqbal
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is becoming an increasingly popular form of bariatric surgery, accounting for more than 50% of these procedures performed in the USA. Given this popularity, more is being understood about the complications associated with LSG, which, though uncommon, include the formation of strictures and stenosis. The purpose of this study is to establish a safe and effective protocol for the treatment of stenosis post-LSG using endoscopic balloon dilatation. This is a prospective review of 26 patients who had undergone LSG in Kuwait, followed by sleeve gastrectomy stenosis (SGS) and were then referred to Amiri Hospital for endoscopic balloon dilatation from October 2008 up to June 2016. A total of 26 patients (four males; 22 females) presented with symptoms of stenosis post-LSG during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 34.6 ± 10.8 years. The mean body mass index at the time of surgery was 43 ± 1.6 kg/m 2 . The median interval from the initial LSG surgery was 95 days. Nine patients had an early presentation (≤3 months from surgery), while 17 presented late (>3 months). The patients were followed for a mean duration of 156 ± 20 days from the last endoscopic balloon dilatation. A total of 23 (88.5%) patients had complete resolution of their symptoms. Adverse events were observed in one patients, who was removed from the study. Gastric stenosis is a rare but potentially serious complication of LSG. Serial dilatation of SGS employing endoscopic balloons is a safe method of treatment, with high efficacy rates. This new method may offer a less invasive alternative to surgical revision. However, if endoscopic treatment fails, surgery is necessary.
Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri
Tanaka, Ryo; Kosugi, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Daisuke; Hirukawa, Hiroshi; Tada, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Hanyu, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Wakai, Toshifumi
We report a case of esophageal perforation (Boerhaave syndrome) caused by vomiting related to a duodenal ulcer with pyloric stenosis. A 45-year-old male presented with left chest pain and dyspnea after forceful vomiting. Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) revealed a massive left pleural effusion and left tension pneumothorax. Abdominal CT revealed pyloric stenosis with a remarkably dilated stomach. Tube thoracostomy and nasogastric suction were immediately performed and we selected conservative treatment based on the following factors-a stable general condition without sepsis, early diagnosis, and good drainage. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy on hospital day 9 demonstrated a healing ulcer in the lower esophagus and pyloric stenosis. We performed distal gastrectomy as elective surgery for pyloric stenosis due to a duodenal ulcer on hospital day 30. In summary, an esophageal perforation with contamination spreading to the thoracic cavity was successfully treated with conservative treatment.
Papamichail, M; Pizanias, M; Heaton, N
Congenital portosystemic venous shunts are rare developmental anomalies resulting in diversion of portal flow to the systemic circulation and have been divided into extra- and intrahepatic shunts. They occur during liver and systemic venous vascular embryogenesis and are associated with other congenital abnormalities. They carry a higher risk of benign and malignant liver tumors and, if left untreated, can result in significant medical complications including systemic encephalopathy and pulmonary hypertension. This article reviews the various types of congenital portosystemic shunts and their anatomy, pathogenesis, symptomatology, and timing and options of treatment. What is Known: • The natural history and basic management of this rare congenital anomaly are presented. What is New: • This paper is a comprehensive review; highlights important topics in pathogenesis, clinical symptomatology, and treatment options; and proposes an algorithm in the management of congenital portosystemic shunt disease in order to provide a clear idea to a pediatrician. An effort has been made to emphasize the indications for treatment in the children population and link to the adult group by discussing the consequences of lack of treatment or delayed diagnosis.
Sud, V. K.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.
This paper reports a theoretical study on the distribution of blood flow in the human cardiovascular system when one or more blood vessels are affected by stenosis. The analysis employs a mathematical model of the entire system based on the finite element method. The arterial-venous network is represented by a large number of interconnected segments in the model. Values for the model parameters are based upon the published data on the physiological and rheological properties of blood. Computational results show how blood flow through various parts of the cardiovascular system is affected by stenosis in different blood vessels. No significant changes in the flow parameters of the cardiovascular system were found to occur when the reduction in the lumen diameter of the stenosed vessels was less than 65%.
Venous thromboembolism remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK, and its dangers, particularly in hospitalized patients, have long been recognized. Recent measures to tackle this problem and new treatments should alleviate the burden of venous thromboembolism for patients, their families and hospital services.
Tricuspid valve stenosis (TS) is rare, affecting less than 1% of patients in developed nations and approximately 3% of patients worldwide. Detection requires careful evaluation, as it is almost always associated with left-sided valve lesions that may obscure its significance. Primary TS is most frequently caused by rheumatic valvulitis. Other causes include carcinoid, radiation therapy, infective endocarditis, trauma from endomyocardial biopsy or pacemaker placement, or congenital abnormalities. Surgical management of TS is not commonly addressed in standard cardiac texts but is an important topic for the practicing surgeon. This paper will elucidate the anatomy, pathophysiology, and surgical management of TS. PMID:28706872
Port, Alexander D; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Lelli, Gary J
To describe the pathologic changes in punctal stenosis by reporting the histopathologic findings in a series of punctoplasty specimens. Observational retrospective chart review. Electronic health records of all patients having punctoplasty over a 2-year period at an academic oculoplastic practice were examined. All patients whose records included pathology reports were entered into a database. Twenty-four patients, representing 30 eyes, had pathology records in the electronic health records. Patients were 75% women and had an average age of 65 (19-88) years. Associated conditions included blepharitis (71%), dry eye syndrome, or Meibomian gland dysfunction (63%). Histopathologic examination demonstrated chronic inflammation in 11 eyes (36.7%), fibrosis in 7 eyes (23.3%), chronic inflammation and fibrosis in 4 eyes (13.3%), squamous metaplasia in 3 eyes (10%), normal conjunctival mucosa in 3 eyes (10%), and Actinomyces israelii canaliculitis in 2 eyes (6.7%). Nearly all histopathologic specimens revealed findings consistent with inflammation, fibrosis, or both. These findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that the many etiologic causes of punctal stenosis are linked by a common pathophysiologic mechanism involving inflammation.
Lehmkuhl, L B; Ware, W A; Bonagura, J D
Mitral stenosis was diagnosed in 15 young to middle-aged dogs. There were 5 Newfoundlands and 4 bull terriers affected, suggesting a breed predisposition for this disorder. Clinical signs included cough, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and syncope. Soft left apical diastolic murmurs were heard only in 4 dogs, whereas 8 dogs had systolic murmurs characteristic of mitral regurgitation. Left atrial enlargement was the most prominent radiographic feature. Left-sided congestive heart failure was detected by radiographs in 11 dogs within 1 year of diagnosis. Electrocardiographic abnormalities varied among dogs and included atrial and ventricular enlargement, as well as atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Abnormalities on M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms included abnormal diastolic motion of the mitral valve characterized by decreased leaflet separation, valve doming, concordant motion of the parietal mitral valve leaflet, and a decreased E-to-F slope. Increased mitral valve inflow velocities and prolonged pressure half-times were detected by Doppler echocardiography. Cardiac catheterization, performed in 8 dogs, documented a diastolic pressure gradient between the left atrial, pulmonary capillary wedge, or pulmonary artery diastolic pressures and the left ventricular diastolic pressure. Necropsy showed mitral stenosis caused by thickened, fused mitral valve leaflets in 5 dogs and a supramitral ring in another dog. The outcome in affected dogs was poor; 9 of 15 dogs were euthanatized or died by 2 1/2 years of age.
Bhora, Faiz Y; Ayub, Adil; Forleiter, Craig M; Huang, Chyun-Yin; Alshehri, Khalid; Rehmani, Sadiq; Al-Ayoubi, Adnan M; Raad, Wissam; Lebovics, Robert S
Tracheal stenosis is a debilitating disorder with heterogeneity in terms of disease characteristics and management. Repeated recurrences substantially alter patients' quality of life. There is limited evidence for the use of spray cryotherapy (SCT) in the management of benign airway disease. To report our early results for the use of SCT in patients with benign tracheal stenosis. Data were extracted from the medical records of a consecutive series of patients with benign airway stenosis secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (n = 13), prior tracheotomy or tracheal intubation (n = 8), and idiopathic strictures (n = 5) treated from September 1, 2013, to September 30, 2015, at a tertiary care hospital. Airway narrowing was quantified on a standard quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was assessed by improvement in airway caliber and the time interval for reintervention. Delivery of 4 5-second SCT cycles and 2 balloon dilatations. Twenty-six patients (median [range] age, 53 [16-83] years; 20 [77%] female) underwent 48 SCT sessions. Spray cryotherapy was successfully used without any substantial intraoperative or postoperative complications in all patients. In a median (range) follow-up of 11 (1-26) months, all patients had improvement in symptoms. Before the institution of SCT, 23 patients (88%) had grade III or IV stenosis. At the last evaluation after induction of SCT, 4 (15%) had grade III or IV stenosis, with a mean (SD) change of 1.39 (0.51) (P < .001). Patients with GPA required significantly fewer SCT procedures (mean [SD], 1.38 [0.96] vs 2.31 [1.18]; P = .03) during the study period. Spray cryotherapy was a safe adjunct modality to accomplish airway patency in patients with benign tracheal stenosis. Although efficacy evidence is limited for SCT, it may be useful for patients who have experienced treatment failure with conventional modalities. Further analysis of this cohort will determine the physiologic durability of
Călin, Andreea; Roşca, Monica; Beladan, Carmen Cristiana; Enache, Roxana; Mateescu, Anca Doina; Ginghină, Carmen; Popescu, Bogdan Alexandru
Aortic stenosis has an increasing prevalence in the context of aging population. In these patients non-invasive imaging allows not only the grading of valve stenosis severity, but also the assessment of left ventricular function. These two goals play a key role in clinical decision-making. Although left ventricular ejection fraction is currently the only left ventricular function parameter that guides intervention, current imaging techniques are able to detect early changes in LV structure and function even in asymptomatic patients with significant aortic stenosis and preserved ejection fraction. Moreover, new imaging parameters emerged as predictors of disease progression in patients with aortic stenosis. Although proper standardization and confirmatory data from large prospective studies are needed, these novel parameters have the potential of becoming useful tools in guiding intervention in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis and stratify risk in symptomatic patients undergoing aortic valve replacement.This review focuses on the mechanisms of transition from compensatory left ventricular hypertrophy to left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure in aortic stenosis and the role of non-invasive imaging assessment of the left ventricular geometry and function in these patients.
Prandoni, Paolo; Piovella, Chiara; Pesavento, Raffaele
An increasing body of evidence suggests the likelihood of a link between venous and arterial thrombosis. The two vascular complications share several risk factors, such as age, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, blood hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, there are many examples of conditions accounting for both venous and arterial thrombosis, such as the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, malignancies, infections, and the use of hormonal treatment. Finally, several recent studies have consistently shown that patients with venous thromboembolism are at a higher risk of arterial thrombotic complications than matched control individuals. We, therefore, speculate the two vascular complications are simultaneously triggered by biological stimuli responsible for activating coagulation and inflammatory pathways in both the arterial and the venous system. Future studies are needed to clarify the nature of this association, to assess its extent, and to evaluate its implications for clinical practice. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
... the skin entry site. With care, central venous catheters can remain in the body for several months without becoming infected. ■ ■ Blocking or kinking— Blood clots may begin to form in the catheter but ...
Hong, Sun; Seo, Tae-Seok; Song, Myung Gyu; Seol, Hae-Young; Suh, Sang Il; Ryoo, In-Seon
To evaluate the clinical outcomes and complications of totally implantable venous access port implantation via the axillary vein in patients with head and neck malignancy. A total of 176 totally implantable venous access ports were placed via the axillary vein in 171 patients with head and neck malignancy between May 2012 and June 2015. The patients included 133 men and 38 women, and the mean age was 58.8 years (range: 19-84 years). Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. This study included a total of 93,237 totally implantable venous access port catheter-days (median 478 catheter-days, range: 13-1380 catheter-days). Of the 176 implanted totally implantable venous access port, complications developed in nine cases (5.1%), with the overall incidence of 0.097 events/1000 catheter-days. The complications were three central line-associated blood-stream infection cases, one case of keloid scar at the needling access site, and five cases of central vein stenosis or thrombosis on neck computed tomography images. The 133 cases for which neck computed tomography images were available had a total of 59,777 totally implantable venous access port catheter-days (median 399 catheter-days, range: 38-1207 catheter-days). On neck computed tomography evaluation, the incidence of central vein stenosis or thrombosis was 0.083 events/1000 catheter-days. Thrombosis developed in four cases, yielding an incidence of 0.067 events/1000 catheter-days. All four patients presented with thrombus in the axillary or subclavian vein. Stenosis occurred in one case yielding an incidence of 0.017 events/1000 catheter-days. One case was catheter-related brachiocephalic vein stenosis, and the other case was subclavian vein stenosis due to extrinsic compression by tumor progression. Of the nine complication cases, six underwent port removal. These data indicate that totally implantable venous access port implantation via the axillary vein in patients with head and neck malignancy is safe and
Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl-Martin, E-mail: email@example.com; Streitparth, Florian, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: email@example.com
Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition whenmore » required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.« less
Meij, Björn P; Bergknut, Niklas
Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) is the most common disorder of the caudal lumbar spine in dogs. This article reviews the management of this disorder and highlights the most important new findings of the last decade. Dogs with DLSS are typically neuro-orthopedic patients and can be presented with varying clinical signs, of which the most consistent is lumbosacral pain. Due to the availability of advanced imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging that allow visualization of intervertebral disc degeneration, cauda equina compression, and nerve root entrapment, tailor-made treatments can be adopted for the individual patient. Current therapies include conservative treatment, decompressive surgery, and fixation-fusion of the L7-S1 junction. New insight into the biomechanics and pathobiology of DLSS and developments in minimally invasive surgical techniques will influence treatment options in the near future. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harnik, Ian G; Brandt, Lawrence J
First differentiated from arterial causes of acute mesenteric ischemia 75 years ago, acute mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is an uncommon disorder with non-specific signs and symptoms, the diagnosis of which requires a high index of suspicion. The location, extent, and rapidity of thrombus formation determine whether intestinal infarction ensues. Etiologies, when identified, usually can be separated into local intra-abdominal factors and inherited or acquired hypercoagulable states. The diagnosis is most often made by contrast-enhanced computed tomography, though angiography and exploratory surgery still have important diagnostic as well as therapeutic roles. Anticoagulation prevents clot propagation and is associated with decreased recurrence and mortality. Thrombectomy and thrombolysis may preserve questionably viable bowel and should be considered under certain circumstances. Evidence of infarction mandates surgery and resection whenever feasible. Although its mortality rate has fallen over time, acute MVT remains a life-threatening condition requiring rapid diagnosis and aggressive management. Chronic MVT may manifest with complications of portal hypertension or may be diagnosed incidentally by noninvasive imaging. Management of chronic MVT is directed against variceal hemorrhage and includes anticoagulation when appropriate; mortality is largely dependent on the underlying risk factor.
Oquendo, Raquel; Resumil, Gisela; Villafañe, Vanesa; Flores, Mariana; Navacchia, Daniel; Quintana, Carlos
Congenital esophageal stenosis, a rare disease of unknown cause which reports have increased in the last few years, requires a high index of suspicion for its diagnosis and treatment. It can be classified in three types based on the etiology of the stenosis: tracheobronchial rest, fibromuscular hypertrophy and membranous diaphragm. Symptoms may vary depending on location and severity of the stenosis. Treatment options are based on clinical suspicion of the histologic type and they can be balloon dilation or surgical resection of the stenotic segment. The definitive diagnosis is the histological study.
de Bastos, Marcos; Stegeman, Bernardine H; Rosendaal, Frits R; Van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Stijnen, Theo; Dekkers, Olaf M
Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has been associated with venous thrombosis (VT) (i.e., deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). The VT risk has been evaluated for many estrogen doses and progestagen types contained in COC but no comprehensive comparison involving commonly used COC is available. To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier and ScienceDirect) were searched in 22 April 2013 for eligible studies, without language restrictions. We selected studies including healthy women taking COC with VT as outcome. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported.Two independent reviewers extracted data from selected studies. 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 0.19 and 0.37 per 1 000 person years, in line with previously reported incidences of 0,16 per 1 000 person years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 μg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene
Alecu, C; De Bray, J M; Penisson-Besnier, I; Pasco-Papon, A; Dubas, F
We report a case of cerebral deep venous thrombosis that manifested clinically by a pseudobulbar syndrome with major trismus, abnormal movements and static cerebellar syndrome. To our knowledge, only three other cases of deep cerebral venous thrombosis associated with cerebellar or pseudobulbar syndrome have been published since 1985. The relatively good prognosis in our patient could be explained by the partially intact internal cerebral veins as well as use of early anticoagulant therapy. There was a spontaneous hyperdensity of the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli on the brain CT scan, an aspect highly contributive to diagnosis. This hyperdensity of the falx cerebri was found in 19 out of 22 cases of deep venous thrombosis detailed in the literature.
Fujimoto, Yoshitaka; Urashima, Takashi; Kawachi, Fumie; Akaike, Toru; Kusakari, Yoichiro; Ida, Hiroyuki; Minamisawa, Susumu
A rat model of left atrial stenosis-associated pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases was prepared to elucidate its mechanism. Five-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: left atrial stenosis and sham-operated control. Echocardiography was performed 2, 4, 6, and 10 weeks after surgery, and cardiac catheterization and organ excision were subsequently performed at 10 weeks after surgery. Left ventricular inflow velocity, measured by echocardiography, significantly increased in the left atrial stenosis group compared with that in the sham-operated control group (2.2 m/s, interquartile range [IQR], 1.9-2.2 and 1.1 m/s, IQR, 1.1-1.2, P < .01), and the right ventricular pressure-to-left ventricular systolic pressure ratio significantly increased in the left atrial stenosis group compared with the sham-operated control group (0.52, IQR, 0.54-0.60 and 0.22, IQR, 0.15-0.27, P < .01). The right ventricular weight divided by body weight was significantly greater in the left atrial stenosis group than in the sham-operated control group (0.54 mg/g, IQR, 0.50-0.59 and 0.39 mg/g, IQR, 0.38-0.43, P < .01). Histologic examination revealed medial hypertrophy of the pulmonary vein was thickened by 1.6 times in the left atrial stenosis group compared with the sham-operated control group. DNA microarray analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that transforming growth factor-β mRNA was significantly elevated in the left atrial stenosis group. The protein levels of transforming growth factor-β and endothelin-1 were increased in the lung of the left atrial stenosis group by Western blot analyses. We successfully established a novel, feasible rat model of pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases by generating left atrial stenosis. Although pulmonary hypertension was moderate, the pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases model rats demonstrated characteristic intrapulmonary venous arterialization and
Bacon, Jenny Louise; Patterson, Caroline Marie
Non-specific presentation and normal examination findings in early disease often result in tracheal obstruction being overlooked as a diagnosis until patients present acutely. Once diagnosed, surgical options should be considered, but often patient co-morbidity necessitates other interventional options. Non-resectable tracheal stenosis can be successfully managed by interventional bronchoscopy, with therapeutic options including airway dilatation, local tissue destruction and airway stenting. There are common aspects to the management of tracheal obstruction, tracheomalacia and tracheal fistulae. This paper reviews the pathogenesis, presentation, investigation and management of tracheal disease, with a focus on tracheal obstruction and the role of endotracheal intervention in management. PMID:24624290
Biological effect of orbital atherectomy and adjunctive paclitaxel-coated balloon therapy on vascular healing and drug retention: early experimental insights into the familial hypercholesterolaemic swine model of femoral artery stenosis.
Tellez, Armando; Dattilo, Raymond; Mustapha, Jihad A; Gongora, Carlos A; Hyon, Chelsea M; Palmieri, Taylor; Rousselle, Serge; Kaluza, Greg L; Granada, Juan F
The efficacy of paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCB) for the treatment of superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease has been demonstrated in the clinical setting. Due to the high frequency of arterial calcification found in this vascular territory, the adjunctive use of atherectomy plus PCB has been proposed. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the biological effect on vascular healing and drug retention of this combination approach in the familial hypercholesterolaemic swine (FHS) model of femoral artery stenosis. Eleven femoral arteries (six superficial and five profunda arteries) were included. Vessels were injured (x2) over a 28-day period and all animals were maintained on a high cholesterol diet for 60 days following initial injury. Vessels were randomised to PCB (n=5) or orbital atherectomy system (OAS) plus PCB (n=6). At 28 days following therapy, vessels were followed with angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Vessels were harvested for histological and pharmacokinetic analysis. Angiographic findings were comparable at termination between both groups. The OCT findings were comparable at termination. There were no differences in the vascular healing profile between both groups. The paclitaxel levels at termination were comparable between both groups (PCB=5.16 vs. OAS+PCB=3.03 ng/mg). In the experimental setting, the combination of OAS+PCB appears to be safe by demonstrating a vascular healing profile and drug tissue levels comparable to PCB only. The vascular effect of PCB may be enhanced by the use of OAS by decreasing plaque burden and cholesterol crystals.
Rebelo, Priscila Guyt; Ormonde, João Victor C.; Ormonde, João Baptista C.
OBJECTIVE To emphasize the need of an accurate diagnosis of congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, since its treatment differs from other types of congenital narrowing. CASE DESCRIPTION Four cases of lower congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, whose definitive diagnosis was made by histopathology. Except for the last case, in which a concomitant anti-reflux surgery was not performed, all had a favorable outcome after resection and anastomosis of the esophagus. COMMENTS The congenital esophageal stenosis is an intrinsic narrowing of the organâ€(tm)s wall associated with its structural malformation. The condition can be caused by tracheobronchial remnants, fibromuscular stenosis or membranous diaphragm and the first symptom is dysphagia after the introduction of solid food in the diet. The first-choice treatment to tracheobronchial remnants cases is the surgical resection and end-to-end anastomosis of the esophagus. PMID:24142326
Rebelo, Priscila Guyt; Ormonde, João Victor C; Ormonde Filho, João Baptista C
OBJECTIVE To emphasize the need of an accurate diagnosis of congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, since its treatment differs from other types of congenital narrowing. CASE DESCRIPTION Four cases of lower congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, whose definitive diagnosis was made by histopathology. Except for the last case, in which a concomitant anti-reflux surgery was not performed, all had a favorable outcome after resection and anastomosis of the esophagus. COMMENTS The congenital esophageal stenosis is an intrinsic narrowing of the organ's wall associated with its structural malformation. The condition can be caused by tracheobronchial remnants, fibromuscular stenosis or membranous diaphragm and the first symptom is dysphagia after the introduction of solid food in the diet. The first-choice treatment to tracheobronchial remnants cases is the surgical resection and end-to-end anastomosis of the esophagus.
Hilal, Saima; Xu, Xin; Ikram, M Kamran; Vrooman, Henri; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher
Intracranial stenosis is a common vascular lesion observed in Asian and other non-Caucasian stroke populations. However, its role in cognitive impairment and dementia has been under-studied. We, therefore, examined the association of intracranial stenosis with cognitive impairment, dementia and their subtypes in a memory clinic case-control study, where all subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment and 3 T neuroimaging including three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. Intracranial stenosis was defined as ≥50% narrowing in any of the intracranial arteries. A total of 424 subjects were recruited of whom 97 were classified as no cognitive impairment, 107 as cognitive impairment no dementia, 70 vascular cognitive impairment no dementia, 121 Alzheimer's Disease, and 30 vascular dementia. Intracranial stenosis was associated with dementia (age/gender/education - adjusted odds ratios (OR): 4.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93-11.60) and vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.59-9.93). These associations were independent of cardiovascular risk factors and MRI markers. However, the association with Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia became attenuated in the presence of white matter hyperintensities. Intracranial stenosis is associated with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia independent of MRI markers. In Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia, this association is mediated by cerebrovascular disease. Future studies focusing on perfusion and functional markers are needed to determine the pathophysiological mechanism(s) linking intracranial stenosis and cognition so as to identify treatment strategies.
Raman, Tuhina; Chatterjee, Kshitij; Alzghoul, Bashar N; Innabi, Ayoub A; Tulunay, Ozlem; Bartter, Thaddeus; Meena, Nikhil K
Subglottic stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the tracheal lumen at the level of subglottis (the area in between the vocal cords and the cricoid cartilage). It can cause significant symptoms due to severe attenuation of airflow. We describe our experience in alleviating symptoms by addressing the stenosis using fibreoptic bronchoscopic methods. We report all concurrent cases performed between September 2015 and July 2016. We use a combination of balloon dilation, electro-surgery knife to dilate and incise stenotic segments followed by steroid injection to modulate healing. We treated 10 patients in the study period, 8 of which were women. A total of 39 procedures were performed on these patients during this period. Gastro-esophageal reflux was the most common comorbidity associated with stenosis. The majority of the patients required more than 2 therapeutic procedures, but none required more than 4 procedures. There were no complications. Tracheal stenosis and in particular subglottic stenosis is a recurrent process and its management requires extensive collaboration amongst treating specialties. Our technique of steroid injection after dilation of the stenosis was effective in symptom control and decreased the number of repeat procedures.
Brown, Martin M.; Didier, Leys; Howard, Virginia J.; Moore, Wesley S.; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Ringleb, Peter; Rockman, Caron; Caso, Valeria
Objective: Specific guidelines for management of cerebrovascular risk in women are currently lacking. This study aims to provide a consensus expert opinion to help make clinical decisions in women with carotid stenosis. Methods: Proposals for the use of carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid stenting (CAS), and medical therapy for stroke prevention in women with carotid stenosis were provided by a group of 9 international experts with consensus method. Results: Symptomatic women with severe carotid stenosis can be managed by CEA provided that the perioperative risk of the operators is low (<4%). Periprocedural stroke risks may be increased in symptomatic women if revascularization is performed by CAS; however, the choice of CAS vs CEA can be tailored in subgroups best fit for each procedure (e.g., women with restenosis or severe coronary disease, best suited for CAS; women with tortuous vessels or old age, best suited for CEA). There is currently limited evidence to consider medical therapy alone as the best choice for women with neurologically severe asymptomatic carotid stenosis, who should be best managed within randomized trials including a medical arm. Medical management and cardiovascular risk factor control must be implemented in all women with carotid stenosis in periprocedural period and lifelong regardless of whether or not intervention is planned. Conclusions: The suggestions provided in this article may constitute a decision-making basis for planning treatment of carotid stenosis in women. Most recommendations are of limited strength; however, it is unlikely that new robust data will emerge soon to induce relevant changes. PMID:23751919
Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe
An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a 'low-gradient' AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA <1.0 cm(2)) consistent with severe AS but a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) consistent with non-severe AS. The management of this subset of patients is particularly challenging because the AVA-gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA-low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe
Abstract An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a ‘low-gradient’ AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA <1.0 cm2) consistent with severe AS but a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) consistent with non-severe AS. The management of this subset of patients is particularly challenging because the AVA-gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA—low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS. PMID:27190103
Frank, Brian; Maher, Zoё; Hazelton, Joshua P; Resnick, Shelby; Dauer, Elizabeth; Goldenberg, Anna; Lubitz, Andrea L; Smith, Brian P; Saillant, Noelle N; Reilly, Patrick M; Seamon, Mark J
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) after major vascular injury (MVI) is particularly challenging because the competing risk of thrombosis and embolization after direct vessel injury must be balanced with risk of bleeding after surgical repair. We hypothesized that venous injuries, repair type, and intraoperative anticoagulation would influence VTE formation after MVI. A multi-institution, retrospective cohort study of consecutive MVI patients was conducted at three urban, Level I centers (2005-2013). Patients with MVI of the neck, torso, or proximal extremities (to elbows/knees) were included. Our primary study endpoint was the development of VTE (DVT or pulmonary embolism [PE]). The 435 major vascular injury patients were primarily young (27 years) men (89%) with penetrating (84%) injuries. When patients with (n = 108) and without (n = 327) VTE were compared, we observed no difference in age, mechanism, extremity injury, tourniquet use, orthopedic and spine injuries, damage control, local heparinized saline, or vascular surgery consultation (all p > 0.05). VTE patients had greater Injury Severity Score (ISS) (17 vs. 12), shock indices (1 vs. 0.9), and more torso (58% vs. 35%) and venous (73% vs. 48%) injuries, but less often received systemic intraoperative anticoagulation (39% vs. 53%) or postoperative enoxaparin (47% vs. 61%) prophylaxis (all p < 0.05). After controlling for ISS, hemodynamics, injured vessel, intraoperative anticoagulation, and postoperative prophylaxis, multivariable analysis revealed venous injury was independently predictive of VTE (odds ratio, 2.7; p = 0.002). Multivariable analysis of the venous injuries subset (n = 237) then determined that only delay in starting VTE chemoprophylaxis (odds ratio, 1.3/day; p = 0.013) independently predicted VTE after controlling for ISS, hemodynamics, injured vessel, surgical subspecialty, intraoperative anticoagulation, and postoperative prophylaxis. Overall, 3.4% of venous injury patients developed PE, but PE
Gray, Brian W; Gonzalez, Raquel; Warrier, Kavita S; Stephens, Lauren A; Drongowski, Robert A; Pipe, Steven W; Mychaliska, George B
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a frequent complication in infants with central venous catheters (CVCs). We performed this study to identify risk factors and risk-reduction strategies of CVC-associated DVT in infants. Infants younger than 1 year who had a CVC placed at our center from 2005 to 2009 were reviewed. Patients with ultrasonically diagnosed DVT were compared to those without radiographic evidence. Of 333 patients, 47% (155/333) had femoral, 33% (111/333) had jugular, and 19% (64/333) had subclavian CVCs. Deep venous thromboses occurred in 18% (60/333) of patients. Sixty percent (36/60) of DVTs were in femoral veins. Femoral CVCs were associated with greater DVT rates (27%; 42/155) than jugular (11%; 12/111) or subclavian CVCs (9%; 6/64; P < .01). There was a 16% DVT rate in those with saphenofemoral Broviac CVCs vs 83% (20/24) in those with percutaneous femoral lines (P < .01). Multilumen CVCs had higher DVT rates than did single-lumen CVCs (54% vs 6%, P < .01), and mean catheter days before DVT diagnosis was shorter for percutaneous lines than Broviacs (13 ± 17 days vs 30 ± 37 days, P = .02). Patients with +DVT had longer length of stay (86 ± 88 days vs 48 ± 48 days, P < .01) and higher percentage of intensive care unit admission (82% vs 70%, P = .02). Deep venous thrombosis reduction strategies in infants with CVCs include avoiding percutaneous femoral and multilumen CVCs, screening percutaneous lines, and early catheter removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Corno, Antonio F
In recent years substantial progress occurred in the techniques of cardiopulmonary bypass, but the factor potentially limiting the flexibility of cardiopulmonary bypass remains the drainage of the systemic venous return. In the daily clinical practice of cardiac surgery, the amount of systemic venous return on cardiopulmonary bypass is directly correlated with the amount of the pump flow. As a consequence, the pump flow is limited by the amount of venous return that the pump is receiving. On cardiopulmonary bypass the amount of venous drainage depends upon the central venous pressure, the height differential between patient and inlet of the venous line into the venous reservoir, and the resistance in the venous cannula(s) and circuit. The factors determining the venous return to be taken into consideration in cardiac surgery are the following: (a) characteristics of the individual patient; (b) type of planned surgical procedure; (c) type of venous cannula(s); (d) type of circuit for cardiopulmonary bypass; (e) strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass; (f) use of accessory mechanical systems to increased the systemic venous return. The careful pre-operative evaluation of all the elements affecting the systemic venous drainage, including the characteristics of the individual patient and the type of required surgical procedure, the choice of the best strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the use of the most advanced materials and tools, can provide a systemic venous drainage substantially better than what it would be allowed by the simple "Law of universal gravitation" by Isaac Newton.
Chabasse, Christine; Siefert, Suzanne A.; Chaudry, Mohammed; Hoofnagle, Mark H.; Lal, Brajesh K.; Sarkar, Rajabrata
Objective We examined the role of thrombus recanalization and ongoing blood flow in the process of thrombus resolution by comparing two murine in vivo models of deep venous thrombosis. Design of study In CD1 mice, we performed surgical inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation (stasis thrombosis), stenosis (thrombosis with recanalization) or sham procedure. We analyzed thrombus weight over time as a measure of thrombus resolution, and quantified the mRNA and protein levels of Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) as well as effectors of the plasmin complex at day 4, 8 and 12 post-surgery. Results Despite similar initial thrombus size, the presence of ongoing blood flow (stenosis model) was associated with a 45.91% subsequent improvement in thrombus resolution at day 8, and 12.57% at day 12, as compared with stasis thrombosis (ligation model). Immunoblot and real-time PCR demonstrated a difference in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity at day 8 between the two models (P=.03 and P=.006 respectively), as well as a difference in MT2-MMP gene expression at day 8 (P=.044) and day 12 (P=0.03) and MT1-MMP protein expression at day 4 (P=.021). Histological analyses revealed distinct areas of recanalization in the thrombi of the stenosis model compared to the ligation model, as well as the recruitment of inflammatory cells, especially macrophages, and a focal pattern of localized expression of MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP proteins surrounding the areas of recanalization in the stenosis model. Conclusions Recanalization and ongoing blood flow accelerate deep venous thrombus resolution in vivo, and are associated with distinct patterns of MT1- and MT3-MMP expression and macrophages localization in areas of intra-thrombus recanalization. PMID:26993683
Chabasse, Christine; Siefert, Suzanne A; Chaudry, Mohammed; Hoofnagle, Mark H; Lal, Brajesh K; Sarkar, Rajabrata
We examined the role of thrombus recanalization and ongoing blood flow in the process of thrombus resolution by comparing two murine in vivo models of deep venous thrombosis. In CD1 mice, we performed surgical inferior vena cava ligation (stasis thrombosis), stenosis (thrombosis with recanalization), or sham procedure. We analyzed thrombus weight over time as a measure of thrombus resolution and quantified the messenger RNA and protein levels of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) as well as effectors of the plasmin complex at days 4, 8, and 12 after surgery. Despite similar initial thrombus size, the presence of ongoing blood flow (stenosis model) was associated with a 45.91% subsequent improvement in thrombus resolution at day 8 and 12.57% at day 12 compared with stasis thrombosis (ligation model). Immunoblot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated a difference in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity at day 8 between the two models (P = .03 and P = .006, respectively) as well as a difference in MT2-MMP gene expression at day 8 (P = .044) and day 12 (P = .03) and MT1-MMP protein expression at day 4 (P = .021). Histologic analyses revealed distinct areas of recanalization in the thrombi of the stenosis model compared with the ligation model as well as the recruitment of inflammatory cells, especially macrophages, and a focal pattern of localized expression of MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP proteins surrounding the areas of recanalization in the stenosis model. Recanalization and ongoing blood flow accelerate deep venous thrombus resolution in vivo and are associated with distinct patterns of MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP expression and macrophage localization in areas of intrathrombus recanalization. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Loose, D A
Among vascular malformations, the predominantly venous malformations represent the majority of cases. They form a clinical entity and therefore need clear concepts concerning diagnosis and treatment. This paper presents an overview of contemporary classification as well as tactics and techniques of treatment. According to the Hamburg Classification, predominantly venous malformations are categorized into truncular and extratruncular forms, with truncular forms distinguished as obstructions and dilations, and extratruncular forms as limited or infiltrating. The tactics of treatment represent surgical and non-surgical methods or combined techniques. Surgical approaches utilize different tactics and techniques that are adopted based on the pathologic form and type of the malformation: (I) operation to reduce the haemodynamic activity of the malformation; (II) operation to eliminate the malformation; and (III) reconstructive operation. As for (I), a type of a tactic is the operation to derive the venous flow. In (II), the total or partial removal of the venous malformation is demonstrated subdivided into three different techniques. In this way, the infiltrating as well as the limited forms can be treated. An additional technique is dedicated to the treatment of a marginal vein. Approach (III) involves the treatment of venous aneurysms, where a variety of techniques have been successful. Long-term follow-up demonstrates positive results in 91% of the cases. Congenital predominantly venous malformations should be treated according to the principles developed during the past decades in vascular surgery, interventional treatment and multidisciplinary treatment. The days of predominantly conservative treatment should be relegated to the past. Special skills and experiences are necessary to carry out appropriate surgical strategy, and the required operative techniques should be dictated by the location and type of malformation and associated findings.
Mitchell, Elizabeth B; Hawkins, Michelle G; Orvalho, Joao S; Thomas, William P
A 2.6-year-old duck was evaluated for respiratory difficulty. On the basis of physical, radiographic and echocardiographic findings, a diagnosis of congestive heart failure secondary to congenital mitral stenosis and subvalvular aortic stenosis was made. The duck did not respond well to medical therapy and was euthanized. The diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy.
Kander, M; Pasławska, U; Staszczyk, M; Cepiel, A; Pasławski, R; Mazur, G; Noszczyk-Nowak, A
The study has focused on the retrospective analysis of cases of coexisting congenital aortic stenosis (AS) and pulmonary artery stenosis (PS) in dogs. The research included 5463 dogs which were referred for cardiological examination (including clinical examination, ECG and echocardiography) between 2004 and 2014. Aortic stenosis and PS stenosis were detected in 31 dogs. This complex defect was the most commonly diagnosed in Boxers - 7 dogs, other breeds were represented by: 4 cross-breed dogs, 2 Bichon Maltais, 3 Miniature Pinschers, 2 Bernese Mountain Dogs, 2 French Bulldogs, and individuals of following breeds: Bichon Frise, Bull Terrier, Czech Wolfdog, German Shepherd, Hairless Chinese Crested Dog, Miniature Schnauzer, Pug, Rottweiler, Samoyed, West Highland White Terrier and Yorkshire Terrier. In all the dogs, the murmurs could be heard, graded from 2 to 5 (on a scale of 1-6). Besides, in 9 cases other congenital defects were diagnosed: patent ductus arteriosus, mitral valve dysplasia, pulmonary or aortic valve regurgitation, tricuspid valve dysplasia, ventricular or atrial septal defect. The majority of the dogs suffered from pulmonary valvular stenosis (1 dog had supravalvular pulmonary artery stenosis) and subvalvular aortic stenosis (2 dogs had valvular aortic stenosis). Conclusions and clinical relevance - co-occurrence of AS and PS is the most common complex congenital heart defect. Boxer breed was predisposed to this complex defect. It was found that coexisting AS and PS is more common in male dogs and the degree of PS and AS was mostly similar.
Münsterer, Andrea; Kasnar-Samprec, Jelena; Hörer, Jürgen; Cleuziou, Julie; Eicken, Andreas; Malcic, Ivan; Lange, Rüdiger; Schreiber, Christian
To determine the incidence of right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit stenosis after the Norwood I operation in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), and to determine whether the treatment strategy of RV-PA conduit stenosis has an influence on interstage and overall survival. Ninety-six patients had a Norwood operation with RV-PA conduit between 2002 and 2011. Details of reoperations/interventions due to conduit obstruction prior to bidirectional superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (BSCPA) were collected. Overall pre-BSCPA mortality was 17%, early mortality after Norwood, 6%. Early angiography was performed in 34 patients due to desaturation at a median of 8 days after the Norwood operation. Fifteen patients (16%) were diagnosed with RV-PA conduit stenosis that required treatment. The location of the conduit stenosis was significantly different in the patients with non-ringed (proximal) and the patients with ring-enforced conduit (distal), P = 0.004. In 6 patients, a surgical revision of the conduit was performed; 3 of them died prior to BSCPA. Another 6 patients had a stent implantation and 3 were treated with balloon dilatation followed by a BSCPA in the subsequent 2 weeks. All patients who were treated interventionally for RV-PA conduit obstruction had a successful BSCPA. Patients who received a surgical RV-PA conduit revision had a significantly higher interstage (P = 0.044) and overall mortality (P = 0.011) than those who received a stent or balloon dilatation of the stenosis followed by an early BSCPA. RV-PA conduit obstruction after Norwood I procedure in patients with HLHS can be safely and effectively treated by stent implantation, balloon dilatation and early BSCPA. Surgical revision of the RV-PA conduit can be reserved for patients in whom an interventional approach fails, and an early BSCPA is not an option.
Shibagaki, Kotaro; Ishimura, Norihisa; Oshima, Naoki; Mishiro, Tsuyoshi; Fukuba, Nobuhiko; Tamagawa, Yuji; Yamashita, Noritsugu; Mikami, Hironobu; Izumi, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Hideaki; Sato, Shuichi; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for extensive esophageal carcinomas may cause severe stenosis requiring endoscopic balloon dilations (EBDs). A standard prevention method has not been established. We propose the esophageal triamcinolone acetonide (TA)-filling method as a novel local steroid administration procedure. We enrolled 22 consecutive patients with early esophageal cancer who were treated using either subcircumferential or circumferential ESD (15 and 7 procedures, respectively) in this case series. Esophageal TA filling was performed on the day after ESD and 1 week later and was performed again if mild stenosis was found on follow-up. EBD with TA filling was performed only for severe stenosis that prevented endoscope passage. The primary endpoint was the incidence of severe stenosis. Secondary endpoints were the total number of EBDs and additional TA filling, dysphagia score, time to stenosis and to complete re-epithelialization, and any adverse events. The incidence of severe stenosis was 4.5% (1/22; confidence interval, .1%-22.8%), and EBD was performed 2 times in 1 patient. Mild stenosis was found in 9 patients. Additional TA filling was performed in 45.5% of patients (10/22; median, 5 times; range, 1-13). The dysphagia score deteriorated to 1 to 2 in 31.8% (7/22) but showed a final score of 0 after complete re-epithelialization in 90.9% (20/22). The median time to stenosis was 3 weeks (range, 3-4) and that to complete re-epithelialization was 7 weeks (range, 4-36). No severe adverse events occurred. The esophageal TA-filling method is highly effective for preventing severe stenosis after extensive esophageal ESD. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kulkarni, S; Emre, S; Arvelakis, A; Asch, W; Bia, M; Formica, R; Israel, G
Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography is a reliable technique for assessing pre-operative renal anatomy in living kidney donors. The method has largely evolved into protocols that eliminate dedicated venous phase and instead utilize a combined arterial/venous phase to delineate arterial and venous anatomy simultaneously. Despite adoption of this protocol, there has been no study to assess its accuracy. To assess whether or not MDCT angiography compares favorably to intra-operative findings, 102 donors underwent MDCT angiography without a dedicated venous phase with surgical interpretation of renal anatomy. Anatomical variants included multiple arteries (12%), multiple veins (7%), early arterial bifurcation (13%), late venous confluence (5%), circumaortic renal veins (5%), retroaortic vein (1%), and ureteral duplication (2%). The sensitivity and specificity of multiple arterial anomalies were 100% and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of multiple venous anomalies were 92% and 98%, respectively. The most common discrepancy was noted exclusively in the interpretation of right venous anatomy as it pertained to the renal vein/vena cava confluence (3%). MDCT angiography using a combined arterial/venous contrast-enhanced phase provides suitable depiction of renal donor anatomy. Careful consideration should be given when planning a right donor nephrectomy whether the radiographic interpretation is suggestive of a late confluence. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Choi, Won Jae; Park, Jong-Jae; Park, Jain; Lim, Eun-Hye; Joo, Moon Kyung; Yun, Jae-Won; Noh, Hyejin; Kim, Sung Ho; Choi, Woo Seok; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae
The use of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) is an established palliative treatment for malignant stenosis in the gastrointestinal tract; therefore, its application to benign stenosis is expected to be beneficial because of the more gradual and sustained dilatation in the stenotic portion. We aimed in this prospective observational study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of temporary SEMS placement in benign pyloric stenosis. Twenty-two patients with benign stenosis of the prepylorus, pylorus, and duodenal bulb were enrolled and underwent SEMS placement. We assessed symptom improvement, defined as an increase of at least 1 degree in the gastric-outlet-obstruction scoring system after stent insertion. No major complications were observed during the procedures. After stent placement, early symptom improvement was achieved in 18 of 22 patients (81.8%). During the follow-up period (mean 10.2 months), the stents remained in place successfully for 6 to 8 weeks in seven patients (31.8%). Among the 15 patients (62.5%) with stent migration, seven (46.6%) showed continued symptomatic improvement without recurrence of obstructive symptoms. Despite the symptomatic improvement, temporary SEMS placement is premature as an effective therapeutic tool for benign pyloric stenosis unless a novel stent is developed to prevent migration.
