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Sample records for early weight bearing

  1. Is early weight bearing resumption beneficial after total hip replacement?

    PubMed

    Merle, J; Rougier, P; Belaid, D; Cantalloube, S; Lamotte, D

    2009-04-01

    Current rehabilitation protocols of patients following total hip replacement recommend weight bearing on the operated extremity as early as possible. This strategy is likely to induce specific consequences on postural balance control; this study seeks to highlight these reactions to early loading. Eight men and six women, ranging in age from 57 to 85 years, volunteered enrolling this study on their arrival at our rehabilitation center. This study assessed their postural behavior using a system composed of two separate force platforms under two loading situations; in the course of these tests they were required to minimize their body sway as much as possible by keeping their eyes open. In the natural uncontrolled situation, the subjects adopted a comfortable body weight distribution. In the imposed (IMP) situation, they had to load their operated extremity more than in regular natural conditions in order to distribute their body weight more evenly. Three successive 32-s trials (sampled at 64 Hz) with intermediate recovery periods of equivalent duration were performed allowing period of rest between each trial. The balance strategies were evaluated through a frequency analysis of the resultant and plantar centers of pressure (CP(Res)) of each foot and of the estimated trajectories of the vertical projection of the center of gravity (CG), and from the difference CP(Res)-CG. No difference was found for the plantar CP trajectories in the situation where body weight is spontaneously distributed, whereas loading the implanted extremity induced increased CP(Res), CG, and CP(Res)-CG trajectory amplitudes along the mediolateral axis. No effect was observed along the anteroposterior axis. Finally, when comparing the two limbs for each testing condition, the statistical analysis demonstrated greater displacements along the ML axis for the trajectories measured under the healthy leg than under the implanted extremity. Loading the operated extremity early in the rehabilitation

  2. Early Versus Late Weight-Bearing Protocols for Surgically Managed Posterior Wall Acetabular Fractures.

    PubMed

    Heare, Austin; Kramer, Nicholas; Salib, Christopher; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2017-07-01

    Despite overall improved outcomes with open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures, posterior wall fractures show disproportionately poor results. The effect of weight bearing on outcomes of fracture management has been investigated in many lower extremity fractures, but evidence-based recommendations in posterior wall acetabular fractures are lacking. The authors systematically reviewed the current literature to determine if a difference in outcome exists between early and late postoperative weight-bearing protocols for surgically managed posterior wall acetabular fractures. PubMed and MEDLINE were searched for posterior wall acetabular fracture studies that included weight-bearing protocols and Merle d'Aubigné functional scores. Twelve studies were identified. Each study was classified as either early or late weight bearing. Early weight bearing was defined as full, unrestricted weight bearing at or before 12 weeks postoperatively. Late weight bearing was defined as restricted weight bearing for greater than 12 weeks postoperatively. The 2 categories were then compared by functional score using a 2-tailed t test and by complication rate using chi-square analysis. Six studies (152 fractures) were placed in the early weight-bearing category. Six studies (302 fractures) were placed in the late weight-bearing category. No significant difference in Merle d'Aubigné functional scores was found between the 2 groups. No difference was found regarding heterotopic ossification, avascular necrosis, superficial infections, total infections, or osteoarthritis. This systematic review found no difference in functional outcome scores or complication rates between early and late weight-bearing protocols for surgically treated posterior wall fractures. [Orthopedics. 2017: 40(4):e652-e657.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Triangular osteosynthesis of vertically unstable sacrum fractures: a new concept allowing early weight-bearing.

    PubMed

    Schildhauer, T A; Josten, Ch; Muhr, G

    2006-01-01

    Presentation of a new triangular osteosynthesis technique that permits early weight-bearing in vertically unstable sacral fractures. : Retrospective evaluation of a consecutive series. Level I trauma center. Thirty-four patients, twenty-eight of whom were poly-traumatized, all with vertically unstable sacral fractures. This group included eight women and twenty-six men, with a mean age of thirty-five years. Average time between trauma and definite operation was thirteen days (range 0 to 28 days). All patients underwent triangular osteosynthesis using a combination of a vertical vertebro-pelvic distraction osteosynthesis (pedicle screw system) and a transverse fixation of the sacrum fracture with either iliosacral screws or trans-sacral plating. Immediate postoperative weight-bearing was permitted postoperatively. Nineteen patients were treated with early progressive weight-bearing and advanced to full weight-bearing, on average, after twenty-three days (range 8 to 70 days). Three of the thirty-four patients (9 percent) experienced loosening of hardware, including two patients (6 percent) who required secondary intervention because of loss of the original reduction. Further complications included one pulmonary embolism (3 percent), one iatrogenic nerve lesion (3 percent), one wound necrosis (3 percent), and two local infections (6 percent). Triangular osteosynthesis is a demanding procedure that can be performed on vertically unstable sacral fractures to allow early progressive weight-bearing with an acceptable complication rate.

  4. Early weight bearing versus delayed weight bearing in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lansdaal, Joris Radboud; Mouton, Tanguy; Wascher, Daniel Charles; Demey, Guillaume; Lustig, Sebastien; Neyret, Philippe; Servien, Elvire

    2017-12-01

    The need for a period of non-weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy remains controversial. It is hypothesized that immediate weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy would have no difference in functional scores at one year compared to delayed weight bearing. Fifty patients, median age 54 years (range 40-65), with medial compartment osteoarthritis, underwent a medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy utilizing a locking plate without bone grafting. Patients were randomized into an Immediate or a Delayed (2 months) weight bearing group. All patients were assessed at one-year follow-up and the two groups compared. The primary outcome measure was the IKS score. Secondary outcome measures included the IKDC score, the VAS pain score and rate of complications. The functional scores significantly improved in both groups. The IKS score increased from 142 ± 31 to 171 ± 26 in the Immediate group (p < 0.001) and from 148 ± 22 to 178 ± 23 in the Delayed group (p < 0.001). The IKDC score increased from 49 ± 17 pre-operatively to 68 ± 14 one-year post-operatively in the Immediate group (p < 0.0001) and from 44 ± 16 to 69 ± 19 in the Delayed group (p < 0.001). The average VAS for pain 2 months after surgery was 3 ± 3 in the Immediate group and 3 ± 2 in the Delayed (n.s.). There was no significant difference between the two groups in any of the outcome measures. The mean mechanical femorotibial angle changed from 6° of varus (0°-15° of varus, SD = 3°) to 4° of valgus (5°-11° of valgus, SD = 3°) in the Immediate group and from 5° of varus (0°-10° of varus, SD = 3°) to 3° of valgus (2° of varus to 8° of valgus, SD = 3°) in the Delayed group. No difference was seen between groups, and no loss of correction was observed in any patient. Two cases of non-union occurred, one in each group. One infection and one deep vein thrombosis occurred in the Immediate group. Immediate

  5. Early weight-bearing after periacetabular osteotomy leads to a high incidence of postoperative pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Tanino, Hiromasa; Sato, Tatsuya; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Matsuno, Takeo

    2014-07-11

    It has not been shown whether accelerated rehabilitation following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is effective for early recovery. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare complication rates in patients with standard and accelerated rehabilitation protocols who underwent PAO. Between January 2002 and August 2011, patients with a lateral center-edge (CE) angle of < 20°, showing good joint congruency with the hip in abduction, pre- or early stage of osteoarthritis, and age younger than 60 years were included in this study. We evaluated 156 hips in 138 patients, with a mean age at the time of surgery of 30 years. Full weight-bearing with two crutches started 2 months postoperatively in 73 patients (80 hips) with the standard rehabilitation protocol. In 65 patients (76 hips) with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol, postoperative strengthening of the hip, thigh and core musculature was begun on the day of surgery as tolerated. The exercise program included active hip range of motion, and gentle isometric hamstring and quadriceps muscle sets; these exercises were performed for 30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon with a physical therapist every weekday for 6 weeks. Full weight-bearing with two axillary crutches started on the day of surgery as tolerated. Complications were evaluated for 2 years. The clinical results at the time of follow-up were similar in the two groups. The average periods between the osteotomy and full-weight-bearing walking without support were 4.2 months and 6.9 months in patients with the accelerated and standard rehabilitation protocols (P < 0.001), indicating that the accelerated rehabilitation protocol could achieve earlier recovery of patients. However, postoperative fractures of the ischial ramus and posterior column of the pelvis were more frequently found in patients with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol (8/76) than in those with the standard rehabilitation protocol (1/80) (P = 0

  6. Early weight-bearing after periacetabular osteotomy leads to a high incidence of postoperative pelvic fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has not been shown whether accelerated rehabilitation following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is effective for early recovery. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare complication rates in patients with standard and accelerated rehabilitation protocols who underwent PAO. Methods Between January 2002 and August 2011, patients with a lateral center-edge (CE) angle of < 20°, showing good joint congruency with the hip in abduction, pre- or early stage of osteoarthritis, and age younger than 60 years were included in this study. We evaluated 156 hips in 138 patients, with a mean age at the time of surgery of 30 years. Full weight-bearing with two crutches started 2 months postoperatively in 73 patients (80 hips) with the standard rehabilitation protocol. In 65 patients (76 hips) with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol, postoperative strengthening of the hip, thigh and core musculature was begun on the day of surgery as tolerated. The exercise program included active hip range of motion, and gentle isometric hamstring and quadriceps muscle sets; these exercises were performed for 30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon with a physical therapist every weekday for 6 weeks. Full weight-bearing with two axillary crutches started on the day of surgery as tolerated. Complications were evaluated for 2 years. Results The clinical results at the time of follow-up were similar in the two groups. The average periods between the osteotomy and full-weight-bearing walking without support were 4.2 months and 6.9 months in patients with the accelerated and standard rehabilitation protocols (P < 0.001), indicating that the accelerated rehabilitation protocol could achieve earlier recovery of patients. However, postoperative fractures of the ischial ramus and posterior column of the pelvis were more frequently found in patients with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol (8/76) than in those with the standard

  7. Functional weight-bearing mobilization after Achilles tendon rupture enhances early healing response: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Valkering, Kars P; Aufwerber, Susanna; Ranuccio, Francesco; Lunini, Enricomaria; Edman, Gunnar; Ackermann, Paul W

    2017-06-01

    Functional weight-bearing mobilization may improve repair of Achilles tendon rupture (ATR), but the underlying mechanisms and outcome were unknown. We hypothesized that functional weight-bearing mobilization by means of increased metabolism could improve both early and long-term healing. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, patients with acute ATR were randomized to either direct post-operative functional weight-bearing mobilization (n = 27) in an orthosis or to non-weight-bearing (n = 29) plaster cast immobilization. During the first two post-operative weeks, 15°-30° of plantar flexion was allowed and encouraged in the functional weight-bearing mobilization group. At 2 weeks, patients in the non-weight-bearing cast immobilization group received a stiff orthosis, while the functional weight-bearing mobilization group continued with increased range of motion. At 6 weeks, all patients discontinued immobilization. At 2 weeks, healing metabolites and markers of procollagen type I (PINP) and III (PIIINP) were examined using microdialysis. At 6 and 12 months, functional outcome using heel-rise test was assessed. Healing tendons of both groups exhibited increased levels of metabolites glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, and of PIIINP (all p < 0.05). Patients in functional weight-bearing mobilization group demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of glutamate compared to the non-weight-bearing cast immobilization group (p = 0.045).The upregulated glutamate levels were significantly correlated with the concentrations of PINP (r = 0.5, p = 0.002) as well as with improved functional outcome at 6 months (r = 0.4; p = 0.014). Heel-rise tests at 6 and 12 months did not display any differences between the two groups. Functional weight-bearing mobilization enhanced the early healing response of ATR. In addition, early ankle range of motion was improved without the risk of Achilles tendon elongation and without altering long-term functional

  8. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES OF HIP ARTHROSCOPY IN AN ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY POPULATION UTILIZING A CRITERION-BASED EARLY WEIGHT BEARING PROGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Evanson, J. Richard; Pniewski, Josh; Dickston, Michelle L.; Mueller, Terry; Bojescul, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hip arthroscopy allows surgeons to address intra-articular pathology of the hip while avoiding more invasive open surgical dislocation. However the post-operative rehabilitation protocols have varied greatly in the literature, with many having prolonged periods of limited motion and weight bearing. Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe a criterion-based early weight bearing protocol following hip arthroscopy and investigate functional outcomes in the subjects who were active duty military. Methods Active duty personnel undergoing hip arthroscopy for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement were prospectively assessed in a controlled environment for the ability to incorporate early postoperative weight-bearing with the following criteria: no increased pain complaint with weight bearing and normalized gait pattern. Modified Harris Hip (HHS) and Hip Outcome score (HOS) were performed preoperatively and at six months post-op. Participants were progressed with a standard hip arthroscopy protocol. Hip flexion was limited to not exceed 90 degrees for the first three weeks post-op, with progression back to running beginning at three months. Final discharge was dependent upon the ability to run two miles at military specified pace and do a single leg broad jump within six inches of the contralateral leg without an increase in pain. Results Eleven participants met inclusion criteria over the study period. Crutch use was discontinued at an average of five days following surgery based on established weight bearing criteria. Only one participant required continued crutch use at 15 days. Participants’ functional outcome was improved postoperatively, as demonstrated by significant increases in HOS and HHS. At the six month follow up, eight of 11 participants were able to take and complete a full Army Physical Fitness Test. Conclusions Following completion of the early weight bearing rehabilitation protocol, 81% of participants were able to progress to

  9. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES OF HIP ARTHROSCOPY IN AN ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY POPULATION UTILIZING A CRITERION-BASED EARLY WEIGHT BEARING PROGRESSION.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K Aaron; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Evanson, J Richard; Pniewski, Josh; Dickston, Michelle L; Mueller, Terry; Bojescul, John A

    2017-10-01

    Hip arthroscopy allows surgeons to address intra-articular pathology of the hip while avoiding more invasive open surgical dislocation. However the post-operative rehabilitation protocols have varied greatly in the literature, with many having prolonged periods of limited motion and weight bearing. The purpose of this study was to describe a criterion-based early weight bearing protocol following hip arthroscopy and investigate functional outcomes in the subjects who were active duty military. Active duty personnel undergoing hip arthroscopy for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement were prospectively assessed in a controlled environment for the ability to incorporate early postoperative weight-bearing with the following criteria: no increased pain complaint with weight bearing and normalized gait pattern. Modified Harris Hip (HHS) and Hip Outcome score (HOS) were performed preoperatively and at six months post-op. Participants were progressed with a standard hip arthroscopy protocol. Hip flexion was limited to not exceed 90 degrees for the first three weeks post-op, with progression back to running beginning at three months. Final discharge was dependent upon the ability to run two miles at military specified pace and do a single leg broad jump within six inches of the contralateral leg without an increase in pain. Eleven participants met inclusion criteria over the study period. Crutch use was discontinued at an average of five days following surgery based on established weight bearing criteria. Only one participant required continued crutch use at 15 days. Participants' functional outcome was improved postoperatively, as demonstrated by significant increases in HOS and HHS. At the six month follow up, eight of 11 participants were able to take and complete a full Army Physical Fitness Test. Following completion of the early weight bearing rehabilitation protocol, 81% of participants were able to progress to full weight bearing by four days post

  10. Early full weight-bearing versus 6-week partial weight-bearing after open wedge high tibial osteotomy leads to earlier improvement of the clinical results: a prospective, randomised evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schröter, S; Ateschrang, A; Löwe, W; Nakayama, H; Stöckle, U; Ihle, C

    2017-01-01

    Open wedge high tibial osteotomy is a widespread treatment option in patients with varus malalignment and medial compartment osteoarthritis. There is no standardised protocol for post-operative rehabilitation available. The purpose of this study was to compare two post-operative rehabilitation protocols and to evaluate the clinical outcome of early full weight-bearing after open wedge HTO. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients with varus malalignment and medial compartment osteoarthritis received an open wedge HTO using an angular locking plate fixation between December 2008 and December 2011. All patients were assigned randomly into one of two groups with different post-operative rehabilitation protocols (11-day vs. 6-week 20-kg partial weight-bearing). Clinical outcome was evaluated using established instruments (Lequesne, Lysholm, HSS and IKDC scores) preoperatively, 6, 12 and 18 months post-operatively. Deformity analysis was performed preoperatively and during follow-up. All clinical scores showed a significant pre- to post-operative improvement. After 6 months, there was a higher improvement in the group of early full weight-bearing. The difference between preoperative and 6-month follow-up for the group with early full weight-bearing and for the group with 20-kg PWB for 6 weeks was 28 ± 26 and 18 ± 22, respectively, for the Lysholm score and -5.0 ± 5.1 and -3.0 ± 3.6, respectively, for the Lequesne score. Early full weight-bearing (11-day 20-kg partial weight-bearing) after open wedge HTO without bone graft leads to earlier improvement of the clinical results and can be recommended for post-operative rehabilitation after open wedge HTO and fixation with an angular locking plate. Therapeutic study, Level I.

  11. Effect and safety of early weight-bearing on the outcome after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, O-Sung; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Yong Seuk

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of early weight-bearing by comparing clinical and radiological outcomes between early and traditional delayed weight-bearing after OWHTO. A rigorous and systematic approach was used. The methodological quality was also assessed. Results that are possible to be compared in two or more than two articles were presented as forest plots. A 95% confidence interval was calculated for each effect size, and we calculated the I 2 statistic, which presents the percentage of total variation attributable to the heterogeneity among studies. The random-effects model was used to calculate the effect size. Six articles were included in the final analysis. All case groups were composed of early full weight-bearing within 2 weeks. All control groups were composed of late full weight-bearing between 6 weeks and 2 months. Pooled analysis was possible for the improvement in Lysholm score, but there was no statistically significant difference shown between groups. Other clinical results were also similar between groups. Four studies reported mechanical femorotibial angle (mFTA) and this result showed no statistically significant difference between groups in the pooled analysis. Furthermore, early weight-bearing showed more favorable results in some radiologic results (osseointegration and patellar height) and complications (thrombophlebitis and recurrence). Our analysis supports that early full weight-bearing after OWHTO using a locking plate leads to improvement in outcomes and was comparable to the delayed weight-bearing in terms of clinical and radiological outcomes. On the contrary, early weight-bearing was more favorable with respect to some radiologic parameters and complications compared with delayed weight-bearing.

  12. [Controlled weight bearing after osteosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Perren, T; Matter, P

    1993-01-01

    Patient compliance with postoperative partial weight bearing can be a difficult management problem. The problem may be intentional or unintentional. There is no objective way to assess the amount of weight placed on the lower extremity by the patient. It is our clinical suspicion that patients place more weight than is desirable on the effected limb. There are few reports in the literature on this topic. One study has confirmed our suspicion of poor patient compliance with postoperative weight bearing. Our goal is to develop a system to accurately assess weight bearing and to improve this aspect of postoperative fracture care. Through an active feedback device we hope to improve patient education and understanding. We plan to study the clinical applications of using a pressure sensitive shoe insert device. Our ultimate goal is to improve upon the present device and to study the clinical application of there use.

  13. Reproducibilty of partial weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Malviya, A; Richards, J; Jones, Richard K; Udwadia, A; Doyle, J

    2005-04-01

    To find out whether partial weight bearing can be reproduced and retained. In vivo experiment in normal subjects. Training for partial weight bearing (25% of body weight) using bathroom scales. Reproducibility on force platform immediately after training and after 60 min. Twelve subjects were asked to reproduce 25% of their body weight through either the dominant or non-dominant limb on force platform after three practice attempts on bathroom scales with concurrent visual feedback. No feedback was provided after the measurements on force plate. The process was repeated after 1h without any practice sessions in the interim period to find out if the weight practised could be retained. The mean 0-min reading was found to be 25.9% of body weight while the mean 60-min reading was found to be 24.4%. The p-value for the difference between the two means was found to be 0.3841. This study indicates that partial weight bearing instructions can be quantified and graded. Simple bathroom scales are sufficient to educate the patients and this can be practised at home after an initial period of supervision.

  14. Radiographic and functional results in the treatment of early stages of Charcot neuroarthropathy with a walker boot and immediate weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Candida Ribeiro; Godoy-Santos, Alexandre Leme; Ortiz, Rafael Trevisan; Sposeto, Rafael Barban; Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Nery, Marcia; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common gold standards for the treatment of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) in the early Eichenholtz stages I and II is immobilization with the total contact casting and lower limb offloading. However, the total amount of offloading is still debatable. This study evaluates the clinical and radiographic findings in the treatment of early stages of CN (Eichenholtz stages I and II) with a walker boot and immediate total weight-bearing status. Twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and CN of Eichenholtz stages I and II were selected for non-operative treatment. All patients were educated about their condition, and full weight bearing was allowed as tolerated. Patients were monitored on a fortnightly basis in the earlier stages, with clinical examination, temperature measurement, and standardized weight-bearing radiographs. Their American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores were determined before and after the treatment protocol. No cutaneous ulcerations or infections were observed in the evaluated cases. The mean measured angles at the beginning and end of the study, although showing relative increase, did not present a statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). Mean AOFAS scores showed a statistically significant improvement by the end of the study (p < 0.005). The treatment of early stages of CN (Eichenholtz stages I and II) with emphasis on walker boot and immediate weight bearing has shown a good functional outcome, non-progressive deformity on radiographic assessment, and promising results as a safe treatment option.

  15. Neuromuscular fatigue and tibiofemoral joint biomechanics when transitioning from non-weight bearing to weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Randy J; Kim, Hyunsoo; Shultz, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is suggested to be a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Fatiguing exercise can affect neuromuscular control and laxity of the knee joint, which may render the knee less able to resist externally applied loads. Few authors have examined the effects of fatiguing exercise on knee biomechanics during the in vivo transition of the knee from non-weight bearing to weight bearing, the time when anterior cruciate ligament injury likely occurs. To investigate the effect of fatiguing exercise on tibiofemoral joint biomechanics during the transition from non-weight bearing to early weight bearing. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Ten participants (5 men and 5 women; age = 25.3 ± 4.0 years) with no previous history of knee-ligament injury to the dominant leg. Participants were tested before (preexercise) and after (postexercise) a protocol consisting of repeated leg presses (15 repetitions from 10°-40° of knee flexion, 10 seconds' rest) against a 60% body-weight load until they were unable to complete a full bout of repetitions. Electromagnetic sensors measured anterior tibial translation and knee-flexion excursion during the application of a 40% body-weight axial compressive load to the bottom of the foot, simulating weight acceptance. A force transducer recorded axial compressive force. The axial compressive force (351.8 ± 44.3 N versus 374.0 ± 47.9 N; P = .018), knee-flexion excursion (8.0° ± 4.0° versus 10.2° ± 3.7°; P = .046), and anterior tibial translation (6.7 ± 1.7 mm versus 8.2 ± 1.9 mm; P < .001) increased from preexercise to postexercise. No significant correlations were noted. Neuromuscular fatigue may impair initial knee-joint stabilization during weight acceptance, leading to greater accessory motion at the knee and the potential for greater anterior cruciate ligament loading.

  16. Fixation of a split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau with a locking screw plate instead of cannulated screws would allow early weight bearing: a computational exploration.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Ion; Gelber, Pablo Eduardo; Chary, Gaetan; González-Ballester, Miguel A; Monllau, Juan Carlos; Noailly, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    To assess, with finite element (FE) calculations, whether immediate weight bearing would be possible after surgical stabilization either with cannulated screws or with a locking plate in a split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau (LTP). A split fracture of the LTP was recreated in a FE model of a human tibia. A three-dimensional FE model geometry of a human femur-tibia system was obtained from the VAKHUM project database, and was built from CT images from a subject with normal bone morphologies and normal alignment. The mesh of the tibia was reconverted into a geometry of NURBS surfaces. A split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau was reproduced by using geometrical data from patient radiographs. A locking screw plate (LP) and a cannulated screw (CS) systems were modelled to virtually reduce the fracture and 80 kg static body-weight was simulated. While the simulated body-weight led to clinically acceptable interfragmentary motion, possible traumatic bone shear stresses were predicted nearby the cannulated screws. With a maximum estimation of about 1.7 MPa maximum bone shear stresses, the Polyax system might ensure more reasonable safety margins. Split fractures of the LTP fixed either with locking screw plate or cannulated screws showed no clinically relevant IFM in a FE model. The locking screw plate showed higher mechanical stability than cannulated screw fixation. The locking screw plate might also allow full or at least partial weight bearing under static posture at time zero.

  17. Foot Loading Characteristics of Different Graduations of Partial Weight Bearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusinde, Johannes; Pauser, Johannes; Swoboda, Bernd; Gelse, Kolja; Carl, Hans-Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Limited weight bearing of the lower extremity is a commonly applied procedure in orthopaedic rehabilitation after reconstructive forefoot surgery, trauma surgery and joint replacement. The most frequent limitations are given as percentage of body weight (BW) and represent 10 or 50% BW. The extent of foot loading under these graduations of partial…

  18. Biofeedback in Partial Weight Bearing: Validity of 3 Different Devices.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Remko; Stukstette, Mirelle J; de Bie, Rob A; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Pisters, Martijn F

    2016-11-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study to assess criterion-related validity, with a cross-sectional within-subject design. Background Patients with orthopaedic conditions have difficulties complying with partial weight-bearing instructions. Technological advances have resulted in biofeedback devices that offer real-time feedback. However, the accuracy of these devices is mostly unknown. Inaccurate feedback can result in incorrect lower-limb loading and may lead to delayed healing. Objectives To investigate validity of peak force measurements obtained using 3 different biofeedback devices under varying levels of partial weight-bearing categories. Methods Validity of 3 biofeedback devices (OpenGo science, SmartStep, and SensiStep) was assessed. Healthy participants were instructed to walk at a self-selected speed with crutches under 3 different weight-bearing conditions, categorized as a percentage range of body weight: 1% to 20%, greater than 20% to 50%, and greater than 50% to 75%. Peak force data from the biofeedback devices were compared with the peak vertical ground reaction force measured with a force plate. Criterion validity was estimated using simple and regression-based Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement and weighted kappas. Results Fifty-five healthy adults (58% male) participated. Agreement with the gold standard was substantial for the SmartStep, moderate for OpenGo science, and slight for SensiStep (weighted ± = 0.76, 0.58, and 0.19, respectively). For the 1% to 20% and greater than 20% to 50% weight-bearing categories, both the OpenGo science and SmartStep had acceptable limits of agreement. For the weight-bearing category greater than 50% to 75%, none of the devices had acceptable agreement. Conclusion The OpenGo science and SmartStep provided valid feedback in the lower weight-bearing categories, and the SensiStep showed poor validity of feedback in all weight-bearing categories. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(11):-1. Epub 12 Oct 2016. doi:10

  19. Weights and hematology of wild black bears during hibernation

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Rogers, Lynn L.; Allen, Arthur W.; Seal, U.S.

    1991-01-01

    We compared weights and hematological profiles of adult (greater than 3-yr-old) female black bears (Ursus americanus) during hibernation (after 8 January). We handled 28 bears one to four times (total of 47) over 4 yr of varying mast and berry production. Mean weight of lactating bears was greater (P less than 0.0001) than that of non-lactating females. White blood cells (P less than 0.05) and mean corpuscular volume (P = 0.005) also differed between lactating and non-lactating bears. Hemoglobin (P = 0.006) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.02) varied among years; values were lowest during 1975, following decreased precipitation and the occurrence of a second year of mast and berry crop shortages in a three-year period. Significant (P less than 0.05) interaction between reproductive status (lactating versus non-lactating) and study year for hemoglobin, red blood cells, and packed cell volume, and increased mean corpuscular volume, suggested a greater nutritional challenge for lactating females compared to non-lactating females during the 1975 denning season. Our data suggest that hematological characteristics of denning bears may be more sensitive than weights as indicators of annual changes in nutritional status; however, other influential factors, in addition to mast and berry crop production, remain to be examined.

  20. Patellar position in weight-bearing radiographs compared with non-weight-bearing: significance for the detection of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Skou, Nikolaj; Egund, Niels

    2017-03-01

    Background Diagnosis and treatment of patellofemoral disorders including osteoarthritis are currently often based on imaging and clinical assessment with patients in the supine position. Purpose To evaluate differences in patellar position in the trochlear groove and to assess the detection of medial and lateral patellofemoral (PF) osteoarthritis (OA) on axial radiographs in supine and standing positions, respectively. Material and Methods Thirty-five women and 23 men (mean age, 56 years; age range, 18-87 years) referred for routine radiographic examinations of the knees were included. Axial radiographs of the PF joint in both supine non-weight-bearing and standing weight-bearing position in 30° knee flexion were obtained of 111 knees. Measurements performed on the radiographs: patellar tilt, patellar displacement, joint space width, and grade of OA according to Ahlbäck. Results From supine to standing position the patella moved medially and medial joint space width and lateral patellar tilt angle decreased ( P < 0.0001 for the three measured parameters). In the standing position, medial PF OA was observed in 19 knees compared to three knees in the supine position. Fourteen knees had lateral PF OA with almost unchanged grade of OA irrespective of position. Conclusion In weight-bearing positions, the patella is positioned medially in the trochlear groove compared to supine non-weight-bearing positions. Therefore, this study suggests that the common occurrence of medial PF OA can generally not be detected on axial radiographs in supine non-weight-bearing positions and confirms the importance of imaging the PF joint in standing weight-bearing positions.

  1. Systematic review: plantar fasciitis and prolonged weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Waclawski, E R; Beach, J; Milne, A; Yacyshyn, E; Dryden, D M

    2015-03-01

    Plantar fasciitis (PF) is one of the most common causes of foot pain. Work can involve factors that may predispose to foot pain. To systematically review the evidence of the association between weight bearing (walking or standing) and PF among workers. Literature search of relevant indexing databases from inception to May 2012, grey literature, websites of relevant organizations and reference lists for all identified articles. Two reviewers independently selected studies for full review, assessed methodological quality and graded evidence. Findings were summarized qualitatively. Four studies were included; all were assessed as high or unclear risk of bias. Three studies were case-control studies; two used clinic populations and one used volunteers. The other study was cross-sectional involving the workforce of an assembly plant. A number of associations between PF and risk factors were identified including sex, obesity, foot biomechanics and job factors (e.g. job tenure). Two case-control studies and the cross-sectional study found an association with weight bearing, but the assessment of weight bearing varied (e.g. time on feet, time walking or standing). There was low-quality evidence to confirm a causal relationship (Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) * grade). This systematic review found low-quality evidence of an association between PF and weight-bearing tasks such as walking and standing on hard surfaces. The only occupations specifically identified as having higher risk were those associated with the engine assembly plant. Further research is required to fully determine the association between weight bearing and PF. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Permissive weight bearing in trauma patients with fracture of the lower extremities: prospective multicenter comparative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kalmet, Pishtiwan H S; Meys, Guido; V Horn, Yvette Y; Evers, Silvia M A A; Seelen, Henk A M; Hustinx, Paul; Janzing, Heinrich; Vd Veen, Alexander; Jaspars, Coen; Sintenie, Jan Bernard; Blokhuis, Taco J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2018-02-02

    The standard aftercare treatment in surgically treated trauma patients with fractures around or in a joint, known as (peri)- or intra-articular fractures of the lower extremities, is either non-weight bearing or partial weight bearing. We have developed an early permissive weight bearing post-surgery rehabilitation protocol in surgically treated patients with fractures of the lower extremities. In this proposal we want to compare our early permissive weight bearing protocol to the existing current non-weight bearing guidelines in a prospective comparative cohort study. The study is a prospective multicenter comparative cohort study in which two rehabilitation aftercare treatments will be contrasted, i.e. permissive weight bearing and non-weight bearing according to the AO-guideline. The study population consists of patients with a surgically treated fracture of the pelvis/acetabulum or a surgically treated (peri)- or intra-articular fracture of the lower extremities. The inclusion period is 12 months. The duration of follow up is 6 months, with measurements taken at baseline, 2,6,12 and 26 weeks post-surgery. ADL with Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Outcome variables for compliance, as measured with an insole pressure measurement system, encompass peak load and step duration. This study will investigate the (cost-) effectiveness of a permissive weight bearing aftercare protocol. The results will provide evidence whether a permissive weight bearing protocol is more effective than the current non-weight bearing protocol. The study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR6077 ). Date of registration: 01-09-2016.

  3. Determinants of bone density among athletes engaged in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Jon E.; Friedlander, Anne L.; Brooks, George A.; Steiger, Peter; Stubbs, Harrison A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of weight bearing activity on the bone density was investigated in athletes by comparing the measures of bone density of athletes engaged in weight-training programs with those of polo players and nonexercising subjects. All subjects had measurements of spinal trabecular and integral bone density by quantitative tomography, as well as determinations of hip bone density by dual photon absorptiometry. Results confirmed previous findings by Block et al. (1987) of significantly greater bone density among highly trained athletes compared with nonexercising subjects of similar age. Results also indicated that athletes engaged in non-weight-bearing forms of rigorous exercise had greater levels of bone density. However, as the participants in this study were exceptional athletes, engaged in a strenuous sport with both aerobic and heavy resistance components, a confirmation of these data is needed, using larger samples of individuals.

  4. Eccentric exercise training as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing soleus muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Ryan, Mirelle J.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation tested whether eccentric resistance training could prevent soleus muscle atrophy during non-weight bearing. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to either weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes or non-weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes groups. Electrically stimulated maximal eccentric contractions were performed on anesthetized animals at 48-h intervals during the 10-day experiment. Non-weight bearing significantly reduced soleus muscle wet weight (28-31 percent) and noncollagenous protein content (30-31 percent) compared with controls. Eccentric exercise training during non-weight bearing attenuated but did not prevent the loss of soleus muscle wet weight and noncollagenous protein by 77 and 44 percent, respectively. The potential of eccentric exercise training as an effective and highly efficient counter-measure to non-weight-bearing atrophy is demonstrated in the 44 percent attenuation of soleus muscle noncollagenous protein loss by eccentric exercise during only 0.035 percent of the total non-weight-bearing time period.

  5. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  6. Non-Weight-Bearing and Weight-Bearing Ultrasonography of Select Foot Muscles in Young, Asymptomatic Participants: A Descriptive and Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Patrick J; Mattox, Ross; Winchester, Brett; Kettner, Norman W

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the reliability of diagnostic ultrasound imaging for select intrinsic foot muscles using both non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing postures. Our secondary aim was to describe the change in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and dorsoplantar thickness when bearing weight. An ultrasound examination was performed with a linear ultrasound transducer operating between 9 and 12 MHz. Long-axis and short-axis ultrasound images of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and quadratus plantae were obtained in both the non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing postures. Two examiners independently collected ultrasound images to allow for interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability calculation. The change in muscle CSA and dorsoplantar thickness when bearing weight was also studied. There were 26 participants (17 female) with a mean age of 25.5 ± 3.8 years and a mean body mass index of 28.0 ± 7.8 kg/m 2 . Inter-examiner reliability was excellent when measuring the muscles in short axis (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75) and fair to good in long axis (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.4). Intraexaminer reliability was excellent for the abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis and ranged from fair to good to excellent for the quadratus plantae. Bearing weight did not reduce interexaminer or intraexaminer reliability. All muscles exhibited a significant increase in CSA when bearing weight. This is the first report to describe weight-bearing diagnostic ultrasound of the intrinsic foot muscles. Ultrasound imaging is reliable when imaging these muscles bearing weight. Furthermore, muscle CSA increases in the weight-bearing posture. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Patient compliance with touchdown weight bearing after microfracture treatment of talar osteochondral lesions.

    PubMed

    Polat, Gökhan; Karademir, Gökhan; Akalan, Ekin; Aşık, Mehmet; Erdil, Mehmet

    2017-03-20

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the compliance of our patients with a touchdown weight bearing (without supporting any weight on the affected side by only touching the plantar aspect of the foot to the ground to maintain balance to protect the affected side from mechanical loading) postoperative rehabilitation protocol after treatment of talar osteochondral lesion (TOL). Fourteen patients, who had been treated with arthroscopic debridement and microfracture, were followed prospectively. The patients were evaluated for weight bearing compliance with using a stationary gait analysis and feedback system at the postoperative first day, first week, third week, and sixth week. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) scores of the patients at the preoperative, postoperative first day, first week, third week, and sixth weeks were 5.5, 5.9, 3.6, 0.9, and 0.4, respectively. The decrease in VAS scores were statistically significant (p < 0.0001). First postoperative day revealed a mean value of transmitted weight of 4.08% ±0.8 (one non-compliant patient). The mean value was 4.34% ±0.8 at the first postoperative week (two non-compliant patients), 6.95% ±2.3 at the third postoperative week (eight non-compliant patients), and 10.8% ±4.8 at the sixth postoperative week (11 non-compliant patients). In the analysis of data, we found a negative correlation between VAS scores and transmitted weight (Kendall's tau b = -0.445 and p = 0.0228). Although patients were able to learn and adjust to the touchdown weight bearing gait protocol during the early postoperative period, most patients became non-compliant when their pain was relieved. To prevent this situation of non-compliance, patients should be warned to obey the weight bearing restrictions, and patients should be called for a follow-up at the third postoperative week.

  8. Sex differences in coupled knee motions during the transition from non-weight bearing to weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Sandra J; Beynnon, Bruce D; Schmitz, Randy J

    2009-06-01

    Knee ligament injuries frequently happen when the joint transitions from non-weight bearing (NWB) to weight bearing (WB). To gain insight into the mechanism that produces these injuries, physically active females (N = 41) and males (N = 39) underwent measurement of coupled tibiofemoral joint displacements [anterior tibial translation (ATT) and varus-valgus and internal-external rotations] and neuromuscular responses as the knee transitioned from NWB to WB in response to a 40% body weight load applied under the control of gravity. The transition from NWB to WB produced no difference in ATT between males and females; however, significant sex-based differences were noted for both transverse and frontal plane knee motions. With the knee NWB, females were in a greater absolute valgus compared to males (6.6 vs. 5.0 degrees), and moved through greater varus motion than males during the transition from NW to WB (2.3 vs. 1.4 degrees), resulting in similar valgus alignment for both sexes at peak WB (4.3 vs. 3.6 degrees). In the transverse plane, the knees of females were positioned in more external rotation compared to males when NWB (1.4 vs. -0.3 degrees), then females externally rotated their knees while males internally rotated their knees during the transition from NWB to WB. This resulted in a 3.4 degrees difference in transverse plane knee position at peak WB (2.3 vs. -1.1 degrees). Our findings suggest that the coupled knee motions produced during the transition from NWB to WB are sex dependent, and may provide insight into the knee motion patterns that place females at increased risk of knee ligament injury. Copyright 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society

  9. Changes in skeletal muscle gene expression consequent to altered weight bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.; Kirby, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a dynamic organ that adapts to alterations in weight bearing. This brief review examines changes in muscle gene expression resulting from the removal of weight bearing by hindlimb suspension and from increased weight bearing due to eccentric exercise. Acute (less than or equal to 2 days) non-weight bearing of adult rat soleus muscle alters only the translational control of muscle gene expression, while chronic (greater than or equal to 7 days) removal of weight bearing appears to influence pretranslational, translational, and posttranslational mechanisms of control. Acute and chronic eccentric exercise are associated with alterations of translational and posttranslational control, while chronic eccentric training also alters the pretranslational control of muscle gene expression. Thus alterations in weight bearing influence multiple sites of gene regulation.

  10. Measuring polyethylene wear in total knee arthroplasty by RSA: differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positioning.

    PubMed

    van Ijsseldijk, Emiel A; Valstar, Edward R; Stoel, Berend C; de Ridder, Ruud; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Kaptein, Bart L

    2014-04-01

    Measuring the minimum-joint-space-width (mJSW) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) provides valuable information on polyethylene wear, a leading cause for TKA failure. Most existing studies use non-weight-bearing (NWB) patient positioning. The latter may compromise mJSW measurements due to knee laxity with subsequent non-contact between the TKA components. We investigated the difference in mJSW between weight-bearing (WB) and NWB images and the association with mediolateral (ML) knee stability. At one-year follow-up, 23 TKAs were included from an ongoing RSA study, and ML stability was evaluated. For each examination, the mJSW and femoral-tibial contact locations were measured. A linear regression model was used to analyze the association between the mJSW difference (NWB-WB) with the ML stability and contact locations. The mean mJSW difference was 0.28 mm medially and 0.20 mm laterally. Four TKAs had medium (5-9°) and 19 TKAs had high (<5°) ML stability. A higher mJSW difference was found for TKAs with medium stability (0.36 mm, P = 0.01). In conclusion, mJSW measurements in existing (NWB) RSA studies are influenced by knee laxity, but may still provide information on wear progression based on TKA with high ML stability. A direct comparison of mJSW measurements from WB and NWB data is not possible. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hip arthroscopy protocol: expert opinions on post-operative weight bearing and return to sports guidelines.

    PubMed

    Rath, Ehud; Sharfman, Zachary T; Paret, Matan; Amar, Eyal; Drexler, Michael; Bonin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to survey the weight-bearing limitation practices and delay for returning to running and impact sports of high volume hip arthroscopy orthopedic surgeons. The study was designed in the form of expert survey questionnaire. Evidence-based data are scares regarding hip arthroscopy post-operative weight-bearing protocols. An international cross-sectional anonymous Internet survey of 26 high-volume hip arthroscopy specialized surgeons was conducted to report their weight-bearing limitations and rehabilitation protocols after various arthroscopic hip procedures. The International Society of Hip Arthroscopy invited this study. The results were examined in the context of supporting literature to inform the studies suggestions. Four surgeons always allow immediate weight bearing and five never offer immediate weight bearing. Seventeen surgeons provide weight bearing depending on the procedures performed: 17 surgeons allowed immediate weight bearing after labral resection, 10 after labral repair and 8 after labral reconstruction. Sixteen surgeons allow immediate weight bearing after psoas tenotomy. Twenty-one respondents restrict weight bearing after microfracture procedures for 3-8 weeks post-operatively. Return to running and impact sports were shorter for labral procedures and bony procedures and longer for cartilaginous and capsular procedures. Marked variability exists in the post-operative weight-bearing practices of hip arthroscopy surgeons. This study suggests that most surgeons allow immediate weight bearing as tolerated after labral resection, acetabular osteoplasty, chondroplasty and psoas tenotomy. For cartilage defect procedures, 6 weeks or more non-weight bearing is suggested depending on the area of the defect and lateral central edge angle. Delayed return to sports activities is suggested after microfracture procedures. The level of evidence was Level V expert opinions.

  12. Hip arthroscopy protocol: expert opinions on post-operative weight bearing and return to sports guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Ehud; Paret, Matan; Amar, Eyal; Drexler, Michael; Bonin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study are to survey the weight-bearing limitation practices and delay for returning to running and impact sports of high volume hip arthroscopy orthopedic surgeons. The study was designed in the form of expert survey questionnaire. Evidence-based data are scares regarding hip arthroscopy post-operative weight-bearing protocols. An international cross-sectional anonymous Internet survey of 26 high-volume hip arthroscopy specialized surgeons was conducted to report their weight-bearing limitations and rehabilitation protocols after various arthroscopic hip procedures. The International Society of Hip Arthroscopy invited this study. The results were examined in the context of supporting literature to inform the studies suggestions. Four surgeons always allow immediate weight bearing and five never offer immediate weight bearing. Seventeen surgeons provide weight bearing depending on the procedures performed: 17 surgeons allowed immediate weight bearing after labral resection, 10 after labral repair and 8 after labral reconstruction. Sixteen surgeons allow immediate weight bearing after psoas tenotomy. Twenty-one respondents restrict weight bearing after microfracture procedures for 3–8 weeks post-operatively. Return to running and impact sports were shorter for labral procedures and bony procedures and longer for cartilaginous and capsular procedures. Marked variability exists in the post-operative weight-bearing practices of hip arthroscopy surgeons. This study suggests that most surgeons allow immediate weight bearing as tolerated after labral resection, acetabular osteoplasty, chondroplasty and psoas tenotomy. For cartilage defect procedures, 6 weeks or more non-weight bearing is suggested depending on the area of the defect and lateral central edge angle. Delayed return to sports activities is suggested after microfracture procedures. The level of evidence was Level V expert opinions. PMID:28630722

  13. The effect of weight-bearing exercise and non-weight-bearing exercise on gait in rats with sciatic nerve crush injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Hwangbo, Gak; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to access the effect of weight bearing exercise (treadmill exercise) and non-weight-bearing exercise (swimming exercise) on gait in the recovery process after a sciatic nerve crush injury. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were randomly divided into a swimming group (n=3) with non-weight-bearing exercise after a sciatic nerve crush and a treadmill group (n=3) with weight bearing exercise after a sciatic nerve crush. Dartfish is a program that can analyze and interpret motion through video images. The knee lateral epicondyle, lateral malleolus, and metatarsophalangeal joint of the fifth toe were marked by black dots before recording. [Results] There were significant differences in TOK (knee angle toe off) and ICK (knee angle at initial contact) in the swimming group and in TOK, ICA (ankle angle at initial contact), and ICK in the treadmill group. In comparison between groups, there were significant differences in TOA (ankle angle in toe off) and ICA at the 7th day. [Conclusion] There was no difference between weight bearing and non-weight-bearing exercise in sciatic nerve damage, and both exercises accelerated the recovery process in this study.

  14. Weight-Bearing Exercise and Foot Health in Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Cuaderes, Elena; DeShea, Lise; Lamb, W Lyndon

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes contributes to sensory peripheral neuropathy, which has been linked to lower limb abnormalities that raise the risk for foot ulcers and amputations. Because amputations are a reason for pain and hospitalization in those with diabetes, it is of critical importance to gain insight about prevention of ulcer development in this population. Although the American Diabetes Association (ADA) now recommends that individuals with neuropathy can engage in moderate-intensity weight-bearing activity (WBA), they must wear appropriate footwear and inspect their feet daily. The physical forces and inflammatory processes from WBA may contribute to plantar characteristics that lead to ulcers. The purpose of this study was to compare neuropathic status and foot characteristics in Native Americans according to WBA classification. The t tests for unequal sample sizes found that exercisers had more difficulty sensing baseline temperature than nonexercisers, except at the right foot (all p values < .05). By dividing groups into no/low risk and high risk for ulcer, a majority showed no/low risk according to touch and vibration sense. Exercisers demonstrated higher surface skin temperature gradients at the first metatarsal head, a plantar site where wounds tend to form. The more consistently exercisers performed, the higher the plan-tar pressures were at the right second ( r = .24, p = .02) and third metatarsal heads ( r = .26, p = .01). Findings from this investigation do not refute current ADA recommendations and further intervention studies are needed that are longitudinal and measures WBA more accurately.

  15. Weight-Bearing Exercise and Foot Health in Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cuaderes, Elena; DeShea, Lise; Lamb, W. Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes contributes to sensory peripheral neuropathy, which has been linked to lower limb abnormalities that raise the risk for foot ulcers and amputations. Because amputations are a reason for pain and hospitalization in those with diabetes, it is of critical importance to gain insight about prevention of ulcer development in this population. Although the American Diabetes Association (ADA) now recommends that individuals with neuropathy can engage in moderate-intensity weight-bearing activity (WBA), they must wear appropriate footwear and inspect their feet daily. The physical forces and inflammatory processes from WBA may contribute to plantar characteristics that lead to ulcers. The purpose of this study was to compare neuropathic status and foot characteristics in Native Americans according to WBA classification. The t tests for unequal sample sizes found that exercisers had more difficulty sensing baseline temperature than nonexercisers, except at the right foot (all p values < .05). By dividing groups into no/low risk and high risk for ulcer, a majority showed no/low risk according to touch and vibration sense. Exercisers demonstrated higher surface skin temperature gradients at the first metatarsal head, a plantar site where wounds tend to form. The more consistently exercisers performed, the higher the plan-tar pressures were at the right second (r = .24, p = .02) and third metatarsal heads (r = .26, p = .01). Findings from this investigation do not refute current ADA recommendations and further intervention studies are needed that are longitudinal and measures WBA more accurately. PMID:26294899

  16. Radiographic progression in weight-bearing joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis after TNF-blocking therapies.

    PubMed

    Seki, Eiko; Matsushita, Isao; Sugiyama, Eiji; Taki, Hirohumi; Shinoda, Koichiro; Hounoki, Hiroyuki; Motomura, Hiraku; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking therapies on weight-bearing joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Changes in clinical variables and radiological findings in 213 weight-bearing joints (69 hip joints, 63 knee joints, and 81 ankle joints) of 42 consecutive patients were investigated at baseline and at 1 year of TNF-blocking therapies. Structural damage to the weight-bearing joints was assessed using the Larsen scoring method. Detailed comparisons of the sizes and locations of erosions were performed for each set of radiographs of the respective joints. Assessment of radiographs of the 213 weight-bearing joints indicated progression of the Larsen grade in eight joints. Another five joints without Larsen grade progression showed apparent radiographic progression of joint damage based on increases in bony erosions. Overall, 13 joints (6%) of eight patients (19%) showed progression of joint damage after 1 year of TNF-blocking therapies. Analysis of each baseline grade indicated that radiographic progression of joint damage was inhibited in most grade 0-II joints. On the other hand, all hip and knee joints with pre-existing damage of grade III/IV showed apparent progression even in patients with good response. The results further suggested that radiographic progression may occur in less damaged joints when the patients were non-responders to the therapy. Among the weight-bearing joints, ankle joints showed different radiographic behavior and four ankle joints displayed improvement of radiographic damage. Early initiation of anti-TNF therapy should be necessary especially when the patients are starting to show early structural damage in weight-bearing joints.

  17. Biomechanical Assessment of the Dorsal Spanning Bridge Plate in Distal Radius Fracture Fixation: Implications for Immediate Weight-Bearing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jerry I; Peterson, Bret; Bellevue, Kate; Lee, Nicolas; Smith, Sean; Herfat, Safa

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of a 2.4-mm dorsal spanning bridge plate with a volar locking plate (VLP) in a distal radius fracture model, during simulated crutch weight-bearing. Five paired cadaveric forearms were tested. A 1-cm dorsal wedge osteotomy was created to simulate an unstable distal radius fracture with dorsal comminution. Fractures were fixed with a VLP or a dorsal bridge plate (DBP). Specimens were mounted to a crutch handle, and optical motion-tracking sensors were attached to the proximal and distal segments. Specimens were loaded in compression at 1 mm/s on a servohydraulic test frame until failure, defined as 2 mm of gap site displacement. The VLP construct was significantly more stable to axial load in a crutch weight-bearing model compared with the DBP plate (VLP: 493 N vs DBP: 332 N). Stiffness was higher in the VLP constructs, but this was not statistically significant (VLP: 51.4 N/mm vs DBP: 32.4 N/mm). With the crutch weight-bearing model, DBP failed consistently with wrist flexion and plate bending, whereas VLP failed with axial compression at the fracture site and dorsal collapse. Dorsal spanning bridge plating is effective as an internal spanning fixator in treating highly comminuted intra-articular distal radius fracture and prevents axial collapse at the radiocarpal joint. However, bridge plating may not offer advantages in early weight-bearing or transfer in polytrauma patients, with less axial stability in our crutch weight-bearing model compared with volar plating. A stiffer 3.5-mm DBP or use of a DBP construct without the central holes may be considered for distal radius fractures if the goal is early crutch weight-bearing through the injured extremity.

  18. Measurement of lower limb alignment: there are within-person differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing measurement modalities.

    PubMed

    Schoenmakers, Daphne A L; Feczko, Peter Z; Boonen, Bert; Schotanus, Martijn G M; Kort, Nanne P; Emans, Pieter J

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have compared weight-bearing mechanical leg axis (MLA) measurements to non-weight-bearing measurement modalities. Most of these studies compared mean or median values and did not analyse within-person differences between measurements. This study evaluates the within-person agreement of MLA measurements between weight-bearing full-length radiographs (FLR) and non-weight-bearing measurement modalities (computer-assisted surgery (CAS) navigation or MRI). Two independent observers measured the MLA on pre- and postoperative weight-bearing FLR in 168 patients. These measurements were compared to non-weight-bearing measurements obtained by CAS navigation or MRI. Absolute differences in individual subjects were calculated to determine the agreement between measurement modalities. Linear regression was used to evaluate the possibility that other independent variables impact the differences in measurements. A difference was found in preoperative measurements between FLR and CAS navigation (mean of 2.5° with limit of agreement (1.96 SD) of 6.4°), as well as between FLR and MRI measurements (mean of 2.4° with limit of agreement (1.96 SD) of 6.9°). Postoperatively, the mean difference between MLA measured on FLR compared to CAS navigation was 1.5° (limit of agreement (1.96 SD) of 4.6°). Linear regression analysis showed that weight-bearing MLA measurements vary significantly from non-weight-bearing MLA measurements. Differences were more severe in patients with mediolateral instability (p = 0.010), age (p = 0.049) and ≥3° varus or valgus alignment (p = 0.008). The clinical importance of this study lies in the finding that there are within-person differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing measurement modalities. This has implications for preoperative planning, performing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and clinical follow-up after TKA surgery using CAS navigation or patient-specific instrumentation. III.

  19. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the weight-bearing shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jacek; Borbas, Paul; Meyer, Dominik C; Gerber, Christian; Buitrago Téllez, Carlos; Wieser, Karl

    2015-12-01

    In wheelchair-dependent individuals, pain often develops because of rotator cuff tendon failure and/or osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint. The purposes of this study were to investigate (1) specific rotator cuff tear patterns, (2) structural healing, and (3) clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in a cohort of wheelchair-dependent patients. Forty-six shoulders with a mean follow-up of 46 months (range, 24-82 months; SD, 13 months) from a consecutive series of 61 shoulders in 56 patients (46 men and 10 women) undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were available for analysis. Clinical outcome analysis was performed using the Constant-Murley score, the Subjective Shoulder Value, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. The integrity of the repair was analyzed by ultrasound. Of the shoulders, 87% had supraspinatus involvement, 70% had subscapularis involvement, and 57% had an anterosuperior lesion involving both the supraspinatus and subscapularis. Despite an overall structural failure rate of 33%, the patients showed improvements in the Constant-Murley score from 50 points (range, 22-86 points; SD, 16 points) preoperatively to 80 points (range, 40-98 points; SD, 12 points) postoperatively and in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score from 56 points (range, 20-92 points; SD, 20 points) preoperatively to 92 points (range, 53-100 points; SD, 10 points) postoperatively, with a mean postoperative Subjective Shoulder Value of 84% (range, 25%-100%; SD, 17%). Failure of the rotator cuff in weight-bearing shoulders occurs primarily anterosuperiorly. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair leads to a structural failure rate of 33% but satisfactory functional results with high patient satisfaction at midterm follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High Variability of Observed Weight Bearing During Standing Foot and Ankle Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christopher P; Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Walley, Kempland C; Ghaheri, Azadeh; Kwon, John Y

    2017-06-01

    Weight-bearing radiographs are a critical component of evaluating foot and ankle pathology. An underlying assumption is that patients are placing 50% of their body weight on the affected foot during image acquisition. The accuracy of weight bearing during radiographs is unknown and, presumably, variable, which may result in uncertain ability of the resultant radiographs to appropriately portray the pathology of interest. Fifty subjects were tested. The percentage body weight through the foot of interest was measured at the moment of radiographic image acquisition. The subject was then instructed to bear "half [their] weight" prior to the next radiograph. The percentage body weight was calculated and compared to ideal 50% weight bearing. The mean percentage body weight in trial 1 and 2 was 45.7% ± 3.2% ( P = .012 compared to the 50% mark) and 49.2% ± 2.4%, respectively ( P = .428 compared to 50%). The mean absolute difference in percentage weight bearing compared to 50% in trials 1 and 2 was 9.3% ± 2.3% and 5.8% ± 1.8%, respectively ( P = .005). For trial 1, 18/50 subjects were within the "ideal" (45%-55%) range for weight bearing compared to 32/50 on trial 2 ( P = .005). In trial 1, 24/50 subjects had "appropriate" (>45%) weight bearing compared to 39/50 on trial 2 ( P = .002). There was substantial variability in the weight applied during radiograph acquisition. This study raises questions regarding the assumptions, reliability, and interpretation when evaluating weight-bearing radiographs. Level III, comparative study.

  1. Slow Recovery of Weight Bearing After Stabilization of Long-Bone Fractures Using Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nails in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lardelli, Patrizia; Frech-Dörfler, Martina; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Mayr, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stabilization of diaphyseal long-bone fractures using elastic stable intramedullary nails (ESIN) in children promises early mobilization and rapid resumption of full weight bearing. We evaluated the duration of postoperative functional rehabilitation after ESIN, measured by the time from stabilization until first partial weight bearing, full weight bearing, and resumption of school sports. Fifty children with unstable, displaced fractures of the femur or lower leg treated with ESIN between 2002 and 2012 were included in this retrospective analysis. We classified fractures according to the pediatric comprehensive classification of fractures (PCCF). Thirty-five children sustained a femur fracture, and 15 children had a fracture of the lower leg or tibia. The surgeons in charge applied an additional plaster cast in 7 of 15 children who suffered a lower leg fracture. The postoperative time interval until full weight bearing in the group of children who had suffered transverse or short oblique femur fractures was significantly shorter (median: 4.4 weeks; range: 0.1–9.1 weeks) than that in the group who had sustained more complex fracture patterns (median: 6.8 weeks; range: 2.9–13.9 weeks; P = 0.04). Similarly, transverse and short oblique lower leg and tibia fractures required less time until full weight bearing (median: 4.1 weeks; range 2.7–6.0 weeks) than complex lower leg fractures (median: 6.1 weeks; range: 1.3–12.9 weeks; P = 0.04). ESIN proved fairly effective in restoring full weight bearing in transverse or short oblique fractures of the lower extremities but was less effective in complex fractures. PMID:26986106

  2. Slow Recovery of Weight Bearing After Stabilization of Long-Bone Fractures Using Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nails in Children.

    PubMed

    Lardelli, Patrizia; Frech-Dörfler, Martina; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Mayr, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Stabilization of diaphyseal long-bone fractures using elastic stable intramedullary nails (ESIN) in children promises early mobilization and rapid resumption of full weight bearing. We evaluated the duration of postoperative functional rehabilitation after ESIN, measured by the time from stabilization until first partial weight bearing, full weight bearing, and resumption of school sports. Fifty children with unstable, displaced fractures of the femur or lower leg treated with ESIN between 2002 and 2012 were included in this retrospective analysis. We classified fractures according to the pediatric comprehensive classification of fractures (PCCF). Thirty-five children sustained a femur fracture, and 15 children had a fracture of the lower leg or tibia. The surgeons in charge applied an additional plaster cast in 7 of 15 children who suffered a lower leg fracture. The postoperative time interval until full weight bearing in the group of children who had suffered transverse or short oblique femur fractures was significantly shorter (median: 4.4 weeks; range: 0.1-9.1 weeks) than that in the group who had sustained more complex fracture patterns (median: 6.8 weeks; range: 2.9-13.9 weeks; P = 0.04). Similarly, transverse and short oblique lower leg and tibia fractures required less time until full weight bearing (median: 4.1 weeks; range 2.7-6.0 weeks) than complex lower leg fractures (median: 6.1 weeks; range: 1.3-12.9 weeks; P = 0.04). ESIN proved fairly effective in restoring full weight bearing in transverse or short oblique fractures of the lower extremities but was less effective in complex fractures.

  3. Patient Compliance with Postoperative Lower-Extremity Non-Weight-Bearing Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Chiodo, Christopher P; Macaulay, Alec A; Palms, David A; Smith, Jeremy T; Bluman, Eric M

    2016-09-21

    A period of non-weight-bearing is prescribed following many orthopaedic injuries and procedures. It is believed that a period of non-weight-bearing is important for proper healing and recovery. The degree to which patients are compliant with non-weight-bearing instructions is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure patient compliance with a period of prescribed non-weight-bearing. In this single-blinded study, pressure-sensitive film was embedded into short leg casts of 51 consecutive adult orthopaedic patients with unilateral lower-extremity abnormality who had been instructed to be strictly non-weight-bearing. Sensors were retrieved at the time of cast removal (mean, 24.3 days [range, 7 to 48 days]) and then were analyzed for force distribution and magnitude. Noncompliance was defined as maximum detectable pressure exerted on ≥50% of the film. Patient characteristics and the time of year that the casts were worn were also examined to determine if they correlated with weight-bearing. Fourteen (27.5%) of 51 patients were noncompliant with the non-weight-bearing restriction. Six (42.9%) of the 14 noncompliant patients compared with 11 (29.7%) of the 37 compliant patients experienced an adverse event (p = 0.51). Sex, age, language spoken, body mass index, time in the cast, and the treating surgeon did not have a significant influence on weight-bearing performance (p > 0.05). Significantly greater weight-bearing was found (p = 0.04) in warmer months (June to October) than in colder months (November to March) in the United States. The noncompliance rate with the postoperative non-weight-bearing restriction was 27.5% (95% confidence interval, 15.2% to 39.8%) in this patient group, despite explicit instructions and education about possible complications associated with weight-bearing. The only factor found to have a significant effect on weight-bearing compliance was the time of year that the cast was worn. No significant difference was found between the

  4. Similar failure rate in immediate post-operative weight bearing versus protected weight bearing following meniscal repair on peripheral, vertical meniscal tears.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Bryan; Gronbeck, Kyle R; Yue, Ruixian Alexander; Tompkins, Marc A

    2017-08-16

    Post-operative weight bearing after meniscal repair is a point of debate among physicians. This study sought to evaluate whether patients adhering to an immediate WBAT rehabilitation programme have a higher failure rate compared to those adhering to a more traditional, protected, NWB status following meniscal repair. The null hypothesis was that there would be no difference in failure between the two groups. A retrospective review of meniscal repair patients greater than 5 years from surgery was performed for patients receiving meniscal repair treatment. Patients were categorized by post-surgical weight-bearing status, either NWB or WBAT, and then analysed for failure of repair. Failure was defined as re-operation on the torn meniscus. The study controlled for variables including age at surgery, sex, height, weight, and BMI, classification of tear type, acuity of the tear, repair location (medial or lateral), repair location within the meniscus, repair technique, and concomitant procedures. Re-operations were performed in 61 of 157 patients [38.9%]. There was no difference between weight-bearing groups for failure of meniscus repair (n.s.). The tears were acute vertical tears located in the posterior horn and body. For the 61 patients with re-operation, the average time to re-operation was 2.2 years with 10 [16%] > 5 years from surgery, 17 [28%] 2-5 years from surgery, and 34 [56%] < 2 years from surgery. In isolated meniscal repair patients (n = 62), there was no difference between weight-bearing groups for rate of re-operation (n.s.). Weight bearing as tolerated after meniscal repair for peripheral, vertical tears does not result in a higher failure rate than traditional, non-weight bearing over a five-year follow-up period. The clinical relevance is that, based on these data, it may be appropriate to allow weight bearing as tolerated following meniscal repair of peripheral, vertical tears. Retrospective cohort study, Level III.

  5. Is it correct to always consider weight-bearing asymmetrically distributed in individuals with hemiparesis?

    PubMed

    Martins, Emerson Fachin; de Araujo Barbosa, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; de Menezes, Lidiane Teles; de Sousa, Pedro Henrique Côrtes; Costa, Abraão Souza

    2011-11-01

    Injuries may cause unilateral deterioration of brain areas related to postural control resulting in lateralized motor disability with abnormal asymmetry in weight-bearing distribution. Although overloading toward the nonaffected limb has been described as the preferred posture among individuals with hemiparesis, characterization of the weight-bearing asymmetry is poorly and indirectly described. Therefore, this study aimed to describe weight-bearing distribution during upright stance, establishing criteria to consider asymmetry in hemiparesis when analyzed within the limits defined by controls matched by age and gender. Forty subjects with (n = 20) or without hemiparesis (n = 20) were included in procedures to record weight-bearing values between hemibodies, and these values were used to calculate a symmetry ratio. Control presented 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean for symmetry ratio ranging from 0.888 to 1.072, defining limits to symmetry. Four subjects with hemiparesis (20%) had symmetry ratios inside limits defined by controls (i.e., weight-bearing symmetrically distributed), and 11 (55%) subjects without hemiparesis showed symmetry ratios outside the limits, suggesting asymmetrical weight-bearing distribution. It was concluded that asymmetry, when present in a control group, was more frequently overloading nonpredominantly used hemibody (nondominant side), differing from a hemiparesis group commonly forced to assume the nonaffected side as the predominantly used hemibody and where the overload was observed.

  6. Real-time visual biofeedback during weight bearing improves therapy compliance in patients following lower extremity fractures.

    PubMed

    Raaben, Marco; Holtslag, Herman R; Leenen, Luke P H; Augustine, Robin; Blokhuis, Taco J

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with lower extremity fractures are often instructed on how much weight to bear on the affected extremity. Previous studies have shown limited therapy compliance in weight bearing during rehabilitation. In this study we investigated the effect of real-time visual biofeedback on weight bearing in individuals with lower extremity fractures in two conditions: full weight bearing and touch-down weight bearing. 11 participants with full weight bearing and 12 participants with touch-down weight bearing after lower extremity fractures have been measured with an ambulatory biofeedback system. The participants first walked 15m and the biofeedback system was only used to register the weight bearing. The same protocol was then repeated with real-time visual feedback during weight bearing. The participants could thereby adapt their loading to the desired level and improve therapy compliance. In participants with full weight bearing, real-time visual biofeedback resulted in a significant increase in loading from 50.9±7.51% bodyweight (BW) without feedback to 63.2±6.74%BW with feedback (P=0.0016). In participants with touch-down weight bearing, the exerted lower extremity load decreased from 16.7±9.77kg without feedback to 10.27±4.56kg with feedback (P=0.0718). More important, the variance between individual steps significantly decreased after feedback (P=0.018). Ambulatory monitoring weight bearing after lower extremity fractures showed that therapy compliance is low, both in full and touch-down weight bearing. Real-time visual biofeedback resulted in significantly higher peak loads in full weight bearing and increased accuracy of individual steps in touch-down weight bearing. Real-time visual biofeedback therefore results in improved therapy compliance after lower extremity fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Activation of the hip adductor muscles varies during a simulated weight-bearing task.

