Blaise, Mindy; Nuttal, Joce
"Learning to Teach in the Early Years Classroom" helps teacher education students understand the complexities of teaching in early years' classrooms. It integrates research and theory with practice through vignettes, based on authentic classroom case studies, in order to show students how educators make decisions and achieve expected outcomes.…
Video is an increasingly popular data collection tool for those undertaking social research, offering a temporal, sequential, fine-grained record which is durable, malleable and sharable. These characteristics make video a valuable resource for researching Early Years classrooms, particularly with regard to the study of children's interaction in…
Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru
This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants were…
Murray, Desiree W; Rabiner, David L; Kuhn, Laura; Pan, Yi; Sabet, Raha Forooz
The present paper reports on the results of a cluster randomized trial of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY-TCM) and its effects on early elementary teachers' management strategies, classroom climate, and students' emotion regulation, attention, and academic competence. IY-TCM was implemented in 11 rural and semi-rural schools with K-2 teachers and a diverse student sample. Outcomes were compared for 45 teachers who participated in five full day training workshops and brief classroom consultation and 46 control teachers; these 91 teachers had a total of 1192 students. A high level of teacher satisfaction was found and specific aspects of the training considered most valuable for early elementary teachers were identified. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated a statistically significant intervention effect on Positive Climate in the classroom (d=0.45) that did not sustain into the next school year. No main effects on student outcomes were observed, although a priori moderator analyses indicated that students with elevated social-behavioral difficulties benefitted with regard to prosocial behavior (d=0.54) and inattention (d=-0.34). Results highlight potential benefits and limitations of a universal teacher training program for elementary students, and suggest strategies for future delivery of the IY-TCM program and areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article explores some of the issues around the agenda for workforce reform as it applies to professionals who work in early years classrooms (4-7 year olds), who work alongside class teachers in supporting learning. Their changing roles, responsibilities and professional identities are examined through a small scale case study of four women,…
Olaussen, Bodil Stokke
Understanding that classroom discourse is important for reading comprehension and critical thinking is emerging. The aim of the present study was to analyze what teachers say and do, to promote discussion at a teacher-led station in the Early Years Literacy Program (EYLP). The EYLP is a program for reading instruction, organized at different…
Kallery, Maria; Psillos, Dimitris; Tselfes, Vassilis
This paper presents an epistemological analysis of typical didactical activities noted in early-years science lessons, which was carried out in an attempt to diagnose the extent to which the teaching practices adopted by early-years educators are successful in supporting young children's understanding in science. The analysis of didactical…
Walsh, Glenda; Sproule, Liz; McGuinness, Carol; Trew, Karen
Playful structure is a new pedagogic image representing a more balanced and integrated perspective on early years pedagogy, aiming to blend apparent dichotomies and contradictions and to sustain and evolve play-based practice beyond Year 1. Playful structure invites teachers and children to initiate and maintain a degree of playfulness in the…
Moss, Joan; Hawes, Zachary; Naqvi, Sarah; Caswell, Beverly
Increased efforts are needed to meet the demand for high quality mathematics in early years classrooms. Despite the foundational role of geometry and spatial reasoning for later mathematics success, the strand receives inadequate instructional time and is limited to concepts of static geometry. Moreover, early years teachers typically lack both…
Myhill, Debra; Jones, Susan
The principle that emergent writing is supported by talk, and that an appropriate pedagogy for writing should include planned opportunities for talk is well researched and well understood. However, the process by which talk becomes text is less clear. The term "oral rehearsal" is now commonplace in English classrooms and curriculum policy…
Tsesmeli, Styliani N
The study aimed to evaluate the intervention effects on spelling and meaning of compounds by Greek students via group board games in classroom settings. The sample consisted of 60 pupils, who were attending the first and second grade of two primary schools in Greece. Each grade-class was divided into an intervention ( N = 29 children) and a control group ( N = 31 children). Before intervention, groups were evaluated by standardized tests of reading words/pseudowords, spelling words, and vocabulary. Students were also assessed on compound knowledge by a word analogy task, a meaning task and a spelling task. The experimental design of the intervention included a pre-test, a training program, and a post-test. The pre- and post-assessments consisted of the spelling and the meaning tasks entailing equally morphologically transparent and opaque compounds. The training program was based on word families ( N = 10 word families, 56 trained items, 5 sessions) and aimed to offer instruction of morphological decomposition and meaning of words. The findings showed that training was effective in enhancing the spelling and most notably the meaning of compounds. A closer inspection of intervention data in terms of morphological transparency, revealed that training group of first graders improved significantly both on transparent and opaque compounds, while the degree of gains was larger on opaque items for the second graders. These findings are consistent with the experimental literature and particularly optimistic for the literacy enhancement of typically developing children in regular classrooms.