Choi, Won Jae; Park, Jain; Lim, Eun-Hye; Joo, Moon Kyung; Yun, Jae-Won; Noh, Hyejin; Kim, Sung Ho; Choi, Woo Seok; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae
Background/Aims The use of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) is an established palliative treatment for malignant stenosis in the gastrointestinal tract; therefore, its application to benign stenosis is expected to be beneficial because of the more gradual and sustained dilatation in the stenotic portion. We aimed in this prospective observational study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of temporary SEMS placement in benign pyloric stenosis. Methods Twenty-two patients with benign stenosis of the prepylorus, pylorus, and duodenal bulb were enrolled and underwent SEMS placement. We assessed symptom improvement, defined as an increase of at least 1 degree in the gastric-outlet-obstruction scoring system after stent insertion. Results No major complications were observed during the procedures. After stent placement, early symptom improvement was achieved in 18 of 22 patients (81.8%). During the follow-up period (mean 10.2 months), the stents remained in place successfully for 6 to 8 weeks in seven patients (31.8%). Among the 15 patients (62.5%) with stent migration, seven (46.6%) showed continued symptomatic improvement without recurrence of obstructive symptoms. Conclusions Despite the symptomatic improvement, temporary SEMS placement is premature as an effective therapeutic tool for benign pyloric stenosis unless a novel stent is developed to prevent migration. PMID:23898381
Suzuki, Yutaka; Fukasawa, Mizuya; Mori, Takahiro; Sakata, Osamu; Hattori, Asobu; Kato, Takaya
It is desired to detect stenosis at an early stage to use hemodailysis shunt for longer time. Stethoscope auscultation of vascular murmurs is useful noninvasive diagnostic approach, but an experienced expert operator is necessary. Some experts often say that the high-pitch murmurs exist if the shunt becomes stenosed, and some studies report that there are some features detected at high frequency by time-frequency analysis. However, some of the murmurs are difficult to detect, and the final judgment is difficult. This study proposes a new diagnosis support system to screen stenosis by using vascular murmurs. The system is performed using artificial neural networks (ANN) with the analyzed frequency data by maximum entropy method (MEM). The author recorded vascular murmurs both before percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and after. Examining the MEM spectral characteristics of the high-pitch stenosis murmurs, three features could be classified, which covered 85 percent of stenosis vascular murmurs. The features were learnt by the ANN, and judged. As a result, a percentage of judging the classified stenosis murmurs was 100%, and that of normal was 86%.
Hammes, Mary; Desai, Amishi; Pasupneti, Shravani; Kress, John; Funaki, Brian; Watson, Sydeaka; Herlitz, Jean; Hines, Jane
Central venous catheter access in an acute setting can be a challenge given underlying disease and risk for venous thrombosis. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are commonly placed but limit sites for fistula creation in patients with chronic renal failure (CKD). The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of venous thrombosis from small bore internal jugular (SBIJ) and PICC line placement. This investigation identifies populations of patients who may not be ideal candidates for a PICC and highlights the importance of peripheral vein preservation in patients with renal failure. A venous Doppler ultrasound was performed at the time of SBIJ insertion and removal to evaluate for thrombosis in the internal jugular vein. Data was collected pre- and post-intervention to ascertain if increased vein preservation knowledge amongst the healthcare team led to less use of PICCs. Demographic factors were collected in the SBIJ and PICC groups and risk factor analysis was completed. 1,122 subjects had PICC placement and 23 had SBIJ placement. The incidence of thrombosis in the PICC group was 10%. One patient with an SBIJ had evidence of central vein thrombosis when the catheter was removed. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated a history of transplant, and the indication of total parenteral nutrition was associated with thrombosis (p<0.001). The decrease in PICCs placed in patients with CKD 6 months before and after intervention was significant (p<0.05). There are subsets of patients ith high risk for thrombosis who may not be ideal candidates for a PICC.
Stojanov, Petar; Vranes, Mile; Velimirovic, Dusan; Zivkovic, Mirjana; Kocica, Mladen J; Davidovic, Lazar; Neskovic, Voislava; Stajevic, Mila
We examined the prevalence of venous obstruction in 12 newborns and infants with permanent endovenous ventricular pacing, clinically, and by ultrasonographic assessment of hemodynamics (spontaneity, phasicity, velocity, and turbulence of flow) and morphologic parameters (compressibility, wall thickness, and thrombus presence). All implantations of single ventricular unipolar endovenous steroid leads, were performed via cephalic vein, and pacemakers were placed in subcutaneous pocket in right prepectoral region. After the vascular surgeon has carefully examined all children for presence of venous collaterals in the chest wall, morphologic and hemodynamic parameters of the subclavian, axillary, and internal jugular veins, were assessed by linear-array color Doppler. Lead capacity (LC) was calculated for each patient. Mean age of patients at implant was 6.2 months (range 1 day-12 months), mean weight 6.5 kg (range 2.25-10 kg), and mean height 60.9 cm (range 48-78 cm). Mean LC was 1.99 (range 1.14-3.07). Total follow-up was 1023 and mean follow-up 85.2 pacing months (range 3-156). No clinical signs of venous obstruction were observed. Mild stenosis (20%) of subclavian vein was found by color Doppler in 2/12 patients. Both had adequate lead diameter for body surface. Permanent endovenous pacing is a feasible procedure, even in children of body weight less than 10 kg, with quite acceptable impact on venous system patency.
YOSHIDA, Kazumichi; MIYAMOTO, Susumu
In this review, we presented the evidence concerning carotid artery stenosis treatment in symptomatic stenosis and asymptomatic stenosis separately, and discussed the future challenges. The validity of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) to treat moderate or greater degree of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis appears to be established. Due to the additional option of carotid artery stenting (CAS), it is necessary to comprehensively determine whether CEA or CAS is more appropriate for each individual patient. Moreover, since there are rapid advancements in devices for CAS and improvements in treatment outcomes, continual learning of the latest treatment method is essential. For asymptomatic stenosis, due to improvements in the outcomes with best medical treatment (BMT), it is essential to re-evaluate the use of invasive CEA/CAS. Continual verification of the latest randomized clinical trial that compares CEA, CAS, and BMT, and establishment of a diagnostic method that can accurately extract the group of patients who have the highest future risk of developing ischemia, are desired. PMID:25739437
Bastiaenen, Rachel; Sneddon, James; Sharma, Rajan
The long-term sequelae of mantle radiotherapy include lung disease and cardiac disorders. Dyspnea on exertion is a common complaint and can be due to one or more pathologies. We describe a case of mantle radiotherapy-induced mitral stenosis, characterized by aorto-mitral continuity calcification and absent commissural fusion which precludes balloon valvotomy. The latency period is long, and this patient presented 42 years after radiotherapy. Importantly, as previously described with radiation-induced valve disease, significant mitral stenosis developed 10 years after surgery for significant aortic stenosis. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography should be considered during assessment of symptomatic survivors of Hodgkin's disease where the index of suspicion for valvular stenosis increases over time. Given the natural history of mantle radiation valvular disease, a lower threshold for surgical intervention in radiation-induced mitral stenosis may need to be considered if cardiac surgery is planned for other reasons in order to avoid repeated sternotomy in patients with prior irradiation. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nadkarni, Nikhil A; Khanna, Sahil; Vege, Santhi Swaroop
Pancreatitis is an inflammatory process with local and systemic manifestations. One such local manifestation is thrombosis in splanchnic venous circulation, predominantly of the splenic vein. The literature on this important complication is very sparse. This review offers an overview of mechanism of thrombosis, its pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management in the setting of acute as well as chronic pancreatitis.
Gianfaldoni, S; Wollina, U; Lotti, J; Gianfaldoni, R; Lotti, T; Fioranelli, M; Roccia, M G
To retrieve the history of venous ulcers and of skin lesions in general, we must go back to the appearance of human beings on earth. It is interesting to note that cutaneous injuries evolved parallel to human society. An essential first step in the pathogenesis of ulcers was represented by the transition of the quadruped man to Homo Erectus. This condition was characterized by a greater gravitational pressure on the lower limbs, with consequences on the peripheral venous system. Furthermore, human evolution was characterized by an increased risk of traumatic injuries, secondary to his natural need to create fire and hunt (e.g. stones, iron, fire, animal fighting). Humans then began to fight one another until they came to real wars, with increased frequency of wounds and infectious complications. The situation degraded with the introduction of horse riding, introduced by the Scites, who first tamed animals in the 7th century BC. This condition exhibited iliac veins at compression phenomena, favouring the venous stasis. With time, man continued to evolve until the modern age, which is characterized by increased risk factors for venous wounds such as poor physical activity and dietary errors (1, 2).
Stein, Paul D; Matta, Fadi; Hughes, Mary J
Cautious exploration of the safety of home treatment of deep venous thrombosis has been recommended by many. Our goal was to identify categories of patients with deep venous thrombosis who typically are hospitalized, and categories frequently treated at home. The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2007-2012, were used to determine the number of patients seen in emergency departments throughout the US with deep venous thrombosis and no diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, the proportion of such patients hospitalized according to comorbid conditions and age, the proportion discharged early (≤2 days), and charges for hospitalization and emergency department visits. From 2007-2012, home treatment was selected for 905,152 of 2,671,452 (33.9%) patients with deep venous thrombosis. Home treatment was more frequent in those with no comorbid conditions than with comorbid conditions, 58.0% compared with 15.5% (P <.0001). Early discharge (≤2 days) was in 23.9% with no comorbid conditions, compared with 12.8% with comorbid conditions. Among patients aged 18-50 years, home treatment was selected in 62.9% with no comorbid conditions, compared with 24.2% with comorbid conditions (P <.0001). Among hospitalized patients with no comorbid conditions, 40.7% were aged 18-50 years. Their charges for hospitalization in 2012 were $494 million. Patients aged 50 years or younger with deep venous thrombosis and no comorbid conditions appear to be a group that can be targeted for more frequent home treatment, which would save millions of dollars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Malhotra, Rohit; Sharma, Anjali; Kakouros, Nikolaos
Percutaneous transcatheter tricuspid balloon valvuloplasty (PTTBV) is an accepted treatment option for symptomatic severe native tricuspid valve stenosis, although surgical tricuspid valve replacement remains the treatment of choice. There have been few reports of successful PTTBV for bioprosthetic tricuspid valve stenosis. We present case reports of 3 patients from our hospital experience. Two of the 3 cases were successful, with lasting clinical improvement, whereas the 3rd patient failed to show a reduction in valve gradient. We describe the standard technique used for PTTBV. We present results from a literature review that identified 16 previously reported cases of PTTBV for bioprosthetic severe tricuspid stenosis, with overall favorable results. We conclude that PTTBV should perhaps be considered for a select patient population in which symptomatic improvement and hemodynamic stability are desired immediately, and particularly for patients who are inoperable or at high surgical risk. PMID:28265212
Ates, Mehmet; Sensoz, Yavuz; Abay, Gunseli; Akcar, Murat
A chest radiograph of a 38-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with rheumatic mitral stenosis, revealed cardiac enlargement due to a giant left atrium that was distorting the cardiac structures. The patient's cardiothoracic ratio was approximately 0.90. A giant left atrium can readily be delineated by echocardiography. Optimal timing of surgery is important in cases of mitral stenosis, because delaying mitral valve replacement can lead to fatal outcomes. To our knowledge, the left atrial diameter of 18.7 cm that we found in our patient is the largest reported to date. PMID:17041705
Maeda, Takuya; Koide, Masaaki; Kunii, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Kazumasa; Kanzaki, Tomohito; Ohashi, Yuko
Supravalvular aortic stenosis as a late complication of transposition of the great arteries is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed supravalvular aortic stenosis as a late complication of the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. The narrowed ascending aorta was replaced with a graft. The right pulmonary artery was transected to approach the ascending aorta which adhered severely to the main pulmonary trunk, and we obtained a good operative field. © The Author(s) 2015.
Saka, Ryuta; Okuyama, Hiroomi; Sasaki, Takashi; Nose, Satoko; Oue, Takaharu
Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is rare and usually manifests in infants as dysphagia, failure to thrive, and food impaction. Dilatation is considered to be the first-line therapy for CES, but the incidence of complications (perforation and mediastinitis) is relatively high. We report two cases of CES treated by thoracoscopic resection without prior dilatation. Both infants recovered without recurrent stenosis and were able to eat solid food soon after surgery. One had postoperative gastroesophageal reflux and eventually required fundoplication. Thoracoscopic resection could be a valid option for CES. © 2017 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Czihal, M; Paul, S; Rademacher, A; Bernau, C; Hoffmann, U
To explore the association of the postthrombotic syndrome with venous hemodynamics and morphological abnormalities after upper extremity deep venous thrombosis. Thirty-seven patients with a history of upper extremity deep venous thrombosis treated with anticoagulation alone underwent a single study visit (mean time after diagnosis: 44.4 ± 28.1 months). Presence and severity postthrombotic syndrome were classified according to the modified Villalta score. Venous volume and venous emptying were determined by strain-gauge plethysmography. The arm veins were assessed for postthrombotic abnormalities by ultrasonography. The relationship between postthrombotic syndrome and hemodynamic and morphological sequelae was evaluated using univariate significance tests and Spearman's correlation analysis. Fifteen of 37 patients (40.5%) developed postthrombotic syndrome. Venous volume and venous emptying of the arm affected by upper extremity deep venous thrombosis did not correlate with the Villalta score (rho = 0.17 and 0.19; p = 0.31 and 0.25, respectively). Residual morphological abnormalities, as assessed by ultrasonography, did not differ significantly between patients with and without postthrombotic syndrome (77.3% vs. 86.7%, p = 0.68). Postthrombotic syndrome after upper extremity deep venous thrombosis is not associated with venous hemodynamics or residual morphological abnormalities. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Tsukioka, Takuma; Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Ryoji
Long-term patency is required during treatment for benign airway stenosis. This study investigated the effectiveness of surgical airway plasty for benign airway stenosis. Clinical courses of 20 patients, who were treated with surgical plasty for their benign airway stenosis, were retrospectively investigated. Causes of stenosis were tracheobronchial tuberculosis in 12 patients, post-intubation stenosis in five patients, malacia in two patients, and others in one patient. 28 interventional pulmonology procedures and 20 surgical plasty were performed. Five patients with post-intubation stenosis and four patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with tracheoplasty. Eight patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with bronchoplasty, and two patients with malacia were treated with stabilization of the membranous portion. Anastomotic stenosis was observed in four patients, and one to four additional treatments were required. Performance status, Hugh-Jones classification, and ventilatory functions were improved after surgical plasty. Outcomes were fair in patients with tuberculous stenosis and malacia. However, efficacy of surgical plasty for post-intubation stenosis was not observed. Surgical airway plasty may be an acceptable treatment for tuberculous stenosis. Patients with malacia recover well after surgical plasty. There may be untreated patients with malacia who have the potential to benefit from surgical plasty.
Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Ryoji
Background: Long-term patency is required during treatment for benign airway stenosis. This study investigated the effectiveness of surgical airway plasty for benign airway stenosis. Methods: Clinical courses of 20 patients, who were treated with surgical plasty for their benign airway stenosis, were retrospectively investigated. Results: Causes of stenosis were tracheobronchial tuberculosis in 12 patients, post-intubation stenosis in five patients, malacia in two patients, and others in one patient. 28 interventional pulmonology procedures and 20 surgical plasty were performed. Five patients with post-intubation stenosis and four patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with tracheoplasty. Eight patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with bronchoplasty, and two patients with malacia were treated with stabilization of the membranous portion. Anastomotic stenosis was observed in four patients, and one to four additional treatments were required. Performance status, Hugh–Jones classification, and ventilatory functions were improved after surgical plasty. Outcomes were fair in patients with tuberculous stenosis and malacia. However, efficacy of surgical plasty for post-intubation stenosis was not observed. Conclusion: Surgical airway plasty may be an acceptable treatment for tuberculous stenosis. Patients with malacia recover well after surgical plasty. There may be untreated patients with malacia who have the potential to benefit from surgical plasty. PMID:26567879
Siegel, Bianca; Smith, Lee P
To describe our management of complex glottic stenosis in tracheotomy dependent children with severe recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Retrospective chart review at a tertiary care children's hospital. Three children with complex glottic stenosis secondary to severe recurrent respiratory papillomatosis were treated at our institution since 2011. Two patients had complete stenosis, and the third had near-complete stenosis. Two patients were managed using balloon dilation alone, and the third also underwent laryngotracheal reconstruction with posterior costal cartilage grafting. Two patients have been successfully decannulated and the third has been tolerating continuous tracheotomy capping for greater than twelve months. All three patients underwent aggressive debridement of papillomatosis and balloon dilation every 4-6 weeks until their burden of disease was controlled. In two patients, the glottic airway was patent, and the third continued to have complete restenosis between procedures and required laryngotracheoplasty with multiple post-operative dilation procedures to establish an adequate glottic airway. Severe laryngeal stenosis is a well-described complication of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, but its management is not well-defined. Aggressive management of papillomatosis with frequent debridement is critical in successfully managing laryngeal stenosis. Balloon dilation alone may be surprisingly effective in these patients, and laryngotracheoplasty can be used as an adjunct procedure in those patients who fail balloon dilation. Given the quality of life issues and concerns regarding distal spread of disease with tracheotomies in these patients, we feel that aggressive management and early decannulation is in the patient's best interest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aselton, P; Jick, H; Chentow, S J; Perera, D R; Hunter, J R; Rothman, K J
As part of a long-term follow-up of structural disorders present at birth or shortly thereafter in infants born at Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, all infants with a diagnosis of pyloric stenosis born between July 1, 1977 and June 30, 1982, were identified. Automated pharmacy profiles were examined to determine whether an association between maternal Bendectin use in the first trimester and infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis existed. Among the 3,835 women exposed to Bendectin while pregnant, in this group of 13,346 births, 13 had infants who developed pyloric stenosis, and among the 9,511 women not exposed, 13 had infants who developed pyloric stenosis, resulting in a risk ratio estimate of 2.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.2). When mothers were divided according to the number of prescriptions for Bendectin filled, the relative risk estimate increased from 1.2 (95% CI 0.4-4.4) in women who filled only one prescription to 7.6 (95% CI 4.9-11.6) in women who filled five or more prescriptions for Bendectin during their pregnancy.
de la Cruz-Cosme, Carlos; Segura, Tomás
Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is a relatively frequent pathology, although when considering the possibility of managing it surgically, there is still an important amount of disagreement concerning the criteria to be taken into account. This study conducts a broad examination of the condition, from its concept and epidemiology to the studies that triggered the boom in its surgical treatment during the nineties. The research also reviews the tools available for a better selection of cases that could potentially benefit most from surgery, the presence of silent brain lesions, the severity of the stenosis, its progression, the characteristics of the plaque, colaterality and vasoreactivity studies, the detection of micro-emboli, the presence of risk factors independently associated to the symptomatic conversion of the stenosis, and other elements that have recently been reported either clinically or experimentally. Finally, the article outlines the current state of the surgical technique and the advances being made in its pharmacological treatment. This review is not intended to be a set of clinical practice guidelines, but to offer a global integrating overview of the management of high-grade asymptomatic carotid stenosis.
Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Tei, Keiko; Yamamoto, Ryoji
Purpose: Malignant airway stenosis extending from the bronchial bifurcation to the lower lobar orifice was treated with airway stenting. We herein examine the effectiveness of airway stenting for extensive malignant airway stenosis. Methods: Twelve patients with extensive malignant airway stenosis underwent placement of a silicone Dumon Y stent (Novatech, La Ciotat, France) at the tracheal bifurcation and a metallic Spiral Z-stent (Medico’s Hirata, Osaka, Japan) at either distal side of the Y stent. We retrospectively analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of the sequential placement of these silicone and metallic stents in these 12 patients. Results: The primary disease was lung cancer in eight patients, breast cancer in two patients, tracheal cancer in one patient, and thyroid cancer in one patient. The median survival period after airway stent placement was 46 days. The Hugh–Jones classification and performance status improved in nine patients after airway stenting. One patient had prolonged hemoptysis and died of respiratory tract hemorrhage 15 days after the treatment. Conclusion: Because the initial disease was advanced and aggressive, the prognosis after sequential airway stent placement was significantly poor. However, because respiratory distress decreased after the treatment in most patients, this treatment may be acceptable for selected patients with extensive malignant airway stenosis. PMID:25273272
Trappey, A Francois; Hirose, Shinjiro
Esophageal duplication and congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) may represent diseases with common embryologic etiologies, namely, faulty tracheoesophageal separation and differentiation. Here, we will re-enforce definitions for these diseases as well as review their embryology, diagnosis, and treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pluháčková, H; Staffa, R; Konečný, Z; Kříž, Z; Vlachovský, R
Pedal or distal crural bypass surgery for limb salvage is a method with very good long-term results. For patients in whom a suitable autologous venous graft is not available, the use of a venous allograft is an alternative procedure. A 68 years old man with ischaemic disease of lower extremities and gangrene of the left foot was admitted to our Centre in August 2014. He underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of crural arteries of his left lower extremity. This, however, failed to improve peripheral circulation. The patient was then indicated for pedal or distal crural vascular reconstruction. Since no suitable autologous vein was available, distal bypass surgery using a donor graft remained the only option for limb salvage. Amputation of the toes on the left foot due to gangrene was necessary. Subsequently, femoro-pedal bypass to the left common plantar artery was performed using a great saphenous vein allograft. The post-operative course was without complications, the pedal bypass was patent and toe amputation was with good healing. The patient remained in follow-up care. A good outcome of vascular reconstruction with an allograft depends on the availability of a suitable allograft and good patient compliance with post-operative care. In the case presented here, the pedal bypass grafting by means of an allograft helped to save the patients limb. pedal bypass venous allograft limb salvage.
Onishi, S; Imanishi, N; Yoshimura, Y; Inoue, Y; Sakamoto, Y; Chang, H; Okumoto, T
The venous anatomy of the face was examined in 12 fresh cadavers. Venograms and arteriovenograms were obtained after the injection of contrast medium. In 8 of the 12 cadavers, a large loop was formed by the facial vein, the supratrochlear vein, and the superficial temporal vein, which became the main trunk vein of the face. In 4 of the 12 cadavers, the superior lateral limb of the loop vein was less well developed. The loop vein generally did not accompany the arteries of the face. Cutaneous branches of the loop vein formed a polygonal venous network in the skin, while communicating branches ran toward deep veins. These findings suggest that blood from the dermis of the face is collected by the polygonal venous network and enters the loop vein through the cutaneous branches, after which blood flows away from the face through the superficial temporal vein, the facial vein, and the communicating branches and enters the deep veins. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Treseder, Julia R; Jung, SeungWoo
Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a case of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis diagnosed echocardiographically and angiographically in which a significant reduction in pressure gradient was achieved with balloon dilation alone is presented.
Lindskog, Henrik; Kim, Yung Hae; Jelin, Eric B.; Kong, Yupeng; Guevara-Gallardo, Salvador; Kim, Tyson N.; Wang, Rong A.
Coordinated arterial-venous differentiation is crucial for vascular development and function. The origin of the cardinal vein (CV) in mammals is unknown, while conflicting theories have been reported in chick and zebrafish. Here, we provide the first molecular characterization of endothelial cells (ECs) expressing venous molecular markers, or venous-fated ECs, within the emergent dorsal aorta (DA). These ECs, expressing the venous molecular markers Coup-TFII and EphB4, cohabited the early DA with ECs expressing the arterial molecular markers ephrin B2, Notch and connexin 40. These mixed ECs in the early DA expressed either the arterial or venous molecular marker, but rarely both. Subsequently, the DA exhibited uniform arterial markers. Real-time imaging of mouse embryos revealed EC movement from the DA to the CV during the stage when venous-fated ECs occupied the DA. We analyzed mutants for EphB4, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase for the ephrin B2 ligand, as we hypothesized that ephrin B2/EphB4 signaling may mediate the repulsion of venous-fated ECs from the DA to the CV. Using an EC quantification approach, we discovered that venous-fated ECs increased in the DA and decreased in the CV in the mutants, whereas the rest of the ECs in each vessel were unaffected. This result suggests that the venous-fated ECs were retained in the DA and missing in the CV in the EphB4 mutant, and thus that ephrin B2/EphB4 signaling normally functions to clear venous-fated ECs from the DA to the CV by cell repulsion. Therefore, our cellular and molecular evidence suggests that the DA harbors venous progenitors that move to participate in CV formation, and that ephrin B2/EphB4 signaling regulates this aortic contribution to the mammalian CV. PMID:24550118
Novotny, Jiri, E-mail: email@example.com; Peregrin, Jan H.; Stribrna, Jarmila
We present the case of a 77-year-old male patient who had undergone a bilateral venous aortorenal bypass graft 30 years previously. Thirteen years previously, the patient was shown to have a decrease in renal function, with mild shrinking of both kidneys; additionally, a stenosis was found in the left proximal anastomosis. At the most recent follow-up visit (1 year previously), ultrasound revealed an aneurysm (42 mm in diameter) of the left renal bypass graft; the finding was confirmed by CT angiography. A significant ostial stenosis of the left renal bypass graft was also confirmed. It was decided to place amore » self-expandable stent-graft into the aneurysm while also attempting to dilate the stenosis. Proximal endoleak after stent-graft placement necessitated the implantation of another, balloon-expandable stent-graft into the bypass graft ostium. Postprocedural angiography and follow-up by CT angiography at 3 months confirmed good patency of the stent-grafts and complete thrombosis of the aneurysmal sac, with preserved kidney perfusion. Renal function remained unaltered, while the hypertension is better controlled.« less
Choi, Woorak; Park, Jun Hong; Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Sang Joon
A specific portion of a vulnerable stenosis is deformed periodically under a pulsatile blood flow condition. Detailed analysis of such deformable stenosis is important because stenotic deformation can increase the likelihood of rupture, which may lead to sudden cardiac death or stroke. Various diagnostic indices have been developed for a nondeformable stenosis by using flow characteristics and resultant pressure drop across the stenosis. However, the effects of the stenotic deformation on the flow characteristics remain poorly understood. In this study, the flows around a deformable stenosis model and two different rigid stenosis models were investigated under a pulsatile flow condition. Particle image velocimetry was employed to measure flow structures around the three stenosis models. The deformable stenosis model was deformed to achieve high geometrical slope and height when the flow rate was increased. The deformation of the stenotic shape enhanced jet deflection toward the opposite vessel wall of the stenosis. The jet deflection in the deformable model increased the rate of jet velocity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production as compared with those in the rigid models. The effect of stenotic deformation on the pulsating waveform related with the pressure drop was analyzed using the TKE production rate. The deformable stenosis model exhibited a phase delay of the peak point in the waveform. These results revealed the potential use of pressure drop waveform as a diagnostic index for deformable stenosis.
Cognard, C.; Casasco, A.; Toevi, M.; Houdart, E.; Chiras, J.; Merland, J.
OBJECTIVES—A retrospective study was carried out on 13 patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) who presented with isolated or associated signs of intracranial hypertension. METHODS—Nine patients presented with symptoms of intracranial hypertension at the time of diagnosis. Ocular fundoscopy available in 12 patients showed bilateral papilloedema in eight and optic disk atrophy in four. Clinical evolution was particularly noticeable in five patients because of chronic (two patients) or acute (after lumbar shunting or puncture: three patients, one death) tonsillar herniation. RESULTS—Two patients had a type I fistula (drainage into a sinus, with a normal antegrade flow direction). The remaining 11 had type II fistulas (drainage into a sinus, with abnormal retrograde venous drainage into sinuses or cortical veins). Stenosis or thrombosis of the sinus(es) distal to the fistula was present in five patients. The cerebral venous drainage was abnormal in all patients. CONCLUSION—Type II (and some type I) DAVFs may present as isolated intracranial hypertension mimicking benign intracranial hypertension. Normal cerebral angiography should be added as a fifth criterion of benign intracranial hypertension. The cerebral venous drainage pattern must be carefully studied by contralateral carotid and vertebral artery injections to correctly evaluate the impairment of the cerebral venous outflow. Lumbar CSF diversion (puncture or shunting) may induce acute tonsillar herniation and should be avoided absolutely. DAVF may induce intracranial hypertension, which has a poor long term prognosis and may lead to an important loss of visual acuity and chronic tonsillar herniation. Consequently, patients with intracranial hypertension must be treated, even agressively, to obliterate the fistula or at least to reduce the arterial flow and to restore a normal cerebral venous drainage. The endovascular treatment may associate arterial or transvenous
Zavoreo, Iris; Basić-Kes, Vanja; Zadro-Matovina, Lucija; Lisak, Marijana; Corić, Lejla; Cvjeticanin, Timon; Ciliga, Dubravka; Bobić, Tatjana Trost
Venous system can be classified as pulmonary veins, systemic veins and venous sinuses that are present only within the skull. Cerebral venous system is divided into two main parts, the superficial and the deep system. The main assignment of veins is to carry away deoxygenated blood and other maleficient materials from the tissues towards the heart. Veins have thinner walls and larger lumina than arteries. Between 60% and 70% of the total blood volume is found in veins. The major factors that influence venous function are the respiratory cycle, venous tone, the function of the right heart, gravity, and the muscle pump. Venous system, in general, can be presented by selective venography, Doppler sonography, computed tomography (CT) venography and magnetic resonance (MR) venography, and cerebral venous system can be displayed by selective venography, cerebral CT venography, cerebral MR venography, and specialized extracranial and transcranial Doppler sonography. The aim of this paper is to show the possibilities of intracranial and extracranial ultrasound evaluation of the head and neck venous circulation and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency as one of the most common pathologies evaluated as part of neurodegenerative processes in the central nervous system.
Suzuki, Yutaka; Fukasawa, Mizuya; Sakata, Osamu; Kato, Hatsuhiro; Hattori, Asobu; Kato, Takaya
Vascular access for hemodialysis is a lifeline for over 280,000 chronic renal failure patients in Japan. Early detection of stenosis may facilitate long-term use of hemodialysis shunts. Stethoscope auscultation of vascular murmurs has some utility in the assessment of access patency; however, the sensitivity of this diagnostic approach is skill dependent. This study proposes a novel diagnosis support system to detect stenosis by using vascular murmurs. The system is based on a self-organizing map (SOM) and short-time maximum entropy method (STMEM) for data analysis. SOM is an artificial neural network, which is trained using unsupervised learning to produce a feature map that is useful for visualizing the analogous relationship between input data. The author recorded vascular murmurs before and after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The SOM-based classification was consistent with to the classification based on MEM spectral and spectrogram characteristics. The ratio of pre-PTA murmurs in the stenosis category was much higher than the post-PTA murmurs. The results suggest that the proposed method may be an effective tool in the determination of shunt stenosis.
Oki, Masahide; Saka, Hideo
Silicone stenting has been widely used to palliate respiratory symptoms in patients suffering from airway stenosis. Although many types and shapes of stents have been developed, there is no ideal stent for stenosis around the carina between the bronchus to the right upper lobe and the bronchus intermedius (primary right carina). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a new silicone stent designed for treating airway stenosis around the primary right carina. We recruited 16 patients with suspected stenosis around the primary right carina. Ten of the patients met the inclusion criteria for inserting the study stent. All stenting procedures were performed with a rigid and flexible bronchoscope under general anesthesia. The study stent could be mounted successfully on the primary right carina in all 10 patients. Five patients underwent stenting using only the new stent, and the other five underwent stenting with it on the primary right carina and a silicone Y stent on the main carina. The dyspnea index improved in eight of the 10 patients, including one who was mechanically ventilated. Early complications developed in three patients (temporary pneumonia in two and retention of secretions in one), and late complications occurred in two patients (granuloma formation in one and hemoptysis in one). Stent placement with the new silicone stent designed to fit on the primary right carina is feasible, effective, and acceptably safe. UMIN-Clinical Trials Registry; No.: UMIN000001776; URL: www.umin.ac.jp/ctr.
Jakob, H.; Oelert, H.; Schmiedt, W.; Teusch, P.; Iversen, S.; Hake, U.; Schild, H.; Maass, D.
Fourteen patients with complicated venous thrombosis or recurrent pulmonary embolism were treated by implantation of an endoluminal spiral prosthesis subsequent to balloon angioplasty, surgical thrombectomy or embolectomy, a combination of these, or, in 2 cases, no other treatment. The patients were divided into 2 groups, based on their primary diagnosis and the purpose of the prosthesis. Group I included 8 patients with extensive iliofemoral or caval thrombosis, caused by congenital caval stenosis (1 case) or extravascular compression or retraction (7 cases); 7 of these patients had had previous operations, and the remaining patient had undergone thrombolysis, which failed. The current treatment consisted of balloon angioplasty and surgical thrombectomy or embolectomy, and implantation of an endoluminal spiral stent to prevent elastic recoil of the vessel. In 4 cases, an arteriovenous fistula was constructed and was taken down 3 months later; in 1 additional patient, a bilateral arteriovenous fistula was created. Group II comprised 6 patients with recurrent pulmonary embolism (4 cases), massive pulmonary embolism (1 case), or paradoxical bilateral carotid artery embolism (1 case). Four of these patients underwent surgical thrombectomy or embolectomy, while 2 had no treatment other than filter implantation. All 6 underwent transluminal implantation of a helix caval filter (a modification of the endoluminal spiral stent). All but 1 implantation was accomplished by means of either a transfemoral or a transjugular cutdown; the remaining implantation was performed transatrially after a pulmonary embolectomy. The only device-related complication was a retroperitoneal hematoma in Group I, resulting from perforation of the inferior vena cava by the guidewire during device implantation. This complication necessitated an emergency laparotomy and takedown of the arteriovenous fistula, which resulted in rethrombosis of the left iliofemoral vein. The other 7 stented veins were
Mouton, S; Nighoghossian, N; Berruyer, M; Derex, L; Philippeau, F; Cakmak, S; Honnorat, J; Hermier, M; Trouillas, P
The demonstration of an underlying prothrombotic condition in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) may have important practical consequences in terms of prevention. Thyrotoxicosis through a hypercoagulable state may be a predisposing factor for CVT. The authors present the cases of 4 patients who developed CVT and hyperthyroidism. At the acute stage, hyperthyroidism was associated with an increase in factor VIII (FVIII). At follow-up, FVIII level remained increased in 2 patients. Hyperthyroidism may have an impact on FVIII level. Accordingly in patients with hyperthyroidism and neurological symptoms, the diagnosis of CVT should be considered and an exhaustive coagulation screening may be appropriate. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Matey, Laurl; Camp-Sorrell, Dawn
Nursing management of venous access devices (VADs) requires knowledge of current evidence, as well as knowledge of when evidence is limited. Do you know which practices we do based on evidence and those that we do based on institutional history or preference? This article will present complex VAD infection and occlusion complications and some of the controversies associated with them. Important strategies for identifying these complications, troubleshooting, and evaluating the evidence related to lack of blood return, malposition, infection, access and maintenance protocols, and scope of practice issues are presented. PMID:28083553
Barbera, L; Fiedler, H-W; Krauss, M
The treatment of congenital, vascular malformations is a challenge for physicians and patients. Although different therapeutic options have been described to date, their individual relevance has still to be defined. Â METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 61 patients with a venous malformation (VM, mean age 22 years), who were referred to our depart-ment during the last 5 years. The size of the VM was larger than 5 cm in 41 patients (66 %). The lower extremities were involved in 45 cases (73 %). The most frequent clinical manifestations were recurrent swelling (80 %), pain (63 %), varicosis (60 %) and thrombophlebitis (39 %). MR angiography with venous sequences was always performed before treatment. Depending on the localisation and the extension of the VM, different techniques of embolisation were selected: foam sclerotherapy or application of synthetic glue by direct punction, coiling of pelvic veins or arterial embolisation with glue. 42 patients (69 %) underwent a procedure because of the complaints or the extension of the VM. An embolisation was performed in 25 patients with 65 interventional sessions. The most frequent technique was foam sclerotherapy (45 ×), followed by glue injection (13 ×), pelvic -venous coiling (6 ×) and arterial embolisation with glue (1 ×). Fifteen patients (60 %) reported a very good and 8 patients a marked improvement (32 %). In two cases there was no change of the complaints. The postinterventional complications were severe pain (n = 3) and skin/fat necrosis at the toe of one patient. The embolisation of venous malformations is an effective therapeutic tool. Different techniques can be used to address specific localisations and morphological patterns. The com-plication rate is very low when a step-by-step -approach is used, so that a repeat intervention is feasible. However, a more specific documentation of the post-interventional changes of the VM is needed
Kundu, Sanjoy, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Modabber, Milad; You, John M.
Purpose: To assess the safety and effectiveness of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) encapsulated nitinol stents (Bard Peripheral Vascular, Tempe, AZ) for treatment of hemodialysis-related central venous occlusions. Materials and Methods: Study design was a single-center nonrandomized retrospective cohort of patients from May 2004 to August 2009 for a total of 64 months. There were 14 patients (mean age 60 years, range 50-83 years; 13 male, 1 female). All patients had autogenous fistulas. All 14 patients had central venous occlusions and presented with clinical symptoms of the following: extremity swelling (14%, 2 of 14), extremity and face swelling (72%, 10 of 14),more » and face swelling/edema (14%, 2 of 14). There was evidence of access dysfunction with decreased access flow in 36% (5 of 14) patients. There were prior interventions or previous line placement at the site of the central venous lesion in all 14 patients. Results were assessed by recurrence of clinical symptoms and function of the access circuit (National Kidney Foundation recommended criteria). Results: Sixteen consecutive straight stent grafts were implanted in 14 patients. Average treated lesion length was 5.0 cm (range, 0.9-7 cm). All 14 patients had complete central venous occlusion (100% stenosis). The central venous occlusions were located as follows: right subclavian and brachiocephalic vein (21%, 3 of 14), right brachiocephalic vein (36%, 5 of 14), left brachiocephalic vein (36%, 5 of 14), and bilateral brachiocephalic vein (7%, 1 of 14). A total of 16 PTFE stent grafts were placed. Ten- or 12-mm-diameter PTFE stent grafts were placed. The average stent length was 6.1 cm (range, 4-8 cm). Technical (deployment), anatomic (<30% residual stenosis), clinical (resolution of symptoms), and hemodynamic (resolution of access dysfunction) success were 100%. At 3, 6, and 9 months, primary patency of the treated area and access circuit were 100% (14 of 14). Conclusions: This PTFE encapsulated stent
Zhang, Wayne W; Harris, Linda M; Dryjski, Maciej L
To compare conventional angiography (CA) and rotational angiography (RA) to assess the degree of angiographically-measured stenosis versus cross-sectional area (CSA) stenosis in an in vitro carotid model. Various grades of stenosis were created by adhering different amounts of silicone rubber sealant onto the inner wall of clear, radiolucent tubes. Following 2- and 3-projection CA and 20-projection RA, the tubes were transected at the actual maximum stenosis. The cross-sectional areas were digitally photographed, and CSA stenosis was calculated using ImageJ planimeter software. The differences among CA, RA, and CSA stenosis measurements were compared statistically. There was no significant difference between RA and CSA stenosis measurements (p=0.46). Conventional angiography with 2 or 3 projections between 0 degrees and 90 degrees underestimated the severity of disease in 19 (63%) of 30 samples. The maximum stenosis percentage was significantly lower in CA versus RA (p<0.0001 in 2-projection, p<0.0003 in 3-projection) and in CA versus CSA stenosis (p<0.0004 in 2-projection, p<0.001 in 3-projection). The maximum stenosis percentages measured by RA were less than CSA stenosis in 5 (71.4%) of 7 tubes (p=NS) containing 50% to 69% stenoses. Eight tubes had mountain-shaped lesions, which was significantly overestimated by RA (11.5%+/-9.7%, p<0.012). CA with 2 or 3 projections significantly underestimates the maximum stenosis in an in vitro model. RA may overestimate disease in patients with mountain-shaped plaques and may underestimate disease if the stenosis is <70%. Our data suggest that CA should not be the gold standard for the qualification of carotid endarterectomy in asymptomatic patients, nor for vascular laboratory quality assurance analysis.