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Beall, Paula; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Stanton, Warren; Miokovic, Tanja; Richardson, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the pattern of muscle activation of the individual hip adductor muscles using a standardised simulated unilateral weight-bearing task. A repeated measures design. Laboratory. 20 healthy individuals (11 females, 9 males) participated in the study. Age ranged from 20 to 25 years. Surface electromyography recordings from adductor magnus and adductor longus muscles were taken at levels representing 10-50% of body weight during a simulated weight-bearing task. Electromyography (EMG) data were normalised to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. The adductor magnus was recruited at significantly higher levels than the adductor longus muscle during a simulated weight-bearing task performed across 10-50% of body weight (p < 0.01). Adductor magnus and adductor longus muscles are recruited to different extents during a simulated weight-bearing task. This information should be considered when selecting exercises for management and prevention of groin strains. Closed chain exercises with weight-bearing through the lower limb are more likely to recruit the adductor magnus muscle over the adductor longus muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Haptic biofeedback for improving compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Michael C; DeLuke, Levi; Buerba, Rafael A; Fan, Richard E; Zheng, Ying Jean; Leslie, Michael P; Baumgaertner, Michael R; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-11-01

    After lower-extremity orthopedic trauma and surgery, patients are often advised to restrict weight bearing on the affected limb. Conventional training methods are not effective at enabling patients to comply with recommendations for partial weight bearing. The current study assessed a novel method of using real-time haptic (vibratory/vibrotactile) biofeedback to improve compliance with instructions for partial weight bearing. Thirty healthy, asymptomatic participants were randomized into 1 of 3 groups: verbal instruction, bathroom scale training, and haptic biofeedback. Participants were instructed to restrict lower-extremity weight bearing in a walking boot with crutches to 25 lb, with an acceptable range of 15 to 35 lb. A custom weight bearing sensor and biofeedback system was attached to all participants, but only those in the haptic biofeedback group were given a vibrotactile signal if they exceeded the acceptable range. Weight bearing in all groups was measured with a separate validated commercial system. The verbal instruction group bore an average of 60.3±30.5 lb (mean±standard deviation). The bathroom scale group averaged 43.8±17.2 lb, whereas the haptic biofeedback group averaged 22.4±9.1 lb (P<.05). As a percentage of body weight, the verbal instruction group averaged 40.2±19.3%, the bathroom scale group averaged 32.5±16.9%, and the haptic biofeedback group averaged 14.5±6.3% (P<.05). In this initial evaluation of the use of haptic biofeedback to improve compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing, haptic biofeedback was superior to conventional physical therapy methods. Further studies in patients with clinical orthopedic trauma are warranted. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Subchondral impaction fractures of the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle.

    PubMed

    Depasquale, Ruben; Fotiadou, Anastasia; Kumar, Dalavaye Suresh; Lalam, Radhesh; Tins, Bernhard; Tyrrell, Prudencia N M; Singh, Jaspreet; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N

    2013-02-01

    To document the first report of intra-articular, non-weight-bearing, impaction fractures of the lateral femoral condyle. Institutional Review Board and Regional Ethics Committee approval for this study was obtained and patient informed consent deemed unnecessary. We prospectively documented all potential cases of non-weight-bearing posterior subchondral impaction fractures of the femoral condyles diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee performed at our institution between January 2006 and December 2011. The cases were reviewed and discussed by three experienced musculoskeletal radiologists and only cases satisfying pre-defined MRI criteria were included. Sixteen cases of intra-articular impaction fractures in a posterior, non-weight-bearing area of the lateral femoral condyle were diagnosed in patients with a mean age of 40. Eight were associated with recreational sports activities and 4 with repeated kneeling. There were no fractures documented in the non-weight-bearing aspect of the medial femoral condyles. Proposed underlying mechanisms for development of this type of fracture are presented. Awareness, along with a high level of suspicion, that non-specific knee pain, especially in patients involved in athletic activities, could be due to intra-articular impaction fractures of the non-weight-bearing posterior aspect of the lateral femoral condyle is essential and MRI is the mainstay of diagnosis.

  10. Are early first trimester weights valid proxies for preconception weight?

    An accurate estimate of preconception weight is necessary for providing a gestational weight gain range based on the Institute of Medicine’s guidelines; however, an accurate and proximal preconception weight is not available for most women. We examined the validity of first trimester weights for est...

  11. Automated assessment of pain in rats using a voluntarily accessed static weight-bearing test.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hung Tae; Uchimoto, Kazuhiro; Duellman, Tyler; Yang, Jay

    2015-11-01

    The weight-bearing test is one method to assess pain in rodent animal models; however, the acceptance of this convenient method is limited by the low throughput data acquisition and necessity of confining the rodents to a small chamber. We developed novel data acquisition hardware and software, data analysis software, and a conditioning protocol for an automated high throughput static weight-bearing assessment of pain. With this device, the rats voluntarily enter the weighing chamber, precluding the necessity to restrain the animals and thereby removing the potential stress-induced confounds as well as operator selection bias during data collection. We name this device the Voluntarily Accessed Static Incapacitance Chamber (VASIC). Control rats subjected to the VASIC device provided hundreds of weight-bearing data points in a single behavioral assay. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) surgery and paw pad injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or carrageenan in rats generated hundreds of weight-bearing data during a 30 minute recording session. Rats subjected to CCI, CFA, or carrageenan demonstrated the expected bias in weight distribution favoring the un-operated leg, and the analgesic effect of i.p. morphine was demonstrated. In comparison with existing methods, brief water restriction encouraged the rats to enter the weighing chamber to access water, and an infrared detector confirmed the rat position with feet properly positioned on the footplates, triggering data collection. This allowed hands-off measurement of weight distribution data reducing operator selection bias. The VASIC device should enhance the hands-free parallel collection of unbiased weight-bearing data in a high throughput manner, allowing further testing of this behavioral measure as an effective assessment of pain in rodents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Automated assessment of pain in rats using a voluntarily accessed static weight-bearing test

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hung Tae; Uchimoto, Kazuhiro; Duellman, Tyler; Yang, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The weight-bearing test is one method to assess pain in rodent animal models; however, the acceptance of this convenient method is limited by the low throughput data acquisition and necessity of confining the rodents to a small chamber. New methods We developed novel data acquisition hardware and software, data analysis software, and a conditioning protocol for an automated high throughput static weight-bearing assessment of pain. With this device, the rats voluntarily enter the weighing chamber, precluding the necessity to restrain the animals and thereby removing the potential stress-induced confounds as well as operator selection bias during data collection. We name this device the Voluntarily Accessed Static Incapacitance Chamber (VASIC). Results Control rats subjected to the VASIC device provided hundreds of weight-bearing data points in a single behavioral assay. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) surgery and paw pad injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or carrageenan in rats generated hundreds of weight-bearing data during a 30 minute recording session. Rats subjected to CCI, CFA, or carrageenan demonstrated the expected bias in weight distribution favoring the un-operated leg, and the analgesic effect of i.p. morphine was demonstrated. In comparison with existing methods, brief water restriction encouraged the rats to enter the weighing chamber to access water, and an infrared detector confirmed the rat position with feet properly positioned on the footplates, triggering data collection. This allowed hands-off measurement of weight distribution data reducing operator selection bias. Conclusion The VASIC device should enhance the hands-free parallel collection of unbiased weight-bearing data in a high throughput manner, allowing further testing of this behavioral measure as an effective assessment of pain in rodents. PMID:26143745

  13. Active Flexion in Weight Bearing Better Correlates with Functional Outcomes of Total Knee Arthroplasty than Passive Flexion.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Dong; Jain, Nimash; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Yune; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2016-06-01

    Correlations between maximum flexion and functional outcomes in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients are reportedly weak. We investigated whether there are differences between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing and other types of maximum flexion and whether the type of maximum flexion correlates with functional outcomes. A total of 210 patients (359 knees) underwent preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up evaluations (6, 12, and 24 months) for the assessment of clinical outcomes including maximum knee flexion. Maximum flexion was measured under five conditions: passive nonweight bearing, passive weight bearing, active nonweight bearing, and active weight bearing with or without arm support. Data were analyzed for relationships between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing by Pearson correlation analyses, and a variance comparison between measurement techniques via paired t test. We observed substantial differences between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing and the other four maximum flexion types. At all time points, passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing correlated poorly with active maximum flexion in weight bearing with or without arm support. Active maximum flexion in weight bearing better correlated with functional outcomes than the other maximum flexion types. Our study suggests active maximum flexion in weight bearing should be reported together with passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing in research on the knee motion arc after TKA.

  14. Active Flexion in Weight Bearing Better Correlates with Functional Outcomes of Total Knee Arthroplasty than Passive Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Dong; Jain, Nimash; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Yune

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Correlations between maximum flexion and functional outcomes in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients are reportedly weak. We investigated whether there are differences between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing and other types of maximum flexion and whether the type of maximum flexion correlates with functional outcomes. Materials and Methods A total of 210 patients (359 knees) underwent preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up evaluations (6, 12, and 24 months) for the assessment of clinical outcomes including maximum knee flexion. Maximum flexion was measured under five conditions: passive nonweight bearing, passive weight bearing, active nonweight bearing, and active weight bearing with or without arm support. Data were analyzed for relationships between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing by Pearson correlation analyses, and a variance comparison between measurement techniques via paired t test. Results We observed substantial differences between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing and the other four maximum flexion types. At all time points, passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing correlated poorly with active maximum flexion in weight bearing with or without arm support. Active maximum flexion in weight bearing better correlated with functional outcomes than the other maximum flexion types. Conclusions Our study suggests active maximum flexion in weight bearing should be reported together with passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing in research on the knee motion arc after TKA. PMID:27274468

  15. Mobile-bearing knee systems: ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear and design issues.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, A Seth; Heim, Christine S

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Orthopaedic Advisory Panel recommended the reclassification of mobile-bearing knee systems for general use. This reflects the increasing use of mobile-bearing knee systems internationally, which is currently limited in the United States by regulatory requirement. Mobile-bearing knee systems are distinguished from conventional, fixed-plateau systems in that they allow dual-surface articulation between an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene insert and metallic femoral and tibial tray components. Their in vivo success is dependent on patient selection, design, and material choice, as well as surgical precision during implantation. Laboratory and clinical experience extending over 25 years with individual systems suggests that mobile-bearing knee systems represent a viable treatment option for patients with knee arthrosis.

  16. How long should patients be kept non-weight bearing after ankle fracture fixation? A survey of OTA and AOFAS members.

    PubMed

    Swart, Eric; Bezhani, Hariklia; Greisberg, Justin; Vosseller, J Turner

    2015-01-01

    non-weight bearing. Further research further evaluating the relationship between these factors and safe periods of non-weight bearing could help identify patients that may benefit from earlier mobilization, and improve surgeon's comfort with early mobilization. Therapeutic Level V. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  18. Serum markers of bone turnover are increased by modest weight loss with or without weight-bearing exercise in overweight premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rector, R Scott; Loethen, Joanne; Ruebel, Meghan; Thomas, Tom R; Hinton, Pamela S

    2009-10-01

    Weight loss improves metabolic fitness and reduces morbidity and mortality; however, weight reduction also reduces bone mineral density (BMD) and increases bone turnover. Weight-bearing aerobic exercise may preserve bone mass and maintain normal bone turnover during weight reduction. We investigated the impact of weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing exercise on serum markers of bone formation and breakdown during short-term, modest weight loss in overweight premenopausal women. Subjects (n = 36) were assigned to 1 of 3 weight-loss interventions designed to produce a 5% reduction in body weight over 6 weeks: (i) energy restriction only (n = 11; DIET); (ii) energy restriction plus nonweight-bearing exercise (n = 12, CYCLE); or (iii) energy restriction plus weight-bearing exercise (n = 13, RUN). Bone turnover markers were measured in serum collected at baseline and after weight loss. All groups achieved a ~5% reduction in body weight (DIET = 5.2%; CYCLE = 5.0%; RUN = 4.7%). Osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) increased with weight loss in all 3 groups (p < 0.05), whereas bone alkaline phosphatase was unaltered by the weight-loss interventions. At baseline, OC and CTX were positively correlated (r = 0.36, p = 0.03), but the strength of this association was diminished (r = 0.30, p = 0.06) after weight loss. Modest weight loss, regardless of method, resulted in a significant increase in both OC and CTX. Low-impact, weight-bearing exercise had no effect on serum markers of bone formation or resorption in premenopausal women during weight loss. Future studies that examine the effects of high-impact, weight-bearing activity on bone turnover and BMD during weight loss are warranted.

  19. Gait analysis and weight bearing in pre-clinical joint pain research.

    PubMed

    Ängeby Möller, Kristina; Svärd, Heta; Suominen, Anni; Immonen, Jarmo; Holappa, Johanna; Stenfors, Carina

    2018-04-15

    There is a need for better joint pain treatment, but development of new medication has not been successful. Pre-clinical models with readouts that better reflect the clinical situation are needed. In patients with joint pain, pain at rest and pain at walking are two major complaints. We describe a new way of calculating results from gait analysis using the CatWalk™ setup. Rats with monoarthritis induced by injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) intra-articularly into the ankle joint of one hind limb were used to assess gait and dynamic weight bearing. The results show that dynamic weight bearing was markedly reduced for the injected paw. Gait parameters such as amount of normal step sequences, walking speed and duration of step placement were also affected. Treatment with naproxen (an NSAID commonly used for inflammatory pain) attenuated the CFA-induced effects. Pregabalin, which is used for neuropathic pain, had no effect. Reduced dynamic weight bearing during locomotion, assessed and calculated in the way we present here, showed a dose-dependent and lasting normalization after naproxen treatment. In contrast, static weight bearing while standing (Incapacitance tester) showed a significant effect for a limited time only. Mechanical sensitivity (von Frey Optihairs) was completely normalized by naproxen, and the window for testing pharmacological effect disappeared. Objective and reproducible effects, with an endpoint showing face validity compared to pain while walking in patients with joint pain, are achieved by a new way of calculating dynamic weight bearing in monoarthritic rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Delay in weight bearing in surgically treated tibial shaft fractures is associated with impaired healing: a cohort analysis of 166 tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Houben, I B; Raaben, M; Van Basten Batenburg, M; Blokhuis, T J

    2018-04-09

    The relation between timing of weight bearing after a fracture and the healing outcome is yet to be established, thereby limiting the implementation of a possibly beneficial effect for our patients. The current study was undertaken to determine the effect of timing of weight bearing after a surgically treated tibial shaft fracture. Surgically treated diaphyseal tibial fractures were retrospectively studied between 2007 and 2015. The timing of initial weight bearing (IWB) was analysed as a predictor for impaired healing in a multivariate regression. Totally, 166 diaphyseal tibial fractures were included, 86 cases with impaired healing and 80 with normal healing. The mean age was 38.7 years (range 16-89). The mean time until IWB was significantly shorter in the normal fracture healing group (2.6 vs 7.4 weeks, p < 0.001). Correlation analysis yielded four possible confounders: infection requiring surgical intervention, fracture type, fasciotomy and open fractures. Logistic regression identified IWB as an independent predictor for impaired healing with an odds ratio of 1.13 per week delay (95% CI 1.03-1.25). Delay in initial weight bearing is independently associated with impaired fracture healing in surgically treated tibial shaft fractures. Unlike other factors such as fracture type or soft tissue condition, early resumption of weight bearing can be influenced by the treating physician and this factor therefore has a direct clinical relevance. This study indicates that early resumption of weight bearing should be the treatment goal in fracture fixation. 3b.

  1. Quantifying weight bearing while in passive standers and a comparison of standers.

    PubMed

    Kecskemethy, Heidi H; Herman, Daniel; May, Ryan; Paul, Kathleen; Bachrach, Steven J; Henderson, Richard C

    2008-07-01

    Mechanical loading plays an important role in skeletal health, and this is a major reason standing devices are widely used with non-ambulatory persons. However, little is known about the true axial loading that occurs while in a stander, or the factors which may impact loading. The purpose of this study was to quantify weight borne while in a stander, and to directly compare different standers. Load measuring footplate adaptors were designed and fabricated specifically for this study. Weight bearing loads in 20 non-ambulatory persons with quadriplegic cerebral palsy aged 6 to 21 years (median 14 y) were continuously monitored during routine 30-minute standing sessions. Fourteen participants were female, six were male; one was Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) Level IV, and 19 were GMFCS Level V. Each participant was monitored on four to six occasions over an 8-week period, two to three times in each of two different standers (total 108 standing sessions). Weight bearing loads ranged widely from 37 to 101% of body weight. The difference between standers was as much as 29% body weight. There is wide variance in the actual weight borne while in passive standers. The type of stander utilized is one factor which can significantly affect the amount of weight borne.

  2. Early sex differences in weighting geometric cues.

    PubMed

    Lourenco, Stella F; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Fabian, Lydia

    2011-11-01

    When geometric and non-geometric information are both available for specifying location, men have been shown to rely more heavily on geometry compared to women. To shed insight on the nature and developmental origins of this sex difference, we examined how 18- to 24-month-olds represented the geometry of a surrounding (rectangular) space when direct non-geometric information (i.e. a beacon) was also available for localizing a hidden object. Children were tested on a disorientation task with multiple phases. Across experiments, boys relied more heavily than girls on geometry to guide localization, as indicated by their errors during the initial phase of the task, and by their search choices following transformations that left only geometry available, or that, under limited conditions, created a conflict between beacon and geometry. Analyses of search times suggested that girls, like boys, had encoded geometry, and testing in a square space ruled out explanations concerned with motivational and methodological variables. Taken together, the findings provide evidence for an early sex difference in the weighting of geometry. This sex difference, we suggest, reflects subtle variation in how boys and girls approach the problem of combining multiple sources of location information. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Impaired control of weight bearing ankle inversion in subjects with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Terrier, R; Rose-Dulcina, K; Toschi, B; Forestier, N

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have proposed that evertor muscle weakness represents an important factor affecting chronic ankle instability. For research purposes, ankle evertor strength is assessed by means of isokinetic evaluations. However, this methodology is constraining for daily clinical use. The present study proposes to assess ankle evertor muscle weakness using a new procedure, one that is easily accessible for rehabilitation specialists. To do so, we compared weight bearing ankle inversion control between patients suffering from chronic ankle instability and healthy subjects. 12 healthy subjects and 11 patients suffering from chronic ankle instability conducted repetitions of one leg weight bearing ankle inversion on a specific ankle destabilization device equipped with a gyroscope. Ankle inversion control was performed by means of an eccentric recruitment of evertor muscles. Instructions were to perform, as slow as possible, the ankle inversion while resisting against full body weight applied on the tested ankle. Data clearly showed higher angular inversion velocity peaks in patients suffering from chronic ankle instability. This illustrates an impaired control of weight bearing ankle inversion and, by extension, an eccentric weakness of evertor muscles. The present study supports the hypothesis of a link between the decrease of ankle joint stability and evertor muscle weakness. Moreover, it appears that the new parameter is of use in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, A S

    2009-12-01

    The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar/plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.

  5. Inaccuracy of a physical strain trainer for the monitoring of partial weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Pauser, Johannes; Jendrissek, Andreas; Swoboda, Bernd; Gelse, Kolja; Carl, Hans-Dieter

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the use of a physical strain trainer for the monitoring of partial weight bearing. Case series with healthy volunteers. Orthopedic clinic. Healthy volunteers (N=10) with no history of foot complaints. Volunteers were taught to limit weight bearing to 10% body weight (BW) and 50% BW, monitored by a physical strain trainer. The parameters peak pressure, maximum force, force-time integral, and pressure-time integral were assessed by dynamic pedobarography when volunteers walked with full BW (condition 1), 50% BW (condition 2), and 10% BW (condition 3). With 10% BW (condition 3), forces with normative gait (condition 1) were statistically significantly reduced under the hindfoot where the physical strain trainer is placed. All pedobarographic parameters were, however, exceeded when the total foot was measured. A limitation to 10% BW with the physical strain trainer (condition 3) was equal to a bisection of peak pressure and maximum force for the total foot with normative gait (condition 1). Halved BW (condition 2) left a remaining mean 82% of peak pressure and mean 59% of maximum force from full BW (condition 1). The concept of controlling partial weight bearing with the hindfoot-addressing device does not represent complete foot loading. Such devices may be preferably applied in cases when the hindfoot in particular must be off-loaded. Other training devices (eg, biofeedback soles) that monitor forces of the total foot have to be used to control partial weight bearing of the lower limb accurately. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovery of lower limb function following 6 weeks of non-weight bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, Donna L.; Eng, Janice J.; Allen, Trevor J.

    2005-05-01

    Skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy occur following an extended period of decreased use, including space flight and limb unloading. It is also likely that affected muscles will be susceptible to a re-loading injury when they begin return to earth or weight bearing. However, there is a paucity of literature evaluating the response of human unloaded muscle to exercise and return to activity. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the soreness, function and strength response of muscle to re-loading in seven patients who were non-weight bearing for 6 weeks, compared to five healthy subjects. Function improved significantly over time for the patients but was still less than the healthy subjects over 12 weeks of physiotherapy. Concentric quadriceps muscle strength increased significantly over time for the patients. There was considerable variability in the patients' reports of muscle soreness but there were no significant changes over time or between groups.

  7. Altered cellular kinetics in growth plate according to alterations in weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Park, Hoon; Kong, Sun Young; Kim, Hyun Woo; Yang, Ick Hwan

    2012-05-01

    To examine the effects of change in weight bearing on the growth plate metabolism, a simulated animal model of weightlessness was introduced and the chondrocytes' cellular kinetics was evaluated. Unloading condition on the hind-limb of Sprague-Dawley rats was created by fixing a tail and lifting the hind-limb. Six rats aged 6 weeks old were assigned to each group of unloading, reloading, and control groups of unloading or reloading. Unloading was maintained for three weeks, and then reloading was applied for another one week thereafter. Histomorphometry for the assessment of vertical length of the growth plate, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridin immunohistochemistry for cellular kinetics, and biotin nick end labeling transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for chondrocytes apoptosis in the growth plate were performed. The vertical length of the growth plate and the proliferative potential of chondrocytes were decreased in the unloading group compared to those of control groups. Inter-group differences were more significant in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. Reloading increased the length of growth plate and proliferative potential of chondrocytes. However, apoptotic changes in the growth plate were not affected by the alterations of weight bearing. Alterations in the weight bearing induced changes in the chondrocytic proliferative potential of the growth plate, however, had no effects on the apoptosis. This may explain why non-weight bearing in various clinical situations hampers normal longitudinal bone growth. Further studies on the factors for reversibility of chondrocytic proliferation upon variable mechanical stresses are needed.

  8. Weight bearing of the limb as a confounding factor in assessment of mechanical allodynia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kauppila, T; Kontinen, V K; Pertovaara, A

    1998-01-01

    Effect of weight bearing of the hindlimbs on the assessment of mechanically-induced hindlimb withdrawal threshold was determined in intact rats and in rats with various pathophysiological conditions causing allodynia or hyperalgesia. Hindlimb withdrawal was elicited by applying a series of calibrated monofilaments to the plantar or the dorsal surface of the paw. During testing the rat was either in a restraint tube with hindlimbs hanging semi-extended without weight bearing or it was standing on a metal grid (bearing its own weight). In intact rats, the withdrawal thresholds were significantly lower when the stimulus site was the dorsal hairy skin rather than the plantar glabrous skin. Also, thresholds were significantly lower when the hindlimbs were not bearing weight. Following carrageenan-induced unilateral inflammation of the plantar paw or a tibial nerve cut there was a marked threshold decrease to test stimuli applied to plantar or dorsal paw, respectively, ipsilateral to the pathological condition in standing rats. However, when the hindlimbs were not weight bearing the unilateral threshold decrease was markedly attenuated (carrageenan-treated rats) or completely abolished (tibial cut). In contrast, in rats with a unilateral spinal nerve ligation the threshold decrease ipsilateral to the nerve lesion was highly significant independent of the weight bearing of the hindlimbs. The results indicate that weight bearing of hindlimbs is an important confounding factor in the assessment of tactile allodynia in rats.

  9. A novel model to assess lamellar signaling relevant to preferential weight bearing in the horse.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A K; van Eps, A W; Watts, M R; Burns, T A; Belknap, J K

    2017-03-01

    Supporting limb laminitis (SLL) is a devastating sequela to severe unilateral lameness in equine patients. The manifestation of SLL, which usually only affects one limb, is unpredictable and the etiology is unknown. A novel, non-painful preferential weight bearing model designed to mimic the effects of severe unilateral forelimb lameness was developed to assess lamellar signaling events in the supporting limb (SL). A custom v-shaped insert was attached to the shoe of one forelimb to prevent normal weight bearing and redistribute weight onto the SL. Testing of the insert using a custom scale platform built into the floor of stocks confirmed increased distribution of weight on the SL compared with the unloaded forelimb (UL) and the contralateral (CH) and ipsilateral (IH) hind limbs in six Standardbred horses. In a second part of the study, eight healthy Standardbred horses were fitted with the insert and tied with consistent monitoring and free access to hay and water for 48 h, after which the lamellae were harvested. Real-time qPCR was performed to assess lamellar mRNA concentrations of inflammatory genes and immunoblotting and immunofluorescence were performed to assess lamellar protein concentration and cellular localization of hypoxia-related proteins, respectively. Lamellar mRNA concentrations of inflammatory signaling proteins did not differ between SL and either CH or IH samples. HIF-1α concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in the SL compared to the CH. This work establishes an experimental model to study preferential weight bearing and initial results suggest that lamellar hypoxia may occur in the SL. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Sclerostin antibody inhibits skeletal deterioration in mice exposed to partial weight-bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Ellman, R.; Cloutier, A. M.; Louis, L.; van Vliet, M.; Dwyer, D.; Stolina, M.; Ke, H. Z.; Bouxsein, M. L.

    2017-02-01

    Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading. We hypothesize that treatment with SclAbII would improve bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in all loading conditions, but that there would be a greater skeletal response in the normally loaded mice than in partially unloaded mice suggesting the importance of combined countermeasures for exploration-class long duration spaceflight missions. Eleven-week-old female mice were assigned to one of four loading groups: normal weight-bearing controls (CON) or weight-bearing at 20% (PWB20), 40% (PWB40) or 70% (PWB70) of normal. Mice in each group received either SclAbII (25 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH) via twice weekly subcutaneous injection for 3 weeks. In partially-unloaded VEH-treated groups, leg BMD decreased -5 to -10% in a load-dependent manner. SclAbII treatment completely inhibited bone deterioration due to PWB, with bone properties in SclAbII-treated groups being equal to or greater than those of CON, VEH-treated mice. SclAbII treatment increased leg BMD from +14 to +18% in the PWB groups and 30 ± 3% in CON (p < 0.0001 for all). Trabecular bone volume, assessed by μCT at the distal femur, was lower in all partially unloaded VEH-treated groups vs. CON-VEH (p < 0.05), and was 2-3 fold higher in SclAbII-treated groups (p < 0.001). Midshaft femoral strength was also significantly higher in SclAbII vs. VEH-groups in all-loading conditions. These results suggest that greater weight bearing leads to greater benefits of SclAbII on bone mass

  11. Sclerostin antibody inhibits skeletal deterioration in mice exposed to partial weight-bearing.

    PubMed

    Spatz, J M; Ellman, R; Cloutier, A M; Louis, L; van Vliet, M; Dwyer, D; Stolina, M; Ke, H Z; Bouxsein, M L

    2017-02-01

    Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading. We hypothesize that treatment with SclAbII would improve bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in all loading conditions, but that there would be a greater skeletal response in the normally loaded mice than in partially unloaded mice suggesting the importance of combined countermeasures for exploration-class long duration spaceflight missions. Eleven-week-old female mice were assigned to one of four loading groups: normal weight-bearing controls (CON) or weight-bearing at 20% (PWB20), 40% (PWB40) or 70% (PWB70) of normal. Mice in each group received either SclAbII (25mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH) via twice weekly subcutaneous injection for 3 weeks. In partially-unloaded VEH-treated groups, leg BMD decreased -5 to -10% in a load-dependent manner. SclAbII treatment completely inhibited bone deterioration due to PWB, with bone properties in SclAbII-treated groups being equal to or greater than those of CON, VEH-treated mice. SclAbII treatment increased leg BMD from +14 to +18% in the PWB groups and 30 ± 3% in CON (p< 0.0001 for all). Trabecular bone volume, assessed by μCT at the distal femur, was lower in all partially unloaded VEH-treated groups vs. CON-VEH (p< 0.05), and was 2-3 fold higher in SclAbII-treated groups (p< 0.001). Midshaft femoral strength was also significantly higher in SclAbII vs. VEH-groups in all-loading conditions. These results suggest that greater weight bearing leads to greater benefits of SclAbII on bone

  12. Discrepancy of alignment in different weight bearing conditions before and after high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joon Ho; Shin, Jung Min; Kim, Hyun Ho; Kang, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Byung Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in the amount of varus malalignment and valgus (over) correction in relation to three different weight bearing conditions from whole leg AP radiographs (single-limb (SL) stance, double-limb (DL) stance, supine position (S)) before and after high tibial osteotomy (HTO), and to evaluate which alignment parameters affect the changes for patients in three different weight bearing conditions. A total of 40 consecutive patients (43 knees) with varus osteoarthritis underwent navigation assisted open wedge HTO. Mechanical axis angle (MA) was measured before and after surgery from hip-to-ankle radiographs taken with patients in three different weight bearing conditions. To find significant factors that affect the alignment differences, several variables including patient demographics, soft tissue laxity, pelvic obliquity, and ground mechanical axis deviation of tibia (calculated by the angle between two lines, tibial anatomical axis and weight-bearing line) were evaluated. Pre-operatively, mean MA measured on SL stance radiographs was significantly more varus than on DL stance (10.1° ± 2.4° and 8.0° ± 2.6°, respectively, p < 0.001), which was significantly more varus than on supine position (6.6° ± 2.6°, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, in patients with post-operatively valgus corrected knee, MA did not show the same pattern of change as with pre-operative varus knee. Mean MA measured on DL stance radiographs was more valgus than in supine position (-3.0 o  ± 2.4 o and -2.6 o  ± 3.1 o , p = 0.455), while mean MA on SL stance radiographs (-2.0 o  ± 2.1 o ) was significantly less valgus than on DL stance (p = 0.002). The ground mechanical axis deviation of tibia showed a significant correlation with MA difference between SL and DL stance radiographs before (β = -0.341, p = 0.045) and after surgery (β = -0.536, p = 0.001). In pre-operative varus knee, the mean MA on SL stance was changed to

  13. Postoperative weight bearing and patient reported outcomes at one year following tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Thewlis, Dominic; Fraysse, Francois; Callary, Stuart A; Verghese, Viju Daniel; Jones, Claire F; Findlay, David M; Atkins, Gerald J; Rickman, Mark; Solomon, Lucian B

    2017-07-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are complex and the current evidence for postoperative rehabilitation is weak, especially related to the recommended postoperative weight bearing. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if loading in the first 12 weeks of recovery is associated with patient reported outcome measures at 26 and 52 weeks postoperative. We hypothesized that there would be no association between loading and patient reported outcome measures. Seventeen patients, with a minimum of 52-week follow-up following fragment-specific open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fracture, were selected for this retrospective analysis. Postoperatively, patients were advised to load their limb to a maximum of 20kg during the first 6 weeks. Loading data were collected during walking using force platforms. A ratio of limb loading (affected to unaffected) was calculated at 2, 6 and 12 weeks postoperative. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Scores were collected at 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks postoperative. The association between loading ratios and patient reported outcomes were investigated. Compliance with weight bearing recommendations and changes in the patient reported outcome measures are described. Fracture reduction and migration were assessed on plain radiographs. No fractures demonstrated any measurable postoperative migration at 52 weeks. Significant improvements were seen in all patient reported outcome measures over the first 52 weeks, despite poor adherence to postoperative weight bearing restrictions. There were no associations between weight bearing ratio and patient reported outcomes at 52 weeks postoperative. Significant associations were identified between the loading ratio at 2 weeks and knee-related quality of life at six months (R 2 =0.392), and between the loading ratio at 6 weeks combined with injury severity and knee-related quality of life at 26 weeks (R 2 =0.441). In summary, weight bearing as tolerated does not negatively affect the

  14. Is prescribed lower extremity weight-bearing status after geriatric lower extremity trauma associated with increased mortality?

    PubMed

    Gitajn, Ida Leah; Connelly, Daniel; Mascarenhas, Daniel; Breazeale, Stephen; Berger, Peter; Schoonover, Carrie; Martin, Brook; O'Toole, Robert V; Pensy, Raymond; Sciadini, Marcus

    2018-02-01

    Evaluate whether mortality after discharge is elevated in geriatric fracture patients whose lower extremity weight-bearing is restricted. Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Urban Level 1 trauma center PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: 1746 patients >65 years of age INTERVENTION: Post-operative lower extremity weight-bearing status MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality, as determined by the Social Security Death Index RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients who were weight-bearing as tolerated on bilateral lower extremities (BLE) had significantly higher 5-year mortality compared to patients with restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity and restricted weight-bearing on BLE (30%, 21% and 22% respectively, p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis controlling for variables including age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Injury Severity Scale, combined UE/LE injury, injury mechanism (high vs low), sex, BMI and GCS demonstrated that, in comparison to patients who were weight bearing as tolerated on BLE, restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.20, p = 0.76) and restricted weight-bearing in BLE had a HR of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.36, p = 0.73). In geriatric patients, prescribed weight-bearing status did not have a statistically significant association with mortality after discharge, when controlling for age, sex, body mass index, medical comorbidities, Injury Severity Scale (ISS), mechanism of injury, nonoperative treatment and admission GCS. This remained true in when the analysis was restricted to operative injuries only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Posterior Shift of Contact Point between Femoral Component and Polyethylene in the LCS Rotating Platform Implant under Weight Bearing Condition.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won Seok; Lee, Yong Seuk; Kim, Byung Kak; Sim, Jae Ang; Lee, Beom Koo

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the contact mechanics of the femoral component and polyethylene of the Low Contact Stress rotating platform (LCS-RP) in nonweight bearing and weight bearing conditions using full flexion lateral radiographs. From May 2009 to December 2013, 58 knees in 41 patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis and treated with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were included in this study. TKA was performed using an LCS-RP knee prosthesis. Full flexion lateral radiographs in both weight bearing and nonweight bearing condition were taken at least one month postoperatively (average, 28.8 months). Translation of femoral component was determined by the contact point between the femoral component and polyethylene. Maximum flexion was measured as the angle between the lines drawn at the midpoint of the femur and tibia. Posterior shift of the contact point in LCS-RP TKA was observed under weight bearing condition, which resulted in deeper flexion compared to LCS-RP TKA under nonweight bearing condition. In the LCS-RP TKA, the contact point between the femoral component and polyethylene moved posteriorly under weight bearing condition, and the joint was more congruent and maximum flexion increased with weight bearing.

  16. Upright CT of the knee: the effect of weight-bearing on joint alignment.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, Anna; Buck, Florian M; Fucentese, Sandro F; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2015-11-01

    To prospectively compare patellofemoral and femorotibial alignment in supine non-weight-bearing computed tomography (NWBCT) and upright weight-bearing CT (WBCT) and assess the differences in joint alignment. NWBCT and WBCT images of the knee were obtained in 26 patients (mean age, 57.0 ± 15.9 years; range, 21-81) using multiple detector CT for NWBCT and cone-beam extremity CT for WBCT. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently quantified joint alignment by measuring femorotibial rotation, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TTTG), lateral patellar tilt angle, lateral patellar shift, and medial and lateral femorotibial joint space widths. Significant differences between NWBCT and WBCT were sought using Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P-value < 0.05). Significant differences were found for femorotibial rotation (the NWBCT mean changed from 2.7° ± 5.1 (reader 1)/2.6° ± 5.6 (reader 2) external rotation to WBCT 0.4° ± 7.7/0.2° ± 7.5 internal rotation; P = 0.009/P = 0.004), TTTG (decrease from NWBCT (13.8 mm ± 5.1/13.9 mm ± 3.9) to WBCT (10.5 mm ± 5.0/10.9 mm ± 5.2; P = 0.008/P = 0.002), lateral patellar tilt angle (decrease from NWBCT (15.6° ± 6.7/16.9° ± 7.4) to WBCT (12.5° ± 7.7/15.0° ± 6.2; P = 0.011/P = 0.188). The medial femorotibial joint space decreased from NWBCT (3.9 mm ± 1.4/4.5 mm ± 1.3) to WBCT (2.9 mm ± 2.2/3.5 mm ± 2.2; P = 0.003/P = 0.004). Inter-reader agreement ranged from 0.52-0.97. Knee joint alignment changes significantly in the upright weight-bearing position using CT when compared to supine non-weight-bearing CT. • Cone-beam extremity CT offers upright weight-bearing examinations of the lower extremities. • Knee alignment changes significantly in an upright position compared to supine position. • Tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TTTG) is less pronounced in a weight-bearing position. • The

  17. Microscopic asperity contact and deformation of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene bearing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, F C; Jin, Z M; McEwen, H M J; Fisher, J

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the roughness and topography of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) bearing surfaces on the microscopic contact mechanics with a metallic counterface was investigated in the present study. Both simple sinusoidal roughness forms, with a wide range of amplitudes and wavelengths, and real surface topographies, measured before and after wear testing in a simple pin-on-plate machine, were considered in the theoretical analysis. The finite difference method was used to solve the microscopic contact between the rough UHMWPE bearing surface and a smooth hard counterface. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) was used to cope with the large number of mesh points required to represent the surface topography of the UHMWPE bearing surface. It was found that only isolated asperity contacts occurred under physiological loading, and the real contact area was only a small fraction of the nominal contact area. Consequently, the average contact pressure experienced at the articulating surfaces was significantly higher than the nominal contact pressure. Furthermore, it was shown that the majority of asperities on the worn UHMWPE pin were deformed in the elastic region, and consideration of the plastic deformation only resulted in a negligible increase in the predicted asperity contact area. Microscopic asperity contact and deformation mechanisms may play an important role in the understanding of the wear mechanisms of UHMWPE bearing surfaces.

  18. Effects of obesity on weight-bearing versus weight-supported exercise testing in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Maatman, Robbert C; Spruit, Martijn A; van Melick, Paula P; Peeters, Jos P I; Rutten, Erica P A; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Wouters, Emiel F M; Franssen, Frits M E

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is associated with increased dyspnoea and reduced health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies on the effects of obesity on exercise capacity showed divergent results. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of obesity on weight-bearing versus weight-supported exercise tolerance in obese and normal weight patients, matched for age, gender and degree of airflow limitation. Retrospective analyses of data obtained during pre-pulmonary rehabilitation assessment in 108 obese COPD patients (OB) (age: 61.2 ± 5.3y, FEV1 : 43.2 ± 7.4%, BMI: 34.1 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) ,) and 108 age and FEV1 -matched normal weight COPD patients (NW) (age: 61.7 ± 3.6y, FEV1 : 41.5 ± 8.4%, BMI: 22.9 ± 1.2 kg/m(2) ,). Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and 6 min walk test (6MWT) were performed, Borg scores for dyspnoea and leg fatigue were recorded, before and after the tests. Six-minute walk distance differed between OB (398 ± 107 m) and NW patients (446 ± 109 m, P < 0.05), while peak cycling exercise load was comparable (OB: 75 ± 29 W, NW: 70 ± 25 W, ns). Dyspnoea (OB 3.2 ± 2.0 vs NW 3.1 ± 1.7, ns) and leg fatigue (OB 2.4 ± 2.3 vs NW 1.9 ± 1.7, ns) were not significantly different in OB compared with NW after 6MWT, or after CPET (dyspnoea: OB 5.1 ± 2.4 vs NW 5.4 ± 2.2, ns; leg fatigue: OB 4.0 ± 2.3 vs NW 4.0 ± 2.7, ns). In contrast to weight-supported exercise, obesity has a negative impact on weight-bearing exercise capacity, despite comparable exercise-related symptoms. The results of this study enhance the understanding of the impact of obesity on physical performance in COPD. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. Abdominal muscle response to a simulated weight-bearing task by elite Australian Rules football players.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Jodie; Stanton, Warren R; Hides, Julie A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the automatic recruitment of the deep abdominal muscles during a unilateral simulated weight-bearing task by elite Australian Rules football (AFL) players with and without low back pain (LBP). An observational cross-sectional study was conducted using ultrasound imaging to measure the thickness of the internal oblique (IO) and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles. Thirty-seven elite male AFL players participated. Repeated measures factors included 'force level' (rest, 25% and 45% of body weight), 'leg' (dominant or non-dominant kicking leg) and 'side' (ultrasound side ipsilateral or contralateral to the leg used for the weight-bearing task). The dependent variables were thickness of the IO and TrA muscles. The results of this study showed that thickness of the IO (p<.0001) and TrA (p<.0001) muscles increased in response to 'force level'. During the task, the thickness of the IO muscle on the contralateral side of the trunk relative to the leg being tested, increased more in participants with current LBP (p=.034). This pattern was more distinct on the non-dominant kicking leg. Altered abdominal muscle recruitment in elite athletes with low back pain may be an attempt by the central nervous system (CNS) to compensate for inadequate lumbo-pelvic stability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations of lifetime walking and weight bearing exercise with accelerometer-measured high impact physical activity in later life.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Hannam, Kimberly; Deere, Kevin C; Hartley, April; Clark, Emma M; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H; Dennison, Elaine; Gaysin, Tim; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Fox, Kenneth R; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Tobias, Jon H

    2017-12-01

    High impact physical activity (PA) is thought to benefit bone. We examined associations of lifetime walking and weight bearing exercise with accelerometer-measured high impact and overall PA in later life. Data were from 848 participants (66.2% female, mean age = 72.4 years) from the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon, Hertfordshire Cohort Study and MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Acceleration peaks from seven-day hip-worn accelerometer recordings were used to derive counts of high impact and overall PA. Walking and weight bearing exercise up to age 18, between 18-29, 30-49 and since age 50 were recalled using questionnaires. Responses in each age category were dichotomised and cumulative scores derived. Linear regression was used for analysis. Greater lifetime walking was related to higher overall, but not high impact PA, whereas greater lifetime weight bearing exercise was related to higher overall and high impact PA. For example, fully-adjusted differences in log-overall and log-high impact PA respectively for highest versus lowest lifetime scores were: walking [0.224 (0.087, 0.362) and 0.239 (- 0.058, 0.536)], and weight bearing exercise [0.754 (0.432, 1.076) and 0.587 (0.270, 0.904)]. For both walking and weight bearing exercise, associations were strongest in the 'since age 50' category. Those reporting the most walking and weight bearing exercise since age 50 had highest overall and high impact PA, e.g. fully-adjusted difference in log-high impact PA versus least walking and weight bearing exercise = 0.588 (0.226, 0.951). Promoting walking and weight bearing exercise from midlife may help increase potentially osteogenic PA levels in later life.

  1. Weighted low-rank sparse model via nuclear norm minimization for bearing fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhaohui; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhang, Han; Yang, Boyuan; Zhai, Zhi; Yan, Ruqiang

    2017-07-01

    It is a fundamental task in the machine fault diagnosis community to detect impulsive signatures generated by the localized faults of bearings. The main goal of this paper is to exploit the low-rank physical structure of periodic impulsive features and further establish a weighted low-rank sparse model for bearing fault detection. The proposed model mainly consists of three basic components: an adaptive partition window, a nuclear norm regularization and a weighted sequence. Firstly, due to the periodic repetition mechanism of impulsive feature, an adaptive partition window could be designed to transform the impulsive feature into a data matrix. The highlight of partition window is to accumulate all local feature information and align them. Then, all columns of the data matrix share similar waveforms and a core physical phenomenon arises, i.e., these singular values of the data matrix demonstrates a sparse distribution pattern. Therefore, a nuclear norm regularization is enforced to capture that sparse prior. However, the nuclear norm regularization treats all singular values equally and thus ignores one basic fact that larger singular values have more information volume of impulsive features and should be preserved as much as possible. Therefore, a weighted sequence with adaptively tuning weights inversely proportional to singular amplitude is adopted to guarantee the distribution consistence of large singular values. On the other hand, the proposed model is difficult to solve due to its non-convexity and thus a new algorithm is developed to search one satisfying stationary solution through alternatively implementing one proximal operator operation and least-square fitting. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis and selection principles of algorithmic parameters are comprehensively investigated through a set of numerical experiments, which shows that the proposed method is robust and only has a few adjustable parameters. Lastly, the proposed model is applied to the

  2. Weight-bearing exercise and bone mineral accrual in children and adolescents: a review of controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hind, K; Burrows, M

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious skeletal disease and as there is currently no cure, there is a large emphasis on its prevention, including the optimisation of peak bone mass. There is increasing evidence that regular weight-bearing exercise is an effective strategy for enhancing bone status during growth. This systematic review evaluates randomised and non-randomised controlled trials to date, on the effects of exercise on bone mineral accrual in children and adolescents. An online search of Medline and the Cochrane database enabled the identification of studies. Those that met the inclusion criteria were included in the review and graded according to risk for bias. Twenty-two trials were reviewed. Nine were conducted in prepubertal children (Tanner I), 8 in early pubertal (Tanner II-III) and 5 in pubertal (Tanner IV-V). Sample sizes ranged from n=10 to 65 per group. Exercise interventions included games, dance, resistance training and jumping exercises, ranging in duration from 3 to 48 months. Approximately half of the trials (n=10) included ground reaction force (GRF) data (2 to 9 times body weight). All trials in early pubertal children, 6 in pre pubertal and 2 in pubertal children, reported positive effects of exercise on bone (P<0.05). Mean increases in bone parameters over 6 months were 0.9-4.9% in prepubertal, 1.1-5.5% in early pubertal and 0.3-1.9% in pubertal exercisers compared to controls (P<0.05). Although weight-bearing exercise appears to enhance bone mineral accrual in children, particularly during early puberty; it remains unclear as to what constitutes the optimal exercise programme. Many studies to date have a high risk for bias and only a few have a low risk. Major limitations concerned selection procedures, compliance rates and control of variables. More well designed and controlled investigations are needed. Furthermore, the specific exercise intervention that will provide the optimal stimulus for peak bone mineral accretion is unclear. Future

  3. Kurtosis based weighted sparse model with convex optimization technique for bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Chen, Xuefeng; Du, Zhaohui; Yan, Ruqiang

    2016-12-01

    The bearing failure, generating harmful vibrations, is one of the most frequent reasons for machine breakdowns. Thus, performing bearing fault diagnosis is an essential procedure to improve the reliability of the mechanical system and reduce its operating expenses. Most of the previous studies focused on rolling bearing fault diagnosis could be categorized into two main families, kurtosis-based filter method and wavelet-based shrinkage method. Although tremendous progresses have been made, their effectiveness suffers from three potential drawbacks: firstly, fault information is often decomposed into proximal frequency bands and results in impulsive feature frequency band splitting (IFFBS) phenomenon, which significantly degrades the performance of capturing the optimal information band; secondly, noise energy spreads throughout all frequency bins and contaminates fault information in the information band, especially under the heavy noisy circumstance; thirdly, wavelet coefficients are shrunk equally to satisfy the sparsity constraints and most of the feature information energy are thus eliminated unreasonably. Therefore, exploiting two pieces of prior information (i.e., one is that the coefficient sequences of fault information in the wavelet basis is sparse, and the other is that the kurtosis of the envelope spectrum could evaluate accurately the information capacity of rolling bearing faults), a novel weighted sparse model and its corresponding framework for bearing fault diagnosis is proposed in this paper, coined KurWSD. KurWSD formulates the prior information into weighted sparse regularization terms and then obtains a nonsmooth convex optimization problem. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is sequentially employed to solve this problem and the fault information is extracted through the estimated wavelet coefficients. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, KurWSD overcomes the three drawbacks and utilizes the advantages of both family

  4. Characteristics of postoperative weight bearing and management protocols for tibial plateau fractures: Findings from a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Arnold, John B; Tu, Chen Gang; Phan, Tri M; Rickman, Mark; Varghese, Viju Daniel; Thewlis, Dominic; Solomon, Lucian B

    2017-12-01

    To identify and describe the characteristics of existing practices for postoperative weight bearing and management of tibial plateau fractures (TPFs), identify gaps in the literature, and inform the design of future research. Seven electronic databases and clinical trial registers were searched from inception until November 17th 2016. Studies were included if they reported on the surgical management of TPFs, had a mean follow-up time of ≥1year and provided data on postoperative management protocols. Data were extracted and synthesized according to study demographics, patient characteristics and postoperative management (weight bearing regimes, immobilisation devices, exercises and complications). 124 studies were included involving 5156 patients with TPFs. The mean age across studies was 45.1 years (range 20.8-72; 60% male), with a mean follow-up of 34.9 months (range 12-264). The most frequent fracture types were AO/OTA classification 41-B3 (29.5%) and C3 (25%). The most commonly reported non-weight bearing time after surgery was 4-6 weeks (39% of studies), with a further 4-6 weeks of partial weight bearing (51% of studies), resulting in 9-12 weeks before full weight bearing status was recommended (55% of studies). Loading recommendations for initial weight bearing were most commonly toe-touch/<10kg (28%), 10kg-20kg (33%) and progressive (39%). Time to full weight bearing was positively correlated with the proportion of fractures of AO/OTA type C (r=0.465, p=0.029) and Schatzker type IV-VI (r=0.614, p<0.001). Similar rates of rigid (47%) and hinged braces were reported (58%), most frequently for 3-6 weeks (43% of studies). Complication rates averaged 2% of patients (range 0-26%) for abnormal varus/valgus and 1% (range 0-22%) for non-union or delayed union. Postoperative rehabilitation for TPFs most commonly involves significant non-weight bearing time before full weight bearing is recommended at 9-12 weeks. Partial weight bearing protocols and brace use were

  5. Appearance of the weight-bearing lateral radiograph in retrocalcaneal bursitis

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Bart; Maas, Mario; Sierevelt, Inger N; van Dijk, C Niek

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose A retrocalcaneal bursitis is caused by repetitive impingement of the bursa between the Achilles tendon and the posterosuperior calcaneus. The bursa is situated in the posteroinferior corner of Kager's triangle (retrocalcaneal recess), which is a radiolucency with sharp borders on the lateral radiograph of the ankle. If there is inflammation, the fluid-filled bursa is less radiolucent, making it difficult to delineate the retrocalcaneal recess. We assessed whether the radiographic appearance of the retrocalcaneal recess on plain digital (filmless) radiographs could be used in the diagnosis of a retrocalcaneal bursitis. Methods Whether or not there was obliteration of the retrocalcaneal recess (yes/no) on 74 digital weight-bearing lateral radiographs of the ankle was independently assessed by 2 observers. The radiographs were from 24 patients (25 heels) with retrocalcaneal bursitis (confirmed on endoscopic calcaneoplasty); the control group consisted of 50 patients (59 heels). Results The sensitivity of the test was 83% for observer 1 and 79% for observer 2. Specificity was 100% and 98%, respectively. The kappa value of the interobserver reliability test was 0.86. For observer 1, intraobserver reliability was 0.96 and for observer 2 it was 0.92. Interpretation On digital weight-bearing lateral radiographs of a retrocalcaneal bursitis, the retrocalcaneal recess has a typical appearance. PMID:20450438

  6. Alterations of collagen matrix in weight-bearing bones during skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiiba, M.; Arnaud, S. B.; Tanzawa, H.; Uzawa, K.; Yamauchi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Skeletal unloading induces loss of bone mineral density in weight-bearing bones. The objectives of this study were to characterize the post-translational modifications of collagen of weight-bearing bones subjected to hindlimb unloading for 8 weeks. In unloaded bones, tibiae and femurs, while the overall amino acid composition was essentially identical in the unloaded and control tibiae and femurs, the collagen cross-link profile showed significant differences. Two major reducible cross-links (analyzed as dihydroxylysinonorleucine and hydroxylysinonorleucine) were increased in the unloaded bones. In addition, the ratios of the former to the latter as well as pyridinoline to deoxypyridinoline were significantly decreased in the unloaded bones indicating a difference in the extent of lysine hydroxylation at the cross-linking sites between these two groups. These results indicate that upon skeletal unloading the relative pool of newly synthesized collagen is increased and it is post-translationally altered. The alteration could be associated with impaired osteoblastic differentiation induced by skeletal unloading that results in a mineralization defect.

  7. Intrarater reliability of measuring the patella position by ultrasonography in weight-bearing condition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia Lin; Lo, Chu Ling; Huang, Kai Chu; Huang, Chen Fu

    2017-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the intrarater reliability of using ultrasonography as a measurement tool to assess the patella position in a weight-bearing condition. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy adults participated in this study. Ultrasonography was used to assess the patella position during step down with the loading knee in flexion (0° and 20°). The distance between the patella and lateral condyle was measured to represent the patella position on the condylar groove. Two measurements were obtained on the first day and the day after 1 week by the same investigator. [Results] Excellent intrarater reliability, ranging from 0.83 to 0.93, was shown in both conditions. Standard errors of the measurements were 0.5 mm in the straight knee and 0.7 mm in the knee flexion at 20°. Minimal differences in knee flexion at 0° and knee flexion at 20° were 1.5 mm and 1.9 mm, respectively. [Conclusion] Ultrasonography is a reliable assessment tool for evaluating the positional changes of the patella in weight-bearing activities, and it can be easily used by practitioners in the clinical setting.

  8. Outcomes of functional weight-bearing rehabilitation of Achilles tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Gillian; Sinclair, Victoria F; McLaughlin, Charles; Barrie, James

    2013-08-01

    The introduction of functional rehabilitation for patients with Achilles tendon rupture has dramatically changed treatment programs for this condition. The authors introduced a functional weight-bearing protocol for patients with an acute Achilles tendon rupture treated operatively and nonoperatively in 2002. They hypothesized that no significant differences would exist in the rerupture rates and functional outcomes between the groups. Between 2002 and 2008, the authors collected data on 80 consecutive patients treated with a weight-bearing functional orthosis for complete Achilles tendon rupture. Following evidence-based counseling, 51 patients chose nonoperative treatment and 29 chose operative treatment. Outcome measures included rerupture rates, other complications, and functional scoring. The nonoperative group was a decade older (median age, 47 years [range, 27-80 years]) than the operative group (median age, 37 years [range, 24-55 years]). Rerupture was noted in 2 (4%) patients in the nonoperative treatment group and 1 (3%) patient in the operative group. Two (7%) patients in the operative group developed superficial wound infections and reported no nerve injuries. Median Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score was 82 points in the nonoperative group and 94 in the operative group. Median Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles tendinopathy questionnaire scores were 60 and 91 for the nonoperative and operative groups, respectively. Both groups had low rerupture rates. Functional scores, using the newly validated Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score, were lower in the nonoperative group. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Effects of immobilization on rat hind limb muscles under non-weight-bearing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Fagan, Julie M.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Cook, Paul H.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of stretched and unstretched immobilization of a hind limb on the concentration and the metabolism of proteins in the hind-limb muscles of rats was investigated. The animals were divided into three groups: (1) weight-bearing controls, (2) tail-cast-suspended, and (3) suspended, with one hind limb immobilized with the ankle in dorsiflexion (30-40 deg angle) and the other freely moving. It was found that unloading the hind limbs for 6 days by tail cast suspension caused soleus to atrophy and reduced growth of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles; unloading resulted in a higher degradation rate and lower synthesis rate in both in vitro and in vivo. Chronic stretch of the unloaded soleus not only prevented its atrophy but led to significant hypertrophy, relative to weight-bearing controls, with increases in both the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein fractions. Immobilizing one ankle in dorsiflexion prevented the inhibition of growth in the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles due to unloading.

  10. Radiographic changes and factors associated with subsequent progression of damage in weight-bearing joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis under TNF-blocking therapies-three-year observational study.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Isao; Motomura, Hiraku; Seki, Eiko; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2017-07-01

    The long-term effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking therapies on weight-bearing joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not been fully characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the radiographic changes of weight-bearing joints in patients with RA during 3-year of TNF-blocking therapies and to identify factors related to the progression of joint damage. Changes in clinical variables and radiological findings in 243 weight-bearing joints (63 hips, 54 knees, 71 ankles, and 55 subtalar joints) in 38 consecutive patients were investigated during three years of treatment with TNF-blocking agents. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for the progression of weight-bearing joint damage. Seventeen (14.5%) of proximal weight-bearing joints (hips and knees) showed apparent radiographic progression during three years of treatment, whereas none of the proximal weight-bearing joints showed radiographic evidence of improvement or repair. In contrast, distal weight-bearing joints (ankle and subtalar joints) displayed radiographic progression and improvement in 20 (15.9%) and 8 (6.3%) joints, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis for proximal weight-bearing joints identified the baseline Larsen grade (p < 0.001, OR:24.85, 95%CI: 5.07-121.79) and disease activity at one year after treatment (p = 0.003, OR:3.34, 95%CI:1.50-7.46) as independent factors associated with the progression of joint damage. On the other hand, multivariate analysis for distal weight-bearing joints identified disease activity at one year after treatment (p < 0.001, OR:2.13, 95%CI:1.43-3.18) as an independent factor related to the progression of damage. Baseline Larsen grade was strongly associated with the progression of damage in the proximal weight-bearing joints. Disease activity after treatment was an independent factor for progression of damage in proximal and distal weight-bearing joints. Early treatment with

  11. Combination of Weight-Bearing Training and Anti-MSTN Polyclonal Antibody Improve Bone Quality In Rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Gao, Xiaohang; Yang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Didi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Du, Haiping; Han, Yanqi; Sun, Lijun

    2016-12-01

    Weight-bearing exercise is beneficial to bone health. Myostatin (MSTN) deficiency has a positive effect on bone formation. We wondered if a combination of weight-bearing training and polyclonal antibody for MSTN (MsAb) would augment bone formation to a greater degree than single treatment. In this study, rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Control, weight-bearing training (WT), MsAb, and WT+MsAb. The trained rats ran at 15 m/min bearing with 35% of their body weight, 40 min/day (2 min of running followed by 2 min of rest), 6 days/week, for 8 weeks. The rats with MsAb were injected once a week with MsAb for 8 weeks. MicroCT analysis showed that compared with the MsAb group, WT+MsAb significantly enhanced cortical bone mineral density (BMD) (p < .01), bone volume over total volume (BV/TV) (p < .01), trabecular thickness (p < .05), and reduced trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) (p < .01). Compared with the WT group, WT+MsAb significantly increased trabecular BMD (p < .05), BV/TV (p < .05), and decreased Tb.Sp (p < .05). Three-point bending test demonstrated that MsAb failed to improve bone biomechanical properties (p > .05), weight-bearing training significantly increased energy absorption (p < .05) and elastic modulus (p < .05). However, when they combined, biomechanical properties including maximum load (p < .05), stiffness (p < .05), elastic modulus (p < .01) and energy absorption (p < .01) were all significantly enhanced. In conclusion, the combination of weight-bearing training and MsAb have a greater positive effect on bone than treatment with either MsAb or weight-bearing training alone, suggesting that resistance training in combination with MSTN antagonists could be an effective approach for improving bone health and reducing osteoporosis risk.

  12. Extremely low birth weight and body size in early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, L; Faber, B; Callanan, C; Ford, G; Davis, N

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine the body size of extremely low birth weight (ELBW, birth weight 500–999 g) subjects in early adulthood. Methods: Cohort study examining the height and weight of 42 ELBW survivors free of cerebral palsy between birth and 20 years of age. Weight and height measurements were converted to Z (SD) scores. Results: At birth the subjects had weight Z scores substantially below zero (mean birth weight Z score -0.90, 95% CI -1.25 to -0.54), and had been lighter than average at ages 2, 5, and 8 years. However, by 14, and again at 20 years of age their weight Z scores were not significantly different from zero. At ages 2, 5, 8, 14, and 20 years of age their height Z scores were significantly below zero. Their height at 20 years of age was, however, consistent with their parents' height. As a group they were relatively heavy for their height and their mean body mass index (BMI) Z score was almost significantly different from zero (mean difference 0.42, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.84). Their mean BMI (kg/m2) was 24.0 (SD 5.2); 14 had a BMI >25, and four had a BMI >30. Conclusions: Despite their early small size, by early adulthood the ELBW subjects had attained an average weight, and their height was consistent with their parents' height. They were, however, relatively heavy for their height. PMID:15033844

  13. Soleus Fiber Force and Maximal Shortening Velocity After Non-Weight Bearing with Intermittent Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widrick, Jeffrey J.; Bangart, Jill J.; Karhanek, Miloslav; Fitts, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of intermittent weight bearing (IWB) as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing (NWB)-induced alterations in soleus type 1 fiber force (in mN), tension (P(sub o); force per fiber cross-sectional area in kN/sq m), and maximal unloaded shortening velocity (V(sub o), in fiber lengths/s). Adult rats were assigned to one of the following groups: normal weight bearing (WB), 14 days of hindlimb NWB (NWB group), and 14 days of hindlimb NWB with IWB treatments (IWB group). The IWB treatment consisted of four 10-min periods of standing WB each day. Single, chemically permeabilized soleus fiber segments were mounted between a force transducer and position motor and were studied at maximal Ca(2+) activation, after which type 1 fiber myosin heavy-chain composition was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. NWB resulted in a loss in relative soleus mass (-45%), with type 1 fibers displaying reductions in diameter (-28%) and peak isometric force (-55%) and an increase in V(sub o) (+33%). In addition, NWB induced a 16% reduction in type 1 fiber P., a 41% reduction in type 1 fiber peak elastic modulus [E(sub o), defined as ((delta)force/(delta)length x (fiber length/fiber cross-sectional area] and a significant increase in the P(sub o)/E(sub o) ratio. In contrast to NWB, IWB reduced the loss of relative soleus mass (by 22%) and attenuated alterations in type 1 fiber diameter (by 36%), peak force (by 29%), and V(sub o)(by 48%) but had no significant effect on P(sub o), E(sub o) or P(sub o)/E(sub o). These results indicate that a modest restoration of WB activity during 14 days of NWB is sufficient to attenuate type 1 fiber atrophy and to partially restore type 1 peak isometric force and V(sub o) to WB levels. However, the NWB-induced reductions in P(sub o) and E(sub o) which we hypothesize to be due to a decline in the number and stiffness of cross bridges, respectively, are considerably less responsive to this

  14. Early Fault Diagnosis of Bearings Using an Improved Spectral Kurtosis by Maximum Correlated Kurtosis Deconvolution

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Feng; Lei, Yaguo; Shan, Hongkai; Lin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The early fault characteristics of rolling element bearings carried by vibration signals are quite weak because the signals are generally masked by heavy background noise. To extract the weak fault characteristics of bearings from the signals, an improved spectral kurtosis (SK) method is proposed based on maximum correlated kurtosis deconvolution (MCKD). The proposed method combines the ability of MCKD in indicating the periodic fault transients and the ability of SK in locating these transients in the frequency domain. A simulation signal overwhelmed by heavy noise is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that MCKD is beneficial to clarify the periodic impulse components of the bearing signals, and the method is able to detect the resonant frequency band of the signal and extract its fault characteristic frequency. Through analyzing actual vibration signals collected from wind turbines and hot strip rolling mills, we confirm that by using the proposed method, it is possible to extract fault characteristics and diagnose early faults of rolling element bearings. Based on the comparisons with the SK method, it is verified that the proposed method is more suitable to diagnose early faults of rolling element bearings. PMID:26610501

  15. Weight-bearing asymmetries during Sit-To-Stand in patients with mild-to-moderate hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Eitzen, Ingrid; Fernandes, Linda; Nordsletten, Lars; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna

    2014-02-01

    The Sit-To-Stand (STS) transition is a mechanically demanding task that may pose particular challenges for individuals with lower limb osteoarthritis (OA). Biomechanical features of STS have been investigated in patients with OA, but not in patients with early stage hip OA. The purpose of this study was to explore inter-limb weight-bearing asymmetries (WBA) and selected kinematic and kinetic variables during STS in patients with mild-to-moderate hip OA compared with healthy controls. Twenty-one hip OA patients and 23 controls were included in the study. Sagittal and frontal plane kinematic and kinetic data were collected using an eight-camera motion analysis system synchronized with two force plates embedded in the floor. There were no distinctive biomechanical alterations in sagittal or frontal plane kinematics or kinetics, movement time, or time to reach peak ground reaction force (GRF) in hip OA patients compared with controls. However, the hip OA patients revealed a distinct pattern of WBA compared with the controls, in unloading their involved limb by 18.4% at peak GRF. These findings indicate that patients with early stage hip OA are not yet forced into a stereotypical movement strategy for STS; however, the observed pattern of WBA requires clinical attention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Contact characteristics research of acetabular weight-bearing area with different internal fixation methods after compression fracture of acetabular dome].