Tsesmeli, Styliani N.
The study aimed to evaluate the intervention effects on spelling and meaning of compounds by Greek students via group board games in classroom settings. The sample consisted of 60 pupils, who were attending the first and second grade of two primary schools in Greece. Each grade-class was divided into an intervention (N = 29 children) and a control group (N = 31 children). Before intervention, groups were evaluated by standardized tests of reading words/pseudowords, spelling words, and vocabulary. Students were also assessed on compound knowledge by a word analogy task, a meaning task and a spelling task. The experimental design of the intervention included a pre-test, a training program, and a post-test. The pre- and post-assessments consisted of the spelling and the meaning tasks entailing equally morphologically transparent and opaque compounds. The training program was based on word families (N = 10 word families, 56 trained items, 5 sessions) and aimed to offer instruction of morphological decomposition and meaning of words. The findings showed that training was effective in enhancing the spelling and most notably the meaning of compounds. A closer inspection of intervention data in terms of morphological transparency, revealed that training group of first graders improved significantly both on transparent and opaque compounds, while the degree of gains was larger on opaque items for the second graders. These findings are consistent with the experimental literature and particularly optimistic for the literacy enhancement of typically developing children in regular classrooms. PMID:29238316
Notes that rapid introduction of information and communication technologies in United Kingdom schools, along with government-mandated curriculum requirements, has not been matched by growth in practitioners' understanding of appropriate ways to use the technology. Examines the successful implementation of technology in early childhood settings…
The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group…
Nolan, Andrea; Taket, Ann; Stagnitti, Karen
It is an accepted fact that resilience is a multifaceted phenomenon which has been proven to affect the learning, growth and development of individuals. A child's formative years are a time when resilience needs to be promoted so they can cope with the challenges of life. This paper reports some of the findings of an Australian Research…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.
This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…
Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D
This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting.
Bingham, Gary E.; Culatta, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.
This study examined teachers' implementation of an early literacy intervention, Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy (SEEL), on kindergarten children's development of early literacy skills. One hundred forty-nine kindergarten children (102 treatment) across six classrooms participated in this study. Results reveal that children who received SEEL…
Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D.
This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting. PMID:24860518
Stark, Hannah L; Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Goldfeld, Sharon R
This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as newly developed items. Consistent with a number of earlier Australian and international studies, teachers' explicit and implicit knowledge of basic linguistic constructs was limited and highly variable. A statistically significant correlation was found between (1) total self-rated ability and (2) years since qualification and experience teaching the early years of primary school; however, no relationship was found between self-rated ability and overall performance on knowledge items. Self-rated ability to teach phonemic awareness and phonics had no relationship with demonstrated knowledge in these areas. Teachers were most likely to rate their ability to teach skills including spelling, phonics, comprehension or vocabulary as either moderate or very good. This was despite most respondents demonstrating limited knowledge and stating that they did not feel confident answering questions about their knowledge in these areas. The findings from this study confirm that in the field of language and literacy instruction, there is a gap between the knowledge that is theoretically requisite, and therefore expected, and the actual knowledge of many teachers. This finding challenges current pre-service teacher education and in-service professional learning.