Taylor, Robert A; Weigele, John B; Kasner, Scott E
Intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS) is the cause of about 10% of all ischemic strokes in the United States, but may account for about 40% of strokes in some populations. After a stroke or transient ischemic attack due to IAS, patients face a 12% annual risk of recurrent stroke on medical therapy, with most strokes occurring in the first year. Warfarin is no better than aspirin in preventing recurrent strokes but poses a higher risk of serious bleeding and death. Groups with the highest risk of recurrent stroke are those with high-grade (≥ 70%) stenosis, those with recent symptom onset, those with symptoms precipitated by hemodynamic maneuvers, and women. Endovascular treatment of IAS is a rapidly evolving therapeutic option. Antiplatelet agents are currently recommended as the primary treatment for symptomatic IAS, with endovascular therapy reserved for appropriate high-risk cases refractory to medical therapy.
Berent, Allyson C
Choanal atresia is rare in small animal veterinary medicine, and most cases are misdiagnosed and are actually a nasopharyngeal stenosis (NPS), which is frustrating to treat because of the high recurrence rates encountered after surgical intervention. Minimally invasive treatment options like balloon dilation (BD), metallic stent placement (MS), or covered metallic stent (CMS) placement have been met with success but are associated with various complications that must be considered. The most common complication with BD alone is stenosis recurrence. The most common complications encountered with MS placement is tissue in-growth, chronic infections and the development of an oronasal fistula. The most common complications with a CMS is chronic infections and the development of an oronasal fistula, but stricture recurrence is avoided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sánchez García, S; Rubio Solís, D; Anes González, G; González Sánchez, S
Gastric adenomyomas are extremely uncommon benign tumors in children. On histologic examination, these tumors have an epithelial component similar to pancreatic ducts. We present a case of a pyloric adenomyoma that clinically simulated hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a newborn girl. Imaging tests, fundamentally magnetic resonance imaging, were very important in the characterization and diagnosis of this entity. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks. Images PMID:2769282
Arndt, Jason W; Oyama, Mark A
Radiographic, echocardiographic, fluoroscopic, and angiographic images from 2 dogs with severe congenital mitral valve stenosis that underwent cardiac catheterization and balloon valvuloplasty are presented. Both dogs displayed systolic doming of the mitral valve leaflets, increased diastolic pressure gradient across the left atrium and ventricle, and decreased mitral inflow E to F slope. Balloon valvuloplasty was performed on both dogs using atrial transeptal puncture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hickey, Edward J; McCrindle, Brian W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Yeh, Thomas; Pigula, Frank; Clarke, David; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Hawkins, John
Limited availability and durability of allograft conduits require that alternatives be considered. We compared bovine jugular venous valved (JVV) and allograft conduit performance in 107 infants who survived truncus arteriosus repair. Children were prospectively recruited between 2003 and 2007 from 17 institutions. The median z-score for JVV (n=27, all 12 mm) was +2.1 (range +1.2 to +3.2) and allograft (n=80, 9-15mm) was +1.7 (range -0.4 to +3.6). Propensity-adjusted comparison of conduit survival was undertaken using parametric risk-hazard analysis and competing risks techniques. All available echocardiograms (n=745) were used to model deterioration of conduit function in regression equations adjusted for repeated measures. Overall conduit survival was 64+/-9% at 3 years. Conduit replacement was for conduit stenosis (n=16) and/or pulmonary artery stenosis (n=18) or regurgitation (n=1). The propensity-adjusted 3-year freedom from replacement for in-conduit stenosis was 96+/-4% for JVV and 69+/-8% for allograft (p=0.05). The risk of intervention or replacement for branch pulmonary artery stenosis was similar for JVV and allograft. Smaller conduit z-score predicted poor conduit performance (p<0.01) with best outcome between +1 and +3. Although JVV conduits were a uniform diameter, their z-score more consistently matched this ideal. JVV exhibited a non-significant trend towards slower progression of conduit regurgitation and peak right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) gradient. In addition, catheter intervention was more successful at slowing subsequent gradient progression in children with JVV versus those with allograft (p<0.01). JVV does match allograft performance and may be advantageous. It is an appropriate first choice for repair of truncus arteriosus, and perhaps other small infants requiring RVOT reconstruction.
Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Maftoon, Nima
Aortic valve stenosis, which causes considerable constriction of the flow passage, is one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases and is the most common cause of the valvular replacements which take place for around 100,000 per year in North America. Furthermore, it is considered as the most frequent cardiac disease after arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease. The objective of this study is to develop an analytical model considering the coupling effect between fluid flow and elastic deformation with reasonable boundary conditions to describe the effect of AS on the left ventricle and the aorta. The pulsatile and Newtonian blood flow through aortic stenosis with vascular wall deformability is analyzed and its effects are discussed in terms of flow parameters such as velocity, resistance to flow, shear stress distribution and pressure loss. Meanwhile we developed analytical expressions to improve the comprehension of the transvalvular hemodynamics and the aortic stenosis hemodynamics which is of great interest because of one main reason. To medical scientists, an accurate knowledge of the mechanical properties of whole blood flow in the aorta can suggest a new diagnostic tool.
Romeo, Erminia; Foschia, Francesca; de Angelis, Paola; Caldaro, Tamara; Federici di Abriola, Giovanni; Gambitta, Rosaalba; Buoni, Simona; Torroni, Filippo; Pardi, Valerio; Dall'oglio, Luigi
Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a rare malformation. Endoscopic dilations represent a therapeutic option. This study retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of a conservative treatment of CES. Patients diagnosed with CES since 1980 by a barium study or endoscopy were reviewed. Endoscopic ultrasonography (Olympus UM-3R-20-MHz radial miniprobe, Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), available from 2001, allowed for the differential diagnosis of tracheobronchial remnants (TBR) and fibromuscular hypertrophy (FMH) CES. All children underwent conservative treatment by endoscopic dilations (hydrostatic and Savary). Forty-seven patients (20 men) had CES. Fifteen were associated with esophageal atresia; and 8, with Down syndrome. Mean age at the diagnosis was 28.3 months (range, 1 day to 146 months). Symptoms were solid food refusal, regurgitation, vomiting, and dysphagia. Congenital esophageal stenosis was located in the distal esophagus. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated TBR and FMH in 6 patients. One hundred forty-eight dilations in 47 patients were performed. The stenosis healed in 45 (95.7%). Complications were 5 (10.6%) esophageal perforations, hydrostatic (3/32, or 9.3%), and Savary (2/116, or 1.7%). At follow-up, 1 patient with FMH CES and 1 patient with TBR CES required operation for persistent dysphagia. The conservative treatment yielded positive outcomes in CES. Endoscopic ultrasonography allows for a correct diagnosis of TBR/FMH CES. A surgical approach should be reserved for CES not responsive to dilations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez de Mingo, E; Riofrío Cabeza, S; Villa Albuger, T; Velasco Blanco, M J
Palpitations, paresthesias and anxiety are very common reasons of consultation in primary care. We report the case of a 40 year-old Caucasian woman who came to the clinic due to these symptoms, and was finally diagnosed with Takayasu arteritis. Later, she had an episode of headache, as the initial manifestation of cerebral venous thrombosis. Takayasu arteritis is a systemic vasculitis affecting medium and large arteries, mainly leacausing stenosis of the aorta and its branches. It most frequently affects Asian women, being much rarer in Europe. The primary care doctor plays a key role in the initial diagnosis and monitoring of patients with rare diseases, such as Takayasu arteritis, and must be a basic support for the patient and family, providing information and advice, and contributing with his work to reduce the vulnerability of this group. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Barnacle, Alex M., E-mail: email@example.com; Kleidon, Tricia M.
Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.
Yoo, Jung-Geun; Yi, Chin A; Lee, Kyung Soo; Jeon, Kyeongman; Um, Sang-Won; Koh, Won-Jung; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kwon, O Jung
Objectives The shape of the flow-volume (F-V) curve is known to change to showing a prominent plateau as stenosis progresses in patients with tracheal stenosis. However, no study has evaluated changes in the F-V curve according to the degree of bronchial stenosis in patients with unilateral main bronchial stenosis. Methods We performed an analysis of F-V curves in 29 patients with unilateral bronchial stenosis with the aid of a graphic digitizer between January 2005 and December 2011. Results The primary diseases causing unilateral main bronchial stenosis were endobronchial tuberculosis (86%), followed by benign bronchial tumor (10%), and carcinoid (3%). All unilateral main bronchial stenoses were classified into one of five grades (I, ≤25%; II, 26%-50%; III, 51%-75%; IV, 76%-90%; V, >90% to near-complete obstruction without ipsilateral lung collapse). A monophasic F-V curve was observed in patients with grade I stenosis and biphasic curves were observed for grade II-IV stenosis. Both monophasic (81%) and biphasic shapes (18%) were observed in grade V stenosis. After standardization of the biphasic shape of the F-V curve, the breakpoints of the biphasic curve moved in the direction of high volume (x-axis) and low flow (y-axis) according to the progression of stenosis. Conclusion In unilateral bronchial stenosis, a biphasic F-V curve appeared when bronchial stenosis was >25% and disappeared when obstruction was near complete. In addition, the breakpoint moved in the direction of high volume and low flow with the progression of stenosis. PMID:26045916
Sardana, Vijay; Mittal, Lal Chand; Meena, S R; Sharma, Deepti; Khandelwal, Girish
Chickenpox is one of the classic childhood diseases. Recently chicken pox has been reported in adults with more severe systemic and neurological complications. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a life threatening disorder if not treated in time. We report a patient with post varicella CVT as a rare complication of primary Varicella zoster virus. Vasculitic arterial infarction is known while venous stroke has rarely been reported with Varicella-zoster virus infection. Here, we report an immunocompetent 30 yr old male who developed chickenpox after contact with his daughter two month back. He presented with acute neurological deficit, one week after onset of skin lesion. MR venography revealed non-visualisation of left transverse sinus and left sigmoid sinus suggestive of venous sinus thrombosis. Varicella infection is rarely associated with venous sinus thrombosis. Possibly hypercoagulable state produced by the infection or direct invasion of virus in venous endothelial wall with subsequent damage to endothelium leading to thrombosis could be the cause.
Grim Hostetler, Sarah; Sopkovich, Jennifer; Dean, Steven
Warfarin is a commonly used anticoagulant that has been associated with several significant cutaneous side effects, most notably warfarin-induced skin necrosis. A lesser known adverse reaction to warfarin is warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene. Both cutaneous adverse effects share the same pathophysiology, but are clinically quite different. The majority of cases of warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene has been in patients with cancer or heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. However, other hypercoagulable disease states, such as the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, can be associated with venous limb gangrene. In order to increase recognition of this important condition, the authors report a case of warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene in a patient with presumed antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and review the literature on warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene. PMID:23198012
Magalhães, Sara P; Moreno, Nuno; Loureiro, Marília; França, Manuela; Reis, Fernanda; Alvares, Sílvia; Ribeiro, Manuel
Anomalous pulmonary venous connection is an uncommon congenital anomaly in which all (total form) or some (partial form) pulmonary veins drain into a systemic vein or into the right atrium rather than into the left atrium. The authors present one case of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and two cases of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection, one of supracardiac drainage into the brachiocephalic vein, and the other of infracardiac anomalous venous drainage (scimitar syndrome). Through the presentation of these cases, this article aims to review the main pulmonary venous developmental defects, highlighting the role of imaging techniques in the assessment of these anomalies. Copyright Â© 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Chimowitz, Marc I; Lynn, Michael J; Derdeyn, Colin P; Turan, Tanya N; Fiorella, David; Lane, Bethany F; Janis, L Scott; Lutsep, Helmi L; Barnwell, Stanley L; Waters, Michael F; Hoh, Brian L; Hourihane, J Maurice; Levy, Elad I; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Harrigan, Mark R; Chiu, David; Klucznik, Richard P; Clark, Joni M; McDougall, Cameron G; Johnson, Mark D; Pride, G Lee; Torbey, Michel T; Zaidat, Osama O; Rumboldt, Zoran; Cloft, Harry J
Atherosclerotic intracranial arterial stenosis is an important cause of stroke that is increasingly being treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) to prevent recurrent stroke. However, PTAS has not been compared with medical management in a randomized trial. We randomly assigned patients who had a recent transient ischemic attack or stroke attributed to stenosis of 70 to 99% of the diameter of a major intracranial artery to aggressive medical management alone or aggressive medical management plus PTAS with the use of the Wingspan stent system. The primary end point was stroke or death within 30 days after enrollment or after a revascularization procedure for the qualifying lesion during the follow-up period or stroke in the territory of the qualifying artery beyond 30 days. Enrollment was stopped after 451 patients underwent randomization, because the 30-day rate of stroke or death was 14.7% in the PTAS group (nonfatal stroke, 12.5%; fatal stroke, 2.2%) and 5.8% in the medical-management group (nonfatal stroke, 5.3%; non-stroke-related death, 0.4%) (P=0.002). Beyond 30 days, stroke in the same territory occurred in 13 patients in each group. Currently, the mean duration of follow-up, which is ongoing, is 11.9 months. The probability of the occurrence of a primary end-point event over time differed significantly between the two treatment groups (P=0.009), with 1-year rates of the primary end point of 20.0% in the PTAS group and 12.2% in the medical-management group. In patients with intracranial arterial stenosis, aggressive medical management was superior to PTAS with the use of the Wingspan stent system, both because the risk of early stroke after PTAS was high and because the risk of stroke with aggressive medical therapy alone was lower than expected. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others; SAMMPRIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00576693.).
Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L.; Patel, Kaushik M.
Purpose: To perform a retrospective outcomes analysis of central venous catheters with peripheral venous access ports, with comparison to published data.Methods: One hundred and twelve central venous catheters with peripherally placed access ports were placed under sonographic guidance in 109 patients over a 4-year period. Ports were placed for the administration of chemotherapy, hyperalimentation, long-term antibiotic therapy, gamma-globulin therapy, and frequent blood sampling. A vein in the upper arm was accessed in each case and the catheter was passed to the superior vena cava or right atrium. Povidone iodine skin preparation was used in the first 65 port insertions. Amore » combination of Iodophor solution and povidone iodine solution was used in the last 47 port insertions. Forty patients received low-dose (1 mg) warfarin sodium beginning the day after port insertion. Three patients received higher doses of warfarin sodium for preexistent venous thrombosis. Catheter performance and complications were assessed and compared with published data.Results: Access into the basilic or brachial veins was obtained in all cases. Ports remained functional for a total of 28,936 patient days. The port functioned in 50% of patients until completion of therapy, or the patient's expiration. Ports were removed prior to completion of therapy in 18% of patients. Eleven patients (9.9% of ports placed) suffered an infectious complication (0.38 per thousand catheter-days)-in nine, at the port implantation site, in two along the catheter. In all 11 instances the port was removed. Port pocket infection in the early postoperative period occurred in three patients (4.7%) receiving a Betadine prep vs two patients (4.2%) receiving a standard O.R. prep. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.9). Venous thrombosis occurred in three patients (6.8%) receiving warfarin sodium and in two patients (3%) not receiving warfarin sodium. This difference was not statistically
Patil, Devendra V.; Nabar, Ashish A.; Sabnis, Girish R.; Phadke, Milind S.; Lanjewar, Charan P.; Kerkar, Prafulla G.
Permanent pacemaker lead-induced tricuspid regurgitation is extremely uncommon. We report a patient with severe tricuspid stenosis detected 10 years after permanent single chamber pacemaker implantation in surgically corrected congenital heart disease. The loop at the level of the tricuspid valve may have caused endothelial injury and eventually led to stenosis. Percutaneous balloon valvotomy for such stenosis has not been reported from India. PMID:26995417
Allan, L D; Sharland, G K
Infants with isolated totally anomalous pulmonary venous return often present severely decompensated, such that they are at high risk for surgical repair. On the other hand, if surgical repair can be safely accomplished, the outlook is usually good. Thus prenatal diagnosis would be expected to improve the prognosis for the affected child. To describe the features of isolated totally anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in the fetus. Four fetuses with isolated totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection were identified and the echocardiographic images reviewed. Measurements of the atrial and ventricular chambers and both great arteries were made and compared with normal values. Referral centre for fetal echocardiography. There were two cases of drainage to the coronary sinus, one to the right superior vena cava, and one to the inferior vena cava. Right heart dilatation relative to left heart structures was a feature of two cases early on, and became evident in some ratios late in pregnancy in the remaining two. Ventricular and great arterial disproportion in the fetus can indicate a diagnosis of totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection above the diaphragm. However, in the presence of an atrial septal defect or with infradiaphragmatic drainage, right heart dilatation may not occur until late in pregnancy. The diagnosis of totally anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in fetal life can only be reliably excluded by direct examination of pulmonary venous blood flow entering the left atrium on colour or pulsed flow mapping.
Bobocea, Andrei Cristian; Matache, Radu; Codreşi, Mihaela; Bolca, Ciprian; Cordoş, Ioan
Tracheobronchial disruption is one of the most severe injuries caused by blunt chest trauma. A high index of clinical suspicion and accurate interpretation of radiological findings are necessary for prompt surgical intervention with primary repair of the airway. Delays in treatment increases the risk of partial to complete bronchial stenosis. A 21 years old male was admitted to our hospital following a workplace accident. A chest radiograph showed bilateral pneumothorax, cephalic and mediastinal emphysema. Chest tubes were placed on each side, with full pulmonary expansion and remission of emphysema. Minimal lesions of the right main bronchus were found at fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Daily chest X-rays showed an uncomplicated recovery. A stenosis was suspected due to right lung pneumonia evolving under specific antibiotherapy. Right main bronchus posttraumatic stricture was diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. He underwent a right lateral thoracotomy with sleeve resection of stenotic bronchi. Control bronchoscopy reveals main bronchus widely patent with untraceable suture line. Main bronchus rupture in blunt chest trauma is an additive effect of chest wall compression between two solid surfaces, traction on the carina and sudden increase in intraluminal pressure. Symptoms may vary: soft air leak, pneumothorax or limited mediastinal emphysema. Bronchoscopy should be performed immediately or when available. Granulation tissue leads to progressive bronchial obstruction, with distal infection and permanent parenchymal damage. Sleeve resection of the stenosed segment is the treatment of choice and restores fully the lung function. Rupture of main bronchus is a complication of blunt chest trauma. Flexible bronchoscopy is useful and reliable for early diagnosis of traumatic tracheobronchial injuries. Delayed diagnosis can lead to lung parenchyma alteration due to retrostenotic pneumonia. Resection and end-to-end anastomosis is the key of successful in these cases.
Xu, Guibin; Li, Xun; He, Yongzhong; Zhao, Haibo; Yang, Weiqing; Xie, Qingling
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of self-expanding metal stents in the treatment of ureteral stenosis following kidney transplantation. Seven patients who developed benign stenosis after kidney transplantation were treated by a self-expanding metallic stent implantation from June 2007 to March 2014. All patients had undergone at least one open surgical procedure and one endourologic procedure for treatment of the stenosis. The extent of stenosis varied from 1.2 to 3.7 cm. Ultrasonography, urography, diuretic renography, and urine culture were performed every 3 months after stent insertion. Ureteroscopic examination was performed when needed. Stent placement was technically effective in all cases. The mean operative time was 37 minutes (range, 26-59 minutes). Lower urinary-tract symptoms and the ipsilateral flank pain were common early-stage complications and were greatly relieved after an average of 3 months. The mean follow-up duration was 38 months (range, 13-86 months), and no stent migration or fragmentation was observed. Urothelial hyperplasia occurred in only one patient and was effectively managed with a Double-J stent. Five patients had normal stable renal function; the remaining two had impaired renal function, including one patient with a preoperative renal failure who required dialysis at the end of the follow-up period (36 months). As an alternative to open surgery, implantation of a self-expanding metal stent is a safe and effective treatment for ureteral stenosis in patients who have undergone kidney transplantation.
Sanchez, Pedro L; Mazzone, AnnaMaria
Degenerative aortic valve stenosis includes a range of disorder severity from mild leaflet thickening without valve obstruction, "aortic sclerosis", to severe calcified aortic stenosis. It is a slowly progressive active process of valve modification similar to atherosclerosis for cardiovascular risk factors, lipoprotein deposition, chronic inflammation, and calcification. Systemic signs of inflammation, as wall and serum C-reactive protein, similar to those found in atherosclerosis, are present in patients with degenerative aortic valve stenosis and may be expression of a common disease, useful in monitoring of stenosis progression. PMID:16774687
Chen, Zhong-qiang; Sun, Chui-guo
Thoracic spinal stenosis is a relatively common disorder causing paraplegia in the population of China. Until nowadays, the clinical management of thoracic spinal stenosis is still demanding and challenging with lots of questions remaining to be answered. A clinical guideline for the treatment of symptomatic thoracic spinal stenosis has been created by reaching the consensus of Chinese specialists using the best available evidence as a tool to aid practitioners involved with the care of this disease. In this guideline, many fundamental questions about thoracic spinal stenosis which were controversial have been explained clearly, including the definition of thoracic spinal stenosis, the standard procedure for diagnosing symptomatic thoracic spinal stenosis, indications for surgery, and so on. According to the consensus on the definition of thoracic spinal stenosis, the soft herniation of thoracic discs has been excluded from the pathological factors causing thoracic spinal stenosis. The procedure for diagnosing thoracic spinal stenosis has been quite mature, while the principles for selecting operative procedures remain to be improved. This guideline will be updated on a timely schedule and adhering to its recommendations should not be mandatory because it does not have the force of law. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Merkus, D; Vergroesen, I; Hiramatsu, O; Tachibana, H; Nakamoto, H; Toyota, E; Goto, M; Ogasawara, Y; Spaan, J A; Kajiya, F
The presence of a coronary stenosis results primarily in subendocardial ischemia. Apart from the decrease in coronary perfusion pressure, a stenosis also decreases coronary flow pulsations. Applying a coronary perfusion system, we compared the autoregulatory response of subendocardial (n = 10) and subepicardial (n = 12) arterioles (<120 microm) after stepwise decreases in coronary arterial pressure from 100 to 70, 50, and 30 mmHg in vivo in dogs (n = 9). Pressure steps were performed with and without stenosis on the perfusion line. Maximal arteriolar diameter during the cardiac cycle was determined and normalized to its value at 100 mmHg. The initial decrease in diameter during reductions in pressure was significantly larger at the subendocardium. Diameters of subendocardial and subepicardial arterioles were similar 10--15 s after the decrease in pressure without stenosis. However, stenosis decreased the dilatory response of the subendocardial arterioles significantly. This decreased dilatory response was also evidenced by a lower coronary inflow at similar average pressure in the presence of a stenosis. Inhibition of nitric oxide production with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine abrogated the effect of the stenosis on flow. We conclude that the decrease in pressure caused by a stenosis in vivo results in a larger decrease in diameter of the subendocardial arterioles than in the subepicardial arterioles, and furthermore stenosis selectively decreases the dilatory response of subendocardial arterioles. These two findings expand our understanding of subendocardial vulnerability to ischemia.
Rivera Vega, Juan; Frisancho Velarde, Oscar; Cervera, Zenón; Ruiz, Edwin; Yoza, Max; Larrea, Pedro
To determine the usefulness of endoscopic dilatation in dealing with benign stenosis of the anus, rectum and colon. PATIENTS AND METHODS USED: Thirty six (36) patients with stenosis, anus (8), rectum (22) and colon (6) were given endoscopic treatment using hydroneumatic balloons, electro incision (radiated cuts) or a combination of both. Rigid equipment (metal) was used for distal stenosis. Age ranged between 30 and 82 years. Twelve (12) patients were male and 24 female. The diameter of the stenosis was less than 13 mm in 18 of the patients and 11 patients carried colostomy. All 36 patients were subjected to a total of 113 dilatation sessions. The average number of sessions per patient for patients with anal stenosis was 2.5 and for patients with colorectal stenosis, 3.32. One patient with rectal stenosis required 21 sessions to achieve final objective. The result achieved was good in 31 patients, less than satisfactory in 3 patients and bad in one patient, who presented a stenosis which was over 5 cm long. We lost track of a patient in the follow up stage. Success in closing the colostomy was achieved in 9 patients, while one presented a complication due to the procedure (cervical emphysema) which remitted with medical attention. Endoscopic dilatation offers, through its different techniques, a safe and efficient method for the treatment of benign stenosis of the anus, rectum and colon and must be considered as a first class tool for the treatment of this kind of pathologies.
Tidholm, A; Nicolle, A P; Carlos, C; Gouni, V; Caruso, J L; Pouchelon, J L; Chetboul, V
A mitral valve stenosis was diagnosed in a 2-year-old female Bull Terrier by use of two-dimensional (2-D) and M-mode echocardiography, colour-flow imaging and spectral Doppler examinations. Tissue Doppler Imaging was also performed to assess the segmental radial myocardial motion. The mitral valve stenosis was characterized by a decreased mitral orifice area/left ventricle area ratio (0.14), an increased early diastolic flow velocity (E wave = 1.9 m/s), a prolonged pressure half-time (106 ms) and a decreased E-F slope (4.5 cm/s) on pulsed-wave Doppler examination. This mitral stenosis was associated with an immobile posterior leaflet, as seen on 2-D and M-mode echocardiography. Immobility of the posterior mitral leaflet is considered to be a rare finding in humans and, to our knowledge, has not been precisely documented in dogs with mitral valve stenosis.
Vida, V L; Bhattarai, A; Speggiorin, S; Zanella, F; Stellin, G
To observe how vacuum assisted venous drainage (VAVD) may influence the flow in a cardiopulmonary bypass circuit with different size of venous lines and cannulas. The experimental circuit was assembled to represent the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit routinely used during cardiac surgery. Wall suction was applied directly, modulated and measured into the venous reservoir. The blood flow was measured with a flow-meter positioned on the venous line. The circuit prime volume was replaced with group O date expired re-suspended red cells and Plasmalyte 148 to a hematocrit of 28% to 30%. In an open circuit with gravity siphon venous drain, angled cannulae drain more than straight ones regardless the amount of suction applied to the venous line (16 Fr straight cannula (S) drains 90 ml/min less than a 16 Fr angled (A) with a siphon gravity). The same flow can be obtained with lower cannula size and higher suction (i.e. 12 A with and -30 mmHg). Tables have been created to list how the flow varies according to the size of the cannulas, the size of the venous tubes, and the amount of suction applied to the system. Vacuum assisted venous drainage allows the use of smaller cannulae and venous lines to maintain a good venous return, which is very useful during minimally invasive approaches. The present study should be considered as a preliminary attempt to create a scientific-based starting point for a uniform the use of VAVD.
Ebishima, Hironori; Kitano, Masataka; Kurosaki, Kenichi; Shiraishi, Isao
Objectives: Although venography guidance is helpful for central venous catheter placement, it is sometimes difficult to place a peripheral intravenous cannula for enhancement. We designed a new technique for establishing femoral venous access using venography guidance in the return phase of peripheral arteriography. This new technique was named arterial injection venous return guidance. Here we assessed the efficacy and safety of arterial injection venous return guidance. Methods: We reviewed data of 29 infants less than 6 months old undergoing catheter intervention at our institute in 2014. Of the 29 patients, femoral venous cannulation was performed using arterial injection venous return guidance in 5 patients, venography in 20 patients, and the landmark method in 4 patients. The technical success rates and incidence of complications were compared. Results: The overall success rates were 100% in the arterial injection venous return-guided and venography-guided groups. The mean procedure duration and mean contrast material injection time were similar between the groups. The contrast effect on the femoral vein in the arterial injection venous return-guided group was lower than that in the venography-guided group, but adequate for surgery. The overall complication rate was 17%, and obstruction of previously placed intravenous catheters was the most common complication. Conclusions: Therefore, the arterial injection venous return guidance technique was as safe and efficient as venography for establishing venous access. PMID:29034015
Ferrer, Carmen; Almirante, Benito
Venous catheter-related infections are a problem of particular importance, due to their frequency, morbidity and mortality, and because they are potentially preventable clinical processes. At present, the majority of hospitalized patients and a considerable number of outpatients are carriers of these devices. There has been a remarkable growth of knowledge of the epidemiology of these infections, the most appropriate methodology for diagnosis, the therapeutic and, in particular, the preventive strategies. Multimodal strategies, including educational programs directed at staff and a bundle of simple measures for implementation, applied to high-risk patients have demonstrated great effectiveness for their prevention. In this review the epidemiology, the diagnosis, and the therapeutic and preventive aspects of these infections are updated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Heit, John A; Spencer, Frederick A; White, Richard H
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is categorized by the U.S. Surgeon General as a major public health problem. VTE is relatively common and associated with reduced survival and substantial health-care costs, and recurs frequently. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and VTE risk factors, including increasing patient age and obesity, hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, nursing-home confinement, active cancer, trauma or fracture, immobility or leg paresis, superficial vein thrombosis, and, in women, pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent VTE risk factors and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be relatively constant, or even increasing.
JENKINS, E. O.; SCHIFF, D.; MACKMAN, N.; KEY, N. S.
Summary Malignant gliomas are associated with a very high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). While many clinical risk factors have previously been described in brain tumor patients, the risk of VTE associated with newer anti-angiogenic therapies such as bevacizumab in these patients remains unclear. When VTE occurs in this patient population, concern regarding the potential for intracranial hemorrhage complicates management decisions regarding anticoagulation, and these patients have a worse prognosis than their VTE-free counterparts. Risk stratification models identifying patients at high risk of developing VTE along with predictive plasma biomarkers may guide the selection of eligible patients for primary prevention with pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. Recent studies exploring disordered coagulation, such as increased expression of tissue factor (TF), and tumorigenic molecular signaling may help to explain the increased risk of VTE in patients with malignant gliomas. PMID:19912518
Byrnes, James R.; Wolberg, Alisa S.
Summary Venous thrombosis (VT) is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death worldwide. Complications from VT and pulmonary embolism are the leading cause of lost disability-adjusted life years. Risks include genetic (e.g., non-O blood group, activated protein C resistance, hyperprothrombinemia) and acquired (e.g., age, surgery, cancer, pregnancy, immobilisation, female hormone use) factors. Pathophysiologic mechanisms that promote VT are incompletely understood, but involve abnormalities in blood coagulability, vessel function, and flow (so-called Virchow’s Triad). Epidemiologic studies of humans, animal models, and biochemical and biophysical investigations have revealed contributions from extrinsic, intrinsic, and common pathways of coagulation, endothelial cells, leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets, cell-derived microvesicles, stasis-induced changes in vascular cells, and blood rheology. Knowledge of these mechanisms may yield new therapeutic targets. Characterisation of mechanisms that mediate VT formation and stability, particularly in aging, are needed to advance understanding of VT. PMID:27878206
Raper, Daniel M S; Buell, Thomas J; Ding, Dale; Pomeraniec, I Jonathan; Crowley, R Webster; Liu, Kenneth C
Safety and efficacy of superior sagittal sinus (SSS) stenting for non-thrombotic intracranial venous occlusive disease (VOD) is unknown. The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to evaluate outcomes after SSS stenting. We evaluated an institutional database to identify patients who underwent SSS stenting. Radiographic and clinical outcomes were analyzed and a novel angiographic classification of the SSS was proposed. We identified 19 patients; 42% developed SSS stenosis after transverse sinus stenting. Pre-stent maximum mean venous pressure (MVP) in the SSS of 16.2 mm Hg decreased to 13.1 mm Hg after stenting (p=0.037). Preoperative trans-stenosis pressure gradient of 4.2 mm Hg decreased to 1.5 mm Hg after stenting (p<0.001). No intraprocedural complication or junctional SSS stenosis distal to the stent construct was noted. Improvement in headache, tinnitus, and visual obscurations was reported by 66.7%, 63.6%, and 50% of affected patients, respectively, at mean follow-up of 5.2 months. We divided the SSS into four anatomically equal segments, numbered S1-S4, from the torcula to frontal pole. SSS stenosis typically occurs in the S1 segment, and the anterior extent of SSS stents was deployed at the S1-S2 junction in all but one case. SSS stenting is reasonably safe, may improve clinical symptoms, and significantly reduces maximum MVP and trans-stenosis pressure gradients in patients with VOD with SSS stenosis. The S1 segment is most commonly stenotic, and minimum pressure gradients for symptomatic SSS stenosis may be lower than for transverse or sigmoid stenosis. Additional studies and follow-up are necessary to better elucidate appropriate clinical indications and long-term efficacy of SSS stenting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Rad, Masih Mafi; Blaauw, Yuri; Dinh, Trang; Pison, Laurent; Crijns, Harry J; Prinzen, Frits W; Vernooy, Kevin
Left ventricular (LV) lead placement in the latest activated region is an important determinant of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We investigated the feasibility of coronary venous electroanatomic mapping (EAM) to guide LV lead placement to the latest activated region. Twenty-five consecutive CRT candidates with left bundle-branch block underwent intra-procedural coronary venous EAM using EnSite NavX. A guidewire was used to map the coronary veins during intrinsic activation, and to test for phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS). The latest activated region, defined as the region with an electrical delay >75% of total QRS duration, was located anterolaterally in 18 (basal, n = 10; mid, n = 8) and inferolaterally in 6 (basal, n = 3; mid, n = 3). In one patient, identification of the latest activated region was impeded by limited coronary venous anatomy. In patients with >1 target vein (n = 12), the anatomically targeted inferolateral vein was rarely the vein with maximal electrical delay (n = 3). A concordant LV lead position was achieved in 18 of 25 patients. In six patients, this was hampered by PNS (n = 4), lead instability (n = 1), and coronary vein stenosis (n = 1). Coronary venous EAM can be used intraprocedurally to guide LV lead placement to the latest activated region free of PNS. This approach especially contributes to optimization of LV lead electrical delay in patients with multiple target veins. Conventional anatomical LV lead placement strategy does not target the vein with maximal electrical delay in many of these patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Yang, Shun-Tai; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Ana; Walker, Espen J.; Young, William L.; Su, Hua; Lawton, Michael T.
The understanding of the pathophysiology of brain arteriovenous malformations and arteriovenous fistulas has improved thanks to animal models. A rat model creating an artificial fistula between the common carotid artery (CCA) and the external jugular vein (EJV) has been widely described and proved technically feasible. This construct provokes a consistent cerebral venous hypertension (CVH), and therefore has helped studying the contribution of venous hypertension to formation, clinical symptoms, and prognosis of brain AVMs and dural AVFs. Equivalent mice models have been only scarcely described and have shown trouble with stenosis of the fistula. An established murine model would allow the study of not only pathophysiology but also potential genetic therapies for these cerebrovascular diseases. We present a model of arteriovenous fistula that produces a durable intracranial venous hypertension in the mouse. Microsurgical anastomosis of the murine CCA and EJV can be difficult due to diminutive anatomy and frequently result in a non-patent fistula. In this step-by-step protocol we address all the important challenges encountered during this procedure. Avoiding excessive retraction of the vein during the exposure, using 11-0 sutures instead of 10-0, and making a carefully planned end-to-side anastomosis are some of the critical steps. Although this method requires advanced microsurgical skills and a longer learning curve that the equivalent in the rat, it can be consistently developed. This novel model has been designed to integrate transgenic mouse techniques with a previously well-established experimental system that has proved useful to study brain AVMs and dural AVFs. By opening the possibility of using transgenic mice, a broader spectrum of valid models can be achieved and genetic treatments can also be tested. The experimental construct could also be further adapted to the study of other cerebrovascular diseases related with venous hypertension such as migraine
Lal, Brajesh K; Dux, Moira C; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Goldstein, Carly; Khan, Amir A; Yokemick, John; Zhao, Limin
Cerebrovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, coronary artery disease) and stroke can lead to vascular cognitive impairment. The Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis and Cognitive Function study evaluated the isolated impact of asymptomatic carotid stenosis (no prior ipsilateral or contralateral stroke or transient ischemic attack) on cognitive function. Cerebrovascular hemodynamic and carotid plaque characteristics were analyzed to elucidate potential mechanisms affecting cognition. There were 82 patients with ≥50% asymptomatic carotid stenosis and 62 controls without stenosis but matched for vascular comorbidities who underwent neurologic, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and comprehensive neuropsychological examination. Overall cognitive function and five domain-specific scores were computed. Duplex ultrasound with Doppler waveform and B-mode imaging defined the degree of stenosis, least luminal diameter, plaque area, and plaque gray-scale median. Breath-holding index (BHI) and microembolization were measured using transcranial Doppler. We assessed cognitive differences between stenosis patients and control patients and of stenosis patients with low vs high BHI and correlated cognitive function with microembolic counts and plaque characteristics. Stenosis and control patients did not differ in vascular risk factors, education, estimated intelligence, or depressive symptoms. Stenosis patients had worse composite cognitive scores (P = .02; Cohen's d = 0.43) and domain-specific scores for learning/memory (P = .02; d = 0.42) and motor/processing speed (P = .01; d = 0.65), whereas scores for executive function were numerically lower (P = .08). Approximately 49.4% of all stenosis patients were impaired in at least two cognitive domains. Precisely 50% of stenosis patients demonstrated a reduced BHI. Stenosis patients with reduced BHI performed worse on the overall composite cognitive score (t = -2.1; P = .02; d = 0.53) and tests for learning
Watenpaugh, Donald E.
Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is
Thirsk, R. B.
The prime objective of this International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) investigation is to measure the bulk compliance (distensibility) of the veins in the lower leg before, during, and after spaceflight. It is of particular interest whether venous compliance over the range of both positive and negative transmural pressures (various states of venous distention and collapse) changes throughout the duration of spaceflight. Information concerning the occurrence and character of compliance changes could have implications for the design of improved antigravity suits and further the understanding of inflight and postflight venous hemodynamics.
Morris, Lucinda; Do, Viet; Chard, Jennifer; Brand, Alison H
Treatment of gynecological cancer commonly involves pelvic radiation therapy (RT) and/or brachytherapy. A commonly observed side effect of such treatment is radiation-induced vaginal stenosis (VS). This review analyzed the incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation(s) and assessment and grading of radiation-induced VS. In addition, risk factors, prevention and treatment options and follow-up schedules are also discussed. The limited available literature on many of these aspects suggests that additional studies are required to more precisely determine the best management strategy of this prevalent group after RT. PMID:28496367
Steib, J P; Averous, C; Brinckert, D; Lang, G
Lumbar stenosis has been well discussed recently, especially at the 64th French Orthopaedic Society (SOFCOT: July 1989). The results of different surgical treatments were considered as good, but the indications for surgical treatment were not clear cut. Laminectomy is not the only treatment of spinal stenosis. Laminectomy is an approach with its own rate of complications (dural tear, fibrosis, instability... ).Eight years ago, J. Sénégas described what he called the "recalibrage" (enlargement). His feeling was that, in the spinal canal, we can find two different AP diameters. The first one is a fixed constitutional AP diameter (FCAPD) at the cephalic part of the lamina. The second one is a mobile constitutional AP diameter (MCAPD) marked by the disc and the ligamentum flavum. This diameter is maximal in flexion, minimal in extension. The nerve root proceeds through the lateral part of the canal: first above, between the disc and the superior articular process, then below, in the lateral recess bordered by the pedicle, the vertebral body and the posterior articulation. With the degenerative change the disc space becomes shorter, the superior articular process is worn out with osteophytes. These degenerative events are complicated by inter vertebral instability increasing the stenosis. The idea of the "recalibrage" is to remove only the upper part of the lamina with the ligamentum flavum and to cut the hypertrophied anterior part of the articular process from inside. If needed the disc and other osteophytes are removed. The surgery is finished with a ligamentoplasty reducing the flexion and preventing the extension by a posterior wedge.Our experience in spine surgery especially in scoliosis surgery, showed us that it was possible to cure a radicular compression without opening the canal. The compression is then lifted by the 3D reduction and restoration of an anatomy as normal as possible. Lumbar stenosis is the consequence of a degenerative process. Indeed, hip
Idhrees, Mohammed; Cherian, Vijay Thomas; Menon, Sabarinath; Mathew, Thomas; Dharan, Baiju S; Jayakumar, K
A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed to have supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). On evaluation of CT angiogram, there was associated bovine aortic arch (BAA). Association of BAA with SVAS has not been previously reported in literature, and to best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of SVAS with BAA. Recent studies show BAA as a marker for aortopathy. SVAS is also an arteriopathy. In light of this, SVAS can also possibly be a manifestation of aortopathy associated with BAA. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous...
Jlidi, Said; Ben Youssef, Dhouha; Ghorbel, Sofiene; Mattoussi, Nadia; Khemakhem, Rachid; Nouira, Faouzi; Chaouachi, Béji
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) is a common condition affecting infants before the first three months of life. Analysis of our results and comparison with literature to determine particularities of HPS in our country. We conducted a retrospective review of 142 patients presenting HPS, between 1990 and 2003. In this study male sex was predominant, with a sex-ratio of 3.8/1. The classical symptom of projectile vomiting was always present, a pyloric tumor was palpated in 19.7% of the cases, metabolic disturbance was noted in 44.3% of patients. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography and sometimes contrast upper gastrointestinal study. All the infants were treated surgically unless three patients dying before operation, because of a late diagnosis. Postoperative courses were uneventful in 87.4% of cases. Three patients were dead after operation, because of medical complication. The cause of HPS is unknown. The diagnosis is suggested by clinic features and confirmed by imaging. Early diagnosis prevents from metabolic complications due to vomiting. Surgical treatment allows early feeding and is associated with a low complication rate and a good long-term outcome.