    PubMed

    Xu, Bowen; Zhang, Qingsong; An, Siqi; Pei, Baorui; Wu, Xiaobo

    2017-08-01

    To establish the model of compression fracture of acetabular dome, and to measure the contact characteristics of acetabular weight-bearing area of acetabulum after 3 kinds of internal fixation. Sixteen fresh adult half pelvis specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups, 4 specimens each group. Group D was the complete acetabulum (control group), and the remaining 3 groups were prepared acetabular dome compression fracture model. The fractures were fixed with reconstruction plate in group A, antegrade raft screws in group B, and retrograde raft screws in group C. The pressure sensitive films were attached to the femoral head, and the axial compression test was carried out on the inverted single leg standing position. The weight-bearing area, average stress, and peak stress were measured in each group. Under the loading of 500 N, the acetabular weight-bearing area was significantly higher in group D than in other 3 groups ( P <0.05), and the average stress and peak stress were significantly lower than in other 3 groups ( P <0.05). The acetabular weight-bearing area were significantly higher in group B and group C than in group A, and the average stress and peak stress were significantly lower than in group A ( P <0.05). There was no significant difference in the above indexes between group B and group C ( P >0.05). For the compression fracture of the acetabular dome, the contact characteristics of the weight-bearing area can not restore to the normal level, even if the anatomical reduction and rigid internal fixation were performed; compared with the reconstruction plate fixation, antegrade and retrograde raft screws fixations can increase the weight-bearing area, reduce the average stress and peak stress, and reduce the incidence of traumatic arthritis.

  17. Do Knee Bracing and Delayed Weight Bearing Affect Mid-Term Functional Outcome after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Di Miceli, Riccardo; Marambio, Carlotta Bustos; Zati, Alessandro; Monesi, Roberta; Benedetti, Maria Grazia

    2017-12-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to assess the effect of knee bracing and timing of full weight bearing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) on functional outcomes at mid-term follow-up. Methods  We performed a retrospective study on 41 patients with ACLR. Patients were divided in two groups: ACLR group, who received isolated ACL reconstruction and ACLR-OI group who received ACL reconstruction and adjunctive surgery. Information about age at surgery, bracing, full or progressive weight bearing permission after surgery were collected for the two groups. Subjective IKDC score was obtained at follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the two groups for IKDC score. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess the effect of postoperative regimen (knee bracing and weight bearing) on functional outcomes. Results  The mean age of patients was 30.8 ± 10.6 years. Mean IKDC score was 87.4 ± 13.9. The mean follow-up was 3.5 ± 1.8 years. Twenty-two (53.7%) patients underwent ACLR only, while 19 (46.3%) also received other interventions, such as meniscal repair and/or collateral ligament suture. Analysis of overall data showed no differences between the groups for IKDC score. Patients in the ACLR group exhibited a significantly better IKDC score when no brace and full weight bearing after 4 weeks from surgery was prescribed in comparison with patients who worn a brace and had delayed full weight bearing. No differences were found with respect to the use of brace and postoperative weight bearing regimen in the ACLR-OI group. Conclusion  Brace and delayed weight bearing after ACLR have a negative influence on long-term functional outcomes. Further research is required to explore possible differences in the patients operated on ACLR and other intervention with respect to the use of a brace and the timing of full weight bearing to identify optimal recovery strategies. Level of Evidence  Level III, retrospective observational

  18. Effects of Patellofemoral Taping on Patellofemoral Joint Alignment and Contact Area During Weight Bearing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kai-Yu; Epstein, Ryan; Garcia, Ron; Riley, Nicole; Lee, Szu-Ping

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Although it has been theorized that patellofemoral joint (PFJ) taping can correct patellar malalignment, the effects of PFJ taping techniques on patellar alignment and contact area have not yet been studied during weight bearing. Objective To examine the effects of 2 taping approaches (Kinesio and McConnell) on PFJ alignment and contact area. Methods Fourteen female subjects with patellofemoral pain and PFJ malalignment participated. Each subject underwent a pretaping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan session and 2 MRI scan sessions after the application of the 2 taping techniques, which aimed to correct lateral patellar displacement. Subjects were asked to report their pain level prior to each scan session. During MRI assessment, subjects were loaded with 25% of body weight on their involved/more symptomatic leg at 0°, 20°, and 40° of knee flexion. The outcome measures included patellar lateral displacement (bisect-offset [BSO] index), mediolateral patellar tilt angle, patellar height (Insall-Salvati ratio), contact area, and pain. Patellofemoral joint alignment and contact area were compared among the 3 conditions (no tape, Kinesio, and McConnell) at 3 knee angles using a 2-factor, repeated-measures analysis of variance. Pain was compared among the 3 conditions using the Friedman test and post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Our data did not reveal any significant effects of either McConnell or Kinesio taping on the BSO index, patellar tilt angle, Insall-Salvati ratio, or contact area across the 3 knee angles, whereas knee angle had a significant effect on the BSO index and contact area. A reduction in pain was observed after the application of the Kinesio taping technique. Conclusion In a weight-bearing condition, this preliminary study did not support the use of PFJ taping as a medial correction technique to alter the PFJ contact area or alignment of the patella. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017

  19. Importance of early weight changes to predict long-term weight gain during psychotropic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, Frederik; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Saigí-Morgui, Núria; Delacrétaz, Aurélie; Choong, Eva; Solida-Tozzi, Alessandra; Kolly, Stéphane; Thonney, Jacques; Gallo, Sylfa Fassassi; Hedjal, Ahmed; Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle; von Gunten, Armin; Conus, Philippe; Eap, Chin B

    2015-11-01

    Psychotropic drugs can induce substantial weight gain, particularly during the first 6 months of treatment. The authors aimed to determine the potential predictive power of an early weight gain after the introduction of weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs on long-term weight gain. Data were obtained from a 1-year longitudinal study ongoing since 2007 including 351 psychiatric (ICD-10) patients, with metabolic parameters monitored (baseline and/or 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 months) and with compliance ascertained. International Diabetes Federation and World Health Organization definitions were used to define metabolic syndrome and obesity, respectively. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome and obesity were 22% and 17%, respectively, at baseline and 32% and 24% after 1 year. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that an early weight gain > 5% after a period of 1 month is the best predictor for important long-term weight gain (≥ 15% after 3 months: sensitivity, 67%; specificity, 88%; ≥ 20% after 12 months: sensitivity, 47%; specificity, 89%). This analysis identified most patients (97% for 3 months, 93% for 12 months) who had weight gain ≤ 5% after 1 month as continuing to have a moderate weight gain after 3 and 12 months. Its predictive power was confirmed by fitting a longitudinal multivariate model (difference between groups in 1 year of 6.4% weight increase as compared to baseline, P = .0001). Following prescription of weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, a 5% threshold for weight gain after 1 month should raise clinician concerns about weight-controlling strategies. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  1. Non-weight bearing-induced muscle weakness: the role of myosin quantity and quality in MHC type II fibers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Thompson, LaDora V

    2014-07-15

    We tested the hypothesis that non-weight bearing-induced muscle weakness (i.e., specific force) results from decreases in myosin protein quantity (i.e., myosin content per half-sarcomere and the ratio of myosin to actin) and quality (i.e., force per half-sarcomere and population of myosin heads in the strong-binding state during muscle contraction) in single myosin heavy chain (MHC) type II fibers. Fisher-344 rats were assigned to weight-bearing control (Con) or non-weight bearing (NWB). The NWB rats were hindlimb unloaded for 2 wk. Diameter, force, and MHC content were determined in permeabilized single fibers from the semimembranosus muscle. MHC isoform and the ratio of MHC to actin in each fiber were determined by gel electrophoresis and silver staining techniques. The structural distribution of myosin from spin-labeled fiber bundles during maximal isometric contraction was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific force (peak force per cross-sectional area) in MHC type IIB and IIXB fibers from NWB was significantly reduced by 38% and 18%, respectively. MHC content per half-sarcomere was significantly reduced by 21%. Two weeks of hindlimb unloading resulted in a reduced force per half-sarcomere of 52% and fraction of myosin strong-binding during contraction of 34%. The results suggest that reduced myosin and actin content (quantity) and myosin quality concomitantly contribute to non-weight bearing-related muscle weakness. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Weight-bearing recommendations after operative fracture treatment-fact or fiction? Gait results with and feasibility of a dynamic, continuous pedobarography insole.

    PubMed

    Braun, Benedikt J; Veith, Nils T; Rollmann, Mika; Orth, Marcel; Fritz, Tobias; Herath, Steven C; Holstein, Jörg H; Pohlemann, Tim

    2017-08-01

    Rehabilitation after lower-extremity fractures is based on the physicians' recommendation for non-, partial-, or full weight-bearing. Clinical studies rely on this assumption, but continuous compliance or objective loading rates are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance to weight-bearing recommendations by introducing a novel, pedobarography system continuously registering postoperative ground forces into ankle, tibial shaft and proximal femur fracture aftercare and test its feasibility for this purpose. In this prospective, observational study, a continuously measuring pedobarography insole was placed in the patients shoe during the immediate post-operative aftercare after ankle, tibial shaft and intertrochanteric femur fractures. Weight-bearing was ordered as per the institutional standard and controlled by physical therapy. The insole was retrieved after a maximum of six weeks (28 days [range 5-42 days]). Non-compliance was defined as a failure to maintain, or reach the ordered weight-bearing within 30%. Overall 30 patients were included in the study. Fourteen (47%) of the patients were compliant to the weight-bearing recommendations. Within two weeks after surgery patients deviated from the recommendation by over 50%. Sex, age and weight did not influence the performance (p > 0.05). Ankle fracture patients (partial weight-bearing) showed a significantly increased deviation from the recommendation (p = 0.01). Our study results show that, despite physical therapy training, weight-bearing compliance to recommended limits was low. Adherence to the partial weight-bearing task was further decreased over time. Uncontrolled weight-bearing recommendations should thus be viewed with caution and carefully considered as fiction. The presented insole is feasible to determine weight bearing continuously, could immediately help define real-time patient behaviour and establish realistic, individual weight-bearing recommendations.

  3. Weight bearing cone beam CT scan versus gravity stress radiography for analysis of supination external rotation injuries of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Marzo, John M; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Clyde, Corey; Anders, Mark J; Mutty, Christopher E; Ritter, Christopher A

    2017-12-01

    For AO 44-B2 ankle fractures of uncertain stability, the current diagnostic standard is to obtain a gravity stress radiograph, but some have advocated for the use of weight-bearing radiographs. The primary aim was to compare measures of medial clear space (MCS) on weight-bearing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans versus gravity stress radiographs for determining the state of stability of ankle fractures classified as AO SER 44-B2 or Weber B. The secondary aim was to evaluate the details offered by CBCT scans with respect to other findings that may be relevant to patient care. Nine patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study between April 2016 and February 2017 if they had an AO SER 44-B2 fracture of uncertain stability, had a gravity stress radiograph, and were able to undergo CT scan within seven days. The width of the MCS was measured at the level of the talar dome on all radiographs and at the mid coronal slice on CT. Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests were used to compare MCS between initial radiographs, gravity stress radiographs and weight-bearing CBCT scans. MCS on weight-bearing CBCT scan (1.41±0.41 mm) was significantly less than standard radiographs (3.28±1.63 mm, P=0.004) and gravity stress radiographs (5.82±1.93 mm, P=0.02). There was no statistically significant difference in MCS measured on standard radiographs versus gravity stress radiographs (P=0.11). Detailed review of the multiplanar CT images revealed less than perfect anatomical reduction of the fractures, with residual fibular shortening, posterior displacement, and fracture fragments in the incisura as typical findings. Similar to weight-bearing radiographs, weight-bearing CBCT scan can predict stability of AO 44-B2 ankle fractures by showing restoration of the MCS, and might be used to indicate patients for non-operative treatment. None of the fractures imaged in this study were perfectly reduced however, and further clinical research is necessary to determine if any of the

  4. Weight-Bearing Dorsiflexion Range of Motion and Landing Biomechanics in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Matthew C.; Farwell, Kelley E.; Gaven, Stacey L.; Weinhandl, Joshua T.

    2015-01-01

    Context People with chronic ankle instability (CAI) exhibit less weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and less knee flexion during landing than people with stable ankles. Examining the relationship between dorsiflexion ROM and landing biomechanics may identify a modifiable factor associated with altered kinematics and kinetics during landing tasks. Objective To examine the relationship between weight-bearing dorsiflexion ROM and single-legged landing biomechanics in persons with CAI. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Fifteen physically active persons with CAI (5 men, 10 women; age = 21.9 ± 2.1 years, height = 168.7 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 69.4 ± 13.3 kg) participated. Intervention(s) Participants performed dorsiflexion ROM and single-legged landings from a 40-cm height. Sagittal-plane kinematics of the lower extremity and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were captured during landing. Main Outcome Measure(s) Static dorsiflexion was measured using the weight-bearing–lunge test. Kinematics of the ankle, knee, and hip were observed at initial contact, maximum angle, and sagittal displacement. Sagittal displacements of the ankle, knee, and hip were summed to examine overall sagittal displacement. Kinetic variables were maximum posterior and vertical GRFs normalized to body weight. We used Pearson product moment correlations to evaluate the relationships between dorsiflexion ROM and landing biomechanics. Correlations (r) were interpreted as weak (0.00–0.40), moderate (0.41–0.69), or strong (0.70–1.00). The coefficient of determination (r2) was used to determine the amount of explained variance among variables. Results Static dorsiflexion ROM was moderately correlated with maximum dorsiflexion (r = 0.49, r2 = 0.24), ankle displacement (r = 0.47, r2 = 0.22), and total displacement (r = 0.67, r2 = 0.45) during landing. Dorsiflexion ROM measured statically and during landing demonstrated moderate to strong

  5. The Bridge-Enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair (BEAR) Procedure: An Early Feasibility Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Martha M; Flutie, Brett M; Kalish, Leslie A; Ecklund, Kirsten; Fleming, Braden C; Proffen, Benedikt L; Micheli, Lyle J

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the safety of the newly developed bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair (BEAR), which involves suture repair of the ligament combined with a bioactive scaffold to bridge the gap between the torn ligament ends. As the intra-articular environment is complex in its response to implanted materials, this study was designed to determine whether there would be a significant rate of adverse reaction to the implanted scaffold. The primary hypothesis was that the implanted scaffold would not result in a deep joint infection (arthrocentesis with positive culture) or significant inflammation (clinical symptoms justifying arthrocentesis but negative culture). The secondary hypotheses were that patients treated with BEAR would have early postoperative outcomes that were similar to patients treated with ACL reconstruction with an autologous hamstring graft. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 20 patients were enrolled in this nonrandomized, first-in-human study. Ten patients received BEAR treatment and 10 received a hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction. The BEAR procedure was performed by augmenting a suture repair with a proprietary scaffold, the BEAR scaffold, placed in between the torn ends of the ACL at the time of suture repair. The BEAR scaffold is to our knowledge the only device that fills the gap between the torn ligament ends to have current Investigational Device Exemption approval from the Food and Drug Administration. Ten milliliters of autologous whole blood were added to the scaffold prior to wound closure. Outcomes were assessed at 3 months postoperatively. The outcomes measures included postoperative pain, muscle atrophy, loss of joint range of motion, and implant failure (designated by an International Knee Documentation Committee grade C or D Lachman test and/or an absence of continuous ACL tissue on magnetic resonance images). There were no joint infections or signs of significant inflammation in either group

  6. Weight bearing evaluation in inflammatory, neuropathic and cancer chronic pain in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Tétreault, Pascal; Dansereau, Marc-André; Doré-Savard, Louis; Beaudet, Nicolas; Sarret, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Preclinical pain assessment remains a key step for the development of new and potent painkillers. Significant progress in pain evaluation has been achieved with the development of non-reflexive tools. Seeking efficient and clinically relevant devices for pain-related quality of life assessment, we evaluated a new Dynamic Weight Bearing (DWB) device based on pressure captors in three different preclinical chronic pain models. Inflammatory (CFA), neuropathic (CCI) and bone cancer pain (femoral tumor) models were evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats for mechanical allodynia using dynamic von Frey for pain-related behaviors and DWB for discomfort. We observed similar impairment patterns in all of the models for both von Frey (allodynia) and DWB (weight balance) during the complete observation period, starting at day 3 in CCI- and CFA-affected limbs and at day 14 in bone cancer-afflicted rats, indicating that the DWB could be a useful tool for supporting pain assessment. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the main compensation, when animals experienced pain, was seen in the forepaws, ranging from 46% to 69% of increased load compared to normal. Other pain-related coping behaviors were also measured, such as the time spent on each paw and the contact surface. Our results revealed that CFA, CCI and cancerous rats decreased the use of their ipsilateral hind paws by 30% and showed a 50% reduction in paw surface pressed against the floor. In conclusion, this new device improves methods for preclinical evaluation of discomfort and quality of life proxies and could be helpful in screening putative analgesics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of changes in pelvic belt tension during 2 weight-bearing functional tasks.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ashokan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Woodley, Stephanie; Sole, Gisela

    2012-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate changes in pelvic belt tension during 2 weight-bearing functional tasks (transition from bipedal to unipedal stance [BUS] and walking) and to evaluate the reliability and the percentage variation for belt tension scores from trial to trial. A cross-sectional repeated-measures study was conducted with 10 healthy male participants (mean age, 28.3 ± 8.8years). Participants performed 10 trials of BUS and walking while wearing a nonelastic pelvic compression belt (PCB) applied distal to the anterior superior iliac spines, with a load cell positioned in the center of the belt. The load cell was calibrated using known weights (1-10kg) to define the relationship between the applied tension and voltage change (R(2) = 0.99). Load cell tension values were recorded in voltage signals and then converted to newtons of force using appropriate conversion values (0.012V = 10N). Mean and standard deviation values, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 3,1), and percentage standard error of measurements (% SEM) were analyzed for PCB tension recorded during the BUS and walking trials. The mean tension achieved with a PCB was found to be 41.02 (±4.23) N during BUS and 44.07 (±5.80) N during walking. The trial-to-trial reliability (ICC 3,1) was high (ICC ≥0.9), and the variation in PCB tension across 10 trials (% SEM) was 4% or less. The mean tension achieved during the tasks was 44 N or less. The reliability is high, and the variation is low across the trials, which implies that a PCB could be used to produce consistent effects during repetition of the tasks (BUS and walking). Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On the weight-bearing function of the medial coronoid process in dogs.

    PubMed

    Breit, S; Künzel, W; Seiler, S

    2006-02-01

    The shape of and proportions between the surface areas of the medial coronoid process (MCP) and the fovea of the radial head were determined in 88 juvenile dogs and 146 adult dogs grouped as giant, large, mid-sized, chondrodystrophic, or small dogs. Thereby, the longitudinal (length) and transverse (width) extension of the MCP and fovea of the radial head have been measured. Original values were used to describe changes of the parameters attributed to growth. Normalized values (i.e. values expected in case of a width of the fovea of the radial head of 20 mm) were used to determine potential differences between constitutional types. All original values increased during growth (P < 0.05) except for the width and length of the MCP in chondrodystrophic and small breeds. Normalized values revealed a proportional decrease in width and length of the MCP during growth (P < 0.05) compared with the radial head. In adults, the normalized MCP was widest in giant dogs followed by large, mid-sized, small, and chondrodystrophic breeds. The MCP was also longest in giant dogs but shortest in large and chondrodystrophic dogs with those of large dogs being significantly (P < 0.05) shorter than those in giant, mid-sized and small dogs. Present results suggest that a deficiency in length-growth of the MCP--which has been present especially in large dogs--results in smaller humeral contact areas and decreased weight-bearing capacity of the MCP. Because loading forces acting on the MCP increase with body weight, the condition noted in large dogs might increase the risk of fragmentation of the MCP in these.

  9. Unilateral and bilateral upper extremity weight-bearing effect on upper extremity impairment and functional performance after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    REISTETTER, TIMOTHY; ABREU, BEATRIZ C.; BEAR-LEHMAN, JANE; OTTENBACHER, KENNETH J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of upper extremity (UE) weight bearing on UE impairment functional performance of persons with acquired brain injury (BI). A quasi-experimental design was used to examine a convenience sample of 99 persons with acquired BI and 22 without BI (WBI) living in a community re-entry centre. A computerized force-sensing array pressure map system was used to determine the UE pressure during unilateral and bilateral conditions. Differences between groups were examined using t-tests. Correlations were computed between UE weight bearing and hand function, and functional performance as measured by the Fugl-Meyer scale and functional independence measure (FIM) scale. The group of people with BI exerted significantly lower UE weight bearing during unilateral conditions as compared with persons WBI [left: t (119) = 2.34, p = 0.021; right: t (119) = 4.79, p = 0.043). UE weight-bearing measures correlated strongly with FIM motor scores with bilateral UE conditions yielded the highest significant correlation (bilateral left r = 0.487, p < 0.001; bilateral right r = 0.469, p < 0.01). The results indicated that UE weight-bearing pressure differs in unilateral and bilateral conditions, between persons with and WBI and between persons with stroke and traumatic brain injury. These findings may have implications for occupational therapists that use unilateral versus bilateral motor training for rehabilitation. There is a need to replicate the study design with a randomized and stratified sample of persons with BI. PMID:19551694

  10. Gender differences in knee abduction during weight-bearing activities: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cronström, Anna; Creaby, Mark W; Nae, Jenny; Ageberg, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Increased knee abduction during weight-bearing activities is suggested to be a contributing factor for the high knee injury risk reported in women. However, studies investigating gender difference in knee abduction are inconclusive. To systematically review gender-differences in knee abduction during weight-bearing activities in individuals with or without knee injury. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. A search in the databases Medline, CINAHL and EMBASE was performed until September 2015. Inclusion criteria were studies that reported (1) gender differences, (2) healthy individuals and/or those with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency or reconstruction or patellofemoral pain PFP, and (3) knee abduction assessed with either motion analysis or visual observation during weight-bearing activity. Fifty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Women with PFP had greater peak knee abduction compared to men (Std diff in mean; -1.34, 95%CI; -1.83 to -0.84). In healthy individuals, women performed weight-bearing tasks with greater knee abduction throughout the movement (initial contact, peak abduction, excursion) (Std diff in mean; -0.68 to -0.79, 95%CI; -1.04 to -0.37). In subgroup analyses by task, differences in knee abduction between genders were present for most tasks, including running, jump landings and cutting movements. There were too few studies in individuals with ACL injury to perform meta-analysis. The gender difference in knee abduction during weight-bearing activities should be considered in training programs aimed at preventing or treating knee injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Early outcome of TKA with a medial pivot fixed-bearing prosthesis is worse than with a PFC mobile-bearing prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Yoon, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Jun-Shik

    2009-02-01

    Although the design features of the Medial Pivot fixed-bearing prosthesis reportedly improve kinematics compared with TKAs using fixed-bearings, clinical improvements have not been reported. We asked whether the clinical and radiographic outcomes, ranges of motion of the knee, patient satisfaction, and complication rates would be better in knees with a Medial Pivot fixed-bearing prosthesis than in those with a PFC Sigma mobile-bearing prosthesis. We compared the results of 92 patients who had a Medial Pivot fixed-bearing prosthesis implanted in one knee and a PFC Sigma mobile-bearing prosthesis implanted in the other. There were 85 women and seven men with a mean age of 69.5 years (range, 55-81 years). The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 2.6 years; range, 2-3 years). The patients were assessed clinically and radiographically using the rating systems of the Hospital for Special Surgery and the Knee Society at 3 months, 1 year, and annually thereafter. Contrary to expectations, we found worse early clinical outcomes, smaller ranges of knee motion, less patient satisfaction, and a higher complication rate for the Medial Pivot fixed-bearing prosthesis than for the PFC Sigma mobile-bearing prosthesis. Level I, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  12. Effect of single dose radiation therapy on weight-bearing lameness in dogs with elbow osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kapatkin, Amy S; Nordquist, Barbro; Garcia, Tanya C; Griffin, Maureen A; Theon, Alain; Kim, Sun; Hayashi, Kei

    2016-07-19

    To determine if a single low dose of radiation therapy in dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint was associated with a detectable improvement in their lameness and pain as documented by force platform gait analysis. In this cohort longitudinal observational study, five Labrador Retrievers with lameness due to elbow osteoarthritis that was unresponsive to medical treatment were removed from all non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications. A single treatment of radiation therapy delivering 10 Gray was performed on the affected elbow joint(s). Force platform gait analysis was used to assess the ground reaction forces of a limb affected with elbow osteoarthritis both before and after radiation therapy. Significant differences occurred in the weight-bearing on an affected limb with elbow osteoarthritis after radiation therapy at weeks six and 14. Change due to treatment was particularly apparent in dogs with unilateral elbow osteoarthritis. Administering a single low dose of radiation therapy may have a short-term benefit in dogs with elbow osteoarthritis, which is similar to the evidence supporting the use of radiation therapy in horses with orthopaedic disease.

  13. Determinants of lifetime reproduction in female brown bears: early body mass, longevity, and hunting regulations.

    PubMed

    Zedrosser, Andreas; Pelletier, Fanie; Bischof, Richard; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Swenson, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    In iteroparous mammals, conditions experienced early in life may have long-lasting effects on lifetime reproductive success. Human-induced mortality is also an important demographic factor in many populations of large mammals and may influence lifetime reproductive success. Here, we explore the effects of early development, population density, and human hunting on survival and lifetime reproductive success in brown bear (Ursus arctos) females, using a 25-year database of individually marked bears in two populations in Sweden. Survival of yearlings to 2 years was not affected by population density or body mass. Yearlings that remained with their mother had higher survival than independent yearlings, partly because regulations prohibit the harvest of bears in family groups. Although mass as a yearling did not affect juvenile survival, it was positively associated with measures of lifetime reproductive success and individual fitness. The majority of adult female brown bear mortality (72%) in our study was due to human causes, mainly hunting, and many females were killed before they reproduced. Therefore, factors allowing females to survive several hunting seasons had a strong positive effect on lifetime reproductive success. We suggest that, in many hunted populations of large mammals, sport harvest is an important influence on both population dynamics and life histories.

  14. Weight-Bearing Locomotion in the Developing Opossum, Monodelphis domestica following Spinal Transection: Remodeling of Neuronal Circuits Caudal to Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Wheaton, Benjamin J.; Noor, Natassya M.; Whish, Sophie C.; Truettner, Jessie S.; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Zhang, Moses; Crack, Peter J.; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Saunders, Norman R.

    2013-01-01

    Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P)7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming) P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors’ gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating that although

  15. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Benjamin J; Noor, Natassya M; Whish, Sophie C; Truettner, Jessie S; Dietrich, W Dalton; Zhang, Moses; Crack, Peter J; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Saunders, Norman R

    2013-01-01

    Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P)7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming) P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating that although

  16. A Novel Bearing Multi-Fault Diagnosis Approach Based on Weighted Permutation Entropy and an Improved SVM Ensemble Classifier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shenghan; Qian, Silin; Chang, Wenbing; Xiao, Yiyong; Cheng, Yang

    2018-06-14

    Timely and accurate state detection and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings are very critical to ensuring the reliability of rotating machinery. This paper proposes a novel method of rolling bearing fault diagnosis based on a combination of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), weighted permutation entropy (WPE) and an improved support vector machine (SVM) ensemble classifier. A hybrid voting (HV) strategy that combines SVM-based classifiers and cloud similarity measurement (CSM) was employed to improve the classification accuracy. First, the WPE value of the bearing vibration signal was calculated to detect the fault. Secondly, if a bearing fault occurred, the vibration signal was decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EEMD. The WPE values of the first several IMFs were calculated to form the fault feature vectors. Then, the SVM ensemble classifier was composed of binary SVM and the HV strategy to identify the bearing multi-fault types. Finally, the proposed model was fully evaluated by experiments and comparative studies. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively detect bearing faults and maintain a high accuracy rate of fault recognition when a small number of training samples are available.

  17. Body weight and dysautonomia in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Umehara, T; Nakahara, A; Matsuno, H; Toyoda, C; Oka, H

    2017-05-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) begin to lose weight several years before diagnosis, which suggests weight variation is associated with some factor(s) that precede the onset of motor symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the association of autonomic nervous system with body weight in patients with PD. The subjects were 90 patients with early de novo PD. We examined the associations of body mass index (BMI) with sympathetic nervous activity reflected in orthostatic intolerance or cardiac uptake of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and parasympathetic nervous activity reflected in constipation or heart rate variability (HRV). Twelve patients (13.3%) were overweight (BMI>25 kg/m 2 ), 62 patients (68.9%) were normal-weight (18.5≦BMI<25 kg/m 2 ), and 16 patients (17.8%) were underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m 2 ). Underweight patients had greater disease severity and decrease in blood pressure on head-up tilt-table testing, higher cardiac washout ratio of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, and lower HRV and complained of constipation more often than those with normal-weight or overweight patients. On multiple regression analyses, the correlation of these variables with BMI maintained statistical significance after adjustment for age, sex, symptom duration, and motor subtype. Dysautonomia and disease severity are closely related to body weight independently of age, sex, symptom duration, and motor subtype. Dysautonomia may play a partial role on weight variation in the early stage of PD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Spaceflight-Relevant Challenges of Radiation and/or Reduced Weight Bearing Cause Arthritic Responses in Knee Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Willey, J S; Kwok, A T; Moore, J E; Payne, V; Lindburg, C A; Balk, S A; Olson, J; Black, P J; Walb, M C; Yammani, R R; Munley, M T

    2016-10-01

    There is little known about the effect of both reduced weight bearing and exposure to radiation during spaceflight on the mechanically-sensitive cartilage lining the knee joint. In this study, we characterized cartilage damage in rat knees after periods of reduced weight bearing with/without exposure to solar-flare-relevant radiation, then cartilage recovery after return to weight bearing. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 120) were either hindlimb unloaded (HLU) via tail suspension or remained weight bearing in cages (GROUND). On day 5, half of the HLU and GROUND rats were 1 Gy total-body X-ray irradiated during HLU, and half were sham irradiated (SHAM), yielding 4 groups: GROUND-SHAM; GROUND-IR; HLU-SHAM; and HLU-IR. Hindlimbs were collected from half of each group of rats on day 13. The remaining rats were then removed from HLU or remained weight bearing, and hindlimbs from these rats were collected on day 62. On day 13, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in cartilage lining the tibial plateau and femoral condyles of HLU rats was lower than that of the GROUND animals. Likewise, on day 13, immunoreactivity of the collagen type II-degrading matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and of a resultant metalloproteinase-generated neoepitope VDIPEN was increased in all groups versus GROUND-SHAM. Clustering of chondrocytes indicating cartilage damage was present in all HLU and IR groups versus GROUND-SHAM on day 13. On day 62, after 49 days of reloading, the loss of GAG content was attenuated in the HLU-SHAM and HLU-IR groups, and the increased VDIPEN staining in all treatment groups was attenuated. However, the increased chondrocyte clustering remained in all treatment groups on day 62. MMP-13 activity also remained elevated in the GROUND-IR and HLU-IR groups. Increased T2 relaxation times, measured on day 62 using 7T MRI, were greater in GROUND-IR and HLU-IR knees, indicating persistent cartilage damage in the irradiated groups. Both HLU and total-body irradiation resulted in

  19. Effect of daily short-duration weight-bearing on disuse-induced deterioration of musculoskeletal system

    PubMed Central

    Leung, K-S.; Li, Y-H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Tam, K-F.; Chow, D.H.K.; Wan, Y.; Ling, S.; Dai, Z.; Qin, L.; Cheung, W-H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate deterioration of musculoskeletal system due to prolonged disuse and the potential of daily short-duration weight-bearing as countermeasures. Methods: Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into Control Group (CG, no intervention), Tail-suspension Group (TG, tail-suspension without treatment), and Weight-Bearing Group (WBG, tail-suspension with 20 min/day, 5 days/week body weight loading). After four weeks of treatment, femur and tibia, soleus and extensor digitorum longus were evaluated for bone and muscle quality respectively. Tensile properties of bone-tendon insertion (BTI) were evaluated using patella-patellar tendon complex. Results: Disuse induced deterioration on bone, muscle, and BTI after four weeks. Compared with CG, TG and WBG showed significant decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of trabecular bone in distal femur (4.3-15.2%), muscle mass (31.3-52.3%), muscle cross-sectional area (29.1-35%), and failure strength of BTI (23.9-29.4%). Tensile test showed that the failure mode was avulsion of bone at the BTI. No significant difference was detected between TG and WBG for all assessments on bone, muscle, and BTI. Conclusions: Disuse caused deterioration of bone, muscle, and BTI while daily short-duration of weight-bearing did not prevent this deterioration. Mechanical stimulation with higher intensity and longer duration may be necessary to prevent musculoskeletal deterioration resulted from prolonged disuse. PMID:26032214

  20. Femur rotation and patellofemoral joint kinematics: a weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Richard B; Draper, Christie E; Fredericson, Michael; Powers, Christopher M

    2010-05-01

    Controlled laboratory study using a cross-sectional design. To compare patellofemoral joint kinematics, femoral rotation, and patella rotation between females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and pain-free controls using weight-bearing kinematic magnetic resonance imaging. Recently, it has been recognized that patellofemoral malalignment may be the result of femoral motion as opposed to patella motion. Fifteen females with PFP and 15 pain-free females between the ages of 18 and 45 years participated in this study. Kinematic imaging of the patellofemoral joint was performed using a vertically open magnetic resonance imaging system. Axial-oblique images were obtained using a fast gradient-echo pulse sequence. Images were acquired at a rate of 1 image per second while subjects performed a single-limb squat. Measures of femur and patella rotation (relative to the image field of view), lateral patella tilt, and lateral patella displacement were made from images obtained at 45 degrees , 30 degrees , 15 degrees , and 0 degrees of knee flexion. Group differences were assessed using a mixed-model analysis of variance with repeated measures. When compared to the control group, females with PFP demonstrated significantly greater lateral patella displacement at all angles evaluated and significantly greater lateral patella tilt at 30 degrees , 15 degrees , and 0 degrees of knee flexion. Similarly, greater medial femoral rotation was observed in the PFP group at 45 degrees , 15 degrees , and 0 degrees of knee flexion when compared to the control group. No group differences in patella rotation were found. Altered patellofemoral joint kinematics in females with PFP appears to be related to excessive medial femoral rotation, as opposed to lateral patella rotation. Our results suggest that the control of femur rotation may be important in restoring normal patellofemoral joint kinematics. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2010;40(5):277-285, Epub 12 March 2010. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.3215.

  1. Biofeedback in Partial Weight Bearing: Usability of Two Different Devices from a Patient's and Physical Therapist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Remko; Pisters, Martijn F; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; de Bie, Rob A; Wouters, Eveline J; Stukstette, Mirelle J

    2016-01-01

    Partial weight bearing is frequently instructed by physical therapists in patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. The use of biofeedback devices seems promising to improve the patient's compliance with weight-bearing instructions. SmartStep and OpenGo-Science are biofeedback devices that provide real-time feedback. For a successful implementation, usability of the devices is a critical aspect and should be tested from a user's perspective. To describe the usability from the physical therapists' and a patients' perspective of Smartstep and OpenGo-Science to provide feedback on partial weight bearing during supervised rehabilitation of patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. In a convergent mixed-methods design, qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Usability was subdivided into user performance, satisfaction and acceptability. Patients prescribed with partial weight bearing and their physical therapists were asked to use SmartStep and OpenGo-Science during supervised rehabilitation. Usability was qualitatively tested by a think-aloud method and a semi-structured interview and quantitatively tested by the System-Usability-Scale (SUS) and closed questions. For the qualitative data thematic content analyses were used. Nine pairs of physical therapists and their patients participated. The mean SUS scores for patients and physical therapists were for SmartStep 70 and 53, and for OpenGo-Science 79 and 81, respectively. Scores were interpreted with the Curved Grading Scale. The qualitative data showed that there were mixed views and perceptions from patients and physical therapists on satisfaction and acceptability. This study gives insight in the usability of two biofeedback devices from the patient's and physical therapist's perspective. The overall usability from both perspectives seemed to be acceptable for OpenGo-Science. For SmartStep, overall usability seemed only acceptable from the patient's perspective. The study findings could help

  2. Synergistic ablation does not affect atrophy or altered myosin heavy chain expression in the non-weight bearing soleus muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linderman, J. K.; Talmadge, R. J.; Gosselink, K. L.; Tri, P. N.; Roy, R. R.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the soleus muscle undergoes atrophy and alterations in myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition during non-weight bearing in the absence of synergists. Thirty-two female rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), synergistic ablation (ABL) of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles to overload the soleus muscle, hindlimb suspension (HLS), or a combination of synergistic ablation and hindlimb suspension (HLS-ABL). After 28 days of hindlimb suspension, soleus atrophy was more pronounced in HLS (58%) than in HLS-ABL (43%) rats. Compared to C rats, non-weight bearing decreased mixed and myofibrillar protein contents and Type I MHC 49%, 45%, and 7%, respectively, in HLS animals. In addition, de novo expression of fast Type IIx and Type IIb MHC (5% and 2%, respectively) was observed in HLS animals. Similarly, when compared to C rats, mixed and myofibrillar protein contents and Type I MHC decreased 43%, 46%, and 4%, respectively, in HLS-ABL animals. Also, de novo expression of Type IIx (4%) and IIb (1%) MHC was observed. Collectively, these data indicate that the loss of muscle protein and Type I MHC, and the de novo expression of Type IIx and Type IIb MHC in the rat soleus occur independently of the presence of synergists during non-weight bearing. Furthermore, these results confirm the contention that soleus mass and MHC expression are highly sensitive to alterations in mechanical load.

  3. Muscle glucose uptake in the rat after suspension with single hindlimb weight bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Craig S.; Woodman, Christopher R.; Fregosi, Ralph F.; Tipton, Charles M.

    1993-01-01

    An examination is conducted of the effect of nonweight-bearing conditions, and the systemic influences of simulated microgravity on rat hindlimb muscles. The results obtained suggest that the increases in hindlimb muscle glucose uptake and extracellular space associated with simulated microgravity persist with hindlimb weightbearing, despite the prevention of muscle atrophy. The mechanism (or mechanisms) responsible for these effects are currently unknown.

  4. Cortical and Trabecular Bone Microstructure Did Not Recover at Weight-Bearing Skeletal Sites and Progressively Deteriorated at Non-Weight-Bearing Sites During the Year Following International Space Station Missions.

    PubMed

    Vico, Laurence; van Rietbergen, Bert; Vilayphiou, Nicolas; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Locrelle, Hervé; Normand, Myriam; Zouch, Mohamed; Gerbaix, Maude; Bonnet, Nicolas; Novikov, Valery; Thomas, Thierry; Vassilieva, Galina

    2017-10-01

    Risk for premature osteoporosis is a major health concern in astronauts and cosmonauts; the reversibility of the bone lost at the weight-bearing bone sites is not established, although it is suspected to take longer than the mission length. The bone three-dimensional structure and strength that could be uniquely affected by weightlessness is currently unknown. Our objective is to evaluate bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength of weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bone in 13 cosmonauts before and for 12 months after a 4-month to 6-month sojourn in the International Space Station (ISS). Standard and advanced evaluations of trabecular and cortical parameters were performed using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. In particular, cortical analyses involved determination of the largest common volume of each successive individual scan to improve the precision of cortical porosity and density measurements. Bone resorption and formation serum markers, and markers reflecting osteocyte activity or periosteal metabolism (sclerostin, periostin) were evaluated. At the tibia, in addition to decreased bone mineral densities at cortical and trabecular compartments, a 4% decrease in cortical thickness and a 15% increase in cortical porosity were observed at landing. Cortical size and density subsequently recovered and serum periostin changes were associated with cortical recovery during the year after landing. However, tibial cortical porosity or trabecular bone failed to recover, resulting in compromised strength. The radius, preserved at landing, unexpectedly developed postflight fragility, from 3 months post-landing onward, particularly in its cortical structure. Remodeling markers, uncoupled in favor of bone resorption at landing, returned to preflight values within 6 months, then declined farther to lower than preflight values. Our findings highlight the need for specific protective measures not only during, but also after spaceflight, because

  5. Human Muscle Protein Synthetic Responses during Weight-Bearing and Non-Weight-Bearing Exercise: A Comparative Study of Exercise Modes and Recovery Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; McClung, Holly L; Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Lin, Gregory G; Hydren, Jay R; Young, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Effects of conventional endurance (CE) exercise and essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation on protein turnover are well described. Protein turnover responses to weighted endurance exercise (i.e., load carriage, LC) and EAA may differ from CE, because the mechanical forces and contractile properties of LC and CE likely differ. This study examined muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and whole-body protein turnover in response to LC and CE, with and without EAA supplementation, using stable isotope amino acid tracer infusions. Forty adults (mean ± SD, 22 ± 4 y, 80 ± 10 kg, VO 2peak 4.0 ± 0.5 L ∙ min(-1)) were randomly assigned to perform 90 min, absolute intensity-matched (2.2 ± 0.1 VO2 L ∙ m(-1)) LC (performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass, mean ± SD load carried 24 ± 3 kg) or CE (cycle ergometry performed at the same absolute VO2 as LC) exercise, during which EAA (10 g EAA, 3.6 g leucine) or control (CON, non-nutritive) drinks were consumed. Mixed-muscle and myofibrillar MPS were higher during exercise for LC than CE (mode main effect, P < 0.05), independent of dietary treatment. EAA enhanced mixed-muscle and sarcoplasmic MPS during exercise, regardless of mode (drink main effect, P < 0.05). Mixed-muscle and sarcoplasmic MPS were higher in recovery for LC than CE (mode main effect, P < 0.05). No other differences or interactions (mode x drink) were observed. However, EAA attenuated whole-body protein breakdown, increased amino acid oxidation, and enhanced net protein balance in recovery compared to CON, regardless of exercise mode (P < 0.05). These data show that, although whole-body protein turnover responses to absolute VO2-matched LC and CE are the same, LC elicited a greater muscle protein synthetic response than CE.

  6. Influence of maternal adiposity, preterm birth and birth weight centiles on early childhood obesity in an Indigenous Australian pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pringle, K G; Lee, Y Q; Weatherall, L; Keogh, L; Diehm, C; Roberts, C T; Eades, S; Brown, A; Smith, R; Lumbers, E R; Brown, L J; Collins, C E; Rae, K M

    2018-05-16

    Childhood obesity rates are higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian children. It has been hypothesized that early-life influences beginning with the intrauterine environment predict the development of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this paper was to assess, in 227 mother-child dyads from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort, associations between prematurity, Gestation Related-Optimal Weight (GROW) centiles, maternal adiposity (percentage body fat, visceral fat area), maternal non-fasting plasma glucose levels (measured at mean gestational age of 23.1 weeks) and offspring BMI and adiposity (abdominal circumference, subscapular skinfold thickness) in early childhood (mean age 23.4 months). Maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations were positively associated with infant birth weight (P=0.005) and GROW customized birth weight centiles (P=0.008). There was a significant association between maternal percentage body fat (P=0.02) and visceral fat area (P=0.00) with infant body weight in early childhood. Body mass index (BMI) in early childhood was significantly higher in offspring born preterm compared with those born at term (P=0.03). GROW customized birth weight centiles was significantly associated with body weight (P=0.01), BMI (P=0.007) and abdominal circumference (P=0.039) at early childhood. Our findings suggest that being born preterm, large for gestational age or exposed to an obesogenic intrauterine environment and higher maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations are associated with increased obesity risk in early childhood. Future strategies should aim to reduce the prevalence of overweight/obesity in women of child-bearing age and emphasize the importance of optimal glycemia during pregnancy, particularly in Indigenous women.

  7. Bone loss during partial weight bearing (1/6th gravity) is mitigated by resistance and aerobic exercise in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreaux, R. D.; Metzger, C. E.; Macias, B. R.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Hogan, H. A.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    Astronauts on long duration missions continue to experience bone loss, as much as 1-2% each month, for up to 4.5 years after a mission. Mechanical loading of bone with exercise has been shown to increase bone formation, mass, and geometry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two exercise protocols during a period of reduced gravitational loading (1/6th body weight) in mice. Since muscle contractions via resistance exercise impart the largest physiological loads on the skeleton, we hypothesized that resistance training (via vertical tower climbing) would better protect against the deleterious musculoskeletal effects of reduced gravitational weight bearing when compared to endurance exercise (treadmill running). Young adult female BALB/cBYJ mice were randomly assigned to three groups: 1/6 g (G/6; n=6), 1/6 g with treadmill running (G/6+RUN; n=8), or 1/6 g with vertical tower climbing (G/6+CLB; n=9). Exercise was performed five times per week. Reduced weight bearing for 21 days was achieved through a novel harness suspension system. Treadmill velocity (12-20 m/min) and daily run time duration (32-51 min) increased incrementally throughout the study. Bone geometry and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at proximal metaphysis and mid-diaphysis tibia were assessed by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) on days 0 and 21 and standard dynamic histomorphometry was performed on undemineralized sections of the mid-diaphysis after tissue harvest. G/6 caused a significant decrease (P<0.001) in proximal tibia metaphysis total vBMD (-9.6%). These reductions of tibia metaphyseal vBMD in G/6 mice were mitigated in both G/6+RUN and G/6+CLB groups (P<0.05). After 21 days of G/6, we saw an absolute increase in tibia mid-diaphysis vBMD and in distal metaphysis femur vBMD in both G/6+RUN and G/6+CLB mice (P<0.05). Substantial increases in endocortical and periosteal mineralizing surface (MS/BS) at mid-diaphysis tibia in G/6+CLB demonstrate that

  8. Gender differences in tibio-femoral kinematics and quadriceps muscle force during weight-bearing knee flexion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wünschel, Markus; Wülker, Nikolaus; Müller, Otto

    2013-11-01

    Females have a higher risk in terms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries during sports than males. Reasons for this fact may be different anatomy and muscle recruitment patterns leading to less protection for the cruciate- and collateral-ligaments. This in vitro study aims to evaluate gender differences in knee joint kinematics and muscle force during weight-bearing knee flexions. Thirty-four human knee specimens (17 females/17 males) were mounted on a dynamic knee simulator. Weight-bearing single-leg knee flexions were performed with different amounts of simulated body weight (BW). Gender-specific kinematics was measured with an ultrasonic motion capture system and different loading conditions were examined. Knee joint kinematics did not show significant differences regarding anteroposterior and medial-lateral movement as well as tibial varus-valgus and internal-external rotation. This applied to all simulated amounts of BW. Simulating 100 N BW in contrast to AF50 led to a significant higher quadriceps overall force in female knees from 45° to 85° of flexion in contrast to BW 50 N. In these female specimens, the quadriceps overall force was about 20 % higher than in male knees being constant in higher flexion angles. It is indicated by our results that in a squatting movement females compared with males produce higher muscle forces, suggesting an increased demand for muscular stabilization, whereas tibio-femoral kinematics was similar for both genders.

  9. The immediate effect of patellar tendon strap on weight-bearing asymmetry during squatting in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Demirbüken, İlkşan; Özyürek, Seher; Angın, Salih

    2016-12-01

    Knee osteoarthritis has commonly been associated with a symptom of pain resulting in an inter-limb weight-bearing asymmetry during functional tasks. Patellar tendon strap is one of the non-pharmacologic interventions to alleviate knee pain. To investigate the immediate effect of a patellar tendon strap on weight-bearing asymmetry during squatting in people with unilateral knee osteoarthritis. Cross-sectional study. Ten patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis and 10 healthy subjects were included in the study. Weight-bearing asymmetry of patients was assessed using a weight-bearing squat test during squatting at 30° and 60° both with and without patellar tendon strap. Pain intensity was assessed during squatting in unstrapped and strapped conditions with Visual Analog Scale. The decrease in weight-bearing asymmetry values immediately after wearing patellar tendon strap during 30° (p = 0.006) and 60° (p = 0.011) of squatting tests was significantly higher in knee osteoarthritis patients than in healthy subjects. Reported pain intensity was similar in unstrapped and strapped conditions (p = 0.066). The results of this study showed improved inter-limb weight-bearing symmetry during squatting. Further research with larger sample sizes investigating the effect of patellar tendon strap on weight-bearing asymmetry during functional activities in people with knee osteoarthritis is warranted. Patellar tendon straps (easily fit and cheap unlike knee braces) had more improvements in inter-limb weight-bearing symmetry during squatting in people with knee osteoarthritis compared to healthy subjects. This study is a new insight for future studies to investigate clinical benefits of wearing patellar tendon straps in this population. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  10. Altered response of the anterolateral abdominal muscles to simulated weight-bearing in subjects with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Belavý, Daniel L; Cassar, Lana; Williams, Michelle; Wilson, Stephen J; Richardson, Carolyn A

    2009-03-01

    An important aspect of neuromuscular control at the lumbo-pelvic region is stabilization. Subjects with low back pain (LBP) have been shown to exhibit impairments in motor control of key muscles which contribute to stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic region. However, a test of automatic recruitment that relates to function has been lacking. A previous study used ultrasound imaging to show that healthy subjects automatically recruited the transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles in response to a simulated weight-bearing task. This task has not been investigated in subjects with LBP. The aim of this study was to compare the automatic recruitment of the abdominal muscles among subjects with and without LBP in response to the simulated weight-bearing task. Twenty subjects with and without LBP were tested. Real-time ultrasound imaging was used to assess changes in thickness of the TrA and internal oblique IO muscles as well as lateral movement ("slide") of the anterior fascial insertion of the TrA muscle. Results showed that subjects with LBP showed significantly less shortening of the TrA muscle (P < 0.0001) and greater increases in thickness of the IO muscle (P = 0.002) with the simulated weight-bearing task. There was no significant difference between groups for changes in TrA muscle thickness (P = 0.055). This study provides evidence of changes in motor control of the abdominal muscles in subjects with LBP. This test may provide a functionally relevant and non-invasive method to investigate the automatic recruitment of the abdominal muscles in people with and without LBP.

  11. THRUST BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Heller, P.R.

    1958-09-16

    A thrust bearing suitable for use with a rotor or blower that is to rotate about a vertical axis is descrihed. A centrifagal jack is provided so thnt the device may opernte on one hearing at starting and lower speeds, and transfer the load to another bearing at higher speeds. A low viscosity fluid is used to lubricate the higher speed operation bearing, in connection with broad hearing -surfaces, the ability to withstand great loads, and a relatively high friction loss, as contraated to the lower speed operatio;n bearing which will withstand only light thrust loads but is sufficiently frictionfree to avoid bearing seizure during slow speed or startup operation. An axially aligned shaft pin provides the bearing surface for low rotational speeds, but at higher speed, weights operating against spring tension withdraw nthe shaft pin into the bearing proper and the rotor shaft comes in contact with the large bearing surfaces.

  12. Combined magnetic resonance imaging approach for the assessment of in vivo knee joint kinematics under full weight-bearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Al Hares, Ghaith; Eschweiler, Jörg; Radermacher, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    The development of detailed and specific knowledge on the biomechanical behavior of loaded knee structures has received increased attention in recent years. Stress magnetic resonance imaging techniques have been introduced in previous work to study knee kinematics under load conditions. Previous studies captured the knee movement either in atypical loading supine positions, or in upright positions with help of inclined supporting backrests being insufficient for movement capture under full-body weight-bearing conditions. In this work, we used a combined magnetic resonance imaging approach for measurement and assessment in knee kinematics under full-body weight-bearing in single legged stance. The proposed method is based on registration of high-resolution static magnetic resonance imaging data acquired in supine position with low-resolution data, quasi-static upright-magnetic resonance imaging data acquired in loaded positions for different degrees of knee flexion. The proposed method was applied for the measurement of tibiofemoral kinematics in 10 healthy volunteers. The combined magnetic resonance imaging approach allows the non-invasive measurement of knee kinematics in single legged stance and under physiological loading conditions. We believe that this method can provide enhanced understanding of the loaded knee kinematics. © IMechE 2015.

  13. A hippotherapy simulator is effective to shift weight bearing toward the affected side during gait in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju; Yu, Byong-Kyu; Kim, Kyeong-Mi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether a hippotherapy simulator has influence on symmetric body weight bearing during gait in patients with stroke. Stroke patients were divided into a control group (n = 10) that received conventional rehabilitation for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 4 weeks and an experimental group (n = 10) that used a hippotherapy simulator for 15 min/day, 5 times/week for 4 weeks after conventional rehabilitation for 45 min/day. Temporospatial gait assessed using OptoGait and trunk muscles (abdominis and erector spinae on affected side) activity evaluated using surface electromyography during sit-to-stand and gait. Prior to starting the experiment, pre-testing was performed. At the end of the 4-week intervention, we performed post-testing. Activation of the erector spinae in the experimental group was significantly increased compared to that in the control group (p < 0.01), whereas activation of the rectus abdominis decreased during sit-to-stand. Of the gait parameters, load response, single support, total double support, and pre-swing showed significant changes in the experimental group with a hippotherapy simulator compared to control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, activation of the erector spinae and rectus abdominis in gait correlate with changes of gait parameters including load response, single support, total double support, and pre-swing in experimental group. These findings suggest that use of a hippotherapy simulator to patients with stroke can improve asymmetric weight bearing by influencing trunk muscles.

  14. Effect of gradual weight-bearing on regenerated articular cartilage after joint distraction and motion in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Tomofumi; Ishii, Tomoo; Chang, Fei; Yanai, Takaji; Watanabe, Arata; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mishima, Hajime; Nakai, Kenjiro; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of gradual weight bearing (GWB) on regenerating cartilage. We developed a novel external fixation device (EFD) with a controllable weight-bearing system and continuous passive motion (CPM). A full-thickness defect was created by resection of the entire articular surface of the tibial plateau after the EFD was fixed in the rabbit's left knee. In the GWB group (n=6), GWB was started 6 weeks after surgery. In the CPM group (n=6), CPM with EFD was applied in the same manner without GWB. The control group (n=5) received only joint distraction. All rabbits were sacrificed 9 weeks after surgery. The central one-third of the regenerated tissue was assessed and scored blindly using a grading scale modified from the International Cartilage Repair Society visual histological assessment scale. The areas stained by Safranin-O and type II collagen antibody were measured, and the percentage of each area was calculated. There was no significant difference in the histological assessment scale among the groups. The percentage of the type II collagen-positive area was significantly larger in the GWB group than in the CPM group. The present study suggests that optimal mechanical stress, such as GWB, may affect regeneration of cartilage, in vivo. Copyright (c) 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  15. Kinetic and kinematic evaluation of compensatory movements of the head, pelvis and thoracolumbar spine associated with asymmetric weight bearing of the pelvic limbs in trotting dogs.

    PubMed

    Hicks, D A; Millis, D L

    2014-01-01

    To determine ground reaction forces, head and pelvis vertical motion (HVM and PVM, respectively), and thoraco-lumbar lateral angular motion (LAM) of the spine using kinematic gait analysis in dogs with mild asymmetric weight-bearing of the pelvic limbs while trotting. Twenty-seven hound-type dogs were fitted with reflective markers placed on the sagittal crest of the skull, the ischiatic tuberosity, and thoracolumbar spine of dogs to track motion while trotting. Kinetic and kinematic data were used to characterize asymmetry between the left and right pelvic limbs, and to describe HVM, PVM and thoraco-lumbar LAM. Maximum and minimum position and total motion values were determined for each measured variable. Dogs with asymmetric weight bearing of the pelvic limbs had greater PVM on the side with a greater peak vertical force (PVF), and greater thoraco-lumbar LAM toward the side with a lower PVF while trotting. No differences in mean HVM were detected, and there were no significant correlations between the magnitude of HVM, PVM and thoraco-lumbar LAM and the degree of asymmetric weight bearing. Dogs with subtle asymmetric weight bearing of a pelvic limb had patterns of body motion that may be useful in identifying subtle lameness in dogs; greater PVM on the side with greater weight bearing and greater thoraco-lumbar LAM toward the side with less weight bearing while trotting. Description of these compensatory movements is valuable when evaluating dogs with subtle weight bearing asymmetry in the pelvic limbs and may improve the sensitivity of lameness detection during subjective clinical lameness examination.

  16. Effects of upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle on patellofemoral indices using magnetic resonance imaging in patients with patellofemoral instability.

    PubMed

    Becher, Christoph; Fleischer, Benjamin; Rase, Marten; Schumacher, Thees; Ettinger, Max; Ostermeier, Sven; Smith, Tomas

    2017-08-01

    This study analysed the effects of upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle on patellofemoral indices, determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with patellofemoral instability (PI). Healthy volunteers (control group, n = 9) and PI patients (PI group, n = 16) were scanned in an open-configuration MRI scanner during upright weight bearing and supine non-weight bearing positions at full extension (0° flexion) and at 15°, 30°, and 45° flexion. Patellofemoral indices included the Insall-Salvati Index, Caton-Deschamp Index, and Patellotrochlear Index (PTI) to determine patellar height and the patellar tilt angle (PTA), bisect offset (BO), and the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance to assess patellar rotation and translation with respect to the femur and alignment of the extensor mechanism. A significant interaction effect of weight bearing by flexion angle was observed for the PTI, PTA, and BO for subjects with PI. At full extension, post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed a significant effect of weight bearing on the indices, with increased patellar height and increased PTA and BO in the PI group. Except for the BO, no such changes were seen in the control group. Independent of weight bearing, flexing the knee caused the PTA, BO, and TT-TG distance to be significantly reduced. Upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle affected patellofemoral MRI indices in PI patients, with significantly increased values at full extension. The observations of this study provide a caution to be considered by professionals when treating PI patients. These patients should be evaluated clinically and radiographically at full extension and various flexion angles in context with quadriceps engagement. Explorative case-control study, Level III.

  17. A Moderate-Intensity Weight-Bearing Exercise Program for a Person With Type 2 Diabetes and Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Mary K.; Mueller, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The exercise guidelines for people with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DM+PN) have recently changed to allow moderate-intensity weight-bearing exercise, but there are few reports in the literature describing appropriate weight-bearing exercise for those with DM+PN. This case report describes a successful and safe progressive exercise program for an individual with DM+PN. Case Description The patient was a 76-year-old man with a 30-year history of DM+PN. He participated in a 12-week, moderate-intensity, progressive exercise program (heart rate approximately 75% of maximum heart rate; rate of perceived exertion=11–13; 3 times per week) involving walking on a treadmill, balance exercises, and strengthening exercises for the lower extremities using body weight resistance. Outcomes Measurements were taken before and after the 12 weeks of exercise. The patient's Six-Minute Walk Test distance increased from 1,200 to 1,470 ft. His Physical Performance Test score did not change. His Foot and Ankle Ability Measure questionnaire score improved from 89 to 98. Dorsiflexor and plantar-flexor peak torque increased (dorsiflexor peak torque: right side=4.5–4.6 N·m, left side=2.8–3.8 N·m; plantar-flexor peak torque: right side=44.7–62.4 N·m, left side=40.8–56.0 N·m), as did his average daily step count (6,176–8,273 steps/day). Close monitoring of the plantar surface of the feet indicated that the exercise program was well tolerated and there were no adverse events. Discussion and Conclusions This case report describes a moderate-intensity exercise program that was successful in increasing some measures of muscle strength, physical function, and activity without causing injury in an individual with DM+PN. PMID:21921252

  18. Multiscale investigation on the effects of additional weight bearing in combination with low-magnitude high-frequency vibration on bone quality of growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianlong; Gao, Jiazi; Fang, Juan; Gong, He

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of additional weight bearing in combination with low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV; 45 Hz, 0.3 g) on bone quality. One hundred twenty rats were randomly divided into ten groups; namely, sedentary (SED), additional weight bearing in which the rat wears a backpack whose weight is x% of the body weight (WBx; x = 5, 12, 19, 26), basic vibration (V), and additional weight bearing in combination with LMHFV in which the rat wears a backpack whose weight is x% of the body weight (Vx; x = 5, 12, 19, 26). The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks, 7 days per week, and 15 min per day. A three-point bending mechanical test, micro computed tomography, and a nanoindentation test were used. Serum samples were analyzed chemically. Failure load in V19 rats was significantly lower than that in SED rats (P < 0.05). Vx (x = 5, 12, 19, 26) rats showed poor microarchitectures. The content of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b was significantly higher in Vx (x = 5, 12, 19, 26) rats than that in SED rats (P < 0.05). V26 rats demonstrated comparatively better nanomechanical properties of materials than the other vibrational groups. Additional weight bearing in combination with LMHFV negatively affected the macromechanical properties and microarchitecture of bone. Heavy additional weight bearing, such as 26% of body weight, in combination with LMHFV was able to improve the nanomechanical properties of growing bone material compared with LMHFV. A combined mechanical stimulation was used, which may provide useful information to understand the mechanism of this mechanical stimulation on bone.

  19. Two Patients with Osteochondral Injury of the Weight-Bearing Portion of the Lateral Femoral Condyle Associated with Lateral Dislocation of the Patella

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Atsumi, Satoru; Ichimaru, Shohei; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Complications of patellar dislocation include osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle and patella. Most cases of osteochondral injury occur in the anterior region, which is the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle. We describe two patients with osteochondral injury of the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle associated with lateral dislocation of the patella. The patients were 18- and 11-year-old females. Osteochondral injury occurred on the weight-bearing surface distal to the lateral femoral condyle. The presence of a free osteochondral fragment and osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle was confirmed on MRI and reconstruction CT scan. Treatment consisted of osteochondral fragment fixation or microfracture, as well as patellar stabilization. Osteochondral injury was present in the weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle in both patients, suggesting that the injury was caused by friction between the patella and lateral femoral condyle when the patella was dislocated or reduced at about 90° flexion of the knee joint. These findings indicate that patellar dislocation may occur and osteochondral injury may extend to the weight-bearing portion of the femur even in deep flexion, when the patella is stabilized on the bones of the femoral groove. PMID:25506015

  20. Antenatal weight management: Diet, physical activity, and gestational weight gain in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Swift, Judy A; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Pearce, Jo; Jethwa, Preeti H; Taylor, Moira A; Avery, Amanda; Ellis, Sarah; McMullen, Sarah; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J

    2017-06-01

    to investigate women's physical activity levels, diet and gestational weight gain, and their experiences and motivations of behavior change. analysis of cross-sectional data collected during a longitudinal, cohort study examining physiological, psychological, sociodemographic, and self-reported behavioural measures relating to bodyweight. women recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. 193 women ≤27 weeks gestation and aged 18 years or over. MEASUREMENTS & FINDINGS: measurements included weight and height, the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education (Brief Version), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form), and open questions of perceptions of behaviour change. 50.3% (n=97) were overweight/obese, and women gained 0.26kg/wk (IQR 0.34kg/wk) since conception. The majority consumed low levels of fat (n=121; 63.4%), high levels of unsaturated fat (n=103; 53.9%), and used a dietary supplement (n=166; 86.5%). However, 41% (n=76) were inactive, 74.8% (n=143) did not consume high levels of fibre, and 90.0% (n=171) consumed less than 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Body mass index category was not associated with diet, physical activity levels, or gestational weight gain. Themes generated from open-questions relating to behaviour change were: (1) Risk management, (2) Coping with symptoms, (3) Self-control, (4) Deviation from norm, (5) Nature knows best. early pregnancy is a period of significant and heterogeneous behaviour change, influenced by perceptions of risk and women's lived experience. Behaviour was influenced not only by perceptions of immediate risk to the fetus, but also by the women's lived experience of being pregnant. There are exciting opportunities to constructively reframe health promotion advice relating to physical activity and diet in light of women's priorities. The need for individualized advice is highlighted, and women across all body mass index categories would

  1. The TiltMeter app is a novel and accurate measurement tool for the weight bearing lunge test.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cylie M; Caserta, Antoni J; Haines, Terry P

    2013-09-01

    The weight bearing lunge test is increasing being used by health care clinicians who treat lower limb and foot pathology. This measure is commonly established accurately and reliably with the use of expensive equipment. This study aims to compare the digital inclinometer with a free app, TiltMeter on an Apple iPhone. This was an intra-rater and inter-rater reliability study. Two raters (novice and experienced) conducted the measurements in both a bent knee and straight leg position to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was also established. Allied health practitioners were recruited as participants from the workplace. A preconditioning stretch was conducted and the ankle range of motion was established with the weight bearing lunge test position with firstly the leg straight and secondly with the knee bent. The measurement device and each participant were randomised during measurement. The intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability for the devices and in both positions were all over ICC 0.8 except for one intra-rater measure (Digital inclinometer, novice, ICC 0.65). The inter-rater reliability between the digital inclinometer and the tilmeter was near perfect, ICC 0.96 (CI: 0.898-0.983); Concurrent validity ICC between the two devices was 0.83 (CI: -0.740 to 0.445). The use of the Tiltmeter app on the iPhone is a reliable and inexpensive tool to measure the available ankle range of motion. Health practitioners should use caution in applying these findings to other smart phone equipment if surface areas are not comparable. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Validity of clinical outcome measures to evaluate ankle range of motion during the weight-bearing lunge test.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emily A; Docherty, Carrie L

    2017-07-01

    To determine the concurrent validity of standard clinical outcome measures compared to laboratory outcome measure while performing the weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT). Cross-sectional study. Fifty participants performed the WBLT to determine dorsiflexion ROM using four different measurement techniques: dorsiflexion angle with digital inclinometer at 15cm distal to the tibial tuberosity (°), dorsiflexion angle with inclinometer at tibial tuberosity (°), maximum lunge distance (cm), and dorsiflexion angle using a 2D motion capture system (°). Outcome measures were recorded concurrently during each trial. To establish concurrent validity, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients (r) were conducted, comparing each dependent variable to the 2D motion capture analysis (identified as the reference standard). A higher correlation indicates strong concurrent validity. There was a high correlation between each measurement technique and the reference standard. Specifically the correlation between the inclinometer placement at 15cm below the tibial tuberosity (44.9°±5.5°) and the motion capture angle (27.0°±6.0°) was r=0.76 (p=0.001), between the inclinometer placement at the tibial tuberosity angle (39.0°±4.6°) and the motion capture angle was r=0.71 (p=0.001), and between the distance from the wall clinical measure (10.3±3.0cm) to the motion capture angle was r=0.74 (p=0.001). This study determined that the clinical measures used during the WBLT have a high correlation with the reference standard for assessing dorsiflexion range of motion. Therefore, obtaining maximum lunge distance and inclinometer angles are both valid assessments during the weight-bearing lunge test. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Jae-Ho; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2017-08-01

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis.