McKee, Bronagh E.; Mason, Sarah
Prevention programmes underpin every child's right to "feel" safe and to "be" safe from all forms of harm. Delivered in schools across the globe, they aim to equip children with knowledge about safety and the skills to seek help early. By drawing upon international prevalence and impact research, as well as the legal, policy…
DiCarlo, Cynthia; Banajee, Meher; Stricklin, Sarintha Buras
This article first describes various augmentative communication systems including sign language, picture symbols, and voice output communication devices. It then explains ways to embed augmentative communication within four types of early childhood classroom activities: (1) special or planned activities, (2) meal time, (3) circle time, and (4)…
Lyons, Wanda; Thompson, Scott Anthony
Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading…
Tivona, Shayna; Ashbrook, Peggy
This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. This month's issue provides an activity on documentation panels to encourage students to reflect on their actions and thought processes. Young students benefit enormously from visual aids. Documentation panels--chronological arrangements of photos, student…
Moomaw, Sally; Jones, Guy W.
Several years ago, an interaction occurred in a classroom at the Arlitt Child and Family Research and Education Center, University of Cincinnati. It startled the teacher into an awareness of the fears, stereotypes, misconceptions, and biases that young children continue to harbor about American Indian people, a half century after her own…
Shade, Rick; Shade, Patti Garrett
There is a myth that some people are creative and others are not. However, all children are born creative. They love to explore, ask questions, and are incredibly imaginative. Parents are key in nurturing their child's creativity in the early years. This article offers resources and strategies parents can use at different ages and stages (newborn,…
Baldock, Peter; Fitzgerald, Damien; Kay, Janet
The book is about policy in the area of early years services and that phrase may need some clarification. For the most part, therefore, this book deals with nursery schools and classes and with services provided by full day care nurseries, pre-schools, creches, childminders, after-school clubs and holiday play schemes. This book begins with…
Tang, Xin; Pakarinen, Eija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Muotka, Joona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The present study reports on the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM) in Finnish and Estonian first and third grade classrooms. The observation data were collected from 91 first grade teachers and 70 third grade teachers. Teachers' curriculum goals, teaching experience and the classroom size were…
Ashbrook, Peggy; Nellor, Sue
Engineering is such a common part of children's work in early childhood programs that teachers can simply look around the room to identify examples where students have engaged in engineering practices. This article presents a classroom activity that integrates engineering design by building on the everyday problems that young children encounter in…
Lynch, Julianne; Redpath, Terri
With the revolution that has taken place in the functionality and uptake of portable networked "smart" technologies, educators are looking to see what potential applications such technologies might have for school education. This article reports on a study on the use of portable personal computing devices in the early years of schooling.…
Elkin, Mollie; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi
This paper explores how robotics can be used as a new educational tool in a Montessori early education classroom. It presents a case study of one early educator's experience of designing and implementing a robotics curriculum integrated with a social science unit in her mixed-age classroom. This teacher had no prior experience using robotics in…
McNelly, Tracy A.
The effective use of e-books--now common in school libraries and classrooms--begins when teachers understand how to choose e-books that help to support emergent and early literacy skills for students in their early childhood classrooms.
Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Powers-Costello, Elizabeth
Countering the position that colorblindness is desirable for teachers and children, this article encourages early childhood education teachers to engage in conversations about race and racism with young children. We discuss why the early childhood years are important for interrupting racism and make suggestions for helping children develop tools…
Baroody, Alison E.; Diamond, Karen E.
This study examines the relations among the classroom literacy environment, children's interest and engagement in literacy activities, and children's early reading skills in a sample of 167 children aged 4 and 5 years enrolled in 31 Head Start classrooms. Researchers rated the classroom literacy environment. Teachers reported on children's…
Vu, Jennifer A.; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Howes, Carollee
Research Findings: This study is intended to widen the debate around the bachelor's degree (BA) as preparation for early childhood teaching when head teachers possess various levels of credentials and education. We examined classroom quality and teacher involvement in 231 classrooms sponsored by 122 different agencies, staffed and supervised by…
Jensen, Robert J., Ed.