Zhu, De-Sheng; Fu, Jue; Zhang, Yi; Xie, Chong; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Yue; Yang, Jie; Li, Shi-Xu; Liu, Xiao-Bei; Wan, Zhi-Wen; Dong, Qiang; Guan, Yang-Tai
Background Transverse sinus stenosis (TSS) is common among patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. No previous studies have reported on double-track sign detected on axial Gd-enhanced T1WI in TSS. This study aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the double-track sign in the detection of TSS. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 383 patients with transverse sinus thrombosis (TST) and 30 patients with normal transverse sinus from 5 participating hospitals in china from January 2008 to June 2014. 167 feasible transverse sinuses included in this study were categorized into TSS (n = 76), transverse sinus occlusion (TSO) (n = 52) and transverse sinus normal (TSN) groups (n = 39) according to imaging diagnosis on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or magnetic resonance venography (MRV). Double-track sign on axial Gd-enhanced T1WI was compared among the three groups. Sensitivity and specificity of double-track sign in detection of TSS were calculated, with final imaging diagnosis of TSS on DSA or MRV as the reference standard. Results Of 383 patients with TST recruited over a 6.5-year period, 128 patients were enrolled in the study, 255 patients were excluded because of insufficient clinical data, imaging finding and delay time, and 30 matched patients with normal transverse sinus were enrolled in the control group. Therefore, double-track sign assessment was conducted in 167 available transverse sinuses of 158 patients. Of the 76 sinuses in TSS group, 51 had double-track sign. Of the other 91 sinuses in TSO and TSN groups, 3 had a false-positive double-track sign. Thus, double-track sign on axial Gd-enhanced T1WI was 67.1% (95% CI 55.3–77.2) sensitive and 96.7% (95% CI 89.9–99.1) specific for detection of TSS. Conclusions The double-track sign on axial Gd-enhanced T1WI is highly specific and moderate sensitive for detection of TSS. Nevertheless, it could be a direct sign and might provide an early clue for TSS. PMID
Zhu, De-Sheng; Fu, Jue; Zhang, Yi; Xie, Chong; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Yue; Yang, Jie; Li, Shi-Xu; Liu, Xiao-Bei; Wan, Zhi-Wen; Dong, Qiang; Guan, Yang-Tai
Transverse sinus stenosis (TSS) is common among patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. No previous studies have reported on double-track sign detected on axial Gd-enhanced T1WI in TSS. This study aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the double-track sign in the detection of TSS. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 383 patients with transverse sinus thrombosis (TST) and 30 patients with normal transverse sinus from 5 participating hospitals in china from January 2008 to June 2014. 167 feasible transverse sinuses included in this study were categorized into TSS (n = 76), transverse sinus occlusion (TSO) (n = 52) and transverse sinus normal (TSN) groups (n = 39) according to imaging diagnosis on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or magnetic resonance venography (MRV). Double-track sign on axial Gd-enhanced T1WI was compared among the three groups. Sensitivity and specificity of double-track sign in detection of TSS were calculated, with final imaging diagnosis of TSS on DSA or MRV as the reference standard. Of 383 patients with TST recruited over a 6.5-year period, 128 patients were enrolled in the study, 255 patients were excluded because of insufficient clinical data, imaging finding and delay time, and 30 matched patients with normal transverse sinus were enrolled in the control group. Therefore, double-track sign assessment was conducted in 167 available transverse sinuses of 158 patients. Of the 76 sinuses in TSS group, 51 had double-track sign. Of the other 91 sinuses in TSO and TSN groups, 3 had a false-positive double-track sign. Thus, double-track sign on axial Gd-enhanced T1WI was 67.1% (95% CI 55.3-77.2) sensitive and 96.7% (95% CI 89.9-99.1) specific for detection of TSS. The double-track sign on axial Gd-enhanced T1WI is highly specific and moderate sensitive for detection of TSS. Nevertheless, it could be a direct sign and might provide an early clue for TSS.
Mohammed, Shelan Hakeem; AL-Najjar, Salwa A.
Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs is one of the most causes for the majority of death caused by pulmonary embolism. Many medical and surgical disorders are complicated by DVT. Most venous thrombi are clinically silent. B-mode and color Doppler imaging is needed for early diagnosis of DVT to prevent complications and squeal of…
Baytinger, V. F., E-mail: email@example.com; Kurochkina, O. S., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Selianinov, K. V.
The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were nomore » differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.« less
Shirani, J; Natarajan, K; Varga, P; Vitullo, D A
Various congenital cardiac malformations have been described in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann (BW) syndrome, including reversible obstructive subaortic stenosis in one patient. We herein present a case of a 2.5-year-old black boy with BW syndrome and discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis of the membraneous type. Such association of these two entities has previously not been documented.
Bryant, Roosevelt; Morales, David L S
The classic definition of congenital tracheal stenosis includes the presence of complete tracheal rings with absence of the membranous portion of the trachea. The morphologic type, based on Cantrell's classification, dictates the surgical management. In this report, we describe the presentation and surgical management of a novel type of distal congenital tracheal stenosis referred to as "corkscrew" trachea.
Mirpuri-Mirpuri, P G; Álvarez-Cordovés, M M; Pérez-Monje, A
Venous thromboembolic disease in its clinical spectrum includes both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, which is usually a complication of deep vein thrombosis. It is a relatively common disease with significant morbidity and requires an accurate diagnosis. They are numerous risk factors for venous thromboembolism, and there is evidence that the risk of thromboembolic disease increases proportionally to the number of predisposing risk factors present. The primary care physician should know the risk factors and suspect the presence of venous thromboembolic disease when there is a compatible clnical picture. The treatment for this pathology is anticoagulation. We report a patient with cardiovascular risk factors who was seen with pain in the right leg and shortness of breath and referred to the hospital with suspected venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation and pleural effusion. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Jeong, Min Yeong; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jo, Ik Hyun; Seo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Il Kyu; Cheung, Dae Young
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis caused by infection of the stomach wall by gas forming bacteria. It is a very rare condition that carries a high mortality rate. Portal venous gas shadow represents elevation of intestinal luminal pressure which manifests as emphysematous gastritis or gastric emphysema. Literature reviews show that the mortality rate is especially high when portal venous gas shadow is present on CT scan. Until recently, the treatment of emphysematous gastritis has been immediate surgical intervention. However, there is a recent trend of avoiding surgery because of the frequent occurrence of post-operative complications such as anastomosis leakage. In addition, aggressive surgical treatment has failed to show significant improvement in prognosis. Recently, the authors experienced a case of emphysematous gastritis accompanied by portal venous gas which was treated successfully by conservative treatment without immediate surgical intervention. Herein, we present a case of emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air along with literature review.
Puente, A Bolívar; de Asís Bravo Rodríguez, F; Bravo Rey, I; Romero, E Roldán
Intracranial developmental venous anomalies are the most common vascular malformation. In the immense majority of cases, these anomalies are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally, and they are considered benign. Very exceptionally, however, they can cause neurological symptoms. In this article, we present three cases of patients with developmental venous anomalies that presented with different symptoms owing to complications derived from altered venous drainage. These anomalies were located in the left insula, right temporal lobe, and cerebellum. The exceptionality of the cases presented as well as of the images associated, which show the mechanism through which the symptoms developed, lies in the low incidence of symptomatic developmental venous anomalies reported in the literature. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Flis, Christine M; Connor, Stephen E
Venous malformations (VMs) are non proliferative lesions that consist of dysplastic venous channels. The aim of imaging is to characterise the lesion and define its anatomic extent. We will describe the plain film, ultrasound (US) (including colour and duplex Doppler), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), conventional angiographic and direct phlebographic appearances of venous malformations. They will be illustrated at a number of head and neck locations, including orbit, oral cavity, superficial and deep facial space, supraglottic and intramuscular. An understanding of the classification of such vascular anomalies is required to define the correct therapeutic procedure to employ. Image-guided sclerotherapy alone or in combination with surgery is now the first line treatment option in many cases of head and neck venous malformations, so the radiologist is now an integral part of the multidisciplinary management team.
Dilu, VP; George, Raju
Introduction An integrated approach that incorporates two dimensional, M mode and Doppler echocardiographic evaluation has become the standard means for accurate quantification of severity of valvular aortic stenosis. Maximal separation of the aortic valve cusps during systole has been shown to correlate well with the severity of aortic stenosis measured by other echocardiographic parameters. Aim To study the correlation between Maximal Aortic valve Cusp Separation (MACS) and severity of aortic valve stenosis and to find cut-off values of MACS for detecting severe and mild aortic stenosis. Materials and Methods In the present prospective observational study, we have compared the accuracy of MACS distance and the aortic valve area calculated by continuity equation in 59 patients with varying degrees of aortic valve stenosis. Aortic leaflet separation in M mode was identified as the distance between the inner edges of the tips of these structures at mid systole in the parasternal long axis view. Cuspal separation was also measured in 2D echocardiography from the parasternal long axis view and the average of the two values was taken as the MACS. Patients were grouped into mild, moderate and severe aortic stenosis based on the aortic valve area calculated by continuity equation. The resultant data regarding maximal leaflet separation on cross-sectional echocardiogram was then subjected to linear regression analysis in regard to correlation with the peak transvalvular aortic gradient as well as the calculated aortic valve area. A cut-off value for each group was derived using ROC curve. Results There was a strong correlation between MACS and aortic valve area measured by continuity equation and the peak and mean transvalvular aortic gradients. Mean MACS was 6.89 mm in severe aortic stenosis, 9.97 mm in moderate aortic stenosis and 12.36 mm in mild aortic stenosis. MACS below 8.25 mm reliably predicted severe aortic stenosis, with high sensitivity, specificity and
Lindman, Brian R.; Bonow, Robert O.; Otto, Catherine M.
Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is a progressive disease with no effective medical therapy that ultimately requires aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe valve obstruction. Echocardiography is the primary diagnostic approach to define valve anatomy, measure AS severity and evaluate the left ventricular (LV) response to chronic pressure overload. In asymptomatic patients, markers of disease progression include the degree of leaflet calcification, hemodynamic severity of stenosis, adverse LV remodeling, reduced LV longitudinal strain, myocardial fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. The onset of symptoms portends a predictably high mortality rate unless AVR is performed. In symptomatic patients, AVR improves symptoms, improves survival and, in patients with LV dysfunction, improves systolic function. Poor outcomes after AVR are associated with low-flow low-gradient AS, severe ventricular fibrosis, oxygen dependent lung disease, frailty, advanced renal dysfunction and a high comorbidity score. However, in most patients with severe symptoms, AVR is lifesaving. Bioprosthetic valves are recommended for patients over the age of 65 years. Transcatheter AVR is now available for patients with severe comorbidities, is recommended in patients who are deemed inoperable and is a reasonable alternative to surgical AVR in high risk patients. PMID:23833296
Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad
Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821
Ahmed, Nazia; Kausar, Hafeeza; Ali, Lubna; Rakhshinda
Objective: To evaluate the frequency of fetomaternal outcome of pregnancy with Mitral stenosis admitted in Civil Hospital Karachi. Methods: It was a two years descriptive study done in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Civil Hospital Karachi. All pregnant women with a known or newly diagnosed Mitral stenosis on echocardiography were included in the study. History was taken regarding age, parity, gestational age (calculated by ultrasound) and complaints. Mode of delivery and Maternal mortality noted. Foetal outcome was analyzed by birth weight and Apgar score. Results: A total of 101 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. The ages of the women ranged between 20-29 years (69%) and 81% were multigravidas. Vaginal delivery occurred in 67 (66.3%) women and 78.3% were term pregnancies. Preterm deliveries were 21.8% and 27.7% newborns were low birth weight. APGAR score <7 was found in 14.9% of neonates and 9 babies had intrauterine death. Low ejection fraction<55% was diagnosed in 20(13.9%) women and Maternal mortality was found in two cases. Conclusion: Heart disease in pregnancy is associated with significant morbidity, it should be carefully managed in a tertiary care hospital to obtain optimum maternal and foetal outcome. PMID:26150860
Oki, Masahide; Saka, Hideo
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and safety of the double Y-stenting technique, by which silicone Y-stents are placed on both the main carina and another peripheral carina, for patients with tracheobronchial stenosis. Under general anaesthesia, using rigid and flexible bronchoscopes, a Dumon™ Y-stent (Novatech, La Ciotat, France) was first placed on the primary right or secondary left carina followed by another Y-stent on the main carina so as to insert the bronchial limb of the stent into the first Y-stent. Patients who underwent double Y-stent placement during 3 yrs and 1 month in a single centre were retrospectively reviewed. In the study period, 93 patients underwent silicone stent placement and 12 (13%) underwent double Y-stent placement (11 for right and one for left bronchus). A combination of Y-stents, 14 × 10 × 10 mm and 16 × 13 × 13 mm in outer diameter, were most frequently used. Dyspnoea was relieved in all patients. Six out of seven patients with supplemental oxygen before stent placement could be discharged without supplemental oxygen. Median survival after stenting was 94.5 days. One pneumothorax and one granuloma formation occurred. Double Y-stent placement for patients with tracheobronchial stenosis was technically feasible, effective and acceptably safe.
Nitecki, Samy S; Karram, Tony; Hoffman, Aaron; Bass, Arie
Reports on venous trauma are relatively sparse. Severe venous trauma is manifested by hemorrhage, not ischemia. Bleeding may be internal or external and rarely may lead to hypovolemic shock. Repair of major extremity veins has been a subject of controversy and the current teaching is to avoid venous repair in an unstable or multi-trauma patient. The aim of the current paper is to present our recent experience in major venous trauma during the Lebanon conflict, means of diagnosis and treatment in a level I trauma center. All cases of major venous trauma, either isolated or combined with arterial injury, admitted to the emergency room during the 33-day conflict were reviewed. Out of 511 wounded soldiers and civilians who were admitted to our service over this period, 12 (2.3%) sustained a penetrating venous injury either isolated (5) or combined with arterial injury (7). All injuries were secondary to high velocity penetrating missiles or from multiple pellets stored in long-range missiles. All injuries were accompanied by additional insult to soft tissue, bone and viscera. The mean injury severity score was 15. Severe external bleeding was the presenting symptom in three cases of isolated venous injury (jugular, popliteal and femoral). The diagnosis of a major venous injury was made by a CTA scan in five cases, angiography in one and during surgical exploration in six cases. All injured veins were repaired: three by venous interposition grafts, four by end to end anastomosis, three by lateral suture and two by endovascular techniques. None of the injuries was treated by ligation of a major named vein. Immediate postoperative course was uneventful in all patients and the 30-day follow-up (by clinical assessment and duplex scan) has demonstrated a patent repair with no evidence of thrombosis. Without contradicting the wisdom of ligating major veins in the setup of multi-trauma or an unstable patient, our experience indicates that a routine repair of venous trauma can
Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Munetaka; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Hajime; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
Diagnosis of lumbar foraminal stenosis remains difficult. Here, we report on a case in which bilateral lumbar foraminal stenosis was difficult to diagnose, and in which diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was useful. The patient was a 52-year-old woman with low back pain and pain in both legs that was dominant on the right. Right lumbosacral nerve compression due to a massive uterine myoma was apparent, but the leg pain continued after a myomectomy was performed. No abnormalities were observed during nerve conduction studies. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated bilateral L5 lumbar foraminal stenosis. DTI imaging was done. The extraforaminal values were decreased and tractography was interrupted in the foraminal region. Bilateral L5 vertebral foraminal stenosis was treated by transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and the pain in both legs disappeared. The case indicates the value of DTI for diagnosing vertebral foraminal stenosis.
Burns, A. P.; O'Connell, P. R.; Murnaghan, D. J.; Brady, M. P.
A 21 year old male was discovered to be severely hypertensive. He was found to have bilateral adrenal phaeochromocytomas and a single renal artery stenosis. More than 40 cases of coexisting renal artery stenosis and phaeochromocytomas have been reported. The aetiology of renal artery stenosis in association with phaeochromocytoma maybe multifactorial and the radiographic appearances are not always clear-cut. Renin levels in this patient were elevated prior to the removal of the phaeochromocytomas but the renal vein renin ratio did not suggest that the renal artery stenosis contributed significantly to his hypertension. The patient's hypertension resolved following successful removal of the phaeochromocytomas despite persistence of the renal artery stenosis. Thus, though renin levels may be misleading in these cases, renal vein renin ratios may still be helpful in deciding on patient management. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2694147
Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.
The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.
Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Epelboym, Irene; Li, Boyangzi; Hoque, Rahima; Catz, Diana; Morrissey, Nicholas J
The external carotid artery (ECA) can be an important collateral for cerebral perfusion in the presence of severe internal carotid artery (ICA) disease. ICA stenting that covers the ECA origin may put the ECA at increased risk of stenosis. Our objective was to determine the rate of ECA stenosis secondary to ICA stenting, determine predictive factors, and describe any subsequent associated symptoms. We retrospectively reviewed clinical data on all ICA stents crossing the origin of the ECA placed by vascular surgeons at our institution. We analyzed patient demographics, comorbidities, stent type and sizes, as well as medication profile to determine predictors of ECA stenosis. Between 2005 and 2013, there were 72 (out of 119 total ICA stenting) patients (mean age 71, 68% male) who underwent placement of ICA stents that also crossed the origin of the ECA. Six patients (8.3%) had a significantly increased ECA stenosis postprocedure. There were no occlusions. All patients with ECA stenosis maintained patency of their ICA stent and were asymptomatic. Age, gender, comorbidities, stent type and size, and medication profile were not associated with ECA stenosis after stenting. ECA stenosis after ICA stenting covering the ECA origin is uncommon and not clinically significant in patients with patent ICA stents. The clinical significance of concurrent ECA and ICA stenosis after stenting is unclear as it is not captured here. The potential for ECA stenosis should not deter stenting across the ECA origin if necessary. Patient and stent factors are not predictive of ECA stenosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vizzardi, Enrico; D'Aloia, Antonio; Sciatti, Edoardo; Bonadei, Ivano; Gelsomino, Sandro; Lorusso, Roberto; Metra, Marco
The association of aortic atheromas in patients with isolated aortic stenosis has recently been acknowledged, probably because the pathogenic mechanisms are similar. Therefore, this study evaluated the extent and severity of thoracic aortic atheromas in patients with different grades of aortic stenosis using transesophageal echocardiography. We retrospectively evaluated transesophageal echocardiographic examinations of 686 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of aortic stenosis. The prevalence and morphologic characteristics of atheromas in 3 segments of the thoracic aorta were assessed. Plaque thickness was measured at each segment, and the thickest plaque was used to establish severity. Atheromas were graded as mild, moderate, or severe according to plaque thickness (<2, 2-4, or >4 mm, respectively). Aortic stenosis was graded as mild, moderate, or severe on the basis of the gradient and anatomic aortic valve area (>1.5, 1.0-1.5, or <1.0 cm(2)). A total of 382 patients were men, and 304 were women (mean age ± SD, 74 ± 15 years); 86% of the patients had aortic atheromas. The severe stenosis group had a significantly higher rate of atheromas (95% versus 40%; P < .001) than the mild stenosis group, with more complex atheromas (52% versus 22%; P< .001). There was no significant difference in the atheroma grades between the severe and moderate stenosis groups, but moderate cases had more moderate and severe atheromas than mild cases (45% and 15% versus 19% and 3%; P < .01). This study showed a correlation in the extent of aortic atheromas across several degrees of aortic stenosis. Patients with moderate and severe stenosis had more extensive atherosclerotic atheromas than those with mild stenosis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Kasatkin, A. A., E-mail: email@example.com; Nigmatullina, A. R.; Urakov, A. L., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization.more » We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient’s exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.« less
Kasatkin, A. A.; Urakov, A. L.; Nigmatullina, A. R.
By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient's exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.
Del Pozo Jiménez, Gema; Castillón-Vela, Ignacio; Carballido Rodríguez, Joaquín
To perform a literature review on the use of buccal mucosa graft (BMG) in the treatment of extensive ureteral stenosis, according to the criteria of Evidence Based Medicine. Pubmed search of published studies with the following keywords: "ureteral stricture treatment", "buccal mucosa graft ureteral treatment" and "buccal mucosa graft ureteroplasty", without time limits, in English and Spanish; 12 articles were identified with a total of 48 cases (46 patients) of BMG use in ureteral repair. The main etiologies of ureteral stenosis, where BMG has been applied, have been iatrogenic and inflammatory strictures. This graft has been used complicamainly in proximal or middle ureter stenosis, as a patch according to onlay technique or as a tubularized graft. Early and late complications of the procedure have been reported in 16.7% and 10.4%, respectively, with a restenosis rate of 6.25%. A 91.6% success rate was observed with this technique, with an average follow-up time of 22 (3-85) months. The findings of the present review do not justify the universal use of BMG in all ureteral strictures, particularly in the absence of long-term followup, but still provide evidence that BMG can be effectively used in extensive ureteral strictures.
Ramareddy, Raghu Sampalli; Alladi, Anand
To review the patients with esophageal injuries and stenosis with respect to their etiology, clinical course, management, and the lessons learnt from these. Retrospective descriptive observation review of children with esophageal injuries and stenosis admitted between January 2009 and April 2015. Eighteen children with esophageal injuries of varied etiology were managed and included, seven with corrosive injury, five with perforation due to various causes, three with mucosal erosion, two with trachea esophageal fistula (TEF), and one wall erosion. The five children who had perforation were due to poststricture dilatation in a child with esophageal atresia and secondary to foreign body impaction or its attempted retrieval in four. Alkaline button cell had caused TEF in two. Three congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) had presented with dysphagia and respiratory tract infection. Six corrosive stricture and two CES responded to dilatation alone and one each of them required surgery. Four of the children with esophageal perforation were detected early and required drainage procedure (1), diversion (1), and medical management (2). Pseudo diverticulum was managed expectantly. Among TEF, one had spontaneous closure and other one was lost to follow-up. All the remaining nineteen children have recovered well except one CES had mortality. Esophageal injuries though rare can be potentially devastating and life-threatening.
Gonzales, M E
Alkaptonuria is a rare disease of phenylalanine, aromatic amino acids, and tyrosine metabolism. Because of a genetic deficiency of the enzyme homogentisic acid oxidase, an accumulation of homogentisic acid causes ochronotic pigment deposition. The most common clinical manifestations are arthropathy, urinary calculi and discoloration, cutaneous and cartilaginous pigmentation, and cardiac valvular disease. Arthropathy and aortic stenosis are the most debilitating manifestations of the disease. A case of alkaptonuric aortic stenosis is described. A 75-year-old woman with a history of alkaptonuria presented in the emergency department with complaints of progressive dyspnea. Upon examination, the patient was hypertensive, tachypneic, and tachycardic with premature ventricular contractions. She had pitting edema of the lower extremities and complaints of generalized weakness. Chest x-rays revealed congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema. Diuretics were administered, and a continuous nitroglycerin infusion was initiated in the emergency department. The patient was admitted for further evaluation. The patient's respiratory status continued to decline. She was intubated endotracheally 1 day after admission. Subsequent cardiac evaluation revealed an ejection fraction of 35%, severe aortic stenosis, mild coronary artery disease, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and anteroapical akinesis. A dobutamine infusion was instituted for persistent hypotension, and renal dose dopamine was initiated for oliguric renal failure. The patient underwent an emergency operation for an aortic valve replacement with a Dacron patch 10 days after admission. Cardiopulmonary bypass and mild hypothermia were used during the procedure. The patient's hemodynamic status remained tenuous throughout the procedure. Although the first attempt to wean off cardiopulmonary bypass failed, the second attempt was successful with the aid of an intra-aortic balloon pump, inotropic support, and atrioventricular pacing
Yıldırım, İlknur; Tütüncü, Ayşe Çiğdem; Bademler, Süleyman; Özgür, İlker; Demiray, Mukaddes; Karanlık, Hasan
To examine whether the real-time ultrasound-guided venipuncture for implantable venous port placement is safer than the traditional venipuncture. The study analyzed the results of 2153 venous ports placed consecutively from January 2009 to January 2016. A total of 922 patients in group 1 and 1231 patients in group 2 were admitted with venous port placed using the traditional landmark subclavian approach and real-time ultrasound-guided axillary approach, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics of patients, early (pneumothorax, pinch-off syndrome, arterial puncture, hematoma, and malposition arrhythmia) and late (deep vein thrombosis, obstruction, infection, erosion-dehiscence, and rotation of the port chamber) complications and the association of these complications with the implantation method were evaluated. There were no significant differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of the patients between the two groups. The overall and early complications in group 2 were significantly lower than those in group 1. Pinch-off syndrome only developed in group 1. Seven patients and two patients had pneumothorax in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Puncture number was significantly associated with the development of the overall complications. The ultrasound-guided axillary approach may be preferred as a method to reduce the risk of both early and late complications. Large, randomized, controlled prospective trials will be helpful in determining a safer implantable venous port implantation technique.
Yang, Ching-Wen; Ma, DyeJyun; Chao, ShuennChing; Wang, ChuinMu; Wen, Chia-Hsien; Lo, ChienShun; Chung, Pau-Choo; Chang, Chein-I.
The detection of venous beading in retinal images provides an early sign of diabetic retinopathy and plays an important role as a preprocessing step in diagnosing ocular diseases. We present a computer-aided diagnostic system to automatically detect venous beading of blood vessels. It comprises of two modules, referred to as the blood vessel extraction module and the venus beading detection module. The former uses a bell-shaped Gaussian kernel with 12 azimuths to extract blood vessels while the latter applies a neural network-based shape cognitron to detect venous beading among the extracted blood vessels for diagnosis. Both modules are fully computer-automated. To evaluate the proposed system, 61 retinal images (32 beaded and 29 normal images) are used for performance evaluation.
Ciccone, M M; Scicchitano, P; Gesualdo, M; Cortese, F; Zito, A; Manca, F; Boninfante, B; Recchia, P; Leogrande, D; Viola, D; Damiani, M; Gambacorta, V; Piccolo, A; De Ceglie, V; Quaranta, N
To evaluate the influence of cerebral venous drainage on the pathogenesis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) and Ménière syndrome (MD). Observational, prospective, cohort study. ENT and Cardiology Departments (University of Bari, Policlinico Hospital, Bari, Italy). We enrolled 59 consecutive patients (32 males, mean age 53.05 + 15.37 years): 40 ISSHL and 19 MD. All patients underwent physical examination, biochemical evaluation (glycemic and lipid profile, viral serology, C reactive protein, etc), audiometric (tonal, vocal, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and auditory brainstem response test) and impedentiometric examination. The pure tone average (PTA) was calculated for the following frequencies: 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 8000. An echo-color Doppler evaluation of the venous cerebral veins, internal jugular (IJV) and vertebral veins (VV) at supine and 90° position was performed. No morphological alterations were found both in patients and controls. There were no signs of stenosis, blocked flow, membranes, etc. We found lower minimum, mean and maximum velocities in distal IJVs (P = .019; P = .013; P = .022; respectively) and left VVs (P = .027; P = .008; P = .001; respectively) in supine (0°) position in both MD and ISSHL patients as compared to controls. The same was for orthostatic position (90°). We found negative correlations between the velocities in extracranial veins and PTA values: therefore, the worst the audiometric performance of the subjects, the lower the velocities in the venous cerebral drainage. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and Ménière syndrome patients showed altered venous flow in IJVs and VVs as compared to controls, independently from posture. This different behavior of venous tone control can influence the ear performance and may have a role in the pathogenesis of both diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Weng, Weidong; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Zhipeng; Gao, Weiyang; Li, Zhijie; Yan, Hede
The arterialized venous flap (AVF) has been gradually popularized in clinical settings; however, its survival is still inconsistent and the role of venous drainage remains elusive. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of venous drainage on the flap survival of arterialized venous flaps. An arterialized venous flap was outlined symmetrically in the rabbit abdomen. The arterial perfusion flap with a unilateral vascular pedicle was taken as the control group and three other experimental groups (I, II and III) were designed based on the number of drainage veins (n = 1, 2 and 3 in the three groups, respectively). Compared with the control group, significant venous congestion was noted in all the experimental groups and the most severe one was seen in group I; while no statistical difference was observed between groups II and III. Similar results regarding blood perfusion state, epidermal metabolite levels and flap survival status were obtained among the three groups. These findings suggested that venous drainage is vital in the survival of the flap, but unlike in the arterial perfusion flaps, the problem of venous congestion can only be partially solved by increasing the number of draining veins. Further studies are warranted to gain insight into this complicated issue. PMID:28145882
Fukuoka, Masato; Sugimoto, Takaki; Okita, Yutaka
The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower extremity venous function in patients with chronic venous insufficiency, with foot venous pressure (FVP) measurements and air plethysmography (APG). Eighty-five limbs of 63 patients with a history of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) from 1995 to 1999 were studied. FVP parameters studied included ambulatory venous pressure (AVP), percent decrease in FVP with manual calf compression (%drop), ratio of increase in FVP over 4 seconds after release of compression (4SR%), and time to 90% recovery of FVP were measured. APG parameters studied included functional venous volume, 90% refilling time (VFT90), venous filling index, ejection fraction, and residual volume fraction. Venous filling index and 90% refilling time were significantly decreased in limbs with stasis syndrome compared with the control group. AVP, %drop, and 4SR% also showed significantly decrease in limbs with stasis syndrome compared with those without it. AVP, %drop, and 4SR% were significantly different for the primary group compared with the secondary group, whereas no differences were found with regard to any APG parameter. APG enables prediction of the presence of CVI, whereas FVP measurements are more useful for evaluation of clinical severity of CVI.
Wright, Thomas C; Mossaad, Bassem M; Chummun, Shaheel; Khan, Umraz; Chapman, Thomas W L
The proximally pedicled medial plantar flap is well described for coverage of wounds around the ankle and heel. This flap is usually based on the deep venae comitantes for venous drainage, with the superficial veins divided during dissection. Usually any disruption of the deep venous system of the flap would result in abandoning this choice of flap. Venous congestion is a recognised complication of medial plantar flaps. The patient described in this case report had a medial ankle defect with exposed bone, for which a proximally pedicled medial plantar flap was used. As we raised the flap, both venae comitantes of the medial planter artery were found to be disrupted. The flap was raised based on the superficial veins draining into the great saphenous, as the only system for venous drainage, with no evidence of venous congestion. The flap was successfully transposed into the defect and healed with no complications. The proximally pedicled medial plantar flap can safely rely on the superficial venous system alone for drainage. In addition, preserving the superficial veins minimise the risk of venous congestion in this flap. We recommend preservation of superficial venous system when possible. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dalar, Levent; Karasulu, Levent; Abul, Yasin; Özdemir, Cengiz; Sökücü, Sinem Nedime; Tarhan, Merve; Altin, Sedat
Bronchoscopic treatment is 1 of the treatment choices for both palliative and definitive treatment of benign tracheal stenosis. There is no consensus on the management of these patients, however, especially patients having complex stenoses. The aim of the present study was to assess, in the largest group of patients with complex stenoses yet reported, which types of tracheal stenosis are amenable to optimal management by bronchoscopic treatment. The present study was a retrospective cohort study including 132 consecutive patients with benign tracheal stenoses diagnosed between August 2005 and January 2013. The mean age of the study population was 52 ± 18 years; 62 (47%) were women and 70 (53%) were men. Their lesions were classified as simple and complex stenoses. Simple stenoses (n = 6) were treated with 12 rigid and flexible bronchoscopic procedures (mean of 2 per patient); 5 stents were placed. The total success rate was 100%. Among the 124 complex stenoses, 4 were treated directly with surgical intervention. In total, 481 rigid and 487 flexible bronchoscopic procedures were performed in these patients. In this group, the success rate was 69.8%. From the present study, we propose that after accurate classification, interventional bronchoscopic management may have an important role in the treatment of benign tracheal stenosis. Bronchoscopic treatment should be considered as first-line therapy for simple stenoses, whereas complex stenoses need a multidisciplinary approach and often require surgical intervention. However, bronchoscopic treatment may be a valid conservative approach in the management of patients with complex tracheal stenosis who are not eligible for operative treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goulopoulou, S; Deruisseau, K C; Carhart, R; Kanaley, J A
This study tested the hypothesis that limb venous responses to baroreceptor unloading are altered in individuals with high blood pressure (HBP) compared with normotensive (NT) controls. Calf venous compliance was assessed in 20 subjects with prehypertension and stage-1 hypertension (mean arterial pressure, MAP: 104±1 mm Hg) and 13 NT controls (MAP: 86±2 mm Hg) at baseline and during lower body negative pressure (LBNP), using venous occlusion plethysmography. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was measured using the sequence technique and total peripheral resistance (TPR) was estimated from finger plethysmography. Baseline venous compliance was not different between groups, but the HBP group had lower baseline lnBRS (2.22±0.14 vs 2.7±0.18 ms mm Hg(-1)) and greater baseline TPR (3828±138 vs 3250±111 dyn sec(-1) cm(-5) m(2), P<0.05). Calf venous compliance was reduced in response to LBNP only in the NT group (P<0.05). The HBP group had a greater increase in TPR (ΔTPR) compared with the NT group (+1649±335 vs +718±196 dyn sec(-1) cm(-5) m(2), P<0.05). In conclusion, the early stages of hypertension are characterized by an attenuated venoconstrictor response to baroreceptor unloading, which may compensate for an exaggerated vasoconstrictor response and protect against further increases in blood pressure.
Poyraz, Esra; Öz, Tuğba Kemaloğlu; Zeren, Gönül; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Dönmez, Cevdet; Can, Fatma; Güvenç, Rengin Çetin; Dayı, Şennur Ünal
In a fraction of patients with mild mitral stenosis, left ventricular systolic function deteriorates despite the lack of hemodynamic load imposed by the dysfunctioning valve. Neither the predisposing factors nor the earlier changes in left ventricular contractility were understood adequately. In the present study we aimed to evaluate left ventricular mechanics using three-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking echocardiography. A total of 31 patients with mild rheumatic mitral stenosis and 27 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. All subjects included to the study underwent echocardiographic examination to collect data for two- and three-dimensional speckle-tracking based stain, twist angle and torsion measurements. Data was analyzed offline with a echocardiographic data analysis software. Patients with rheumatic mild MS had lower global longitudinal (p < 0.001) circumferential (p = 0.02) and radial (p < 0.01) strain compared to controls, despite ejection fraction was similar for both groups [(p = 0.45) for three dimensional and (p = 0.37) for two dimensional measurement]. While the twist angle was not significantly different between groups (p = 0.11), left ventricular torsion was significantly higher in mitral stenosis group (p = 0.03). All strain values had a weak but significant positive correlation with mitral valve area measured with planimetry. Subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction develops at an early stage in rheumatic mitral stenosis. Further work is needed to elucidate patients at risk for developing overt systolic dysfunction.
Rajesh, Gopalan Nair; Sreekumar, Pradeep; Haridasan, Vellani; Sajeev, C G; Bastian, Cicy; Vinayakumar, D; Kadermuneer, P; Mathew, Dolly; George, Biju; Krishnan, M N
Mitral stenosis (MS) is found to produce left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in some studies. We sought to study the left ventricular function in patients with rheumatic MS undergoing balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV). Ours is the first study to analyze effect of BMV on mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE), and to quantify prevalence of longitudinal left ventricular dysfunction in rheumatic MS. In this prospective cohort study, we included 43 patients with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis undergoing BMV. They were compared to twenty controls whose distribution of age and gender were similar to that of patients. The parameters compared were LV ejection fraction (EF) by modified Simpson's method, mitral annular systolic velocity (MASV), MAPSE, mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E'), and myocardial performance index (MPI). These parameters were reassessed immediately following BMV and after 3 months of procedure. MASV, MAPSE, E', and EF were significantly lower and MPI was higher in mitral stenosis group compared to controls. Impaired longitudinal LV function was present in 77% of study group. MAPSE and EF did not show significant change after BMV while MPI, MASV, and E' improved significantly. MASV and E' showed improvement immediately after BMV, while MPI decreased only at 3 months follow-up. There were significantly lower mitral annular motion parameters including MAPSE in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis. Those with atrial fibrillation had higher MPI. Immediately after BMV, there was improvement in LV long axis function with a gradual improvement in global LV function. There was no significant change of MAPSE after BMV. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nangole, Ferdinand Wanjala; Khainga, Stanley Ominde
Introduction. Postsurgical nasopharyngeal airway stenosis can be a challenge to manage. The stenosis could be as a result of any surgical procedure in the nasopharyngeal region that heals extensive scarring and fibrosis. Objective. To evaluate patients with nasopharyngeal stenosis managed with FAMM flap. Study Design. Prospective study of patients with nasopharyngeal stenosis at the Kenyatta National Hospital between 2010 and 2013 managed with FAMM flap. Materials and Methods. Patients with severe nasopharyngeal airway stenosis were reviewed and managed with FAMM flaps at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Postoperatively they were assessed for symptomatic improvement in respiratory distress, patency of the nasopharyngeal airway, and donor site morbidity. Results. A total of 8 patients were managed by the authors in a duration of 4 years with nasopharyngeal stenosis. Five patients were managed with unilateral FAMM flaps in a two-staged surgical procedure. Four patients had complete relieve of the airway obstruction with a patent airway created. One patient had a patent airway created though with only mild improvement in airway obstruction. Conclusion. FAMM flap provides an alternative in the management of postsurgical severe nasopharyngeal stenosis. It is a reliable flap that is easy to raise and could provide adequate epithelium for the stenosed pharynx. PMID:25328699
Lang, Elvira V; Reyes, Jorge; Faintuch, Salomao; Smith, Amy; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem
To assess feasibility and success of venous recanalization in patients with short gut syndrome who have lost their traditional central venous access and required intestinal or multivisceral transplantation. Twelve patients between the ages of 7 and 55 years with short gut syndrome and long-standing total parenteral nutrition (TPN) dependency and/or hypercoagulability were treated. All had extensive chronic central venous occlusions and survival was dependent on restoration of access and planned transplantation. Central venous recanalizations were obtained via sharp needle recanalization techniques, venous reconstructions with stents, and/or extraanatomic access to the central venous system for placement of central venous tunneled catheters. Central venous access was restored in all patients without operative-related mortality. Three major hemodynamic perioperative technical complications were recorded and successfully treated. There were three self-limited early infectious complications. With a mean follow-up of 22 months, eight of the 12 patients were alive with successful small bowel or multivisceral transplantation; six of those became independent of TPN. The remaining four patients died of complications related to TPN (n = 3) or transplantation (n = 1). With a mean follow-up of 20 months, all but two of the recanalized venous accesses were maintained, for a success rate of 83%. Recanalizations of extensive chronic vein occlusions are feasible but associated with high risk. The technique is life-saving for TPN-dependent patients and can restore candidacy for intestinal and multivisceral transplantation. This approach is likely to be increasingly requested because of the current clinical availability of the transplant procedure.
Tana, Claudio; Dietrich, Christoph F; Badea, Radu; Chiorean, Liliana; Carrieri, Vincenzo; Schiavone, Cosima
To investigate contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) findings in portal venous system aneurysms (PVSAs). In this multi-center, retrospective, case series study, we evaluated CEUS features of seven cases of PVSAs that were found incidentally on conventional ultrasound in the period 2007-2013. Three Ultrasound Centers were involved (Chieti, Italy, Bad Mergentheim, Germany, and Cluj-Napoca, Romania). All patients underwent CEUS with Sonovue(®) (Bracco, Milan, Italy) at a standard dose of 2.4 mL, followed by 10 mL of 0.9% saline solution. The examinations were performed using multifrequency transducers and low mechanical index. We considered aneurysmal a focal dilatation of the portal venous system with a size that was significantly greater than the remaining segments of the same vein, and that was equal or larger than 21 mm for the extrahepatic segments of portal venous system, main portal vein and bifurcation, and 9 mm for the intrahepatic branches. After contrast agent injection, all PVSAs were not enhanced in the arterial phase (starting 8-22 s). All PVSAs were then rapidly enhanced in the early portal venous phase (starting three to five seconds after the arterial phase, 11-30 s), with persistence and slow washout of the contrast agent in the late phase (starting 120 s). In all patients, CEUS confirmed the presence of a "to-and-fro" flow by showing a swirling pattern within the dilatation in the early portal venous phase. CEUS also improved the delineation of the lumen, and was reliable in showing its patency degree and integrity of walls. In one patient, CEUS showed a partial enhancement of the lumen with a uniformly nonenhancing area in the portal venous and late phases, suggesting thrombosis. In our case series, we found that CEUS could be useful in the assessment and follow-up of a PVSA. Further studies are needed to validate its diagnostic accuracy.
Barik, Ramachandra; Akula, Siva Prasad; Damera, Sheshagiri Rao
We report a case illustrating a 39-year-old man with delayed presentation of severe pulmonary valve (PV) stenosis, clinical evidence of congestive right heart failure in the form of enlarged liver, raised jugular venous pressure, and anasarca without cyanosis. Echocardiography (echo) was used both for diagnosis and monitoring this patient as main tool. The contractile reserve of the right ventricle (RV) was evaluated by infusion of dobutamine and diuretic for 4 days before pulmonary balloon valvotomy. Both the tricuspid annular peak systolic excursion and diastolic (diastolic anterograde flow through PV) function of RV improved after percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvotomy. These improvements were clinically apparent by complete resolution of anasarca, pericardial effusion, and normalization albumin-globulin ratio. The periprocedural echo findings were quite unique in this illustration.
Barik, Ramachandra; Akula, Siva Prasad; Damera, Sheshagiri Rao
We report a case illustrating a 39-year-old man with delayed presentation of severe pulmonary valve (PV) stenosis, clinical evidence of congestive right heart failure in the form of enlarged liver, raised jugular venous pressure, and anasarca without cyanosis. Echocardiography (echo) was used both for diagnosis and monitoring this patient as main tool. The contractile reserve of the right ventricle (RV) was evaluated by infusion of dobutamine and diuretic for 4 days before pulmonary balloon valvotomy. Both the tricuspid annular peak systolic excursion and diastolic (diastolic anterograde flow through PV) function of RV improved after percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvotomy. These improvements were clinically apparent by complete resolution of anasarca, pericardial effusion, and normalization albumin-globulin ratio. The periprocedural echo findings were quite unique in this illustration. PMID:28465962
Shiba, Hiroaki; Sadaoka, Shunichi; Wakiyama, Shigeki; Ishida, Yuichi; Misawa, Takeyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko
A 69-year-old woman, who underwent cadaveric liver transplantation for non-B, non-C liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma in April 2009, was admitted to our hospital because of graft dysfunction. Enhanced computed tomography revealed stenosis of the left branch of the portal vein, obstruction of the right branch of the portal vein at porta hepatis, and esophagogastric varices. Balloon angioplasty of the left branch of the portal vein under transsuperior mesenteric venous portography was performed by minilaparotomy. After dilatation of the left branch of the portal vein, the narrow segment of the portal vein was dilated, which resulted in reduction of collateral circulation. At 7 days after balloon angioplasty, esophageal varices were improved. The patient made a satisfactory recovery, was discharged 8 days after balloon angioplasty, and remains well. PMID:24229043
Gallieni, Maurizio; Martina, Valentina; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Gravellone, Luciana; Mobilia, Francesca; Giordano, Antonino; Cusi, Daniele; Genovese, Umberto
In dialysis patients, both central venous catheter (CVC) insertion and CVC use during the dialysis procedure pose important legal issues, because of potentially severe, even fatal, complications. The first issue is the decision of the kind of vascular access that should be proposed to patients: an arteriovenous (AV) fistula, a graft, or a CVC. The second issue, when choosing the CVC option, is the choice of CVC: nontunneled versus tunneled. Leaving a temporary nontunneled CVC for a prolonged time increases the risk of complications and could raise a liability issue. Even when choosing a long-term tunneled CVC, nephrologists should systematically explain its potential harms, presenting them as "unsafe for long-term use" unless there is a clear contraindication to an AV native or prosthetic access. Another critical issue is the preparation of a complete, informative, and easy-to-understand consent form. The CVC insertion procedure has many aspects of legal interest, including the choice of CVC, the use of ECG monitoring, the use of ultrasound guidance for cannulation, and the use of fluoroscopy for checking the position of the metal guidewire during the procedure as well as the CVC tip before the end of the procedure. Use of insertion devices and techniques that can prevent complications should obviously be encouraged. Complications of CVC use are mainly thrombosis and infection. These are theoretically expected as pure complications (and not as malpractice effects), but legal issues might relate to inappropriate catheter care (in both the inpatient and outpatient settings) rather than to the event per se. Thus, in the individual case it is indeed very difficult to establish malpractice and liability with a catheter-related infection or thrombosis. In conclusion, we cannot avoid complications completely when using CVCs, but reducing them to a minimum and adopting safe approaches to their insertion and use will reduce legal liability.