  4. Reproducibility of an optical measurement system for the clinical evaluation of active knee rotation in weight-bearing, healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Testa, R; Chouteau, J; Viste, A; Cheze, L; Fessy, M-H; Moyen, B

    2012-04-01

    A knee is typically evaluated passively by a clinician during an office visit, without using dedicated measurement tools. When the knee is evaluated with the patient standing and actively participating in the movement, the results will differ than when the knee is passively moved through its range-of-motion by the surgeon. If a precise measurement system was available, it could provide additional information to the clinician during this evaluation. The goal of this study was to verify the reproducibility of a fast, flexible optical measurement system to measure rotational knee laxity during weight-bearing. Two passive reflective targets were placed on the legs of 11 subjects to monitor femur and tibia displacements in three dimensions. Subjects performed internal and external rotation movements with the knee extended or flexed 30°. During each movement, seven variables were measured: internal rotation, external rotation and overall laxity in extension and 30° flexion, along with neutral rotation value in 30° flexion. Measurement accuracy was also assessed and the right and left knees were compared. Reproducibility was assessed over two measurements sessions. The calculated intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for reproducibility was above 0.9 for five of the seven variables measured. The calculated ICC for the right/left comparison was above 0.75 for five of the seven variables measured. These results confirmed that the proposed system provides reproducible measurements. Our right/left comparison results were consistent with the published literature. This system is fast, reproducible and flexible, which makes it suitable for assessing various weight-bearing movements during clinical evaluations. Level III, experimental study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and fabrication of prototype system for early warning of impending bearing failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meacher, J.; Chen, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    A test program was conducted with the objective of developing a method and equipment for on-line monitoring of installed ball bearings to detect deterioration or impending failure of the bearings. The program was directed at the spin-axis bearings of a control moment gyro. The bearings were tested at speeds of 6000 and 8000 rpm, thrust loads from 50 to 1000 pounds, with a wide range of lubrication conditions, with and without a simulated fatigue spall implanted in the inner race ball track. It was concluded that a bearing monitor system based on detection and analysis of modulations of a fault indicating bearing resonance frequency can provide a low threshold of sensitivity.

  6. Weight and weight gain during early infancy predict childhood obesity: a case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L G; Holst, C; Michaelsen, K F; Baker, J L; Sørensen, T I A

    2012-10-01

    Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain. The aim was to investigate when and how weight and weight gain during infancy become associated with childhood obesity. In a cohort representing 28 340 children born from 1959-67 and measured in Copenhagen schools, 962 obese children (2007 World Health Organization criteria), were compared with a 5% randomly selected sub-cohort of 1417 children. Information on weight at birth, 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 months was retrieved from health visitors' records. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for childhood obesity by tertiles of weight at each age and by change in tertiles of weight between two consecutive measurements were estimated using multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for indicators of socioeconomic status, preterm birth, and breastfeeding. Compared with children in the middle weight-tertile, children with a weight in the upper tertile had a 1.36-fold (CI, 1.10-1.69) to 1.72-fold (CI, 1.36-2.18) higher risk of childhood obesity from birth through 9 months, whereas children in the lower weight-tertile had almost half the risk of obesity from 2 through 9 months. The risk of childhood obesity associated with change in weight-tertile in each interval was stable at ∼1.5-fold per weight-tertile increase throughout infancy. Infant weight and weight gain are associated with obesity in childhood already during the first months of life. Determinants of weight gain shortly after birth may be a suitable target for prevention of obesity.

  7. Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

  8. Maternal and pregnancy-related factors affecting human milk cytokines among Peruvian mothers bearing low-birth-weight neonates

    PubMed Central

    Zambruni, Mara; Villalobos, Alex; Somasunderam, Anoma; Westergaard, Sarah; Nigalye, Maitreyee; Turin, Christie G.; Zegarra, Jaime; Bellomo, Sicilia; Mercado, Erik; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Utay, Netanya S.

    2017-01-01

    Several cytokines have been detected in human milk but their relative concentrations differ among women and vary over time in the same person. The drivers of such differences have been only partially identified, while the effect of luminal cytokines in the fine-regulation of the intestinal immune system is increasingly appreciated. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between obstetrical complications and human milk cytokine profiles in a cohort of Peruvian women giving birth to Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants. Colostrum and mature human milk samples were collected from 301 Peruvian women bearing LBW infants. The concentration of twenty-three cytokines was measured using the Luminex platform. Ninety-nine percent of women had at least one identified obstetrical complication leading to intra-uterine growth restriction and/or preterm birth. Median weight at birth was 1,420 grams; median gestational age 31 weeks. A core of 12 cytokines, mainly involved in innate immunity and epithelial cell integrity, was detectable in most samples. Maternal age, maternal infection, hypertensive disorders, preterm labor, and premature rupture of membranes were associated with specific cytokine profiles both in colostrum and mature human milk. Mothers of Very LBW (VLBW) neonates had significantly higher concentrations of chemokines and growth factor cytokines both in their colostrum and mature milk compared with mothers of larger neonates. Thus, maternal conditions affecting pregnancy duration and in utero growth are also associated with specific human milk cytokine signatures. PMID:28399439

  9. Maternal and pregnancy-related factors affecting human milk cytokines among Peruvian mothers bearing low-birth-weight neonates.

    PubMed

    Zambruni, Mara; Villalobos, Alex; Somasunderam, Anoma; Westergaard, Sarah; Nigalye, Maitreyee; Turin, Christie G; Zegarra, Jaime; Bellomo, Sicilia; Mercado, Erik; Ochoa, Theresa J; Utay, Netanya S

    2017-04-01

    Several cytokines have been detected in human milk but their relative concentrations differ among women and vary over time in the same person. The drivers of such differences have been only partially identified, while the effect of luminal cytokines in the fine-regulation of the intestinal immune system is increasingly appreciated. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between obstetrical complications and human milk cytokine profiles in a cohort of Peruvian women giving birth to Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants. Colostrum and mature human milk samples were collected from 301 Peruvian women bearing LBW infants. The concentration of twenty-three cytokines was measured using the Luminex platform. Ninety-nine percent of women had at least one identified obstetrical complication leading to intra-uterine growth restriction and/or preterm birth. Median weight at birth was 1,420g; median gestational age 31 weeks. A core of 12 cytokines, mainly involved in innate immunity and epithelial cell integrity, was detectable in most samples. Maternal age, maternal infection, hypertensive disorders, preterm labor, and premature rupture of membranes were associated with specific cytokine profiles both in colostrum and mature human milk. Mothers of Very LBW (VLBW) neonates had significantly higher concentrations of chemokines and growth factor cytokines both in their colostrum and mature milk compared with mothers of larger neonates. Thus, maternal conditions affecting pregnancy duration and in utero growth are also associated with specific human milk cytokine signatures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. INFLUENCE OF AGE ON NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL DURING A DYNAMIC WEIGHT BEARING TASK

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Burkart, Sarah; Baggett, Gail; Nelson, Katie; Teckenburg, Trina; Zwanziger, Mike; Shields, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular control strategies may change with age and predispose elderly to knee joint injury. The purposes of this study were to determine if long latency responses (LLR), muscle activation patterns, and movement accuracy differs between the young and elderly during a novel single limb squat (SLS) task. Ten young and ten elderly subjects performed a series of resistive SLS (~0–30 degrees) while matching a computer-generated sinusoidal target. The SLS device provided a 16% body weight resistance to knee movement. Both young and elderly showed significant overshoot error when the knee was perturbed (p < 0.05). Accuracy of the tracking task was similar between the young and elderly (p=0.34), but the elderly required more muscle activity compared to the younger subjects (p < 0.05). The elderly group had larger long latency responses (LLRs) than the younger group (p < 0.05). These results support that neuromuscular control of the knee changes with age, and may contribute to injury. PMID:19799103

  11. Evaluation of a bisphosphonate enriched ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for enhanced total joint replacement bearing surface functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright-Walker, Cassandra Jane

    Each year in the United States there is an increasing trend of patients receiving total joint replacement (TJR) procedures. Approximately a half million total knee replacements (TKRs) are performed annually in the United States with increasing prevalence attributed to baby-boomers, obesity, older, and younger patients. This trend is also seen for total hip replacements (THRs) as well. The use of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) inserts in TJRs results in wear particle-induced osteolysis, which is the predominant cause for prosthesis failure and revision surgery. Sub-micron size particle generation is inevitable despite the numerous efforts in improving this bearing material. Work by others has shown that the use of oral and intravenous systemic bisphosphonates (BP) can significantly minimize periprosthetic osteolysis. However, the systemic delivery and the high solubility of BPs results in a predominant portion of the drug being excreted via the kidney without reaching its target, bone. This doctoral research project is focused on the development and evaluation of a novel method to administer BPs locally using the inherent wear of UHMWPE for possible use as an anti-osteolysis treatment. For new materials to be considered, they must be mechanically and tribologically comparable to the current gold standard, UHMWPE. In order to evaluate this material, mechanical, drug elution and tribological experiments were performed to allow assessment of material properties. Tensile tests showed comparable yield stress and pin-on-disk testing showed comparable wear to standard virgin UHMWPE. Further, drug elution tests have shown that BP was released from the enriched material both in static and dynamic conditions. Additionally, an aggressive 2 million cycle total knee simulator experiment has shown statistically similar wear results for the two materials. Overall, this research has provided the groundwork for further characterization and development of a new

  12. Design and fabrication of prototype system for early warning of impending bearing failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, J. J.; Burchill, R. F.; Clark, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Ball bearing performance tests run on several identical ball bearings under a variety of load, speed, temperature, and lubrication conditions are reported. Bearing temperature, torque, vibration, noise, strain, cage speed, etc., were monitored to establish those measurements most suitable as indicators of ball bearing health. Tape records were made under steady-state conditions of a variety of speeds and loads. Sample sections were selected for narrowband spectral analysis with a real time analyzer. An artificial flow was created across the inner race surface of one bearing using an acid etch technique to produce the scratch. Tape records obtained before and after established a characteristic frequency response that identifies the presence of the flow. The signals found most useful as indicators of performance degradation were ultrasonic outputs.

  13. The push-off test: development of a simple, reliable test of upper extremity weight-bearing capability.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Joshua I; MacDermid, Joy C; Michlovitz, Susan L; Rafuse, Richard; Wells-Rowsell, Christina; Wong, Owen; Bisbee, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal clinical measurement study. The push-off test (POT) is a novel and simple measure of upper extremity weight-bearing that can be measured with a grip dynamometer. There are no published studies on the validity and reliability of the POT. The relationship between upper extremity self-report activity/participation and impairment measures remain an unexplored realm. The primary purpose of this study is to estimate the intra and inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the POT. The secondary purpose is to estimate the relationship between upper extremity self-report activity/participation questionnaires and impairment measures. A convenience sample of 22 patients with wrist or elbow injuries were tested for POT, wrist/elbow range of motion (ROM), isometric wrist extension strength (WES) and grip strength; and completed two self-report activity/participation questionnaires: Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and the Hand (DASH) and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ-26). POT's inter and intra-rater reliability and construct validity was tested. Pearson's correlations were run between the impairment measures and self-report questionnaires to look into the relationship amongst them. The POT demonstrated high inter-rater reliability (ICC affected = 0.97; 95% C.I. 0.93-0.99; ICC unaffected = 0.85; 95% C.I. 0.68-0.94) and intra-rater reliability (ICC affected = 0.96; 95% C.I. 0.92-0.97; ICC unaffected = 0.92; 95% C.I. 0.85-0.97). The POT was correlated moderately with the DASH (r = -0.47; p = 0.03). While examining the relationship between upper extremity self-reported activity/participation questionnaires and impairment measures the strongest correlation was between the DASH and the POT (r = -0.47; p = 0.03) and none of the correlations with the other physical impairment measures reached significance. At-work disability demonstrated insignificant correlations with physical impairments. The POT test provides a reliable and easily

  14. Early Pregnancy Weight Gain Exerts the Strongest Effect on Birth Weight, Posing a Critical Time to Prevent Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Broskey, Nicholas T; Wang, Peng; Li, Nan; Leng, Junhong; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Leishen; Gilmore, L Anne; Hu, Gang; Redman, Leanne M

    2017-09-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with infant birth weight and childhood obesity; however, the patterns of GWG on infant birth weight are poorly understood. This analysis in 16,218 mother-child dyads from Tianjin, China, determined the risk of infant size at birth according to GWG occurring throughout the first and second trimester (early GWG) or during the third trimester (late GWG), according to maternal prepregnancy BMI and the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Excessive GWG in early and late pregnancy had an increased risk for large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-4.0, P < 0.001). Regardless of prepregnancy BMI, excessive GWG early in pregnancy (< 24 weeks) was associated with an increased risk of LGA infants (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 2.1-3.1, P < 0.001), and inadequate early GWG was associated with a higher risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.7, P < 0.001). The pattern of GWG early in pregnancy, regardless of GWG later in pregnancy, had the greatest impact on infant size at birth. Interventions initiated early in pregnancy may facilitate better adherence to the GWG guidelines and minimize the risk of LGA and SGA infants, a potential precursor for childhood obesity. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  15. Rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood is related to higher anthropometric measurements in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Nanri, H; Shirasawa, T; Ochiai, H; Nomoto, S; Hoshino, H; Kokaze, A

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between rapid weight gain during infancy and/or early childhood and anthropometric measurements [body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)] in preadolescence by sex. Subjects were fourth-grade school children (aged 9 to 10 years) from elementary schools in Ina-town, Japan, in 2010. Measurements of height, weight, %BF and WC were conducted for each subject. We obtained data on height and weight of subjects at birth, age 1.5 years and age 3 years from the Maternal and Child Health handbook. Rapid weight gain was defined as a change in weight-for-age standard deviation score greater than 0.67 from birth to age 1.5 years (infancy) or from age 1.5 to 3 years (early childhood). All anthropometric variables (BMI, %BF, WC and WHtR) at age 9 to 10 years were significantly higher in the rapid weight gain during both infancy and early childhood period group than in the no rapid weight gain group, regardless of sex. When compared with the no rapid weight gain group, rapid weight gain during early childhood period had significantly higher BMI and WC in boys and BMI, %BF and WC in girls. Compared with the no rapid weight gain group, the rapid weight gain during infancy group had a significantly higher WC in boys and significantly higher BMI and WC in girls. Rapid weight gain during both infancy and early childhood was related to higher anthropometric measurements, including WHtR, among Japanese preadolescents, regardless of sex. This study suggests that rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood may be a risk factor for general/abdominal obesity later in life. © 2017 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A comparison between the dimensions of positive transtibial residual limb molds prepared by air pressure casting and weight-bearing casting methods.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaei, Behnam; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Saeedi, Hassan; Jalali, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Creating a socket with proper fit is an important factor to ensure the comfort and control of prosthetic devices. Several techniques are commonly used to cast transtibial stumps but their effect on stump shape deformation is not well understood. This study compares the dimensions, circumferences and volumes of the positive casts and also the socket comfort between two casting methods. Our hypothesis was that the casts prepared by air pressure method have less volume and are more comfortable than those prepared by weight bearing method. Fifteen transtibial unilateral amputees participated in the study. Two weight bearing and air pressure casting methods were utilized for their residual limbs. The diameters and circumferences of various areas of the residual limbs and positive casts were compared. The volumes of two types of casts were measured by a volumeter and compared. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to measure the sockets fit comfort. Circumferences at 10 and 15 cm below the patella on the casts were significantly smaller in air pressure casting method compared to the weight bearing method (p=0.00 and 0.01 respectively). The volume of the cast in air pressure method was lower than that of the weight bearing method (p=0.006). The amputees found the fit of the sockets prepared by air pressure method more comfortable than the weight bearing sockets (p=0.015). The air pressure casting reduced the circumferences of the distal portion of residual limbs which has more soft tissue and because of its snug fit it provided more comfort for amputees, according to the VAS measurements.

  17. Plantar fascia evaluation with a dedicated magnetic resonance scanner in weight-bearing position: our experience in patients with plantar fasciitis and in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sutera, R; Iovane, A; Sorrentino, F; Candela, F; Mularo, V; La Tona, G; Midiri, M

    2010-03-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of upright weight-bearing examination of the ankle/hind foot performed with a dedicated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging scanner in the evaluation of the plantar fascia in healthy volunteers and in patients with clinical evidence of plantar fasciitis. Between January and March 2009, 20 patients with clinical evidence of plantar fasciitis (group A) and a similar number of healthy volunteers (group B) underwent MR imaging of the ankle/hind foot in the upright weight-bearing and conventional supine position. A 0.25-Tesla MR scanner (G-Scan, Esaote SpA, Genoa, Italy) was used with a dedicated receiving coil for the ankle/hind foot. Three radiologists, blinded to patients' history and clinical findings, assessed in consensus morphological and dimensional changes and signal intensity alterations on images acquired in both positions, in different sequences and in different planes. In group A, MR imaging confirmed the diagnosis in 15/20 cases; in 4/15 cases, a partial tear of the plantar fascia was identified in the upright weight-bearing position alone. In the remaining 5/20 cases in group A and in all cases in group B, the plantar fascia showed no abnormal signal intensity. Because of the increased stretching of the plantar fascia, in all cases in group A and B, thickness in the proximal third was significantly reduced (p<0.0001) under upright weight-bearing compared with the supine position. Imaging the ankle/hind foot in the upright weight-bearing position with a dedicated MR scanner and a dedicated coil might enable the identification of partial tears of the plantar fascia, which could be overlooked in the supine position.

  18. The effect of motor control training on abdominal muscle contraction during simulated weight bearing in elite cricketers.

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Endicott, Timothy; Mendis, M Dilani; Stanton, Warren R

    2016-07-01

    To investigate whether motor control training alters automatic contraction of abdominal muscles in elite cricketers with low back pain (LBP) during performance of a simulated unilateral weight-bearing task. Clinical trial. 26 male elite-cricketers attended a 13-week cricket training camp. Prior to the camp, participants were allocated to a LBP or asymptomatic group. Real-time ultrasound imaging was used to assess automatic abdominal muscle response to axial loading. During the camp, the LBP group performed a staged motor control training program. Following the camp, the automatic response of the abdominal muscles was re-assessed. At pre-camp assessment, when participants were axially loaded with 25% of their own bodyweight, the LBP group showed a 15.5% thicker internal oblique (IO) muscle compared to the asymptomatic group (p = 0.009). The post-camp assessment showed that participants in the LBP group demonstrated less contraction of the IO muscle in response to axial loading compared with the asymptomatic group. A trend was found in the automatic recruitment pattern of the transversus abdominis (p = 0.08). Motor control training normalized excessive contraction of abdominal muscles in response to a low load task. This may be a useful strategy for rehabilitation of cricketers with LBP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  20. Effects of calcaneal eversion on three-dimensional kinematics of the hip, pelvis and thorax in unilateral weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Wada, Osamu; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the kinematic chain from foot to thorax will provide a better basis for assessment of malalignment of the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of induced calcaneal eversion on the kinematics of the hip, pelvis and thorax in three dimensions under unilateral weight-bearing. Twenty-eight healthy males were requested to stand on one leg under three conditions: normal (standing directly on the floor), and on wedges producing 5° and 10° calcaneal eversion. Recorded kinematic parameters included the angles of the hip joint, pelvis, and thorax in three dimensions. Eversion induced by wedges produced significant increases in hip flexion, hip medial rotation, pelvic anterior tilt, and thoracic lateral tilt and axial rotation to the standing side. In the frontal plane, pelvic lateral tilt to the standing side was decreased in 5° eversion condition compared with normal condition; conversely, it was increased in 10° eversion condition compared with 5° eversion condition. Arch height was negatively correlated with change in thoracic axial rotation to standing side from the normal to 10° eversion (r=-.528, p<.01). We concluded that induced calcaneal eversion affects the three-dimensional kinematics of the thorax through the hip joint and the pelvis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors predicting weight-bearing asymmetry 1month after unilateral total knee arthroplasty: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Cory L; Bade, Michael J; Weitzenkamp, David A; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

    2013-03-01

    Factors predicting weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) after unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are not known. However, identifying modifiable and non-modifiable predictors of WBA is needed to optimize rehabilitation, especially since WBA is negatively correlated to poor functional performance. The purpose of this study was to identify factors predictive of WBA during sit-stand transitions for people 1month following unilateral TKA. Fifty-nine people were tested preoperatively and 1month following unilateral TKA for WBA using average vertical ground reaction force under each foot during the Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test. Candidate variables tested in the regression analysis represented physical impairments (strength, muscle activation, pain, and motion), demographics, anthropometrics, and movement compensations. WBA, measured as the ratio of surgical/non-surgical limb vertical ground reaction force, was 0.69 (0.18) (mean (SD)) 1month after TKA. Regression analysis identified preoperative WBA (β=0.40), quadriceps strength ratio (β=0.31), and hamstrings strength ratio (β=0.19) as factors predictive of WBA 1month after TKA (R(2)=0.30). Greater amounts of WBA 1month after TKA are predicted by modifiable factors including habitual movement pattern and asymmetry in quadriceps and hamstrings strength. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Joint distraction and movement for repair of articular cartilage in a rabbit model with subsequent weight-bearing.

    PubMed

    Nishino, T; Chang, F; Ishii, T; Yanai, T; Mishima, H; Ochiai, N

    2010-07-01

    We have previously shown that joint distraction and movement with a hinged external fixation device for 12 weeks was useful for repairing a large articular cartilage defect in a rabbit model. We have now investigated the results after six months and one year. The device was applied to 16 rabbits who underwent resection of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone from the entire tibial plateau. In group A (nine rabbits) the device was applied for six months. In group B (seven rabbits) it was in place for six months, after which it was removed and the animals were allowed to move freely for an additional six months. The cartilage remained sound in all rabbits. The areas of type II collagen-positive staining and repaired soft tissue were larger in group B than in group A. These findings provide evidence of long-term persistence of repaired cartilage with this technique and that weight-bearing has a positive effect on the quality of the cartilage.

  3. Early clinical results of a high-flexion, posterior-stabilized, mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty: a US investigational device exemption trial.

    PubMed

    Scuderi, Giles R; Hedden, David R; Maltry, John A; Traina, Steven M; Sheinkop, Mitchell B; Hartzband, Mark A

    2012-03-01

    Between May 2001 and June 2004, 388 total knee arthroplasty cases were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, multicenter investigational device exemption trial. Patients received either the investigational high-flexion mobile-bearing knee or a fixed-bearing control. At 2 to 4 years of follow-up, results in 293 patients with degenerative joint disease were compared using Knee Society Assessment and Function scores, radiographic results, complications analysis, and survival estimates. The mobile-bearing and fixed-bearing groups demonstrated similar, significant improvement over preoperative assessments in Knee Scores, maximum flexion, and range of motion. One mobile-bearing arthroplasty required revision. Radiographic results were unremarkable, and implant-related complications were rare in both groups. At this early follow-up, the investigational high-flexion mobile-bearing knee and its fixed-bearing counterpart demonstrated comparable, effective performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Longitudinal Growth in Early Life.

    PubMed

    Diesel, Jill C; Eckhardt, Cara L; Day, Nancy L; Brooks, Maria M; Arslanian, Silva A; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) increases the risk of childhood obesity, but little is known about its association with infant growth patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the association between GWG and infant growth patterns. Pregnant women (n = 743) self-reported GWG at delivery, which we classified as inadequate, adequate or excessive based on the current guidelines. Offspring weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), length-for-age z-score (LAZ (with height-for-age (HAZ) in place of length at 36 months)) and body mass index z-score (BMIZ) were calculated at birth, 8, 18 and 36 months using the 2006 World Health Organization growth standards. Linear mixed models estimated the change in z-score from birth to 36 months by GWG. The mean (SD) WAZ was -0.22 (1.20) at birth. Overall, WAZ and BMIZ increased from birth to, approximately, 24 months and decreased from 24 to 36 months, while LAZ/HAZ decreased from birth through 36 months. Excessive GWG was associated with higher offspring WAZ and BMIZ at birth, 8 and 36 months, and higher HAZ at 36 months, compared with adequate GWG. Compared with the same referent, inadequate GWG was associated with smaller WAZ and BMIZ at birth and 8 months. Excessive GWG may predispose infants to obesogenic growth patterns, while inadequate GWG may not have a lasting impact on infant growth.

  5. Gestational weight gain and offspring longitudinal growth in early life

    PubMed Central

    Diesel, Jill C.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Day, Nancy L.; Brooks, Maria M.; Arslanian, Silva A.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) increases the risk of childhood obesity, but little is known about its association with infant growth patterns. Aim To examine the GWG-infant growth association. Methods Pregnant women (n=743) self-reported GWG at delivery, which we classified as inadequate, adequate, or excessive based on current guidelines. Offspring weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), length-for-age z-scores (LAZ (with height-for-age (HAZ) in place of length at 36 months)), and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) were calculated at birth, 8, 18, and 36 months using the 2006 WHO growth standards. Linear mixed models estimated the change in z-scores from birth to 36 months by GWG. Results The mean (SD) WAZ was −0.22 (1.20) at birth. Overall, WAZ and BMIZ increased from birth to approximately 24 months and decreased from 24 to 36 months, while LAZ/HAZ decreased from birth through 36 months. Excessive GWG was associated with higher offspring WAZ and BMIZ at birth, 8, and 36 months, and higher HAZ at 36 months, compared with adequate GWG. Compared with the same referent, inadequate GWG was associated with smaller WAZ and BMIZ at birth and 8 months. Conclusion Excessive GWG may predispose infants to obesogenic growth patterns while inadequate GWG may not have a lasting impact on infant growth. PMID:26279171

  6. The degrees to which transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy moves the region of osteonecrotic femoral head out of the weight-bearing area as evaluated by computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weng-Pin; Tai, Ching-Lung; Tan, Chih-Feng; Shih, Chun-Hsiung; Hou, Shun-Hsin; Lee, Mel S

    2005-01-01

    Transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy is a technical demanding procedure. Currently, the pre-operative planning of the transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy is mostly based on X-ray images. The surgeons would need to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the femoral head and the necrosis in their mind. This study develops a simulation platform using computer models based on the computed tomography images of the femoral head to evaluate the degree to which transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy moves the region of osteonecrotic femoral head out of the weight-bearing area in stance and gait cycle conditions. Based on this simulation procedure, the surgeons would be better informed before the surgery and the indication can be carefully assessed. A case with osteonecrosis involving 15% of the femoral head was recruited. Virtual models with the same size lesion but at different locations were devised. Computer models were created using SolidWorks 2000 CAD software. The area ratio of weight-bearing zone occupied by the necrotic lesion on two conditions, stance and gait cycle, were measured after surgery simulations. For the specific case and virtual models devised in this study, computer simulation showed the following two findings: (1) The degrees needed to move the necrosis out of the weight-bearing zone in stance were less by anterior rotational osteotomy as compared to that of posterior rotational osteotomy. However, the necrotic region would still overlap with the weight-bearing area during gait cycle. (2) Because the degrees allowed for posterior rotation were less restricted than anterior rotation, posterior rotational osteotomies were often more effective to move the necrotic region out of the weight-bearing area during gait cycle. The computer simulation platform by registering actual CT images is a useful tool to assess the direction and degrees needed for transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy. Although the results indicated that anterior rotational

  7. Marker-free motion correction in weight-bearing cone-beam CT of the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Berger, M; Müller, K; Aichert, A; Unberath, M; Thies, J; Choi, J-H; Fahrig, R; Maier, A

    2016-03-01

    To allow for a purely image-based motion estimation and compensation in weight-bearing cone-beam computed tomography of the knee joint. Weight-bearing imaging of the knee joint in a standing position poses additional requirements for the image reconstruction algorithm. In contrast to supine scans, patient motion needs to be estimated and compensated. The authors propose a method that is based on 2D/3D registration of left and right femur and tibia segmented from a prior, motion-free reconstruction acquired in supine position. Each segmented bone is first roughly aligned to the motion-corrupted reconstruction of a scan in standing or squatting position. Subsequently, a rigid 2D/3D registration is performed for each bone to each of K projection images, estimating 6 × 4 × K motion parameters. The motion of individual bones is combined into global motion fields using thin-plate-spline extrapolation. These can be incorporated into a motion-compensated reconstruction in the backprojection step. The authors performed visual and quantitative comparisons between a state-of-the-art marker-based (MB) method and two variants of the proposed method using gradient correlation (GC) and normalized gradient information (NGI) as similarity measure for the 2D/3D registration. The authors evaluated their method on four acquisitions under different squatting positions of the same patient. All methods showed substantial improvement in image quality compared to the uncorrected reconstructions. Compared to NGI and MB, the GC method showed increased streaking artifacts due to misregistrations in lateral projection images. NGI and MB showed comparable image quality at the bone regions. Because the markers are attached to the skin, the MB method performed better at the surface of the legs where the authors observed slight streaking of the NGI and GC methods. For a quantitative evaluation, the authors computed the universal quality index (UQI) for all bone regions with respect to the motion

  8. Marker-free motion correction in weight-bearing cone-beam CT of the knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Berger, M.; Müller, K.; Aichert, A.; Unberath, M.; Thies, J.; Choi, J.-H.; Fahrig, R.; Maier, A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To allow for a purely image-based motion estimation and compensation in weight-bearing cone-beam computed tomography of the knee joint. Methods: Weight-bearing imaging of the knee joint in a standing position poses additional requirements for the image reconstruction algorithm. In contrast to supine scans, patient motion needs to be estimated and compensated. The authors propose a method that is based on 2D/3D registration of left and right femur and tibia segmented from a prior, motion-free reconstruction acquired in supine position. Each segmented bone is first roughly aligned to the motion-corrupted reconstruction of a scan in standing or squatting position. Subsequently, a rigid 2D/3D registration is performed for each bone to each of K projection images, estimating 6 × 4 × K motion parameters. The motion of individual bones is combined into global motion fields using thin-plate-spline extrapolation. These can be incorporated into a motion-compensated reconstruction in the backprojection step. The authors performed visual and quantitative comparisons between a state-of-the-art marker-based (MB) method and two variants of the proposed method using gradient correlation (GC) and normalized gradient information (NGI) as similarity measure for the 2D/3D registration. Results: The authors evaluated their method on four acquisitions under different squatting positions of the same patient. All methods showed substantial improvement in image quality compared to the uncorrected reconstructions. Compared to NGI and MB, the GC method showed increased streaking artifacts due to misregistrations in lateral projection images. NGI and MB showed comparable image quality at the bone regions. Because the markers are attached to the skin, the MB method performed better at the surface of the legs where the authors observed slight streaking of the NGI and GC methods. For a quantitative evaluation, the authors computed the universal quality index (UQI) for all bone regions

  9. Contribution of calcaneal and leg segment rotations to ankle joint dorsiflexion in a weight-bearing task.

    PubMed

    Chizewski, Michael G; Chiu, Loren Z F

    2012-05-01

    Joint angle is the relative rotation between two segments where one is a reference and assumed to be non-moving. However, rotation of the reference segment will influence the system's spatial orientation and joint angle. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the contribution of leg and calcaneal rotations to ankle rotation in a weight-bearing task. Forty-eight individuals performed partial squats recorded using a 3D motion capture system. Markers on the calcaneus and leg were used to model leg and calcaneal segment, and ankle joint rotations. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the contribution of leg and calcaneal segment rotations to ankle joint dorsiflexion. Regression models for left (R(2)=0.97) and right (R(2)=0.97) ankle dorsiflexion were significant. Sagittal plane leg rotation had a positive influence (left: β=1.411; right: β=1.418) while sagittal plane calcaneal rotation had a negative influence (left: β=-0.573; right: β=-0.650) on ankle dorsiflexion. Sagittal plane rotations of the leg and calcaneus were positively correlated (left: r=0.84, P<0.001; right: r=0.80, P<0.001). During a partial squat, the calcaneus rotates forward. Simultaneous forward calcaneal rotation with ankle dorsiflexion reduces total ankle dorsiflexion angle. Rear foot posture is reoriented during a partial squat, allowing greater leg rotation in the sagittal plane. Segment rotations may provide greater insight into movement mechanics that cannot be explained via joint rotations alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The fracture sites of atypical femoral fractures are associated with the weight-bearing lower limb alignment.

    PubMed

    Saita, Yoshitomo; Ishijima, Muneaki; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Kubota, Mitsuaki; Baba, Tomonori; Kaketa, Takefumi; Nagao, Masashi; Sakamoto, Yuko; Sakai, Kensuke; Kato, Rui; Nagura, Nana; Miyagawa, Kei; Wada, Tomoki; Liu, Lizu; Obayashi, Osamu; Shitoto, Katsuo; Nozawa, Masahiko; Kajihara, Hajime; Gen, Hogaku; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) are stress-related fractures that are speculated to associate with long-term treatment with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. A history of AFF is a high risk factor for the development of a subsequent AFF in the same location of the contralateral femur, suggesting that a patient's individual anatomical factor(s) are related to the fracture site of AFFs. In this study, we investigated the radiographs of fourteen AFFs (four bilateral fractures among ten patients) treated at six hospitals associated with our university between 2005 and 2010. The fracture site and standing femorotibial angle (FTA), which reflects the mechanical axis of the lower limb, were measured on weight-bearing lower limb radiographs. The fracture site and FTA of patients with typical femoral fractures (TFF) were compared to those of patients with AFFs. The correlations were examined using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The fracture locations in the femora were almost the same in the patients with bilateral AFFs. There was a positive correlation between the fracture site and the standing FTA in the patients with AFFs (r=0.82, 95% confidence interval; 0.49 to 0.94), indicating that the larger the standing FTA (varus alignment), the more distal the site of the fracture in the femur. The FTA of the patients with atypical diaphyseal femoral fracture were significantly larger compared to that of those with not only atypical subtrochanteric fractures but also TFFs. In conclusion, the fracture sites of AFFs are associated with the standing lower limb alignment, while those of TFFs are not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of isolating the paretic limb on weight-bearing distribution and EMG activity during squats in hemiplegic and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; An, Duk-Hyun; Yoo, Won-Gyu; Hwang, Byong-Yong; Kim, Tae-Ho; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2017-05-01

    Neural reorganization for movement therapy after a stroke is thought to be an important mechanism that facilitates motor recovery. However, there is a lack of evidence for the effectiveness of exercise programs in improving the lower limbs. We investigated the immediate effect of isolating the paretic limb using different foot positions ((i) foot parallel; both feet parallel, (ii) foot asymmetry; paretic foot backward by 10 cm, and (iii) foot lifting; nonparetic foot lifting by normalization to 25% of knee height) on weight-bearing distribution and electromyography (EMG) of the thigh muscle during squats. In total, 20 patients with hemiplegia and 16 healthy subjects randomly performed three squat conditions in which the knee joint was flexed to 30°. Weight distribution was measured using the BioRescue system. Muscle activity was measured using a surface EMG system. Patients with hemiplegia exhibited significantly decreased weight bearing on the paretic foot at 0° and 30° knee flexion compared with the nondominant foot of a healthy subject. The muscle activity of the quadriceps was significantly lower in patients with hemiplegia compared to healthy subjects. Weight bearing and EMG activity of the quadriceps femoris on the paretic or nondominant side significantly increased during a knee flexion of 30° with under the foot asymmetry and foot lifting positions compared with the parallel foot position. Isolating the paretic limb using the asymmetric foot positions and lifting of the foot during squats might help patients with hemiplegia to improve weight-bearing and achieve greater activation of the quadriceps muscle in the paretic limb.

  12. Body mass, weight control behaviours, weight perception and emotional well being in a multiethnic sample of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Viner, R M; Haines, M M; Taylor, S J C; Head, J; Booy, R; Stansfeld, S

    2006-10-01

    To investigate weight perception, dieting and emotional well being across the range of body mass index (BMI) in a population-based multiethnic sample of early adolescents. Cross-sectional population-based survey. In total, 2789 adolescents 11-14 years of age from three highly deprived regional authorities in East London, in 2001. Data were collected by student-completed questionnaire on weight perception, dieting history, mental and physical health, health behaviours, social capital and sociodemographic factors. Height and weight were measured by trained researchers. Overweight was defined as BMI > or =85th centile and obesity as BMI > or =98th centile. Underweight was defined as BMI< or =15th centile. In all, 73% were from ethnic groups other than white British. Valid BMI were available for 2522 subjects (90.4%) of whom 14% were obese. Only 20% of overweight boys and 51% of overweight girls assessed their weight accurately. Accuracy of weight perception did not vary between ethnic groups. In all, 42% of girls and 26% of boys reported current dieting to lose weight. Compared with white British teenagers, a history of dieting was more common among Bangladeshi, Indian and mixed ethnicity boys and less likely among Pakistani girls. Self-esteem was not associated with BMI in girls but was significantly lower in obese boys than those of normal weight (P=0.02). Within ethnic subgroups, self-esteem was significantly lower in overweight white British boys (P=0.03) and obese Bangladeshi boys (P=0.01) and Bangladeshi girls (P=0.04), but significantly higher in obese black African girls (P=0.01) than those of normal weight. Obese young people had a higher prevalence of psychological distress (P=0.04), except among Bangladeshi teenagers, where overweight and obese young people had less psychological distress than those of normal weight (P=0.02). Birth outside the UK was associated with reduced risk of obesity in girls (P=0.02) but not with history of dieting, weight perception

  13. Balancing the Rates of New Bone Formation and Polymer Degradation Enhances Healing of Weight-Bearing Allograft/Polyurethane Composites in Rabbit Femoral Defects

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Jerald E.; Prieto, Edna M.; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J.; Guda, Teja; Wenke, Joseph C.; Bible, Jesse; Holt, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    There is a compelling clinical need for bone grafts with initial bone-like mechanical properties that actively remodel for repair of weight-bearing bone defects, such as fractures of the tibial plateau and vertebrae. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating remodeling of weight-bearing bone grafts in preclinical models, and consequently there is limited understanding of the mechanisms by which these grafts remodel in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of the rates of new bone formation, matrix resorption, and polymer degradation on healing of settable weight-bearing polyurethane/allograft composites in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model. The grafts induced progressive healing in vivo, as evidenced by an increase in new bone formation, as well as a decrease in residual allograft and polymer from 6 to 12 weeks. However, the mismatch between the rates of autocatalytic polymer degradation and zero-order (independent of time) new bone formation resulted in incomplete healing in the interior of the composite. Augmentation of the grafts with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 not only increased the rate of new bone formation, but also altered the degradation mechanism of the polymer to approximate a zero-order process. The consequent matching of the rates of new bone formation and polymer degradation resulted in more extensive healing at later time points in all regions of the graft. These observations underscore the importance of balancing the rates of new bone formation and degradation to promote healing of settable weight-bearing bone grafts that maintain bone-like strength, while actively remodeling. PMID:23941405

  14. Comparison of Mechanical Axis and Dynamic Range Assessed with Weight Bearing Radiographs and Navigation System in Closed Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Dae Kyung; Lee, Jong Whan; Cho, Seong Jin; Song, Sang Jun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare navigation and weight bearing radiographic measurements of mechanical axis (MA) before and after closed wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and to evaluate post-osteotomy changes in MA assessed during application of external varus or valgus force. Materials and Methods Data from 30 consecutive patients (30 knees) who underwent computer-assisted closed-wedge HTO were prospectively analyzed. Pre- and postoperative weight bearing radiographic evaluation of MA was performed. Under navigation guidance, pre- and post-osteotomy MA values were measured in an unloaded position. Any change in the post-osteotomy MA in response to external varus or valgus force, which was named as dynamic range, was evaluated with the navigation system. The navigation and weight bearing radiographic measurements were compared. Results Although there was a positive correlation between navigation and radiographic measurements, the reliability of navigation measurements of coronal alignment was reduced after osteotomy and wedge closing. The mean post-osteotomy MA value measured with the navigation was 3.5°±0.8° valgus in an unloaded position. It was 1.3°±0.8° valgus under varus force and 5.8°±1.1° valgus under valgus force. The average dynamic range was >±2°. Conclusions Potential differences between the postoperative MAs assessed by weight bearing radiographs and the navigation system in unloaded position should be considered during computer-assisted closed wedge HTO. Care should be taken to keep the dynamic range within the permissible range of alignment goal in HTO. PMID:28854769

  15. Clinic-based assessment of weight-bearing asymmetry during squatting in people with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using Nintendo Wii Balance Boards.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ross A; Howells, Brooke; Feller, Julian; Whitehead, Tim; Webster, Kate E

    2014-06-01

    To use low-cost Nintendo Wii Balance Boards (NWBB) to assess weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) in people who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), and to compare their results with a matched control group. Quantitative clinical study using a cross-sectional design. Orthopedic clinic of a private hospital. ACLR participants (n=41; mean age ± SD, 26.0 ± 9.8 y; current Cincinnati sports activity level, 75.3 ± 19.8) performed testing in conjunction with their routine 6- or 12-month clinical follow-up, and a control group (n=41) was matched for age, height, body mass, and physical activity level. Participants performed double-limb squats while standing on 2 NWBBs, 1 under each foot. The WBA variables mean mass difference as a percentage of body mass, time favoring a single limb by >5% body mass, absolute symmetry index, and symmetry index relative to the operated or matched control limb were derived. Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to assess between-group differences. Significant (P<.05) increases in asymmetry in the ACLR group were found for all outcome measures except symmetry index relative to the operated limb. People who have undergone ACLR are likely to possess WBA during squats, and this can be assessed using low-cost NWBBs in a clinical setting. Interestingly, the observed asymmetry was not specific to the surgical limb. Future research is needed to assess the relationship between WBA early in the rehabilitation process and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reciprocal Prospective Relationships Between Loneliness and Weight Status in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Qualter, Pamela; Hurley, Ruth; Eccles, Alice; Abbott, Janice; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard

    2018-05-28

    Adolescents who do not conform to weight ideals are vulnerable to disapproval and victimization from peers in school. But, missing from the literature is a prospective examination of weight status and feelings of loneliness that might come from those experiences. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we filled that gap by examining the prospective associations between loneliness and weight status when the sample was aged 10-13 years. At ages 10, 12, and 13 years, 1042 youth (572 females; 92% from French speaking homes) reported on their loneliness and were weighed and measured. Family income sufficiency was included in our analyses given its relationship with weight status, but also its possible link with loneliness during early adolescence. The findings showed that (1) weight status and loneliness were not associated concurrently; (2) weight status predicted increases in loneliness from ages 12 to 13 years; and (3) loneliness predicted increases in weight from ages 12 to 13 years among female adolescents, but weight loss among male adolescents. The fact that loneliness was involved in weight gain for females suggests that interventions focused on reducing loneliness and increasing connection with peers during early adolescence could help in reducing obesity.

  17. Insulin, not glutamine dipeptide, reduces lipases expression and prevents fat wasting and weight loss in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Hely; de Fatima Silva, Flaviane; da Silva, Francemilson Goulart; Silva, Milene Ortiz; Graciano, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues; Martins, Maria Isabel Lovo; Carpinelli, Ângelo Rafael; Mazucco, Tânia Longo; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; de Souza, Helenir Medri

    2017-07-05

    Cachexia is the main cause of mortality in advanced cancer patients. We investigated the effects of insulin (INS) and glutamine dipeptide (GDP), isolated or associated, on cachexia and metabolic changes induced by Walker 256 tumor in rats. INS (NPH, 40 UI/kg, sc) or GDP (1.5g/kg, oral gavage) was once-daily administered during 11 days after tumor cell inoculation. GDP, INS or INS+GDP treatments did not influence the tumor growth. However, INS and INS+GDP prevented retroperitoneal fat wasting and body weight loss of tumor-bearing rats. In consistency, INS and INS+GDP prevented the increased expression of triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), without changing the expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue of tumor-bearing rats. INS and INS+GDP also prevented anorexia and hyperlactatemia of tumor-bearing rats. However, INS and INS+GDP accentuated the loss of muscle mass (gastrocnemius, soleus and long digital extensor) without affecting the myostatin expression in the gastrocnemius muscle and blood corticosterone. GDP treatment did not promote beneficial effects. It can be concluded that treatment with INS (INS or INS+GDP), not with GDP, prevented fat wasting and weight loss in tumor-bearing rats without reducing tumor growth. These effects might be attributed to the reduction of lipases expression (ATGL and LHS) and increased food intake. The results show the physiological function of INS in the suppression of lipolysis induced by cachexia mediators in tumor-bearing rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Multidimensional Relationship between Early Adult Body Weight and Women’s Childbearing Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Weden, Margaret M.; Lippert, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States’ women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women’s social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and women’s educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of body weight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context. PMID:21944717

  19. Early weight loss while on lorcaserin, diet and exercise as a predictor of week 52 weight-loss outcomes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven R; O'Neil, Patrick M; Astrup, Arne; Finer, Nicholas; Sanchez-Kam, Matilde; Fraher, Kyle; Fain, Randi; Shanahan, William R

    2014-10-01

    To identify an early treatment milestone that optimizes sensitivity and specificity for predicting ≥5% weight loss at Week (W) 52 in patients with and without type 2 diabetes on lorcaserin or placebo. Post hoc area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic analyses of data from three phase 3 trials comparing lifestyle modification+placebo with lifestyle modification+lorcaserin. A total of 6897 patients (18-65 years; BMI, 30-45 or 27-29.9 kg/m(2) with ≥1 comorbidity) were randomized to placebo or lorcaserin 10 mg bid. Changes (baseline to W52) in cardiometabolic parameters were assessed. Response (≥5% weight loss from baseline) at W12 was a strong predictor of W52 response. Lorcaserin patients with a W12 response achieved mean W52 weight losses of 10.6 kg (without diabetes) and 9.3 kg (with diabetes). Proportions achieving ≥5% and ≥10% weight loss at W52 were 85.5% and 49.8% (without diabetes), and 70.5% and 35.9% (with diabetes). Lorcaserin patients who did not achieve a W12 response lost 3.2 kg (without diabetes) and 2.8 kg (with diabetes) at W52. Responders had greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors than the modified intent-to-treat (MITT) population, consistent with greater weight loss. ≥5% weight loss by W12 predicts robust response to lorcaserin at 1 year. Copyright © 2014 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  20. Local administration of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bisphosphonate during non-weight-bearing treatment of ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head: an experimental investigation in immature pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Harry K W; Aruwajoye, Olumide; Du, Justin; Kamiya, Nobuhiro

    2014-09-17

    Non-weight-bearing decreases the femoral head deformity but increases bone resorption without increasing bone formation in an experimental animal model of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. We sought to determine if local administration of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 with or without bisphosphonate can increase the bone formation during the non-weight-bearing treatment in the large animal model of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Eighteen piglets were surgically induced with femoral head ischemia. Immediately following the surgery, all animals received an above-the-knee amputation to enforce local non-weight-bearing (NWB). One to two weeks later, six animals received local BMP-2 to the necrotic head (BMP group), six received local BMP-2 and ibandronate (BMP+IB group), and the remaining six received no treatment (NWB group). All animals were killed at eight weeks after the induction of ischemia. Radiographic, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), and histomorphometric assessments were performed. Radiographic assessment showed that the femoral heads in the NWB, BMP, and BMP+IB groups had a decrease of 20%, 14%, and 10%, respectively, in their mean epiphyseal quotient in comparison with the normal control group. Micro-CT analyses showed significantly higher femoral head bone volume in the BMP+IB group than in the BMP group (p = 0.02) and the NWB group (p < 0.001). BMP+IB and BMP groups had a significantly higher trabecular number (p < 0.01) and lower trabecular separation (p < 0.02) than the NWB group. In addition, the osteoclast number per bone surface was significantly lower in the BMP+IB group compared with the NWB group. Calcein labeling showed significantly higher bone formation in the BMP and BMP+IB groups than in the NWB group (p < 0.05). Heterotopic ossification was found in the capsule of four hips in the BMP+IB group but not in the BMP group. Administration of BMP-2 with bisphosphonate best decreased bone resorption and increased new bone formation during non-weight-bearing

  1. Early Weight Development of Goats Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Alyssa N.; Fletcher, Darcy M.; Vogt, Megan B.; Meyer, Stephen K.; Hess, Ann M.; Eckstein, Torsten M.

    2013-01-01

    Johne’s disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne’s disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne’s disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne’s disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne’s disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne’s disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age. PMID:24349564

  2. We're Going on a Bear Hunt: Reconciling Neoliberalism and Postcolonialism in Pacific Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Margaret; Tausere Tiko, Lavinia

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous peoples around the world are struggling to create their own, unique early childhood system that reflects their cultural values and supports their dream of raising their children to proudly wear their own cultural identity. In this research, we share the work being undertaken by Pacific early childhood professionals. The study is part of…

  3. Gestational weight gain and predicted changes in offspring anthropometrics between early infancy and 3 years.

    PubMed

    Deierlein, A L; Siega-Riz, A M; Herring, A H; Adair, L S; Daniels, J L

    2012-04-01

    To determine how gestational weight gain (GWG), categorized using the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, relates to changes in offspring weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) between early infancy and 3 years. Women with singleton infants were recruited from the third cohort of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001-2005). Term infants with at least one weight or length measurement during the study period were included (n = 476). Multivariable linear mixed effects regression models estimated longitudinal changes in WAZ, LAZ and WLZ associated with GWG. In early infancy, compared with infants of women with adequate weight gain, those of women with excessive weight gains had higher WAZ, LAZ and WLZ. Excessive GWG ≥ 200% of the recommended amount was associated with faster rates of change in WAZ and LAZ and noticeably higher predicted mean WAZ and WLZ that persisted across the study period. GWG is associated with significant differences in offspring anthropometrics in early infancy that persisted to 3 years of age. More longitudinal studies that utilize maternal and paediatric body composition measures are necessary to understand the nature of this association. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. Weight changes after adjuvant treatment in Korean women with early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye-Suk; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Sung-Won; Kim, In-Ah; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong Seok

    2009-03-01

    Weight gain is a common problem in breast cancer patients and is reported to be associated with poorer survival. However, most data are limited to Western women. We evaluated weight changes after adjuvant treatment in Korean women with early breast cancer. The authors reviewed the records of 260 patients with stage I-III breast cancer treated between June 2003 and February 2006. Body weight, body mass index (BMI) and menopausal status at baseline and after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of adjuvant treatment were reviewed. Mean patient age was 47.0 years and 61.1% of women were premenopausal. Among them, 195 patients (75.8%) received chemotherapy and 186 (71.5%) received hormonal therapy. Mean baseline weight was 57.5 +/- 9.8 kg and mean BMI was 23.5 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2) (22.8 +/- 3.0 vs. 24.7 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2) for pre- vs. post-menopausal women, P = 0.286). Mean weight changes were; 0.30 kg at 3 months (P = 0.019); 0.16 kg at 6 months (P = 0.367); -0.34 kg at 1 year (P = 0.082); -0.40 kg at 2 years (P = 0.097). Twenty-three patients (10.4%) gained more than 5% of baseline body weight at 1 year, but no clinical variable was found to be associated with these weight gains. This study shows that Korean women with early breast cancer do not gain weight after adjuvant treatment. Further studies are needed to determine differences between Asian and Western women in terms of weight changes and prognosis in early breast cancer.

  5. Embryological Features of Tofieldia glutinosa and Their Bearing on the Early Diversification of Monocotyledonous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Samuel J.; Friedman, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Although much is known about the vegetative traits associated with early monocot evolution, less is known about the reproductive features of early monocotyledonous lineages. A study was made of the embryology of Tofieldia glutinosa, a member of an early divergent monocot clade (Tofieldiaceae), and aspects of its development were compared with the development of other early divergent monocots in order to gain insight into defining reproductive features of early monocots. Methods Field-collected developing gynoecial tissues of Tofieldia glutinosa were prepared for histological examination. Over 600 ovules were sectioned and studied using brightfield, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. High-resolution digital imaging was used to document important stages of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis and early endosperm development. Key Results Development of the female gametophyte in T. glutinosa is of a modified Polygonum-type. At maturity the female gametophyte is seven-celled and 11-nucleate with a standard three-celled egg apparatus, a binucleate central cell (where ultimately, the two polar nuclei will fuse into a diploid secondary nucleus) and three binucleate antipodal cells. The antipodal nuclei persist past fertilization, and the process of double fertilization appears to yield a diploid zygote and triploid primary endosperm cell, as is characteristic of plants with Polygonum-type female gametophytes. Endosperm development is helobial, and free-nuclear growth initially proceeds at equal rates in both the micropylar and chalazal endosperm chambers. Conclusions The analysis suggests that the shared common ancestor of monocots possessed persistent and proliferating antipodals similar to those found in T. glutinosa and other early-divergent monocots (e.g. Acorus and members of the Araceae). Helobial endosperm among monocots evolved once in the common ancestor of all monocots excluding Acorus. Thus, the analysis further

  6. The influence of place on weight gain during early childhood: a population-based, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Carter, Megan Ann; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S; Taljaard, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the influence of place factors on weight gain in a contemporary cohort of children while also adjusting for early life and individual/family social factors. Participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development comprised the sample for analysis (n = 1,580). A mixed-effects regression analysis was conducted to determine the longitudinal relationship between these place factors and standardized BMI, from age 4 to 10 years. The average relationship with time was found to be quadratic (rate of weight gain increased over time). Neighborhood material deprivation was found to be positively related to weight gain. Social deprivation, social disorder, and living in a medium density area were inversely related, while no association was found for social cohesion. Early life factors and genetic proxies appeared to be important in explaining weight gain in this sample. This study suggests that residential environments may play a role in childhood weight change; however, pathways are likely to be complex and interacting and perhaps not as important as early life factors and genetic proxies. Further work is required to clarify these relationships.

  7. Early rapid weight gain and subsequent overweight and obesity in middle childhood in Peru.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary E; Jimenez, M Michelle; Marin, R Margot

    2016-01-01

    Rapid postnatal weight gain is associated with risk of overweight and obesity, but it's unclear whether this holds in populations exposed to concurrent obesogenic risk factors and for children who have been extensively breastfed. This study investigates whether an increase in weight for age from birth to 1 year (infancy) and from 1 to 5 years (early childhood) predicts overweight and obesity, and waist circumference at 8 years, using data from a longitudinal cohort study in Peru. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were constructed for overweight and obesity, obesity alone and waist circumference at 8 years versus rapid weight gain in infancy, and early childhood including adjusted models to account for confounders. Rapid weight gain in both periods was associated with double the risk of overweight and obesity, obesity alone at 8 years and increased waist circumference even after controlling for maternal BMI and education level, sex of child, height-for-age at 8 years, consumption of "fast food" and number of days of active exercise. The association was significant, with some differences, for children in both rural and urban environments. Rapid weight gain in infancy and in early childhood in Peru is associated with overweight and obesity at age 8 years even when considering other determinants of childhood obesity.

  8. Do early postnatal body weight changes contribute to neonatal morbidities in the extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Verma, R; Shibly, S; Fang, H; Pollack, S

    2015-01-01

    The implications of early postnatal body weight changes (Δbw) in the morbidities related to body fluid metabolism in sick preterm infants in not well investigated. The extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, birth weight <1000 g) have the highest incidence of such morbidities among all neonates. To determine the relationships between Δbw and neonatal morbidities associated with body fluid metabolism in the ELBW infants. In an observational study, the associations between daily weight changes from birth weight (DΔ bw) and oxygen dependence on postnatal day 28 (BPD28), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), intraventricular-periventricular hemorrhage (IVH), antenatal steroid (ANS) and gestational age (GA) were evaluated. Maximum weight loss (MΔ bw) was correlated with GA, BPD28 and BPD36 (oxygen dependence on postmenstrual 36 weeks). Pearson's correlation co-efficient and multivariate logistic regressions were performed for analysis. DΔ bw correlated inversely with GA on days 1-8 of life (p <  0.01 for all, 0.06 for DOL 2). DΔ bw was associated with a lower risk of BPD28 on days 6 (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-1), 10 (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.98) and 11 (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99); with PDA on days 8-11 (OR ranging between 0.89 to 0.92 for the 4 days, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.99) and with IVH on day 5 (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-1) after controlling for GA. DΔ bw was not identified as risk factor for the tested morbidities. ANS decreased DΔ bw on days 4 (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1) and 10 (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.84-1). MΔbw correlated directly with BPD28 (r = 0.3, p = 0.004), which declined after controlling for GA (r = 0.2, p = 0.2). DΔ bw is protective for PDA, BPD28 and IVH, independent of gestational age, whereas, the effects of MΔ bw on BPD are governed by maturation in ELBW infants. ANS decreases DΔbw, which correlates inversely with GA during the first week of life.

  9. Weight gain after adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer in Istanbul Turkey.

    PubMed

    Basaran, Gul; Turhal, Nazım Serdar; Cabuk, Devrim; Yurt, Nevin; Yurtseven, Gul; Gumus, Mahmut; Teomete, Mehmet; Dane, Faysal; Yumuk, Perran Fulden

    2011-06-01

    Weight gain is a well-known and unwanted complication of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. We observed that the female Turkish cancer patients frequently gain weight with adjuvant treatment of breast cancer and planned to examine the magnitude of this problem in early breast cancer patients treated at our hospital. A total of 176 early breast cancer patients who received their adjuvant systemic therapy in Marmara University Hospital between 2003 and 2007 are included in the study. We recorded their weight before and after chemotherapy and also a year after chemotherapy to find out whether the change with weight is transitory. We have also recorded demographic information, including the educational level, menopausal status, the type of chemotherapy or hormonal treatment administered stage of disease, marital status, occupation and the underlying diseases to analyze the relationship between change in weight and these parameters. Median age of patients was 53 and 72% of patients were postmenopausal. Educational level was equally distributed for primary education (27%), high school (40%), and university (33%). The majority of the patients (76%) was married, had two children (69%) and was housewife (60%). Family history of any cancer was high (32%). Most of the patients had stage II cancer (56%), received anthracyclines+/- taxane based chemotherapy (98%) and had no underlying disease (68%). The majority also did not smoke (73%) or drink alcohol (93%). A total of 67% and 72% patients gained weight upon completion and one year after completion of chemotherapy. Mean weight before the chemotherapy, upon completion of chemotherapy and one year after completion of chemotherapy were 68.9 kg, 70.6 kg (P = 0.000) and 71.9 kg (P = 0.000) respectively. Mean body mass index was 27.1 at baseline, 27.8 upon completion of chemotherapy (P = 0.000) and 28.3 one year after completion of chemotherapy (P = 0.000). Age, menopausal status, multiparity and presence of comorbid diseases

  10. Measurements of Weight Bearing Asymmetry Using the Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Board Are Not Reliable for Older Adults and Individuals With Stroke.

    PubMed

    Liuzzo, Derek M; Peters, Denise M; Middleton, Addie; Lanier, Wes; Chain, Rebecca; Barksdale, Brittany; Fritz, Stacy L

    Clinicians and researchers have used bathroom scales, balance performance monitors with feedback, postural scale analysis, and force platforms to evaluate weight bearing asymmetry (WBA). Now video game consoles offer a novel alternative for assessing this construct. By using specialized software, the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board can provide reliable measurements of WBA in healthy, young adults. However, reliability of measurements obtained using only the factory settings to assess WBA in older adults and individuals with stroke has not been established. To determine whether measurements of WBA obtained using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board and default settings are reliable in older adults and individuals with stroke. Weight bearing asymmetry was assessed using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board in 2 groups of participants-individuals older than 65 years (n = 41) and individuals with stroke (n = 41). Participants were given a standardized set of instructions and were not provided auditory or visual feedback. Two trials were performed. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of measure (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) scores were determined for each group. The ICC for the older adults sample was 0.59 (0.35-0.76) with SEM95 = 6.2% and MDC95 = 8.8%. The ICC for the sample including individuals with stroke was 0.60 (0.47-0.70) with SEM95 = 9.6% and MDC95 = 13.6%. Although measurements of WBA obtained using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board, and its default factory settings, demonstrate moderate reliability in older adults and individuals with stroke, the relatively high associated SEM and MDC values substantially reduce the clinical utility of the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board as an assessment tool for WBA. Weight bearing asymmetry cannot be measured reliably in older adults and individuals with stroke using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board without the use of specialized software.

  11. Validity Of The Nintendo Wii Balance Board To Assess Weight Bearing Asymmetry During Sit-To-Stand And Return-To-Sit Task

    PubMed Central

    Abujaber, Sumayeh; Gillispie, Gregory; Marmon, Adam; Zeni, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Weight bearing asymmetry is common in patients with unilateral lower limb musculoskeletal pathologies. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) has been suggested as a low-cost and widely-available tool to measure weight bearing asymmetry in a clinical environment; however no study has evaluated the validity of this tool during dynamic tasks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the concurrent validity of force measurements acquired from the WBB as compared to laboratory force plates. Thirty-five individuals before, or within 1 year of total joint arthroplasty performed a sit-to-stand and return-to-sit task in two conditions. First, subjects performed the task with both feet placed on a single WBB. Second, the task was repeated with each foot placed on an individual laboratory force plate. Peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) under each foot and the inter-limb symmetry ratio were calculated. Validity was examined using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), regression analysis, 95% limits of agreement and Bland-Altman plots. Force plates and the WBB exhibited excellent agreement for all outcome measurements (ICC =0.83–0.99). Bland-Altman plots showed no obvious relationship between the difference and the mean for the peak VGRF, but there was a consistent trend in which VGRF on the unaffected side was lower and VGRF on the affected side was higher when using the WBB. However, these consistent biases can be adjusted for by utilizing regression equations that estimate the force plate values based on the WBB force. The WBB may serve as a valid, suitable, and low-cost alternative to expensive, laboratory force plates for measuring weight bearing asymmetry in clinical settings. PMID:25715680

  12. Measurements of Weight Bearing Asymmetry Using the Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Board Are Not Reliable for Older Adults and Individuals With Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzo, Derek M.; Peters, Denise M.; Middleton, Addie; Lanier, Wes; Chain, Rebecca; Barksdale, Brittany; Fritz, Stacy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinicians and researchers have used bathroom scales, balance performance monitors with feedback, postural scale analysis, and force platforms to evaluate weight bearing asymmetry (WBA). Now video game consoles offer a novel alternative for assessing this construct. By using specialized software, the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board can provide reliable measurements of WBA in healthy, young adults. However, reliability of measurements obtained using only the factory settings to assess WBA in older adults and individuals with stroke has not been established. Purpose To determine whether measurements of WBA obtained using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board and default settings are reliable in older adults and individuals with stroke. Methods Weight bearing asymmetry was assessed using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board in 2 groups of participants—individuals older than 65 years (n = 41) and individuals with stroke (n = 41). Participants were given a standardized set of instructions and were not provided auditory or visual feedback. Two trials were performed. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of measure (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) scores were determined for each group. Results The ICC for the older adults sample was 0.59 (0.35–0.76) with SEM95= 6.2% and MDC95= 8.8%. The ICC for the sample including individuals with stroke was 0.60 (0.47–0.70) with SEM95= 9.6% and MDC95= 13.6%. Discussion Although measurements of WBA obtained using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board, and its default factory settings, demonstrate moderate reliability in older adults and individuals with stroke, the relatively high associated SEM and MDC values substantially reduce the clinical utility of the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board as an assessment tool for WBA. Conclusions Weight bearing asymmetry cannot be measured reliably in older adults and individuals with stroke using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board without the use of specialized

  13. Validity of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board to assess weight bearing asymmetry during sit-to-stand and return-to-sit task.

    PubMed

    Abujaber, Sumayeh; Gillispie, Gregory; Marmon, Adam; Zeni, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Weight bearing asymmetry is common in patients with unilateral lower limb musculoskeletal pathologies. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) has been suggested as a low-cost and widely-available tool to measure weight bearing asymmetry in a clinical environment; however no study has evaluated the validity of this tool during dynamic tasks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the concurrent validity of force measurements acquired from the WBB as compared to laboratory force plates. Thirty-five individuals before, or within 1 year of total joint arthroplasty performed a sit-to-stand and return-to-sit task in two conditions. First, subjects performed the task with both feet placed on a single WBB. Second, the task was repeated with each foot placed on an individual laboratory force plate. Peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) under each foot and the inter-limb symmetry ratio were calculated. Validity was examined using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), regression analysis, 95% limits of agreement and Bland-Altman plots. Force plates and the WBB exhibited excellent agreement for all outcome measurements (ICC=0.83-0.99). Bland-Altman plots showed no obvious relationship between the difference and the mean for the peak VGRF, but there was a consistent trend in which VGRF on the unaffected side was lower and VGRF on the affected side was higher when using the WBB. However, these consistent biases can be adjusted for by utilizing regression equations that estimate the force plate values based on the WBB force. The WBB may serve as a valid, suitable, and low-cost alternative to expensive, laboratory force plates for measuring weight bearing asymmetry in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Space-time clusters for early detection of grizzly bear predation.