Research Ideas for the Classroom is a three-volume series of research interpretations for early childhood, middle grades, and high school mathematics classrooms. Each volume looks at research from the perspective of the learner, the content, and the teacher, and chapters are co-authored by a researcher and a teacher. Chapter titles in the early…
Flynn, Erin Elizabeth
This article highlights research exploring the benefits of small-group storytelling as a way to promote rich language in early childhood classrooms. Using the storytelling of children from a preschool classroom serving lower SES children, the author explores the collaborative affordances of story circles. Results show that small-group storytelling…
Koops, Lisa Huisman
Classroom management is a common concern for preservice teachers and can be a key to success for in-service teachers. In this article, I discuss six strategies for classroom management: design and lead engaging music activities, employ music-rich transitions, balance familiarity and novelty, plan for success, communicate clear expectations, and…
Marshall, Nancy L.; Creps, Cindy L.; Burstein, Nancy R.; Glantz, Frederic B.; Robeson, Wendy Wagner; Barnett, Steve
There are an estimated 167,000 children in early care and education programs in Massachusetts. In 2000, the state department of education commissioned a study of the cost and quality of early care and education in the state. This report and executive summary are the first from the study, addressing early care and education for preschool-aged…
Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.
The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.
Marshall, Nancy L.; Creps, Cindy L.; Burstein, Nancy R.; Roberts, Joanne; Glantz, Frederic B.; Robeson, Wendy Wagner
The Massachusetts Cost and Quality Study assessed the quality and costs of early care and education services in Massachusetts, the relationship between quality and costs, and the relationship between the family income of children served and the quality of care provided by early care and education programs. This report presents the findings from…
Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; de Wit, Nele; van de Keere, Kristof; Vervaet, Stephanie
This study tested and integrated the effects of an inquiry-based didactic method for preschool science in a real practical classroom setting. Four preschool classrooms participated in the experiment (N = 57) and the children were 4-6 years old. In order to assess children's attention for causal events and their understanding at the level of…
Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; De Wit, Nele; Van de Keere, Kristof; Vervaet, Stephanie
This study tested and integrated the effects of an inquiry-based didactic method for preschool science in a real practical classroom setting. Four preschool classrooms participated in the experiment (N= 57) and the children were 4-6 years old. In order to assess children's attention for causal events and their understanding at the level of…
Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…
Peña, Rodrigo H.; Maxwell, Gerri M.
This study explores classroom placement for first year English Language Learner (ELL) students from the perspective of a dual language director and two bilingual education strategists. The study strives to interrogate classroom placement for first year ELL students whose language proficiency level is at beginning level. Through a process of coding…
Scholte, Ron; Sentse, Miranda; Granic, Isabela
The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent classroom factors (i.e., classroom antibullying attitudes and behavioral norms) contributed to individual bullying, after controlling for individual difference characteristics. Participants were 2,547 early adolescents (M = 13.4 years, SD = 0.63) from 109 middle school classes. Self- and…
Rosenberg, Gail Gegg; Blake-Rahter, Patricia; Heavner, Judy; Allen, Linda; Redmond, Beatrice Myers; Phillips, Janet; Stigers, Kathy
The Improving Classroom Acoustics (ICA) special project was designed to determine if students' listening and learning behaviors improved as a result of an acoustical environment enhanced through the use of FM sound field classroom amplification. The 3-year project involved 2,054 students in 94 general education kindergarten, first-, and…
Designed for teachers of early childhood or special education students, this guide contains instructions and illustrations for classroom activities for the months of September, October, and November. Most of the activities involve art projects and many incorporate teaching in other subject areas such as mathematics, language arts, science, and…
This study examined how preservice teachers view the nature and role of creativity in light of the complexities of contemporary early childhood classrooms. A multiple methods approach was utilized and data were collected with the Questionnaire Examining Student Teachers' Beliefs about Creativity (Diakidoy & Kanari, 1999) survey instrument and…
Vu, Jennifer A.; Locke, Jill J.