Zakai, N A; McClure, L A
The incidence of venous thrombosis (VTE) varies by race, with African-Americans having over 5-fold greater incidence than Asian-ancestry populations, and an intermediate risk for European and Hispanic populations. Known racial differences in genetic polymorphisms associated with thrombosis do not account for this gradient of risk, nor do known racial variations in environmental risk factors. Data on the incidence of and risk factors for VTE outside of Europe and North America and in non-European ancestry populations are sparse. Common genetic polymorphisms in European-Ancestry populations, such as factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A, and environmental risk factors, such as obesity, may account for some of the increased risk in European populations, and high factor VIII, high von Willebrand factor and low protein C levels and increased prevalence of obesity may explain some of the increased risk in African-Americans. The low rates in Asian populations may be partially explained by low clinical suspicion in a perceived low-risk population and lack of access to healthcare in other populations. As risk factors for thrombosis, such as surgery and treatment for cancer, are applicable to more people, as obesity increases in prevalence in the developing world, and as surveillance systems for VTE improve, VTE may increase in previously low-risk populations. While differences in VTE by race due to genetic predisposition will probably always be present, understanding the reasons for racial differences in VTE will help providers develop strategies to minimize VTE in all populations. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Su, Zhu-quan; Wei, Xiao-qun; Zhong, Chang-hao; Chen, Xiao-bo; Luo, Wei-zhan; Guo, Wen-liang; Wang, Ying-zhi; Li, Shi-yue
To analysis the causes of benign tracheal stenosis and evaluate the curative effect of intraluminal bronchoscopic treatment. 158 patients with benign tracheal stenosis in our hospital from September 2005 to September 2012 were collected to retrospectively analysis the causes and clinic features of tracheal stenosis. Interventional treatments through bronchoscopy were used to treat the benign tracheal stenosis and the curative effects were evaluated. 158 cases of benign tracheal stenosis were recruited to our study, 69.6% of them were young and middle-aged. The main causes of benign tracheal stenosis were as follows: secondary to postintubation or tracheotomy in 61.4% (97/158), tuberculosis in 16% (26/158), benign tumor in 5.1% (8/158) and other 27 cases. 94.3% patients improved in symptoms with alleviation immediately after bronchoscopic treatment, the average tracheal diameter increased form (4.22 ± 2.06) mm to (10.16 ± 2.99) mm (t = 21.48, P < 0.01), dyspnea index decreased from 2.29 ± 0.75 to 0.63 ± 0.67 (t = 19.85, P < 0.01). The recurrence rate in 1 and 3 month after interventional treatment were 38.3% and 26.8%, respectively. The cases of benign tracheal stenosis were increasing year by year. The most common cause of benign tracheal stenosis was postintubation and tracheotomy. Interventional treatments through bronchoscopy is effective in treating benign tracheal stenosis, but repeated interventional procedures may be required to maintain the favorable long-term effects.
Mukherjee, Meenakshi; Jones, Jeryl C; Holásková, Ida; Raylman, Raymond; Meade, Jean
Deep phenotyping tools for characterizing preclinical morphological conditions are important for supporting genetic research studies. Objectives of this retrospective, cross-sectional, methods comparison study were to describe and compare qualitative and quantitative deep phenotypic characteristics of lumbosacral stenosis in Labrador retrievers using computed tomography (CT). Lumbosacral CT scans and medical records were retrieved from data archives at three veterinary hospitals. Using previously published qualitative CT diagnostic criteria, a board-certified veterinary radiologist assigned dogs as either lumbosacral stenosis positive or lumbosacral stenosis negative at six vertebral locations. A second observer independently measured vertebral canal area, vertebral fat area, and vertebral body area; and calculated ratios of vertebral canal area/vertebral body area and vertebral fat area/vertebral body area (fat area ratio) at all six locations. Twenty-five dogs were sampled (lumbosacral stenosis negative, 11 dogs; lumbosacral stenosis positive, 14 dogs). Of the six locations, cranial L6 was the most affected by lumbosacral stenosis (33%). Five of six dogs (83%) with clinical signs of lumbosacral pain were lumbosacral stenosis positive at two or more levels. All four quantitative variables were significantly smaller at the cranial aspects of the L6 and L7 vertebral foramina than at the caudal aspects (P < 0.0001). Fat area ratio was a significant predictor of lumbosacral stenosis positive status at all six locations with cranial L6 having the greatest predictive value (R 2 = 0.43) and range of predictive probability (25-90%). Findings from the current study supported the use of CT as a deep phenotyping tool for future research studies of lumbosacral stenosis in Labrador retrievers. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Cavaca, Rita; Teixeira, Rogério; Vieira, Maria João; Gonçalves, Lino
Aortic stenosis (AS) is a complex systemic valvular and vascular disease with a high prevalence in developed countries. The new entity "paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis" refers to cases in which patients have severe AS based on assessment of aortic valve area (AVA) (≤1 cm 2 ) or indexed AVA (≤0.6 cm 2 /m 2 ), but paradoxically have a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) and a low stroke volume index (≤35 ml/m 2 ), despite preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (≥50%). A search was carried out in the PubMed database on paradoxical AS for the period 2007-2014. A total of 57 articles were included for this review. The prevalence of paradoxical AS ranged from 3% to 35% of the population with severe degenerative AS. It was more frequent in females and in older patients. Paradoxical AS was associated with characteristic left ventricular remodeling as well as an increase in systemic arterial stiffness. It was noted that there may be errors and inaccuracies in the calculation of AVA by the continuity equation, which could erroneously suggest the paradoxical phenotype. There are new diagnostic methods to facilitate the study of AS, such as aortic valve calcium score, valvuloarterial impedance and the longitudinal mechanics of the left ventricle. With regard to its natural history, it is not clear whether paradoxical AS corresponds to an advance stage of the disease or if paradoxical AS patients have a distinct phenotype with specific characteristics. Valve replacement, either surgical or percutaneous, may be indicated in patients with severe and symptomatic paradoxical AS. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Shabani, Sepehr; Hoffman, Matthew R; Brand, William T; Dailey, Seth H
To describe a homogeneous idiopathic subglottic stenosis (ISS) population undergoing endoscopic balloon dilation and evaluate factors affecting inter-dilation interval (IDI). Retrospective review of 37 patients. Co-morbidity prevalence versus normal population was evaluated using chi-square tests. Correlations were evaluated using Pearson product moment tests. Independent samples t tests/rank sum tests assessed differences between groups of interest. All patients were female aged 45.9 ± 15.4 years at diagnosis. Four required a tracheotomy during management. Most prevalent co-morbidity was gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (64.9%; P = .036). Body mass indices (BMI) at first and most recent dilation were 29.8 and 30.8 ( P = .564). Degree of stenosis before first dilation was 53 ± 14%. Patients underwent 3.8 ± 1.8 dilations (range, 1-11). Average IDI was 635 ± 615 days (range, 49-3130 days), including 556 ± 397 days for patients receiving concomitant steroid injection and 283 ± 36 for those who did not ( P = .079). Inter-dilation interval was not correlated with BMI ( r = 0.0486; P = .802) or number of co-morbidities ( r = -0.225, P = .223). Most patients with ISS can be managed endoscopically, and IDI may be increased with steroid injection. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common co-morbidity. Body mass index did not change over time despite potential effects on exercise tolerance; BMI did not affect IDI. Methods to determine optimal timing for next intervention are warranted.
Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Hetzer, Roland
We report the techniques and long-term outcome of mitral valve (MV) repair to correct congenital mitral stenosis in children. Between 1986 and 2014, 137 children (mean age 4.1 ± 5.0, range 1 month-16.8 years) underwent repair of congenital mitral stenosis (CMS). In 48 patients, CMS is involved in Shone's anomaly. The typical congenital MS (type I) was seen in 56 patients. Hypoplastic MV (type II, n = 15) was associated with severe left ventricular outflow tract abnormalities and hypoplastic left ventricular cavity and muscle mass. Supravalvar ring (type III, n = 48) ranged from a thin membrane to a thick discrete fibrous ridge. Parachute MV (type IV, n = 10) have 2 leaflets and barely distinguishable commissures, but all chordae merged either into 1 major papillary muscle or asymmetric papillary muscles-1 dominant and the other minuscule. Hammock valve (type IV, n = 8) appeared dysplastic with shortened chordae directly inserted into the posterior left ventricular muscle mass. MV repair was performed using commissurotomy, chordal division, papillary muscle splitting and fenestration, and mitral ring resection, each applied according to the presenting morphology. During the 28-year follow-up period, 23 patients underwent repeat MV repair and 3 underwent MV replacement after failed attempts at repeat repair. At 1 and 15 years postoperatively, freedom from reoperation was 89.3 ± 5.1% and 52.8 ± 11.8%, and cumulative survival rates were 92.3 ± 4.3% and 70.3 ± 8.9, respectively. Mortality unrelated to repair accounted for 9 (20%) deaths. Long-term functional outcome of MV repair in children with CMS is satisfactory. Repeat repair or replacement may be deemed necessary during the course of follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, Shan-Shan; Ge, Song; Su, Chun-Qiu; Xie, Jun; Mao, Jian; Shi, Hai-Bin; Hong, Xun-Ning
Intracranial plaque characteristics are associated with stroke events. Differences in plaque features may explain the disconnect between stenosis severity and the presence of ischemic stroke. To investigate the relationship between plaque characteristics and downstream perfusion changes, and their contribution to the occurrence of cerebral infarction beyond luminal stenosis. Case control. Forty-six patients with symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis (with acute cerebral infarction, n = 30; without acute cerebral infarction, n = 16). 3.0T with 3D turbo spin echo sequence (3D-SPACE). Luminal stenosis grade, plaque features including lesion T 2 and T 1 hyperintense components, plaque enhancement grade, and plaque distribution were assessed. Brain perfusion was evaluated on mean transient time maps based on the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (MTT-ASPECTS). Plaque features, grade of luminal stenosis, and MTT-ASPECTS were compared between two groups. The association between plaque features and MTT-ASPECTS were assessed using Spearman's correlation analysis. Multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the effect of significant variables alone and their combination in determining the occurrence of cerebral infarction. Stronger enhanced plaques were associated with downstream lower MTT-ASPECTS (P = 0.010). Plaque enhancement grade (P = 0.039, odds ratio [OR] 5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-32) and MTT-ASPECTS (P = 0.003, OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.7) were associated with a recent cerebral infarction, whereas luminal stenosis grade was not (P = 0.128). The combination of MTT-ASPECTS and plaque enhancement grade provided incremental information beyond luminal stenosis grade alone. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) improved from 0.535 to 0.921 (P < 0.05). Strongly enhanced plaques are associated with a higher likelihood of downstream
Reist-Marti, S B; Dolf, G; Leeb, T; Kottmann, S; Kietzmann, S; Butenhoff, K; Rieder, S
Subaortic stenosis (SAS) is a cardiac disorder with a narrowing of the descending aorta below the left ventricular outflow tract of the heart. It occurs in several species and breeds. The Newfoundland is one of the dog breeds where it is more common and usually leads to death at early adulthood. It is still discussed to which extent SAS has a genetic background and what its mode of inheritance could be. Extensive pedigree data comprising more than 230,000 Newfoundland dogs from the European and North American population reaching back to the 19th century including 6023 dogs with a SAS diagnosis were analysed for genetic factors influencing SAS affection. The incidence and prevalence of SAS in the analysed Newfoundland population sample were much higher than those reported in previous studies on smaller population samples. Assuming that some SAS-affected dogs remained undiscovered or were not reported, these figures may even be underestimated. SAS-affected Newfoundland dogs were more often inbred and closer related to each other than unaffected dogs, which is an indicator for a genetic background of SAS. The sex had no significant impact on SAS affectedness, pointing at an autosomal inheritance. The only simple mode of inheritance that fitted the data well was autosomal codominant with lethal homozygosity and a penetrance of 1/3 in the heterozygotes.
Guérios, Enio E; Bueno, Ronaldo; Nercolini, Deborah; Tarastchuk, José; Andrade, Paulo; Pacheco, Alvaro; Faidiga, Alysson; Negrao, Stefan; Barbosa, Antonio
Although the incidence and severity of rheumatic mitral stenosis have declined in developed countries, the disease is still highly prevalent in many of the poorer and most densely populated areas of the globe, remaining a major public health issue and reflecting the socioeconomic status of the region. In the last 30 years, mitral stenosis therapy has undergone a reorientation with the introduction of percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty. This manuscript is an updated review of percutaneous dilation of mitral stenosis in its different aspects, encompassing traditional techniques, technical innovations, the most significant case loads worldwide, an analysis of the procedure as well as immediate and late outcomes.
Ben Achour, N; Kraoua, I; Rouissi, A; Benrhouma, H; Ben Youssef-Turki, I; Jemel, H; Gouider-Khouja, N
Non-tumoral stenosis of interventricular foramen is a rare clinical condition. It can be either unilateral, causing monoventricular hydrocephalus, or bilateral leading to biventricular hydrocephalus. The pathophysiology of this misdiagnosed entity remains controversial. The non-tumoral stenosis of interventricular foramen can be either acquired or congenital. The latter usually manifesting with a neonatal hydrocephalus. We report a case of congenital bilateral stenosis of interventricular foramen, in an 8-year-old girl, revealed by recurrent intracranial hypertension. Diagnosis was relied on 3D-CISS sequences MRI. The child showed full recovery after neuroendoscopic septal fenestration and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
McCarthy, C; O'Carroll, O; O'Brien, M E; McEnery, T; Franciosi, A; Gunaratnam, C; McElvaney, N G
Candidaemia is an important nosocomial infection, seen frequently in immunocompromised and critically ill patients and increasingly recognised in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with totally implantable venous access devices (TIVADs). This study aims to investigate the incidence and risk factors for the development of TIVAD-associated candidaemia and to assess the rate of TIVAD-related complications in CF patients. A 10-year retrospective study was carried out on adult CF patients attending a single centre. Complications were recorded including the incidence of candidaemia and correlated to clinical parameters. Complication rates were calculated based on incidence per 1000 catheter days. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact test. Fourteen cases of candidaemia were observed in the CF cohort, primarily caused by Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans. Candidaemia was associated with lower FEV1 (p = 0.0117) and higher frequency of pulmonary exacerbation (p < 0.0001). A TIVAD complication rate of 0.337/1000 catheter days was observed in the CF cohort. Complications included venous thrombosis, stenosis, and port extrusion; complications were independently associated with more frequent pulmonary exacerbations (p = 0.04). TIVAD complications are observed more commonly in those with lower FEV1 and frequent pulmonary exacerbations, suggesting that candidaemia may be related to antibiotic use and furthermore can occur following invasive procedures causing translocation of fungal species allowing transformation from colonisation to pathogenic infection.
Jean, G; Vanel, T; Chazot, C; Charra, B; Terrat, J C; Hurot, J M
Central venous stenosis (ST) and thrombosis (TB) related to catheter (KT) had been reported mostly for the subclavian vein. We performed a systematic cavographic study to evaluate the prevalence of these complications in 51 hemodialysis patients with present or previous history of tunneled internal jugular catheter. Each of them had used one or several KT (1.8 +/- 1.4 KT) for a mean 28 +/- 26 month cumulative time (i.e. 43,584 days total exposure time). Fifty percent of the KT were PermCath Quinton and 50% were Twincath (uncuffed) or CS 100 (cuffed) Medcomp. Twenty-seven had no ST (53%, group I), 24 had one or several significant ST (47%, group II) of superior Vena Cava (SVC, n = 4), inferior Vena Cava (IVC, n = 1), Brachio-cephalic Vein (BCV, n = 5) and subclavian vein (SC, n = 10), or a TB of SVC (n = 1), IVC (n = 3), BCV (n = 3), SC (n = 2). This accounts for an incidence of 0.55 ST or TB/1000 patient-days. Five of the twelve subclavian ST and TB had no history of previous subclavian catheter. Comparison between the two groups showed no differences according to age, time on dialysis, diabetes, hematocrit, CRP, cumulative time with catheter, catheter-related infections, type of catheter and anticoagulant treatment. IVC catheter tip's position is an important risk factor for TB and ST (4/6). Twelve group II patients had ST or TB-related symptoms, with a functional AV fistula in 9 cases. Eleven patients underwent repeated percutaneous angioplasty with 4 additional Wallstents and in 2 cases an AV fistula need to be closed. Central venous ST and TB after a jugular KT is extremely frequent, mostly without any symptoms. Consequences on peripheral or central vascular access, cost and poor long-term patency rate of angioplasty are of major importance. These results incite us to further reduce the catheter use in dialysis patients.
McDougall, Cameron M; Ban, Vin Shen; Beecher, Jeffrey; Pride, Lee; Welch, Babu G
OBJECTIVE The role of venous sinus stenting (VSS) for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is not well understood. The aim of this systematic review is to attempt to identify subsets of patients with IIH who will benefit from VSS based on the pressure gradients of their venous sinus stenosis. METHODS MEDLINE/PubMed was searched for studies reporting venous pressure gradients across the stenotic segment of the venous sinus, pre- and post-stent pressure gradients, and clinical outcomes after VSS. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. RESULTS From 32 eligible studies, a total of 186 patients were included in the analysis. Patients who had favorable outcomes had higher mean pressure gradients (22.8 ± 11.5 mm Hg vs 17.4 ± 8.0 mm Hg, p = 0.033) and higher changes in pressure gradients after stent placement (19.4 ± 10.0 mm Hg vs 12.0 ± 6.0 mm Hg, p = 0.006) compared with those with unfavorable outcomes. The post-stent pressure gradients between the 2 groups were not significantly different (2.8 ± 4.0 mm Hg vs 2.7 ± 2.0 mm Hg, p = 0.934). In a multivariate stepwise logistic regression controlling for age, sex, body mass index, CSF opening pressure, pre-stent pressure gradient, and post-stent pressure gradient, the change in pressure gradient with stent placement was found to be an independent predictor of favorable outcome (p = 0.028). Using a pressure gradient of 21 as a cutoff, 81/86 (94.2%) of patients with a gradient > 21 achieved favorable outcomes, compared with 82/100 (82.0%) of patients with a gradient ≤ 21 (p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS There appears to be a relationship between the pressure gradient of venous sinus stenosis and the success of VSS in IIH. A randomized controlled trial would help elucidate this relationship and potentially guide patient selection.
Instiaty, Insti; Lindegardh, Niklas; Jittmala, Podjanee; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Blessborn, Daniel; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; White, Nicholas J.
Oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate concentrations were measured in venous plasma, venous blood, and capillary blood taken simultaneously from 24 healthy volunteers. Median (range) venous-blood-to-plasma ratios were 1.42 (0.920 to 1.97) for oseltamivir and 0.673 (0.564 to 0.814) for oseltamivir carboxylate. Capillary blood/venous plasma ratios were 1.32 (0.737 to 3.16) for oseltamivir and 0.685 (0.502 to 1.34) for oseltamivir carboxylate. Oseltamivir concentrations in venous and capillary blood were similar. Oseltamivir carboxylate showed a time-dependent distribution between venous and capillary blood. PMID:23507284
Al Mosa, Alqasem F; Omair, Aamir; Arifi, Ahmed A; Najm, Hani K
Mitral valve replacement with either a bioprosthetic or a mechanical valve is the treatment of choice for severe mitral stenosis. However, choosing a valve implant type is still a subject of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the early and late outcomes of mitral valve replacement [mechanical (MMV) vs. bioprosthetic (BMV)] for severe mitral stenosis. A retrospective cohort study was performed on data involving mitral stenosis patients who have undergone mitral valve replacement with either BMV (n = 50) or MMV (n = 145) valves from 1999 to 2012. Data were collected from the patients' records and follow-up through telephone calls. Data were analyzed for early and late mortality, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classes, stroke, pre- and postoperative echocardiographic findings, early and late valve-related complications, and survival. Chi-square test, logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier curve, and dependent proportions tests were some of the tests employed in the analysis. A total of 195 patients were included in the study with a 30-day follow-up echocardiogram available for 190 patients (97.5%), while 103 (53%) were available for follow-up over the telephone. One patient died early postoperatively; twelve patients died late in the postoperative period, six in the bioprosthesis group and six in the mechanical group. The late mortality had a significant association with postoperative stroke (p < 0.001) and postoperative NYHA Classes III and IV (p = 0.002). Postoperative NYHA class was significantly associated with age (p = 0.003), pulmonary disease (p = 0.02), mitral valve implant type (p = 0.01), and postoperative stroke (p = 0.02); 14 patients had strokes in the mechanical (9) and in the bioprosthetic (5) groups. NYHA classes were significantly better after the replacement surgeries (p < 0.001). BMV were significantly associated with worse survival (p = 0.03), worse NYHA postoperatively (p = 0.01), and more reoperations
Takahashi, Daijiro; Hiroma, Takehiko; Takamizawa, Shigeru; Nakamura, Tomohiko
The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of esophageal atresia/stenosis and small intestinal atresia/stenosis in Nagano, Japan, together with associated anomalies, prenatal diagnosis and survival. A population-based cohort study of the prevalence of esophageal atresia/stenosis and small intestinal atresia/stenosis was conducted in Nagano in January 1993-December 2011. The Mann-Whitney test, χ(2) test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare variables. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In total, 74 cases of esophageal atresia/stenosis and 87 cases of small intestinal atresia/stenosis (31 duodenal, 56 jejuno-ileal) were identified. Prevalences were 1.97 for esophageal atresia/stenosis and 2.23 for small intestinal atresia/stenosis (0.83 for duodenal atresia/stenosis and 1.49 for jejuno-ileal atresia/stenosis) per 10,000 births, respectively. The prevalence of esophageal atresia/stenosis increased significantly from 1993-2001 to 2002-2011 (relative risk [RR], 1.6), as did the prevalences of duodenal atresia/stenosis (RR, 2.2) and jejuno-ileal atresia/stenosis (RR, 3.1). Chromosomal anomalies, particularly trisomy 21, were seen significantly more often in association with duodenal atresia/stenosis (55%) than with esophageal atresia/stenosis (28%, P < 0.01) or jejuno-ileal atresia/stenosis (2%, P < 0.01). The proportion of patients associated with prenatally diagnosed chromosomal anomaly was higher compared to postnatal diagnosis (P < 0.01) in the esophageal atresia/stenosis group. The prevalence of esophageal and small intestinal atresia/stenosis increased significantly from 1993-2001 to 2002-2011. Prenatally diagnosed esophageal atresia/stenosis is associated with multiple anomalies, particularly chromosomal anomalies, compared to other small intestine atresia/stenosis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.
Mohkam, Kayvan; Rode, Agnès; Darnis, Benjamin; Manichon, Anne-Frédérique; Boussel, Loïc; Ducerf, Christian; Merle, Philippe; Lesurtel, Mickaël; Mabrut, Jean-Yves
The impact of portal hemodynamic variations after portal vein embolization on liver regeneration remains unknown. We studied the correlation between the parameters of hepatic venous pressure measured before and after portal vein embolization and future hypertrophy of the liver remnant after portal vein embolization. Between 2014 and 2017, we reviewed patients who were eligible for major hepatectomy and who had portal vein embolization. Patients had undergone simultaneous measurement of portal venous pressure and hepatic venous pressure gradient before and after portal vein embolization by direct puncture of portal vein and inferior vena cava. We assessed these parameters to predict future liver remnant hypertrophy. Twenty-six patients were included. After portal vein embolization, median portal venous pressure (range) increased from 15 (9-24) to 19 (10-27) mm Hg and hepatic venous pressure gradient increased from 5 (0-12) to 8 (0-14) mm Hg. Median future liver remnant volume (range) was 513 (299-933) mL before portal vein embolization versus 724 (499-1279) mL 3 weeks after portal vein embolization, representing a 35% (7.4-83.6) median hypertrophy. Post-portal vein embolization hepatic venous pressure gradient was the most accurate parameter to predict failure of future liver remnant to reach a 30% hypertrophy (c-statistic: 0.882 [95% CI: 0.727-1.000], P < 0.001). A cut-off value of post-portal vein embolization hepatic venous pressure gradient of 8 mm Hg showed a sensitivity of 91% (95% CI: 57%-99%), specificity of 80% (95% CI: 52%-96%), positive predictive value of 77% (95% CI: 46%-95%) and negative predictive value of 92.3% (95% CI: 64.0%-99.8%). On multivariate analysis, post-portal vein embolization hepatic venous pressure gradient and previous chemotherapy were identified as predictors of impaired future liver remnant hypertrophy. Post-portal vein embolization hepatic venous pressure gradient is a simple and reproducible tool which accurately predicts future
Kefayati, Sarah; Amans, Matthew; Faraji, Farshid; Ballweber, Megan; Kao, Evan; Ahn, Sinyeob; Meisel, Karl; Halbach, Van; Saloner, David
Aberrations in flow in the cerebral venous outflow tract (CVOT) have been implicated as the cause of several pathologic conditions including idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), multiple sclerosis (MS), and pulsatile tinnitus (PT). The advent of 4D Flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D-Flow MRI) has recently allowed researchers to evaluate blood flow patterns in the arterial structures with great success. We utilized similar imaging techniques and found several distinct flow characteristics in the CVOT of subjects with and without lumenal irregularities. We present the flow patterns of 8 out of 38 subjects who have varying heights of the internal jugular bulb and varying lumenal irregularities including stenosis and diverticulum. In the internal jugular vein (IJV) with an elevated jugular bulb (JB), 4DFlow MRI revealed a characteristic spiral flow that was dependent on the level of JB elevation. Vortical flow was also observed in the diverticula of the venous sinuses and IJV. The diversity of flow complexity in the CVOT illustrates the potential importance of hemodynamic investigations in elucidating venous pathologies. PMID:27894675
Grover, Steven P; Saha, Prakash; Jenkins, Julia; Mukkavilli, Arun; Lyons, Oliver T; Patel, Ashish S; Sunassee, Kavitha; Modarai, Bijan; Smith, Alberto
The assessment of thrombus size following treatments directed at preventing thrombosis or enhancing its resolution has generally relied on physical or histological methods. This cross-sectional design imposes the need for increased numbers of animals for experiments. Micro-computed tomography (microCT) has been used to detect the presence of venous thrombus in experimental models but has yet to be used in a quantitative manner. In this study, we investigate the use of contrast-enhanced microCT for the longitudinal assessment of experimental venous thrombus resolution. Thrombi induced by stenosis of the inferior vena cava in mice were imaged by contrast-enhanced microCT at 1, 7 and 14 days post-induction (n=18). Thrombus volumes were determined longitudinally by segmentation and 3D volume reconstruction of microCT scans and by standard end-point histological analysis at day 14. An additional group of thrombi were analysed solely by histology at 1, 7 and 14 days post-induction (n=15). IVC resident thrombus was readily detectable by contrast-enhanced microCT. MicroCT-derived measurements of thrombus volume correlated well with time-matched histological analyses (ICC=0.75, P<0.01). Thrombus volumes measured by microCT were significantly greater than those derived from histological analysis (P<0.001). Intra- and inter-observer analyses were highly correlated (ICC=0.99 and 0.91 respectively, P<0.0001). Further histological analysis revealed noticeable levels of contrast agent extravasation into the thrombus that was associated with the presence of neovascular channels, macrophages and intracellular iron deposits. Contrast-enhanced microCT represents a reliable and reproducible method for the longitudinal assessment of venous thrombus resolution providing powerful paired data. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Kobayashi, S; Uchida, K; Takeno, K; Baba, H; Suzuki, Y; Hayakawa, K; Yoshizawa, H
It has been reported that disturbance of blood flow arising from circumferential compression of the cauda equina by surrounding tissue plays a major role in the appearance of neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) associated with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). We created a model of LSCS to clarify the mechanism of enhancement within the cauda equina on gadolinium-enhanced MR images from patients with LSCS. In 20 dogs, a lumbar laminectomy was performed by applying circumferential constriction to the cauda equina by using a silicon tube, to produce 30% stenosis of the circumferential diameter of the dural tube. After 1 and 3 weeks, gadolinium and Evans blue albumin were injected intravenously at the same time. The sections were used to investigate the status of the blood-nerve barrier function under a fluorescence microscope and we compared gadolinium-enhanced MR images with Evans blue albumin distribution in the nerve. The other sections were used for light and transmission electron microscopic study. In this model, histologic examination showed congestion and dilation in many of the intraradicular veins, as well as inflammatory cell infiltration. The intraradicular edema caused by venous congestion and Wallerian degeneration can also occur at sites that are not subject to mechanical compression. Enhanced MR imaging showed enhancement of the cauda equina at the stenosed region, demonstrating the presence of edema. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of microcirculatory disorders of the cauda equina associated with LSCS.
Sakurai, Katsunobu; Amano, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Akira; Nishida, Norifumi; Matsutani, Shinya; Hirata, Keiichiro; Kimura, Kenjiro; Muguruma, Kazuya; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Kubo, Naoshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Yashiro, Masakazu; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei
This report describes the successful use of portal venous stent placement for a patient with recurrent melena secondary to jejunal varices that developed after subtotal stomach preserved pancreatoduodenectomy (SSPPD). A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with tarry stool and severe anemia at 2 years after SSPPD for carcinoma of the head of the pancreas. Abdominal computed tomography examination showed severe stenosis of the extrahepatic portal vein caused by local recurrence and showed an intensely enhanced jejunal wall at the choledochojejunostomy. Gastrointestinal bleeding scintigraphy also revealed active bleeding near the choledochojejunostomy. Based on these findings, jejunal varices resulting from portal vein stenosis were suspected as the cause of the melena. Portal vein stenting and balloon dilation was performed via the ileocecal vein after laparotomy. Coiling of the jejunal varices and sclerotherapy of the dilate postgastric vein with 5% ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol was performed. After portal stent placement, the patient was able to lead a normal life without gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However, he died 7 months later due to liver metastasis. PMID:24444277
Taslakian, Bedros, E-mail: email@example.com; Trerotola, Scott O., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Sacks, Barry, E-mail: email@example.com
Hyperparathyroidism is an excess of parathyroid hormone in the blood due to over-activity of one or more parathyroid gland. Localization of abnormal glands with noninvasive imaging modalities, such as technetium sestamibi scan and cross-sectional imaging, has a high success rate. Parathyroid venous sampling is performed for patients with persistent or recurrent disease after previous parathyroid surgery, when repeat noninvasive imaging studies are negative or discordant. The success of invasive localization studies and results interpretation is dependent on the interventional radiologist’s understanding of the normal and ectopic anatomic locations of parathyroid glands, as well as their blood supply and venous drainage.more » Anatomic and technical considerations for selective parathyroid venous sampling are reviewed.« less
Gondra Sangroniz, A; Elorz Lambarri, J; Villar Alvarez, M A; Lecumberri Cortes, I; Ayala Curiel, J
Horseshoe lung is a rare congenital anomaly characterised by a midline isthmus of pulmonary parenchyma connecting the posterior basal segments of the lungs behind the heart in conjunction with unilateral pulmonary hypoplasia. Of all cases, 80% are associated with scimitar syndrome, consisting of right anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, pulmonary hypoplasia of the right lung and systemic arterial perfusion to some lung areas. A six year old girl who had recurrent lower respiratory infections since birth. Chest Rx, angioCT and MR showed: hypoplasia of the right lung, dextrocardia and pulmonary isthmus bridging both lungs behind the pericardium. The right hypoplastic lung had little systemic supply coming from the abdominal aorta. The right pulmonary artery was hypoplastic. The right pulmonary venous drainage was normal. We present a case of horseshoe lung without abnormal venous drainage. 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Webster, J. G.; Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.
A technique for the noninvasive measurement of CVP in man was developed. The method involves monitoring venous velocity at a point in the periphery with a transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonic velocity meter while the patient performs a forced expiratory maneuver. The idea is the CVP is related to the value of pressure measured at the mouth which just stops the flow in the vein. Two improvements were made over the original procedure. First, the site of venous velocity measurement was shifted from a vein at the antecubital fossa (elbow) to the right external jugular vein in the neck. This allows for sensing more readily events occurring in the central veins. Secondly, and perhaps most significantly, a procedure for obtaining a curve of relative mean venous velocity vs mouth pressure was developed.
Nussbaum, E S
Since its introduction in the 1950s, carotid endarterectomy has become one of the most frequently performed operations in the United States. The tremendous appeal of a procedure that decreases the risk of stroke, coupled with the large number of individuals in the general population with carotid stenosis, has contributed to its popularity. To provide optimal patient care, the practicing physician must have a firm understanding of the proper evaluation and management of carotid stenosis. Nevertheless, because of the large number of clinical trials performed over the last decade addressing the treatment of stroke and carotid endarterectomy, the care of patients with carotid stenosis remains a frequently misunderstood topic. This review summarizes the current evaluation and treatment options for carotid stenosis and provides a rational management algorithm for this prevalent disease process.
Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosain; Ziaee, Masood; Azarkar, Ghodsieh
Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS) were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56%) patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44%) were female. Twenty-three (56%) patients of the study population were aged <60 years and 18 (43/9%) patients were aged >60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.
Yuh, W.T.C.; Simonson, T.M.; Tali, E.T.
To study MR patterns of venous sinus occlusive disease and to relate them to the underlying pathophysiology by comparing the appearance and pathophysiologic features of venous sinus occlusive disease with those of arterial ischemic disease. The clinical data and MR examinations of 26 patients with venous sinus occlusive disease were retrospectively reviewed with special attention to mass effect, hemorrhage, and T2-weighted image abnormalities as well as to abnormal parenchymal, venous, or arterial enhancement after intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine administration. Follow-up studies when available were evaluated for atrophy, infraction, chronic mass effect, and hemorrhage. Mass effect was present in 25 of 26more » patients. Eleven of the 26 had mass effect without abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. Fifteen patients had abnormal signal on T2-weighted images, but this was much less extensive than the degree of brain swelling in all cases. No patient showed abnormal parenchymal or arterial enhancement. Abnormal venous enhancement was seen in 10 of 13 patients who had contrast-enhanced studies. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage was seen in nine patients with high signal on T2-weighted images predominantly peripheral to the hematoma in eight. Three overall MR patterns were observed in acute sinus thrombosis: (1) mass effect without associated abnormal signal on T2-weighted images, (2) mass effect with associated abnormal signal on T2-weighted images and/or ventricular dilatation that may be reversible, and (3) intraparenchymal hematoma with surrounding edema. MR findings of venus sinus occlusive disease are different from those of arterial ischemia and may reflect different underlying pathophysiology. In venous sinus occlusive disease, the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (vasogenic edema and abnormal parenchymal enhancement) does not always occur, and brain swelling can persist up to 2 years with or without abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. 34 refs., 5 figs.« less
For a long time superficial thrombophlebitis has been thought to be a rather benign condition. Recently, when duplex ultrasound technique is used for the diagnosis more and more often, the disease is proved to be more dangerous than anticipated. Thrombosis propagates to the deep veins in 6-44% and pulmonary embolism was observed on the patients in 1,5-33%. We can calculate venous thromboembolic complications on every fourth patient. Diagnosis is clinical, but duplex ultrasound examination is mandatory, for estimation of the thrombus extent, for exclusion of the deep venous thrombosis and for follow up. Both legs should be checked with ultrasound, because simultaneous deep venous thrombosis can develop on the contralateral limb. Two different forms can be distinguished: superficial venous thrombosis with, or without varicose veins. In cases of spontaneous, non varicous form, especially when the process is migrating or recurrent, a careful clinical examination is necessery for exclusion of malignant diseases and thrombophilia. The treatment options are summarised on the basis of recent international consensus statements. The American and German guidelines are similar. Compression and mobilisation are cornerstones of the therapy. For a short segment thrombosis non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs are effective. For longer segments low molecular-weight heparins are preferred. Information on the effect of the novel oral anticoagulants for the therapy is lacking but they may appear to be effective in the future for this indication. When thrombus is close to the sapheno-femoral or sapheno-popliteal junction crossectomy (high ligation), or low molecular-weight heparin in therapeutic doses are indicated. The term superficial thrombophlebitis should be discouraged, because inflammation and infection is not the primary pathology. It should be called correctly superficial venous thrombosis in order to avoid the unnecessary administration of antibiotics and the misconception
Houmsse, Mustafa; McDavid, Asia; Kilic, Ahmet
This report describes the case of a 49-year-old man with a medical history significant for congenital aortic stenosis. The patient presented with progressive shortness of breath and decreased stamina and was found to have a concentric, diminutive porcelain ascending aorta with diffuse supravalvular aortic stenosis. We describe treatment with an aortic root augmentation and Bentall procedure using hypothermic circulatory arrest. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dankbaar, Jan W; Kerckhoffs, Kelly G P; Horsch, Alexander D; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K
Leptomeningeal collaterals improve outcome in stroke patients. There is great individual variability in their extent. Internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis may lead to more extensive recruitment of leptomeningeal collaterals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of pre-existing ICA stenosis with leptomeningeal collateral filling visualized with computed tomography perfusion (CTP). From a prospective acute ischemic stroke cohort, patients were included with an M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and absent ipsilateral, extracranial ICA occlusion. ICA stenosis was determined on admission CT angiography (CTA). Leptomeningeal collaterals were graded as good (>50%) or poor (≤50%) collateral filling in the affected MCA territory on CTP-derived vessel images of the admission scan. The association between ipsilateral ICA stenosis ≥70% and extent of collateral filling was analyzed using logistic regression. In a multivariable analysis the odds ratio (OR) of ICA stenosis ≥70% was adjusted for complete circle of Willis, gender and age. We included 188 patients in our analyses, 50 (26.6%) patients were classified as having poor collateral filling and 138 (73.4%) as good. Of the patients 4 with poor collateral filling had an ICA stenosis ≥70% and 14 with good collateral filling. Unadjusted and adjusted ORs of ICA stenosis ≥70% for good collateral filling were 1.30 (0.41-4.15) and 2.67 (0.81-8.77), respectively. Patients with poor collateral filling had a significantly worse outcome (90-day modified Rankin scale 3-6; 80% versus 52%, p = 0.001). No association was found between pre-existing ICA stenosis and extent of CTP derived collateral filling in patients with an M1 occlusion.
SP, Grover; CE, Evans; AS, Patel; B, Modarai; P, Saha; A, Smith
Deep vein thrombosis and common complications, including pulmonary embolism and post thrombotic syndrome, represent a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Experimental models of venous thrombosis have provided considerable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate thrombus formation and subsequent resolution. Here we critically appraise the ex vivo and in vivo techniques used to assess venous thrombosis in these models. Particular attention is paid to imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, micro computed tomography and high frequency ultrasound that facilitate longitudinal assessment of thrombus size and composition. PMID:26681755
Grover, Steven P; Evans, Colin E; Patel, Ashish S; Modarai, Bijan; Saha, Prakash; Smith, Alberto
Deep vein thrombosis and common complications, including pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome, represent a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Experimental models of venous thrombosis have provided considerable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate thrombus formation and subsequent resolution. Here, we critically appraise the ex vivo and in vivo techniques used to assess venous thrombosis in these models. Particular attention is paid to imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and high-frequency ultrasound that facilitate longitudinal assessment of thrombus size and composition. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
The significance of congenital abnormalities in predisposing to portal hypertension and variceal haemorrhage needs to be remembered when these effects manifest in childhood, as portal venography will permit elucidation of the complicated congenital developmental abnormalities underlying the pathological condition and permit rational surgical amelioration. In the presence of portal hypertension the development of a collateral venous circulation may be represented by a hepatopetal or hepatofugal circulatory pattern and will closely parallel the developmental areas where portal and systemic venous circulations meet, being representative of the embryological anastomosis between the vitelloumbilical system and the posterior cardinal system of veins. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4614690
Turkoz, Riza; Ayabakan, Canan; Vuran, Can; Omay, Oğuz
A 7-month-old boy with heterotaxy syndrome had partial atrioventricular septal defect and interrupted inferior vena cava with hemiazygos continuation to a left superior vena cava. The left side of the common atrium receiving all the venous drainage was in connection with the left ventricle and the aorta. The small atrium and the proximity of the pulmonary and hepatic vein orifices precluded complete baffling. This report describes an intraatrial baffle repair of anomalous systemic venous return without hepatic venous drainage. This resulted in good oxygenation postoperatively, with oxygen saturation ranging from 93% to 98%.
Parshin, V D; Vyzhigina, M A; Rusakov, M A; Parshin, V V; Titov, V A; Starostin, A V
, the principle of "every patient his own version of operation" allows to minimize the risk oftreatment and to get a good lasting result. Proof of such provision may be the fact that the frequency of complications and postoperative mortality at our patients have had a tendency to decrease and currently stands at 12.9 and 0.7 %, respectively for many years. It is 2.3 and 9.6 times less, respectively, than in the periodfrom 1963 to 2000. It appears that further reduction of these indicators will be at a slower pace, afurther solution of the CTS problem will be based on the prevention of disease. Prevention of cicatricial tracheal stenosis in the departments of reanimation and intensive care is currently inadequate. It requires fundamentally new approaches, but reform still has not brought the desired results. Diagnosis of the CTS at an early stage allows early treatment and to avoid complex and risky operations. Increasingly important, apart tracheoscopy for diagnosis of tracheomalacia purchase dynamic computed tomography and magnetic resonance - tomography. Treatment ofpatients with CTS requires a multidisciplinary approach, individual selection operations for a particular patient. The general trend of the further development of tracheal surgery is associated with an increase in the number of simultaneous resections, including at the long, two-level stenosis, as well as at relapse. The patients who had refused treatment or have elected him palliative options made possible surgery. The frequency of postoperative comnlications and mortality decreased significantiv, including after extensive and traumatic operations on the trachea.