    PubMed

    Kermish-Wells, Joseph; Massolo, Alessandro; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Larsen, Terrence A; Musiani, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Accurate detection and classification of predation events is important to determine predation and consumption rates by predators. However, obtaining this information for large predators is constrained by the speed at which carcasses disappear and the cost of field data collection. To accurately detect predation events, researchers have used GPS collar technology combined with targeted site visits. However, kill sites are often investigated well after the predation event due to limited data retrieval options on GPS collars (VHF or UHF downloading) and to ensure crew safety when working with large predators. This can lead to missing information from small-prey (including young ungulates) kill sites due to scavenging and general site deterioration (e.g., vegetation growth). We used a space-time permutation scan statistic (STPSS) clustering method (SaTScan) to detect predation events of grizzly bears ( Ursus arctos ) fitted with satellite transmitting GPS collars. We used generalized linear mixed models to verify predation events and the size of carcasses using spatiotemporal characteristics as predictors. STPSS uses a probability model to compare expected cluster size (space and time) with the observed size. We applied this method retrospectively to data from 2006 to 2007 to compare our method to random GPS site selection. In 2013-2014, we applied our detection method to visit sites one week after their occupation. Both datasets were collected in the same study area. Our approach detected 23 of 27 predation sites verified by visiting 464 random grizzly bear locations in 2006-2007, 187 of which were within space-time clusters and 277 outside. Predation site detection increased by 2.75 times (54 predation events of 335 visited clusters) using 2013-2014 data. Our GLMMs showed that cluster size and duration predicted predation events and carcass size with high sensitivity (0.72 and 0.94, respectively). Coupling GPS satellite technology with clusters using a program based

  15. Gestational weight gain and predicted changes in offspring anthropometrics between early infancy and 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Adair, Linda S.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine how gestational weight gain (GWG), categorized using the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, relates to changes in offspring weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) between early infancy and 3 years. Methods Women with singleton infants were recruited from the third cohort of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001-2005). Term infants with at least one weight or length measurement during the study period were included (n=476). Multivariable linear mixed effects regression models estimated longitudinal changes in WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ associated with GWG. Results In early infancy, compared to infants of women with adequate weight gain, those of women with excessive weight gains had higher WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. Excessive GWG≥200% of the recommended amount was associated with faster rates of change in WAZ and LAZ and noticeably higher predicted mean WAZ and WLZ that persisted across the study period. Conclusions GWG represents a modifiable behavioral factor that is associated with offspring anthropometric outcomes. More longitudinal studies that utilize maternal and pediatric body composition measures are necessary to understand the nature of this association. PMID:22434753

  16. Biofeedback in Partial Weight Bearing: Usability of Two Different Devices from a Patient’s and Physical Therapist’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    van Lieshout, Remko; Pisters, Martijn F.; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; de Bie, Rob A.; Wouters, Eveline J.; Stukstette, Mirelle J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Partial weight bearing is frequently instructed by physical therapists in patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. The use of biofeedback devices seems promising to improve the patient’s compliance with weight-bearing instructions. SmartStep and OpenGo-Science are biofeedback devices that provide real-time feedback. For a successful implementation, usability of the devices is a critical aspect and should be tested from a user’s perspective. Aim To describe the usability from the physical therapists’ and a patients’ perspective of Smartstep and OpenGo-Science to provide feedback on partial weight bearing during supervised rehabilitation of patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. Methods In a convergent mixed-methods design, qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Usability was subdivided into user performance, satisfaction and acceptability. Patients prescribed with partial weight bearing and their physical therapists were asked to use SmartStep and OpenGo-Science during supervised rehabilitation. Usability was qualitatively tested by a think-aloud method and a semi-structured interview and quantitatively tested by the System-Usability-Scale (SUS) and closed questions. For the qualitative data thematic content analyses were used. Results Nine pairs of physical therapists and their patients participated. The mean SUS scores for patients and physical therapists were for SmartStep 70 and 53, and for OpenGo-Science 79 and 81, respectively. Scores were interpreted with the Curved Grading Scale. The qualitative data showed that there were mixed views and perceptions from patients and physical therapists on satisfaction and acceptability. Conclusion This study gives insight in the usability of two biofeedback devices from the patient’s and physical therapist’s perspective. The overall usability from both perspectives seemed to be acceptable for OpenGo-Science. For SmartStep, overall usability seemed only acceptable from the

  17. Effects of spine loading in a patient with post-decompression lumbar disc herniation: observations using an open weight-bearing MRI.

    PubMed

    Mahato, Niladri Kumar; Sybert, Daryl; Law, Tim; Clark, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to use an open weight-bearing MRI to identify the effects of different loading conditions on the inter-vertebral anatomy of the lumbar spine in a post-discectomy recurrent lumbar disc herniation patient. A 43-year-old male with a left-sided L5-S1 post-decompression re-herniation underwent MR imaging in three spine-loading conditions: (1) supine, (2) weight-bearing on standing (WB), and (3) WB with 10 % of body mass axial loading (WB + AL) (5 % through each shoulder). A segmentation-based proprietary software was used to calculate and compare linear dimensions, angles and cross sections across the lumbar spine. The L5 vertebrae showed a 4.6 mm posterior shift at L5-S1 in the supine position that changed to an anterior translation >2.0 mm on WB. The spinal canal sagittal thickness at L5-S1 reduced from supine to WB and WB + AL (13.4, 10.6, 9.5 mm) with corresponding increases of 2.4 and 3.5 mm in the L5-S1 disc protrusion with WB and WB + AL, respectively. Change from supine to WB and WB + AL altered the L5-S1 disc heights (10.2, 8.6, 7.0 mm), left L5-S1 foramen heights (12.9, 11.8, 10.9 mm), L5-S1 segmental angles (10.3°, 2.8°, 4.3°), sacral angles (38.5°, 38.3°, 40.3°), L1-L3-L5 angles (161.4°, 157.1°, 155.1°), and the dural sac cross sectional areas (149, 130, 131 mm 2 ). Notably, the adjacent L4-L5 segment demonstrated a retro-listhesis >2.3 mm on WB. We observed that with weight-bearing, measurements indicative of spinal canal narrowing could be detected. These findings suggest that further research is warranted to determine the potential utility of weight-bearing MRI in clinical decision-making.

  18. Upright weight-bearing CT of the knee during flexion: changes of the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral articulations between 0° and 120°.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, Anna; Buck, Florian M; Herschel, Ramin; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Fucentese, Sandro F

    2017-03-01

    To prospectively compare patellofemoral and tibiofemoral articulations in the upright weight-bearing position with different degrees of flexion using CT in order to gain a more thorough understanding of the development of diseases of the knee joint in a physiological position. CT scans of the knee in 0°, 30°, 60° flexion in the upright weight-bearing position and in 120° flexion upright without weight-bearing were obtained of 10 volunteers (mean age 33.7 ± 6.1 years; range 24-41) using a cone-beam extremity-CT. Two independent readers quantified tibiofemoral and patellofemoral rotation, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TTTG) and patellofemoral distance. Tibiofemoral contact points were assessed in relation to the anteroposterior distance of the tibial plateau. Significant differences between degrees of flexion were sought using Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P < 0.05). With higher degrees of flexion, internal tibiofemoral rotation increased (0°/120° flexion; mean, 0.5° ± 4.5/22.4° ± 7.6); external patellofemoral rotation decreased (10.6° ± 7.6/1.6° ± 4.2); TTTG decreased (11.1 mm ±3.7/-2.4 mm ±6.4) and patellofemoral distance decreased (38.7 mm ±3.0/21.0 mm ±7.0). The CP shifted posterior, more pronounced laterally. Significant differences were found for all measurements at all degrees of flexion (P = 0.005-0.037), except between 30° and 60°. ICC was almost perfect (0.80-0.99), except for the assessment of the CP (0.20-0.96). Knee joint articulations change significantly during flexion using upright weight-bearing CT. Progressive internal tibiofemoral rotation leads to a decrease in the TTTG and a posterior shift of the contact points in higher degrees of flexion. This elucidates patellar malalignment predominantly close to extension and meniscal tears commonly affecting the posterior horns.

  19. Assemblages of Desire: Infants, Bear Caves and Belonging in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratigos, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Belonging is emerging as an important concept in contemporary early childhood curricula, and calls have recently been made for belonging to be critically interrogated and further theorized. This article explores how belonging was operating for an infant in Australian family day care by looking at an episode that took place between the infant, a…

  20. Simulations of skin and subcutaneous tissue loading in the buttocks while regaining weight-bearing after a push-up in wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ayelet; Kopplin, Kara; Gefen, Amit

    2013-12-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are common in patients who chronically depend on a wheelchair for mobility, such as those with a spinal cord injury (SCI). In attempt to prevent the formation of PUs, pressure relieving maneuvers, such as push-ups, are commonly recommended for individuals with SCI. However, very little is known about skin and subcutaneous fat tissue load distributions during sitting and in particular their development during the process of regaining weight-bearing after a push-up. Knowledge on how these loads evolve during sitting-down is critical for understanding the susceptibility of skin to PUs. Considering the potential practical implications on guidelines for wheelchair users, we studied herein the build-up of shear loads in skin and subcutaneous fat using a model of the buttocks of a single SCI subject. Using 12 variants of our finite element (FE) model, we determined the shear loads in skin and subcutaneous fat tissues under the ischial tuberosities when sitting down on foam cushions with different stiffness properties, in healthy skin and scarred skin conditions, focusing on the time course of the build-up of tissue loads. We found substantial differences between the loading curves of skin and fat: While the fat was loaded at a nearly constant rate, skin loads increased nonlinearly - with a greater load/time slope at early skin-support contact. In the context of tissue health and prevention of PUs, this indicates that the more sensitive period with respect to skin integrity is at initial skin-support contact. We further found that the edges of a pre-existing scar are more susceptible to injury, and the greater risk for that is when a hypertrophic scar is present. Despite that this is a theoretical modeling study with associated limitations, we believe that it is already appropriate to recommend to patients to reposition themselves gradually and gently, and not to "fall" back into the wheelchair after finishing a push-up maneuver. Copyright © 2013

  1. Early weight gain predicts outcome in two treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Le Grange, Daniel; Accurso, Erin C; Lock, James; Agras, Stewart; Bryson, Susan W

    2014-03-01

    Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN), and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n = 61) or individual adolescent focused therapy (AFT) (n = 60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.670; p = .043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC = 0.754, p = .014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square = 3.692, df = 1, p = .055). Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Early Weight Loss with Liraglutide 3.0 mg Predicts 1-Year Weight Loss and is Associated with Improvements in Clinical Markers.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Ken; O'Neil, Patrick M; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C W Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P H Wilding, John

    2016-11-01

    To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (<4% weight loss at week 16) completing 56 weeks' treatment. Proportions of ERs/ENRs to liraglutide 3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. © 2016 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  3. Early Weight Loss with Liraglutide 3.0 mg Predicts 1‐Year Weight Loss and is Associated with Improvements in Clinical Markers

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Patrick M.; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C.W. Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P.H. Wilding, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Methods Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (<4% weight loss at week 16) completing 56 weeks’ treatment. Results Proportions of ERs/ENRs to liraglutide 3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. Conclusions The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. PMID:27804269

  4. False Negatives for Remote Life Detection on Ocean-Bearing Planets: Lessons from the Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Olson, Stephanie L.; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2017-04-01

    Ocean-atmosphere chemistry on Earth has undergone dramatic evolutionary changes throughout its long history, with potentially significant ramifications for the emergence and long-term stability of atmospheric biosignatures. Though a great deal of work has centered on refining our understanding of false positives for remote life detection, much less attention has been paid to the possibility of false negatives, that is, cryptic biospheres that are widespread and active on a planet's surface but are ultimately undetectable or difficult to detect in the composition of a planet's atmosphere. Here, we summarize recent developments from geochemical proxy records and Earth system models that provide insight into the long-term evolution of the most readily detectable potential biosignature gases on Earth - oxygen (O2), ozone (O3), and methane (CH4). We suggest that the canonical O2-CH4 disequilibrium biosignature would perhaps have been challenging to detect remotely during Earth's ˜4.5-billion-year history and that in general atmospheric O2/O3 levels have been a poor proxy for the presence of Earth's biosphere for all but the last ˜500 million years. We further suggest that detecting atmospheric CH4 would have been problematic for most of the last ˜2.5 billion years of Earth's history. More broadly, we stress that internal oceanic recycling of biosignature gases will often render surface biospheres on ocean-bearing silicate worlds cryptic, with the implication that the planets most conducive to the development and maintenance of a pervasive biosphere will often be challenging to characterize via conventional atmospheric biosignatures.

  5. False Negatives for Remote Life Detection on Ocean-Bearing Planets: Lessons from the Early Earth.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Christopher T; Olson, Stephanie L; Schwieterman, Edward W; Lyons, Timothy W

    2017-04-01

    Ocean-atmosphere chemistry on Earth has undergone dramatic evolutionary changes throughout its long history, with potentially significant ramifications for the emergence and long-term stability of atmospheric biosignatures. Though a great deal of work has centered on refining our understanding of false positives for remote life detection, much less attention has been paid to the possibility of false negatives, that is, cryptic biospheres that are widespread and active on a planet's surface but are ultimately undetectable or difficult to detect in the composition of a planet's atmosphere. Here, we summarize recent developments from geochemical proxy records and Earth system models that provide insight into the long-term evolution of the most readily detectable potential biosignature gases on Earth-oxygen (O 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), and methane (CH 4 ). We suggest that the canonical O 2 -CH 4 disequilibrium biosignature would perhaps have been challenging to detect remotely during Earth's ∼4.5-billion-year history and that in general atmospheric O 2 /O 3 levels have been a poor proxy for the presence of Earth's biosphere for all but the last ∼500 million years. We further suggest that detecting atmospheric CH 4 would have been problematic for most of the last ∼2.5 billion years of Earth's history. More broadly, we stress that internal oceanic recycling of biosignature gases will often render surface biospheres on ocean-bearing silicate worlds cryptic, with the implication that the planets most conducive to the development and maintenance of a pervasive biosphere will often be challenging to characterize via conventional atmospheric biosignatures. Key Words: Biosignatures-Oxygen-Methane-Ozone-Exoplanets-Planetary habitability. Astrobiology 17, 287-297.

  6. False Negatives for Remote Life Detection on Ocean-Bearing Planets: Lessons from the Early Earth

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Stephanie L.; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ocean-atmosphere chemistry on Earth has undergone dramatic evolutionary changes throughout its long history, with potentially significant ramifications for the emergence and long-term stability of atmospheric biosignatures. Though a great deal of work has centered on refining our understanding of false positives for remote life detection, much less attention has been paid to the possibility of false negatives, that is, cryptic biospheres that are widespread and active on a planet's surface but are ultimately undetectable or difficult to detect in the composition of a planet's atmosphere. Here, we summarize recent developments from geochemical proxy records and Earth system models that provide insight into the long-term evolution of the most readily detectable potential biosignature gases on Earth—oxygen (O2), ozone (O3), and methane (CH4). We suggest that the canonical O2-CH4 disequilibrium biosignature would perhaps have been challenging to detect remotely during Earth's ∼4.5-billion-year history and that in general atmospheric O2/O3 levels have been a poor proxy for the presence of Earth's biosphere for all but the last ∼500 million years. We further suggest that detecting atmospheric CH4 would have been problematic for most of the last ∼2.5 billion years of Earth's history. More broadly, we stress that internal oceanic recycling of biosignature gases will often render surface biospheres on ocean-bearing silicate worlds cryptic, with the implication that the planets most conducive to the development and maintenance of a pervasive biosphere will often be challenging to characterize via conventional atmospheric biosignatures. Key Words: Biosignatures—Oxygen—Methane—Ozone—Exoplanets—Planetary habitability. Astrobiology 17, 287–297. PMID:28418704

  7. Associations of Weight Gain From Early to Middle Adulthood With Major Health Outcomes Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan; Manson, JoAnn E.; Yuan, Changzheng; Liang, Matthew H.; Grodstein, Francine; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Data describing the effects of weight gain across adulthood on overall health are important for weight control. Objective To examine the association of weight gain from early to middle adulthood with health outcomes later in life. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort analysis of US women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1976-June 30, 2012) and US men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-January 31, 2012) who recalled weight during early adulthood (at age of 18 years in women; 21 years in men), and reported current weight during middle adulthood (at age of 55 years). Exposures Weight change from early to middle adulthood (age of 18 or 21 years to age of 55 years). Main Outcomes and Measures Beginning at the age of 55 years, participants were followed up to the incident disease outcomes. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death were confirmed by medical records or the National Death Index. A composite healthy aging outcome was defined as being free of 11 chronic diseases and major cognitive or physical impairment. Results A total of 92 837 women (97% white; mean [SD] weight gain: 12.6 kg [12.3 kg] over 37 years) and 25 303 men (97% white; mean [SD] weight gain: 9.7 kg [9.7 kg] over 34 years) were included in the analysis. For type 2 diabetes, the adjusted incidence per 100 000 person-years was 207 among women who gained a moderate amount of weight (≥2.5 kg to <10 kg) vs 110 among women who maintained a stable weight (weight loss ≤2.5 kg or gain <2.5 kg) (absolute rate difference [ARD] per 100 000 person-years, 98; 95% CI, 72 to 127) and 258 vs 147, respectively, among men (ARD, 111; 95% CI, 58 to 179); hypertension: 3415 vs 2754 among women (ARD, 662; 95% CI, 545 to 782) and 2861 vs 2366 among men (ARD, 495; 95% CI, 281 to 726); cardiovascular disease: 309 vs 248 among women (ARD, 61; 95% CI, 38 to 87) and 383 vs 340 among men (ARD, 43; 95% CI, −14 to 109); obesity-related cancer: 452 vs 415 among women (ARD, 37; 95% CI, 4

  8. Antenatal Weight Management: Women's Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Swift, J A; Pearce, J; Jethwa, P H; Taylor, M A; Avery, A; Ellis, S; Langley-Evans, S C; McMullen, S

    2016-01-01

    The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy) sought to examine women's self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+) were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10-27 weeks, with 41.5% ( n = 80) between 12 and 14 and 43.0% ( n = 83) between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants ( n = 97) could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m 2 ) did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m 2 . The majority of women (regardless of BMI) did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  9. Effects of high versus standard early protein intake on growth of extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Luca; Cota, Francesco; Gallini, Francesca; Lauriola, Valeria; Zecca, Chiara; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2007-01-01

    Early provision of protein has been shown to limit catabolism and could improve growth. Our objective was to determine whether early aggressive protein intake improved growth outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. ELBW infants were included in the study if they had no major congenital anomalies or renal failure and were still hospitalized at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. In 25 infants (HP) the early protein intake was planned to be 20% greater than in 31 historical controls (SP). The 2 groups were similar in the baseline characteristics. The mean protein intake during the first 14 days of life was significantly greater in the HP group (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 2.5 +/- 0.2 g/kg/d; P<0.0001). HP group showed lower postnatal weight loss (-3.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -5.9, -0.2) and earlier regain of birth weight (-4.1 days; 95% CI -6.6, -1.7). Mean blood urea nitrogen and bicarbonate levels were similar; mean serum glucose level was lower in the HP group (-21,7 mg/dL; 95% CI -41.9,-1.5). HP infants had a reduced fall in weight z score (-0.57; 95% CI -1.01, -0.12) and in length z score (-0.51; 95% CI -0.97, -0.05) from birth to discharge. Early high protein intake was associated with improved weight and length growth outcomes at discharge. These findings highlight the benefits of aggressive protein intake immediately after birth.

  10. Dynamic weight bearing analysis is effective for evaluation of tendinopathy using a customized corridor with multi-directional force sensors in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Ting; Hsu, Chieh-Hsiang; Su, Fong-Chin; Jou, I-Ming; Chen, Shih-Yao; Wu, Chao-Liang; Su, Wei-Ren; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2017-08-18

    Few studies discuss kinetic changes in tendinopathy models. We propose a customized corridor to evaluate dynamic weight bearing (DWB) and shearing forces. Sixty rats were randomly given ultrasound-assisted collagenase injections (Collagenase rats) or needle punctures (Control rats) in their left Achilles tendons, and then evaluated 1, 4, and 8 weeks later. The Collagenase rats always had significantly (p < 0.001) higher histopathological and ultrasound feature scores than did the Controls, significantly lower DWB values in the injured than in the right hindlimbs, and compensatorily higher (p < 0.05) DWB values in the contralateral than in the left forelimbs. The injured hindlimbs had lower outward shearing force 1 and 4 weeks later, and higher (p < 0.05) push-off shearing force 8 weeks later, than did the contralateral hindlimbs. Injured Control rat hindlimbs had lower DWB values than did the contralateral only at week 1. The Collagenase rats had only lower static weight bearing ratios (SWBRs) values than did the Controls at week 1 (p < 0.05). Our customized corridor showed changes in DWB compatible with histopathological and ultrasound feature changes in the rat tendinopathy model. The hindlimb SWBRs did not correspond with any tendinopathic changes.

  11. In vivo regulation of the beta-myosin heavy chain gene in soleus muscle of suspended and weight-bearing rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giger, J. M.; Haddad, F.; Qin, A. X.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2000-01-01

    In the weight-bearing hindlimb soleus muscle of the rat, approximately 90% of muscle fibers express the beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC) isoform protein. Hindlimb suspension (HS) causes the MHC isoform population to shift from beta toward the fast MHC isoforms. Our aim was to establish a model to test the hypothesis that this shift in expression is transcriptionally regulated through specific cis elements of the beta-MHC promoter. With the use of a direct gene transfer approach, we determined the activity of different length beta-MHC promoter fragments, linked to a firefly luciferase reporter gene, in soleus muscle of control and HS rats. In weight-bearing rats, the relative luciferase activity of the longest beta-promoter fragment (-3500 bp) was threefold higher than the shorter promoter constructs, which suggests that an enhancer sequence is present in the upstream promoter region. After 1 wk of HS, the reporter activities of the -3500-, -914-, and -408-bp promoter constructs were significantly reduced ( approximately 40%), compared with the control muscles. However, using the -215-bp construct, no differences in promoter activity were observed between HS and control muscles, which indicates that the response to HS in the rodent appears to be regulated within the -408 and -215 bp of the promoter.

  12. [Ecological security early-warning in Zhoushan Islands based on variable weight model].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Zhong, Lin-sheng; Chen, Tian; Zhou, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Ecological security early warning, as an important content of ecological security research, is of indicating significance in maintaining regional ecological security. Based on driving force, pressure, state, impact and response (D-P-S-I-R) framework model, this paper took Zhoushan Islands in Zhejiang Province as an example to construct the ecological security early warning index system, test degrees of ecological security early warning of Zhoushan Islands from 2000 to 2012 by using the method of variable weight model, and forecast ecological security state of 2013-2018 by Markov prediction method. The results showed that the variable weight model could meet the study needs of ecological security early warning of Zhoushan Islands. There was a fluctuant rising ecological security early warning index from 0.286 to 0.484 in Zhoushan Islands between year 2000 and 2012, in which the security grade turned from "serious alert" into " medium alert" and the indicator light turned from "orange" to "yellow". The degree of ecological security warning was "medium alert" with the light of "yellow" for Zhoushan Islands from 2013 to 2018. These findings could provide a reference for ecological security maintenance of Zhoushan Islands.

  13. Coordination strategies for limb forces during weight-bearing locomotion in normal rats, and in rats spinalized as neonates

    PubMed Central

    Giszter, Simon F; Davies, Michelle R; Graziani, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Some rats spinally transected as neonates (ST rats) achieve weight-supporting independent locomotion. The mechanisms of coordinated hindlimb weight support in such rats are not well understood. To examine these in such ST rats and normal rats, rats with better than 60% of weight supported steps on a treadmill as adults were trained to cross an instrumented runway. Ground reaction forces, coordination of hindlimb and forelimb forces and the motions of the center of pressure were assessed. Normal rats crossed the runway with a diagonal trot. On average hindlimbs bore about 80% of the vertical load carried by forelimbs, although this varied. Forelimbs and hindlimb acted synergistically to generate decelerative and propulsive rostrocaudal forces, which averaged 15% of body weight with maximums of 50% . Lateral forces were very small (<8% of body weight). Center of pressure progressed in jumps along a straight line with mean lateral deviations <1 cm. ST rats hindlimbs bore about 60% of the vertical load of forelimbs, significantly less compared to intact (p<0.05). ST rats showed similar mean rostrocaudal forces, but with significantly larger maximum fluctuations of up to 80% of body weight (p<0.05). Joint force-plate recordings showed forelimbs and hindlimb rostrocaudal forces in ST rats were opposing and significantly different from intact rats (p<0.05). Lateral forces were ~20% of body weight and significantly larger than in normal rats (p<0.05). Center of pressure zig-zagged, with mean lateral deviations of ~ 2cm and a significantly larger range (p<0.05). The haunches were also observed to roll more than normal rats. The locomotor strategy of injured rats using limbs in opposition was presumably less efficient but their complex gait was statically stable. Because forelimbs and hindlimbs acted in opposition, the trunk was held compressed. Force coordination was likely managed largely by the voluntary control in forelimbs and trunk. PMID:18612631

  14. COMplex Fracture Orthopedic Rehabilitation (COMFORT) - Real-time visual biofeedback on weight bearing versus standard training methods in the treatment of proximal femur fractures in the elderly: study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Raaben, Marco; Redzwan, Syaiful; Augustine, Robin; Blokhuis, Taco Johan

    2018-04-12

    Proximal femur fractures are a common injury after low energy trauma in the elderly. Most rehabilitation programs are based on restoring mobility and early resumption of weight-bearing. However, therapy compliance is low in patients following lower extremity fractures. Moreover, little is known about the relevance of gait parameters and how to steer the rehabilitation after proximal femur fractures in the elderly. Therefore, the aim of this prospective, randomized controlled trial is to gain insight in gait parameters and evaluate if real-time visual biofeedback can improve therapy compliance after proximal femur fractures in the elderly. This is a two-arm, parallel-design, prospective, randomized controlled trial. Inclusion criteria are age ≥ 60 years, a proximal femur fracture following low energy trauma, and unrestricted-weight bearing. Exclusion criteria are cognitive impairment and limited mobility before trauma. Participants are randomized into either the control group, which receives care as usual, or the intervention group, which receives real-time visual biofeedback about weight-bearing during gait in addition to care as usual. Spatiotemporal gait parameters will be measured in 94 participants per group during a 30-m walk with an ambulatory biofeedback system (SensiStep). The progress of rehabilitation will be evaluated by the primary outcome parameters maximum peak load and step duration in relation to the discharge date. Secondary outcome parameters include other spatiotemporal gait parameters in relation to discharge date. Furthermore, the gait parameters will be related to three validated clinical tests: Elderly Mobility Scale; Functional Ambulation Categories; and Visual Analogue Scale. The primary hypothesis is that participants in the intervention group will show improved and faster rehabilitation compared to the control group. The first aim of this multicenter trial is to investigate the normal gait patterns after proximal femur fractures in

  15. Weight-related self-efficacy in relation to maternal body weight from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Leah M.; Strawderman, Myla S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal body weight and associated health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and weight-related self-efficacy from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum. Women with live, singleton term infants from a population-based cohort study were included (n = 595). Healthy eating self-efficacy and weight control self-efficacy were assessed prenatally and at 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Body weight was measured at early pregnancy, before delivery, and 6 weeks, 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Behavioural (smoking, breastfeeding) and sociodemographic (age, education, marital status, income) covariates were assessed by medical record review and baseline questionnaires. Multi-level linear regression models were used to examine the longitudinal associations of self-efficacy measures with body weight. Approximately half of the sample (57%) returned to early pregnancy weight at some point by 2 years post-partum, and 9% became overweight or obese at 2 years post-partum. Body weight over time was inversely related to healthy eating (β = −0.57, P = 0.02) and weight control (β = −0.99, P < 0.001) self-efficacy in the model controlling for both self-efficacy measures as well as time and behavioural and sociodemographic covariates. Weight-related self-efficacy may be an important target for interventions to reduce excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight gain. PMID:25244078

  16. Weight-related self-efficacy in relation to maternal body weight from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M

    2016-07-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal body weight and associated health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and weight-related self-efficacy from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum. Women with live, singleton term infants from a population-based cohort study were included (n = 595). Healthy eating self-efficacy and weight control self-efficacy were assessed prenatally and at 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Body weight was measured at early pregnancy, before delivery, and 6 weeks, 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Behavioural (smoking, breastfeeding) and sociodemographic (age, education, marital status, income) covariates were assessed by medical record review and baseline questionnaires. Multi-level linear regression models were used to examine the longitudinal associations of self-efficacy measures with body weight. Approximately half of the sample (57%) returned to early pregnancy weight at some point by 2 years post-partum, and 9% became overweight or obese at 2 years post-partum. Body weight over time was inversely related to healthy eating (β = -0.57, P = 0.02) and weight control (β = -0.99, P < 0.001) self-efficacy in the model controlling for both self-efficacy measures as well as time and behavioural and sociodemographic covariates. Weight-related self-efficacy may be an important target for interventions to reduce excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight gain. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Use of dynamic weight bearing as a novel end-point for the assessment of abdominal pain in the LPS-induced peritonitis model in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Michael; Laux-Biehlmann, Alexis; Zollner, Thomas M; Nagel, Jens

    2014-07-30

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as long-lasting and severe pelvic pain persisting over six months in cyclic or non-cyclic chronic manner. Various pathologic conditions like endometriosis, abdominal infections, intra-peritoneal adhesions or infection, underlie CPP which is often the leading symptom of the associated diseases. Pharmacological approaches addressing CPP are hampered by the absence of a straight-forward, objective, and reliable method for the assessment of CPP in rodents. In the presented study, the dynamic weight bearing system (DWB) was employed for the first time for the evaluation of pelvic pain in a rat model of LPS-induced peritonitis. Rats were pretreated with the COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib and PGE2 levels were evaluated in peritoneal lavage. DWB analysis revealed that rats treated with LPS showed a relief posture by a significantly increased weight distribution to the front when compared to vehicle-treated animals. This effect was prevented by rofecoxib treatment indicating the sensitivity of the model for pelvic pain related to peritonitis. Analysis of the PGE2 levels in the peritoneal fluid indicated a correlation with the relief posture intensity. In contrast to others weight bearing approaches, the use of DWB allows evaluation of spontaneous posture changes as a consequence of pelvic pain. Taken together, we were able to show, that DWB combined with LPS-induced peritonitis may deliver a new reliable animal model addressing pelvic pain with high construct validity (peritoneal inflammation), and face validity (pain related relief posture). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability of the measures of weight-bearing distribution obtained during quiet stance by digital scales in subjects with and without hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    de Araujo-Barbosa, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; de Menezes, Lidiane Teles; Costa, Abraão Souza; Couto Paz, Clarissa Cardoso Dos Santos; Fachin-Martins, Emerson

    2015-05-01

    Described as an alternative way of assessing weight-bearing asymmetries, the measures obtained from digital scales have been used as an index to classify weight-bearing distribution. This study aimed to describe the intra-test and the test/retest reliability of measures in subjects with and without hemiparesis during quiet stance. The percentage of body weight borne by one limb was calculated for a sample of subjects with hemiparesis and for a control group that was matched by gender and age. A two-way analysis of variance was used to verify the intra-test reliability. This analysis was calculated using the differences between the averages of the measures obtained during single, double or triple trials. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was utilized and data plotted using the Bland-Altman method. The intra-test analysis showed significant differences, only observed in the hemiparesis group, between the measures obtained by single and triple trials. Excellent and moderate ICC values (0.69-0.84) between test and retest were observed in the hemiparesis group, while for control groups ICC values (0.41-0.74) were classified as moderate, progressing from almost poor for measures obtained by a single trial to almost excellent for those obtained by triple trials. In conclusion, good reliability ranging from moderate to excellent classifications was found for participants with and without hemiparesis. Moreover, an improvement of the repeatability was observed with fewer trials for participants with hemiparesis, and with more trials for participants without hemiparesis.

  19. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Cristianne R M; Mason, Peggy; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Beeler, Jeff A

    2008-09-17

    The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  20. Relationships Between Weight Change and Physical and Psychological Distress in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Vance, Vivienne; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2018-05-26

    Weight gain and unfavorable changes in body composition are common in a growing population of breast cancer survivors, but the etiology of these changes is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between weight change and symptoms of physical and psychological distress in the first 12 months of completing treatment in women who had completed treatment for breast cancer. Physical distress and psychological distress were assessed using the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, the Distress Thermometer, and the Fatigue Symptom Inventory. Weight change in 28 women since the completion of treatment (mean, 6.4 ± 4.4 months) ranged from -6.0 kg to +5.2 kg (mean, -0.4 ± 3.2), with 6 women gaining and 7 women losing an average of 3.5 ± 1.0 and 5.1 ± 0.8 kg, respectively. Rotterdam mean scores for physical (17.5 ± 9.0) and psychological distress (27.1 ± 16.9) were similar to previous findings for patients with early-stage breast cancer in active treatment and appear to be markedly higher than distress levels previously reported in cancer-free adults. Distress levels, based on the Distress Thermometer, were moderate to severe in 35% of women. Fatigue was common and associated with interference in daily living for some women. Fatigue duration was negatively correlated with weight change (P = -0.46, P < .05). Symptoms of physical and psychological distress persist for some women in the first year after completing treatment and may associate with weight change. These findings underscore a need for ongoing assessment and supportive care across the breast cancer trajectory and may guide dietary counseling aimed at promoting healthy body weight and overall health in early survivorship.

  1. Associations of Early and Late Gestational Weight Gain with Infant Birth Size.

    PubMed

    Wander, Pandora L; Sitlani, Colleen M; Badon, Sylvia E; Siscovick, David S; Williams, Michelle A; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    Associations of gestational weight gain (GWG) during specific periods of pregnancy with infant birth size have been inconsistent. Infant sex-specific differences in these associations are unknown Information on GWG (kg) [total, early (<20 weeks gestation), and late (≥20 weeks gestation)] and indices of infant birth size including birthweight (BW), ponderal index (PI), crown-heel length (CHL), and head circumference (HC) was collected from 3,621 pregnant women. We calculated adjusted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) relating total, early and late GWG to infant birth size using multivariable linear regression procedures. We used stratified analyses and interaction terms to test whether associations differed by infant sex. One-kg increases in total, early or late GWG were associated with BW increases of 17.2 g (95 % CI 13.8-18.9), 14.1 g (95 % CI 10.3-18.0), and 21.0 g (95 % CI 16.7-25.4), respectively. Early GWG-BW and late GWG-BW associations were different (p = 0.026). Sex-stratified total GWG-BW associations were similar to overall results. There were sex-specific differences in early GWG-BW and late GWG-BW associations. Among females, early GWG-BW (12.0 g, 95 % CI 6.7-17.2) and late GWG-BW (24.2 g, 95 % CI 18.2-30.3) associations differed (p = 0.0042); the corresponding associations did not differ among males. Total, early, and late GWG were associated with CHL and HC, but not with PI. Associations did not differ for early or late GWG. For comparable GWG, late-GWG-related BW increase is greater than early-GWG-related BW increase, particularly among female infants.

  2. Early behavioral adherence predicts short and long-term weight loss in the POUNDS LOST study

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Han, Hongmei; Champagne, Catherine M.; Allen, Ray; LeBlanc, Eric; Ryan, Donna H.; Rood, Jennifer; McManus, Katherine; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent J.; Loria, Catherine M.; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to test the association of early (first 6 months) adherence related to diet, self-monitoring, and attendance with changes in adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors. This study used data from the 24-month POUNDS LOST trial that tested the efficacy of four dietary macronutrient compositions for short-and long-term weight loss. A computer tracking system was used to record data on eight indicator variables related to adherence. Using canonical correlations at the 6 and 24 month measurement periods, early behavioral adherence was associated with changes in percent weight loss and waist circumference at 6 months (R = 0.52) and 24 months (R = 0.37), but was not associated with cardiovascular disease risk factor levels. Early dietary adherence was associated with changes in insulin at 6 months (R = 0.19), but not at 24 months (R = 0.08, ns). Early dietary adherence was not associated with changes in adiposity. PMID:20195742

  3. Characteristics of oxide scale formed on Cu-bearing austenitic stainless steel during early stages of high temperature oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Srinivasan; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2015-10-01

    Oxide scale evolution on Cu-bearing austenitic stainless steel 304H at 650 °C, in ambient air, for exposure times 100, 300, 500 and 1000 h, has been investigated. Surface morphology and chemistry of the oxide scale grown were examined using SEM/EDX and XPS. The oxidation kinetics was determined by measuring the weight change using an electronic balance. At the initial stage, up to 500 h of exposure time, the oxidation rate was rapid due to surface reactions governed primarily by oxygen ingress, and then, dropped to a low rate after prolonged oxidation for 1000 h. The diffusion of reactants through the initially formed oxide scale limits the oxidation rate at longer times, thus, the progress of reaction followed the parabolic kinetics. The formed oxide scale was enriched significantly with segregation and subsequent oxidation of Nb, and finely dispersed metallic Cu particles. Within the time frame of oxidation, the oxide scale was mainly composed of mixed oxides such as FeCr2O4 and MnCr2O4 along with the binary oxides of Fe, Cr and Mn. Moreover, the precipitation fraction of Cu-rich particles on the oxide scale increased markedly with increase of exposure times. The chemical heterogeneity of oxide scale suggests that the oxidation occurred in a non-selective manner.

  4. Early working memory and maternal communication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Jean; Erickson, Sarah J; MacLean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne W

    2010-01-01

    Aim Early working memory is emerging as an important indicator of developmental outcome predicting later cognitive, behavioural and academic competencies. The current study compared early working memory in a sample of toddlers (18–22 months) born very low birth weight (VLBW; n = 40) and full term (n = 51) and the relationship between early working memory, mental developmental index (MDI), and maternal communication in both samples. Methods Early working memory, measured by object permanence; Bayley mental developmental index; and maternal communication, coded during mother-toddler play interaction, were examined in 39 toddlers born VLBW and 41 toddlers born full term. Results Toddlers born VLBW were found to be 6.4 times less likely to demonstrate attainment of object permanence than were toddlers born full term, adjusting for age at testing. MDI and maternal communication were found to be positively associated with attainment of object permanence in the VLBW group only. Conclusion The difference found in the early working memory performance of toddlers born VLBW, compared with those born full term, emphasizes the importance of assessing early working memory in at-risk populations, while the maternal communication finding highlights potential targets of intervention for improving working memory in toddlers born VLBW. PMID:19154525

  5. Early working memory and maternal communication in toddlers born very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jean; Erickson, Sarah J; Maclean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne W

    2009-04-01

    Early working memory is emerging as an important indicator of developmental outcome predicting later cognitive, behavioural and academic competencies. The current study compared early working memory in a sample of toddlers (18-22 months) born very low birth weight (VLBW; n = 40) and full term (n = 51) and the relationship between early working memory, mental developmental index (MDI), and maternal communication in both samples. Early working memory, measured by object permanence; Bayley mental developmental index; and maternal communication, coded during mother-toddler play interaction, were examined in 39 toddlers born VLBW and 41 toddlers born full term. Toddlers born VLBW were found to be 6.4 times less likely to demonstrate attainment of object permanence than were toddlers born full term, adjusting for age at testing. MDI and maternal communication were found to be positively associated with attainment of object permanence in the VLBW group only. The difference found in the early working memory performance of toddlers born VLBW, compared with those born full term, emphasizes the importance of assessing early working memory in at-risk populations, while the maternal communication finding highlights potential targets of intervention for improving working memory in toddlers born VLBW.

  6. Two types of ore-bearing mafic complexes of the Early Proterozoic East-Scandinavian LIP and their ore potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Felix; Zhirov, Dmitry; Bayanova, Tamara; Korchagin, Alexey; Chaschin, Victor

    2015-04-01

    magma generate single volcano-plutonic rock series. For intrusive ore bodies rock differentiation with the formation of syngenetic wehrlite-clinopyroxenite-gabbro- orthoclase gabbro sequence is typical. Upper mantle source of the depleted magma is characterized by the following isotope indicators: ɛNd(T) +0.5 to +4, ISr= 87Sr/86Sr 0.703-0.704. Ore-bearing intrusive bodies are injected in the upper part of the Early Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary cross-section. Ores are located in the basement of intrusions and in the redeposited veined bodies, including offset setting. Numerous Ni-Cu deposits with total reserves and resources of several million tons of Nickel equivalent (with an average grade ≥ 0,3%) have been explored, and some of them now is mining. As a result of our research, the complex of indicators and criteria is suggested for predicting the occurrence, for regional exploration target selection and for regional resource evaluation of PGE and base metals. The studies are supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project nos. 13-05-12055).

  7. Early postnatal weight gain as a predictor for the development of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Biniwale, Manoj; Weiner, Angela; Sardesai, Smeeta; Cayabyab, Rowena; Barton, Lorayne; Ramanathan, Rangasamy

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to validate the reliability of early postnatal weight gain as an accurate predictor of type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment in a large predominantly Hispanic US cohort with the use of an online tool called WINROP (weight, neonatal retinopathy of prematurity (IGF-1), neonatal retinopathy of prematurity). Retrospective cohort study consisted of preterm infants <32 weeks gestation and birth weight <1500 g. Weekly weights to 36 weeks post-menstrual age or discharge if earlier were entered into the WINROP tool. This tool generated alarm and risk indicator for developing ROP. The infants with type 1 ROP requiring treatment as well as all stages of ROP were compared with the alarms and risks generated by WINROP tool. A total of 492 infants were entered into the WINROP tool. The infants who developed type 1 ROP requiring treatment, the WINROP tool detected 80/89 (90%) at less than 32 weeks gestation. Nine infants developed type 1 ROP were classified as low risk and did not alarm. Postnatal weight gain alone, in predominantly Hispanic US population, predicted type 1 ROP requiring treatment before 32 weeks of gestation in infants with a sensitivity of 90%. The tool appeared to identify majority of affected infants much earlier than the scheduled screening.

  8. Proteomic Analysis Profile of Engineered Articular Cartilage with Chondrogenic Differentiated Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Loaded Polyglycolic Acid Mesh for Weight-Bearing Area Defect Repair

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lunli; Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Yaohao; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Chen; Zhou, Heng; Guo, Fangfang

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of full-thickness defects repair in porcine articular cartilage (AC) weight-bearing area using chondrogenic differentiated autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) with a follow-up of 3 and 6 months, which is successive to our previous study on nonweight-bearing area. The isolated ASCs were seeded onto the phosphoglycerate/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA) with chondrogenic induction in vitro for 2 weeks as the experimental group prior to implantation in porcine AC defects (8 mm in diameter, deep to subchondral bone), with PGA/PLA only as control. With follow-up time being 3 and 6 months, both neo-cartilages of postimplantation integrated well with the neighboring normal cartilage and subchondral bone histologically in experimental group, whereas only fibrous tissue in control group. Immunohistochemical and toluidine blue staining confirmed similar distribution of COL II and glycosaminoglycan in the regenerated cartilage to the native one. A vivid remolding process with repair time was also witnessed in the neo-cartilage as the compressive modulus significantly increased from 70% of the normal cartilage at 3 months to nearly 90% at 6 months, which is similar to our former research. Nevertheless, differences of the regenerated cartilages still could be detected from the native one. Meanwhile, the exact mechanism involved in chondrogenic differentiation from ASCs seeded on PGA/PLA is still unknown. Therefore, proteome is resorted leading to 43 proteins differentially identified from 20 chosen two-dimensional spots, which do help us further our research on some committed factors. In conclusion, the comparison via proteome provided a thorough understanding of mechanisms implicating ASC differentiation toward chondrocytes, which is further substantiated by the present study as a perfect supplement to the former one in nonweight-bearing area. PMID:24044689

  9. Preventing Weight Gain and Obesity: Indirect Effects of the Family Check-Up in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Montaño, Zorash; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2014-01-01

    The early signs of obesity are observable in early childhood. Although the most promising prevention approaches are family centered, few relevant early prevention programs exist. This study evaluated the effects of an evidence-based, home-visiting intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on the trajectory of children’s weight gain. The FCU was designed to prevent the development of behavior problems by improving family management practices; children’s weight has not been an explicit target. On the basis of previous research and conceptual models, we hypothesized that intervention effects on parenting practices, specifically caregivers’ use of positive behavior support (PBS) strategies in toddlerhood, would mediate improvements in children’s weight trajectories. A total of 731 indigent caregiver–child dyads from a multisite randomized intervention trial were examined. Observational assessment of parenting and mealtime behaviors occurred from age 2 to 5. The child’s body mass index (BMI) was assessed yearly from age 5 to 9.5. Path analysis with a latent growth model revealed a significant indirect effect of the FCU on the trajectory of BMI in later childhood. Improvements in caregivers’ PBS in toddlerhood, which was related to the nutritional quality of the meals caregivers served to the child during the mealtime task, served as the intervening process. Further, findings indicate that the FCU prevents progression to overweight and obese status amongst at-risk children. These study results add to existing evidence that has demonstrated that family-based interventions aimed at improving general family management skills are effective at preventing weight gain. Future directions are discussed. PMID:25263212

  10. Growth hormone, IGF-I, and exercise effects on non-weight-bearing fast muscles of hypophysectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, E. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Evans, J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) with or without exercise (ladder climbing) in countering the effects of unweighting on fast muscles of hypophysectomized rats during 10 days of hindlimb suspension were determined. Compared with untreated suspended rats, muscle weights were 16-29% larger in GH-treated and 5-15% larger in IGF-I-treated suspended rats. Exercise alone had no effect on muscle weights. Compared with ambulatory control, the medial gastrocnemius weight in suspended, exercised rats was larger after GH treatment and maintained with IGF-I treatment. The combination of GH or IGF-I plus exercise in suspended rats resulted in an increase in size of each predominant fiber type, i.e., types I, I + IIa and IIa + IIx, in the medial gastrocnemius compared with untreated suspended rats. Normal ambulation or exercise during suspension increased the proportion of fibers expressing embryonic myosin heavy chain in hypophysectomized rats. The phenotype of the medial gastrocnemius was minimally affected by GH, IGF-I, and/or exercise. These results show that there is an IGF-I, as well as a GH, and exercise interactive effect in maintaining medial gastrocnemius fiber size in suspended hypophysectomized rats.

  11. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Robie; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Miranda, J Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear. Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11-14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence. Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI -2.4 to -0.1) and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI -4.9 to 0.0), and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI -1.1 to 0.0) and 1.2 cm (95% CI -2.3 to -0.1), respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio. Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  12. Phyllosilicate weathering pathways in chlorite-talc bearing soil parent materials, D.R. Congo: early findings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumon, Mathijs; Oostermeyer, Fran; Timmermans, Els; De Meulemeester, Aschwin; Mees, Florias; Van Driessche, Isabel; Erens, Hans; Bazirake Mujinya, Basile; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The study of the formation and transformation of clay minerals is of the upmost importance to understand soil formation and to adjust land-use management to the land surface conditions. These clay minerals determine to a large extent the soil physical and chemical properties. It is commonly observed that over time the mineralogy of any parent material is transformed to a simple assemblage composed mostly of Al and Fe oxides and low-activity clays, e.g. kaolinite. This is especially obvious in the humid tropics, which have been protected from glacial erosion, allowing deep, highly weathered soils to form. Despite the abundant presence of kaolinite in these soils, its formation pathways are still under debate: either neoformation by dissolution-crystallisation reactions or solid-state transformation of 2:1 phyllosilicates. To elucidate this, weathering sequences in a unique 40 m core taken below a termite mound, reaching a talc-chlorite bearing substrate in the Lubumbashi area, Katanga, DR Congo are being investigated in detail using a.o. quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, chemical characterization, micromorphology and µXRF-scanning with the main objective to improve the understanding of the formation pathways of kaolinite subgroup minerals in humid tropical environments. Based on an initial characterization of the core, two zones of interest were selected for more detailed analysis, for which the early findings will be presented. The first zone extends from ca. 9 m to 11 m below the surface is dominated by kaolinite but shows early traces of primary talc and micas. The second zone extends from 34 to 36 m below the surface and contains large amounts of chlorite, with smaller amounts of talc, micas and kaolinite.

  13. Weight-Bearing Cone-Beam CT Scan Assessment of Stability of Supination External Rotation Ankle Fractures in a Cadaver Model.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Mark C; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Marzo, John M

    2018-03-01

    The utility of computed tomography (CT) for measuring medial clear space (MCS) for determination of the stability of supination external rotation (SER) ankle fractures and in comparison to standard radiographs is unknown. We compared MCS on gravity stress (GS) radiographs to GS and weight bearing (WB) cone-beam CT (CBCT). An AO SER 44B3.1 ankle fracture was simulated in 10 human cadavers, also serving as controls. MCS was measured on GS radiographs, GS CBCT, and a simulated WB CBCT scan. Specimens were stable if MCS was <5 mm and unstable if MCS was ≥5 mm. Paired t tests were used to compare MCS from each imaging modality for controls versus SER injuries and stable versus unstable specimens. Compared with controls assessed by GS radiographs, MCS was greater for an SER injury when assessed by GS radiograph and GS CBCT scan within the stable group. Compared with controls assessed by GS radiographs, MCS was greater for SER injuries when assessed by GS radiograph, GS CBCT scan, and WB CBCT within the unstable group. MCS was reduced for stable versus unstable SER injuries assessed by WB CBCT. In a cadaveric model of SER ankle fracture, the medial clear space was statistically significantly greater for the experimental condition when assessed by gravity stress radiograph and gravity stress CBCT scan. Under weight-bearing conditions, the cone-beam CT scanner distinguished between stable and unstable ankles in the experimental condition. This study suggests that a WB cone-beam CT scan may be able to distinguish between stable and unstable SER ankle fractures and influence operative decision making.

  14. Altered knee and ankle kinematics during squatting in those with limited weight-bearing-lunge ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion.

    PubMed

    Dill, Karli E; Begalle, Rebecca L; Frank, Barnett S; Zinder, Steven M; Padua, Darin A

    2014-01-01

    Ankle-dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) may influence movement variables that are known to affect anterior cruciate ligament loading, such as knee valgus and knee flexion. To our knowledge, researchers have not studied individuals with limited or normal ankle DF-ROM to investigate the relationship between those factors and the lower extremity movement patterns associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. To determine, using 2 different measurement techniques, whether knee- and ankle-joint kinematics differ between participants with limited and normal ankle DF-ROM. Cross-sectional study. Sports medicine research laboratory. Forty physically active adults (20 with limited ankle DF-ROM, 20 with normal ankle DF-ROM). Ankle DF-ROM was assessed using 2 techniques: (1) nonweight-bearing ankle DF-ROM with the knee straight, and (2) weight-bearing lunge (WBL). Knee flexion, knee valgus-varus, knee internal-external rotation, and ankle DF displacements were assessed during the overhead-squat, single-legged squat, and jump-landing tasks. Separate 1-way analyses of variance were performed to determine whether differences in knee- and ankle-joint kinematics existed between the normal and limited groups for each assessment. We observed no differences between the normal and limited groups when classifying groups based on nonweight-bearing passive-ankle DF-ROM. However, individuals with greater ankle DF-ROM during the WBL displayed greater knee-flexion and ankle-DF displacement and peak knee flexion during the overhead-squat and single-legged squat tasks. In addition, those individuals also demonstrated greater knee-varus displacement during the single-legged squat. Greater ankle DF-ROM assessed during the WBL was associated with greater knee-flexion and ankle-DF displacement during both squatting tasks as well as greater knee-varus displacement during the single-legged squat. Assessment of ankle DF-ROM using the WBL provided important insight into compensatory

  15. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management123

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors’ nutritional intake as well as how survivors’ nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:26374183

  16. Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Liu, Enqing; Guo, Jia; Pan, Lei; Li, Baojuan; Wang, Ping; Liu, Jin; Wang, Yue; Liu, Gongshu; Hu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months old in Tianjin, China. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, health care records of 38,539 pregnant women had been collected, and their children had been measured body weight and length at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The independent and joint associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines with anthropometry in the offspring were examined using General Linear Model and Logistic Regression. Results Prepregnancy BMI and maternal GWG were positively associated with Z-scores for birth weight-for-gestational age, birth length-for-gestational age, and birth weight-for-length. Infants born to mothers with excessive GWG had the greatest changes in Z-scores for weight-for-age from birth to Month 3, and from Month 6 to Month 12, and the greatest changes in Z-scores for length-for-age from birth to months 3 and 12 compared with infants born to mothers with adequate GWG. Excessive GWG was associated with an increased risk of offspring overweight or obesity at 12 months old in all BMI categories except underweight. Conclusions Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater weight gain and length gain of offspring in early infancy. Excessive GWG was associated with increased infancy overweight and obesity risk. PMID:24204979

  17. High-b-value diffusion-weighted MR imaging for pretreatment prediction and early monitoring of tumor response to therapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Roth, Yiftach; Tichler, Thomas; Kostenich, Genady; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesus; Maier, Stephan E; Cohen, Jack S; Orenstein, Arie; Mardor, Yael

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with standard and high b values for pretreatment prediction and early detection of tumor response to various antineoplastic therapies in an animal model. Mice bearing C26 colon carcinoma tumors were treated with doxorubicin (n = 25) and with aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (n = 23). Fourteen mice served as controls. Conventional T2-weighted fast spin-echo and diffusion-weighted MR images were acquired once before therapy and at 6, 24, and 48 hours after treatment. Pretreatment and early (1-2 days) posttreatment water diffusion parameters were calculated and compared with later changes in tumor volumes measured on conventional MR images by using the Pearson correlation test. In chemotherapy-treated tumors, a significant correlation (P <.002, r = 0.6) was observed between diffusion parameters that reflected tumor viability, measured prior to treatment, and changes in tumor volumes after therapy. This correlation implies that tumors with high pretreatment viability will respond better to chemotherapy than more necrotic tumors. In tumors treated with photodynamic therapy, no such correlation was found. Changes observed in water diffusion 1-2 days after treatment significantly correlated with later tumor growth rate for both therapies (P <.002, r = 0.54 for photodynamic therapy; P <.0003, r = 0.61 for chemotherapy). High-b-value diffusion-weighted MR imaging has potential use for the early detection of response to therapy and for predicting treatment outcome prior to initiation of chemotherapy. Copyright RSNA, 2004

  18. Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement

    SciT

    Kruger, A.A.; Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D.

    1995-04-01

    Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter,more » the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO{sub 3}, quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite.« less

  19. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  20. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  1. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  2. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  3. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  4. An Algorithm for the Weighted Earliness-Tardiness Unconstrained Project Scheduling Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar Nadjafi, Behrouz; Shadrokh, Shahram

    This research considers a project scheduling problem with the object of minimizing weighted earliness-tardiness penalty costs, taking into account a deadline for the project and precedence relations among the activities. An exact recursive method has been proposed for solving the basic form of this problem. We present a new depth-first branch and bound algorithm for extended form of the problem, which time value of money is taken into account by discounting the cash flows. The algorithm is extended with two bounding rules in order to reduce the size of the branch and bound tree. Finally, some test problems are solved and computational results are reported.

  5. Proatherogenic Lipid Profile in Early Childhood: Association with Weight Status at 4 Years and Parental Obesity.

    PubMed

    Riaño-Galán, Isolina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Rodríguez-Dehli, Cristina; Valvi, Damaskini; Vrijheid, Martine; Tardón, Adonina

    2017-08-01

    To determine lipid profiles in early childhood and evaluate their association with weight status at 4 years of age. Additionally, we evaluated whether the risk of overweight or having an altered lipid profile was associated with parental weight status. Five hundred eighty two mothers and their 4-year-old children from 2 Spanish population-based cohorts were studied. Weight status in children at 4 years of age was classified as overweight or obese using the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined in children and lipid ratios were calculated. A proatherogenic lipid profile was defined as having the 3 lipid ratios in the third tertile. A total of 12.9% of children were overweight and 6.4% were obese. Weight status at 4 years of age was related to maternal prepregnancy body mass index, paternal body mass index, gestational diabetes, and birth weight, but not with other sociodemographic characteristics of the mother. We found no association with gestational age, sex of the child, or breastfeeding. The risk of overweight/obesity was increased 4.17-fold if mothers were overweight/obese (95% CI 1.76-9.88) and 5.1-fold (95% CI 2.50-10.40) if both parents were overweight/obese. There were 133 children (22.8%) with a proatherogenic lipid profile. The risk of a proatherogenic lipid profile was increased 2.44-fold (95% CI 1.54-3.86) if they were overweight/obese at 4 years of age and 2-fold if the father was overweight/obese (95% CI 1.22-3.35). Four-year-old overweight/obese children have higher lipid risk profiles. Offspring of overweight/obese parents have an increased risk for obesity and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In vivo contact kinematics and contact forces of the knee after total knee arthroplasty during dynamic weight-bearing activities.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Kartik M; Moynihan, Angela L; D'Lima, Darryl; Colwell, Clifford W; Li, Guoan

    2008-07-19

    Analysis of polyethylene component wear and implant loosening in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) requires precise knowledge of in vivo articular motion and loading conditions. This study presents a simultaneous in vivo measurement of tibiofemoral articular contact forces and contact kinematics in three TKA patients. These measurements were accomplished via a dual fluoroscopic imaging system and instrumented tibial implants, during dynamic single leg lunge and chair rising-sitting. The measured forces and contact locations were also used to determine mediolateral distribution of axial contact forces. Contact kinematics data showed a medial pivot during flexion of the knee, for all patients in the study. Average axial forces were higher for lunge compared to chair rising-sitting (224% vs. 187% body weight). In this study, we measured peak anteroposterior and mediolateral forces averaging 13.3% BW during lunge and 18.5% BW during chair rising-sitting. Mediolateral distributions of axial contact force were both patient and activity specific. All patients showed equitable medial-lateral loading during lunge but greater loads at the lateral compartment during chair rising-sitting. The results of this study may enable more accurate reproduction of in vivo loads and articular motion patterns in wear simulators and finite element models. This in turn may help advance our understanding of factors limiting longevity of TKA implants, such as aseptic loosening and polyethylene component wear, and enable improved TKA designs.

  7. [Relationship between body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change to middle age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in middle aged Chinese people].

    PubMed

    Zhao, L C; Zhou, L; Li, Y; Guo, M; Wu, Y F

    2016-08-24

    To explore the relationship between early adulthood weight status and body weight changes from early adulthood to middle age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Data were obtained from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology Study, which was conducted in 1998, 15 participants population samples aged from 35-59 years old from 12 provinces were selected by random cluster sampling. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample population were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, body weight at age 25 from all participants were also obtained. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 25 years was calculated with the weight at 25 years and the height measured during the survey, participants were divided into underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2), n=1 331), normal-weight (18.5 kg/m(2)≤BMI <24 kg/m(2), n=10 400), overweight (24 kg/m(2)≤BMI<28 kg/m(2), n=2 019) and obesity (BMI≥28 kg/m(2), n=133) groups. Weight change was defined as the difference between the body weight at the age of 25 and at the survey and was grouped into<-7.5 kg (n=903), -7.5--2.6 kg (n=1 883), -2.5-2.5 kg (n=2 573), 2.6-7.5 kg (n=2 786), 7.6-12.5 kg (n=2 674) and>12.5 kg (n=3 064). The association of body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change from early adulthood to middle age with HDL-C level was examined by logistic regression model. The prevalence of low HDL-C in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity groups at age of 25 years were 10.7%(143/1 331), 15.5%(1 612/10 400), 16.3%(330/2 019) and 24.8%(33/133), respectively(P for trend <0.01). The prevalence of low HDL-C for adult weight change were 8.8%(79/903), 8.0%(151/1 883), 10.5%(269/2 573), 13.4%(373/2 786), 19.1%(511/2 674), and 24.0%(735/3 064)(P for trend <0.01)for weight change of <-7.5 kg, -7.5--2.6 kg, -2.5-2.5 kg, 2.6-7.5 kg, 7.6-12.5 kg and>12.5 kg, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that overweight and obesity at age of 25 years and

  8. Bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  9. Weighted similarity-based clustering of chemical structures and bioactivity data in early drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Perualila-Tan, Nolen Joy; Shkedy, Ziv; Talloen, Willem; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H; Moerbeke, Marijke Van; Kasim, Adetayo

    2016-08-01

    The modern process of discovering candidate molecules in early drug discovery phase includes a wide range of approaches to extract vital information from the intersection of biology and chemistry. A typical strategy in compound selection involves compound clustering based on chemical similarity to obtain representative chemically diverse compounds (not incorporating potency information). In this paper, we propose an integrative clustering approach that makes use of both biological (compound efficacy) and chemical (structural features) data sources for the purpose of discovering a subset of compounds with aligned structural and biological properties. The datasets are integrated at the similarity level by assigning complementary weights to produce a weighted similarity matrix, serving as a generic input in any clustering algorithm. This new analysis work flow is semi-supervised method since, after the determination of clusters, a secondary analysis is performed wherein it finds differentially expressed genes associated to the derived integrated cluster(s) to further explain the compound-induced biological effects inside the cell. In this paper, datasets from two drug development oncology projects are used to illustrate the usefulness of the weighted similarity-based clustering approach to integrate multi-source high-dimensional information to aid drug discovery. Compounds that are structurally and biologically similar to the reference compounds are discovered using this proposed integrative approach.

  10. Effects of seed weight and rate of emergence on early growth of open-pollinated Douglas-fir families.

    J.B. St. Clair; W.T. Adams

    1991-01-01

    Seed weight, time of emergence, and three measures of seedling size were recorded for 39 open-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii[Mirb.] Franco) families in order to assess family variation in seed weight and emergence, and the influence of these seed traits on early growth. Families were planted both...

  11. Lower trabecular volumetric BMD at metaphyseal regions of weight-bearing bones is associated with prior fracture in young girls.

    PubMed

    Farr, Joshua N; Tomás, Rita; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the etiology of skeletal fragility during growth is critical for the development of treatments and prevention strategies aimed at reducing the burden of childhood fractures. Thus we evaluated the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters in young girls. Data from 465 girls aged 8 to 13 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the nondominant femur and tibia using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess femur, tibia, lumbar spine, and total body less head bone mineral content. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters, controlling for maturity, body mass, leg length, ethnicity, and physical activity. Associations between prior fracture and all DXA and pQCT bone parameters at diaphyseal sites were nonsignificant. In contrast, lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at distal metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia was significantly associated with prior fracture. After adjustment for covariates, every SD decrease in trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of the distal femur and tibia was associated with 1.4 (1.1-1.9) and 1.3 (1.0-1.7) times higher fracture prevalence, respectively. Prior fracture was not associated with metaphyseal bone size (ie, periosteal circumference). In conclusion, fractures in girls are associated with lower trabecular vBMD, but not bone size, at metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia. Lower trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of long bones may be an early marker of skeletal fragility in girls. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. Lower Trabecular Volumetric BMD at Metaphyseal Regions of Weight-Bearing Bones is Associated With Prior Fracture in Young Girls

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N; Tomás, Rita; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of skeletal fragility during growth is critical for the development of treatments and prevention strategies aimed at reducing the burden of childhood fractures. Thus we evaluated the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters in young girls. Data from 465 girls aged 8 to 13 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the nondominant femur and tibia using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess femur, tibia, lumbar spine, and total body less head bone mineral content. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters, controlling for maturity, body mass, leg length, ethnicity, and physical activity. Associations between prior fracture and all DXA and pQCT bone parameters at diaphyseal sites were nonsignificant. In contrast, lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at distal metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia was significantly associated with prior fracture. After adjustment for covariates, every SD decrease in trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of the distal femur and tibia was associated with 1.4 (1.1–1.9) and 1.3 (1.0–1.7) times higher fracture prevalence, respectively. Prior fracture was not associated with metaphyseal bone size (ie, periosteal circumference). In conclusion, fractures in girls are associated with lower trabecular vBMD, but not bone size, at metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia. Lower trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of long bones may be an early marker of skeletal fragility in girls. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20721933

  13. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. II. Experiment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Maier, Andreas; Keil, Andreas; Pal, Saikat; McWalter, Emily J; Beaupré, Gary S; Gold, Garry E; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    A C-arm CT system has been shown to be capable of scanning a single cadaver leg under loaded conditions by virtue of its highly flexible acquisition trajectories. In Part I of this study, using the 4D XCAT-based numerical simulation, the authors predicted that the involuntary motion in the lower body of subjects in weight-bearing positions would seriously degrade image quality and the authors suggested three motion compensation methods by which the reconstructions could be corrected to provide diagnostic image quality. Here, the authors demonstrate that a flat-panel angiography system is appropriate for scanning both legs of subjects in vivo under weight-bearing conditions and further evaluate the three motion-correction algorithms using in vivo data. The geometry of a C-arm CT system for a horizontal scan trajectory was calibrated using the PDS-2 phantom. The authors acquired images of two healthy volunteers while lying supine on a table, standing, and squatting at several knee flexion angles. In order to identify the involuntary motion of the lower body, nine 1-mm-diameter tantalum fiducial markers were attached around the knee. The static mean marker position in 3D, a reference for motion compensation, was estimated by back-projecting detected markers in multiple projections using calibrated projection matrices and identifying the intersection points in 3D of the back-projected rays. Motion was corrected using three different methods (described in detail previously): (1) 2D projection shifting, (2) 2D deformable projection warping, and (3) 3D rigid body warping. For quantitative image quality analysis, SSIM indices for the three methods were compared using the supine data as a ground truth. A 2D Euclidean distance-based metric of subjects' motion ranged from 0.85 mm (±0.49 mm) to 3.82 mm (±2.91 mm) (corresponding to 2.76 to 12.41 pixels) resulting in severe motion artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Shifting in 2D, 2D warping, and 3D warping improved the SSIM in

  14. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. II. Experiment

    SciT

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Maier, Andreas; Keil, Andreas

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A C-arm CT system has been shown to be capable of scanning a single cadaver leg under loaded conditions by virtue of its highly flexible acquisition trajectories. In Part I of this study, using the 4D XCAT-based numerical simulation, the authors predicted that the involuntary motion in the lower body of subjects in weight-bearing positions would seriously degrade image quality and the authors suggested three motion compensation methods by which the reconstructions could be corrected to provide diagnostic image quality. Here, the authors demonstrate that a flat-panel angiography system is appropriate for scanning both legs of subjectsin vivo undermore » weight-bearing conditions and further evaluate the three motion-correction algorithms using in vivo data. Methods: The geometry of a C-arm CT system for a horizontal scan trajectory was calibrated using the PDS-2 phantom. The authors acquired images of two healthy volunteers while lying supine on a table, standing, and squatting at several knee flexion angles. In order to identify the involuntary motion of the lower body, nine 1-mm-diameter tantalum fiducial markers were attached around the knee. The static mean marker position in 3D, a reference for motion compensation, was estimated by back-projecting detected markers in multiple projections using calibrated projection matrices and identifying the intersection points in 3D of the back-projected rays. Motion was corrected using three different methods (described in detail previously): (1) 2D projection shifting, (2) 2D deformable projection warping, and (3) 3D rigid body warping. For quantitative image quality analysis, SSIM indices for the three methods were compared using the supine data as a ground truth. Results: A 2D Euclidean distance-based metric of subjects’ motion ranged from 0.85 mm (±0.49 mm) to 3.82 mm (±2.91 mm) (corresponding to 2.76 to 12.41 pixels) resulting in severe motion artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Shifting in 2D, 2D warping

  15. Neuromotor outcomes at school age after extremely low birth weight: early detection of subtle signs.

    PubMed

    Gidley Larson, Jennifer C; Baron, Ida Sue; Erickson, Kristine; Ahronovich, Margot D; Baker, Robin; Litman, Fern R

    2011-01-01

    Motor impairments are prevalent in children born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 g). Rarely studied are subtle motor deficits that indicate dysfunction or delay in neural systems critical for optimal cognitive, academic, and behavioral function. We aimed to examine quantifiable signs of subtle neuromotor dysfunction in an early school-aged ELBW cohort that coincidentally had age-appropriate cognition and design copying. We studied 97 participants born between 1998 and 2001; 74 ELBW (6.7 years ± 0.75) compared with 23 term-born (6.6 years ± 0.29). Neuromotor outcomes were assessed using the Physical and Neurological Examination of Subtle Signs-Revised, and measures of dexterity/coordination and visual-motor integration. ELBW participants performed worse than term-born on design-copying and dexterity, were age-appropriate compared to normative data, and had slower timed movements and more subtle overflow movements. Those ELBW born <26 weeks performed most poorly compared with those born 26-34 weeks and term-born. Subtle motor dysfunctions are detectable and quantifiable in ELBW children by school age, even in the presence of average cognition. Early age assessment of incoordination, motor speed, and overflow movements should aid initiation of timely therapies to prepare at-risk ELBW children for subsequent school entry and facilitate design of optimal early treatment strategies. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. High Bone Mass is associated with bone-forming features of osteoarthritis in non-weight bearing joints independent of body mass index.

    PubMed

    Gregson, C L; Hardcastle, S A; Murphy, A; Faber, B; Fraser, W D; Williams, M; Davey Smith, G; Tobias, J H

    2017-04-01

    High Bone Mass (HBM) is associated with (a) radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA), partly mediated by increased BMI, and (b) pelvic enthesophytes and hip osteophytes, suggestive of a bone-forming phenotype. We aimed to establish whether HBM is associated with radiographic features of OA in non-weight-bearing (hand) joints, and whether such OA demonstrates a bone-forming phenotype. HBM cases (BMD Z-scores≥+3.2) were compared with family controls. A blinded assessor graded all PA hand radiographs for: osteophytes (0-3), joint space narrowing (JSN) (0-3), subchondral sclerosis (0-1), at the index Distal Interphalangeal Joint (DIPJ) and 1st Carpometacarpal Joint (CMCJ), using an established atlas. Analyses used a random effects logistic regression model, adjusting a priori for age and gender. Mediating roles of BMI and bone turnover markers (BTMs) were explored by further adjustment. 314 HBM cases (mean age 61.1years, 74% female) and 183 controls (54.3years, 46% female) were included. Osteophytes (grade≥1) were more common in HBM (DIPJ: 67% vs. 45%, CMCJ: 69% vs. 50%), with adjusted OR [95% CI] 1.82 [1.11, 2.97], p=0.017 and 1.89 [1.19, 3.01], p=0.007 respectively; no differences were seen in JSN. Further adjustment for BMI failed to attenuate ORs for osteophytes in HBM cases vs. controls; DIPJ 1.72 [1.05, 2.83], p=0.032, CMCJ 1.76 [1.00, 3.06], p=0.049. Adjustment for BTMs (concentrations lower amongst HBM cases) did not attenuate ORs. HBM is positively associated with OA in non-weight-bearing joints, independent of BMI. HBM-associated OA is characterised by osteophytes, consistent with a bone-forming phenotype, rather than JSN reflecting cartilage loss. Systemic factors (e.g. genetic architecture) which govern HBM may also increase bone-forming OA risk. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Longitudinal relationships between whole body and central adiposity on weight-bearing bone geometry, density, and bone strength: a pQCT study in young girls

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Laudermilk, Monica J.; Lee, Vinson R.; Blew, Robert M.; Stump, Craig; Houtkooper, Linda; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Longitudinal relationships between adiposity (total body and central) and bone development were assessed in young girls. Total body and android fat masses were positively associated with bone strength and density parameters of the femur and tibia. These results suggest adiposity may have site-specific stimulating effects on the developing bone. Introduction Childhood obesity may impair bone development, but the relationships between adiposity and bone remain unclear. Failure to account for fat pattern may explain the conflicting results. Purpose Longitudinal associations of total body fat mass (TBFM) and android fat mass (AFM) with 2-year changes in weight-bearing bone parameters were examined in 260 girls aged 8–13 years at baseline. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to measure bone strength index (BSI, square milligrams per quartic millimeter), strength–strain index (SSI, cubic millimeters), and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, milligrams per cubic centimeter) at distal metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions of the femur and tibia. TBFM and AFM were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Baseline TBFM and AFM were positively associated with the change in femur BSI (r =0.20, r =0.17, respectively) and femur trabecular vBMD (r =0.19, r =0.19, respectively). Similarly, positive associations were found between TBFM and change in tibia BSI and SSI (r =0.16, r =0.15, respectively), and femur total and trabecular vBMD (r =0.12, r =0.14, respectively). Analysis of covariance showed that girls in the middle thirds of AFM had significantly lower femur trabecular vBMD and significantly higher tibia cortical vBMD than girls in the highest thirds of AFM. All results were significant at p <0.05. Conclusions Whereas baseline levels of TBFM and AFM are positive predictors of bone strength and density at the femur and tibia, higher levels of AFM above a certain level may impair cortical vBMD growth at weight-bearing sites. Future

  18. Increasing weight-bearing physical activity and calcium-rich foods to promote bone mass gains among 9–11 year old girls: outcomes of the Cal-Girls study

    PubMed Central

    French, Simone A; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Ensrud, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    Background A two-year, community-based, group-randomized trial to promote bone mass gains among 9–11 year-old girls through increased intake of calcium-rich foods and weight-bearing physical activity was evaluated. Methods Following baseline data collection, 30 5th-grade Girl Scout troops were randomized to a two-year behavioral intervention program or to a no-treatment control group. Evaluations were conducted at baseline, one year, and two years. Measures included bone mineral content, density, and area (measured by DXA), dietary calcium intake (24-hour recall), and weight-bearing physical activity (physical activity checklist interview). Mixed-model regression was used to evaluate treatment-related changes in bone mineral content (g) for the total body, lumbar spine (L1-L4), proximal femur, one-third distal radius, and femoral neck. Changes in eating and physical activity behavioral outcomes were examined. Results Although the intervention was implemented with high fidelity, no significant intervention effects were observed for total bone mineral content or any specific bone sites. Significant intervention effects were observed for increases in dietary calcium. No significant intervention effects were observed for increases in weight-bearing physical activity. Conclusion Future research needs to identify the optimal dosage of weight-bearing physical activity and calcium-rich dietary behavior change required to maximize bone mass gains in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls. PMID:16029507

  19. Early developmental influences on self-esteem trajectories from adolescence through adulthood: Impact of birth weight and motor skills.

    PubMed

    Poole, Kristie L; Schmidt, Louis A; Ferro, Mark A; Missiuna, Cheryl; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2018-02-01

    While the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood varies from person to person, little research has examined how differences in early developmental processes might affect these pathways. This study examined how early motor skill development interacted with preterm birth status to predict self-esteem from adolescence through the early 30s. We addressed this using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) survivors (N = 179) and normal birth weight controls (N = 145) in the world, born between 1977 and 1982. Motor skills were measured using a performance-based assessment at age 8 and a retrospective self-report, and self-esteem was reported during three follow-up periods (age 12-16, age 22-26, and age 29-36). We found that birth weight status moderated the association between early motor skills and self-esteem. Stable over three decades, the self-esteem of normal birth weight participants was sensitive to early motor skills such that those with poorer motor functioning manifested lower self-esteem, while those with better motor skills manifested higher self-esteem. Conversely, differences in motor skill development did not affect the self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood in individuals born at extremely low birth weight. Early motor skill development may exert differential effects on self-esteem, depending on whether one is born at term or prematurely.

  20. Compliance with the Australian 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years: associations with weight status.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rute; Zhang, Zhiguang; Pereira, João R; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D

    2017-11-20

    For effective public health and surveillance it is important to document the proportion of young children who meet the new Australian Integrated 24 h Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and how these associate with health outcomes. We aimed to (i) assess compliance with the new Integrated 24 h Movement Guidelines for the Early Years in a sample of Australian toddlers; and (ii) ascertain whether compliance with the guidelines associates with weight status. The sample comprised 202 toddlers (104 girls) aged 19.74 ± 4.07 months from the GET UP! Participants wore accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) for 24 h over 7 consecutive days to assess physical activity, sedentary time and sleep. Parents reported participants' screen time. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) z-scores by age and sex were calculated. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to test differences in BMI z-scores between participants complying with (i) none or any individual guideline, (ii) any combination of meeting two guidelines, and (iii) those who met all three guidelines, adjusting for child age, gender and socioeconomic status. Only 8.9% of the sample met the overall 24 h movement guidelines. Most of the sample met the physical activity (96.5%) and sleep (79.7%) guidelines but only 11.4% met the sedentary behavior guideline. Average BMI Z-scores did not significantly differ between children who complied with none or any individual guideline, any combination of meeting two guidelines, and those who met all three guidelines (p > 0.05). Although the lack of significant differences, participants who accomplished any combination of two guidelines or all three guidelines appear to have had a lower BMI Z-score than those complying with one of the guidelines or none. Just under 9% of our sample met the overall Australian 24 h Movement Guidelines for the Early Years. BMI was not associated with the accomplishment of any of the 24-h Movement Guidelines. Strategies to

  1. Effects of post-fracture non-weight-bearing immobilization on muscle atrophy, intramuscular and intermuscular adipose tissues in the thigh and calf.

    PubMed

    Yoshiko, Akito; Yamauchi, Koun; Kato, Takayuki; Ishida, Koji; Koike, Teruhiko; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Akima, Hiroshi

    2018-06-09

    Disuse and/or a non-weight-bearing condition changes muscle composition, with decreased skeletal muscle tissue and increased fat within (intramuscular adipose tissue, IntraMAT) and between (intermuscular adipose tissue, InterMAT) given muscles. Excessive adipose tissue contributes to dysfunctional and metabolically impaired muscle. How these adipose tissues change during orthopedic treatment (e.g., cast immobilization, daily use of crutches) is not well documented. This study aimed to quantify changes in IntraMAT, InterMAT, and thigh and calf muscle tissue during orthopedic treatment. We studied 8 patients with fifth metatarsal bone or fibular fractures. The ankle joint involved underwent plaster casting for approximately 4 weeks, with crutches used during that time. Axial T1-weighted MRI at the mid-thigh and a 30% proximal site at the calf were obtained to measure IntraMAT and InterMAT cross-sectional areas (CSAs) and skeletal muscle tissue CSA before treatment and 4 weeks afterward. Thigh and calf muscle tissue CSAs were significantly decreased from before to after treatment: thigh, 85.8 ± 7.6 to 77.1 ± 7.3 cm 2 ; calf, 53.3 ± 5.5 to 48.9 ± 5.0 cm 2 (p < 0.05). None of the IntraMAT or InterMAT changes was statistically significant. There was a relation between the percentage change of thigh IntraMAT CSA and muscle tissue CSA (r s  = -0.86, p < 0.01). The 4 weeks of treatment primarily induced skeletal muscle atrophy with less of an effect on IntraMAT or InterMAT. There is a risk of increasing IntraMAT relatively by decreasing skeletal muscle tissue size during orthopedic treatment.

  2. Electromyographic preactivation pattern of the gluteus medius during weight-bearing functional tasks in women with and without anterior knee pain.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Theresa H; Muniz, Thiago B; Baldon, Rodrigo M; Maciel, Carlos D; Amorim, César F; Serrão, Fábio V

    2011-01-01

    Proximal factors have been proposed to influence the biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint. A delayed or diminished gluteus medius (GM) activation, before the foot contact on the ground during functional activities could lead to excessive femur adduction and internal rotation and be associated with anterior knee pain (AKP). There are few studies on this topic and the results were inconclusive, therefore, it is necessary to investigate the GM preactivation pattern during functional activities. To compare the GM electromyographic (EMG) preactivation pattern during walking, descending stairs and in single leg jump task in women with and without AKP. Nine women clinically diagnosed with AKP and ten control subjects with no history of knee injury participated in this study. We evaluated GM EMG linear envelope before the foot contact on the ground during walking and GM onset time and EMG linear envelope during descending stairs as well as in a single leg vertical jump. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine the between-group differences in GM EMG preactivation pattern. No between-group differences were observed in GM linear envelope during walking (P=0.41), GM onset time and linear envelope during descending stairs (P=0.17 and P=0.15) and single leg jump (P=0.81 and P=0.33). Women with AKP did not demonstrated altered GM preactivation pattern during functional weight bearing activities. Our results did not support the hypothesis that poor GM preactivation pattern could be associated with AKP.

  3. Intra-rater reliability and agreement of various methods of measurement to assess dorsiflexion in the Weight Bearing Dorsiflexion Lunge Test (WBLT) among female athletes.

    PubMed

    Langarika-Rocafort, Argia; Emparanza, José Ignacio; Aramendi, José F; Castellano, Julen; Calleja-González, Julio

    2017-01-01

    To examine the intra-observer reliability and agreement between five methods of measurement for dorsiflexion during Weight Bearing Dorsiflexion Lunge Test and to assess the degree of agreement between three methods in female athletes. Repeated measurements study design. Volleyball club. Twenty-five volleyball players. Dorsiflexion was evaluated using five methods: heel-wall distance, first toe-wall distance, inclinometer at tibia, inclinometer at Achilles tendon and the dorsiflexion angle obtained by a simple trigonometric function. For the statistical analysis, agreement was studied using the Bland-Altman method, the Standard Error of Measurement and the Minimum Detectable Change. Reliability analysis was performed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Measurement methods using the inclinometer had more than 6° of measurement error. The angle calculated by trigonometric function had 3.28° error. The reliability of inclinometer based methods had ICC values < 0.90. Distance based methods and trigonometric angle measurement had an ICC values > 0.90. Concerning the agreement between methods, there was from 1.93° to 14.42° bias, and from 4.24° to 7.96° random error. To assess DF angle in WBLT, the angle calculated by a trigonometric function is the most repeatable method. The methods of measurement cannot be used interchangeably. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate content of osteoarthritic human knee cartilage: site-specific correlation with weight-bearing force based on femorotibial angle measurement.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Shuhei; Nakajima, Mikio; Lotz, Martin; Kinoshita, Mitsuo

    2008-09-01

    This study analyzed glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in specific compartments of the knee joint to determine the impact of malalignment and helped refine indications for osteotomy. To assess malalignment, the radiological femorotibial angle (FTA) was measured and knee joints were also graded for OA severity with the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) classification. Cartilage samples were obtained from 36 knees of 32 OA patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery. Explants were harvested from the medial femoral condyle (MFC), lateral femoral condyle (LFC), patellar groove (PG), and lateral posterior femoral condyle (LPC). Concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). With OA severity, the average FTA significantly increased. HA and CS content in MFC was negatively correlated with radiographic FTA. In LFC, HA ratio, which is HA content in lateral condyle divided by medial condyle and chondroitin 6 sulfate, increased until about 190 degrees FTA. Importantly, at >190 degrees these contents were significantly decreased. HA and CS content of the femoral condyle shows topographic differences that are related to OA grade and weight-bearing force based on FTA. The clinical relevance is that osteotomy may not be indicated for patients with severe varus (>190 degrees) abnormalities. (c) 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society

  5. Different weight bearing push-up plus exercises with and without isometric horizontal abduction in subjects with scapular winging: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo-Jeong; Yoon, Tae-Lim; Choi, Sil-Ah; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the application of isometric horizontal abduction (IHA) differentially affected two weight-bearing push-up plus exercises by examining activation of the scapulothoracic muscles in subjects with scapular winging. Fifteen male subjects performed standard push-up plus (SPP) and wall push-up plus (WPP), with and without IHA. Two-way analyses of variance using two within-subject factors were used to determine the statistical significance of observed differences in upper trapezius (UT), pectoralis major (PM), and serratus anterior (SA) muscle activities and UT/SA and PM/SA muscle activity ratios. UT and SA muscle activities were greater during SPP than WPP. PM muscle activity was lower with IHA application. The UT/SA and PM/SA muscle activity ratios were lower during SPP than WPP. The PM/SA muscle activity ratio was lower with IHA application. The results suggest that IHA application using a Thera-Band can effectively reduce PM muscle activity during SPP and WPP exercises. Moreover, the SPP exercise can be used to increase UT and SA muscle activity and reduce the UT/SA and PM/SA muscle activity ratios in subjects with scapular winging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Socioeconomic Attainment of Extremely Low Birth Weight Survivors: The Role of Early Cognition.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Kathleen G; Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A; Saigal, Saroj; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-03-01

    To determine: (1) if childhood cognitive and academic abilities mediate the association between being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and socioeconomic attainment at age 29 to 36 years; (2) which cognitive abilities (IQ, verbal abilities, fluid intelligence, mathematical abilities, or academic achievement) most strongly mediate this association; and (3) if the mediating role of cognition is different in ELBW survivors with significant neurosensory impairment (NSI). A prospective, longitudinal cohort of 100 Canadian ELBW survivors born between 1977 and 1982 and 89 normal birth weight comparison participants were used to examine the mediating role of childhood cognition by using 5 cognitive mediators assessed at age 8 years (overall IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, quantitative ability, and academic achievement) on socioeconomic attainment at adulthood. Socioeconomic attainment was defined as personal annual earnings and full-time employment assessed via self-report at age 29 to 36 years. Mediation models revealed that childhood cognition mediated the association between ELBW status and income attainment, with mathematical abilities and overall IQ each accounting for 26% of the direct effect. Mediated effects were not statistically significant in full-time employment models. For both outcomes, the mediating effect of cognition was stronger for ELBW survivors with NSI. Childhood cognitive abilities partially mediate associations between ELBW status and adult income attainment. Early life cognition is a critical predictor of socioeconomic attainment in ELBW survivors, particularly in those born with NSI. Interventions aimed at enhancing early cognition in ELBW survivors may help optimize their later socioeconomic attainment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. [Relationship between body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Long; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Ying; Guo, Min; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-03-01

    To explore the relationship between weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The data of 14 population samples from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology conducted in 1998 were used. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body weight at age 25 years. The body mass index (BMI) at the age 25 years was calculated. The association between body weight in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age and T2DM was examined by using logistic regression model. The incidence of T2DM in low weight group (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal weight group (BMI: 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight group (BMI: 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2)) and obese group (BMI:≥28.0 kg/m(2)) at 25 years old were 2.4%(30/1263), 2.8%(266/9562), 4.0%(70/1739) and 6.4% (7/110), respectively (P value for trend<0.01). The incidence of T2DM for adults with weight change <-7.5 kg, -7.5--2.6 kg, -2.5-2.5 kg, 2.6-7.5 kg, 7.6-12.5 kg and >12.5 kg at middle age were 2.5% (18/712), 1.3%(21/1629), 2.1%(48/2330), 2.3%(59/2585), 3.7%(94/2518), and 4.6% (133/2900) respectively. (P value for trend <0.01), Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that overweight and obesity at age 25 years and subsequent weight gain were positively correlated with T2DM after adjusted other risk factors (all P values for trend <0.01). Overweight and obesity in early adulthood and weight gain at middle age were both independently associated with the increased risk of T2DM in middle-aged men and women.

  8. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings of kidneys in patients with early phase of obstruction.

    PubMed

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Kocakoc, Ercan; Sonmezgoz, Fitnet

    2009-04-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an MR technique used to show molecular diffusion. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), as a quantitative parameter calculated from the DW MR images. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of DW MR imaging in early phase of obstruction due to urolithiasis. Twenty-six patients with acute dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system detected by intravenous urography were included in this study. MR imaging was performed using a 1.5 T whole-body superconducting MR scanner. DW imaging can be performed using single-shot spin-echo, echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences with the following diffusion gradient b values: 100, 600, 1000 s/mm(2). Circular region of interest (ROI) was placed in the renal parenchyma for the measurement of ADC values in the normal and obstructed kidney. For statistical analyses, Paired t test were used. In spite of obstructed kidneys had the lower ADC values compared to normal kidneys, these alterations were statistically insignificant. We did not observe significantly different ADC values of early phase of obstructed kidneys compared to normal kidneys.

  9. Predictors of weight loss in early treated Parkinson's disease from the NET-PD LS-1 cohort.

    PubMed

    Wills, Anne-Marie; Li, Ruosha; Pérez, Adriana; Ren, Xuehan; Boyd, James

    2017-08-01

    Weight loss is a common symptom of Parkinson's disease and is associated with impaired quality of life. Predictors of weight loss have not been studied in large clinical cohorts. We previously observed an association between change in body mass index and change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores. In this study, we performed a secondary analysis of longitudinal data (1-6 years) from 1619 participants in the NINDS Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS1) to explore predictors of weight loss in a large prospective clinical trial cohort of early treated Parkinson's disease. The NET-PD LS1 study was a double-blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial of creatine monohydrate 10 gm/day in early treated PD (within 5 years of diagnosis and within 2 years of starting dopaminergic medications). Linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of baseline clinical covariates on weight change over time. On average, participants lost only 0.6 kg per year. Higher age, baseline weight, female gender, higher baseline UPDRS scores, greater postural instability, difficulty eating and drinking, lower cognitive scores and baseline levodopa use (compared to dopamine agonists) were all associated with weight loss. Surprisingly baseline difficulty swallowing, dyskinesia, depression, intestinal hypomotility (constipation) and self-reported nausea/vomiting/anorexia were not significantly associated with weight loss in this cohort of early treated Parkinson's disease patients. On average, participants with Parkinson's disease experience little weight loss during the first 1-6 years after starting dopaminergic replacement therapy, however levodopa use and postural instability were both predictors of early weight loss. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier# NCT00449865.

  10. 'Mum's the word': Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ng, Johan Yau Yin; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Vlachopoulos, Symeon; Katartzi, Ermioni S; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2016-03-01

    Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls are well known, but few models have incorporated concerns reported directly by mothers as a predictor, and both eating and exercise outcomes. Using questionnaires, a comprehensive model of 232 pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls' weight concerns, eating restraint, and exercise behavior was tested. Structural equation modeling showed that daughters' weight concerns were predicted primarily by their perceptions of their mothers' concerns about the daughters' weight, as well as by daughters' BMI, appearance conversations with friends, and perceived media pressure. Mothers' concerns with their daughters' weight were indirectly associated with daughters' own concerns, via the daughters' perceptions of their mothers' concerns. Daughters' concerns with their weight were a strong predictor of eating restraint, but not exercise behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early-Onset Invasive Candidiasis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Perinatal Acquisition Predicts Poor Outcome.

    PubMed

    Barton, Michelle; Shen, Alex; O'Brien, Karel; Robinson, Joan L; Davies, H Dele; Simpson, Kim; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Langley, Joanne; Le Saux, Nicole; Sauve, Reginald; Synnes, Anne; Tan, Ben; de Repentigny, Louis; Rubin, Earl; Hui, Chuck; Kovacs, Lajos; Yau, Yvonne C W; Richardson, Susan E

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal invasive candidiasis (IC) presenting in the first week of life is less common and less well described than later-onset IC. Risk factors, clinical features, and disease outcomes have not been studied in early-onset disease (EOD, ≤7 days) or compared to late-onset disease (LOD, >7 days). All extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) cases with IC and controls from a multicenter study of neonatal candidiasis enrolled from 2001 to 2003 were included in this study. Factors associated with occurrence and outcome of EOD in ELBW infants were determined. Forty-five ELBW infants and their 84 matched controls were included. Fourteen (31%) ELBW infants had EOD. Birth weight <750 g, gestation <25 weeks, chorioamnionitis, and vaginal delivery were all strongly associated with EOD. Infection with Candida albicans, disseminated disease, pneumonia, and cardiovascular disease were significantly more common in EOD than in LOD. The EOD case fatality rate (71%) was higher than in LOD (32%) or controls (15%) (P = .0001). The rate of neurodevelopmental impairment and mortality combined was similar in EOD (86%) and LOD (72%), but higher than in controls (32%; P = .007). ELBW infants with EOD have a very poor prognosis compared to those with LOD. The role of perinatal transmission in EOD is supported by its association with chorioamnionitis, vaginal delivery, and pneumonia. Dissemination and cardiovascular involvement are common, and affected infants often die. Empiric treatment should be considered for ELBW infants delivered vaginally who have pneumonia and whose mothers have chorioamnionitis or an intrauterine foreign body. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Early sepsis does not increase the risk of late sepsis in very low birth weight neonates.

    PubMed

    Wynn, James L; Hansen, Nellie I; Das, Abhik; Cotten, C Michael; Goldberg, Ronald N; Sánchez, Pablo J; Bell, Edward F; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Carlo, Waldemar A; Laptook, Abbot R; Higgins, Rosemary D; Benjamin, Daniel K; Stoll, Barbara J

    2013-05-01

    To examine whether preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have an increased risk of late-onset sepsis (LOS) following early-onset sepsis (EOS). Retrospective analysis of VLBW infants (401-1500 g) born September 1998 through December 2009 who survived >72 hours and were cared for within the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Sepsis was defined by growth of bacteria or fungi in a blood culture obtained ≤ 72 hours of birth (EOS) or >72 hours (LOS) and antimicrobial therapy for ≥ 5 days or death <5 days while receiving therapy. Regression models were used to assess risk of death or LOS by 120 days and LOS by 120 days among survivors to discharge or 120 days, adjusting for gestational age and other covariates. Of 34,396 infants studied, 504 (1.5%) had EOS. After adjustment, risk of death or LOS by 120 days did not differ overall for infants with EOS compared with those without EOS [risk ratio (RR): 0.99 (0.89-1.09)] but was reduced in infants born at <25 weeks gestation [RR: 0.87 (0.76-0.99), P = .048]. Among survivors, no difference in LOS risk was found overall for infants with versus without EOS [RR: 0.88 (0.75-1.02)], but LOS risk was reduced in infants with birth weight 401-750 g who had EOS [RR: 0.80 (0.64-0.99), P = .047]. Risk of LOS after EOS was not increased in VLBW infants. Surprisingly, risk of LOS following EOS appeared to be reduced in the smallest, most premature infants, underscoring the need for age-specific analyses of immune function. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle Function and Skeletal Quality and Strength in +/G610C Mice With and Without Weight-Bearing Exercise.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Youngjae; Carleton, Stephanie M; Gentry, Bettina A; Yao, Xiaomei; Ferreira, J Andries; Salamango, Daniel J; Weis, MaryAnn; Oestreich, Arin K; Williams, Ashlee M; McCray, Marcus G; Eyre, David R; Brown, Marybeth; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2015-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous heritable connective tissue disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fragility. Bone is inherently mechanosensitive, with bone strength being proportional to muscle mass and strength. Physically active healthy children accrue more bone than inactive children. Children with type I OI exhibit decreased exercise capacity and muscle strength compared with healthy peers. It is unknown whether this muscle weakness reflects decreased physical activity or a muscle pathology. In this study, we used heterozygous G610C OI model mice (+/G610C), which model both the genotype and phenotype of a large Amish OI kindred, to evaluate hindlimb muscle function and physical activity levels before evaluating the ability of +/G610C mice to undergo a treadmill exercise regimen. We found +/G610C mice hindlimb muscles do not exhibit compromised muscle function, and their activity levels were not reduced relative to wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice were also able to complete an 8-week treadmill regimen. Biomechanical integrity of control and exercised wild-type and +/G610C femora were analyzed by torsional loading to failure. The greatest skeletal gains in response to exercise were observed in stiffness and the shear modulus of elasticity with alterations in collagen content. Analysis of tibial cortical bone by Raman spectroscopy demonstrated similar crystallinity and mineral/matrix ratios regardless of sex, exercise, and genotype. Together, these findings demonstrate +/G610C OI mice have equivalent muscle function, activity levels, and ability to complete a weight-bearing exercise regimen as wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice exhibited increased femoral stiffness and decreased hydroxyproline with exercise, whereas other biomechanical parameters remain unaffected, suggesting a more rigorous exercise regimen or another exercise modality may be required to improve bone quality of OI mice. © 2015 American Society for Bone

  14. Weight-bearing MR imaging as an option in the study of gravitational effects on the vocal tract of untrained subjects in singing phonation.

    PubMed

    Traser, Louisa; Burdumy, Michael; Richter, Bernhard; Vicari, Marco; Echternach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of subjects in a supine position can be used to evaluate the configuration of the vocal tract during phonation. However, studies of speech phonation have shown that gravity can affect vocal tract shape and bias measurements. This is one of the reasons that MRI studies of singing phonation have used professionally trained singers as subjects, because they are generally considered to be less affected by the supine body position and environmental distractions. A study of untrained singers might not only contribute to the understanding of intuitive singing function and aid the evaluation of potential hazards for vocal health, but also provide insights into the effect of the supine position on singers in general. In the present study, an open configuration 0.25 T MRI system with a rotatable examination bed was used to study the effect of body position in 20 vocally untrained subjects. The subjects were asked to sing sustained tones in both supine and upright body positions on different pitches and in different register conditions. Morphometric measurements were taken from the acquired images of a sagittal slice depicting the vocal tract. The analysis concerning the vocal tract configuration in the two body positions revealed differences in 5 out of 10 measured articulatory parameters. In the upright position the jaw was less protruded, the uvula was elongated, the larynx more tilted and the tongue was positioned more to the front of the mouth than in the supine position. The findings presented are in agreement with several studies on gravitational effects in speech phonation, but contrast with the results of a previous study on professional singers of our group where only minor differences between upright and supine body posture were observed. The present study demonstrates that imaging of the vocal tract using weight-bearing MR imaging is a feasible tool for the study of sustained phonation in singing for vocally untrained subjects.

  15. Weight-Bearing MR Imaging as an Option in the Study of Gravitational Effects on the Vocal Tract of Untrained Subjects in Singing Phonation

    PubMed Central

    Traser, Louisa; Burdumy, Michael; Richter, Bernhard; Vicari, Marco; Echternach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of subjects in a supine position can be used to evaluate the configuration of the vocal tract during phonation. However, studies of speech phonation have shown that gravity can affect vocal tract shape and bias measurements. This is one of the reasons that MRI studies of singing phonation have used professionally trained singers as subjects, because they are generally considered to be less affected by the supine body position and environmental distractions. A study of untrained singers might not only contribute to the understanding of intuitive singing function and aid the evaluation of potential hazards for vocal health, but also provide insights into the effect of the supine position on singers in general. In the present study, an open configuration 0.25 T MRI system with a rotatable examination bed was used to study the effect of body position in 20 vocally untrained subjects. The subjects were asked to sing sustained tones in both supine and upright body positions on different pitches and in different register conditions. Morphometric measurements were taken from the acquired images of a sagittal slice depicting the vocal tract. The analysis concerning the vocal tract configuration in the two body positions revealed differences in 5 out of 10 measured articulatory parameters. In the upright position the jaw was less protruded, the uvula was elongated, the larynx more tilted and the tongue was positioned more to the front of the mouth than in the supine position. The findings presented are in agreement with several studies on gravitational effects in speech phonation, but contrast with the results of a previous study on professional singers of our group where only minor differences between upright and supine body posture were observed. The present study demonstrates that imaging of the vocal tract using weight-bearing MR imaging is a feasible tool for the study of sustained phonation in singing for vocally untrained subjects

  16. High frequency circular translation pin-on-disk method for accelerated wear testing of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene as a bearing material in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Saikko, Vesa

    2015-01-21

    The temporal change of the direction of sliding relative to the ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component of prosthetic joints is known to be of crucial importance with respect to wear. One complete revolution of the resultant friction vector is commonly called a wear cycle. It was hypothesized that in order to accelerate the wear test, the cycle frequency may be substantially increased if the circumference of the slide track is reduced in proportion, and still the wear mechanisms remain realistic and no overheating takes place. This requires an additional slow motion mechanism with which the lubrication of the contact is maintained and wear particles are conveyed away from the contact. A three-station, dual motion high frequency circular translation pin-on-disk (HF-CTPOD) device with a relative cycle frequency of 25.3 Hz and an average sliding velocity of 27.4 mm/s was designed. The pins circularly translated at high frequency (1.0 mm per cycle, 24.8 Hz, clockwise), and the disks at low frequency (31.4mm per cycle, 0.5 Hz, counter-clockwise). In a 22 million cycle (10 day) test, the wear rate of conventional gamma-sterilized UHMWPE pins against polished CoCr disks in diluted serum was 1.8 mg per 24 h, which was six times higher than that in the established 1 Hz CTPOD device. The wear mechanisms were similar. Burnishing of the pin was the predominant feature. No overheating took place. With the dual motion HF-CTPOD method, the wear testing of UHMWPE as a bearing material in total hip arthroplasty can be substantially accelerated without concerns of the validity of the wear simulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Association Between Maternal Early Life Forced Sexual Intercourse and Offspring Birth Weight: The Role of Socioeconomic Status.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Amelia R; Morris, Julia

    2017-05-01

    This study utilizes a life-course framework to investigate whether maternal early life forced sexual intercourse operates in conjunction with health behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and the prenatal period to influence offspring birth weight. Using data from the 1994-2009 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we examined whether early life forced sexual intercourse predicted offspring birth weight through a mediated pathway, including depressive symptoms, substance use, and prenatal cigarette smoking. We stratify our analysis by socioeconomic status (SES) to determine whether the proposed pathways operate similarly, or differently, according to SES. Our findings suggest that the pathways through which forced sexual intercourse affects offspring birth weight differ by SES. Among middle-to-high SES women, we found a mediated pathway linking forced sexual intercourse to offspring birth weight with prenatal cigarette smoking predicting lower offspring birth weight. Among low SES women, however, we did not find a mediated pathway linking forced sexual intercourse to birth weight. Findings suggest that prenatal cigarette smoking was not a mechanism of influence in the pathway between maternal early life forced sexual intercourse and offspring birth weight for low SES women. Our findings suggest that forced sexual intercourse may influence infant birth weight in the next generation. Infants born with a low birth weight are at increased risk for a myriad of adverse outcomes across the life-course. Study results suggest the importance of interventions designed to reduce behavioral risks and to support health promoting behaviors among survivors in the short term, in an effort to prevent long-term consequences among later-born offspring.

  18. Parent-offspring conflict theory, signaling of need, and weight gain in early life.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C

    2003-06-01

    Human growth in early life has major implications for fitness. During this period, the mother regulates the growth of her offspring through placental nutrition and lactation. However, parent-offspring conflict theory predicts that offspring are selected to demand more resources than the mother is selected to provide. This general issue has prompted the development of begging theory, which attempts to find the optimal levels of offspring demand and parental provisioning. Several models have been proposed to account for begging behavior, whether by biochemical or behavioral pathways, including: (1) blackmail of parents; (2) scramble competition between multiple offspring; (3) honest signaling of nutritional need; and (4) honest signaling of offspring worth. These models are all supported by data from nonhuman animals, with species varying according to which model is relevant. This paper examines the evidence that human suckling and crying signal nutritional demand, need, and worth to the mother. While suckling provides hormonal stimulation of breast milk production and signals hunger, crying fulfills a different role, with evidence suggesting that it signals both worth and need for resources (nutrition and thermoregulation). The role of signaling in nutritional demand is examined in the context of three common health problems that have traditionally been assumed to have physiological rather than behavioral causes: excess weight gain, failure to thrive, and colic. The value of such an evolutionary approach lies in its potential to enhance behavioral management of these conditions.

  19. Effectiveness of Early Intervention for Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine: Moderating Effects of Low Birth Weight on Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sheinberg, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of low birth weight on the effectiveness of an early intervention program to improve cognitive, language and behavioral outcomes for children prenatally exposed to cocaine. Participants included 293 primarily minority, low SES children who were enrolled in the intervention during their first year and…

  20. Early light reduction for preventing retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Eliane C; Jorge, Edson N; El Dib, Regina P

    2013-08-06

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a complex condition of the developing retinal blood vessels and is one of the leading causes of preventable childhood blindness. Several risk factors for ROP have been studied over the past 50 years. Among them, general immaturity (low birth weight and low gestational age) and prolonged oxygen therapy have been consistently related to disease onset. However, it is understood that the progression of the disease is multifactorial and may be associated with others risk factors, such as multiple gestation, apnoea, intracranial haemorrhage, anaemia, sepsis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, multiple transfusions and light exposure. Furthermore, the precise role of these individual factors in the development of the disease has not yet been well established. To determine whether the reduction of early environmental light exposure reduces the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or poor ROP outcomes among very low birth weight infants. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Neonatal Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, Science Citation Index Database, CANCERLIT, the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials and www.clinicaltrials.gov. We also searched previous reviews including cross-references, abstracts, conference and symposia proceedings, and contacted expert informants. This search was updated in October 2012. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that reduced light exposure to premature infants within the first seven days following birth were considered for this review. We also considered cluster-randomised controlled trials. Data on clinical outcomes including any acute ROP and poor ROP outcome were extracted by both review authors independently and consensus reached. We conducted data analysis according to the standards of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Data from four randomised trials with a total of 897 participants failed to show any

  1. Importance of early postnatal weight gain for normal retinal angiogenesis in very preterm infants: a multicenter study analyzing weight velocity deviations for the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Carolyn; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; VanderVeen, Deborah K; Hellström, Ann

    2012-08-01

    To assess WINROP (https://winrop.com), an algorithm using postnatal weight measurements, as a tool for the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a large geographically and racially diverse study population. WINROP analysis was performed retrospectively on conventionally at-risk infants from 10 neonatal intensive careunits.Weight measurements were entered into WINROP, which signals an alarm for an abnormal weight gain rate. Infants were classified into categories of no alarm (unlikely to develop type 1ROP)and alarm (at risk for developing type 1ROP).Use of WINROP requires that an infant has (1) gestational age less than 32 weeks at birth, (2) weekly weight measurements,(3) physiologic weight gain,and(4)absence of other pathologic retinal vascular disease. A total of 1706 infants with a median gestational age of 28 weeks (range, 22-31 weeks) and median birth weight of 1016 g (range, 378-2240 g) were included in the study analysis. An alarm occurred in 1101 infants (64.5%), with a median time from birth to alarm of 3 weeks (range, 0-12 weeks) and from alarm to treatment of 8 weeks (range, 1 day to 22 weeks). The sensitivity of WINROP was 98.6% and the negative predictive value was 99.7%. Two infants with type 1 ROP requiring treatment after 40 weeks' postmenstrual age did not receive an alarm. The WINROP system is a useful adjunct for ROP screening that identifies high-risk infants early to optimize care and potentially reduce the overall number of diagnostic ROP examinations.

  2. Weight bearing through lower limbs in a standing frame with and without arm support and low-magnitude whole-body vibration in men and women with complete motor paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Kathie A; Beck, Lisa A; Lamb, Jeffry L; Kaufman, Kenton R; Amin, Shreyasee; Wuermser, Lisa-Ann

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the proportion of body weight borne through the lower limbs in persons with complete motor paraplegia using a standing frame, with and without the support of their arms. We also examined the effect of low-magnitude whole-body vibration on loads borne by the lower limbs. Vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) were measured in 11 participants (six men and five women) with paraplegia of traumatic origin (injury level T3-T12) standing on a low-magnitude vibrating plate using a standing frame. GRFs were measured in four conditions: (1) no vibration with arms on standing frame tray, (2) no vibration with arms at side, (3) vibration with arms on tray, and (4) vibration with arms at side. GRF with arms on tray, without vibration, was 0.76 ± 0.07 body weight. With arms at the side, GRF increased to 0.85 ± 0.12 body weight. With vibration, mean GRF did not significantly differ from no-vibration conditions for either arm positions. Oscillation of GRF with vibration was significantly different from no-vibration conditions (P < 0.001) but similar in both arm positions. Men and women with paraplegia using a standing frame bear most of their weight through their lower limbs. Supporting their arms on the tray reduces the GRF by approximately 10% body weight. Low-magnitude vibration provided additional oscillation of the load-bearing forces and was proportionally similar regardless of arm position.

  3. Migrant Background and Weight Gain in Early Infancy: Results from the German Study Sample of the IDEFICS Study

    PubMed Central

    Reeske, Anna; Spallek, Jacob; Bammann, Karin; Eiben, Gabriele; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kourides, Yiannis; Nagy, Peter; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine variations in infant weight gain between children of parents with and without migrant background and to investigate how these differences are explained by pre- and perinatal factors. Methods We used data on birth weight and weight at six months from well-child check-up books that were collected from a population-based German sample of children in the IDEFICS study (n = 1,287). We calculated unadjusted and adjusted means for weight z-scores at birth and six months later. We applied linear regression for change in weight z-score and we calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for rapid weight gain by logistic regression, adjusted for biological, social and behavioural factors. Results Weight z-scores for migrants and Germans differed slightly at birth, but were markedly increased for Turkish and Eastern European infants at age six months. Turkish infants showed the highest change in weight z-score during the first 6 months (ß = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56) and an increased probability of rapid weight gain compared with German infants. Examination of the joint effect of migrant and socioeconomic status (SES) showed the greatest change in weight z-scores in Turkish infants from middle SES families (ß = 0.77; 95% CI 0.40–1.14) and infants of parents from Eastern European countries with high SES (ß = 0.72; 95% CI 0.13–1.32). Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that migrant background is an independent risk factor for infant weight gain and suggest that the onset of health inequalities in overweight starts in early infancy. PMID:23593270

  4. Early prediction of olanzapine-induced weight gain for schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Lin, Shih-Chi; Huang, Yu-Hui; Wang, Fu-Chiang; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether weight changes at week 2 or other factors predicted weight gain at week 6 for schizophrenia patients receiving olanzapine. This study was the secondary analysis of a six-week trial for 94 patients receiving olanzapine (5 mg/d) plus trifluoperazine (5 mg/d), or olanzapine (10 mg/d) alone. Patients were included in analysis only if they had completed the 6-week trial (per protocol analysis). Weight gain was defined as a 7% or greater increase of the patient's baseline weight. The receiver operating characteristic curve was employed to determine the optimal cutoff points of statistically significant predictors. Eleven of the 67 patients completing the 6-week trial were classified as weight gainers. Weight change at week 2 was the statistically significant predictor for ultimate weight gain at week 6. A weight change of 1.0 kg at week 2 appeared to be the optimal cutoff point, with a sensitivity of 0.92, a specificity of 0.75, and an AUC of 0.85. Using weight change at week 2 to predict weight gain at week 6 is favorable in terms of both specificity and sensitivity. Weight change of 1.0 kg or more at 2 weeks is a reliable predictor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rehabilitation after hallux valgus surgery: importance of physical therapy to restore weight bearing of the first ray during the stance phase.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Reinhard; Hofstaetter, Stefan G; Adams, Samuel B; Pichler, Florian; Kristen, Karl-Heinz; Trnka, Hans-Joerg

    2009-09-01

    Operative treatment of people with hallux valgus can yield favorable clinical and radiographic results. However, plantar pressure analysis has demonstrated that physiologic gait patterns are not restored after hallux valgus surgery. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the changes of plantar pressure distribution during the stance phase of gait in patients who underwent hallux valgus surgery and received a multimodal rehabilitation program. This was a prospective descriptive study. Thirty patients who underwent Austin (n=20) and scarf (n=10) osteotomy for correction of mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity were included in this study. Four weeks postoperatively they received a multimodal rehabilitation program once per week for 4 to 6 weeks. Plantar pressure analysis was performed preoperatively and 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively. In addition, range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint was measured, and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot questionnaire was administered preoperatively and at 6 months after surgery. The mean AOFAS score significantly increased from 60.7 points (SD=11.9) preoperatively to 94.5 points (SD=4.5) 6 months after surgery. First metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion increased at 6 months postoperatively, with a significant increase in isolated dorsiflexion. In the first metatarsal head region, maximum force increased from 117.8 N to 126.4 N and the force-time integral increased from 37.9 N.s to 55.6 N.s between the preoperative and 6-month assessments. In the great toe region, maximum force increased from 66.1 N to 87.2 N and the force-time integral increased from 18.7 N.s to 24.2 N.s between the preoperative and 6-month assessments. A limitation of the study was the absence of a control group due to the descriptive nature of the study. The results suggest that postoperative physical therapy and gait training may lead to improved function and weight bearing of the first

  6. Radiographic methods in knee osteoarthritis: a further comparison of semiflexed (MTP), schuss-tunnel, and weight-bearing anteroposterior views for joint space narrowing and osteophytes.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Frederick; Lane, Nancy E; Buckland-Wright, Chris

    2002-12-01

    Current radiographic evaluation of knee osteoarthritis (OA) depends primarily on the presence and severity of joint space narrowing (JSN) and osteophytes. Radiographic JSN is a function of the actual JSN caused by articular cartilage loss and the observable JSN artifactually caused when the tibial and femoral surfaces diverge due to variations in patient's knee position. Views yielding the greatest JSN are the most accurate. Osteophytes are also dependent on positioning. This study investigated the consequences of positioning on JSN and osteophytes in clinical studies in which the outcome of OA knee is scored. In total, 1105 patients underwent 1175 paired radiographic examinations using weight-bearing (WB) standard anterior-posterior (AP) extended knee views (AP-WB), semiflexed WB posterior-anterior views with the knee in contact with the film and the 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint under the film plane (MTP) (method of Buckland-Wright), and WB PA views with the tip of the great toe at the film plane, 20 degrees of knee flexion and 5 degrees downward angulation of the x-ray tube (schuss-tunnel view). Careful attention was given to proper positioning. JSN and osteophytes were scored on a 0-3 scale. JSN was significantly greater by the MTP and schuss-tunnel methods than by the AP-WB method, but no difference was found between the MTP and schuss-tunnel methods. In addition, disagreement was identified in 34% of MTP and AP-WB scores. In 69.3% of disagreements the scores were more abnormal in the MTP view. When the disagreements were studied, the mean MTP score was 1.68 compared to 1.12 for the AP-WB score. Fifty-seven knees were scored as 3 by the MTP view and as 2 by the AP-WB, and 8 knees were scored as 3 by the AP-WB view and 2 by the MTP view. Little difference in osteophytes was noted among the 3 methods, although fewer osteophytes were identified by the schuss-tunnel method than the AP-WB method. Using the clinical reading methods of this study, the MTP and

  7. Reliability, validity, and minimal detectable change of the push-off test scores in assessing upper extremity weight-bearing ability.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Saurabh P; George, Hannah R; Goering, Christian A; Shafer, Danielle R; Koester, Alan; Novotny, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Clinical measurement study. The push-off test (POT) was recently conceived and found to be reliable and valid for assessing weight bearing through injured wrist or elbow. However, further research with larger sample can lend credence to the preliminary findings supporting the use of the POT. This study examined the interrater reliability, construct validity, and measurement error for the POT in patients with wrist conditions. Participants with musculoskeletal (MSK) wrist conditions were recruited. The performance on the POT, grip isometric strength of wrist extensors was assessed. The shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and numeric pain rating scale were completed. The intraclass correlation coefficient assessed interrater reliability of the POT. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) examined the concurrent relationships between the POT and other measures. The standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval were assessed as measurement error and index of true change for the POT. A total of 50 participants with different elbow or wrist conditions (age: 48.1 ± 16.6 years) were included in this study. The results of this study strongly supported the interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.96 and 0.93 for the affected and unaffected sides, respectively) of the POT in patients with wrist MSK conditions. The POT showed convergent relationships with the grip strength on the injured side (r = 0.89) and the wrist extensor strength (r = 0.7). The POT showed smaller standard error of measurement (1.9 kg). The minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval for the POT was 4.4 kg for the sample. This study provides additional evidence to support the reliability and validity of the POT. This is the first study that provides the values for the measurement error and true change on the POT scores in patients with wrist MSK conditions. Further research should examine the

  8. The effect of non-weight bearing group-exercising on females with non-specific chronic low back pain: a randomized single blind controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Masharawi, Youssef; Nadaf, Nedal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of active non-weight-bearing (NWB) group exercising on women with non specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). Forty females with NSCLBP were assigned in a randomized control longitudinal single blinded pilot study. 20 of them were assigned to a NWB bi-weekly group exercise class and 20 females were included in the control group. The exercises involved the entire lumbo-pelvic spine aimed at improving lumbar mobility/flexibility and stability. Pain intensity (VAS), back specific disability (Rolland Morris questionnaire-RMQ), and lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion measurements were taken prior to intervention (t(0)), immediately following 4 weeks of intervention (t(1)) and 8 weeks later (t(fu)). Reliability trials were conducted on 10 females. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical significance (p < 0.05). The following significant changes in outcome measures were indicated at t(1) compared with t(0) and control group (p < 0.001): an increase in lumbar flexion and extension (mean difference = 9.26◦ (+54%) for flexion and 5.95◦ for extension(+98%)); reduction in VAS score (mean difference = 2.32 (+58%)) and RMQ score (mean difference = 4.9 (−34%)). All changes remained significant at t(fu). At t(0), lumbar flexion was correlated with extension (r = 0.547) and VAS (r = −0.581),whereas the RMQ score correlated with VAS score (r = 0.599) and negatively with lumbar extension (r = −0.665). At t(1),lumbar flexion correlated with extension (r = 0.664) and negatively with RMQ score (r = −0.54). At t(fu), changes in VAS score were negatively correlated with changes in lumbar flexion (r = −0.522), while changes in lumbar flexion correlated with extension (r = 0.58). A functional program of NWB group exercising improves functional, painful status, lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion in women suffering from NSCLBP.

  9. Association between bone stiffness and nutritional biomarkers combined with weight-bearing exercise, physical activity, and sedentary time in preadolescent children. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Diana; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Gianfagna, Francesco; Konstabel, Kenn; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Siani, Alfonso; Sioen, Isabelle; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity (PA) and micronutrients such as calcium (Ca), vitamin D (25OHD), and phosphate (PO) are important determinants of skeletal development. This case-control study examined the association of these nutritional biomarkers and different PA behaviours, such as habitual PA, weight-bearing exercise (WBE) and sedentary time (SED) with bone stiffness (SI) in 1819 2-9-year-old children from the IDEFICS study (2007-2008). SI was measured on the calcaneus using quantitative ultrasound. Serum and urine Ca and PO and serum 25OHD were determined. Children's sports activities were reported by parents using a standardised questionnaire. A subsample of 1089 children had accelerometer-based PA data (counts per minute, cpm). Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SED were estimated. Children with poor SI (below the 15th age-/sex-/height-specific percentile) were defined as cases (N=603). Randomly selected controls (N=1216) were matched by age, sex, and country. Odds ratios (OR) for poor SI were calculated by conditional logistic regression for all biomarkers and PA behaviour variables separately and combined (expressed as tertiles and dichotomised variables, respectively). ORs were adjusted for fat-free mass, dairy product consumption, and daylight duration. We observed increased ORs for no sports (OR=1.39, p<0.05), PA levels below 524 cpm (OR=1.85, p<0.05) and MVPA below 4.2% a day (OR=1.69, p<0.05) compared to WBE, high PA levels (<688 cpm) and high MVPA (6.7%), respectively. SED was not associated with SI. ORs were moderately elevated for low serum Ca and 25OHD. However, biomarkers were not statistically significantly associated with SI and did not modify the association between PA behaviours and SI. Although nutritional biomarkers appear to play a minor role compared to the osteogenic effect of PA and WBE, it is noteworthy that the highest risk for poor SI was observed for no sports or low MVPA combined with lower serum Ca (<2.5 mmol/l) or lower 25OHD (<43.0 nmol

  10. Effects of weight-bearing exercise on a mini-trampoline on foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation of diabetic neuropathic feet; a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Kanchanasamut, Wararom; Pensri, Praneet

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Foot and ankle exercise has been advocated as a preventative approach in reducing the risk of foot ulceration. However, knowledge about the appropriate types and intensity of exercise program for diabetic foot ulcer prevention is still limited. The current study aimed to examine the effects of an eight-week mini-trampoline exercise on improving foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation of diabetic neuropathic feet. Methods: Twenty-one people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy who had impaired sensation perception were divided into two groups. The exercise group received a foot-care education program plus an eight-week home exercise program using the mini-trampoline (n = 11); whereas a control group received a foot-care education only (n = 10). Measurements were undertaken at the beginning, at the completion of the eight-week program and at a 20-week follow-up. Results: Both groups were similar prior to the study. Subjects in the exercise group significantly increased the range of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in flexion (left: p = 0.040, right: p = 0.012) and extension (left: p = 0.013) of both feet more than controlled subjects. There was a trend for peak plantar pressure at the medial forefoot to decrease in the exercise group (p = 0.016), but not in the control group. At week 20, the number of subjects in the exercise group who improved their vibration perception in their feet notably increased when compared to the control group (left: p = 0.043; right: p = 0.004). Conclusions: This is a preliminary study to document the improvements in foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation following weight-bearing exercise on a flexible surface in people with diabetic neuropathic feet. Mini-trampoline exercise may be used as an adjunct to other interventions to reduce risk of foot ulceration. A larger sample size is needed to verify these findings. This trial is registered with COA No. 097.2/55. PMID:28326159

  11. Effects of weight-bearing exercise on a mini-trampoline on foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation of diabetic neuropathic feet; a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kanchanasamut, Wararom; Pensri, Praneet

    2017-01-01

    Objective : Foot and ankle exercise has been advocated as a preventative approach in reducing the risk of foot ulceration. However, knowledge about the appropriate types and intensity of exercise program for diabetic foot ulcer prevention is still limited. The current study aimed to examine the effects of an eight-week mini-trampoline exercise on improving foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation of diabetic neuropathic feet. Methods : Twenty-one people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy who had impaired sensation perception were divided into two groups. The exercise group received a foot-care education program plus an eight-week home exercise program using the mini-trampoline ( n  = 11); whereas a control group received a foot-care education only ( n  = 10). Measurements were undertaken at the beginning, at the completion of the eight-week program and at a 20-week follow-up. Results : Both groups were similar prior to the study. Subjects in the exercise group significantly increased the range of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in flexion (left: p  = 0.040, right: p  = 0.012) and extension (left: p  = 0.013) of both feet more than controlled subjects. There was a trend for peak plantar pressure at the medial forefoot to decrease in the exercise group ( p  = 0.016), but not in the control group. At week 20, the number of subjects in the exercise group who improved their vibration perception in their feet notably increased when compared to the control group (left: p  = 0.043; right: p  = 0.004). Conclusions : This is a preliminary study to document the improvements in foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation following weight-bearing exercise on a flexible surface in people with diabetic neuropathic feet. Mini-trampoline exercise may be used as an adjunct to other interventions to reduce risk of foot ulceration. A larger sample size is needed to verify these findings. This trial is registered with COA No. 097.2/55.

  12. Early sepsis does not increase the risk of late sepsis in very low birth weight neonates

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, James L.; Hansen, Nellie I.; Das, Abhik; Cotten, C. Michael; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Bell, Edward F.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine whether preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have an increased risk of late-onset sepsis (LOS) following early-onset sepsis (EOS). Study design Retrospective analysis of VLBW infants (401-1500 g) born September 1998 through December 2009 who survived >72 hours and were cared for within the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Sepsis was defined by growth of bacteria or fungi in a blood culture obtained ≤72 hr of birth (EOS) or >72 hr (LOS) and antimicrobial therapy for ≥5 days or death <5 d while receiving therapy. Regression models were used to assess risk of death or LOS by 120d and LOS by 120d among survivors to discharge or 120d, adjusting for gestational age and other covariates. Results Of 34,396 infants studied 504 (1.5%) had EOS. After adjustment, risk of death or LOS by 120d did not differ overall for infants with EOS compared with those without EOS [RR:0.99 (0.89-1.09)] but was reduced in infants born at <25wk gestation [RR:0.87 (0.76-0.99), p=0.048]. Among survivors, no difference in LOS risk was found overall for infants with versus without EOS [RR:0.88 (0.75-1.02)], but LOS risk was shorter in infants with BW 401-750 g who had EOS [RR:0.80 (0.64-0.99), p=0.047]. Conclusions Risk of LOS after EOS was not increased in VLBW infants. Surprisingly, risk of LOS following EOS appeared to be reduced in the smallest, most premature infants, underscoring the need for age-specific analyses of immune function. PMID:23295144

  13. Journal bearing

    DOEpatents

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  14. Use of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging to detect early changes in diabetic kidneys.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yi; Yang, Biran; Peng, Yan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Luo, Jinwen; Du, Guoxin

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of the study was to examine differences in kidney intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) parameters in early-stage diabetic patients versus healthy controls. Nineteen type 2 diabetic patients (group A) with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) < 30 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 80-120 mL/(min 1.73 m 2 ) and twelve healthy volunteers (group B) were recruited. Kidneys were scanned with 1.5-Tesla IVIM-DWI. Nine b values (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 800 s/mm 2 ) were used. The parameters derived from IVIM-DWI were calculated for each kidney by two radiologists and included the perfusion fraction (f), diffusion coefficient (D), and pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*). The mean values of f, D, and D* were calculated by selecting multiple regions of interest in the kidney. The diagnostic performance of the f, D, and D* values for the diagnosis of early diabetic kidney changes was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Three radiologists independently measured the parameters derived from IVIM-DWI in the two groups by free-hand placing regions of interest, and the interclass coefficients (ICCs) were analyzed by SPSS.16.0 software. The f values of the kidneys were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in healthy volunteers. The D value of the kidneys was significantly lower in diabetic patients than in healthy volunteers. No significant differences in the D* values of the kidneys were observed between diabetic patients and healthy volunteers. The D values of the right kidneys were significantly higher than those of the left kidneys in both groups. The results of the receiver operating characteristic analysis were as follows: left kidney-f value AUC = 0.650 (cutoff point ≥ 27.49%) and D value AUC = 0.752 (cutoff point ≤ 1.68 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s); and right kidney-f value AUC = 0.650 (cutoff point ≥ 28.24%) and D value AUC = 0

  15. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-02-01

    We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4-7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4-7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4-7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4-7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child's IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06-0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4-7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or

  16. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4–7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4–7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4–7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4–7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child’s IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4–18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Results Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18–2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06–0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4–7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth

  17. Do working mothers raise couch potato kids? Maternal employment and children's lifestyle behaviours and weight in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Brown, Judith E; Broom, Dorothy H; Nicholson, Jan M; Bittman, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. More distal predictors such as maternal employment may also be implicated since working mothers have less time to supervise children's daily activities. The research reported here used two waves of data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to investigate whether mothers' hours in paid work shape young children's television viewing, snacking and physical activity, and through those lifestyle behaviours, children's weight at ages 4-5 years and 6-7 years. At both ages, children's lifestyle behaviours were interrelated and associated with weight status. Cross-sectional analysis confirmed small, direct associations between longer hours of maternal employment and child weight at age 4-5 years, but not with child's weight measured two years later. In both the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, the children of mothers who worked part-time watched less television and were less likely to be overweight than children of mothers who were not employed or who worked full-time. While associations were small, they remained significant after adjustment for maternal weight, household income and other factors. The combination of direct and indirect relationships between mothers' work hours and the weight status of their young children provides additional support to calls for family-friendly work policies as an important means for promoting healthy family lifestyles and early childhood wellbeing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain on long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Ilka; Finke, Beatrice; Tam, Friederike I; Fittig, Eike; Scholz, Michael; Gantchev, Krassimir; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a severe mental disorder with an onset during adolescence, has been found to be difficult to treat. Identifying variables that predict long-term outcome may help to develop better treatment strategies. Since body image distortion and weight gain are central elements of diagnosis and treatment of AN, the current study investigated perceptual body image distortion, defined as the accuracy of evaluating one's own perceived body size in relation to the actual body size, as well as total and early weight gain during inpatient treatment as predictors for long-term outcome in a sample of 76 female adolescent AN patients. Long-term outcome was defined by physical, psychological and psychosocial adjustment using the Morgan-Russell outcome assessment schedule as well as by the mere physical outcome consisting of menses and/or BMI approximately 3 years after treatment. Perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain predicted long-term outcome (explained variance 13.3 %), but not the physical outcome alone. This study provides first evidence for an association of perceptual body image distortion with long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa and underlines the importance of sufficient early weight gain.

  19. Early outcomes of twin-peg mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty compared with primary total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lum, Z C; Lombardi, A V; Hurst, J M; Morris, M J; Adams, J B; Berend, K R

    2016-10-01

    Since redesign of the Oxford phase III mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) femoral component to a twin-peg design, there has not been a direct comparison to total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Thus, we explored differences between the two cohorts. A total of 168 patients (201 knees) underwent medial UKA with the Oxford Partial Knee Twin-Peg. These patients were compared with a randomly selected group of 177 patients (189 knees) with primary Vanguard TKA. Patient demographics, Knee Society (KS) scores and range of movement (ROM) were compared between the two cohorts. Additionally, revision, re-operation and manipulation under anaesthesia rates were analysed. The mean follow-up for UKA and TKA groups was 5.4 and 5.5 years, respectively. Six TKA (3.2%) versus three UKAs (1.5%) were revised which was not significant (p = 0.269). Manipulation was more frequent after TKA (16; 8.5%) versus none in the UKA group (p < 0.001). UKA patients had higher post-operative KS function scores versus TKA patients (78 versus 66, p < 0.001) with a trend toward greater improvement, but there was no difference in ROM and KS clinical improvement (p = 0.382 and 0.420, respectively). We found fewer manipulations, and higher functional outcomes for patients treated with medial mobile-bearing UKA compared with TKA. TKA had twice the revision rate as UKA although this did not reach statistical significance with the numbers available. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(10 Suppl B):28-33. ©2016 Berend et al.

  20. Pressure-temperature-time-deformation path of kyanite-bearing migmatitic paragneiss in the Kali Gandaki valley (Central Nepal): Investigation of Late Eocene-Early Oligocene melting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaccarino, Salvatore; Montomoli, Chiara; Carosi, Rodolfo; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Langone, Antonio; Visonà, Dario

    2015-08-01

    Kyanite-bearing migmatitic paragneiss of the lower Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in the Kali Gandaki transect (Central Himalaya) was investigated. In spite of the intense shearing, it was still possible to obtain many fundamental information for understanding the processes active during orogenesis. Using a multidisciplinary approach, including careful meso- and microstructural observations, pseudosection modelling (with PERPLE_X), trace element thermobarometry and in situ monazite U-Th-Pb geochronology, we constrained the pressure-temperature-time-deformation path of the studied rock, located in a structural key position. The migmatitic gneiss has experienced protracted prograde metamorphism after the India-Asia collision (50-55 Ma) from ~ 43 Ma to 28 Ma. During the late phase (36-28 Ma) of this metamorphism, the gneiss underwent high-pressure melting at "near peak" conditions (710-720 °C/1.0-1.1 GPa) leading to kyanite-bearing leucosome formation. In the time span of 25-18 Ma, the rock experienced decompression and cooling associated with pervasive shearing reaching P-T conditions of 650-670 °C and 0.7-0.8 GPa, near the sillimanite-kyanite transition. This time span is somewhat older than previously reported for this event in the study area. During this stage, additional, but very little melt was produced. Taking the migmatitic gneiss as representative of the GHS, these data demonstrate that this unit underwent crustal melting at about 1 GPa in the Eocene-Early Oligocene, well before the widely accepted Miocene decompressional melting related to its extrusion. In general, kyanite-bearing migmatite, as reported here, could be linked to the production of the high-Ca granitic melts found along the Himalayan belt.