Rodrigues, A F; van Mourik, I D M; Sharif, K; Barron, D J; de Giovanni, J V; Bennett, J; Bromley, P; Protheroe, S; John, P; de Ville de Goyet, J; Beath, S V
liver and SBTx nearly 3 years after presenting with end-stage central venous access, because attempts to achieve independence from parenteral nutrition had failed. The other child died immediately after a transhepatic venous catheter placement, possibly from a nutritional depletion syndrome as no physical cause of death was found. Direct intra-atrial catheters in transplanted children proved to be adequate for the management of uncomplicated transplantation, although the usual infusion protocol had to be modified considerably, and the lack of access would have been critical if massive blood transfusion had been required during the transplant procedure. It was possible to reestablish central venous access in all cases. However, this was time consuming and difficult to assemble a skilled team consisting of one of more: surgeon, cardiologist, interventional radiologist, and transplant anesthetist. Small bowel transplantation is easier and safer with adequate central venous access, and we advocate liaison with an SBTx center at an early stage.
Honnef, Dagmar, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Wingen, Markus; Guenther, Rolf W.
The purpose of this study was to perform an alternative technique for recanalization of a chronic occlusion of the left brachiocephalic vein that could not be traversed with a guidewire. Restoration of a completely thrombosed left brachiocephalic vein was attempted in a 76-year-old male hemodialysis patient with massive upper inflow obstruction, massive edema of the face, neck, shoulder, and arm, and occlusion of the stented right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava. Vessel negotiation with several guidewires and multipurpose catheters proved unsuccessful. The procedure was also non-viable using a long, 21G puncture needle. Puncture of the superior vena cava (SVC) at themore » distal circumference of the stent in the right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava, however, was feasible with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) set under biplanar fluoroscopy using the distal end of the right brachiocephalic vein as a target, followed by balloon dilatation and partial extraction of thrombotic material of the left brachiocephalic vein with a wire basket. Finally, two overlapping stents were deployed to avoid early re-occlusion. Venography demonstrated complete vessel patency with free contrast media flow via the stents into the SVC, which was reconfirmed in follow-up examinations. Immediate clinical improvement was observed. Venous vascular recanalization of chronic venous occlusion by means of a TIPS needle is feasible as a last resort under certain precautions.« less
Liachopoulou, A P; Synodinou-Kamilou, E E; Deligiannidi, P G; Giannakopoulou, M; Birbas, K N
The rough estimation of the education and the self-confidence of nurses, both students and professionals, regarding deep venous catheterization in adult patients, the evaluation of the change in self-confidence of one team of students who were trained with a simulator on deep venous catheterization and the correlation of their self-confidence with their performance recorded by the simulator. Seventy-six nurses and one hundred twenty-four undergraduate students participated in the study. Fourty-four University students took part in a two-day educational seminar and were trained on subclavian and femoral vein paracentesis with a simulator and an anatomical model. Three questionnaires were filled in by the participants: one from nurses, one from students of Technological institutions, while the University students filled in the previous questionnaire before their attendance of the seminar, and another questionnaire after having attended it. Impressive results in improving the participants' self-confidence were recorded. However, the weak correlation of their self-confidence with the score automatically provided by the simulator after each user's training obligates us to be particularly cautious about the ability of the users to repeat the action successfully in a clinical environment. Educational courses and simulators are useful educational tools that are likely to shorten but in no case can efface the early phase of the learning curve in clinical setting, substituting the clinical training of inexperienced users.
Pürerfellner, Helmut; Martinek, Martin
This review provides an update on the mechanisms, incidence, and current management of significant pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Catheter ablation involving the pulmonary veins and the surrounding left atrial tissue is increasingly used to treat atrial fibrillation. In parallel with the fact that these procedures may cure a substantial proportion of patients, severe complications have been observed. Pulmonary vein stenosis is a new clinical entity produced by radiofrequency energy delivery mainly within or at the orifice of the pulmonary veins. The exact incidence is currently unknown because the diagnosis is dependent on the imaging modality and on the rigor with which patients are followed up. The optimal method for screening patients has not been determined. Stenosis of a pulmonary vein may be assessed by combining anatomic and functional imaging using computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging, transesophageal echocardiography, and lung scanning. Symptoms vary considerably and may be misdiagnosed, leading to severe clinical consequences. Current treatment strategies involve pulmonary vein dilatation or stenting; however, the restenosis rate remains high. The long-term outcome in patients with pulmonary vein stenosis is unclear. Strategies under development to prevent pulmonary vein stenosis include alternate energy sources and modified ablation techniques. Pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation is a new clinical entity that has been described in various reports recently. There is much uncertainty with respect to causative factors, incidence, diagnosis, and treatment, and long-term sequelae are unclear.
Berent, Allyson C; Kinns, Jennifer; Weisse, Chick
A dog was examined because of a 6-month history of upper airway stridor that began after postoperative regurgitation of gastric contents. Constant stridor was evident during inspiration and expiration, although it was worse during inspiration. The stridor was no longer evident when the dog's mouth was manually held open. Computed tomography, rhinoscopy, and fluoroscopy were used to confirm a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal stenosis. The dog was anesthetized, and balloon dilatation of the stenosis was performed. Prednisone was prescribed for 4 weeks after the procedure to decrease fibrous tissue formation. Although the dog was initially improved, signs recurred 3.5 weeks later, and balloon dilatation was repeated. This time, however, triamcinolone was injected into the area of stenosis at the end of the dilatation procedure. Two months later, although the dog did not have clinical signs of stridor, a third dilatation procedure was performed because mild stenosis was seen on follow-up computed tomographic images; again, triamcinolone was injected into the area of stenosis at the end of the dilatation procedure. Three and 6 months after the third dilatation procedure, the dog reportedly was clinically normal. Findings suggest that balloon dilatation may be an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs.
Fukagawa, Takeo; Gotoda, Takuji; Oda, Ichiro; Deguchi, Yasunori; Saka, Makoto; Morita, Shinji; Katai, Hitoshi
Stenosis of esophago-jejuno anastomosis is one of the postoperative complications of gastric surgery. This complication usually manifests with the symptom of dysphagia and is treated by endoscopic dilatation. No large-scale studies have been conducted to determine the incidence of this complication after surgery. The data of a total of 1478 consecutive patients who underwent total, proximal, or completion gastrectomy, including esophago-jejuno anastomosis, between 2000 and 2008 were analyzed retrospectively with a view to determining the incidence of anastomotic stenosis. Sixty patients (4.1%) developed stenosis of the esophago-jejuno anastomosis which needed to be treated by endoscopic balloon dilatation. The average interval between the surgery and detection of stenosis was 67.4 days (median = 58.0). Multivariate analysis identified female gender, proximal gastrectomy, use of a narrow-sized stapler, and the choice of the stapling device as significant factors influencing the risk of development of anastomotic stenosis. Esophago-jejuno anastomotic stenosis appears to be a common late postoperative complication after gastric surgery. Endoscopic examination and treatment yielded favorable outcomes in patients complaining of dysphagia after gastric surgery.
Deep venous thrombophlebitis may escape clinical detection. Three cases are reported in which whole-body gallium 67 scintigraphy was used to detect unsuspected deep venous thrombophlebitis related to indwelling catheters in three children who were being evaluated for fevers of unknown origin. Two of these children had septicemia from Candida organisms secondary to these venous lines. Gallium 67 scintigraphy may be useful in the detection of complications of indwelling venous catheters.
Deep venous thrombophlebitis may escape clinical detection. Three cases are reported in which whole-body gallium 67 scintigraphy was used to detect unsuspected deep venous thrombophlebitis related to indwelling catheters in three children who were being evaluated for fevers of unknown origin. Two of these children had septicemia from Candida organisms secondary to these venous lines. Gallium 67 scintigraphy may be useful in the detection of complications of indwelling venous catheters.
Stockland, Andrew H.; Willingham, Darrin L.; Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo
Venous thrombosis of pancreas transplant allografts often leads to graft loss. We evaluated the efficacy of emergent endovascular techniques to salvage thrombosed pancreatic allografts in a series of six patients. Of the 76 pancreas transplants performed between 2002 and 2006, six patients were diagnosed with venous thrombosis on MRI between 2 and 28 days posttransplant (mean, 9 days). Five patients were systemic-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient iliac vein) and one patient was portal-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient superior mesenteric vein). Conventional venography confirmed the diagnosis of venous thrombosis in all patients. One patient was treated withmore » catheter-directed venous thrombolysis and balloon thrombectomy. Another patient was treated with rheolytic thrombectomy alone. The remaining four patients were treated with a combination of these mechanical and thrombolytic techniques. Completion venography revealed >50% clot reduction and resumption of venous drainage in all patients. One patient required additional intervention 16 days later for recurrent thrombosis. Two patients required metal stent placement for anastomotic stenoses or kinks. One patient required pancreatectomy 36 h after attempted salvage secondary to a major hemorrhage and graft necrosis. Two patients recovered pancreatic function initially but lost graft function at 8 and 14 months, respectively, from severe chronic rejection. Patient survival was 100%, long-term graft survival was 50%, rethrombosis rate was 16.6%, and graft loss from rejection was 33%. In conclusion, early recognition and treatment of venous thrombosis after pancreas transplantation has acceptable morbidity and no mortality using short-term endovascular pharmacomechanical therapy.« less
Siefert, Suzanne A; Chabasse, Christine; Mukhopadhyay, Subhradip; Hoofnagle, Mark H; Strickland, Dudley K; Sarkar, Rajabrata; Antalis, Toni M
Background The resolution of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) requires an inflammatory response and mobilization of proteases, such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), to degrade the thrombus and remodel the injured vein wall. PAI-2 is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) with unique immunosuppressive and cell survival properties that was originally identified as an inhibitor of uPA. Objective To investigate the role of PAI-2 in venous thrombus formation and resolution. Methods Venous thrombus resolution was compared in wild type C57BL/6, PAI-2 -/- and PAI-1 -/- mice using the stasis model of DVT. Formed thrombi were harvested, thrombus weights were recorded, and tissue was analyzed for uPA, and MMP activities, PAI-1 expression, and the nature of inflammatory cell infiltration. Results We found that absence of PAI-2 enhanced venous thrombus resolution, while thrombus formation was unaffected. Enhanced venous thrombus resolution in PAI-2 -/- mice was associated with increased uPA activity and reduced levels of PAI-1, with no significant effect on MMP-2 and -9 activities. PAI-1 deficiency resulted in an increase in thrombus resolution similar to PAI-2 deficiency, but additionally reduced venous thrombus formation and altered MMP activity. PAI-2 deficient thrombi had increased levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant, CXCL2, which was associated with early enhanced neutrophil recruitment. Conclusions These data identify PAI-2 as a novel regulator of venous thrombus resolution, which modulates several pathways involving both inflammatory and uPA activity mechanisms, distinct from PAI-1. Further examination of these pathways may lead to potential therapeutic prospects in accelerating thrombus resolution. PMID:25041188
Siefert, S A; Chabasse, C; Mukhopadhyay, S; Hoofnagle, M H; Strickland, D K; Sarkar, R; Antalis, T M
The resolution of deep vein thrombosis requires an inflammatory response and mobilization of proteases, such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), to degrade the thrombus and remodel the injured vein wall. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) with unique immunosuppressive and cell survival properties that was originally identified as an inhibitor of uPA. To investigate the role of PAI-2 in venous thrombus formation and resolution. Venous thrombus resolution was compared in wild-type C57BL/6, PAI-2(-/-) , and PAI-1(-/-) mice using the stasis model of deep vein thrombosis. Formed thrombi were harvested, thrombus weights were recorded, and tissue was analyzed for uPA and MMP activities, PAI-1 expression, and the nature of inflammatory cell infiltration. We found that the absence of PAI-2 enhanced venous thrombus resolution, while thrombus formation was unaffected. Enhanced venous thrombus resolution in PAI-2(-/-) mice was associated with increased uPA activity and reduced levels of PAI-1, with no significant effect on MMP-2 and -9 activities. PAI-1 deficiency resulted in an increase in thrombus resolution similar to PAI-2 deficiency, but additionally reduced venous thrombus formation and altered MMP activity. PAI-2-deficient thrombi had increased levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL2, which was associated with early enhanced neutrophil recruitment. These data identify PAI-2 as a novel regulator of venous thrombus resolution, which modulates several pathways involving both inflammatory and uPA activity mechanisms, distinct from PAI-1. Further examination of these pathways may lead to potential therapeutic prospects in accelerating thrombus resolution. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Nelson, Jonas A; Kim, Elizabeth M; Eftekhari, Kian; Eftakhari, Kian; Low, David W; Kovach, Stephen J; Wu, Liza C; Serletti, Joseph M
Microvascular free-tissue transfer is a reliable pillar of reconstructive surgery, yet pedicle thrombosis remains a challenge. The authors examined the phenomenon of late venous thrombosis (after postoperative day 3) and detail a method of flap salvage that can be utilized following this microvascular insult. A retrospective review was performed of all free flap breast reconstructions performed by the senior author (J.M.S.) from 1991 to 2008, utilizing a prospectively maintained database. All cases of postoperative thromboses were evaluated. Late venous thrombosis was defined as a thrombosis occurring after postoperative day 3. A total of 1277 free flap breast reconstructions were performed over the 17-year period. Nineteen flaps had venous thromboses (1.5 percent), and 10 of these occurred after postoperative day 3 (average, 5.67 days; range, 4 to 12 days). Operative exploration was employed in seven of 10 cases, with the remaining patients presenting too late or too advanced for operative intervention. Sixty percent of flaps were fully salvaged, and two were partially saved, with some subsequent volume loss. Earlier late venous thrombosis presentation led to better outcomes overall. Late venous thrombosis is a rare phenomenon that, although occurring late in the postoperative course, is an acute event. Early recognition and urgent treatment are key to flap salvage, with clinical judgment dictating the treatment choice. In the absence of extenuating circumstances, the authors prefer urgent exploration in the operating room, as flap survival following late venous thrombosis is a race against time but with a high probability of salvage if the proper steps are taken. Therapeutic, IV.
Hannoush, Hwaida; Introne, Wendy J.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Lee, Sook-Jin; O'Brien, Kevin; Suwannarat, Pim; Kayser, Michael A.; Gahl, William A.; Sachdev, Vandana
Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disorder of tyrosine catabolism in which homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is deposited throughout the spine, large joints, cardiovascular system, and various tissues throughout the body. In the cardiovascular system, pigment deposition has been described in the heart valves, endocardium, pericardium, aortic intima and coronary arteries. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with alkaptonuria varies in previous reports . We present a series of 76 consecutive adult patients with alkaptonuria who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between 2000 and 2009. A subgroup of 40 patients enrolled in a treatment study underwent non-contrast CT scans and these were assessed for vascular calcifications. Six of the 76 patients had aortic valve replacement. In the remaining 70 patients, 12 patients had aortic sclerosis and 7 patients had aortic stenosis. Unlike degenerative aortic valve disease, we found no correlation with standard cardiac risk factors. There was a modest association between the severity of aortic valve disease and joint involvement, however, we saw no correlation with urine HGA levels. Vascular calcifications were seen in the coronaries, cardiac valves, aortic root, descending aorta and iliac arteries. These findings suggest an important role for echocardiographic screening of alkaptonuria patients to detect valvular heart disease and cardiac CT to detect coronary artery calcifications. PMID:22100375
Tjahjadi, Catherina; Wee, Yong; Hay, Karen; Tesar, Peter; Clarke, Andrew; Walters, Darren L; Bett, Nicholas
The association of anaemia with aortic stenosis (AS) has been recognised for over 50 years; however, although there have been several sporadic reports, there are few data on the prevalence of this syndrome. We sought to compare the prevalence of anaemia in adults with AS with that of controls who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing pre-procedural levels of haemoglobin in 1537 adults who underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) for AS with 8025 contemporaneous patients who had CABG. We hypothesised that the prevalence of anaemia in patients with AS would be significantly higher than in the control group. A total of 30.1% in the AVR group was anaemic compared to 16.2% in the CABG group. The mean haemoglobin concentration measured across the whole population was significantly lower (132 g/L) in AVR patients than in those who underwent CABG (138 g/L). In a multivariable model, haemoglobin levels varied significantly by treatment group, gender and age. The adjusted marginal mean haemoglobin value was 135.6 g/L in AVR patients compared to 137.3 g/L in CABG patients. The prevalence of anaemia was significantly greater in patients with AS than in a contemporaneous cohort that underwent CABG. This may indicate that Heyde syndrome is more common than has been generally appreciated and should be considered in the evaluation of anaemia in patients with AS. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Hannoush, Hwaida; Introne, Wendy J; Chen, Marcus Y; Lee, Sook-Jin; O'Brien, Kevin; Suwannarat, Pim; Kayser, Michael A; Gahl, William A; Sachdev, Vandana
Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disorder of tyrosine catabolism in which homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is deposited throughout the spine, large joints, cardiovascular system, and various tissues throughout the body. In the cardiovascular system, pigment deposition has been described in the heart valves, endocardium, pericardium, aortic intima and coronary arteries. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with alkaptonuria varies in previous reports. We present a series of 76 consecutive adult patients with alkaptonuria who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between 2000 and 2009. A subgroup of 40 patients enrolled in a treatment study underwent non-contrast CT scans and these were assessed for vascular calcifications. Six of the 76 patients had aortic valve replacement. In the remaining 70 patients, 12 patients had aortic sclerosis and 7 patients had aortic stenosis. Unlike degenerative aortic valve disease, we found no correlation with standard cardiac risk factors. There was a modest association between the severity of aortic valve disease and joint involvement, however, we saw no correlation with urine HGA levels. Vascular calcifications were seen in the coronaries, cardiac valves, aortic root, descending aorta and iliac arteries. These findings suggest an important role for echocardiographic screening of alkaptonuria patients to detect valvular heart disease and cardiac CT to detect coronary artery calcifications. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Scansen, Brian A; Schober, Karsten E; Bonagura, John D; Smeak, Daniel D
4 dogs with acquired pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) were examined for various clinical signs. One was a mixed-breed dog with congenital valvular PAS that subsequently developed peripheral PAS, one was a Golden Retriever with pulmonary valve fibrosarcoma, one was a Pembroke Welsh Corgi in which the left pulmonary artery had inadvertently been ligated during surgery for correction of patent ductus arteriosus, and one was a Boston Terrier with a heart-base mass compressing the pulmonary arteries. All 4 dogs were evaluated with 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography to characterize the nature and severity of the stenoses; other diagnostic tests were also performed. The mixed-breed dog with valvular and peripheral PAS was euthanized, surgical resection of the pulmonic valve mass was performed in the Golden Retriever, corrective surgery was performed on the Pembroke Welsh Corgi with left pulmonary artery ligation, and the Boston Terrier with the heart-base mass was managed medically. Acquired PAS in dogs may manifest as a clinically silent heart murmur, syncope, or right-sided heart failure. The diagnosis is made on the basis of imaging findings, particularly results of 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Treatment may include surgical, interventional, or medical modalities and is targeted at resolving the inciting cause.
Pourafkari, L; Ghaffari, S; Ahmadi, M; Tajlil, A; Aslanabadi, N; Nader, N D
In patients with mitral stenosis (MS), pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a significant contributor to the associated morbidity. We aimed to study factors associated with the presence of significant PH (sPH) and whether incorporating body surface area (BSA) in the mitral valve area (MVA) would improve the predictive value of the latter. The medical records of 558 patients with severe MS undergoing percutaneous balloon mitral commissurotomy were evaluated over a period of 8 years. Factors associated with the presence of significant PH (sPH) defined as mPAP ≥ 40 mm Hg were examined. A total of 558 patients (423 women) were enrolled. Overall, 153 (27%) patients had sPH. Patients with sPH were similar to the rest of the subjects in terms of demographics, body habitus, blood group, and incidence of atrial fibrillation. Among echocardiographic findings, absolute MVA, indexed MVA, and mean transmitral valve gradient were associated with the presence of sPH. Transmitral valve gradient during right heart catheterization had the highest area under the curve for an association with sPH. Age, gender, heart rhythm, and blood group were not associated with the presence of sPH in severe MS. The predictive value of the indexed MVA for the presence of sPH was not higher than that of absolute MVA.
The role of the renal vasculature in eliciting renovascular hypertension (RVH) was established in 1934, when Goldblatt et al.  in a classical experimental study demonstrated that partial obstruction of the renal artery increased mean arterial blood pressure (BP). The pathophysiology of renal artery stenosis (RAS) is incompletely understood but has been postulated to be related to increased afterload from neurohormonal activation and cytokine release . Atherosclerotic RAS (ARAS) is increasingly diagnosed in the expanding elderly population, which also has a high prevalence of arterial hypertension. There is still considerable uncertainty concerning the optimal management of patients with RAS. Many hypertensive patients with RAS have co-existing essential hypertension and furthermore, it is often difficult to determine to what degree the RAS is responsible for the impairment of renal function. There are three possible treatment strategies: medical management, surgery, or percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) with or without stent implantation. The use of stents has improved the technical success rate of PTRA and also led to lower risk of restenosis, in particular for ostial RAS. PTRA with stenting has therefore replaced surgical revascularisation for most patients with RAS and has led to a lower threshold for intervention. The treatment of choice to control hypertension in fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is generally accepted to be PTRA . In ARAS, on the other hand, the benefits with PTRA are less clear  and the challenge to identify which patients are likely to benefit from revascularisation remains unknown.
Spinal nerve roots have a peculiar structure, different from the arrangements in the peripheral nerve. The nerve roots are devoid of lymphatic vessels but are immersed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the subarachnoid space. The blood supply of nerve roots depends on the blood flow from both peripheral direction (ascending) and the spinal cord direction (descending). There is no hypovascular region in the nerve root, although there exists a so-called water-shed of the bloodstream in the radicular artery itself. Increased mechanical compression promotes the disturbance of CSF flow, circulatory disturbance starting from the venous congestion and intraradicular edema formation resulting from the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier. Although this edema may diffuse into CSF when the subarachnoid space is preserved, the endoneurial fluid pressure may increase when the area is closed by increased compression. On the other hand, the nerve root tissue has already degenerated under the compression and the numerous macrophages releasing various chemical mediators, aggravating radicular symptoms that appear in the area of Wallerian degeneration. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a potent vasodilator as well as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and has therefore attracted interest as a therapeutic drug for lumbar canal stenosis. However, investigations in the clinical setting have shown that PGE1 is effective in some patients but not in others, although the reason for this is unclear. PMID:24829876
Spinal nerve roots have a peculiar structure, different from the arrangements in the peripheral nerve. The nerve roots are devoid of lymphatic vessels but are immersed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the subarachnoid space. The blood supply of nerve roots depends on the blood flow from both peripheral direction (ascending) and the spinal cord direction (descending). There is no hypovascular region in the nerve root, although there exists a so-called water-shed of the bloodstream in the radicular artery itself. Increased mechanical compression promotes the disturbance of CSF flow, circulatory disturbance starting from the venous congestion and intraradicular edema formation resulting from the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier. Although this edema may diffuse into CSF when the subarachnoid space is preserved, the endoneurial fluid pressure may increase when the area is closed by increased compression. On the other hand, the nerve root tissue has already degenerated under the compression and the numerous macrophages releasing various chemical mediators, aggravating radicular symptoms that appear in the area of Wallerian degeneration. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a potent vasodilator as well as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and has therefore attracted interest as a therapeutic drug for lumbar canal stenosis. However, investigations in the clinical setting have shown that PGE1 is effective in some patients but not in others, although the reason for this is unclear.
Radl, Roman; Kastner, Norbert; Aigner, Christian; Portugaller, Horst; Schreyer, Herbert; Windhager, Reinhard
Although surgery for the treatment of hallux valgus is frequently performed, the exact rate of deep vein thrombosis following this procedure is unknown. We performed a single-center, prospective, phlebographically controlled study to quantify the rate of venous thrombosis following operative correction of hallux valgus. Consecutive patients undergoing chevron bunionectomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity were enrolled in the study. Patients with clinical or hematological risk factors for venous thrombosis were excluded. One hundred patients with a mean age of 48.9 years were operated on and did not receive medical prophylaxis against thrombosis. All patients were assessed with phlebography at a mean of twenty-nine days postoperatively. Venous thrombosis was found in four patients (4%). The mean age of these patients (and standard deviation) was 61.7 +/- 6.1 years compared with a mean age of 48.4 +/- 13.9 years for the patients in whom thrombosis did not develop (p = 0.034). Patients are at a low risk for venous thrombosis following surgical treatment of hallux valgus. The need for prophylaxis against thrombosis should be calculated individually for each patient according to his or her known level of risk. Routine medical prophylaxis against thrombosis might be justified for patients over the age of sixty years.
Taibi, A; Gadda, G; Gambaccini, M; Menegatti, E; Sisini, F; Zamboni, P
The gravitational gradient is the major component to face when considering the physiology of venous return, and there is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms ensuring the heart filling, in the absence of gravity, for astronauts who perform long-term space missions. The purpose of the Drain Brain project was to monitor the cerebral venous outflow of a crew member during an experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), so as to study the compensatory mechanisms that facilitate this essential physiological action in subjects living in a microgravity environment. Such venous function has been characterized by means of a novel application of strain-gauge plethysmography which uses a capacitive sensor. In this contribution, preliminary results of our investigation have been presented. In particular, comparison of plethysmography data confirmed that long duration spaceflights lead to a redistribution of venous blood volume, and showed interesting differences in the amplitude of cardiac oscillations measured at the level of the neck veins. The success of the experiment has also demonstrated that thanks to its easy portability, non-invasiveness, and non-operator dependence, the proposed device can be considered as a novel tool for use aboard the ISS. Further trials are now under way to complete the investigation on the drainage function of the neck veins in microgravity.
Serra, R; Gallelli, L; Perri, P; De Francesco, E M; Rigiracciolo, D C; Mastroroberto, P; Maggiolini, M; de Franciscis, S
Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common and relevant problem affecting Western people. The role of estrogens and their receptors in the venous wall seems to support the major prevalence of CVD in women. The effects of the estrogens are mediated by three estrogen receptors (ERs): ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled ER (GPER). The expression of ERs in the vessel walls of varicose veins is evaluated. In this prospective study, patients of both sexes, with CVD and varicose veins undergoing open venous surgery procedures, were enrolled in order to obtain vein samples. To obtain control samples of healthy veins, patients of both sexes without CVD undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with autologous saphenous vein were recruited (control group). Samples were processed in order to evaluate gene expression. Forty patients with CVD (10 men [25%], 30 women [75%], mean age 54.3 years [median 52 years, range 33-74 years]) were enrolled. Five patients without CVD (three men, two women [aged 61-73 years]) were enrolled as the control group. A significant increase of tissue expression of ERα, ERβ and GPER in patients with CVD was recorded (p < .01), which was also related to the severity of venous disease. ERs seem to play a role in CVD; in this study, the expression of ERs correlated with the severity of the disease, and their expression was correlated with the clinical stage. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beheshti, Michael V
Central venous access has become a mainstay of modern interventional radiology practice. Its history has paralleled and enabled many current medical therapies. This short overview provides an interesting historical perspective of these increasingly common interventional procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Malone, P Colm; Agutter, P S
According to the valve cusp hypoxia hypothesis (VCHH), deep venous thrombosis is caused by sustained non-pulsatile (streamline) venous blood flow. This leads to hypoxemia in the valve pockets; hypoxic injury to the inner (parietalis) endothelium of the cusp leaflets activates the elk-1/egr-1 pathway, leading to leukocyte and platelet swarming at the site of injury and, potentially, blood coagulation. Here, we propose an extension of the VCHH to account for chronic venous insufficiency. First, should the foregoing events not proceed to frank thrombogenesis, the valves may nevertheless be chronically injured and become incompetent. Serial incompetence in lower limb valves may then generate ''passive'' venous hypertension. Second, should ostial valve thrombosis obstruct venous return from muscles via tributaries draining into the femoral vein, as Virchow illustrated, ''active'' venous hypertension may supervene: muscle contraction would force the blood in the vessels behind the blocked ostial valves to re-route. Passive or active venous hypertension opposes return flow, leading to luminal hypoxemia and vein wall distension, which in turn may impair vasa venarum perfusion; the resulting mural endothelial hypoxia would lead to leukocyte invasion of the wall and remodelling of the media. We propose that varicose veins result if gross active hypertension stretches the valve ''rings'', rendering attached valves incompetent caudad to obstructed sites, replacing normal centripetal flow in perforating veins with centrifugal flow and over-distending those vessels. We also discuss how hypoxemia-related venous/capillary wall lesions may lead to accumulation of leukocytes, progressive blockage of capillary blood flow, lipodermosclerosis and skin ulceration.
Schober, Karsten E; Rhinehart, Jaylyn; Kohnken, Rebecca; Bonagura, John D
Combined cutting balloon and high-pressure balloon dilation was performed in a dog with a double-chambered right ventricle and severe infundibular stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract. The peak systolic pressure gradient across the stenosis decreased by 65% after dilation (from 187 mmHg before to 66 mmHg after) affirming the intervention as successful. However, early re-stenosis occurred within 3 months leading to exercise intolerance, exercise-induced syncope, and right-sided congestive heart failure. Cutting balloon followed by high-pressure balloon dilation provided temporary but not long-term relief of right ventricular obstruction in this dog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bae, Coney; Szuchmacher, Mauricio; Chang, John B.
The treatment of carotid stenosis entails three methodologies, namely, medical management, carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS), as well as carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) and European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) have shown that symptomatic carotid stenosis greater than 70% is best treated with CEA. In asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis greater than 60%, CEA was more beneficial than treatment with aspirin alone according to the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis (ACAS) and Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Trial (ACST) trials. When CAS is compared with CEA, the CREST resulted in similar rates of ipsilateral stroke and death rates regardless of symptoms. However, CAS not only increased adverse effects in women, it also amplified stroke rates and death in elderly patients compared with CEA. CAS can maximize its utility in treating focal restenosis after CEA and patients with overwhelming cardiac risk or prior neck irradiation. When performing CEA, using a patch was equated to a more durable result than primary closure, whereas eversion technique is a new methodology deserving a spotlight. Comparing the three major treatment strategies of carotid stenosis has intrinsic drawbacks, as most trials are outdated and they vary in their premises, definitions, and study designs. With the newly codified best medical management including antiplatelet therapies with aspirin and clopidogrel, statin, antihypertensive agents, strict diabetes control, smoking cessation, and life style change, the current trials may demonstrate that asymptomatic carotid stenosis is best treated with best medical therapy. The ongoing trials will illuminate and reshape the treatment paradigm for symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis. PMID:26417191
Balaz, P; Wohlfahrt, P; Rokosny, S; Maly, S; Bjorck, M
Thrombolysis has been reported to be suboptimal in occluded vein grafts and cryopreserved allografts, and there are no data on the efficacy of thrombolysis in occluded cold stored venous allografts. The aim was to evaluate early outcomes, secondary patency and limb salvage rates of thrombolysed cold stored venous allograft bypasses and to compare the outcomes with thrombolysis of autologous bypasses. This was a single center study of consecutive patients with acute and non-acute limb ischemia between September 1, 2000, and January 1, 2014, with occlusion of cold stored venous allografts, and between January 1, 2012, and January 1, 2014, with occlusion of autologous bypass who received intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy. Sixty-one patients with occlusion of an infrainguinal bypass using a cold stored venous allograft (n = 35) or an autologous bypass (n = 26) underwent percutaneous intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy. The median duration of thrombolysis was 20 h (IQR 18-24) with no difference between the groups (p = .14). The median follow up was 18.5 months (IQR 11.0-52.0). Secondary patency rates of thrombolysed bypass at 6 and 12 months were 44 ± 9% and 32 ± 9% in patients with a venous allograft bypass and 46 ± 10% and 22 ± 8% with an autologous bypass, with no difference between groups (p = .40). Limb salvage rates at 1, 6, and 12 months after thrombolysis in the venous allograft group were 83 ± 7%, 72 ± 8% and 63 ± 9%, and in the autologous group 91 ± 6%, 76 ± 9%, and 65 ± 13%, with no difference between groups (p = .69). Long-term results of thrombolysis of venous allograft bypasses are similar to those of autologous bypasses. Occluded cold stored venous allograft can be successfully re-opened in most cases with a favorable effect on limb salvage. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mahale, Rohan; Mehta, Anish; John, Aju Abraham; Buddaraju, Kiran; Shankar, Abhinandan K; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty
Seizures are the presenting feature of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in 12-31.9% of patients. 44.3% of patients have seizures in the early stage of the disease. Acute seizures (AS), refers to seizures which take place before the diagnosis or during the first 2 weeks afterward. To report the predictors of acute seizures in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). 100 patients with CVST were included in the study. The occurrence of acute seizures was noted. The predictors of acute seizure were evaluated by univariate analysis including the demographic (gender, age), clinical (headache, focal neurological deficit, papilloedema, GCS score), type and number of risk factors, MRI findings (Type of lesion: hemorrhagic infarction or hematoma, location of lesion) and MRV findings (superficial or deep sinus, cortical veins). A total of 46 patients had acute seizures. On univariate analysis, altered mental status (p<0.001), paresis (p=0.03), GCS score <8 (p=0.009), hemorrhagic infarct on imaging (p=0.04), involvement of frontal lobe (p=0.02), superior sagittal sinus (p=0.008), and high D-dimer levels (p=0.03) were significantly associated with acute seizure. On multivariate analysis, the hemorrhagic infarct on MRI and high D-dimer was independently predictive for early seizure. The predictive factors for the acute seizures are altered mental status (GCS<8), focal deficits, hemorrhagic infarct, involvement of frontal lobe and superior sagittal sinus with high D-dimer levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Talwar, Sachin; Anand, Abhishek; Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Kothari, Shyam Sunder; Saxena, Anita; Juneja, Rajnish; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Airan, Balram
We reviewed the long-term results of surgery for discrete subaortic membrane (SubAM) from a single institute. A retrospective review of medical records of all patients (n = 146) who underwent resection of a SubAM for discrete subaortic stenosis between 1990 and 2015 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India was undertaken. Median age at surgery was 9.0 years (9 months-47 years). There was one early death. Preoperative peak left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) Doppler gradient was 83.4 ± 26.2 mmHg (range: 34-169 mmHg). On preoperative echocardiography, aortic regurgitation (AR) was absent in 69 (47.3%), mild in 35 (24%), moderate in 30 (20.5%), and severe in 12 (8.2%). After surgery, the LVOT gradient was reduced to 15.1 ± 6.2 mmHg (P < 0.001). Fourteen patients (9.6%) who had residual/recurrent significant gradients are currently being followed-up or awaiting surgery. There was improvement in AR for operated patients with freedom from AR of 92.6 ± 0.03% at 15 years. Kaplan-Meier survival at 25 years was 93.0 ± 3.9% (95% confidence interval: 79.6, 97.7). Freedom from re-operation at 25 years was 96.9 ± 1.8%. Long-term results of surgery for discrete SubAM are good. Resection of the membrane along with septal myectomy decreases the risk of recurrence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Masui, Daisuke; Iinuma, Yasushi; Hirayama, Yutaka; Nitta, Kohju; Iida, Hisataka; Otani, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Sato, Seiichi; Numano, Fujito; Yagi, Minoru
Inferior vena cava injuries are highly lethal. We experienced a case of retrohepatic inferior vena cava injury as a result of blunt trauma in a three-year-old female. Because the site of bleeding of the IVC was identified, we repaired it with running sutures. An attempt at primary repair resulted in postoperative narrowing of the vena cava. There was pressure gradient of the right atrium and inferior vena cava, and collateral circulation developed. Since it was also found that the haemodynamics was unstable, the child underwent another intervention before the stenosis of the IVC was fixed. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of therapeutic radiological intervention for stenosis that developed after treatment of a traumatic IVC injury. The IVC in the present case recovered enough patency so that the collateral venous flow could be decreased after balloon dilatation angioplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Notowitz, L B
Venous disease of the lower extremities is common but is often misunderstood. It seems that the focus is on the exciting world of arterial anatomy and pathology, while the topic of venous anatomy and pathology comes in second place. However, venous diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, and varicose veins affect much of the population and may lead to disability and death. Nurses are often required to answer complex questions from the patients and his or her family about the patient's disease. Patients depend on nurses to provide accurate information in terms they can understand. Therefore it is important to have an understanding of the normal venous system of the legs before one can understand the complexities of venous diseases and treatments. This presents an overview of normal venous anatomy and physiology.
Weber, Benjamin R; Dieter, Robert S
Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a frequently encountered problem in clinical practice. The disease encompasses a broad spectrum of pathophysiologies and is associated with three major clinical syndromes: ischemic nephropathy, hypertension, and destabilizing cardiac syndromes. The two most common etiologies are fibromuscular dysplasia and atherosclerotic renal artery disease with atherosclerotic disease accounting for the vast majority of cases. Atherosclerotic renovascular disease has considerable overlap with atherosclerotic disease elsewhere and is associated with a poor prognosis. A wide range of diagnostic modalities and treatment approaches for RAS are available to clinicians, and with the advent of endovascular interventions, selecting the best course for a given patient has only grown more challenging. Several clinical trials have demonstrated some benefit with revascularization but not to the extent that many had hoped for or expected. Furthermore, much of the existing data is only marginally useful given significant flaws in study design and inherent bias. There remains a need for further identification of subgroups and appropriate indications in hopes of maximizing outcomes and avoiding unnecessary procedures in patients who would not benefit from treatment. In recent decades, the study of RAS has expanded and evolved rapidly. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the amassed body of literature with a focus on the epidemiology of RAS including prevalence, overlap with other atherosclerotic disease, and prognosis. We will also outline existing diagnostic and treatment approaches available to clinicians as well as summarize the findings of several major clinical trials. Finally, we will offer our perspective on future directions in the field. PMID:24868169
Sawazaki, Masaru; Tomari, Shiro; Zaikokuji, Kenta; Imaeda, Yusuke
Mitral annuloplasty is an important component of the treatment of degenerative mitral valve disease. However, postoperative echocardiography reveals elevated mitral gradients in some patients. We developed a technique that we termed interrupted commissural band annuloplasty (iCBA), which does not shorten either the anterior or posterior annulus and is not associated with the development of a mitral gradient. We compared the echocardiographic characteristics of patients treated using this method versus Cosgrove ring (COS) placement, both at rest and during exercise. ICBA features placement of three sutures in the commissures using two bands and shortens the commissural annular length by 60 %. We used this method to treat 63 patients and placed Cosgrove bands in 58. Of all patients, 48 who underwent iCBA and 34 with COSs passed the exercise echocardiographic test. The maximal transmitral pressures at rest in the iCBA and Cosgrove groups were 8.04 ± 0.74 and 11.30 ± 0.88 mmHg (P = 0.0029), respectively, and the mean transmitral pressures at rest were 2.46 ± 0.74 and 3.61 ± 0.32 mmHg (P = 0.0037), respectively. The maximal transmitral pressures during exercise were 11.79 ± 0.97 and 18.37 ± 1.16 mmHg (P < 0.0001), and the mean transmitral pressures during exercise were 4.95 ± 0.45 and 7.76 ± 0.53 mmHg (P < 0.0001). ICBA prevents postoperative mitral stenosis both at rest and importantly during exercise.
McCann, F; Michaud, L; Aspirot, A; Levesque, D; Gottrand, F; Faure, C
Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a rare clinical condition but is frequently associated with esophageal atresia (EA). The aim of this study is to report the diagnosis, management, and outcome of CES associated with EA. Medical charts of CES-EA patients from Lille University Hospital, Sainte-Justine Hospital, and Montreal Children's Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Seventeen patients (13 boys) were included. The incidence of CES in patients with EA was 3.6%. Fifteen patients had a type C EA, one had a type A EA, and one had an isolated tracheoesophageal fistula. Seven patients had associated additional malformations. The mean age at diagnosis was 11.6 months. All but two patients had non-specific symptoms such as regurgitations or dysphagia. One CES was diagnosed at the time of surgical repair of EA. In 12 patients, CES was suspected based on abnormal barium swallow. In the remaining four, the diagnostic was confirmed by esophagoscopy. Eleven patients were treated by dilation only (1-3 dilations/patient). Six patients underwent surgery (resection and anastomosis) because of failure of attempted dilations (1-7 dilations/patient). Esophageal perforation was encountered in three patients (18%). Three patients had histologically proven tracheobronchial remnants. CES associated with EA is frequent. A high index of suspicion for CES must remain in the presence of EA. Dilatation may be effective to treat some of them, but perforation is frequent. Surgery may be required, especially in CES secondary to ectopic tracheobronchial remnants. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.
Casiano, R R; Numa, W A; Nurko, Y J
The efficacy and safety of intraluminal Wallstent Endoprosthesis (Boston Scientific/ Medi-Tech, Quincy, MA) placement to restore airway patency in patients with tracheal stenosis or tracheomalacia are unknown. Retrospective review in setting of tertiary, referral, and academic center. A retrospective review of 13 consecutive patients over a 2-year period who underwent transoral resection of tracheal stenosis and immediate transoral Wallstent placement. One patient had tracheomalacia. All of the patients were considered at high risk for transcervical surgery or had failed prior traditional open procedures. The average patient age was 54.2 years, with nine male and four female patients. All had Cotton/Myer stenoses (grades II to IV) with moderate to severe degrees of inspiratory stridor. Four patients were tracheotomy dependent. The length of stenosis varied from 1 to 4 cm. One patient had a 10-cm segment of tracheomalacia. At the time of writing, none of the patients has had a problem with significant migration or extrusion and most of the patients have incorporated the stent well without any short-term obstructive granulation tissue. After a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 4-24 mo). 10 of the 12 patients with stenosis (83%) have remained free of any inspiratory noise during breathing. The one patient with tracheomalacia also has remained free of symptoms. Transoral Wallstents appear to be safe and may be a reasonable alternative in the restoration of airway patency in select patients with tracheal stenosis or tracheomalacia.