  1. Evaluation of early weight loss thresholds for identifying nonresponders to an intensive lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Unick, Jessica L; Hogan, Patricia E; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Dutton, Gareth R; Evans-Hudnall, Gina; Jeffery, Robert; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Nelson, Julie A; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; West, Delia Smith; Wing, Rena R

    2014-07-01

    Weight losses in lifestyle interventions are variable, yet prediction of long-term success is difficult. The utility of using various weight loss thresholds in the first 2 months of treatment for predicting 1-year outcomes was examined. Participants included 2327 adults with type 2 diabetes (BMI:35.8 ± 6.0) randomized to the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) of the Look AHEAD trial. ILI included weekly behavioral sessions designed to increase physical activity and reduce caloric intake. 1-month, 2-month, and 1-year weight changes were calculated. Participants failing to achieve a ≥2% weight loss at Month 1 were 5.6 (95% CI:4.5, 7.0) times more likely to also not achieve a ≥10% weight loss at Year 1, compared to those losing ≥2% initially. These odds were increased to 11.6 (95% CI:8.6, 15.6) when using a 3% weight loss threshold at Month 2. Only 15.2% and 8.2% of individuals failing to achieve the ≥2% and ≥3% thresholds at Months 1 and 2, respectively, go on to achieve a ≥10% weight loss at Year 1. Given the association between initial and 1-year weight loss, the first few months of treatment may be an opportune time to identify those who are unsuccessful and utilize rescue efforts. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00017953. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  2. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G; Bellinger, D; McCormick, M C

    2007-03-01

    Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature (<37 weeks gestation) and LBW (<2500 g) children. The study subjects were 8 years of age and 494 had data available for reading achievement and 469 for mathematics. Potential predictor variables were categorized into 4 domains: sociodemographic, neonatal, maternal mental health and early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Regression analysis was used to create a model to predict reading and mathematics scores. Variables from all domains were significant in the model, predicting low achievement scores in reading (R (2) of 0.49, model p-value < .0001) and mathematics (R (2) of 0.44, model p-value < .0001). Significant risk factors for lower reading scores, were: lower maternal education and income, and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and male gender (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Lower mathematics scores were predicted by lower maternal education, income and age and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and higher head circumference (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Sequential early childhood risk factors in premature and LBW children lead to a cumulative risk for academic difficulties and can be used for early identification.

  3. The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Early and Mid-Pregnancy Lipid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Scifres, Christina M.; Catov, Janet M.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the impact of maternal overweight/obesity and excessive weight gain on maternal serum lipids in the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Design and Methods Prospective data were collected for 225 women. Maternal serum lipids and fatty acids were measured at <13 weeks and between 24–28 weeks. Analyses were stratified by normal weight versus overweight/obese status and excessive vs. non-excessive weight gain. Results Overweight/obese women had higher baseline cholesterol (161.3±29.6 vs 149.4±26.8 mg/dL, p<0.01), LDL (80.0±19.9 vs 72.9 ±18.8 mg/dL, p<0.01) and triglycerides ( 81.7±47.2 vs 69.7±40.3 mg/dL, p=0.05) when compared to normal weight women, while HDL (43.6 ±10.4 47.6±11.5 mg/dL, p<0.01) was lower. However, cholesterol and LDL increased at a higher weekly rate in normal weight women, resulting in higher total cholesterol in normal weight women (184.1±28.1 vs. 176.0 ±32.1 mg/dL, p=0.05) at 24–28 weeks. Excessive weight gain did not affect the rate of change in lipid profiles in either group. Overweight/obese women had higher levels of arachidonic acid at both time points. Conclusions Overweight/obese women have significantly more atherogenic lipid profiles than normal weight women during the period of early pregnancy, delineating one physiologic pathway that could explain differences in pregnancy outcomes between normal weight and overweight/obese women. PMID:23853155

  4. GAS BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  5. Grizzly bear

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  6. Thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gas lubricated thrust bearing is described which employs relatively rigid inwardly cantilevered spokes carrying a relatively resilient annular member or annulus. This annulus acts as a beam on which are mounted bearing pads. The resilience of the beam mount causes the pads to accept the load and, with proper design, responds to a rotating thrust-transmitting collar by creating a gas film between the pads and the thrust collar. The bearing may be arranged for load equalization thereby avoiding the necessity of gimbal mounts or the like for the bearing. It may also be arranged to respond to rotation in one or both directions.

  7. Bringing basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology to bear on preventive interventions for neglected and maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Gunnar, Megan R; Fisher, Philip A

    2006-01-01

    A major focus in developmental psychopathology is on understanding developmental mechanisms and, armed with this information, intervening to improve children's outcomes. Translational research attempts to bridge the distance between understanding and intervention. In the collaborations that have formed the core of our research network on early experience, stress, and prevention science, we have focused on translating basic research on early experiences and stress neurobiology into preventive interventions for neglected and abused children. Our experiences in attempting to move from bench to bedside have led us to recognize the many challenges that face translational researchers. This review provides a brief synopsis of the animal model literature on early experience and stress neurobiology from which we glean several key bridging issues. We then review what is currently known about the impact of childhood neglect and abuse on stress neurobiology in human adults and children. Next, we describe how this work has informed the evaluation of our preventive interventions with maltreated children. Finally, we discuss several considerations that should facilitate a more complete integration of basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology into preventive intervention strategies.

  8. [The effect of verticalization of the resulting force (R) of weight bearing in the hip joint on morphologic characteristics of the medullary canal in the femoral shaft in patients with coxarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, S

    1992-01-01

    An influence of verticalization of the resulting force of weight-bearing on the hip joint "R" on the morphological characteristics of the medullar canal on the proximal edge of the shaft of femur was researched. Progressive degenerative changes of the hip joint with a consequent sideways limping or changes of the collodiaphysial angle (ccd angle) were the cause of the verticalization of the resulting force "R". The analysis of patients treated and operated on The Orthopaedic Department of the General Hospital Osijek and The Orthopaedic Clinic of The Medical Faculty of The University of Zagreb. The research, undoubtedly, proved that the patients with coxarthrosis and side-ways in the hip or with changed collodiaphysial angle experienced verticalization of the resulting force of weigh-bearing of the hip joint and the proximal edge of femur which caused morphological changes of the medular canal of the shaft of femur.

  9. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. Part I. Numerical model-based optimization

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Fahrig, Rebecca; Keil, Andreas; Besier, Thor F.; Pal, Saikat; McWalter, Emily J.; Beaupré, Gary S.; Maier, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    marker distribution in three scenarios. Results: Average optical-based translational motion for the nine subjects was 2.14 mm (±0.69 mm) and 2.29 mm (±0.63 mm) for the right and left knee, respectively. In the representative central slices of Subject 2, the authors observed 20.30%, 18.30%, and 22.02% improvements in the structural similarity (SSIM) index with 2D shifting, 2D warping, and 3D warping, respectively. The performance of 2D warping improved as the number of markers increased up to 12 while 2D shifting and 3D warping were insensitive to the number of markers used. The minimum required number of markers for 2D shifting, 2D warping, and 3D warping was 4–6, 12, and 8, respectively. An even distribution of markers over the entire field of view provided robust performance for all three correction methods. Conclusions: The authors were able to simulate subject-specific realistic knee movement in weight-bearing positions. This study indicates that involuntary motion can seriously degrade the image quality. The proposed three methods were evaluated with the numerical knee model; 3D warping was shown to outperform the 2D methods. The methods are shown to significantly reduce motion artifacts if an appropriate marker setup is chosen. PMID:24007156

  10. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. Part I. Numerical model-based optimization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Fahrig, Rebecca; Keil, Andreas; Besier, Thor F; Pal, Saikat; McWalter, Emily J; Beaupré, Gary S; Maier, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    in three scenarios. Average optical-based translational motion for the nine subjects was 2.14 mm (± 0.69 mm) and 2.29 mm (± 0.63 mm) for the right and left knee, respectively. In the representative central slices of Subject 2, the authors observed 20.30%, 18.30%, and 22.02% improvements in the structural similarity (SSIM) index with 2D shifting, 2D warping, and 3D warping, respectively. The performance of 2D warping improved as the number of markers increased up to 12 while 2D shifting and 3D warping were insensitive to the number of markers used. The minimum required number of markers for 2D shifting, 2D warping, and 3D warping was 4-6, 12, and 8, respectively. An even distribution of markers over the entire field of view provided robust performance for all three correction methods. The authors were able to simulate subject-specific realistic knee movement in weight-bearing positions. This study indicates that involuntary motion can seriously degrade the image quality. The proposed three methods were evaluated with the numerical knee model; 3D warping was shown to outperform the 2D methods. The methods are shown to significantly reduce motion artifacts if an appropriate marker setup is chosen.

  11. Postdiagnosis Weight Change and Survival Following a Diagnosis of Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Kroenke, Candyce H; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Chen, Wendy Y; Prado, Carla M; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne L; Caan, Bette J

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a healthy weight is recommended for all breast cancer survivors. Previous research on postdiagnosis weight change and mortality had conflicting results. We examined whether change in body weight in the 18 months following diagnosis is associated with overall and breast cancer-specific mortality in a cohort of n = 12,590 stage I-III breast cancer patients at Kaiser Permanente using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. Follow-up was from the date of the postdiagnosis weight at 18 months until death or June 2015 [median follow-up (range): 3 (0-9) years]. We divided follow-up into earlier (18-54 months) and later (>54 months) postdiagnosis periods. Mean (SD) age-at-diagnosis was 59 (11) years. A total of 980 women died, 503 from breast cancer. Most women maintained weight within 5% of diagnosis body weight; weight loss and gain were equally common at 19% each. Compared with weight maintenance, large losses (≥10%) were associated with worse survival, with HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all-cause death of 2.63 (2.12-3.26) earlier and 1.60 (1.14-2.25) later in follow-up. Modest losses (>5%-<10%) were associated with worse survival earlier [1.39 (1.11-1.74)] but not later in follow-up [0.77 (0.54-1.11)]. Weight gain was not related to survival. Results were similar for breast cancer-specific death. Large postdiagnosis weight loss is associated with worse survival in both earlier and later postdiagnosis periods, independent of treatment and prognostic factors. Weight loss and gain are equally common after breast cancer, and weight loss is a consistent marker of mortality risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 44-50. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL THE ARTICLES IN THIS CEBP FOCUS SECTION, "THE OBESITY PARADOX IN CANCER EVIDENCE AND NEW DIRECTIONS". ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Birth Weight and Social Trust in Adulthood: Evidence for Early Calibration of Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Social trust forms the fundamental basis for social interaction within societies. Understanding the cognitive architecture of trust and the roots of individual differences in trust is of key importance. We predicted that one of the factors calibrating individual levels of trust is the intrauterine flow of nutrients from mother to child as indexed by birth weight. Birth weight forecasts both the future external environment and the internal condition of the individual in multiple ways relevant for social cognition. Specifically, we predicted that low birth weight is utilized as a forecast of a harsh environment, vulnerable condition, or both and, consequently, reduces social trust. The results of the study reported here are consistent with this prediction. Controlling for many confounds through sibling and panel designs, we found that lower birth weight reduced social trust in adulthood. Furthermore, we obtained tentative evidence that this effect is mitigated if adult environments do not induce stress. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population.

    PubMed

    Berngard, Samuel Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-12-01

    Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 months in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 months. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 ± 1.01 to -2.20 ± 1.05 and -2.26 ± 1.01 at 3 and 6 months respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 months were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R(2) = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 months was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education∗maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 months. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. © 2013.

  14. Early improvement in food cravings are associated with long-term weight loss success in a large clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, M; Finlayson, G; Walsh, B; Halseth, A E; Duarte, C; Blundell, J E

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food cravings are associated with dysregulated eating behaviour and obesity, and may impede successful weight loss attempts. Gaining control over food craving is therefore a component in the management of obesity. The current paper examined whether early changes in control over food craving (assessed using the Craving Control subscale on the Control of Eating Questionnaire (CoEQ)) was predictive of weight loss in four phase 3 clinical trials investigating a sustained-release combination of naltrexone/bupropion (NB) in obese adults. The underlying component structure of the CoEQ was also examined. Method: In an integrated analysis of four 56-week phase 3 clinical trials, subjects completed the CoEQ and had their body weight measured at baseline and at weeks 8, 16, 28 and 56. All analyses were conducted on subjects who had complete weight and CoEQ measurements at baseline and week 56, and had completed 56 weeks of NB (n=1310) or placebo (n=736). A latent growth curve model was used to examine whether early changes in the CoEQ subscales were associated with decreases in weight loss over time. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine the psychometric properties of the CoEQ. Results: The factor structure of the CoEQ was consistent with previous findings with a four-factor solution being confirmed: Craving Control, Positive Mood, Craving for Sweet and Craving for Savoury with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α=0.72–0.92). Subjects with the greatest improvement in Craving Control at week 8 exhibited a greater weight loss at week 56. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of the experience of food cravings in the treatment of obesity and support the use of the CoEQ as a psychometric tool for the measurement of food cravings in research and the pharmacological management of obesity. PMID:28373674

  15. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Ferreira, Patrícia Calesco; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2 to 4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz) was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 to<2) or excess weight (BMIz≥2). Data analysis was carried out by comparison of proportions, coefficient of correlation and multivariate linear regression. The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity) was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; p<0.001) and maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) (r=0.113; p=0.002). The correlation was inverse with the total duration of breastfeeding (r=-0.099; p=0.006) and age at non-breast milk introduction (r=-0.112; p=0.002). There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Early Therapy Evaluation of Combined Anti-DR5 Antibody and Gemcitabine in Orthotopic Pancreatic Tumor Xenografts by Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunki; Morgan, Desiree E.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Zeng, Huadong; Grizzle, William E.; Warram, Jason M.; Stockard, Cecil R.; McNally, Lacey R.; Long, Joshua W.; Sellers, Jeffrey C.; Forero, Andres; Zinn, Kurt R.

    2008-01-01

    Early therapeutic efficacy of anti-DR5 antibody (TRA-8) combined with gemcitabine was measured using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in an orthotopic pancreatic tumor model. Groups 1–4 of SCID mice (n=5–7/group) bearing orthotopically implanted, luciferase-positive human pancreatic tumors (MIA PaCa-2) were subsequently (4–5 weeks thereafter) injected with saline (control), gemcitabine (120mg/kg), TRA-8 (200μg), or TRA-8 combined with gemcitabine, respectively, on day 0. DWI, anatomical MRI, and bioluminescence imaging were performed on days 0, 1, 2, and 3 after treatment. Three tumors from each group were collected randomly on day 3 after imaging, and TUNEL staining was performed to quantify apoptotic cellularity. At just 1 day after starting therapy, the changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in tumor regions for groups 3 (TRA-8) and 4 (TRA-8/Gem) were 21±9% (mean±SE) and 27±3%, respectively, significantly higher (p <0.05) than those of groups 1 (−1±5%) and 2 (−2±4%). There was no statistical difference in tumor volumes for the groups at this time. The mean ADC values of groups 2–4 gradually increased over 3 days, which were concurrent with tumor-volume regressions and bioluminescence-signal decreases. Apoptotic-cell densities of tumors in groups 1–4 were 0.7±0.4%, 0.6±0.2%, 3.1±0.9%, and 4.7±1.0%, respectively, linearly proportional to the ADC changes on day 1. Further, the ADC changes were highly correlated with the previously reported mean survival times of animals treated with the same agents and doses. This study supports the clinical use of DWI for pancreatic tumor patients for early assessment of drug efficacy. PMID:18922909

  17. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  18. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  19. Polar Bear

    Amstrup, S.D.; ,; Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

  20. Polar Bears

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  1. Bearing monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Roger; Stevenson, Mark W.; Kwan, Chi-Man; Haynes, Leonard S.

    2001-07-01

    At Ford Motor Company, thrust bearing in drill motors is often damaged by metal chips. Since the vibration frequency is several Hz only, it is very difficult to use accelerometers to pick up the vibration signals. Under the support of Ford and NASA, we propose to use a piezo film as a sensor to pick up the slow vibrations of the bearing. Then a neural net based fault detection algorithm is applied to differentiate normal bearing from bad bearing. The first step involves a Fast Fourier Transform which essentially extracts the significant frequency components in the sensor. Then Principal Component Analysis is used to further reduce the dimension of the frequency components by extracting the principal features inside the frequency components. The features can then be used to indicate the status of bearing. Experimental results are very encouraging.

  2. External Validation of Early Weight Loss Nomograms for Exclusively Breastfed Newborns.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Eric W; Flaherman, Valerie J; Kuzniewicz, Michael W; Li, Sherian X; Walsh, Eileen M; Paul, Ian M

    2015-12-01

    Nomograms that show hour-by-hour percentiles of weight loss during the birth hospitalization were recently developed to aid clinical care of breastfeeding newborns. The nomograms for breastfed neonates were based on a sample of 108,907 newborns delivered at 14 Kaiser Permanente medical centers in Northern California (United States). The objective of this study was to externally validate the published nomograms for newborn weight loss using data from a geographically distinct population. Data were compiled from the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center located in Hershey, PA. For singleton neonates delivered at ≥36 weeks of gestation between January 2013 and September 2014, weights were obtained between 6 hours and 48 hours (vaginal delivery) or 60 hours (cesarean delivery) for neonates who were exclusively breastfeeding. Quantile regression methods appropriate for repeated measures were used to estimate 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of weight loss as a function of time after birth. These percentile estimates were compared with the published nomograms. Of the 1,587 newborns who met inclusion criteria, 1,148 were delivered vaginally, and 439 were delivered via cesarean section. These newborns contributed 1,815 weights for vaginal deliveries (1.6 per newborn) and 893 weights for cesarean deliveries (2.0 per newborn). Percentile estimates from this Penn State sample were similar to the published nomograms. Deviations in percentile estimates for the Penn State sample were similar to deviations observed after fitting the same model separately to each medical center that made up the Kaiser Permanente sample. The published newborn weight loss nomograms for breastfed neonates were externally validated in a geographically distinct population.

  3. Increased treatment durations lead to greater improvements in non-weight bearing dorsiflexion range of motion for asymptomatic individuals immediately following an anteroposterior grade IV mobilisation of the talus.

    PubMed

    Holland, Christopher James; Campbell, Kevin; Hutt, Kim

    2015-08-01

    Manual therapy aims to minimise pain and restore joint mobility and function. Joint mobilisations are integral to these techniques, with anteroposterior (AP) talocrural joint mobilisations purported to increase dorsiflexion range of motion (DF-ROM). This study aimed to determine whether different treatment durations of single grade IV anteroposterior talocrural joint mobilisations elicit statistically significant differences in DF-ROM. Sixteen asymptomatic male football players (age = 27.1 ± 5.3 years) participated in the study. Non-weight bearing (NWB) and weight bearing (WB) DF-ROM was measured before and after 4 randomised treatment conditions: control treatment, 30 s, 1 min, 2 min. NWB DF-ROM was measured using a universal goniometer, and WB DF-ROM using the weight-bearing lunge test. A within-subjects design was employed so that all participants received each of the treatment conditions. A 4 × 4 balanced Latin square design and 1 week interval between sessions reduced any residual effects. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant improvement in DF-ROM following all AP mobilisation treatments (p < 0.001). The within subjects contrasts showed that increases in treatment duration was associated with statistically significant improvements in DF-ROM (NWB DF-ROM control = 0.01%, 30 s = 14.2%, 1 min = 21.6%, 2 min = 32.8%; WB DF-ROM control = 0.01%, 30 s = 5.0%, 1 min = 7.6%, 2 min = 10.9%; p < 0.05). However, WB DF-ROM improvements were below the minimal detectable change scores needed to conclude that improvements were not a consequence of measurement error. This research shows that single session mobilisations can elicit NWB DF-ROM improvements in asymptomatic individuals in the absence of pain, whilst increases in treatment duration confer greater improvements in NWB DF-ROM within this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk of breast cancer in young women in relation to body size and weight gain in adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Coates, R J; Uhler, R J; Hall, H I; Potischman, N; Brinton, L A; Ballard-Barbash, R; Gammon, M D; Brogan, D R; Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Schoenberg, J B; Swanson, C A

    1999-09-01

    Findings have been inconsistent on effects of adolescent body size and adult weight gain on risk of breast cancer in young women. These relations were examined in a population-based case control study of 1590 women less than 45 years of age newly diagnosed with breast cancer during 1990-1992 in three areas of the US and an age-matched control group of 1390 women. Height and weight were measured at interview and participants asked to recall information about earlier body size. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of breast cancer adjusted for other risk factors. Women who were either much heavier or lighter than average in adolescence or at age 20 were at reduced risk. Weight gain after age 20 resulted in reduced risk, but the effect was confined to early-stage and, more specifically, lower grade breast cancer. Neither the risk reduction nor the variation by breast cancer stage or grade was explained by the method of cancer detection or by prior mammography history. These findings suggest that relations between breast cancer risk in young women and body weight at different ages is complex and that the risk reduction with adult weight gain is confined to less aggressive cancers.

  5. [Influence of in-home nursing care on the weight of the early discharged preterm newborn].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Miró, R; Lluch Canut, M T; Figueras Aloy, J; Esqué Ruiz, M T; Arroyo Gili, L; Bella Rodríguez, J; Carbonell Estrany, X

    2014-12-01

    In-Home nursing care of the preterm newborn helps to bring the family situation to normal, promotes breastfeeding and development of the newborn, and enables the reorganization of health care resources. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in-home nursing care of the preterm newborn leads to an increase in weight and a similar morbidity. A total of 65 cases and 65 controls (matched by weight, age and sex) were studied, all of them preterm newborns born in hospital and weighing less than 2100 g at discharge. In-home nursing care was carried out by a pediatrician neonatologist, as well as two nurses specialized in neonatology who made several visits to the home. Weight gain was calculated as g/day and g/Kg/day, comparing the first week of the study with the week prior to the beginning of the study. The groups were comparable. Weight gain in the group with home nursing care was 38 g per day, significantly higher than the weight gain in the control group (31 g/day). The independent predictive variables of the increase in g/Kg/day during the study were in-home nursing care, male gender, breastfeeding less, and not having suffered from a peri-intraventricular hemorrhage. Neonatal morbidity was similar in both groups. In-home care was associated with a greater weight gain of the newborn at home than during their stay in the hospital, and can be considered safe because neonatal morbidity was not increased. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Prepregnancy and early adulthood body mass index and adult weight change in relation to fetal loss.

    PubMed

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Colaci, Daniela S; Afeiche, Myriam C; Toth, Thomas L; Gillman, Matthew W; Missmer, Stacey A; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2014-10-01

    To examine prospectively the relationships of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), BMI at age 18 years, and weight change since age 18 years with risk of fetal loss. Our prospective cohort study included 25,719 pregnancies reported by 17,027 women in the Nurses' Health Study II between 1990 and 2009. In 1989, height, current weight, and weight at age 18 years were self-reported. Current weight was updated every 2 years thereafter. Pregnancies were self-reported, with case pregnancies lost spontaneously and comparison pregnancies ending in ectopic pregnancy, induced abortion, or live birth. Incident fetal loss was reported in 4,494 (17.5%) pregnancies. Compared with those of normal BMI, the multivariate relative risks of fetal loss were 1.07 (95% CI [confidence interval] 1.00-1.15) for overweight women, 1.10 (95% CI 0.98-1.23) for class I obese women, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.11-1.45) for class II and class III obese women (P trend ≤ .001). Body mass index at age 18 years was not associated with fetal loss (P trend=.59). Compared with women who maintained a stable weight (± 4 kg) between age 18 years and before pregnancy, women who lost weight had a 20% (95% CI 9-29%) lower risk of fetal loss. This association was stronger among women who were overweight at age 18 years. Being overweight or obese before pregnancy was associated with higher risk of fetal loss. In women overweight or obese at age 18 years, losing 4 kg or more was associated with a lower risk of fetal loss. : II.

  7. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Ferreira, Patrícia Calesco; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2-4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz) was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 to<2) or excess weight (BMIz≥2). Data analysis was carried out by comparison of proportions, coefficient of correlation and multivariate linear regression. Results: The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity) was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; p<0.001) and maternal body mass index (BMI) (r=0.113; p=0.002). The correlation was inverse with the total duration of breastfeeding (r=−0.099; p=0.006) and age at non-breast milk introduction (r=−0.112; p=0.002). There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. Conclusions: The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age. PMID:27452430

  8. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure: A Prospective Study in Project Viva.

    PubMed

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S; Haugaard, Line K; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Belfort, Mandy B

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension increased markedly among children and adolescents, highlighting the importance of identifying determinants of elevated blood pressure early in life. Low birth weight and rapid early childhood weight gain are associated with higher future blood pressure. However, few studies have examined the timing of postnatal weight gain in relation to later blood pressure, and little is known regarding the contribution of linear growth. We studied 957 participants in Project Viva, an ongoing US prebirth cohort. We examined the relations of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting for confounders, each additional z-score gain in body mass index during birth to 6 months and 2 to 3 years was associated with 0.81 (0.15, 1.46) and 1.61 (0.33, 2.89) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure, respectively. Length/height gain was unrelated to mid-childhood blood pressure, and there was no evidence of effect modification by birth size for body mass index or length/height z-score gain. Our findings suggest that more rapid gain in body mass index during the first 6 postnatal months and in the preschool years may lead to higher systolic blood pressure in mid-childhood, regardless of size at birth. Strategies to reduce accrual of excess adiposity during early life may reduce mid-childhood blood pressure, which may also impact adult blood pressure and cardiovascular health. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Early relations between language development and the quality of mother-child interaction in very-low-birth-weight children.

    PubMed

    Stolt, S; Korja, R; Matomäki, J; Lapinleimu, H; Haataja, L; Lehtonen, L

    2014-05-01

    It is not clearly understood how the quality of early mother-child interaction influences language development in very-low-birth-weight children (VLBW). We aim to analyze associations between early language and the quality of mother-child interaction, and, the predictive value of the features of early mother-child interaction on language development at 24 months of corrected age in VLBW children. A longitudinal prospective follow-up study design was used. The participants were 28 VLBW children and 34 full-term controls. Language development was measured using different methods at 6, 12 and at 24 months of age. The quality of mother-child interaction was assessed using PC-ERA method at 6 and at 12 months of age. Associations between the features of early interaction and language development were different in the groups of VLBW and full-term children. There were no significant correlations between the features of mother-child interaction and language skills when measured at the same age in the VLBW group. Significant longitudinal correlations were detected in the VLBW group especially if the quality of early interactions was measured at six months and language skills at 2 years of age. However, when the predictive value of the features of early interactions for later poor language performance was analyzed separately, the features of early interaction predicted language skills in the VLBW group only weakly. The biological factors may influence on the language development more in the VLBW children than in the full-term children. The results also underline the role of maternal and dyadic factors in early interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Construction of Early and Midlife Work Trajectories in Women and Their Association With Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Mutambudzi, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We derived trajectories of the substantive complexity (SC) of work across mid-adult life in women and determined their association with term birth weight. SC is a concept that encompasses decision latitude, active learning, and ability to use and expand one’s abilities at work. Methods. Using occupational data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and O*NET work variables, we used growth mixture modeling (GMM) to construct longitudinal trajectories of work SC from the ages of 18 to 34 years. The association between work trajectories and birth weight of infants born to study participants was modeled using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for education, income, and relevant covariates. Results. GMM yielded a 5-class solution for work trajectories in women. Higher work trajectories were associated with higher term birth weight and were robust to the inclusion of both education and income. A work trajectory that showed a sharp rise after age 24 years was associated with marked improvement in birth weight. Conclusions. Longitudinal modeling of work characteristics might improve capacity to integrate occupation into a life-course model that examines antecedents and consequences for maternal and child health. PMID:24354827

  11. Initial Weight Loss Response as an Indicator for Providing Early Rescue Efforts to Improve Long-term Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Unick, Jessica L; Pellegrini, Christine A; Demos, Kathryn E; Dorfman, Leah

    2017-09-01

    There is a large variability in response to behavioral weight loss (WL) programs. Reducing rates of obesity and diabetes may require more individuals to achieve clinically significant WL post-treatment. Given that WL within the first 1-2 months of a WL program is associated with long-term WL, it may be possible to improve treatment outcomes by identifying and providing additional intervention to those with poor initial success (i.e., "early non-responders"). We review the current literature regarding early non-response to WL programs and discuss how adaptive interventions can be leveraged as a strategy to "rescue" early non-responders. Preliminary findings suggest that adaptive interventions, specifically stepped care approaches, offer promise for improving outcomes among early non-responders. Future studies need to determine the optimal time point and threshold for intervening and the type of early intervention to employ. Clinicians and researchers should consider the discussed factors when making treatment decisions.

  12. Cryogenic Magnetic Bearing Test Facility (CMBTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Cryogenic Magnetic Bearing Test Facility (CMBTF) was designed and built to evaluate compact, lightweight magnetic bearings for use in the SSME's (space shuttle main engine) liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen turbopumps. State of the art and tradeoff studies were conducted which indicated that a hybrid permanent magnet bias homopolar magnetic bearing design would be smaller, lighter, and much more efficient than conventional industrial bearings. A test bearing of this type was designed for the test rig for use at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature (-320 F). The bearing was fabricated from state-of-the-art materials and incorporated into the CMBTF. Testing at room temperature was accomplished at Avcon's facility. These preliminary tests indicated that this magnetic bearing is a feasible alternative to older bearing technologies. Analyses showed that the hybrid magnetic bearing is one-third the weight, considerably smaller, and uses less power than previous generations of magnetic bearings.

  13. Foil bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-11-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  14. Early working memory in children born with extremely low birth weight: assessed by object permanence.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jean; MacLean, Peggy C; Shaffer, Michele L; Watterberg, Kristi

    2009-04-01

    Object permanence is considered the earliest method for assessing working memory. Factors affecting object permanence performance in a sample of two hundred and thirty-three 18- to 22-month olds born with extremely low birth weight were examined. It was hypothesized that object permanence would be directly related to emotional and attention regulation, that children with lower birth weight and higher illness severity would have more difficulty on the object permanence task, and that no ethnic/racial differences would be found, as this is considered a culturally unbiased task. Attainment of object permanence had a significant positive association with emotional and attention regulation, even after controlling the medical severity and socioeconomic factors. More girls than boys passed the object permanence items. There was no ethnic/racial difference on object permanence. Our findings indicate that object permanence may be a culturally fair way of assessing development, and emotional and attention regulation are potential avenues of intervention for such skill.

  15. Early Working Memory in Children Born With Extremely Low Birth Weight: Assessed by Object Permanence

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Jean; MacLean, Peggy C.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Watterberg, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    Object permanence is considered the earliest method for assessing working memory. Factors affecting object permanence performance in a sample of two hundred and thirty-three 18- to 22-month olds born with extremely low birth weight were examined. It was hypothesized that object permanence would be directly related to emotional and attention regulation, that children with lower birth weight and higher illness severity would have more difficulty on the object permanence task, and that no ethnic/racial differences would be found, as this is considered a culturally unbiased task. Attainment of object permanence had a significant positive association with emotional and attention regulation, even after controlling the medical severity and socioeconomic factors. More girls than boys passed the object permanence items. There was no ethnic/racial difference on object permanence. Our findings indicate that object permanence may be a culturally fair way of assessing development, and emotional and attention regulation are potential avenues of intervention for such skill. PMID:19339284

  16. Determinants of Weight Gain in Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-30

    changes during and following therapy . This study will be the first to comprehensively examine predictors and modulators of post-diagnostic weight gain in...past 6 months and was patterned on the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Fatigue Subscale (FACT-F) and the Multidimensional Assessment of...was not shown to vary with radiation treatment, chemotherapy treatment or hormonal therapy . These results suggest that changes in body temperature

  17. Influence of weight gain rate on early life nutritional status and body composition of children.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Sarah Aparecida; Magalhães, Taís Cristina Araújo; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of the weight gain rate at 4-6 months on nutritional status and body composition in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Retrospective cohort study, sample of 257 children. Data collection was performed in two stages, with the first relating to retrospective data of weight gain from birth to the first 4-6 months of life in the patient records. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition in children between ages 4 and 7 years were obtained. Nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age. Control variables, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, lifestyle, and sociodemographics, were studied. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were performed. In the nutritional status assessment, the prevalence of overweight observed was 24.9%. After adjusting for control variables, it was found that the increase of the WGR at 4-6 months of age explained the occurrence of higher BMI/age, percentage of total body fat, body fat percentage in the android region, and waist circumference in children between 4 and 7 years of age. The increase of the WGR in the first months of life can lead to the occurrence of higher values of parameters of nutritional status and body composition in later life.

  18. Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Syrad, Hayley; Llewellyn, Clare H; Johnson, Laura; Boniface, David; Jebb, Susan A; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Wardle, Jane

    2016-06-20

    Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939 children aged 21 months from the Gemini twin cohort, we assessed prospective associations between meal size, meal frequency and weight gain from two to five years. Separate longitudinal analyses demonstrated that every 10 kcal increase in meal size was associated with 1.5 g/wk or 4% (p = 0.005) faster growth rate, while meal frequency was not independently associated with growth (β = 0.3 g/wk p = 0.20). Including both meal parameters in the model strengthened associations (meal size: β = 2.6 g/wk, p < 0.001; meal frequency: β = 1.0 g/wk, p = 0.001). Taken together, the implication is that meal size promotes faster growth regardless of frequency, but meal frequency has a significant effect only if meal size is assumed to be held constant. Clearer advice on meal size and frequency, especially advice on appropriate meal size, may help prevent excess weight gain.

  19. Early Estrogen Action: Stimulation of the Metabolism of High Molecular Weight and Ribosomal RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Dennis N.; Hamilton, Terrell H.

    1972-01-01

    Samples of RNA, isolated from uteri of ovariectomized adult rats treated with estrogen, have been analyzed on sucrose gradients. Treatment with estrogen either for 20 min or 2 hr increased the specific activity of all classes of uterine RNA, but produced no significant alteration in the distribution of radioactivity in the gradients, when animals received [3H]uridine intraperitoneally 15 min before they were killed. After labeling periods of 30 min, 1 hr, or 2 hr, however, the RNAs isolated from animals treated with estrogen had a smaller percentage of rapidly sedimenting (faster than 28S) species of RNA than did RNA from animals not treated with the hormone. The decreased percentage of high molecular weight RNA correlated with increases in both the specific activity of 28S and 18S RNA and the concentration of RNA in the whole organ. The labeled RNA of high molecular weight was also demonstrated, by the use of actinomycin D in vivo, to have a more rapid turnover rate in the estrogen-stimulated uterus. Our results indicate that estrogen increases not only the rate of synthesis of ribosomal RNA in the uterus of the ovariectomized adult rat, but also the rate or efficiency of processing of precursor RNA species of high molecular weight. PMID:4500546

  20. Outcome of patients after lower limb fracture with partial weight bearing postoperatively treated with or without anti-gravity treadmill (alter G®) during six weeks of rehabilitation - a protocol of a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Henkelmann, Ralf; Schneider, Sebastian; Müller, Daniel; Gahr, Ralf; Josten, Christoph; Böhme, Jörg

    2017-03-14

    Partial or complete immobilization leads to different adjustment processes like higher risk of muscle atrophy or a decrease of general performance. The present study is designed to prove efficacy of the anti-gravity treadmill (alter G®) compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol in patients with tibial plateau (group 1)or ankle fractures (group 2) with six weeks of partial weight bearing of 20 kg. This prospective randomized study will include a total of 60 patients for each group according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. 1:1 randomization will be performed centrally via fax supported by the Clinical Trial Centre Leipzig (ZKS Leipzig). Patients in the treatment arm will be treated with an anti-gravity treadmill (alter G®) instead of physiotherapy. The protocol is designed parallel to standard physiotherapy with a frequency of two to three times of training with the treadmill per week with duration of 20 min for six weeks. Up to date no published randomized controlled trial with an anti-gravity treadmill is available. The findings of this study can help to modify rehabilitation of patients with partial weight bearing due to their injury or postoperative protocol. It will deliver interesting results if an anti-gravity treadmill is useful in rehabilitation in those patients. Further ongoing studies will identify different indications for an anti-gravity treadmill. Thus, in connection with those studies, a more valid statement regarding safety and efficacy is possible. NCT02790229 registered on May 29, 2016.

  1. Weight Bearing through Lower Limbs in a Standing Frame with and without Arm Support and Low-Magnitude Whole Body Vibration in Men and Women with Complete Motor Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Kathie A.; Beck, Lisa A.; Lamb, Jeffry L.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; Amin, Shreyasee; Wuermser, Lisa-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of body weight (BW) borne through the lower limbs in persons with complete, motor paraplegia using a standing frame, with and without support of their arms. We also examined the effect of low-magnitude whole body vibration on loads borne by the lower extremities. Design Vertical ground reaction forces (GRF) were measured in 11 participants (6 men and 5 women) with paraplegia of traumatic origin (injury level T3 to T12) standing on a low-magnitude vibrating plate using a standing frame. GRF were measured in four conditions: 1) no vibration with arms on standing frame tray; 2) no vibration with arms at side; 3) vibration with arms on tray; 4) vibration with arms at side. Results GRF with arms on tray, without vibration, was 0.76 ± 0.07 BW. With arms at the side, GRF increased to 0.85 ± 0.12 BW. With vibration, mean GRF did not significantly differ from no-vibration conditions for either arm positions. Oscillation of GRF with vibration was significantly different from no-vibration conditions (p<0.001) but similar in both arm positions. Conclusion Men and women with paraplegia using a standing frame bear the majority of their weight through their lower limbs. Supporting their arms on the tray reduces the GRF by ~10% BW. Low-magnitude vibration provided additional oscillation of the load-bearing forces and was proportionally similar regardless of arm position. PMID:22407161

  2. Effects of In Ovo feeding of dextrin-iodinated casein in broilers: I. Hatch weights and early growth performance.

    PubMed

    Abousaad, S; Lassiter, K; Piekarski, A; Chary, P; Striplin, K; Christensen, K; Bielke, L R; Hargis, B M; Dridi, S; Bottje, W G

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of in ovo feeding of dextrin (Dext) and iodinated casein (IC) on hatch and early growth in broilers. Three experiments were conducted at a commercial hatchery using a commercial Inovoject™ system with treatments occurring in conjunction with vaccination at transfer from incubator to hatcher units (18.5 to 19 d embryonic development). In all 3 experiments, approximately 15,000 eggs (2,500 eggs per group) were treated and transferred to a single hatcher unit. Treatments in Exp. 1 consisted of buffered saline solution alone (Control, Cont) or a dextrin solution (Dext, 18% maltodextrin, 10% potato starch dextrin) containing zero, 80, 240, 720, or 2,160 μg IC/mL. The results of this initial experiment indicated that broiler chicks at hatch that received 240 and 720 μg IC/mL in Dext were heavier (P < 0.05) compared to the other treatment groups; there were no differences in hatchability between groups. Based on these findings, subsequent studies used treatments of zero, 240, and 480 μg/mL IC in Dext or Cont. In Exp. 2, hatch weights in all treatment groups were higher (P < 0.05) compared to those receiving Cont. In Exp. 3, chicks given Dext alone or 240 and 480 μg/mL in saline weighed less at hatch compared to the other treatment groups. However, chicks provided Dext alone in Exp. 3 had less weight loss after a 24-hour holding period compared to the other groups. All treatment groups exhibited greater weight gain from one to 10 d compared to the Cont group. The results indicate that in ovo feeding of broiler embryos with Dext containing 240 and 480 μg IC/mL may have beneficial effects on broiler hatch weights and early growth rate. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Early Antibiotic Exposure in Low-resource Settings Is Associated With Increased Weight in the First Two Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; Platts-Mills, James A.; Seidman, Jessica C.; John, Sushil; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Ulak, Manjeswori; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Soofi, Sajid B.; Yori, Pablo Penataro; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo A.M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Kosek, Margaret; Lang, Dennis; Gottlieb, Michael; Zaidi, Anita; Kang, Gagandeep; Bessong, Pascal; Houpt, Eric R.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The potential growth-promoting effects of antibiotics are not well understood among undernourished children in environments with high pathogen exposure. We aimed to assess whether early antibiotic exposure duration and class were associated with growth to 2 years of age across 8 low-resource sites in the MAL-ED birth cohort study. Methods: We followed 1954 children twice per week from birth to 2 years to record maternally reported antibiotic exposures and measure anthropometry monthly. We estimated the associations between antibiotic exposure before 6 months of age and weight-for-age and length-for-age (LAZ) z scores to 2 years. We assessed the impact of class-specific exposures and duration, and compared these results to effects of antibiotic exposures after 6 months of age. Results: Antibiotic use before 6 months of age was associated with increased weight from 6 months to 2 years, whereas associations with length were less consistent across sites and antibiotic classes. Compared to unexposed children, 2 or more courses of metronidazole, macrolides, and cephalosporins were associated with adjusted increases in weight-for-age of 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 0.43), 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.42), and 0.19 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.35) from 6 months to 2 years, respectively. Conclusions: Antibiotic use in low-resource settings was most associated with the ponderal growth of children who had multiple exposures to antibiotics with broad spectrum and anaerobic activity in early infancy. Opportunities for rational and targeted antibiotic therapy in low resource settings may also promote short-term weight gain in children, although longer-term physical growth and metabolic impacts are unknown. PMID:28604514

  4. Whey Protein Reduces Early Life Weight Gain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars I.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001–0.05). Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001). Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01) and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05). Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001). The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05) whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey. PMID:23940754

  5. Early Permian transgressive-regressive cycles: Sequence stratigraphic reappraisal of the coal-bearing Barakar Formation, Raniganj Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Joyeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip; Banerjee, Sudipto; Adhikari, Kalyan

    2018-03-01

    The present research is an attempt to assess the Barakar Formation of the Raniganj Gondwana Basin, India, in the frame of fluvio-marine (estuarine) depositional systems using sequence stratigraphic elements. Analysis of predominant facies associations signify deposition in three sub-environments: (i) a river-dominated bay-head delta zone in the inner estuary, with transition from braided fluvial channels (FA-B1) to tide-affected meandering fluvial channels and flood plains (FA-B2) in the basal part of the succession; (ii) a mixed energy central basin zone, which consists of transitional fluvio-tidal channels (FA-B2), tidal flats, associated with tidal channels and bars (FA-B3) in the middle-upper part of the succession; and (iii) a wave-dominated outer estuary (coastal) zone (FA-B4 with FA-B3) in the upper part of the succession. Stacked progradational (P1, P2)-retrogradational (R1, R2) successions attest to one major base level fluctuation, leading to distinct transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles with development of initial falling stage systems tract (FSST), followed by lowstand systems tract (LST) and successive transgressive systems tracts (TST-1 and TST-2). Shift in the depositional regime from regressive to transgressive estuarine system in the early Permian Barakar Formation is attributed to change in accommodation space caused by mutual interactions of (i) base level fluctuations in response to climatic amelioration and (ii) basinal tectonisms (exhumation/sagging) related to post-glacial isostatic adjustments in the riftogenic Gondwana basins.

  6. Early Pleistocene hominin deciduous teeth from the Homo antecessor Gran Dolina-TD6 bearing level (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Martín-Francés, Laura; Martínez de Pinillos, Marina; Modesto-Mata, Mario; García-Campos, Cecilia; Wu, Xiujie; Xing, Song; Liu, Wu

    2017-07-01

    During the last 13 years, the late Early Pleistocene Gran Dolina-TD6-2 level (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) has yielded an additional sample of 26 dental specimens attributed to Homo antecessor. In this report, we present a descriptive and comparative study of the six deciduous teeth. We provide external and internal morphological descriptions following classical terminology, as well as the mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements of the teeth. The internal morphology was described by means of micro-CT technique. The TD6 deciduous teeth preserve primitive features regarding the Homo clade, such as the presence of styles in lower and upper canines and developed anterior and posterior foveae in the dm 2 . However, other features related to the complexity of the crown morphology (e.g., cingulum) are not present in this sample. Furthermore, the great reduction of the talonid of the dm 1 s is also noteworthy. Despite the limited comparative evidence, the presence of a remarkably well-developed tuberculum molare in the dm 1 and dm 1 s from TD6 can be also considered a derived feature in the genus Homo. The TD6 hominins exhibit dental dimensions similar to those of other Pleistocene hominins. The dm 1 s are buccolingually elongated and the buccolingual diameter of ATD6-93 is the largest recorded so far in the Homo fossil record. This study expands the list of plesiomorphic features of H. antecessor, and provides some information on the evolutionary status of this species. However, the identification of some advanced traits evinces a step towards the derived morphology of European Pleistocene teeth. The study of the deciduous dentition confirms the mosaic pattern of H. antecessor morphology revealed in previous studies of this hominin sample. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Using variability to guide dimensional weighting: Associative mechanisms in early word learning

    PubMed Central

    Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2013-01-01

    At 14 months, children appear to struggle to apply their fairly well developed speech perception abilities to learning similar sounding words (e.g. bih/dih; Stager & Werker, 1997). However, variability in non-phonetic aspects of the training stimuli seems to aid word learning at this age. Extant theories of early word learning cannot account for this benefit of variability. We offer a simple explanation for this range of effects based on associative learning. Simulations suggest that if infants encode both non-contrastive information (e.g. cues to speaker voice) and meaningful linguistic cues (e.g. place of articulation or voicing), then associative learning mechanisms predict these variability effects in early word learning. Crucially, this means that despite the importance of task variables in predicting performance, this body of work shows that phonological categories are still developing in this age, and that the structure of non-informative cues has critical influences on word learning abilities. PMID:21609356

  8. Early Caffeine Prophylaxis and Risk of Failure of Initial Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ravi M; Zimmerman, Kanecia; Carlton, David P; Clark, Reese; Benjamin, Daniel K; Smith, P Brian

    2017-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that early caffeine treatment on the day of birth, compared with later treatment in very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, is associated with a decreased risk of CPAP failure in the first week of life. Multicenter, observational cohort study in 366 US neonatal intensive care units. We evaluated inborn, VLBW infants discharged from 2000 to 2014, who received only CPAP therapy without surfactant treatment on day of life (DOL) 0, had a 5-minute Apgar ≥3, and received caffeine in the first week of life. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to compare the risk of CPAP failure, defined as invasive mechanical ventilation or surfactant therapy on DOL 1-6, by timing of caffeine treatment as either early (initiation on DOL 0) or routine (initiation on DOL 1-6). We identified 11 133 infants; 4528 (41%) received early caffeine and 6605 (59%) received routine caffeine. Median gestational age was lower in the early caffeine group, 29 weeks (25th, 75th percentiles; 28, 30) vs the routine caffeine group, 30 weeks (29, 31); P < 0.001. The incidence of CPAP failure on DOL 1-6 was similar between the early and routine caffeine groups: 22% vs 21%; adjusted OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.18). Early caffeine treatment on the day of birth was not associated with a decreased risk of CPAP failure in the first week of life for VLBW infants initially treated with CPAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [The status of protein intake and energy supply in the early life of very/extremely low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Bi, Chun-Yu; Ru, Xi-Fang; Feng, Qi; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xing; Meng, Jing-Wen

    2013-05-01

    To study the relationship of protein intake and energy supply with the physical growth in very/extremely low birth weight infant at their early life. Retrospective survey was performed in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Peking University First Hospital. Inclusion criteria were preterm infant, birth weight < 1500 g, hospitalization for longer than 2 weeks, discharge with body weight greater than 1800 g. The infants were divided into two groups according to gestational age (GA). GA < 32 weeks and ≥ 32 weeks. Physical growth and its relation with the protein intake and energy supply were analyzed. The predictive value of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on protein intake was studied. Ninety-three very/extremely low birth weight infants were involved, 69 in GA < 32 weeks group and 24 in GA ≥ 32 weeks group.Compared with GA ≥ 32 group, GA < 32 weeks preterm infants had more weight loss, (9.2 ± 4.4)% vs. (5.0 ± 3.1)%, P = 0.000; slower birth weight recovery (10.6 ± 3.8) d vs. (7.1 ± 2.6) d, P = 0.000; poorer weight gain at 1, 4, 5 weeks of life, (-4.5 ± 9.3) g/ (kg·d) vs. (3.4 ± 6.9) g/ (kg·d), P = 0.000 , (13.5 ± 7.3) g/ (kg·d) vs. (19.2 ± 4.9) g/ (kg·d), P = 0.001, (14.6 ± 5.6) g/ (kg·d) vs. (18.2 ± 4.5) g/ (kg·d), P = 0.031; less energy supply at 1 to 5 weeks (P value was 0.000,0.000,0.025,0.001,0.008 respectively) and less protein intake at 1, 4, 5 weeks of life (P value was 0.009,0.006,0.032). Extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) was still predominant in our subjects, 47.8% in GA < 32 weeks group, and 95.8% in GA ≥ 32 weeks group, P = 0.000. The incidence increased greater in GA < 32 weeks infants, 43.5% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.000.The duration of weight loss and mechanical ventilation correlated negatively with weight gain rate, respectively β = -0.591, P = 0.000 and β = -0.281, P = 0.005; the average energy supply and time taken to reach full enteral feeding were factors improving weight gain, respectively β = 0.202, P = 0.021 and

  10. Brain early infarct detection using gamma correction extreme-level eliminating with weighting distribution.

    PubMed

    Teh, V; Sim, K S; Wong, E K

    2016-11-01

    According to the statistic from World Health Organization (WHO), stroke is one of the major causes of death globally. Computed tomography (CT) scan is one of the main medical diagnosis system used for diagnosis of ischemic stroke. CT scan provides brain images in Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format. The presentation of CT brain images is mainly relied on the window setting (window center and window width), which converts an image from DICOM format into normal grayscale format. Nevertheless, the ordinary window parameter could not deliver a proper contrast on CT brain images for ischemic stroke detection. In this paper, a new proposed method namely gamma correction extreme-level eliminating with weighting distribution (GCELEWD) is implemented to improve the contrast on CT brain images. GCELEWD is capable of highlighting the hypodense region for diagnosis of ischemic stroke. The performance of this new proposed technique, GCELEWD, is compared with four of the existing contrast enhancement technique such as brightness preserving bi-histogram equalization (BBHE), dualistic sub-image histogram equalization (DSIHE), extreme-level eliminating histogram equalization (ELEHE), and adaptive gamma correction with weighting distribution (AGCWD). GCELEWD shows better visualization for ischemic stroke detection and higher values with image quality assessment (IQA) module. SCANNING 38:842-856, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Composite Bear Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. Richard; Jara, Steve; Suffel, Susan

    2003-01-01

    To many national park campers and mountain climbers saving their foods in a safe and unbreakable storage container without worrying being attacked by a bear is a challenging task. In some parks, the park rangers have mandated that park visitors rent a bear canister for their food storage. Commercially available bear canisters are made of ABS plastic, weigh 2.8 pounds, and have a 180 cubic inch capacity for food storage. A new design with similar capacity was conducted in this study to reduce its weight and make it a stiffer and stronger canister. Two prototypes incorporating carbon prepreg with and without honeycomb constructions were manufactured using hand lay-up and vacuum bag forming techniques. A 6061-T6-aluminum ring was machined to dimensions in order to reinforce the opening area of the canister. Physical properties (weight and volume) along with mechanical properties (flexural strength and specific allowable moment) of the newly fabricated canisters are compared against the commercial ones. The composite canister weighs only 56% of the ABS one can withstand 9 times of the force greater. The advantages and limitations of using composite bear canisters will be discussed in the presentation.

  12. Are Early-Life Socioeconomic Conditions Directly Related to Birth Outcomes? Grandmaternal Education, Grandchild Birth Weight, and Associated Bias Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jonathan Y.; Gavin, Amelia R.; Richardson, Thomas S.; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Siscovick, David S.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Grandmaternal education may be related to grandchild birth weight (GBW) through maternal early-life development; however, conventional regression models may be endogenously confounded. Alternative models employing explicit structural assumptions may provide incrementally clearer evidence. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1995–2009; 1,681 mother-child pairs) to estimate “direct effects” of grandmaternal educational level (less than high school, high school diploma or equivalent, or college degree) at the time of the mother's birth on GBW, adjusted for maternal life-course factors: maltreatment as a child, education and income as an adult, prepregnancy overweight, and prenatal smoking. Using conventional and marginal structural model (MSM) approaches, we estimated 54-g (95% confidence interval: −14.0, 122.1) and 87-g (95% confidence interval: 10.9, 162.5) higher GBWs per increase in educational level, respectively. The MSM allowed simultaneous mediation by and adjustment for prepregnancy overweight. Estimates were insensitive to alternate structural assumptions and mediator parameterizations. Bias analysis suggested that a single unmeasured confounder would have to have a strong influence on GBW (approximately 150 g) or be greatly imbalanced across exposure groups (approximately 25%) to completely explain the findings. Coupling an MSM with sensitivity analyses provides some evidence that maternal early-life socioeconomic environment is directly associated with offspring birth weight. PMID:26283086

  13. The influence of early postnatal nutrition on retinopathy of prematurity in extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Peter J; Weaver, R Grey

    2010-06-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) is the most common serious ophthalmic disease in preterm infants. Human milk may provide a protective effect for ROP; however, beneficial effects of human milk preclude randomized trials. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing early postnatal nutrition with ROP development. Evaluate relationship between early postnatal nutriture and ROP surgery. Nutrition data was collected for inborn AGA infants, BW 700-1000 g. ROP surgery was the primary outcome variable. A single pediatric ophthalmologist supervised examinations. All infants received triweekly IM vitamin A as chronic lung disease prophylaxis (Tyson: NEJM, 1999). BW and gestational age were 867+/-85 g and 26.3+/-1.2 weeks (n=77, mean+/-1SD). ROP surgery infants(n=11) received more parenteral nutrition, 1648 mL, and less human milk, 13.8 mL/kg-day, and vitamin E, 1.4 mg/kg-day, during the second postnatal week. Human milk was a negative predictor for ROP surgery, odds ratio=0.94. Both groups met vitamin A recommendations; however, 74% was administered via IM injections. Neither group met vitamin E recommendations. Human milk feeding, parenteral nutrition volume and vitamin E intake were predictors for ROP surgery. IM vitamin A injections provided the majority of vitamin A; vitamin E administration was insufficient. Improving human milk feeding rates and vitamin dosing options may affect ROP surgery rates. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid supplementation in extremely-low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Daniel T; Caplan, Michael; Carlson, Susan E; Yoder, Rachel; Murthy, Karna; Frost, Brandy

    2016-10-01

    Extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants accrue large deficits in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) and require improved supplementation strategies. We hypothesized that once daily DHA+ARA drops applied to buccal mucosa will increase blood levels. Thirty ELBW infants were randomized to receive DHA 20 mg/kg/d + ARA 40 or 60 mg/kg/d + ARA 120 mg/kg/d or placebo within 72 h of age for 8 wk duration. Red blood cell phospholipid levels of DHA (primary) and ARA (secondary) were measured at 2 and 8 wk of age. Twenty-eight survivors with a median birth weight of 806 g completed dosing and sampling. Red blood cell levels were similar between the three groups at 2 wk (DHA: 4.62 wt% (interquartile range (IQR) 4.1-5.5) for all, P = 0.29 between groups; ARA: 21.1 wt% (IQR 18.78-22.6) for all, P = 0.41 between groups) and 8 wk (DHA: 6.0 wt% (IQR 5.1-7.1) for all, P = 0.57 between groups; ARA: 20.1 wt% (IQR 18.3-23.1) for all, P = 0.63 between groups). DHA in all infants showed a median increase of 31% from 2 to 8 wk (P < 0.04). ARA levels did not significantly change over time (P > 0.6). Daily buccal DHA and ARA supplements did not affect fatty acid levels in ELBW infants.

  15. Reduction in bearing size due to superconductors in magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dantam K.; Lewis, Paul; Dill, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A design concept that reduces the size of magnetic bearings is assessed. The small size will enable magnetic bearings to fit into limited available bearing volume of cryogenic machinery. The design concept, called SUPERC, uses (high Tc) superconductors or high-purity aluminum conductors in windings instead of copper. The relatively high-current density of these conductors reduces the slot radial thickness for windings, which reduces the size of the bearings. MTI developed a sizing program called SUPERC that translates the high-current density of these conductors into smaller sized bearings. This program was used to size a superconducting bearing to carry a 500 lb. load. The sizes of magnetic bearings needed by various design concepts are as follows: SUPERC design concept = 3.75 in.; magnet-bias design concept = 5.25 in.; and all electromagnet design concept = 7.0 in. These results indicate that the SUPERC design concept can significantly reduce the size of the bearing. This reduction, in turn, reduces the weight and yields a lighter bearing. Since the superconductors have inherently near-zero resistance, they are also expected to save power needed for operation considerably.

  16. Early potential effects of resveratrol supplementation on skeletal muscle adaptation involved in exercise-induced weight loss in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingyu; Zhang, Chen; Kim, MinJeong; Su, Yajuan; Qin, Lili; Dong, Jingmei; Zhou, Yunhe; Ding, Shuzhe

    2018-04-01

    Exercise and resveratrol supplementation exhibit anti-obesity functions in the long term but have not been fully investigated yet in terms of their early potential effectiveness. Mice fed with high-fat diet were categorized into control (Cont), exercise (Ex), resveratrol supplementation (Res), and exercise combined with resveratrol supplementation (Ex + Res) groups. In the four-week period of weight loss, exercise combined with resveratrol supplementation exerted no additional effects on body weight loss but significantly improved whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis. The combined treatment significantly decreased intrahepatic lipid content but did not affect intramyocellular lipid content. Moreover, the treatment significantly increased the contents of mtDNA and cytochrome c, the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha and its downstream transcription factors, and the activities of ATPase and citrate synthase. However, exercise, resveratrol, and their combination did not promote myofiber specification toward slow-twitch type. The effects of exercise combined with resveratrol supplementation on weight loss could be partly due to enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and not to fiber-type shift in skeletal muscle tissues. [BMB Reports 2018; 51(4): 200-205].

  17. High fat diet-induced metabolically obese and normal weight rabbit model shows early vascular dysfunction: mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Gabriela; Roco, Julieta; Medina, Mirta; Medina, Analia; Peral, Maria; Jerez, Susana

    2018-01-30

    Obesity contributes significantly to the development and evolution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which is believed to be mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. However, the vascular health of metabolically obese and normal weight (MONW) individuals is not completely comprehended. The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular function on the basis of a high fat diet (HFD)-MONW rabbit model. Twenty four male rabbits were randomly assigned to receive either a regular diet (CD, n = 12) or a high-fat diet (18% extra fat on the regular diet, HFD, n = 12) for 6 weeks. Body weight, TBARS and gluthathione serum levels were similar between the groups; fasting glucose, triglycerides, C reactive protein (CRP), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) were higher in the HFD group. Compared to CD, the HFD rabbits had glucose intolerance and lower HDL-cholesterol and plasma nitrites levels. Thoracic aortic rings from HFD rabbits exhibited: (a) a reduced acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation; (b) a greater contractile response to norepinephrine and KCl; (c) an improved angiotensin II-sensibility. The HFD-effect on acetylcholine-response was reversed by the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (NS398) and the cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor (SC560), and the HFD-effect on angiotensin II was reversed by NS398 and the TP receptor blocker (SQ29538). Immunohistochemistry and western blot studies showed COX-2 expression only in arteries from HFD rabbits. Our study shows a positive pro-inflammatory status of HFD-induced MONW characterized by raised COX-2 expression, increase of the CRP levels, reduction of NO release and oxidative stress-controlled conditions in an early stage of metabolic alterations characteristic of metabolic syndrome. Endothelial dysfunction and increased vascular reactivity in MONW individuals may be biomarkers of early vascular injury. Therefore, the metabolic changes induced by HFD even in normal

  18. Sex-specific effects of early life cadmium exposure on DNA methylation and implications for birth weight.

    PubMed

    Kippler, Maria; Engström, Karin; Mlakar, Simona Jurkovic; Bottai, Matteo; Ahmed, Sultan; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Raqib, Rubhana; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2013-05-01

    Dietary cadmium exposure was recently found to alter DNA methylation in adults, but data on effects early in life are lacking. Our objective was to evaluate associations between prenatal cadmium exposure, DNA methylation and birth weight. In total 127 mother-child pairs from rural Bangladesh were studied. For comparison, we included 56 children at 4.5 y. Cadmium concentrations in mothers' blood (gestational week 14) and children's urine were measured by ICPMS. Global DNA methylation was analyzed by Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in cord blood and children's blood. Maternal cadmium exposure was associated with cord blood DNA methylation (p-value < 10 (-16) ). The association was markedly sex-specific. In boys, 96% of the top 500 CpG sites showed positive correlations (rS-values > 0.50), whereas most associations in girls were inverse; only 29% were positive (rS > 0.45). In girls we found overrepresentation of methylation changes in genes associated with organ development, morphology and mineralization of bone, whereas changes in boys were found in cell death-related genes. Several individual CpG sites that were positively associated with cadmium were inversely correlated with birth weight, although none statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. The associations were, however, fairly robust in multivariable-adjusted linear regression models. We identified CpG sites that were significantly associated with cadmium exposure in both newborns and 4.5-y-old children. In conclusion, cadmium exposure in early life appears to alter DNA methylation differently in girls and boys. This is consistent with previous findings of sex-specific cadmium toxicity. Cadmium-related changes in methylation were also related to lower birth weight.

  19. Sex-specific effects of early life cadmium exposure on DNA methylation and implications for birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Kippler, Maria; Engström, Karin; Mlakar, Simona Jurkovic; Bottai, Matteo; Ahmed, Sultan; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Raqib, Rubhana; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Dietary cadmium exposure was recently found to alter DNA methylation in adults, but data on effects early in life are lacking. Our objective was to evaluate associations between prenatal cadmium exposure, DNA methylation and birth weight. In total 127 mother-child pairs from rural Bangladesh were studied. For comparison, we included 56 children at 4.5 y. Cadmium concentrations in mothers’ blood (gestational week 14) and children’s urine were measured by ICPMS. Global DNA methylation was analyzed by Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in cord blood and children’s blood. Maternal cadmium exposure was associated with cord blood DNA methylation (p-value < 10–16). The association was markedly sex-specific. In boys, 96% of the top 500 CpG sites showed positive correlations (rS-values > 0.50), whereas most associations in girls were inverse; only 29% were positive (rS > 0.45). In girls we found overrepresentation of methylation changes in genes associated with organ development, morphology and mineralization of bone, whereas changes in boys were found in cell death-related genes. Several individual CpG sites that were positively associated with cadmium were inversely correlated with birth weight, although none statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. The associations were, however, fairly robust in multivariable-adjusted linear regression models. We identified CpG sites that were significantly associated with cadmium exposure in both newborns and 4.5-y-old children. In conclusion, cadmium exposure in early life appears to alter DNA methylation differently in girls and boys. This is consistent with previous findings of sex-specific cadmium toxicity. Cadmium-related changes in methylation were also related to lower birth weight. PMID:23644563

  20. Early versus Delayed Human Milk Fortification in Very Low Birth Weight Infants-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sanket D; Dereddy, Narendra; Jones, Tamekia L; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy; Talati, Ajay J

    2016-07-01

    To compare the effect of initiating human milk fortification at 2 different feeding volumes on feeding intolerance and the time to reach full feeding volume. Very low birth weight infants (n = 100) were prospectively randomized to early fortification (EF) (beginning at a feeding volume of 20 mL/kg/d) or delayed fortification (at a feeding volume of 100 mL/kg/d). We employed a standardized feeding protocol and parenteral nutrition guidelines for the nutritional management of all study infants. The median days to reach full feeding volumes were equivalent in the 2 groups (20 vs 20, P = .45). No significant difference was observed in the total number of episodes of feeding intolerance (58 vs 57). Two cases of necrotizing enterocolitis (Bell stage ≥2) and deaths occurred in each group. Median daily protein intake (g/kg/d) was higher in EF group in week 1 (3.3 [3.2, 3.5] vs 3.1 [2.9, 3.3], P < .001), week 2 (3.6 [3.5, 3.8] vs 3.2 [2.9, 3.4], P < .001), and week 3 (3.7 [3.4, 3.9] vs 3.5 [2.8, 3.8], P = .006). Cumulative protein intake (g/kg) in the first 4 weeks of life was higher in EF group (98.6 [93.8, 104] vs 89.6 [84.2, 96.4], P < .001). Very early human milk fortification may improve early protein intake in very low birth weight infants without increasing frequencies of adverse events. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01988792. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of early pregnancy BMI, mid-gestational weight gain, glucose and lipid levels in pregnancy on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne Karen; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2015-04-03

    Maternal glucose and lipid levels are associated with neonatal anthropometry of the offspring, also independently of maternal body mass index (BMI). Gestational weight gain, however, is often not accounted for. The objective was to explore whether the effects of maternal glucose and lipid levels on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat were independent of early pregnancy BMI and mid-gestational weight gain. In a population-based, multi-ethnic, prospective cohort of 699 women and their offspring, maternal anthropometrics were collected in gestational week 15 and 28. Maternal fasting plasma lipids, fasting and 2-hour glucose post 75 g glucose load, were collected in gestational week 28. Maternal risk factors were standardized using z-scores. Outcomes were neonatal birth weight and sum of skinfolds in four different regions. Mean (standard deviation) birth weight was 3491 ± 498 g and mean sum of skinfolds was 18.2 ± 3.9 mm. Maternal fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol were predictors of birth weight, and fasting and 2-hour glucose were predictors of neonatal sum of skinfolds, independently of weight gain as well as early pregnancy BMI, gestational week at inclusion, maternal age, parity, smoking status, ethnic origin, gestational age and offspring's sex. However, weight gain was the strongest independent predictor of both birth weight and neonatal sum of skinfolds, with a 0.21 kg/week increased weight gain giving a 110.7 (95% confidence interval 76.6-144.9) g heavier neonate, and with 0.72 (0.38-1.06) mm larger sum of skinfolds. The effect size of mother's early pregnancy BMI on birth weight was higher in non-Europeans than in Europeans. Maternal fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol were predictors of offspring's birth weight, and fasting and 2-hour glucose were predictors of neonatal sum of skinfolds, independently of weight gain. Mid-gestational weight gain was a stronger predictor of both birth weight and neonatal sum of skinfolds than early

  2. Production of low molecular weight hydrocarbons by volcanic eruptions on early Mars.

    PubMed

    Segura, Antígona; Navarro-González, Rafael

    2005-10-01

    Methane and other larger hydrocarbons have been proposed as possible greenhouse gases on early Mars. In this work we explore if volcanic processes may have been a source for such molecules based on theoretical and experimental considerations. Geologic evidence and numerical simulations indicate that explosive volcanism was widely distributed throughout Mars. Volcanic lightning is typically produced in such explosive volcanism. Therefore this geologic setting was studied to determine if lightning could be a source for hydrocarbons in volcanic plumes. Volcanic lightning was simulated by focusing a high-energy infrared laser beam inside of a Pyrex reactor that contained the proposed volcanic gas mixture composed of 64% CH(4), 24% H(2), 10% H(2)O and 2% N(2), according to an accretion model and the nitrogen content measured in Martian meteorites. The analysis of products was performed by gas chromatography coupled to infrared and mass spectroscopy. Eleven hydrocarbons were identified among the products, of which acetylene (C(2)H(2)) was the most abundant. A thermochemical model was used to determine which hydrocarbons could arise only from volcanic heat. In this case, acetylene and ethylene are formed at magmatic temperatures. Our results indicate that explosive volcanism may have injected into the atmosphere of early Mars approximately 6 x 10(12) g yr(-1) of acetylene, and approximately 2 x 10(12) g yr(-1) of 1,3-butadiyne, both produced by volcanic lightning, approximately 5 x 10(11) g yr(-1) of ethylene produced by volcanic heat, and 10(13) g yr(-1) of methane.

  3. Cannibalism and predation on black bears by grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem, 1975-1990

    Mattson, D.J.; Knight, R.R.; Blanchard, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    We documented one instance of an adult male grizzly bear preying upon a black bear and four instances where circumstantial evidence suggested that grizzly bears (two cubs-of-the-year, one yearling female that was injured, and one adult male) had been preyed upon by conspecifics. We also examined feces of grizzly bears for bear remains. Remains of bears tended to be more common in spring feces and did not differ in frequency between early and late years of the study. Our observations generally support existing hypotheses concerning cannibalism among bears.

  4. The effects of delivery route and anesthesia type on early postnatal weight loss in newborns: the role of vasoactive hormones.

    PubMed

    Okumus, Nurullah; Atalay, Yildiz; Onal, Eray E; Turkyilmaz, Canan; Senel, Saliha; Gunaydin, Berrin; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Koc, Esin; Ergenekon, Ebru; Unal, Suna

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of delivery route and maternal anesthesia type and the roles of vasoactive hormones on early postnatal weight loss in term newborns. Ninety-four term infants delivered vaginally (group 1, n=31), cesarean section (C/S) with general anesthesia (GA) (group 2, n=29), and C/S with epidural anesthesia (EA) (group 3, n=34) were included in this study. All infants were weighed at birth and on the second day of life and intravenous (IV) fluid infused to the mothers for the last 6 h prior to delivery was recorded. Serum electrolytes, osmolality, N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), aldosterone and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) concentrations were measured at cord blood and on the second day of life. Our research showed that postnatal weight loss of infants was higher in C/S than vaginal deliveries (5.7% vs. 1.3%) (p < 0.0001) and in EA group than GA group (6.8% vs. 4.3%) (p < 0.0001). Postnatal weight losses were correlated with IV fluid volume infused to the mothers for the last 6 h prior to delivery (R = 0.814, p = 0.000) and with serum NT-proANP (R = 0.418, p = 0.000), BNP (R = 0.454, p = 0.000), and ADH (R = 0.509, p = 0.000) but not with aldosterone concentrations (p > 0.05). Large amounts of IV fluid given to the mothers who were applied EA prior to the delivery affect their offsprings' postnatal weight loss via certain vasoactive hormones.

  5. Adiposity, post-diagnosis weight change, and risk of cardiovascular events among early-stage breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne L; Caan, Bette J

    2017-04-01

    Little research examines whether adiposity or post-diagnosis weight changes influence Cardiovascular disease (CVD) among breast cancer patients for whom effects may differ due to treatment and recovery. We studied Stage I-III breast cancer survivors 18 to  <80 years, without pre-existing CVD, diagnosed from 1997 to 2013 at Kaiser Permanente. Women reported weight at diagnosis and weight and waist circumference (WC) around 24 months post diagnosis. Using Cox models for time to incident coronary artery disease, heart failure, valve abnormality, arrhythmia, stroke, or CVD death, we examined at-diagnosis body mass index (BMI, n = 3109) and post-diagnosis WC (n = 1898) and weight change (n = 1903, stable, ±5 to  <10-lbs or ±≥10-lbs). Mean (SD) age was 57 (11) years, and BMI was 28 (6) kg-m 2 . Post diagnosis, 25% of women gained and 14% lost ≥10-lbs; mean (SD) WC was 90 (15) cm. Over a median of 8.28 years, 915 women developed CVD. BMI 25-30-kg/m 2 (vs. BMI < 25-kg/m 2 ) was not associated with CVD, while BMI ≥ 35-kg/m 2 increased risk by 33% (HR: 1.33; 95%CI 1.08-1.65), independent of lifestyle and tumor/treatment factors. The increased risk at BMI ≥ 35-kg/m 2 attenuated with adjustment for pre-existing CVD risk factors to HR: 1.20; 95%CI 0.97-1.50. By contrast, even moderate elevations in WC increased risk of CVD, independent of pre-existing risk factors (HR: 1.93; 95%CI 1.31-2.84 comparing ≥100-cm vs. ≤80-cm). Post-diagnosis weight change had no association with CVD. Extreme adiposity and any elevation in WC increased risk of CVD among breast cancer survivors; however, changes in weight in the early post-diagnosis period were not associated with CVD. Survivors with high WC and existing CVD risk factors should be monitored.

  6. Weight Status and Dental Problems in Early Childhood: Classification Tree Analysis of a National Cohort

    PubMed Central

    O’ Sullivan, Aifric

    2017-01-01

    A poor quality diet may be a common risk factor for both obesity and dental problems such as caries. The aim of this paper is to use classification tree analysis (CTA) to identify predictors of dental problems in a nationally representative cohort of Irish pre-school children. CTA was used to classify variables and describe interactions between multiple variables including socio-demographics, dietary intake, health-related behaviour, body mass index (BMI) and a dental problem. Data were derived from the second (2010/2011) wave of the ‘Growing Up in Ireland’ study (GUI) infant cohort at 3 years, n = 9793. The prevalence of dental problems was 5.0% (n = 493). The CTA model showed a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 58.5% and overall correctly classified 59% of children. Ethnicity was the most significant predictor of dental problems followed by longstanding illness or disability, mother’s BMI and household income. The highest prevalence of dental problems was among children who were obese or underweight with a longstanding illness and an overweight mother. Frequency of intake of some foods showed interactions with the target variable. Results from this research highlight the interconnectedness of weight status, dental problems and general health and reinforce the importance of adopting a common risk factor approach when dealing with prevention of these diseases. PMID:29563431

  7. Linking parent perceptions of children's weight to early coronary risk factors: results from the CARDIAC Project.

    PubMed

    Stabler, M E; Cottrell, L; Lilly, C

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health threat because of the increasing prevalence in childhood and its causal relationship to the leading cause of death in America, heart disease. Detecting early signs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children and appropriately intervening to reverse the unhealthy trajectory associated with childhood obesity is of great importance. The objective of this study is to observe parental perception of their child's body mass index (BMI) and find associations between inaccurately estimated children and CVD risk factors. This study analyzed the association between 147 rural fifth grade students' lipid profiles and parents' self-reported survey who participated in the 2008-2011 Coronary Artery Risk Detection in Appalachian Communities study. After controlling for covariates, underestimated children were more likely to have higher log-transformed triglyceride and systolic blood pressure values and overestimated children were more likely to have lower systolic blood pressure. Underestimating a child's BMI is associated with coronary risk-related factors, while overestimating a child's BMI is associate with a protective CVD marker. A follow-up study examining the development of CVD risk factors in children of parents who inaccurately estimate their BMI would help clarify this relationship. Knowledge of how parental perceptions directly influence higher lipid levels in children could have an impact on public health efforts in the fight against childhood obesity in rural environments.

  8. Early Conventional MRI for Prediction of Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Laurel A; Bonfante-Mejia, Eliana; Hintz, Susan R; Dvorchik, Igor; Parikh, Nehal A

    2016-01-01

    Extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW; ≤1,000 g) infants are at high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Conventional brain MRI at term-equivalent age is increasingly used for prediction of outcomes. However, optimal prediction models remain to be determined, especially for cognitive outcomes. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of a data-driven MRI scoring system to predict neurodevelopmental impairments. 122 ELBW infants had a brain MRI performed at term-equivalent age. Conventional MRI findings were scored with a standardized algorithm and tested using a multivariable regression model to predict neurodevelopmental impairment, defined as one or more of the following at 18-24 months' corrected age: cerebral palsy, bilateral blindness, bilateral deafness requiring amplification, and/or cognitive/language delay. Results were compared with a commonly cited scoring system. In multivariable analyses, only moderate-to-severe gyral maturational delay was a significant predictor of overall neurodevelopmental impairment (OR: 12.6, 95% CI: 2.6, 62.0; p < 0.001). Moderate-to-severe gyral maturational delay also predicted cognitive delay, cognitive delay/death, and neurodevelopmental impairment/death. Diffuse cystic abnormality was a significant predictor of cerebral palsy (OR: 33.6, 95% CI: 4.9, 229.7; p < 0.001). These predictors exhibited high specificity (range: 94-99%) but low sensitivity (30-67%) for the above outcomes. White or gray matter scores, determined using a commonly cited scoring system, did not show significant association with neurodevelopmental impairment. In our cohort, conventional MRI at term-equivalent age exhibited high specificity in predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, sensitivity was suboptimal, suggesting additional clinical factors and biomarkers are needed to enable accurate prognostication. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Early Detection of Hypothermic Neuroprotection Using T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Mouse Model of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Doman, Sydney E.; Girish, Akanksha; Nemeth, Christina L.; Drummond, Gabrielle T.; Carr, Patrice; Garcia, Maxine S.; Johnston, Michael V.; Kannan, Sujatha; Fatemi, Ali; Zhang, Jiangyang; Wilson, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Standard care for neonatal HIE includes therapeutic hypothermia, which provides partial neuroprotection; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to assess injury and predict outcome after HIE. Immature rodent models of HIE are used to evaluate mechanisms of injury and to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of neuroprotective interventions such as hypothermia. In this study, we first confirmed that, in the CD1 mouse model of perinatal HIE used for our research, MRI obtained 3 h after hypoxic ischemia (HI) could reliably assess initial brain injury and predict histopathological outcome. Mice were subjected to HI (unilateral carotid ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia) on postnatal day 7 and were imaged with T2-weighted MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), 3 h after HI. Clearly defined regions of increased signal were comparable in T2 MRI and DWI, and we found a strong correlation between T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI and histopathological brain injury 7 days after HI, validating this method for evaluating initial injury in this model of HIE. The more efficient, higher resolution T2 MRI was used to score initial brain injury in subsequent studies. In mice treated with hypothermia, we found a significant reduction in T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI, compared to normothermic littermates. Early hypothermic neuroprotection was maintained 7 days after HI, in both T2 MRI injury scores and histopathology. In the normothermic group, T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI were comparable to those obtained 7 days after HI. However, in the hypothermic group, brain injury was significantly less 7 days after HI than at 3 h. Thus, early neuroprotective effects of hypothermia were enhanced by 7 days, which may reflect the additional 3 h of hypothermia after imaging or effects on later mechanisms of injury, such as delayed cell

  10. Early Detection of Hypothermic Neuroprotection Using T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Mouse Model of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Doman, Sydney E; Girish, Akanksha; Nemeth, Christina L; Drummond, Gabrielle T; Carr, Patrice; Garcia, Maxine S; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Sujatha; Fatemi, Ali; Zhang, Jiangyang; Wilson, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Standard care for neonatal HIE includes therapeutic hypothermia, which provides partial neuroprotection; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to assess injury and predict outcome after HIE. Immature rodent models of HIE are used to evaluate mechanisms of injury and to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of neuroprotective interventions such as hypothermia. In this study, we first confirmed that, in the CD1 mouse model of perinatal HIE used for our research, MRI obtained 3 h after hypoxic ischemia (HI) could reliably assess initial brain injury and predict histopathological outcome. Mice were subjected to HI (unilateral carotid ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia) on postnatal day 7 and were imaged with T2-weighted MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), 3 h after HI. Clearly defined regions of increased signal were comparable in T2 MRI and DWI, and we found a strong correlation between T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI and histopathological brain injury 7 days after HI, validating this method for evaluating initial injury in this model of HIE. The more efficient, higher resolution T2 MRI was used to score initial brain injury in subsequent studies. In mice treated with hypothermia, we found a significant reduction in T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI, compared to normothermic littermates. Early hypothermic neuroprotection was maintained 7 days after HI, in both T2 MRI injury scores and histopathology. In the normothermic group, T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI were comparable to those obtained 7 days after HI. However, in the hypothermic group, brain injury was significantly less 7 days after HI than at 3 h. Thus, early neuroprotective effects of hypothermia were enhanced by 7 days, which may reflect the additional 3 h of hypothermia after imaging or effects on later mechanisms of injury, such as delayed cell

  11. Depositional setting and early diagenesis of the dinosaur eggshell-bearing Aren Fm at Bastus, Late Campanian, south-central Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Molina, Margarita; Kälin, Otto; Benito, M. Isabel; Lopez-Martinez, Nieves; Vicens, Enric

    2007-07-01

    The Late Cretaceous Aren Fm exposed north of Bastus in the Tremp Basin (south-central Pyrenees) preserves an excellent record of dinosaur eggs laid in a marine littoral setting. Different from other cases reported in literature, at the Bastus site the preferential nesting ground was original beach sand. The coastal deposits of Aren Fm can be grouped into four facies assemblages, representing respectively shoreface, beachface, beach ridge plain and backbarrier lagoon environments. Shoreface deposits include fine- to coarse-grained hybrid arenites and subordinate quartz-dominated conglomerates with ripple structures of wave and wave-current origin. Beachface deposits are mainly storm beach conglomerates, but parallel-laminated foreshore arenites locally occur. Backbarrier lagoon deposits comprise of washover sandy conglomerates that grade laterally into sandy lime mudstones, biomicrites and marls. Beach ridge sediment, wherein the bulk of dinosaur eggs and eggshell debris occurs, predominantly is a reddish hybrid arenite that has undergone a complex early diagenetic evolution, including marine and meteoric cementation followed by soil development. The reddish arenites overlie wave-dominated shoreface deposits and in places pass laterally into lagoonal deposits. They originally formed shore ridges, that became stabilized during progradational episodes by pedogenesis (beach ridge, sensu [Otvos, E.G., 2000. Beach ridges—definitions and significance. Geomorphology 32, 83-108.]), which also affected the dinosaur eggs. The eggshell-bearing beach ridge arenites are typically preserved at the top of parasequences forming the systems tracts of a third-order sequence. Thick packages of this facies resulted from aggradation of barrier/beach ridge deposits, whose preservation below surfaces of transgressive erosion was favoured by incipient lithification.

  12. Early interactive behaviours in preterm infants and their mothers: influences of maternal depressive symptomatology and neonatal birth weight.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Francesca; Neri, Erica; Dellabartola, Sara; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2014-02-01

    The study evaluated the quality of preterm infant-mother interactions, considering severity of birth weight (ELBW and VLBW) and maternal depression, compared to full term babies. 69 preterm infants (29 ELBW and 40 VLBW) and 80 full-term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, the quality of mother-infant interaction was evaluated through Global Rating Scales; moreover, infant level of development and maternal depression were assessed through Griffith Development Mental Scales and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Results showed adequate sensitivity in preterm infants' mothers and higher involvement with their infants, compared to full term mothers, but ELBW ones exhibited an intrusive interactive pattern and a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms. The study underlined the relevance of paying special attention to both ELBW infants and their mothers, in order to support the parenting role and the co-construction of early interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis reveals potential genes involved in early metamorphosis process in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Kikuchi, Mani; Li, Xueyan; Gao, Qionghua; Xiong, Zijun; Ren, Yandong; Zhao, Ruoping; Mao, Bingyu; Kondo, Mariko; Irie, Naoki; Wang, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, one main class of Echinoderms, have a very fast and drastic metamorphosis process during their development. However, the molecular basis under this process remains largely unknown. Here we systematically examined the gene expression profiles of Japanese common sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for the first time by RNA sequencing across 16 developmental time points from fertilized egg to juvenile stage. Based on the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified 21 modules. Among them, MEdarkmagenta was highly expressed and correlated with the early metamorphosis process from late auricularia to doliolaria larva. Furthermore, gene enrichment and differentially expressed gene analysis identified several genes in the module that may play key roles in the metamorphosis process. Our results not only provide a molecular basis for experimentally studying the development and morphological complexity of sea cucumber, but also lay a foundation for improving its emergence rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early versus late erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Aher, Sanjay M; Ohlsson, Arne

    2012-10-17

    Low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in preterm infants provide a rationale for the use of EPO to prevent or treat anaemia. To assess the effectiveness and safety of early versus late initiation of EPO in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm and/or low birth weight (LBW) infants. The standard search of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group (CNRG) was performed in 2006 and updated in 2009. Updated search in September 2009 as follows: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (search via PubMed), CINAHL and EMBASE were searched from 2005 to September 2009. The searches were repeated in March 2012. The Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual meetings were searched electronically from 2000 to 2012 at Abstracts2View(TM) as were clinical trials registries (clinicaltrials.gov; controlled-trials.com; and who.int/ictrp). Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials enrolling preterm or LBW infants less than eight days of age. Early initiation of EPO (initiated at less than eight days of age) versus late initiation of EPO (initiated at eight to 28 days of age). The standard methods of the CNRG were followed. Weighted treatment effects included typical risk ratio (RR), typical risk difference (RD), number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB), number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) and mean difference (MD), all with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A fixed-effect model was used for meta-analyses and heterogeneity was evaluated using the I-squared (I(2)) test. No new trials were identified in March of 2012. Two high quality randomised double-blind controlled studies enrolling 262 infants were identified. A non-significant reduction in the 'Use of one or more RBC transfusions' [two studies 262 infants; typical RR 0.91 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.06); typical RD -0.07 (95% CI -0.18 to 0.04; I(2) = 0% for both RR and RD] favouring early EPO was noted. Early EPO administration resulted in a non-significant reduction in the "number of transfusions per infant" compared with late EPO [typical

  15. Are Early-Life Socioeconomic Conditions Directly Related to Birth Outcomes? Grandmaternal Education, Grandchild Birth Weight, and Associated Bias Analyses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jonathan Y; Gavin, Amelia R; Richardson, Thomas S; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Siscovick, David S; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Grandmaternal education may be related to grandchild birth weight (GBW) through maternal early-life development; however, conventional regression models may be endogenously confounded. Alternative models employing explicit structural assumptions may provide incrementally clearer evidence. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1995-2009; 1,681 mother-child pairs) to estimate "direct effects" of grandmaternal educational level (less than high school, high school diploma or equivalent, or college degree) at the time of the mother's birth on GBW, adjusted for maternal life-course factors: maltreatment as a child, education and income as an adult, prepregnancy overweight, and prenatal smoking. Using conventional and marginal structural model (MSM) approaches, we estimated 54-g (95% confidence interval: -14.0, 122.1) and 87-g (95% confidence interval: 10.9, 162.5) higher GBWs per increase in educational level, respectively. The MSM allowed simultaneous mediation by and adjustment for prepregnancy overweight. Estimates were insensitive to alternate structural assumptions and mediator parameterizations. Bias analysis suggested that a single unmeasured confounder would have to have a strong influence on GBW (approximately 150 g) or be greatly imbalanced across exposure groups (approximately 25%) to completely explain the findings. Coupling an MSM with sensitivity analyses provides some evidence that maternal early-life socioeconomic environment is directly associated with offspring birth weight. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cognitive impairment in metabolically-obese, normal-weight rats: identification of early biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Cifre, Margalida; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2018-03-22

    Metabolically-obese, normal-weight (MONW) individuals are not obese in terms of weight and height but have a number of obesity-related features (e.g. greater visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease). The MONW phenotype is related to the intake of unbalanced diets, such as those rich in fat. Increasing evidence shows a relationship between high-fat diet consumption and mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Thus, MONW individuals could be at a greater risk of cognitive dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate whether MONW-like animals present gene expression alterations in the hippocampus associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment, and to identify early biomarkers of cognitive dysfunction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Wistar rats were chronically fed with a 60% (HF60) or a 45% (HF45) high-fat diet administered isocalorically to control animals to mimic MONW features. Expression analysis of cognitive decline-related genes was performed using RT-qPCR, and working memory was assessed using a T-maze. High-fat diet consumption altered the pattern of gene expression in the hippocampus, clearly pointing to cognitive decline, which was accompanied by a worse performance in the T-maze in HF60 animals. Remarkably, Syn1 and Sorl1 mRNA showed the same expression pattern in both the hippocampus and the PBMC obtained at different time-points in the HF60 group, even before other pathological signs were observed. Our results demonstrate that long-term intake of high-fat diets, even in the absence of obesity, leads to cognitive disruption that is reflected in PBMC transcriptome. Therefore, PBMC are revealed as a plausible, minimally-invasive source of early biomarkers of cognitive impairment associated with increased fat intake.

  17. System for testing bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, John C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed here is a system for testing bearings wherein a pair of spaced bearings provides support for a shaft on which is mounted a bearing to be tested, this bearing being mounted in a bearing holder spaced from and in alignment with the pair of bearings. The bearing holder is provided with an annular collar positioned in an opening in the bearing holder for holding the bearing to be tested. A screw threaded through the bearing holder into engagement with the annular collar can be turned to force the collar radially out of alignment with the pair of bearings to apply a radial load to the bearing.

  18. The stability of weight status through the early to middle childhood years in Australia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Nikita; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steven; Nichols, Melanie

    2015-04-28

    To investigate the sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with incidence, persistence or remission of obesity in a longitudinal sample of Australian children aged 4-10 years. Nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). The sample for this analysis included all children in the Kinder cohort (aged 4-5 years at wave 1) who participated in all four waves of LSAC (wave 1, 2004, aged 4-5 years; wave 2, 2006, aged 6-7 years; wave 3, 2008, aged 8-9 years and wave 4, 2010, aged 10-11 years). Of the 4983 children who participated in the baseline (wave 1) survey, 4169 (83.7%) children completed all four waves of data collection. Movement of children between weight status categories over time and individual-level predictors of weight status change (sociodemographic characteristics, selected dietary and activity behaviours). The study found tracking of weight status across this period of childhood. There was an inverse association observed between socioeconomic position and persistence of overweight/obesity. Sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit and vegetable intake and screen time appeared to be important predictors of stronger tracking. Overweight and obesity established early in childhood tracks strongly to the middle childhood years in Australia, particularly among children of lower socioeconomic position and children participating in some unhealthy behaviour patterns. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. CUSHIONED BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A vibration damping device effective to dampen vibrations occurring at the several critical speeds encountered in the operation of a high-speed centrifuge is described. A self-centering bearing mechanism is used to protect both the centrifuge shaft and the damping mechanism. The damping mechanism comprises spaced-apant, movable, and stationary sleeve members arranged concentrically of a rotating shaft with a fluid maintained between the members. The movable sleeve member is connected to the shaft for radial movement therewith.

  20. Using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale to early identify very low-birth-weight infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Wang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Shan-Tair; Huang, Chao-Ching

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) is able to identify very low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) as early as 6 months of corrected age. Longitudinal follow-up AIMS assessments were done at 6, 12, and 18 months old for 35 VLBW infants with cystic PVL (cPVL(+)), 70 VLBW infants without cystic PVL (cPVL(-)), and 76 term infants (healthy controls: HC). Corrected age was used for the preterm infants. The cPVL(+) group had significantly lower prone, supine and sitting subscales at age 6, 12, and 18 months than the cPVL(-) group (all p<0.05). The cPVL(-) group showed significantly lower supine, prone, sitting, and standing subscales than the HC group only at age 6 months. At age 6 months, the areas under the receiver operator curve used to discriminate the cPVL(+) infants from cPVL(-) infants were 0.82±0.04 for prone, 0.93±0.02 for supine, 0.83±0.05 for sitting, and 0.62±0.07 for standing. The AIMS may help early identify VLBW infants with cystic PVL at age 6 months old. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of early nutritional intake on long-term growth and bone mineralization of former very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Christmann, V; van der Putten, M E; Rodwell, L; Steiner, K; Gotthardt, M; van Goudoever, J B; van Heijst, A F J

    2018-03-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for impaired bone mineralization and growth in length later in life due to inadequate nutritional intake in the early postnatal period. To investigate whether increased nutritional supplementation of calcium, phosphate and protein in Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants during the first 14days after birth was associated with improvement in length and bone development until 9-10years of age. Observational follow-up study of VLBW infants (birth weight<1500g or gestational age<32weeks) born in two consecutive years (eligible infants: 2004 n: 63 and 2005: n: 66). Cohort 2005 received higher intake of calcium, phosphate and protein with parenteral nutrition compared to Cohort 2004. Anthropometric data were collected during standard follow-up visits until five years, and additionally at 9-10years of age including measurements of bone mineral content, bone mineral density of the whole body and lumbar spine determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Long-term growth trajectories of both cohorts were evaluated separately for participants born appropriate (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA), stratified by gender. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the effect of nutritional intake and clinical covariates on length and bone mineralization. Both cohorts achieved a catch-up in length to SDS within the normal range by 6months (length SDS: estimated mean (95% confidence interval (CI): 6months: Cohort 2004: -0.7 (-1.1, -0.3) Cohort 2005: -0.5 (-0.8, -0.2)). Bone mineral content and density were within the normal range and not different between the cohorts. SGA children achieved a catch-up in length at 5years with bone mineralization comparable to AGA children. Only for girls birth weight was significantly associated with length SDS (per gram: β 0.001; 95% CI (0.000, 0.003); p=0.03) There was no evidence of an association between early nutritional intake and bone mineralization. Children born as appropriate or small for

  2. Tooling Converts Stock Bearings To Custom Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleenor, E. N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for reworking stock bearings saves time and produces helicopter-rotor bearings ground more precisely. Split tapered ring at one end of threaded bolt expands to hold inside of inner race bearing assembly; nut, at other end of bolt, adjusts amount of spring tension. Piece of hardware grasps bearing firmly without interfering with grinding operation. Operation produces bearing of higher quality than commercially available bearings.

  3. Prediction of early neurological deterioration using diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging in hyperacute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Arenillas, Juan F; Rovira, Alex; Molina, Carlos A; Grivé, Elisenda; Montaner, Joan; Alvarez-Sabín, José

    2002-09-01

    Early neurological deterioration (END) occurs in approximately one third of all ischemic stroke patients and is associated with a poor outcome. Our study sought to assess the value of ultra-early MRI in the prediction of END in stroke patients. Between August 1999 and November 2001, 38 stroke patients with a proven middle cerebral artery (MCA) or intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion on MR angiography underwent perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) within 6 hours after onset, and 30 fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Control DWI and MR angiography were performed between days 3 and 5. Cranial CT was performed to rule out hemorrhagic transformation. Vascular risk factors, temperature, blood pressure, glycemia, and blood count were assessed on admission. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were obtained at baseline and at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. At the same time points, transcranial Doppler (TCD) examinations were conducted to assess arterial recanalization. END was defined as an increase in the NIHSS score >4. A logistic regression model was applied to detect independent predictors of END. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the relationship between infarct growth and duration of vessel occlusion. Initial MR angiography showed an occlusion of intracranial ICA in 7 patients (23.3%), of proximal MCA in 14 (46.6%), and of distal MCA in the remaining 9 (30%). A PWI-DWI mismatch >20% was observed in 28 patients (93.3%). END occurred in 7 patients (23.3%). Baseline NIHSS score (P=0.05), proximal site of occlusion (P=0.002), initial DWI (P=0.002) and PWI (P=0.003) volumes, and reduced PWI-DWI mismatch (P=0.038) were associated with END in the univariate analysis. Only hyperacute DWI volume remained as a predictor of END when a logistic regression model was applied (odds ratio, 11.5; 95% CI, 2.31 to 57.10; P=0.0028). A receiver operator characteristic curve identified a cutoff point of DWI >89 cm(3

  4. Early versus late erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Aher, S M; Ohlsson, A

    2006-07-19

    Hematocrit falls after birth in preterm infants due to physiological factors and frequent blood letting. Low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in preterm infants provide a rationale for the use of EPO to prevent or treat anaemia. To assess the effectiveness and safety of early (before 8 days after birth) versus late (between 8 - 28 days after birth) initiation of EPO in reducing red blood cell transfusions in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2006) was searched. Electronic and manual searches were conducted in November 2005 of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL, personal files, bibliographies of identified trials and abstracts by the Pediatric Academic Societies' and the European Society of Pediatric Research Meetings published in Pediatric Research. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials. Preterm (< 37 weeks gestational age) or low birth weight infants (< 2500 g) less than eight days of age. Early initiation of EPO (initiated at < 8 days of age) vs. late initiation of EPO (initiated at 8 - 28 days of age). Outcomes; At least one of the following outcomes were reported: Use of one or more red blood cell transfusions; Total volume (ml/kg) of blood transfused per infant; Number of transfusions per infant; Number of donors to whom the infant was exposed; Mortality during initial hospital stay (all causes); and common outcomes associated with preterm birth. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were followed independently by the authors to assess study quality and report outcomes. Weighted treatment effects, calculated using RevMan 4.2.8 included typical relative risk (RR), typical risk difference (RD), number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB), number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) and mean difference (MD), all with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A fixed effect model was used for meta-analyses. Heterogeneity tests including the I-squared (I(2

  5. The differential effects of low birth weight and Western diet consumption upon early life hepatic fibrosis development in guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Ousseynou; Blake, Alexandra; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Zhao, Lin; Rabicki, Katherine; Walsh, Joanna C.; Welch, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Key points Postnatal intake of a high saturated fat/high sugar diet, the Western diet (WD), is a risk factor for liver fibrosis. Recently, adverse in utero conditions resulting in low birth weight (LBW) have also been associated with postnatal fibrosis development.We demonstrate that suboptimal in utero conditions resulting in LBW are associated with changes in hepatic profibrotic genes in conjunction with minimal liver fibrosis in young non‐overweight adult guinea pigs.Our results also indicate that WD promotes liver steatosis, enhanced expression of hepatic genes and proteins of the proinflammatory, profibrotic, cell death and collagen deposition pathways in conjunction with mild hepatic fibrosis.Our data highlight that pathways responsible for the initiation of a profibrotic state and ultimately hepatic fibrosis appear different depending upon the insult, an in utero‐induced LBW outcome or a postnatal WD exposure. Abstract Postnatal intake of an energy dense diet, the Western diet (WD), is a strong risk factor for liver fibrosis. Recently, adverse in utero conditions resulting in low birth weight (LBW) have also been associated with postnatal fibrosis development. We assessed the independent and possible synergistic effects of placental insufficiency‐induced LBW and postnatal WD consumption on liver fibrosis in early adulthood, with a specific focus on changes in inflammation and apoptosis pathways in association with fibrogenesis. Male LBW (uterine artery ablation) and normal birth weight (NBW) guinea pig pups were fed either a control diet (CD) or WD from weaning to 150 days. Significant steatosis, mild lobular inflammation, apoptosis and mild stage 1 fibrosis (perisinusoidal or portal) were evident in WD‐fed offspring (NBW/WD and LBW/WD). In LBW/CD versus NBW/CD offspring, increased transforming growth factor‐beta 1 and matrix metallopeptidase mRNA and sma‐ and Mad‐related protein 4 (SMAD4) were present in conjunction with minimal stage 1

  6. History of ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowson, D.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The familiar precision rolling-element bearings of the twentieth century are products of exacting technology and sophisticated science. Their very effectiveness and basic simplicity of form may discourage further interest in their history and development. Yet the full story covers a large portion of recorded history and surprising evidence of an early recognition of the advantages of rolling motion over sliding action and progress toward the development of rolling-element bearings. The development of rolling-element bearings is followed from the earliest civilizations to the end of the eighteenth century. The influence of general technological developments, particularly those concerned with the movement of large building blocks, road transportation, instruments, water-raising equipment, and windmills are discussed, together with the emergence of studies of the nature of rolling friction and the impact of economic factors. By 1800 the essential features of ball and rolling-element bearings had emerged and it only remained for precision manufacture and mass production to confirm the value of these fascinating machine elements.

  7. IGF-I and relation to growth in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term born infants.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Miranda; Cranendonk, Anneke; Twisk, Jos W R; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M

    2017-01-01

    In very-low-birth-weight infants IGF-I plays an important role in postnatal growth restriction and is probably also involved in growth restriction in childhood. We compared IGF-I and its relation to growth in early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term appropriate for gestational age born infants. We included 41 very-low-birth-weight and 64 term infants. Anthropometry was performed at all visits to the outpatient clinic. IGF-I and insulin were measured in blood samples taken at 6 months and 2 years corrected age (very-low-birth-weight children) and at 3 months, 1 and 2 years (term children). Over the first 2 years of life growth parameters are lower in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children, but the difference in length decreases significantly. During the first 2 years of life IGF-I is higher in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children. In both groups there is a significant relationship between IGF-I and (change in) length and weight over the first 2 years of life and between insulin and change in total body fat. Considering the relation of IGF-I to growth and the decrease in difference in length, higher IGF-I levels in very-low-birth-weight infants in early childhood probably have an important role in catch-up growth in length.

  8. IGF-I and relation to growth in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term born infants

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Miranda; Cranendonk, Anneke; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.

    2017-01-01

    Background In very-low-birth-weight infants IGF-I plays an important role in postnatal growth restriction and is probably also involved in growth restriction in childhood. We compared IGF-I and its relation to growth in early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term appropriate for gestational age born infants. Methods We included 41 very-low-birth-weight and 64 term infants. Anthropometry was performed at all visits to the outpatient clinic. IGF-I and insulin were measured in blood samples taken at 6 months and 2 years corrected age (very-low-birth-weight children) and at 3 months, 1 and 2 years (term children). Results Over the first 2 years of life growth parameters are lower in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children, but the difference in length decreases significantly. During the first 2 years of life IGF-I is higher in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children. In both groups there is a significant relationship between IGF-I and (change in) length and weight over the first 2 years of life and between insulin and change in total body fat. Conclusions Considering the relation of IGF-I to growth and the decrease in difference in length, higher IGF-I levels in very-low-birth-weight infants in early childhood probably have an important role in catch-up growth in length. PMID:28182752

  9. Can early weight loss, eating behaviors and socioeconomic factors predict successful weight loss at 12- and 24-months in adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance participating in a randomised controlled trial?

    PubMed

    Gow, Megan L; Baur, Louise A; Ho, Mandy; Chisholm, Kerryn; Noakes, Manny; Cowell, Chris T; Garnett, Sarah P

    2016-04-01

    Lifestyle interventions in adolescents with obesity can result in weight loss following active intervention but individual responses vary widely. This study aimed to identify predictors of weight loss at 12- and 24-months in adolescents with obesity and clinical features of insulin resistance. Adolescents (n = 111, 66 girls, aged 10-17 years) were participants in a randomised controlled trial, the RESIST study, examining the effects of two diets differing in macronutrient content on insulin sensitivity. Eighty-five completed the 12-month program and 24-month follow-up data were available for 42 adolescents. Change in weight was determined by BMI expressed as a percentage of the 95th percentile (BMI95). The study physician collected socioeconomic data at baseline. Physical activity and screen time, and psychological dimensions of eating behavior were self-reported using the validated CLASS and EPI-C questionnaires, respectively. Stepwise multiple regressions were conducted to identify models that best predicted change in BMI95 at 12- and 24-months. Mean BMI95 was reduced at 12-months compared with baseline (mean difference [MD] ± SE: -6.9 ± 1.0, P < 0.001) but adolescents had significant re-gain from 12- to 24-months (MD ± SE: 3.7 ± 1.5, P = 0.017). Participants who achieved greater 12-month weight loss had: greater 3-month weight loss, a father with a higher education, lower baseline external eating and parental pressure to eat scores and two parents living at home. Participants who achieved greater 24-month weight loss had: greater 12-month weight loss and a lower baseline emotional eating score. Early weight loss is consistently identified as a strong predictor of long-term weight loss. This could be because early weight loss identifies those more motivated and engaged individuals. Patients who have baseline factors predictive of long-term weight loss failure may benefit from additional support during the intervention. Additionally

  10. Early weight loss predicts the reduction of obesity in men with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism undergoing long-term testosterone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Salman, Mahmoud; Yassin, Dany-Jan; Shoukfeh, Huda; Nettleship, Joanne Elisabeth; Yassin, Aksam

    2017-03-01

    We and others have previously shown that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) results in sustained weight loss in the majority of middle-aged hypogonadal men. Previously, however, a small proportion failed to lose at least 5% of their baseline weight. The reason for this is not yet understood. In the present study, we sought to identify early indicators that may predict successful long-term weight loss, defined as a reduction of at least 5% of total body weight relative to baseline weight (T0), in men with hypogonadism undergoing TRT. Eight parameters measured were assessed as potential predictors of sustained weight loss: loss of 3% or more of baseline weight after 1 year of TU treatment, severe hypogonadism, BMI, waist circumference, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1C ), age and use of vardenafil. Among the eight measured parameters, three factors were significantly associated with sustained weight loss over the entire period of TU treatment: (1) a loss of 3% of the baseline body weight after 1 year of TRT; (2) baseline BMI over 30; and (3) a waist circumference >102 cm. Age was not a predictor of weight loss.

  11. [Effect of early nutrition on growth parameters and psychomotor development of children of very low birth weight].

    PubMed

    Kocourková, I; Sobotková, D; Pilarová, M; Dittrichová, J; Vondrácek, J; Stranák, Z

    2004-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate influence of early nutrition on growth parameters and psychomotor development of children with very low birth weight (VLBW). A prospective clinical study. Institute for Care of Mother and Child, Prague. Thirty nine children of birth weight 1,000-1,499 were followed up to one year of their corrected age in a prospective study. The group was divided in two groups according to type of nutrition: 17 children (group A) were fed with milk of own mother - "preterm milk", 22 children (group B) were orally fed with mature milk from the Bank of mother milk - "term milk", which was fortified with BMF preparation (Nutricia, Netherlands). Both groups were comparable in basic anthropometric parameters (weight, lenght, circumference of head and thotax) and in psychosocial characteristics of their mothers. Growths parameters were monitored in weekly intervals for approximatelly eight weeks. In the period between 11th and 15th month of corrected age, the children were evaluated by a clinical psychologist on a blind basis in mental a motor development by using Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II). Statistical analysis was performed by chi-square test and t-test. No statistically significant differences between the two groups in evaluating the growth parameters were observed. The psychological examination demonstrated statistically significant differences in the motor development. The psychomotor developmental index (PVI) proved to be 84.4 +/- 14.6 in the group A and 94.3 +/- 12.5 in the group B (t-test = 2.28, p<0.05). There was not any statistically significent difference in metal development between the two groups. The mean mentel developmental index (MVI) was 98.2 +/- 10.2 in the A group and 101.0 +/- 13.3 in the group B. Result of the study indicate favorable effect of fortification of breast milk in VLBW newborns, especially in view of the observed favorable influence of fortfication on motor development of the children.

  12. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight: A Prospective Cohort Study on Monozygotic Twin Mothers and Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Nohr, Ellen A; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Rasmussen, Finn

    2016-08-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about whether particular periods of pregnancy could influence offspring body weight differently. We therefore aimed to explore total and trimester-specific effects of GWG in monozygotic (MZ) twin mother-pairs on their offspring's BW, weight at 1 year and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 10 years. MZ twin mothers born 1962-1975 were identified in national Swedish registers, and data on exposure and outcome variables was collected from medical records. We analyzed associations within and between twin pairs. We had complete data on the mothers' GWG and offspring BW for 82 pairs. The results indicated that total, and possibly also second and third trimester GWG were associated with offspring BW within the twin pairs in the fully adjusted model (β = 0.08 z-score units, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.17; β = 1.32 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.29, 2.95; and β = 1.02 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.50, 2.54, respectively). Our findings, although statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account. Larger family-based studies with long follow-up are needed to confirm our findings.

  13. Early erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Arne; Aher, Sanjay M

    2012-09-12

    Low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in preterm infants provide a rationale for the use of EPO to prevent or treat anaemia. To assess the effectiveness and safety of early initiation of EPO in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, abstracts from scientific meetings published in Pediatric Research and reference lists of identified trials and reviews were searched through July 2009. Searches were repeated in March 2012 including searches of Pediatric Academic Societies Annual meetings 2000 to 2012 (Abstracts2View(TM)) and clinical trials registries (clinicaltrials.gov; controlled-trials.com; and who.int/ictrp). Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of early (< eight days of age) initiation of EPO treatment versus placebo or no intervention in preterm and/or low birth weight neonates. Data collection and analysis were accomplished using the methods of the Neonatal Cochrane Review Group. The May 2012 update did not identify any new studies for inclusion. A number of randomised controlled trials were excluded as they compared one EPO dosing regimen with another, did not provide the numbers of infants randomised to the EPO and the placebo group, or the dose of EPO was not stated. The update includes 27 studies that enrolled 2293 preterm infants. Early EPO reduced the risk of the "use of one or more RBC transfusions" [typical risk ratio (RR); 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75 to 0.86); typical risk difference (RD) -0.13, (95% CI -0.17 to -0.09); number needed to benefit (NNTB) = eight, (95% CI 6 to 11); 16 studies, 1,825 infants].There was moderate heterogeneity for this outcome [RR (P = 0.004; I(2) = 56.7%); RD (P = 0.003; I(2) = 56.0%)].A total of six studies enrolling 515 infants reported on the total volume of red blood cells transfused per infant. The significant typical mean difference (MD) was a

  14. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p < 0.05). Regional mean phase contrast in EOAD patients was higher than in LOAD patients in the superior medial and middle frontal gyrus, anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyrus, and precuneus (p ≤ 0.042). These data suggest that EOAD patients have an increased iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and predictors of early gestational weight gain associated with obesity risk in a diverse Australian antenatal population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cheney, K; Berkemeier, S; Sim, K A; Gordon, A; Black, K

    2017-09-07

    Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) leads to adverse short- and long-term consequences for women and their offspring. Evidence suggests that excess GWG in early pregnancy may be particularly detrimental, contributing to the intergenerational cycle of obesity. The primary outcome was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of excess GWG in early pregnancy, and if women understand the risks to themselves and their offspring stratified by maternal body mass index (BMI). This was a secondary analysis (n = 2131) of a cross-sectional study (n = 2338) conducted over 6 months in 2015 of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at four maternity hospitals across Sydney, Australia before 22 completed weeks gestation An self-completed questionnaire was used to investigate knowledge of expected weight gain in pregnancy, understanding of risks associated with excess GWG, self-reported anthropometric measures and socio-demographic data. One third (34.2%) of women gained weight in excess of the recommendations by 22 completed weeks gestation. Women who were overweight (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.33-2.14) or obese (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.20-2.24) pre-pregnancy were more likely to gain excess weight in early pregnancy compared to normal weight women; as were women from lower socio-economic areas (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.49-2.41). Half (51%) the women were unsure about the effect of excess GWG on their baby; 11% did not believe that excess GWG would affect the weight of the baby and 14% did not believe that excess GWG would affect longer term outcomes for their baby. Women who gained weight above the recommendations were significantly more likely to believe that excessive GWG in pregnancy would not have any adverse future effect on health outcomes or weight of their baby. The women at particular risk of excess early GWG are those who are overweight and obese and/or residing in lower socio-economic areas. These women need to be targeted for appropriate counselling preconception or in

  16. Early erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, A; Aher, S M

    2006-07-19

    Hematocrit falls after birth in preterm infants due to physiological factors and blood letting. Low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in preterm infants provide a rationale for the use of EPO to prevent or treat anemia. To assess the effectiveness and safety of early initiation of EPO (initiated before eight days after birth) in reducing red blood cell transfusions in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Subgroup analyses of low (< 500 IU/kg/week) and high (> 500 IU/kg/week) doses of EPO and, within these subgroups, analyses of the use of low (< 5 mg/kg/day) and high (> 5 mg/kg/day) doses of supplemental iron, in reducing red blood cell transfusions in these infants. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, abstracts from scientific meetings published in Pediatric Research and reference lists of identified trials and reviews were searched in November 2005. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised or quasi-randomized controlled trials of early initiation of EPO treatment (started before 8 days of age) vs. placebo or no intervention in preterm (< 37 weeks) and/or low birth weight (< 2500 g) neonates. For inclusion, the studies needed to provide information on at least one outcome of interest. Data were abstracted by the two authors on pre-tested data collection forms. Data were entered by one review author (AO) and checked for accuracy by the other (SA). Data were analysed using RevMan 4.2.8. The statistical methods included 'typical' relative risk (RR), risk difference (RD), number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) and needed to treat to harm (NNTH) for dichotomous outcomes and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous outcomes reported with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). A fixed effects model was used for meta-analyses. Heterogeneity tests, including the I(-)squared (I(2)) statistic, were performed to assess the appropriateness of pooling the data. Twenty-three studies

  17. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  18. Do Infants Born Very Premature and Who Have Very Low Birth Weight Catch up with Their Full Term Peers in Their Language Abilities by Early School Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the extent to which children born preterm (< 37 weeks) and/or who have low birth weight (< 2,500 g) catch up with their full term peers in terms of their language abilities at early school age (= 5 to < 9 years). Method: A systematic literature search identified empirical studies that fit the inclusion…

  19. Are Birth Weight, Early Growth, and Motor Development Determinants of Physical Activity in Children and Youth? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Øglund, Guro Pauck; Hildebrand, Maria; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to explore whether birth weight, early growth and motor development act as determinants of physical activity in children and youth. We performed a systematic literature search on the possible early life determinants. A meta-analysis was performed on the association between birthweight and objectively measured physical activity. We identified 9 studies examining birth weight, in which none of the studies with objectively measured physical activity observed an association between birth weight and physical activity. The meta-analysis confirmed this result (b=-3.08, 95% CI -10.20, 4.04). The 3 studies examining early growth and physical activity in youth differ in methodology and the results are inconsistent. Two studies suggest an association between earlier motor development and physical activity and sport participation in youth. This was not confirmed in a third study. Our meta-analysis suggests that birth weight is not an important determinant of physical activity in youth. Available data does not allow firm conclusions whether early growth and motor development act as determinants of physical activity in youth.

  20. Early erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Arne; Aher, Sanjay M

    2014-04-26

    Low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in preterm infants provide a rationale for the use of EPO to prevent or treat anaemia. To assess the effectiveness and safety of early initiation of EPO or darepoetin (initiated before eight days after birth) in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm and/orlow birth weight infants. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, reference lists of identified trials and reviews, Pediatric Academic Societies Annual meetings 2000 to 2013 (Abstracts2View(TM)) and clinical trials registries (clinicaltrials.gov; controlled-trials.com; and who.int/ictrp) were searched in July 2013. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of early (< eight days of age) initiation of EPO treatment versus placebo or no intervention in preterm and/or low birth weightinfants. The methods of the Neonatal Cochrane Review Group were used. The updated review includes 27 studies enrolling 2209 infants. One study enrolling infants at a mean age of > eight days and one duplicate publication were excluded. One new study using darepoetin was identified.Early EPO reduced the risk of the 'use of one or more RBC transfusions' (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 to 0.85; typical risk difference (RD) -0.14, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.10; I(2) = 54% for both; number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) 7, 95% CI 6 to 10; 16 studies, 1661 infants).The total volume of RBCs transfused per infant was reduced (typical mean difference (MD) 7 mL/kg, 95% CI -12 to - 2; I(2) = 63%; 7 studies, 581 infants). The number of RBC transfusions per infant was minimally reduced (typical MD -0.27, 95% CI -0.42 to -0.12; I(2) = 64%; 13 studies, 951 infants). The number of donors to whom the infants were exposed was significantly reduced (MD-0.54, 95% CI -0.89 to -0.20; I(2) = 0%; 3 studies, 254 infants).There was a non-significant increase in the risk of stage ≥ 3 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with early EPO (typical RR 1.37, 95% CI 0.87 to

  1. [Association between body weight change during early and middle adulthood and the risk of type 2 diabetes in middle aged and elderly population].

    PubMed

    Hu, Q; Jiang, C Q; Zhang, W S; Cheng, J J; Xu, L; Jin, Y L; Shen, Z M; Zhu, F; Lam, D Q

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To examine the association between weight changes during early and middle adulthood and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle aged and elderly population. Methods: Based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS), 28 736 residents aged ≥50 years were included in Guangzhou. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association between body weight changes during early or middle adulthood and age when the heaviest weight reaching the threshold on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle age or elderly population. Adjustments on age, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, education level, occupation, district of residence and body mass index etc ., were made. Results: The mean age was 64.3 (standard deviation=6.7) years in men and 61.0 (standard deviation=7.0) years in women, with the prevalence rates of diabetes as 13.1% and 13.7% in men and women, respectively. Compared to those with stable body weight, the risk of diabetes increased with weight gain during early and middle adulthood in both men and women (both P values for trend<0.01). Participants who gained more than 20 kg during early and middle adulthood were associated with the highest risk of diabetes in men ( OR =2.83, 95% CI :1.99-4.02) and women ( OR =3.13, 95% CI : 2.47-3.96). Compared to those who reached the highest weight at age 20, those who reaching the highest weight at 40 to 49 years were associated with the highest risk of diabetes, with OR being 5.32 (95% CI : 1.92-14.8) in men and 3.41 (95% CI : 2.49-4.67) in women, respectively. Weight loss in adulthood was associated with self-reported but not newly diagnosed diabetic cases in both middle and older aged men and women. Conclusion: Weight gain during early and middle adulthood may increase the risk of diabetes in middle and older aged population. The detrimental effect of obesity on diabetes might become significantly visible in the next decades.

  2. Redundant Bearing Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Jay M.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed redundant bearing assembly consists of two modified ball or roller bearings, one held by other. Outer race of inner bearing press-fit into inner race of outer bearing. Within each bearing, side walls of inner and outer races extended radially toward each other leaving only small gap. In assembly, one bearing continues to allow free rotation when other fails. Bearing wear monitored by examination of gaps between races. In alternative design, inner race of outer bearing and outer race of inner bearing manufactured as single piece.

  3. Association of Gestational Weight Gain and Maternal Body Mass Index in Early Pregnancy With Risk for Nonaffective Psychosis in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Euan; Dalman, Christina; Karlsson, Håkan; Gardner, Renee M

    2017-04-01

    Prenatal exposure to famine is associated with a 2-fold risk for nonaffective psychoses. Less is known about whether maternal nutrition states during pregnancy modify offspring risk for nonaffective psychoses in offspring in well-fed populations. To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy and maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy are associated with risk for nonaffective psychoses in offspring. This population-based cohort study used data from Swedish health and population registers to follow up 526 042 individuals born from January 1, 1982, through December 31, 1989, from 13 years of age until December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for socioeconomic status and potential risk factors were used to examine the risk for developing nonaffective psychoses. Family-based study designs were used to further test causality. Data were analyzed from February 1 to May 14, 2016. Gestational weight gain during pregnancy, maternal body mass index at the first antenatal visit, and paternal body mass index at the time of conscription into the Swedish military (at 18 years of age). Hazard ratios (HRs) for the diagnosis of nonaffective psychoses (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision [ICD-10] codes F20 to F29 and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] codes 295, 297 and 298, except 298A and 298B) and narrowly defined schizophrenia (ICD-9 code 295 and ICD-10 code F20). The 526 042 individuals in the cohort (48.52% female and 51.47% male; mean [SD] age, 26 [2.3] years) included 2910 persons with nonaffective psychoses at the end of follow-up, of whom 704 had narrowly defined schizophrenia. Among the persons with nonaffective psychosis, 184 (6.32%) had mothers with extremely inadequate GWG (<8 kg for mothers with normal baseline BMI), compared with 23 627 (4.52%) of unaffected individuals. Extremely inadequate GWG was associated

  4. Early detection of neuropathophysiology using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic cats with feline immunodeficiency viral infection.

    PubMed

    Bucy, Daniel S; Brown, Mark S; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Thompson, Jesse; Bachand, Annette M; Morges, Michelle; Elder, John H; Vandewoude, Sue; Kraft, Susan L

    2011-08-01

    HIV infection results in a highly prevalent syndrome of cognitive and motor disorders designated as HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Neurologic dysfunction resembling HAD has been documented in cats infected with strain PPR of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), whereas another highly pathogenic strain (C36) has not been known to cause neurologic signs. Animals experimentally infected with equivalent doses of FIV-C36 or FIV-PPR, and uninfected controls were evaluated by magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DW-MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) at 17.5-18 weeks post-infection, as part of a study of viral clade pathogenesis in FIV-infected cats. The goals of the MR imaging portion of the project were to determine whether this methodology was capable of detecting early neuropathophysiology in the absence of outward manifestation of neurological signs and to compare the MR imaging results for the two viral strains expected to have differing degrees of neurologic effects. We hypothesized that there would be increased diffusion, evidenced by the apparent diffusion coefficient as measured by DW-MRI, and altered metabolite ratios measured by MRS, in the brains of FIV-PPR-infected cats relative to C36-infected cats and uninfected controls. Increased apparent diffusion coefficients were seen in the white matter, gray matter, and basal ganglia of both the PPR and C36-infected (asymptomatic) cats. Thalamic MRS metabolite ratios did not differ between groups. The equivalently increased diffusion by DW-MRI suggests similar indirect neurotoxicity mechanisms for the two viral genotypes. DW-MRI is a sensitive tool to detect neuropathophysiological changes in vivo that could be useful during longitudinal studies of FIV.

  5. Comparison of CT perfusion summary maps to early diffusion-weighted images in suspected acute middle cerebral artery stroke.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Salazar, Pascal; Jagadeesan, Bharathi; Palmer, Christopher S; Truwit, Charles L; McKinney, Alexander M

    2015-04-01

    To assess the accuracy and reliability of one vendor's (Vital Images, Toshiba Medical, Minnetonka, MN) automated CT perfusion (CTP) summary maps in identification and volume estimation of infarcted tissue in patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) distribution infarcts. From 1085 CTP examinations over 5.5 years, 43 diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-positive patients were included who underwent both CTP and DWI <12 h after symptom onset, with another 43 age-matched patients as controls (DWI-negative). Automated delay-corrected postprocessing software (DC-SVD) generated both infarct "core only" and "core+penumbra" CTP summary maps. Three reviewers independently tabulated Alberta Stroke Program Early CT scores (ASPECTS) of both CTP summary maps and coregistered DWI. Of 86 included patients, 36 had DWI infarct volumes ≤70 ml, 7 had volumes >70 ml, and 43 were negative; the automated CTP "core only" map correctly classified each as >70 ml or ≤70 ml, while the "core+penumbra" map misclassified 4 as >70 ml. There were strong correlations between DWI volume with both summary map-based volumes: "core only" (r=0.93), and "core+penumbra" (r=0.77) (both p<0.0001). Agreement between ASPECTS scores of infarct core on DWI with summary maps was 0.65-0.74 for "core only" map, and 0.61-0.65 for "core+penumbra" (both p<0.0001). Using DWI-based ASPECTS scores as the standard, the accuracy of the CTP-based maps were 79.1-86.0% for the "core only" map, and 83.7-88.4% for "core+penumbra." Automated CTP summary maps appear to be relatively accurate in both the detection of acute MCA distribution infarcts, and the discrimination of volumes using a 70 ml threshold. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chinese and Korean immigrants’ early life deprivation: An important factor for child feeding practices and children’s body weight in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Charissa S.L.; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the associations between Chinese and Korean immigrant parents’ early life material and food deprivation and their concern about their child’s diet or weight, preferences for heavier children, and weight-promoting diet and child weight, alongside the moderating role of parents’ acculturation toward American culture. In 2010, Chinese and Korean immigrant parents of children ages 3–8 years in the United States (N = 130) completed interviews which asked about their perceived early life material deprivation and food insecurity, acculturation, child feeding practices, and evaluations of whether their child weighed more or less than the ideal, and child consumption of soda and candy. Independent measures of child and parent BMI were also obtained. Regression analyses revealed that parents’ early life food insecurity was associated with the evaluation that their child should weigh more than they do and greater consumption of soda and sweets by their child, among the least acculturated parents. Parental material deprivation was associated with more laissez-faire child feeding practices: less monitoring, less concern about the child’s weight or diet, and less perceived responsibility for the child’s diet, but only among less acculturated parents. Overall, the results suggest that immigrant parents’ child feeding practices and body size evaluations are shaped by material hardship in childhood, but these influences may fade as acculturation occurs. PMID:22265872

  7. Anatomy of a bearing torque problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, Damon D.

    1987-01-01

    In the early 1970s, an antenna despin drive was developed for MBB solar science satellite HELIOS. A problem with high bearing drag torque that was encountered on the two flight models of this drive, after successful tests were completed on twelve bearings, an engineering model, and the qualification unit is discussed.

  8. Early-Life Social Origins of Later-Life Body Weight: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. PMID:24767590

  9. Impact and Challenges of Early Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy for Very Low Birth Weight Neonates in a Developing Country.

    PubMed

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim; Neoh, Siew-Hong; Chee, Seok-Chiong

    2016-01-01

    Early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (EnCPAP) therapy after birth for very low birth weight (VLBW; <1,500 g) neonates has been reported to be beneficial in developed countries. Its benefits in developing countries, such as Malaysia, are unknown. This study aimed to determine EnCPAP rates in 36 neonatal intensive care units of the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR) in 2013, to compare the outcomes of VLBW neonates with and without EnCPAP, and to determine whether the availability of CPAP facilities and unit policies played a significant role in EnCPAP rates. First, a retrospective cohort study was conducted of VLBW neonates born in the hospitals participating in the study without major congenital abnormalities in the MNNR. This was followed by a questionnaire survey of these hospitals focussed on CPAP facilities and unit policies. Of the 2,823 neonates, 963 (34.1%) received EnCPAP. Amongst EnCPAP neonates significantly fewer deaths were recorded (10.9 vs. 21.7%; p < 0.001), less bronchopulmonary dysplasia was observed (BPD; 8.0 vs. 11.7%; p = 0.002) and fewer mechanical ventilation days were necessary (p < 0.001) than in non-EnCPAP neonates. Logistic regression analysis showed that EnCPAP was significantly associated with a lower mortality (adjusted OR 0.623; 95% CI 0.472, 0.824; p = 0.001) and BPD among survivors (adjusted OR 0.585; 95% CI 0.427, 0.802; p = 0.001). The median EnCPAP rate of the 36 hospitals was 28.4% (IQR 14.3-38.7). Hospitals with CPAP facilities in the delivery suites (p = 0.001) and during transport (p = 0.001) and a policy for EnCPAP (p = 0.036) had significantly higher EnCPAP rates. EnCPAP reduced mortality and BPD in Malaysian VLBW neonates. Resource-strapped developing countries should prioritise the use of this low-cost therapy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Neonatal Biomarkers of Inflammation: Correlates of Early Neurodevelopment and Gait in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Children.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jessica; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Hintz, Susan R; Stevenson, David K

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal biomarkers of inflammation were examined in relation to early neurodevelopment and gait in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm children. We hypothesized that preterm infants exposed to higher levels of neonatal inflammation would demonstrate lower scores on Bayley Scales of Infant Toddler Development, 3rd ed. (BSID-III) and slower gait velocity at 18 to 22 months adjusted age. A total of 102 VLBW preterm infants (birthweight [BW] ≤ 1,500 g, gestational age [GA] ≤ 32 weeks) admitted to neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] were recruited. Neonatal risk factors examined were GA at birth, BW, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, sepsis, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, and total bilirubin over first 2 postnatal weeks. At 18 to 22 months, neurodevelopment was assessed with BSID-III and gait was assessed with an instrumented mat. Children with neonatal CRP ≥ 0.20 mg/dL (n = 52) versus < 0.20 mg/dL (n = 37) had significantly lower BSID-III composite cognitive (92.0 ± 13.1 vs. 100.1 ± 9.6, p = 0.002), language (83.9 ± 16.0 vs. 95.8 ± 14.2, p < 0.001), and motor scores (90.0 ± 13.2 vs. 98.8 ± 10.1, p = 0.002), and slower gait velocity (84.9 ± 19.0 vs. 98.0 ± 22.4 cm/s, p = 0.004). Higher neonatal CRP correlated with lower cognitive (rho =  - 0.327, p = 0.002), language (rho =  - 0.285, p = 0.007), and motor scores (rho =  - 0.257, p = 0.015), and slower gait (rho =  - 0.298, p = 0.008). Multivariate analysis demonstrated neonatal CRP ≥ 0.20 mg/dL significantly predicted BSID-III cognitive (adjusted R(2) = 0.104, p = 0.008), language (adjusted R(2) = 0.124, p = 0.001), and motor scores (adjusted R(2) = 0.122, p = 0.004). Associations between low-level neonatal inflammation and neurodevelopment suggest early biomarkers that may inform neuroprotective

  11. [Effect of Low Molecular Weight Heparin Calcium Combined Compound Danshen Injection on Perinatal Outcomes of Nephrotic Syndrome Patients with Early Onset Severe Pre-eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Tong, Chong-xin; Xing, Xiao-fen; Qiao, Shu-hua; Liu, Lin; Shan, Ling

    2015-08-01

    To observe the effect of low molecular weight heparin calcium (LMWHC) combined Compound Danshen Injection (DI) on nephrotic syndrome patients with early onset severe preeclampsia. Totally 80 nephrotic syndrome patients with early onset severe pre-eclampsia were randomly assigned to four groups voluntarily, i.e., Group A (22 cases, treated by magnesium sulfate), B (19 cases, treated by magnesium sulfate plus LMWHC), C (21 cases, magnesium sulfate plus DI), D (18 cases, magnesium sulfate plus LMWHC and DI). Umbilical arterial S/D ratios, amniotic fluid index (AFI), prolonged gestational age, placenta weight, neonatal weight, and Apgar score were compared among the four groups. Compared with before treatment in the same group, umbilical arterial S/D ratios decreased in the four groups (P <0. 05). AFI decreased in Group A, while it increased in Group B, C, and D (P<0. 05). Compared with Group A at the same time point, umbilical arterial S/D ratios decreased, and AFI increased in Group B, C, and D (P <0. 01 , P <0. 05). Prolonged gestational age and neonatal weight were increased in Group B, C, and D (P <0. 01, P <0. 05). Placenta weight were increased in Group B and D (P <0. 05). Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were improved in Group D (P <0. 05). Compared with Group B and C at the same time point, umbilical arterial S/D ratios decreased, and AFI increased in Group D (P<0. 05). Compared with Group B, prolonged gestational age and placenta weight were decreased in Group C, but prolonged gestational age and placenta weight were increased in Group D (P <0.05). Compared with Group C, prolonged gestational age, placenta weight, and neonatal weight were increased in Group D (P <0. 05). Treatment of nephrotic syndrome patients with early onset severe pre-eclampsia by LMWHC combined DI could prolong gestational ages, obviously improve prenatal outcomes, with better effect obtained than using any of them alone.

  12. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  13. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  14. Introduction to ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of a ball bearing is to provide a relative positioning and rotational freedom while transmitting a load between two structures, usually a shaft and a housing. For high rotational speeds (e.g., in gyroscope ball bearings) the purpose can be expanded to include rotational freedom with practically no wear in the bearing. This condition can be achieved by separating the bearing parts with a coherent film of fluid known as an elastohydrodynamic film. This film can be maintained not only when the bearing carries the load on a shaft, but also when the bearing is preloaded to position the shaft to within micro- or nano-inch accuracy and stability. Background information on ball bearings is provided, different types of ball bearings and their geometry and kinematics are defined, bearing materials, manufacturing processes, and separators are discussed. It is assumed, for the purposes of analysis, that the bearing carries no load.

  15. Bearing Restoration by Grinding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-21

    lIng of bearings prior to installation, installing a contaminated