Reddy, Vemuru Sunil K; Guleria, Sandeep; Bora, Girdhar S
Kidney donation from hypertensive donors is now an accepted norm in live related kidney transplantation. The use of hypertensive donors with renal artery stenosis due to atherosclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia is still debated. The prime concern is about the deleterious effect of hypertension on the donor and the risk of recurrence of such lesions in the solitary kidney. Even as the response of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis to revascularisation is unpredictable, there is an improvement in blood pressure following revascularisation of kidneys with fibro-muscular dysplasia. The first use of such kidney donors was reported in 1984 and, since then, there have been a few reports of successful use of kidneys from donors with renal artery stenosis. We report here two interesting cases of successful transplantation of kidneys from live related kidney donors with hypertension due to renal artery stenosis who became normotensive with good graft function in the recipient. We conclude that moderately hypertensive donors with renal artery stenosis are fit to donate.
Kirilmaz, B; Asgun, F; Saygi, S; Ercan, E
Left ventricular (LV) torsion is a sensitive indicator of myocardial contractility and cardiac structure, and has recently been recognized as a sensitive indicator of cardiac performance. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of isolated mitral stenosis on LV torsion. We enrolled 19 patients with isolated mitral stenosis and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects in the study. All patients had a normal sinus rhythm. All study subjects underwent two-dimensional echocardiography. Basal and apical LV rotations and LV torsion were evaluated using speckle-tracking echocardiography. Demographic characteristics, basic echocardiographic measures of LV ejection fraction, LV wall thickness, and LV mass index were similar between the two groups. The degrees of LV torsion (11.3 ± 4.7, 15.4 ± 4.9°, p=0.014) and LV basal rotation (- 3.7 ± 1.9, - 6.5 ± 2.1°, p< 0.001) were significantly decreased in the mitral stenosis group. There was a moderate positive correlation between mitral valve area and LV torsion (r=0.531, p=0.019). We showed significant reductions in LV torsion and LV basal rotation in patients with mitral valve stenosis. Structural and anatomical changes occurring during the progression of mitral stenosis may be responsible for these impaired movements.
Nou, M; Rodière, M; Schved, J-F; Laroche, J-P; Quéré, I; Dauzat, M; Jeziorski, E
Venous thromboembolism disease (VTE) is rare in children (5.3 of 10,000 hospitalized children). However, morbidity and mortality are high, especially when the child is already suffering from severe sepsis. We report an analytical study of 24 cases of deep venous thrombosis occurring in children during infection, recorded at the Montpellier University Hospital between 1999 and 2009. Many parameters were studied in each population (age, sex, familial and personal history of thrombosis, history of thrombophilia, the presence of a venous catheter, a causative organism, time to onset of thrombus, topography of lesions, acquired abnormalities of hemostasis, and thrombosis prophylaxis). The children were aged from 1 day of life to 16 years. Thromboses occurred in two clinical contexts: "contact" thrombosis (which appeared near the infection) and disseminated thrombosis. This is an early complication because in most of the cases, it appeared in the first 10 days of sepsis. Infection and coagulation appear to be closely related and the states of latent or decompensated disseminated intravascular coagulation are common. Nevertheless, it is not possible to predict the occurence of a thrombotic event. The presence of risk factors (venous catheters, acquired thrombophilia, or constitutional thrombophilia) may increase the thrombogenic potential of the infection. VTE should always be suspected and sought in case of an unfavorable clinical course, and routine prophylaxis of thrombosis during sepsis should be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Ning; Zhang, Jiale; Jiang, Ting; Chen, Xia; Wang, Jianning; Ding, Chengzhi; Liu, Fen; Qian, Kejian; Jiang, Rong
To analyze the incidence and its risk factors of peripherally inserted central venous catheter related upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (PICC-UEDVT) in intensive care unit (ICU). Clinical data of the patients received PICCs in ICU of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from August 2013 to August 2016 were retrospectively analysed. The inclusion criteria in the study included: the age > 18 years old, catheter indwelling time > 1 week and the complete relevant information. The gender, age, history of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and PICC; number of illness involved organs; complicated with hypertension, diabetes, infection or not; and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), duration of mechanical ventilation; D-dimer, platelet count (PLT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were recorded. According to the occurrence of PICC-UEDVT, univariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors of PICC-UEDVT and variables with statistical difference were selected to do multivariate binary logistic regression analysis for the confirmable independence risk factors. Six patients of the 61 cases occurred PICC-UEDVT with the occurrence rate of 9.8%. Time of occurrence was 9 days, 14 days (2 cases), 22 days, 28 days, 62 days after inserted catheter respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated that previous DVT, D-dimer and big diameter PICC were risk factors associated with PICC-UEDVT [the previous DVT: 50.00% vs. 7.27%, P = 0.017; D-dimer > 5 mg/L: 66.67% vs. 18.18%, P = 0.021; 5F catheter: 83.33% vs. 29.09%, P = 0.016]. It was shown by multivariate logistic regression analysis that the previous DVT [odds ratio (OR) = 20.539, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.733-243.875, P = 0.017] and increasing size of catheter (OR = 18.070, 95%CI = 1.317-247.875, P = 0.030) were independent risk factors associated with the development of PICC-UEDVT. For critical patients with a history of DVT and D-dimer > 5 mg
Snellen, H A; van Ingen, H C; Hoefsmit, E C
All of our cases of abnormal pulmonary venous connections collected to the middle of 1965 and verified at surgery or autopsy have been reviewed by means of diagrams and tabulations, using a specially devised code to facilitate the survey. The material consisted of 52 autopsy cases (half of them obtained after surgery) and the cases of 72 patients who survived operation. The postmortem group was much younger than the surgical group and differed also from the latter by showing male preponderance as well as relatively many instances of total abnormal pulmonary venous connection and frequently associated cardiac anomalies. Partial anomalous connection of right pulmonary veins was 10 times more frequent than that of the left pulmonary veins. This was caused by (1) the frequent drainage of some of the right pulmonary veins into the junctional area between right atrium and superior vena cava in the presence of normal left pulmonary veins, and (2) the complete absence of isolated left pulmonary venous connection to the right atrium. Abnormal connection of solitary pulmonary veins was always effected to the most proximal venous structure among the four possible ones which are derived from the main embryonic channels (superior vena cava and inferior vena cava on the right side, and left superior vena cava and coronary sinus on the left side). Common pulmonary veins from one lung also drained in accordance with this proximity rule, if this may be taken to apply also to the drainage of right pulmonary veins into the right atrium. The one exception in our material was the drainage of all right pulmonary veins into the portal venous system. Total abnormal pulmonary venous connection may be found with all structures mentioned, but most frequently with the left superior vena cava, or coronary sinus, or both, usually by way of a common pulmonary vein. In a few cases however, drainage into different sites, all of them abnormal, did occur. Then again the proximity rule seemed to
Jull, A; Arroll, B; Parag, V; Waters, J
Healing of venous leg ulcers is improved by the use of compression bandaging but some venous ulcers remain unhealed, and some people are unsuitable for compression therapy. Pentoxifylline, a drug which helps blood flow, has been used to treat venous leg ulcers. An earlier version of this review included 9 randomised controlled trials, but more research has been since been conducted and an updated review is required. To assess the effects of pentoxifylline (oxpentifylline or Trental 400) for treating venous leg ulcers, compared with placebo, or other therapies, in the presence or absence of compression therapy. For this second update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cinahl (date of last search was February 2007), and reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised trials comparing pentoxifylline with placebo or other therapy in the presence or absence of compression, in people with venous leg ulcers. Details from eligible trials were extracted and summarised by one author using a coding sheet. Data extraction was independently verified by one other author. Twelve trials involving 864 participants were included. The quality of trials was variable. Eleven trials compared pentoxifylline with placebo or no treatment; in seven of these trials patients received compression therapy. In one trial pentoxifylline was compared with defibrotide in patients who also received compression. Combining 11 trials that compared pentoxifylline with placebo or no treatment (with or without compression) demonstrated that pentoxifylline is more effective than placebo in terms of complete ulcer healing or significant improvement (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.24). Significant heterogeneity was associated with differences in sample populations (hard-to-heal samples compared with "normal" healing samples). Pentoxifylline plus compression is more effective than placebo plus compression (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.13). Pentoxifylline in the
Jull, Andrew B; Arroll, Bruce; Parag, Varsha; Waters, Jill
Healing of venous leg ulcers is improved by the use of compression bandaging but some venous ulcers remain unhealed, and some people are unsuitable for compression therapy. Pentoxifylline, a drug which helps blood flow, has been used to treat venous leg ulcers. To assess the effects of pentoxifylline (oxpentifylline or Trental 400) for treating venous leg ulcers, compared with a placebo or other therapies, in the presence or absence of compression therapy. For this fifth update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 20 July 2012); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); Ovid MEDLINE (2010 to July Week 2 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, July 19, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (2010 to 2012 Week 28); and EBSCO CINAHL (2010 to July 13 2012). Randomised trials comparing pentoxifylline with placebo or other therapy in the presence or absence of compression, in people with venous leg ulcers. One review author extracted and summarised details from eligible trials using a coding sheet. One other review author independently verified data extraction. No new trials were identified for this update. We included twelve trials involving 864 participants. The quality of trials was variable. Eleven trials compared pentoxifylline with placebo or no treatment. Pentoxifylline is more effective than placebo in terms of complete ulcer healing or significant improvement (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.24). Pentoxifylline plus compression is more effective than placebo plus compression (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.13). Pentoxifylline in the absence of compression appears to be more effective than placebo or no treatment (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.49 to 3.39).More adverse effects were reported in people receiving pentoxifylline (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.22). Nearly three-quarters (72%) of the reported adverse effects were gastrointestinal. Pentoxifylline is an effective adjunct to compression
Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Baker, Reginald; Bhatia, Shivank S; Narayanan, Govindarajan
Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a vascular complication frequently seen because of increase in the number of renal transplantations. Early diagnosis and management is essential to optimize a proper graft function. Currently, the endovascular treatment of TRAS using angioplasty and/or stenting is considered the treatment of choice with the advantage that it does not preclude subsequent surgical correction. Treatment of TRAS with the use of stents, particularly in tortuous transplant renal anatomy presents a unique challenge to an interventional radiologist. In this study, we present three cases from our practice highlighting the use of a balloon-expandable Multi-Link RX Ultra coronary stent system (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) for treating high grade focal stenosis along very tortuous renal arterial segments. Cobalt-Chromium alloy stent scaffold provides excellent radial force, whereas the flexible stent design conforms to the vessel course allowing for optimal stent alignment.
Pan, Longfang; Zhao, Qianru; Yang, Xiangmei
To evaluate the risk factors associated with an increased risk of symptomatic peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-related venous thrombosis. Retrospective analyses identified 2313 patients who received PICCs from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. All 11 patients with symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis (thrombosis group) and 148 who did not have thromboses (non-thrombosis group) were selected randomly. The medical information of 159 patients (age, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, smoking history, nutritional risk score, platelet count, leucocyte count as well as levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and degradation products of fibrin) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the risk factors for thrombosis. Of 2313 patients, 11 (0.47%) were found to have symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis by color Doppler ultrasound. Being bedridden for a long time (odds ratio [(OR]), 17.774; P=0.0017), D-dimer >5 mg/L (36.651; 0.0025) and suffering from one comorbidity (8.39; 0.0265) or more comorbidities (13.705; 0.0083) were the major risk factors for PICC-catheter related venous thrombosis by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Among 159 patients, the prevalence of PICC-associated venous thrombosis in those with ≥1 risk factor was 10.34% (12/116), in those with ≥2 risk factors was 20.41% (10/49), and in those with >3 risk factors was 26.67% (4/15). Being bedridden >72 h, having increased levels of D-dimer (>5 mg/L) and suffering from comorbidities were independent risk factors of PICC-related venous thrombosis. PMID:25664112
Barker, J A; Hill, J
As an alternative to more radical abdominal surgery, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) offers a minimally invasive solution for the excision of certain rectal polyps and early-stage rectal tumours. The patient benefits of TEM as compared to radical abdominal surgery are clear; nevertheless, some drawback is possible. The aim of our study was to determine the risk factors, treatment and outcomes of rectal stenosis following TEM. We analysed a series of 354 consecutive patients who underwent TEM for benign or malignant rectal tumours between 1997 and 2009. We recorded the maximum histological diameter of the lesion, and whether the lesion was circumferential. Rectal stenosis was defined as a rectal narrowing not allowing passage of a 12 mm sigmoidoscope. Histological results with a measured specimen diameter were available in 304 of the 354 cases. There were 11 stenoses in total (3.6%), 7 stenoses due to 9 circumferential lesions (78%) and 4 due to lesions with a maximum diameter ≥ 5 cm (3.2%). Two patients presented as emergencies, and the other 9 patients reported symptoms of increased stool frequency at follow-up. Three of the stenoses were associated with recurrent disease. All stenoses were treated by a combination of endoscopic/radiological balloon dilatation or surgically with Hegar's dilators. A median of two procedures were required to treat stenoses until resolution of symptoms. Rectal stenosis following TEM excision is rare. It is predictable in patients with circumferential lesions but is rare in patients with non-circumferential lesions with a maximum diameter ≥ 5 cm. It is effectively treated with surgical or balloon dilatation. Most patients require repeated treatments.
D'Andrilli, Antonio; Maurizi, Giulio; Andreetti, Claudio; Ciccone, Anna Maria; Ibrahim, Mohsen; Poggi, Camilla; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo
Long-term results of patients undergoing laryngotracheal resection for benign stenosis are reported. This is the largest series ever published. Between 1991 and March 2015, 109 consecutive patients (64 males, 45 females; mean age 39 ± 10.9 years) underwent laryngotracheal resection for subglottic postintubation (93) or idiopathic (16) stenosis. Preoperative procedures included tracheostomy in 35 patients, laser in 17 and laser plus stenting in 18. The upper limit of the stenosis ranged between actual involvement of the vocal cords and 1.5 cm from the glottis. Airway resection length ranged between 1.5 and 6 cm (mean 3.4 ± 0.8 cm) and it was over 4.5 cm in 14 patients. Laryngotracheal release was performed in 9 patients (suprahyoid in 7, pericardial in 1 and suprahyoid + pericardial in 1). There was no perioperative mortality. Ninety-nine patients (90.8%) had excellent or good early results. Ten patients (9.2%) experienced complications including restenosis in 8, dehiscence in 1 and glottic oedema requiring tracheostomy in 1. Restenosis was treated in all 8 patients with endoscopic procedures (5 laser, 2 laser + stent, 1 mechanical dilatation). The patient with anastomotic dehiscence required temporary tracheostomy closed after 1 year with no sequelae. One patient presenting postoperative glottic oedema underwent permanent tracheostomy. Minor complications occurred in 4 patients (3 wound infections, 1 atrial fibrillation). Definitive excellent or good results were achieved in 94.5% of patients. Twenty-eight post-coma patients with neuropsychiatric disorders showed no increased complication and failure rate. Laryngotracheal resection is the definitive curative treatment for subglottic stenosis allowing very high success rate at long term. Early complications can be managed by endoscopic procedures achieving excellent and stable results over time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio
Marrelli, Daniele; Voglino, Costantino; Di Mare, Giulio; Ferrara, Francesco; Guazzi, Gianni; Croce, Federica; Costantini, Maurizio; Piagnerelli, Riccardo; Roviello, Franco
Background Intestinal stenosis of Garré, first described in 1892, is a rare condition as a consequence of a complicated strangulated hernia. Preoperative diagnosis is challenging because of unspecific symptoms. Proper anamnesis, especially in terms of clinical and surgical history, as well as careful examination of both inguinal spaces is essential. Case Report We herein present a case of intestinal stenosis of Garré in a 70-year-old female. Conclusion Intestinal stenosis of Garré should be considered in cases of occlusive symptoms occurring after a non-operative or surgical reduction of a strangulated hernia. A correct diagnosis and an adequate surgical treatment are necessary to solve this rare complication favorably. PMID:26468318
McDougall, Cameron M; Khan, Khurshid; Saqqur, Maher; Jack, Andrew; Rempel, Jeremy; Derksen, Carol; Xi, Yin; Chow, Michael
Flow diversion is a relatively new strategy used to treat complex cerebral aneurysms. The optimal method for radiographic follow-up of patients treated with flow diverters has not been established. The rate and clinical implications of in-stent stenosis for these devices is unclear. We evaluate the use of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) for follow-up of in-stent stenosis. We analyzed 28 patients treated with the Pipeline embolization device (PED) over the course of 42 months from January 2009 to June 2012. Standard conventional cerebral angiograms were performed in all patients. TCD studies were available in 23 patients. Angiographic and TCD results were compared and found to correlate well. TCD is a potentially useful adjunct for evaluating in-stent stenosis after flow diversion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Laroche, J P; Dauzat, M; Muller, G; Janbon, C
Color Doppler is a technique which performs a real-time opacification of the vascular system with blue indicating reverse flow and red indicating forward flow (directional color coding). In venous pathology, the use of color Doppler improves significantly the anatomical evaluation of the inferior vena cava, the iliac vein, the deep femoral vein, and the sural system. Color Doppler facilitates the study of deep venous thrombosis (providing useful information to differentiate ancient from most recent thrombus) and also the study of post-thrombotic conditions (assessment of reverse flow, repermeation phenomena). Finally, color Doppler produces a better insight for the study of varicose veins, especially with regard to mapping, identification of communicante veins, and study of the external saphenous vein.
Nicholson, Helen L; Al-Hakeem, Yasser; Maldonado, Javier J; Tse, Vincent
The aim of this review is to examine all urethral strictures and stenoses subsequent to treatment for prostate cancer, including radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and cryotherapy. The overall majority respond to endoscopic treatment, including dilatation, direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) or bladder neck incision (BNI). There are adjunct treatments to endoscopic management, including injections of corticosteroids and mitomycin C (MMC) and urethral stents, which remain controversial and are not currently mainstay of treatment. Recalcitrant strictures are most commonly managed with urethroplasty, while recalcitrant stenosis is relatively rare yet almost always associated with bothersome urinary incontinence, requiring bladder neck reconstruction and subsequent artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation, or urinary diversion for the devastated outlet.
Nicholson, Helen L.; Al-Hakeem, Yasser; Maldonado, Javier J.
The aim of this review is to examine all urethral strictures and stenoses subsequent to treatment for prostate cancer, including radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and cryotherapy. The overall majority respond to endoscopic treatment, including dilatation, direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) or bladder neck incision (BNI). There are adjunct treatments to endoscopic management, including injections of corticosteroids and mitomycin C (MMC) and urethral stents, which remain controversial and are not currently mainstay of treatment. Recalcitrant strictures are most commonly managed with urethroplasty, while recalcitrant stenosis is relatively rare yet almost always associated with bothersome urinary incontinence, requiring bladder neck reconstruction and subsequent artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation, or urinary diversion for the devastated outlet. PMID:28791228
Yagmurlu, Aydin; Vargun, Rahsan; Gollu, Gulnur; Gokcora, I Haluk
A neonate with penile agenesis and congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is presented. The patterns of associated anomalies with penile agenesis, and those of congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis are discussed.
Dolz, Sandra; Górriz, David; Tembl, José Ignacio; Sánchez, Dolors; Fortea, Gerardo; Parkhutik, Vera; Lago, Aida
Progression of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS) in patients with >50% luminal narrowing is considered a potential risk factor for ischemic stroke; however, subclinical molecular biomarkers of ACAS progression are lacking. Recent studies suggest a regulatory function for several microRNAs (miRNAs) on the evolution of carotid plaque, but its role in ACAS progression is mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate a wide miRNA panel in peripheral blood exosomes from patients with ACAS to associate circulating miRNA expression profiles with stenosis progression. The study included 60 patients with ACAS carrying >50% luminal narrowing. First, miRNA expression profiles of circulating exosomes were determined by Affymetrix microarrays from plasma samples of 16 patients from the cohort. Second, those miRNAs among the most differentially expressed in patients with ACAS progression were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in a separate replication cohort of 39 subjects within the patient sample. Our results showed that ACAS progression was associated with development of stroke. MiR-199b-3p, miR-27b-3p, miR-130a-3p, miR-221-3p, and miR-24-3p presented significant higher expression in those patients with ACAS progression. In conclusion, our study supports that specific circulating miRNA expression profiles could provide a new tool that complements the monitoring of ACAS progression, improving therapeutic approaches to prevent ischemic stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Nielsen, Jane Stab; Gilsaa, Torben
A seventy-year-old male was brought to the emergency department severely hypothermic with a core temperature of 27 degrees C. He had sustained circulation and was actively rewarmed for 6,5 hours using central veno-venous haemofiltration. The rewarming was uneventful and the patient was discharged without sequelae. This case is an example of efficient and fast rewarming of severe accidental hypothermia by use of CVVH - a method currently available at most intensive care units in Denmark.
Kandpal, H; Sharma, R; Arora, N K; Gupta, S D
Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt (CEPS) is a rare anomaly. It causes metabolic derangements and is often associated with liver tumours and other anomalies. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of CEPS. However, it may be misleading in determining the type of shunt. We present a six-year-old girl with CEPS to illustrate the importance of histology in determining the presence of portal veins in the portal triad, which were too small to be seen on imaging.
Meisner, J S; Keren, G; Pajaro, O E; Mani, A; Strom, J A; Frater, R W; Laniado, S; Yellin, E L
The importance of the contribution of atrial systole to ventricular filling in mitral stenosis is controversial. The cause of reduced cardiac output following the onset of atrial fibrillation may be due to an increased heart rate, a loss of booster pump function, or both. We studied the atrial contribution to filling under a variety of conditions by combining noninvasive studies of patients with computer modeling. Thirty patients in sinus rhythm with mild-to-severe stenosis were studied with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography for measurement of mitral flow velocity and mitral valve area (MVA). The mean +/- SD atrial contribution to left ventricular filling volume was 18 +/- 10% and varied inversely with mitral resistance. Patients with mild mitral stenosis (MVA, 1.8 +/- 0.7 cm2) and severe mitral stenosis (MVA, 0.9 +/- 0.2 cm2) had atrial contributions of 29 +/- 4% and 9 +/- 5%, respectively. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for these trends were further investigated by the computer model. In modeled severe mitral stenosis, increasing heart rate from 75 to 150 beats/min caused an increase of 5.2 mm Hg in mean left atrial pressure, whereas loss of atrial contraction at a heart rate of 150 beats/min caused only a 1.3 mm Hg increase. The atrial booster pump contributes less to ventricular filling in mitral stenosis than in the normal heart, and the loss of atrial pump function is less important than the effect of increasing heart rate as the cause of decompensation during atrial fibrillation.
Nguyen, Virginia; Cimadevilla, Claire; Estellat, Candice; Codogno, Isabelle; Huart, Virginie; Benessiano, Joelle; Duval, Xavier; Pibarot, Philippe; Clavel, Marie Annick; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David
Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a progressive disease, but the impact of baseline AS haemodynamic or anatomic severity on AS progression remains unclear. In 149 patients (104 mild AS, 36 moderate AS and 9 severe AS) enrolled in 2 ongoing prospective cohorts (COFRASA/GENERAC), we evaluated AS haemodynamic severity at baseline and yearly, thereafter, using echocardiography (mean pressure gradient (MPG)) and AS anatomic severity using CT (degree of aortic valve calcification (AVC)). After a mean follow-up of 2.9±1.0 years, mean MGP increased from 22±11 to 30±16 mm Hg (+3±3 mm Hg/year), and mean AVC from 1108±891 to 1640±1251 AU (arbitrary units) (+188±176 AU/year). Progression of AS was strongly related to baseline haemodynamic severity (+2±3 mm Hg/year in mild AS, +4±3 mm Hg/year in moderate AS and +5±5 mm Hg/year in severe AS (p=0.01)), and baseline haemodynamic severity was an independent predictor of haemodynamic progression (p=0.0003). Annualised haemodynamic and anatomic progression rates were significantly correlated (r=0.55, p<0.0001), but AVC progression rate was also significantly associated with baseline haemodynamic severity (+141±133 AU/year in mild AS, +279±189 AU/year in moderate AS and +361±293 AU/year in severe AS, p<0.0001), and both baseline MPG and baseline AVC were independent determinants of AVC progression (p<0.0001). AS progressed faster with increasing haemodynamic or anatomic severity. Our results suggest that a medical strategy aimed at preventing AVC progression may be useful in all subsets of patients with AS including those with severe AS and support the recommended closer follow-up of patients with AS as AS severity increases. COFRASA (clinicalTrial.gov number NCT 00338676) and GENERAC (clinicalTrial.gov number NCT00647088). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Caro, C. G.; Foley, T. H.; Sudlow, M. F.
1. The volume rate of forearm blood flow was measured with a mercury-in-rubber strain gauge, or with a water-filled plethysmograph, from 1 sec after termination of a 2-3 min period of venous congestion. 2. When congesting pressure had been less than 18 mm Hg, average post-congestion flow (five subjects) was constant during approx. 10 sec and not significantly different from resting flow. 3. When congesting pressure had been 30 mm Hg, average post-congestion flow (eight subjects) was 26% higher than resting, during 3-4 sec after release of congestion, but rose to 273% of resting during 4-6 sec after release of congestion. 4. In other studies forearm vascular resistance had been found normal or increased during such venous congestion, and theoretical studies here indicated that passive mechanical factors could not account for the delayed occurrence of high post-congestion flow. 5. It appears, therefore, that the forearm vascular bed dilates actively shortly after release of substantial venous congestion. It would seem more likely that a myogenic mechanism, rather than a metabolic one, is responsible. PMID:5532541
Kuk, Hanna; Arnold, Caroline; Meyer, Ralph; Hecker, Markus; Korff, Thomas
Due to gravity the venous vasculature in the lower extremities is exposed to elevated pressure levels which may be amplified by obesity or pregnancy. As a consequence, venules dilate and may be slowly transformed into varicose or spider veins. In fact, chronically elevated venous pressure was sufficient to cause the corkscrew-like enlargement of superficial veins in mice. We hypothesized that biomechanical activation of endothelial cells contributes to this process and investigated the inhibitory capacity of Magnolol in this context - a natural compound that features multiple properties counteracting cellular stress. While Magnolol did not influence endothelial capillary sprout formation, it interfered with proliferation, ERK1/2 activity, gelatinase activity as well as baseline production of reactive oxygen species in these cells or murine veins. The anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative capacity of Magnolol was mediated through stimulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression. Finally, local transdermal application of Magnolol attenuated pressure-mediated development of varicose/spider veins in mice and was accompanied by the absence of proliferating and MMP-2 positive endothelial cells. Collectively, our data identified Magnolol as a potent inhibitor of biomechanically evoked endothelial cell activity during pressure-mediated venous remodeling processes which contribute to the development of varicose and spider veins.
Butler, B. D.; Hills, B. A.
Twenty-seven paralyzed anesthetized dogs were embolized with venous air to determine the effectiveness of the pulmonary vasculature for bubble filtration or trapping. Air doses ranged from 0.05 to 0.40 ml/kg min in 0.05-ml increments with ultrasonic Doppler monitors placed over arterial vessels to detect any microbubbles that crossed the lungs. Pulmonary vascular filtration of the venous air infusions was complete for the lower air doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.30 ml/kg min. When the air doses were increased to 0.35 ml/kg min, the filtration threshold was exceeded with arterial spillover of bubbles occurring in 50 percent of the animals and reaching 71 percent for 0.40 ml/kg min. Significant elevations were observed in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Systemic blood pressure and cardiac output decreased, whereas left ventricular end-diastolic pressure remained unchanged. The results indicate that the filtration of venous bubbles by the pulmonary vasculature was complete when the air infusion rates were kept below a threshold value of 0.30 ml/kg min.
Wali, Mahmoud A; Eid, Refaat A; Dewan, Madhu; Al-Homrany, Mohammad A
Native cephalic vein remains the superior dialysis conduit, even 30 years after it was first described. However, up to 37% of hemodialysis patients develop progressive stenosis in the venous circuit of arterio-venous fistula (AVF), which may later cause thrombosis and occlusion. To study the pre-existing morphological changes in the wall of the cephalic vein before AVF construction, we collected 23 cephalic vein specimens from 3 normal, young trauma patients and 20 renal failure patients. The samples were collected at the time of vascular repair in the first group and AVF construction in the second group. Sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E), Masson's trichrome and Verhoff von Gieson's stains. Compared with normal cephalic veins, all pre-access cephalic veins showed generalized thickening of the wall due to intimal hyperplasia and replacement by collagenous, fibrous tissue. Other changes were disruption or loss of internal elastic lamina in 9 (45%) patients, loss of endothelial cell layer in 6 (30%), atrophy or loss of the muscle layer in 6 (30%), mucoid or myxoid degeneration in 6 (30%), inflammatory cell infiltration of the wall in 5 (25%), mural calcification in 3 (15%) and telangiectasia in 2 (10%). Another important finding was the marked accumulation of spindle-shaped smooth muscle cells (SMCs) on the de-epithelialized intimal surface in areas of intimal hyperplasia. In conclusion, most of the apparently normal cephalic veins of the renal failure patients showed morphological abnormalities at the time of AVF construction. This may influence the outcome of shunts in terms of future stenosis and failure.
Tibballs, James; Fasulakis, Stephen; Robertson, Colin F; Berkowitz, Robert G; Massie, John; Brizard, Christian; Rose, Elizabeth; Bekhit, Elhamy; Eyres, Robert; Ragg, Philip
Polyflex self-expanding stents (Rüsch, Germany) were used in three young children who had presented with life-threatening long-segment tracheal stenosis with bronchial stenosis in two cases. Two children had slide tracheoplasties and subsequently aortic homografts and another tracheal resection and autotracheoplasty. However, in all cases persistent lower tracheal malacia necessitated stenting. Complications of granuloma, stent migration or dislodgement occurred in all cases. A fatal tracheo-aortic fistula occurred in one child. Granuloma in one was treated successfully with steroids. One child survives.
Bertranou, Enrique; Davignon, André; Chartrand, Claude; Kratz, Christa; Stanley, Paul
We have reviewed the cases operated upon for correction of congenital aortic stenosis at l'Hôpital Ste-Justine between 1959 and 1969. Twenty-five of the 26 patients were readmitted for complete clinical, radiological and hemodynamic investigation. Fourteen had a valvular stenosis, eight a diaphragmatic subvalvular lesion, and three had mixed lesions. The results lead us to believe that the surgical treatment of this malformation is justified. The indications for surgery must take into account all available clinical, radiological, electrocardiographic and hemodynamic data. PMID:4107480
Chang, Brian; Ha, Jennifer F; Zopf, David
Aggressive fibromatosis is an uncommon, benign tumor of fibroblastic origin with high potential for local invasion. Less than a quarter of these lesions are located in the head and neck, and although extremely rare, associations have been demonstrated with physical trauma. We describe a unique case of oropharyngeal fibromatosis with traumaticetiology, managed successfully with surgical excision of the lesion with negative surgical margins. A 5-year old patient was found to have an aggressive fibromatosis causing oropharyngeal stenosis following tonsillectomy. We demonstrate that surgical resection with a clear margin allowed for alleviation of stenosis without recurrences reported since the procedure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Serrao, Eva; Santos, Alexandra; Gaivao, Ana; Tavares, Ana; Ferreira, Sergio
Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a rare anomaly, resulting from incomplete separation of the respiratory tract from the primitive foregut at the 25th day of life. First clinical signs are abnormalities of the swallowing mechanism caused by the intrinsic narrowing of the esophagus. Diagnosis is usually delayed, requiring an accurate history and high level of suspicion, alongside with an esophagogram. Definite diagnosis is only confirmed by histological examination. Treatment usually involves surgery, depending on the severity, location and type of stenosis. We report the case of an 18 months old toddler diagnosed with CES. The characteristic radiographic and CT features are presented as well as the histology. PMID:22470735
Garg, M; Gogia, Pratibha; Manoria, P; Goyal, R
Benign bronchial stenosis is managed by surgical or bronchoscopic methods. Although surgical approach is definitive, it is technically demanding and is costlier than bronchoscopic treatment. Here, we report the case of a 27-year-old female patient with symptomatic benign bronchial stenosis of the left main bronchus. The stenosis was dilated successfully through a fibreoptic bronchoscope by electrocautery followed by balloon bronchoplasty and application of mitomycin-C. On follow up, there was no evidence of re-stenosis.
Yalçin, Fatih; El-Amrousy, Mahmoud; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Flachskampf, Frank; Tuzcu, Murat; Garcia, Mario G; Thomas, James D
Patients with mitral stenosis have usually blunted pulmonary venous (PV) flow, because of decreased mitral valve area and diastolic dysfunction. The authors compared changes in Doppler PV velocities by using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) against hemodynamics parameters before and after mitral balloon valvotomy to observe relevance of PV velocities and endsystolic left atrial (LA) pressure-volume relationship. In 25 patients (aged 35 +/- 17 years) with mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm, changes in LA pressure and volumes were compared with PV velocities before and after valvotomy. Mitral valve area, mitral gradients, and deceleration time were obtained. Mitral valve area and mitral gradients changed from 1 +/- 0.2 cm2 and 14.6 +/- 5.4 mmHg to 1.9 +/- 0.3 cm2 and 6.3 +/- 1.7 mmHg, respectively (p<0.001). AR peak reverse flow velocity and AR duration decreased from 29 +/- 13 cm/s and 110 =/- 30 msec to 19 +/- 6 cm/s and 80 +/- 29 msec respectively (p<0.001). Transmitral Doppler E wave deceleration time decreased from 327 +/- 85 to 209 +/- 61 s and cardiac output increased from 4.2 +/- 1.0 to 5.2 +/- 1.1 L/minute (p<0.001). The changes in LA pressure were correlated with changes in S/D (r=0.57, p<0.05). The changes in endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship were also correlated with changes in S/D (r=0.52, p<0.05). Endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship decreased after mitral balloon valvotomy, as a result of a large decrease in pressure. PV systolic/diastolic (S/D) waves ratio reflects endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship and may be used as another indicator of successful valvotomy.
Yalcin, Fatih; El-Amrousy, Mahmoud; Muderrisoglu, Haldun; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Flachskampf, Frank; Tuzcu, Murat; Garcia, Mario G.; Thomas, James D.
Patients with mitral stenosis have usually blunted pulmonary venous (PV) flow, because of decreased mitral valve area and diastolic dysfunction. The authors compared changes in Doppler PV velocities by using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) against hemodynamics parameters before and after mitral balloon valvotomy to observe relevance of PV velocities and endsystolic left atrial (LA) pressure-volume relationship. In 25 patients (aged 35 +/- 17 years) with mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm, changes in LA pressure and volumes were compared with PV velocities before and after valvotomy. Mitral valve area, mitral gradients, and deceleration time were obtained. Mitral valve area and mitral gradients changed from 1 +/- 0.2 cm2 and 14.6 +/- 5.4 mmHg to 1.9 +/- 0.3 cm2 and 6.3 +/- 1.7 mmHg, respectively (p<0.001). AR peak reverse flow velocity and AR duration decreased from 29 +/- 13 cm/s and 110 =/- 30 msec to 19 +/- 6 cm/s and 80 +/- 29 msec respectively (p<0.001). Transmitral Doppler E wave deceleration time decreased from 327 +/- 85 to 209 +/- 61 s and cardiac output increased from 4.2 +/- 1.0 to 5.2 +/- 1.1 L/minute (p<0.001). The changes in LA pressure were correlated with changes in S/D (r=0.57, p<0.05). The changes in endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship were also correlated with changes in S/D (r=0.52, p<0.05). Endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship decreased after mitral balloon valvotomy, as a result of a large decrease in pressure. PV systolic/diastolic (S/D) waves ratio reflects endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship and may be used as another indicator of successful valvotomy.
Violi, N Vietti; Vietti Violi, Naïk; Schoepfer, Alain M; Fournier, Nicolas; Guiu, Boris; Bize, Pierre; Denys, Alban
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study and to correlate MVT with clinical outcome. Abdominal portal phase CT was used to examine patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Two experienced abdominal radiologists retrospectively analyzed the images, focusing on the superior and inferior mesenteric vein branches and looking for signs of acute or chronic thrombosis. The location of abnormalities was registered. The presence of MVT was correlated with IBD-related radiologic signs and complications. The cases of 160 patients with IBD (89 women, 71 men; Crohn disease [CD], 121 patients; ulcerative colitis [UC], 39 patients; median age at diagnosis, 27 years for patients with CD, 32 years for patients with UC) were analyzed. MVT was detected in 43 patients with IBD (26.8%). One of these patients had acute MVT; 38, chronic MVT; and four, both. The prevalence of MVT did not differ between CD (35/121 [28.9%]) and UC (8/39 [20.5%]) (p = 0.303). The location of thrombosis was different between CD and UC (CD, jejunal or ileal veins only [p = 0.005]; UC, rectocolic veins only [p = 0.001]). Almost all (41/43) cases of thrombosis were peripheral. MVT in CD patients was more frequently associated with bowel wall thickening (p = 0.013), mesenteric fat hypertrophy (p = 0.005), ascites (p = 0.002), and mesenteric lymph node enlargement (p = 0.036) and was associated with higher rate of bowel stenosis (p < 0.001) and more intestinal IBD-related surgery (p = 0.016) in the outcome. Statistical analyses for patients with UC were not relevant because of the limited population (n = 8). MVT is frequently found in patients with IBD. Among patients with CD, MVT is associated with bowel stenosis and CD-related intestinal surgery.
Dickmann, Boris; Ahlbrecht, Jonas; Ay, Cihan; Dunkler, Daniela; Thaler, Johannes; Scheithauer, Werner; Quehenberger, Peter; Zielinski, Christoph; Pabinger, Ingrid
Advanced cancer is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. However, lymph node metastases are usually not considered an established risk factor. In the framework of the prospective, observational Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study we investigated the association between local (N0), regional (N1–3), and distant (M1) cancer stages and the occurrence of venous thromboembolism. Furthermore, we were specifically interested in the relationship between stage and biomarkers that have been reported to be associated with venous thromboembolism. We followed 832 patients with solid tumors for a median of 527 days. The study end-point was symptomatic venous thromboembolism. At study inclusion, 241 patients had local, 138 regional, and 453 distant stage cancer. The cumulative probability of venous thromboembolism after 6 months in patients with local, regional and distant stage cancer was 2.1%, 6.5% and 6.0%, respectively (P=0.002). Compared to patients with local stage disease, patients with regional and distant stage disease had a significantly higher risk of venous thromboembolism in multivariable Cox-regression analysis including age, newly diagnosed cancer (versus progression of disease), surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy (regional: HR=3.7, 95% CI: 1.5–9.6; distant: HR=5.4, 95% CI: 2.3–12.9). Furthermore, patients with regional or distant stage disease had significantly higher levels of D-dimer, factor VIII, and platelets, and lower hemoglobin levels than those with local stage disease. These results demonstrate an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with regional disease. Elevated levels of predictive biomarkers in patients with regional disease underpin the results and are in line with the activation of the hemostatic system in the early phase of metastatic dissemination. PMID:23585523
Agnelli, Giancarlo; Buller, Harry R; Cohen, Alexander; Curto, Madelyn; Gallus, Alexander S; Johnson, Margot; Porcari, Anthony; Raskob, Gary E; Weitz, Jeffrey I
Apixaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor that can be administered in a simple, fixed-dose regimen, may be an option for the extended treatment of venous thromboembolism. In this randomized, double-blind study, we compared two doses of apixaban (2.5 mg and 5 mg, twice daily) with placebo in patients with venous thromboembolism who had completed 6 to 12 months of anticoagulation therapy and for whom there was clinical equipoise regarding the continuation or cessation of anticoagulation therapy. The study drugs were administered for 12 months. A total of 2486 patients underwent randomization, of whom 2482 were included in the intention-to-treat analyses. Symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism or death from venous thromboembolism occurred in 73 of the 829 patients (8.8%) who were receiving placebo, as compared with 14 of the 840 patients (1.7%) who were receiving 2.5 mg of apixaban (a difference of 7.2 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0 to 9.3) and 14 of the 813 patients (1.7%) who were receiving 5 mg of apixaban (a difference of 7.0 percentage points; 95% CI, 4.9 to 9.1) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The rates of major bleeding were 0.5% in the placebo group, 0.2% in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, and 0.1% in the 5-mg apixaban group. The rates of clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding were 2.3% in the placebo group, 3.0% in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, and 4.2% in the 5-mg apixaban group. The rate of death from any cause was 1.7% in the placebo group, as compared with 0.8% in the 2.5-mg apixaban group and 0.5% in the 5-mg apixaban group. Extended anticoagulation with apixaban at either a treatment dose (5 mg) or a thromboprophylactic dose (2.5 mg) reduced the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism without increasing the rate of major bleeding. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer; AMPLIFY-EXT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00633893.).
Brizard, C P; Goussef, N; Chachques, J C; Carpentier, A F
In patients undergoing a Fontan operation, partial diversion of the hepatic veins to the pulmonary venous atrium has been tried with various techniques. They failed because of the development of intrahepatic collaterals leading to an unacceptable right-to-left shunting. We postulate that to avoid the formation of intrahepatic collaterals, the totality of the liver has to be drained into the same pressure compartment. We have designed a model of cavopulmonary anastomosis in which a prosthetic conduit reproduces an azygos continuation, associated with the diversion of the totality of the hepatic venous return. This article reports on the early hemodynamics and the fate of the separation of the two venous compartments in long-term survivors. Eighteen goats were operated on; the pulmonary artery and hepatic vein pressures were recorded. During month 2, an opacification of the inferior vena cava and the cavopulmonary connection was performed. Between months 6 and 14, another opacification was performed, together with pressure recording at both ends of the conduit. Postoperatively the pulmonary artery pressure was pulsatile with a mean of 10 mm Hg and the hepatic vein pressure was 0 mm Hg. The first angiogram showed patent tubes with fast progression of the contrast. Throughout the inferior vena cava injection, there was no opacification of the portal or hepatic veins. The late study showed a narrowed conduit in all animals. During the injection, a collateral was injected, feeding into the inferior mesenteric vein. No collateral circulation could be seen draining directly into the liver. The median gradient between the two ends of the conduit was 11 mm Hg. The isolation of the entire hepatic venous drainage is feasible and efficient for the separation of two pressure compartments. No intrahepatic collaterals are observed with this model at short- or long-term follow-up. The separation of the hepatic venous drainage should persist without collateral circulation as long as
Bredikhin, R A; Peshkova, A D; Maliasev, D V; Batrakova, M V; Le Min, J; Panasiuk, M V; Fatkhullina, L S; Ignat'ev, I M; Khaĭrullin, R N; Litvinov, R I
Haemostatic disorders play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute venous thrombosis. One of the least studied reactions of blood coagulation and thrombogenesis is spontaneous contraction of blood clots, which takes place at the expense of the contractility apparatus of activated blood platelets adhered to fibrin fibres. The work was aimed at studying the parameters of contraction of blood clots, formed in vitro, in blood of 41 patients with acute venous thromboses as compared with the same parameters in apparently healthy donors. We used a new instrumental method making it possible to determine the time from initiation to the beginning of contraction, as well as the degree and velocity of clot contraction. It was revealed that in patients with venous thrombosis the ability of clots to shrink was significantly reduced as compared with the control. We detected a statistically significant retardation of and decrease in of blood clot concentration in patients with venous thrombosis complicated by pulmonary artery thromboembolism as compared with contraction in patients with isolated deep vein thrombosis, witch may be important for early diagnosis and determination of the risk of thromboembolism. Besides, we revealed a statistically significant retardation of contraction in patients with proximal thrombosis as compared with contraction in patients with distal thrombosis, with similar values of the degree of contraction. Contraction was statistically significantly reduced in acute thrombosis (less than 21 days), whereas in subacute thrombosis (more than 21 days) the parameters of contraction were closer to normal values. The obtained findings suggest that reduction of blood clot contraction may be a new, hitherto unstudied pathogenetic mechanism deteriorating the course and outcome of venous thrombosis. The clinical significance of contraction and its impairments, as well as the diagnostic and prognostic value of the laboratory test for blood clot contraction
Costa, Roberto; Scanavacca, Mauricio; da Silva, Kátia Regina; Martinelli Filho, Martino; Carrillo, Roger
Limited venous access in certain patients increases the procedural risk and complexity of conventional transvenous pacemaker implantation. The purpose of this study was to determine a minimally invasive epicardial approach using pericardial reflections for dual-chamber pacemaker implantation in patients with limited venous access. Between June 2006 and November 2011, 15 patients underwent epicardial pacemaker implantation. Procedures were performed through a minimally invasive subxiphoid approach and pericardial window with subsequent fluoroscopy-assisted lead placement. Mean patient age was 46.4 ± 15.3 years (9 male [(60.0%], 6 female [40.0%]). The new surgical approach was used in patients determined to have limited venous access due to multiple abandoned leads in 5 (33.3%), venous occlusion in 3 (20.0%), intravascular retention of lead fragments from prior extraction in 3 (20.0%), tricuspid valve vegetation currently under treatment in 2 (13.3%), and unrepaired intracardiac defects in 2 (13.3%). All procedures were successful with no perioperative complications or early deaths. Mean operating time for isolated pacemaker implantation was 231.7 ± 33.5 minutes. Lead placement on the superior aspect of right atrium, through the transverse sinus, was possible in 12 patients. In the remaining 3 patients, the atrial lead was implanted on the left atrium through the oblique sinus, the postcaval recess, or the left pulmonary vein recess. None of the patients displayed pacing or sensing dysfunction, and all parameters remained stable throughout the follow-up period of 36.8 ± 25.1 months. Epicardial pacemaker implantation through pericardial reflections is an effective alternative therapy for those patients requiring physiologic pacing in whom venous access is limited. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.
Duncan, James R; Henderson, Katherine; Street, Mandie; Richmond, Amy; Klingensmith, Mary; Beta, Elio; Vannucci, Andrea; Murray, David
Central venous catheter placement is a common procedure with a high incidence of error. Other fields requiring high reliability have used Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to prioritize quality and safety improvement efforts. To use FMEA in the development of a formal, standardized curriculum for central venous catheter training. We surveyed interns regarding their prior experience with central venous catheter placement. A multidisciplinary team used FMEA to identify high-priority failure modes and to develop online and hands-on training modules to decrease the frequency, diminish the severity, and improve the early detection of these failure modes. We required new interns to complete the modules and tracked their progress using multiple assessments. Survey results showed new interns had little prior experience with central venous catheter placement. Using FMEA, we created a curriculum that focused on planning and execution skills and identified 3 priority topics: (1) retained guidewires, which led to training on handling catheters and guidewires; (2) improved needle access, which prompted the development of an ultrasound training module; and (3) catheter-associated bloodstream infections, which were addressed through training on maximum sterile barriers. Each module included assessments that measured progress toward recognition and avoidance of common failure modes. Since introducing this curriculum, the number of retained guidewires has fallen more than 4-fold. Rates of catheter-associated infections have not yet declined, and it will take time before ultrasound training will have a measurable effect. The FMEA provided a process for curriculum development. Precise definitions of failure modes for retained guidewires facilitated development of a curriculum that contributed to a dramatic decrease in the frequency of this complication. Although infections and access complications have not yet declined, failure mode identification, curriculum development, and
Kim, Won; Lee, Youg Chul; Rhee, Yang Keun
Expandable metallic stents seemed to be a good method in tuberculous bronchial stenosis that does not respond to medical therapy. But there was no long-term follow-up study after stents insertion in tuberculous bronchial stenosis. We report a case of obstruction after successful Gianturco metallic stents insertion due to tuberculous bronchial stenosis. PMID:7542914
Uçar, Tayfun; Tutar, Ercan; Atalay, Semra
We give details of a sporadic case with congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis associated with critical stenosis of the left carotid artery, and severe stenosis of the innominate artery at their origins as well as excessive dilatations of both the right and the left coronary arteries.
Qiu, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ting; Pei, Ying-Hua; Xu, Min
Background: Benign cicatricial airway stenosis (BCAS) is a life-threatening disease. While there are numerous therapies, all have their defects, and stenosis can easily become recurrent. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and complications of nonstent combination interventional therapy (NSCIT) when used for the treatment of BCAS of different causes and types. Methods: This study enrolled a cohort of patients with BCAS resulting from tuberculosis, intubation, tracheotomy, and other origins. The patients were assigned to three groups determined by their type of stenosis: Web-like stenosis, granulation stenosis, and complex stenosis, and all patients received NSCIT. The efficacy and complications of treatment in each group of patients were observed. The Chi-square test, one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the paired t-test were used to analyze different parameters. Results: The 10 patients with web-like stenosis and six patients with granulation stenosis exhibited durable remission rates of 100%. Among 41 patients with complex stenosis, 36 cases (88%) experienced remission and 29 cases (71%) experienced durable remission. When five patients with airway collapse were eliminated from the analysis, the overall remission rate was 97%. The average treatment durations for patients with web-like stenosis, granulation stenosis, and complex stenosis were 101, 21, and 110 days, respectively, and the average number of treatments was five, two, and five, respectively. Conclusions: NSCIT demonstrated good therapeutic efficacy and was associated with few complications. However, this approach was ineffective for treating patients with airway collapse or malacia. PMID:26265607
Qiu, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ting; Pei, Ying-Hua; Xu, Min
Benign cicatricial airway stenosis (BCAS) is a life-threatening disease. While there are numerous therapies, all have their defects, and stenosis can easily become recurrent. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and complications of nonstent combination interventional therapy (NSCIT) when used for the treatment of BCAS of different causes and types. This study enrolled a cohort of patients with BCAS resulting from tuberculosis, intubation, tracheotomy, and other origins. The patients were assigned to three groups determined by their type of stenosis: Web-like stenosis, granulation stenosis, and complex stenosis, and all patients received NSCIT. The efficacy and complications of treatment in each group of patients were observed. The Chi-square test, one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the paired t -test were used to analyze different parameters. The 10 patients with web-like stenosis and six patients with granulation stenosis exhibited durable remission rates of 100%. Among 41 patients with complex stenosis, 36 cases (88%) experienced remission and 29 cases (71%) experienced durable remission. When five patients with airway collapse were eliminated from the analysis, the overall remission rate was 97%. The average treatment durations for patients with web-like stenosis, granulation stenosis, and complex stenosis were 101, 21, and 110 days, respectively, and the average number of treatments was five, two, and five, respectively. NSCIT demonstrated good therapeutic efficacy and was associated with few complications. However, this approach was ineffective for treating patients with airway collapse or malacia.
Abdullah, Mohamed Hussein; Soliman, Hossam El Deen; Morad, Wessam Saber
Many centers have adopted central vein cannulation both for central venous pressure monitoring and fluid administration for right hepatectomy in living-liver donors. However, use of central venous catheters is associated with adverse events that are hazardous to patients and expensive to treat. This study sought to examine the use of external jugular venous pressure as an alternative to conventional central venous pressure in right lobe donor hepatectomies Forty ASA grade I adult living liver-donors without a known history of significant cardiac or pulmonary diseases were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Paired measurement of venous pressures (external jugular venous pressure and internal jugular venous pressure) were taken at the following times: after induction of anesthesia, 30 minutes after skin incision, during right lobe mobilization (every 15 minutes), during hepatic transaction (every 15 minutes), after right lobe resection (every 15 minutes), and after abdominal closure. Paired measurements were equal in 47.5%, 53.5%, 61.5%, 46.3%, and 52.5% for after induction, after skin incision, right lobe mobilization, right lobe transection, after resection, and before abdominal closure periods. However, all measurements were within acceptable limits of bias measurements (± 2 mm Hg). Central venous pressure catheter placement can be avoided and replaced by a less-invasive method such as external jugular venous pressure (which gave an acceptable estimate of central venous pressure in all phases of right lobe resection) in living-donor liver transplant and allowed equivalent monitor even during fluid restriction phases.
Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan C; Tabbara, Marwan; Paez, Angela; Selman, Guillermo; Hernandez, Diana R; Sundberg, Chad A; Tey, Jason Chieh Sheng; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Cheung, Alfred K; Allon, Michael; Velazquez, Omaida C; Salman, Loay H; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I
The frequency of primary failure in arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) remains unacceptably high. This lack of improvement is due in part to a poor understanding of the pathobiology underlying AVF nonmaturation. This observational study quantified the progression of three vascular features, medial fibrosis, intimal hyperplasia (IH), and collagen fiber organization, during early AVF remodeling and evaluated the associations thereof with AVF nonmaturation. We obtained venous samples from patients undergoing two-stage upper-arm AVF surgeries at a single center, including intraoperative veins at the first-stage access creation surgery and AVFs at the second-stage transposition procedure. Paired venous samples from both stages were used to evaluate change in these vascular features after anastomosis. Anatomic nonmaturation (AVF diameter never ≥6 mm) occurred in 39 of 161 (24%) patients. Neither preexisting fibrosis nor IH predicted AVF outcomes. Postoperative medial fibrosis associated with nonmaturation (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05 to 2.30; P =0.03, per 10% absolute increase in fibrosis), whereas postoperative IH only associated with failure in those individuals with medial fibrosis over the population's median value (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.07 to 6.46; P =0.04, per increase of 1 in the intima/media ratio). Analysis of postoperative medial collagen organization revealed that circumferential alignment of fibers around the lumen associated with AVF nonmaturation (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.84; P =0.03, per 10° increase in angle). This study demonstrates that excessive fibrotic remodeling of the vein after AVF creation is an important risk factor for nonmaturation and that high medial fibrosis determines the stenotic potential of IH. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Tominaga, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Takao; Tanabe, Fumito; Kawamura, Ichiro; Tsuneyoshi, Yasuhiro; Kawabata, Naoya; Nagano, Satoshi; Abematsu, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Takuya; Yone, Kazunori; Komiya, Setsuro
Abstract The efficacy and safety of chemical prophylaxis to prevent the development of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) following spine surgery are controversial because of the possibility of epidural hematoma formation. Postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after spine surgery occurs at a frequency similar to that seen after joint operations, so it is important to identify the risk factors for VTE formation following spine surgery. We therefore retrospectively studied data from patients who had undergone spinal surgery and developed postoperative VTE to identify those risk factors. We conducted a retrospective clinical study with logistic regression analysis of a group of 80 patients who had undergone spine surgery at our institution from June 2012 to August 2013. All patients had been screened by ultrasonography for DVT in the lower extremities. Parameters of the patients with VTE were compared with those without VTE using the Mann–Whitney U-test and Fisher exact probability test. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors associated with VTE. A value of P < 0.05 was used to denote statistical significance. The prevalence of VTE was 25.0% (20/80 patients). One patient had sensed some incongruity in the chest area, but the vital signs of all patients were stable. VTEs had developed in the pulmonary artery in one patient, in the superficial femoral vein in one patient, in the popliteal vein in two patients, and in the soleal vein in 18 patients. The Mann–Whitney U-test and Fisher exact probability test showed that, except for preoperative walking disability, none of the parameters showed a significant difference between patients with and without VTE. Risk factors identified in the multivariate logistic regression analysis were preoperative walking disability and age. The prevalence of VTE after spine surgery was relatively high. The most important risk factor for developing postoperative VTE was
Engbers, Marissa J; Karasu, Alev; Blom, Jeanet W; Cushman, Mary; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid
Venous thrombosis is common in older age, with an incidence of 0·5-1% per year in those aged >70 years. Stasis of blood flow is an important contributor to the development of thrombosis and may be due to venous insufficiency in the legs. The risk of thrombosis associated with clinical features of venous insufficiency, i.e., varicose veins, leg ulcers and leg oedema, obtained with a standardized interview was assessed in the Age and Thrombosis Acquired and Genetic risk factors in the Elderly (AT-AGE) study. The AT-AGE study is a case-control study in individuals aged 70 years and older (401 cases with a first-time venous thrombosis and 431 control subjects). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex and study centre. Varicose veins and leg ulcer were associated with a 1·6-fold (95% CI 1·2-2·3) and 3·3-fold increased risk of thrombosis (95% CI 1·6-6·7), respectively, while the risk was increased 3·0-fold (95% CI 2·1-4·5) in the presence of leg oedema. The risk of thrombosis was highest when all three risk factors occurred simultaneously (OR: 10·5; 95% CI 1·3-86·1). In conclusion, clinical features of venous insufficiency, i.e., varicose veins, leg ulcers and leg oedema, are risk factors for venous thrombosis in older people. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marnejon, Thomas; Angelo, Debra; Abu Abdou, Ahmed; Gemmel, David
To identify clinically important risk factors associated with upper extremity venous thrombosis following peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC). A retrospective case control study of 400 consecutive patients with and without upper extremity venous thrombosis post-PICC insertion was performed. Patient data included demographics, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, site of insertion, size and lumen of catheter, internal length, infusate, and co-morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and renal failure. Additional risk factors analyzed were active cancer, any history of cancer, recent trauma, smoking, a history of prior deep vein thrombosis, and recent surgery, defined as surgery within three months prior to PICC insertion. The prevalence of trauma, renal failure, and infusion with antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was higher among patients exhibiting upper extremity venous thrombosis (UEVT), when compared to controls. Patients developing UEVT were also more likely to have PICC line placement in a basilic vein and less likely to have brachial vein placement (P<.001). Left-sided PICC line sites also posed a greater risk (P=.026). The rate of standard DVT prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin and unfractionated heparin and the use of warfarin was similar in both groups. Average length of hospital stay was almost double among patients developing UEVT, 19.5 days, when compared to patients undergoing PICC line insertion without thrombosis, 10.8 days (t=6.98, P<.001). In multivariate analysis, trauma, renal failure, left-sided catheters, basilic placement, TPN, and infusion with antibiotics, specifically vancomycin, were significant risk factors for UEVT associated with PICC insertion. Prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin, unfractionated heparin or use of warfarin did not prevent the development of venous thrombosis in patients with PICCs. Length of hospital stay and cost are markedly increased in
Busquet, J; Fontan, F; Choussat, A; Caianiello, G; Fernandez, G
Double outlet right ventricle associated with atrioventricular concordance, pulmonary stenosis and situs solitus of the atria is a subset of double outlet right ventricle related through the surgical treatment. From 1974 to 1985, 14 patients, 5 males, 9 females (mean age 8.9 years, range 13 months-22 years) were operated upon. All patients had infundibular stenosis and normal or large pulmonary arteries. The apex of the heart was to the right in 2 patients, the right and left ventricles were superior and inferior in 2 patients and 1 patient had both anomalies. The ventricular septal defect was subaortic in 11 patients (aorto-mitral discontinuity in 5) and non-committed in 3 patients. Three patients had 2 ventricular septal defects. The aorta was anterior in 3 patients and to the right of the pulmonary artery in 11 patients. All patients, through a transventricular and transatrial approach, had a reconstructive surgery. In 3 patients, an aortic homograft valved conduit was used. One patient had the ventricular septal defect enlarged. There was one early death (7.1%) from high residual right ventricle pressure and no late death. One patient had a transient atrioventricular block. One patient was reoperated upon for a residual ventricular septal defect. All survivors had a good clinical result. Re-evaluation in 8 patients confirmed excellent haemodynamics: the right ventricle to pulmonary artery pressure gradient decreased from 80 mm Hg (range 60-95) preoperatively to 24 mm Hg (range 3-32) postoperatively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Shabsigh, Muhammad; Lawrence, Cassidy; Rosero-Britton, Byron R; Kumar, Nicolas; Kimura, Satoshi; Durda, Michael Andrew; Essandoh, Michael
Mitral stenosis (MS) after mitral valve (MV) repair is a slowly progressive condition, usually detected many years after the index MV surgery. It is defined as a mean transmitral pressure gradient (TMPG) >5 mmHg or a mitral valve area (MVA) <1.5 cm(2). Pannus formation around the mitral annulus or extending to the mitral leaflets is suggested as the main mechanism for developing delayed MS after MV repair. On the other hand, early stenosis is thought to be a direct result of an undersized annuloplasty ring. Furthermore, in MS following ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) repair, subvalvular tethering is the hypothesized pathophysiology. MS after MV repair has an incidence of 9-54%. Several factors have been associated with a higher risk for developing MS after MV repair, including the use of flexible Duran annuloplasty rings versus rigid Carpentier-Edwards rings, complete annuloplasty rings versus partial bands, small versus large anterior leaflet opening angle, and anterior leaflet tip opening length. Intraoperative echocardiography can measure the anterior leaflet opening angle, the anterior leaflet tip opening dimension, the MVA and the mean TMPG, and may help identify patients at risk for developing MS after MV repair.
Shabsigh, Muhammad; Lawrence, Cassidy; Rosero-Britton, Byron R.; Kumar, Nicolas; Kimura, Satoshi; Durda, Michael Andrew; Essandoh, Michael
Mitral stenosis (MS) after mitral valve (MV) repair is a slowly progressive condition, usually detected many years after the index MV surgery. It is defined as a mean transmitral pressure gradient (TMPG) >5 mmHg or a mitral valve area (MVA) <1.5 cm2. Pannus formation around the mitral annulus or extending to the mitral leaflets is suggested as the main mechanism for developing delayed MS after MV repair. On the other hand, early stenosis is thought to be a direct result of an undersized annuloplasty ring. Furthermore, in MS following ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) repair, subvalvular tethering is the hypothesized pathophysiology. MS after MV repair has an incidence of 9–54%. Several factors have been associated with a higher risk for developing MS after MV repair, including the use of flexible Duran annuloplasty rings versus rigid Carpentier–Edwards rings, complete annuloplasty rings versus partial bands, small versus large anterior leaflet opening angle, and anterior leaflet tip opening length. Intraoperative echocardiography can measure the anterior leaflet opening angle, the anterior leaflet tip opening dimension, the MVA and the mean TMPG, and may help identify patients at risk for developing MS after MV repair. PMID:27148540
Mubarik, Ateeq; Muddassir, Salman; Haq, Furqan
ABSTRACT Background and Objectives: Adult Idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (AIHPS) is a rare but well-defined entity in adults with only 200-300 cases reported so far in the literature.We describe a case of AIHPS and the relevant literature review. Methods and Results: The patient presented with acute onset upper abdominal pain associated with nausea, vomiting, foul-smelling black tarry stools, and anorexia. On the Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), pylorus demonstrated a unique “cervix sign.” The patient had multiple endoscopic dilations with minimal relief. She then underwent a distal partial gastrectomy with a Billroth 1 gastroduodenostomy with considerable improvement in her symptoms on follow up. Conclusion: Adult Idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (AIHPS) is a rare disease which is also underreported due to a difficulty in diagnosis. The most common symptoms of AIHPS are postprandial nausea, vomiting, early satiety, and epigastric pain as seen in our patient. Endoscopy usually shows ?Cervix sign? a unique sign showing a fixed, markedly narrowed pylorus with a smooth border. Multiple treatments have been proposed for AIHPS, including endoscopic dilation, pyloromyotomy with or without pyloroplasty, gastrectomy with a Billroth 1 gastroduodenostomy. Currently, there is no evidence of one surgical technique being superior to another. Further research needs to be done on AIHPS before one technique can be standardized as the standard of care. PMID:29686790
Savino, F; Tarasco, V; Viola, S; Locatelli, E; Sorrenti, M; Barabino, A
Esophageal stenosis is a relatively uncommon condition in pediatrics and requires an accurate diagnostic approach. Here we report the case of a 9-month old female infant who presented intermittent vomiting, dysphagia and refusal of solid foods starting after weaning. She was treated for gastroesophageal reflux. At first, radiological investigation suggested achalasia, while esophagoscopy revelaed a severe congenital esophageal stenosis at the distal third of the esophagus. She underwent four endoscopic balloon dilatations that then allowed her to swallow solid food with intermittent mild dysphagia. After 17 months of esomeprazole treatment off therapy impedance-pH monitoring was normal. At 29 months of follow-up the child is asymptomatic and eats without problems.Infants with dysphagia and refusal of solid foods may have undiagnosed medical conditions that need treatment. Many disorders can cause esophageal luminal stricture; in the pediatric age the most common are peptic or congenital. Careful assessment with endoscopy is needed to diagnose these conditions early and referral to a pediatric gastroenterologic unit may be necessary.
Zimmet, Steven E; Min, Robert J; Comerota, Anthony J; Meissner, Mark H; Carman, Teresa L; Rathbun, Suman W; Jaff, Michael R; Wakefield, Thomas W; Feied, Craig F
The major venous societies in the United States share a common mission to improve the standards of medical practitioners, the educational goals for teaching and training programs in venous disease, and the quality of patient care related to the treatment of venous disorders. With these important goals in mind, a task force made up of experts from the specialties of dermatology, interventional radiology, phlebology, vascular medicine, and vascular surgery was formed to develop a consensus document describing the Core Content for venous and lymphatic medicine and to develop a core educational content outline for training. This outline describes the areas of knowledge considered essential for practice in the field, which encompasses the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with acute and chronic venous and lymphatic disorders. The American Venous Forum and the American College of Phlebology have endorsed the Core Content. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Iglesias Rey, Leticia; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Barbagelata López, Cristina; Rivera Gallego, Alberto
The use of central venous catheters for various applications (administration of chemotherapy, blood products and others) in patients with cancer is increasingly frequent. The association between thrombosis and catheter use has been fully established but aspects such as its causes, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment have not. We describe a case of thrombosis in a patient with cancer treated with chemotherapy who carried a central venous catheter. We also perform a review of the risk factors, the role of the prophylaxis and the treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Shen, Tao; Baker, Keith
Venous return is a major determinant of cardiac output. Adjustments within the venous system are critical for maintaining venous pressure during loss in circulating volume. This article reviews two factors that are thought to enable the venous system to compensate during acute hemorrhage: 1) changes in venous elastance and 2) mobilization of…
Goldsmith, P; Burn, D; Coulthard, A; Jenkins, A
We report the case of a 70-year-old man reporting with headache and visual disturbances who was being treated for prostate cancer. Investigations showed him to have intracranial hypertension caused by venous sinus obstruction. Patients with metastatic disease and raised intracranial pressure in the absence of focal signs should be considered as possible cases of venous outflow obstruction. Keywords: intracranial hypertension; venous sinus thrombosis; malignancy PMID:10616691
Young, Carlton J
Controversy remains regarding the best methodology of handling exocrine pancreatic fluid and pancreatic venous effluent. Bladder drainage has given way to enteric drainage. However, is there an instance in which bladder drainage is preferable? Also, hyperinsulinemia, as a result of systemic venous drainage (SVD), is claimed to be proatherosclerotic, whereas portal venous drainage (PVD) is more physiologic and less atherosclerotic. Bladder drainage remains a viable method of exocrine pancreas drainage, but evidence is sparse that measuring urinary amylase has a substantial benefit in the early detection of acute rejection in all types of pancreas transplants. Currently, there is no incontrovertible evidence that systemic hyperinsulinemia is proatherosclerotic, whereas recent metabolic studies on SVD and PVD showed that there was no benefit to PVD. Given the advent of newer immunosuppressive agents and overall lower acute rejection rates, the perceived benefit of bladder drainage as a means to measure urinary amylase as an early marker of rejection has not been substantiated. However, there may be a selective role for bladder drainage in 'high risk' pancreases. Also, without a clear-cut metabolic benefit to PVD over SVD, it remains the surgeon's choice as to which method to use.
Nazerian, Peiman; Volpicelli, Giovanni; Gigli, Chiara; Becattini, Cecilia; Sferrazza Papa, Giuseppe Francesco; Grifoni, Stefano; Vanni, Simone
Lung and venous ultrasound are bedside diagnostic tools increasingly used in the early diagnostic approach of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the possibility of improving the conventional prediction rule for PE by integrating ultrasound has never been investigated. We performed lung and venous ultrasound in consecutive patients suspected of PE in four emergency departments. Conventional Wells score (Ws) was adjudicated by the attending physician, and ultrasound was performed by one of 20 investigators. Signs of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) at venous ultrasound and signs of pulmonary infarcts or alternative diagnoses at lung ultrasound were considered to recalculate two items of the Ws: signs and symptoms of DVT and alternative diagnosis less likely than PE. The diagnostic performances of the ultrasound-enhanced Ws (USWs) and Ws were then compared after confirmation of the final diagnosis. A total of 446 patients were studied. PE was confirmed in 125 patients (28%). USWs performed significantly better than Ws, with a sensitivity of 69.6% versus 57.6% and a specificity of 88.2% versus 68.2%. In combination with D-dimer, USWs showed an optimal failure rate (0.8%) and a significantly superior efficiency than Ws (32.3% vs. 27.2%). A strategy based on lung and venous ultrasound combined with D-dimer would allow to avoid CT pulmonary angiography in 50.5% of patients with suspected PE, compared to 27.2% when the rule without ultrasound is applied. A pretest risk stratification enhanced by ultrasound of lung and venous performs better than Ws in the early diagnostic process of PE. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Caivano, D; Dickson, D; Martin, M; Rishniw, M
The aims of this study were to determine whether murmur intensity in adult dogs with pulmonic stenosis or subaortic stenosis reflects echocardiographic disease severity and to determine whether a six-level murmur grading scheme provides clinical advantages over a four-level scheme. In this retrospective multi-investigator study on adult dogs with pulmonic stenosis or subaortic stenosis, murmur intensity was compared to echocardiographically determined pressure gradient across the affected valve. Disease severity, based on pressure gradients, was assessed between sequential murmur grades to identify redundancy in classification. A simplified four-level murmur intensity classification scheme ('soft', 'moderate', 'loud', 'palpable') was evaluated. In total, 284 dogs (153 with pulmonic stenosis, 131 with subaortic stenosis) were included; 55 dogs had soft, 59 had moderate, 72 had loud and 98 had palpable murmurs. 95 dogs had mild stenosis, 46 had moderate stenosis, and 143 had severe stenosis. No dogs with soft murmurs of either pulmonic or subaortic stenosis had transvalvular pressure gradients greater than 50 mmHg. Dogs with loud or palpable murmurs mostly, but not always, had severe stenosis. Stenosis severity increased with increasing murmur intensity. The traditional six-level murmur grading scheme provided no additional clinical information than the four-level descriptive murmur grading scheme. A simplified descriptive four-level murmur grading scheme differentiated stenosis severity without loss of clinical information, compared to the traditional six-level scheme. Soft murmurs in dogs with pulmonic or subaortic stenosis are strongly indicative of mild lesions. Loud or palpable murmurs are strongly suggestive of severe stenosis. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Haiart, D. C.
A patient is reported in whom stenosis of the colostomy was responsible for perforation of the colostomy by a bone. Necrotizing gangrene of the abdominal wall developed. The management of the resulting full thickness defect of the abdominal wall is described. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:4011545
Vassilev, D; Mateev, H; Alexandrov, A; Karamfiloff, K; Gil, R J
We present a first-in-man case with implantation in culottes' fashion of two dedicated coronary bifurcation stents (BiOSS Lim) in distal left main stenosis. The immediate procedural and very short-term result was excellent. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bowe, Sarah N; Wentland, Carissa J; Sandhu, G S; Hartnick, Christopher J
For pediatric patients with laryngotracheal stenosis, the ultimate goal is creation of a safe, functional airway. Unfortunately, wound healing in a hollow structure can complicate repair attempts, leading to restenosis. Herein, we present our experience using skin-grafting techniques in two complex pediatric laryngotracheal stenosis cases, leading to successful decannulation or speech production. A chart review was performed examining the evaluation and management of two pediatric patients with laryngotracheal stenosis despite prior reconstructive attempts. Patient history, bronchoscopic evaluation, intra-operative technique, post-operative management, treatment outcomes, and complications were noted. Harvesting and preparation of the split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) proceeded in a similar manner for each case. Stenting material varied based on the clinical scenario. Using this technique, our patient with a Type 3 glottic web achieved substantial improvement in exercise tolerance, as well as vocal strength and quality. In addition, our aphonic patient could vocalize for the first time since her laryngotracheal injury. Temporary endoluminal stenting with skin graft lining can reproduce epithelial continuity and provide "biological inhibition" to enhance the wound healing process. When previous reconstructive efforts have failed, use of STSG can be considered in the management of complex pediatric laryngotracheal stenosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
The conchal setback is a useful technique for correcting many prominent ear deformities. A disadvantage of the technique in some cases is meatal stenosis of the external auditory canal. By excising a portion of meatal cartilage, this problem is prevented. The technique is illustrated and post-operative result is shown.
Hiroyoshi, Junko; Saito, Aya; Panthee, Nirmal; Imai, Yasushi; Kawashima, Dai; Motomura, Noboru; Ono, Minoru
We report a case of aortic stenosis associated with ochronosis in a 70-year-old man who underwent biologic aortic valve replacement. Intraoperative findings included ochronosis of a severely calcified pigmented aortic valve along with pigmentation of the intima of the aorta. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roca, Bernardino; Roca, Manuel; Monferrer, Raquel
Alkaptonuria, or ochronosis, a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder, causes an excess of homogentisic acid that results in dark pigmentation, calcification, and inflammation of cartilaginous and other tissues. Cardiovascular complications are also typical of the disease. We report the case of a 78-year-old male who presented with impressive osteoarticular changes and aortic stenosis associated with alkaptonuria.
Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Lin, S. S.; Garcia, M. J.; Alexander, L. A.; Thomas, J. D.
Doppler echocardiography is commonly used in the assessment of stenotic valvular orifices. We describe the application of transesophageal echocardiography for the detection of a critical ostial left main coronary stenosis. Because preoperative coronary angiography often is not routinely performed in young patients undergoing valve surgery, application of Doppler echocardiography can potentially prevent catastrophic complications, particularly in atypical cases.
Syal, Rajan; Tyagi, Isha; Goyal, Amit
Reconstruction of combined laryngotracheal stenosis requires complex techniques including resection and incorporation of grafts and stents that can be performed as single or multistaged procedure. A complicated case of traumatic laryngotracheal stenosis was managed by us, surgical technique is discussed. A 16-year-old male presented with Stage-3 laryngotracheal stenosis of grade-3 to 4 (>70% of the complete obstruction of tracheal lumen) of 5 cm segment of the larynx and trachea. Restoration of the critical functions of respiration and phonation was achieved in this patient by resection anastomosis of the trachea and with subglottic remodeling. Resection of 5 cm long segment of trachea and primary anastomosis in this case would have created tension at the site of anastomosis. So we did tracheal resection of 3 cm segment of trachea along with subglottic remodeling instead of removing the 5 cm segment of stenosed laryngotracheal region and doing thyrotracheal anastomosis. In complicated long segment, laryngotracheal stenosis, tracheal resection and subglottic remodeling with primary anastomosis can be an alternative approach. Fibrin glue can be used to support free bone/cartilage grafts in laryngotracheal reconstructions.
Dorresteijn, Lucille, E-mail: L.Dorresteijn@mst.n; Vogels, Oscar; Leeuw, Frank-Erik de
Purpose: Patients who have been irradiated at the neck have an increased risk of symptomatic stenosis of the carotid artery during follow-up. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) can be a preferable alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy, which is associated with increased operative risks in these patients. Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective cohort study of 24 previously irradiated patients who underwent CAS for symptomatic carotid stenosis. We assessed periprocedural and nonprocedural events including transient ischemic attack (TIA), nondisabling stroke, disabling stoke, and death. Patency rates were evaluated on duplex ultrasound scans. Restenosis was defined as a stenosis of >50%more » at the stent location. Results: Periprocedural TIA rate was 8%, and periprocedural stroke (nondisabling) occurred in 4% of patients. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years (range, 0.3-11.0 years), only one ipsilateral incident event (TIA) had occurred (4%). In 12% of patients, a contralateral incident event was present: one TIA (4%) and two strokes (12%, two disabling strokes). Restenosis was apparent in 17%, 33%, and 42% at 3, 12, and 24 months, respectively, although none of the patients with restenosed vessels became symptomatic. The length of the irradiation to CAS interval proved the only significant risk factor for restenosis. Conclusions: The results of CAS for radiation-induced carotid stenosis are favorable in terms of recurrence of cerebrovascular events at the CAS site.« less
Linn, K; Orton, E C
Discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis with peak systolic pressure gradients of more than 60 mm Hg was treated by closed transventricular dilation in six young dogs. Peak systolic pressure gradients were measured by direct catheterization before surgery, immediately after dilation, and 3 months after surgery. Maximum instantaneous pressure gradients were measured by continuous wave Doppler echocardiography before surgery and 6 weeks to 9 months after surgery. All dogs survived the procedure, and two dogs were clinically normal after 9 and 14 months. Two dogs died at week 6 and month 7. One dog was receiving medication for pulmonary edema 15 months after surgery. One dog underwent open resection of the subvalvular ring at month 3, and was clinically normal 6 months after the second procedure. Complications included intraoperative ventricular fibrillation in one dog, and mild postoperative aortic insufficiency in one dog. Closed transventricular dilation resulted in an immediate 83% decrease in the peak systolic pressure gradient from a preoperative mean of 97 +/- 22 mm Hg to a mean of 14 +/- 15 mm Hg. However, systolic pressure gradients measured by direct catheterization at month 3 (77 +/- 26 mm Hg), and by Doppler echocardiography at week 6 to month 9 (85 +/- 32 mm Hg) were not significantly different from preoperative values, which suggested recurrence of the aortic stenosis. Closed transventricular dilation should not be considered a definitive treatment for discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis in dogs, but may be useful in young dogs with critical aortic stenosis as a bridge to more definitive surgery.
Almudhafer, Muayyad M.; AI-Hassani, Fouzi A.A.; Benyan, Abdul-Khalik Z.
Background: Tracheal stenosis is more frequent as a result of wide-spread use of endotracheal intubation and tracheostomy. Resection and tracheal reconstruction remain the treatment of choice in benign tracheal stenosis. Objectives: To report our experience in Basra and to identify the result of anastomosis after tracheal resection and management of those patients preoperatively and postoperatively. Methodology: A descriptive study of sixteen patients (aged 11–28 years, 10 male and 6 female) with tracheal stenosis who underwent tracheal resection and reconstruction in Basrah thoracic unit (Basra teaching hospital) from January 2008 to January 2011. Results: The result was excellent in 62.5%, good in 25%, and satisfactory in 12.5%. Postoperative complication occurred in 25% and treated successfully with no mortality. Follow-up was every 3 months for an average of 3.6 years. Conclusion: Resection and tracheal reconstruction is the treatment of choice in benign tracheal stenosis and achieved excellent results in management of the patients. PMID:25003058
Prasanna Kumar, Saravanam; Ravikumar, Arunachalam; Senthil, Kannan; Somu, Lakshman; Nazrin, Mohd Ismail
To identify the indications, complications and outcome of patients of LTS managed with Montgomery T-tube stenting and review the current literature about the role of stenting in LTS. Retrospective chart reviews of 39 patients of laryngotracheal stenosis managed by T-tube stenting for temporary or definitive treatment during the period 2004-2011 were considered. The data on indications for stenting, type of stent, problems/complications of stenting, duration of stenting, additional intervention and outcome of management were collected, tabulated and analyzed. Of the 51 cases of laryngotracheal stenosis 39 patients were treated by Montgomery T-tube stenting. There was no mortality associated with the procedure or stenting. 82% of the patients were successfully decannulated. The problems and complications encountered were crusting within the tube in 44% and granulation at the subglottis in 33%. Two patients had complication due to T-tube itself: One patient developed tracheomalacia and the other had stenosis at both ends of the T-tube. Stenting still has a role in management of inoperable or in some deadlock situations where resection anastomosis is not feasible. It is easier to introduce the stent and to maintain it. Complications are minor and can be managed easily. It is safe for long term use. We emphasize that the treating surgeon needs to use prudence while treating stenosis using stents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Renal Failure Chronic Requiring Hemodialysis; Central Venous Catheterization; Inadequate Hemodialysis Blood Flow; Venous Stenosis; Venous Thrombosis; Infection Due to Central Venous Catheter; Central Venous Catheter Thrombosis
Hartnell, G G; Roizental, M
Central venous catheters inserted by blind surgical placement may not advance into a satisfactory position and may require repositioning. Malpositioning via surgical insertion is common in patients in whom central venous catheters have previously been placed, as these patients are more likely to have central venous thrombosis and distortion of central venous anatomy. This is less of a problem when catheter placement is guided by imaging; however, even when insertion is satisfactory, central venous catheters may become displaced spontaneously after insertion (Fig. 1). Repositioning can be effected by direct manipulation using guidewires or tip-deflecting wires [1, 2], by manipulation via a transfemoral venous approach [3-5], and by injection of contrast material or saline . Limitations of the direct approach include (1) the number and type of maneuvers that can be performed to effect repositioning when anatomy is distorted, (2) difficulty in accessing the catheter, and (3) the risk of introducing infection. Moreover, these patients are often immunosuppressed, and there is a risk of introducing infection by exposing and directly manipulating the venous catheter. Vigorous injection of contrast material or saline may be unsuccessful for the same reasons: It seldom exerts sufficient force to reposition large-caliber central venous catheters and may cause vessel damage or rupture if injection is made into a small or thrombosed vessel. We illustrate several alternative methods for catheter repositioning via a transfemoral venous approach.
Kurstjens, Rlm; de Wolf, Maf; Kleijnen, J; de Graaf, R; Wittens, Cha
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of haemodynamic parameters on success of stenting or bypass surgery in patients with non-thrombotic or post-thrombotic deep venous obstruction. Methods EMBASE, MEDLINE and trial registries were searched up to 5 February 2016. Studies needed to investigate stenting or bypass surgery in patients with post-thrombotic obstruction or stenting for non-thrombotic iliac vein compression. Haemodynamic data needed to be available with prognostic analysis for success of treatment. Two authors, independently, selected studies and extracted data with risk bias assessment using the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool. Results Two studies using stenting and two using bypass surgery were included. Three investigated plethysmography, though results varied and confounding was not properly taken into account. Dorsal foot vein pressure and venous refill times appeared to be of influence in one study, though confounding by deep vein incompetence was likely. Another investigated femoral-central pressure gradients without finding statistical significance, though sample size was small without details on statistical methodology. Reduced femoral inflow was found to be a predictor for stent stenosis or occlusion in one study, though patients also received additional surgery to improve stent inflow. Data on prediction of haemodynamic parameters for stenting of non-thrombotic iliac vein compression were not available. Conclusions Data on the predictive value of haemodynamic parameters for success of treatment in deep venous obstructive disease are scant and of poor quality. Plethysmography does not seem to be of value in predicting outcome of stenting or bypass surgery in post-thrombotic disease. The relevance of pressure-related parameters is unclear. Reduced flow into the common femoral vein seems to be predictive for in-stent stenosis or occlusion. Further research into the predictive effect of haemodynamic parameters is
Brinjikji, Waleed; Huston, John; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Lerman, Amir; Lanzino, Giuseppe
Carotid artery stenosis is a well-established risk factor of ischemic stroke, contributing to up to 10%-20% of strokes or transient ischemic attacks. Many clinical trials over the last 20 years have used measurements of carotid artery stenosis as a means to risk stratify patients. However, with improvements in vascular imaging techniques such as CT angiography and MR angiography, ultrasonography, and PET/CT, it is now possible to risk stratify patients, not just on the degree of carotid artery stenosis but also on how vulnerable the plaque is to rupture, resulting in ischemic stroke. These imaging techniques are ushering in an emerging paradigm shift that allows for risk stratifications based on the presence of imaging features such as intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), plaque ulceration, plaque neovascularity, fibrous cap thickness, and presence of a lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC). It is important for the neurosurgeon to be aware of these new imaging techniques that allow for improved patient risk stratification and outcomes. For example, a patient with a low-grade stenosis but an ulcerated plaque may benefit more from a revascularization procedure than a patient with a stable 70% asymptomatic stenosis with a thick fibrous cap. This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art advances in carotid plaque imaging. Currently, MRI is the gold standard in carotid plaque imaging, with its high resolution and high sensitivity for identifying IPH, ulceration, LRNC, and inflammation. However, MRI is limited due to time constraints. CT also allows for high-resolution imaging and can accurately detect ulceration and calcification, but cannot reliably differentiate LRNC from IPH. PET/CT is an effective technique to identify active inflammation within the plaque, but it does not allow for assessment of anatomy, ulceration, IPH, or LRNC. Ultrasonography, with the aid of contrast enhancement, is a cost-effective technique to assess plaque morphology and characteristics, but it is