This study characterized the social network roles and peer relationship features of early elementary school-age children from kindergarten to 2nd grade. Children were asked to identify who they liked and did not like to play with and peer groups who played together from their classroom. Consistent with the literature, we found similar patterns for…
Reid, Jeanne L.; Kagan, Sharon Lynn
The field of early childhood education is experiencing unprecedented public investment accompanied by increasing expectations for enhanced child outcomes. To achieve such outcomes, policymakers must consider the socioeconomic and racial/ethnic composition of children's classrooms as an important component of preschool quality. This report presents…
Kilgallon, Pam; Maloney, Carmel; Lock, Graeme
This paper describes an investigation of Australian early childhood teachers' sustainment in their profession, focussing on those factors which enhance professional commitment, job satisfaction and occupational motivation. Utilizing qualitative methodology this study also identified key factors early childhood teachers consider crucial to…
Humphries, Marisha L.; Williams, Brittney V.; May, Tanginia
The promotion of social-emotional competence and implementation of social-emotional learning programs have increased substantially in schools; however, little is known about teachers' perceptions of such programs. This qualitative study explored early childhood (3 to 8 years old) teachers' perceptions of classroom-based social-emotional learning…
Walsh, Glenda; Gardner, John
This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of…
McFadden, Amanda; Tangen, Donna; Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Mergler, Amanda
We explored 3 general classroom teachers' experiences of including a child with Down syndrome in their early years classrooms. Located at 3 different Australian school settings, 1 teacher was the head of a Preparatory class, 1 was a Year 3 teacher, and the third was a teacher of a split Preparatory/Year 1 class. Interview data were drawn from a…
Bernzweig, Jane; Ramler, Malia; Alkon, Abbey
Early childhood mental health consultation is a relationship-based intervention that promotes children's social and emotional development. Benefits include improved childhood behaviors, improved staff self-efficacy, and lowered parental stress. Child care center directors are more likely to be satisfied with consultation when they are involved in…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.
The present study aimed to examine the quality of the classroom literacy environment in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms, as well as the relations between the classroom literacy environment and children's gains in print knowledge. To address these aims, the present study described the classroom literacy environments of 28…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina
This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina
This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…
Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne
This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…
Jungić, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy
Over the course of two years, 2012--2014, we have implemented a 'flipping' the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of both instructors and students.
Jungic, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy
Over the course of two years, 2012-2014, we have implemented a "flipping" the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of…
By developing a relationship of trust and respect with children, educators create a classroom culture that supports questioning. One strategy to extend children's thinking is to provide unfamiliar materials to provoke questioning. This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. This month's column…
Phillips, Krishtine; Downer, Jason
Research Findings: This study investigated the relationship between features of the classroom environment and misalignment between teacher and observer ratings of preschoolers' classroom engagement and the extent to which years of teaching experience moderated this relationship. In a sample of 116 preschoolers and 21 teachers in 29 classrooms,…
Amendum, Steven J.
The purpose of the current mixed-methods study was to investigate a model of professional development and classroom-based early reading intervention implemented by the 1st-grade teaching team in a large urban/suburban school district in the southeastern United States. The intervention provided teachers with ongoing embedded professional…
San Diego Unified School District, CA.
The activities of TV Classroom, one of the largest programs designed to educate adults at the high school level through television, in the 1968-1969 school year are reported. In addition, the history of the program since its inception in 1952 is given, together with an historical chart. Course requirements, publicity, registrations, expenses, and…
This paper explores the efficacy of a flipped classroom model for teaching first year students three-dimensional (3D) animation, and analyses the advantages and disadvantages when compared to traditional teaching mechanisms. In 2015, within the course "Introduction to CGI" at the University of South Australia, two different tutorial…
Welch, Kristen; Lee, Nicholas; Shuman, Dustin
An emphasis on visual rhetoric can be incorporated into a variety of classrooms. This article illustrates teaching visual rhetoric to first-year composition students via interpretation and analysis through a trip to a local art museum for the first essay assignment and through an exploration of photography for the second essay assignment. In the…
Markert, Ronald J.; Ogilvie, Charles D.
The Eighth Semester Program of the Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine reintroduces classroom-laboratory activities into the medical students' clinical years in an attempt to "round out" students' education. Topics include development of a medical practice, government and the physician, counseling skills, and nutrition inpatient care.…
The objective was to predict early adolescents' emotional well-being from personal and contextual assets in the classroom. Emotional well-being is a key indicator of health. Aligned with the positive youth development (PYD) framework, a supportive classroom environment and positive relationships with teachers and peers were contextual assets in the present study; positive self-concept was a personal asset. The sample was 406 grade 4 to 7 public elementary school students from diverse backgrounds (mean = 11.27 years; SD = 0.89; 50% female). Data were self-, teacher-, and peer-reported. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses were used to evaluate model fit and identify significant pathways. SEM indicated a good model fit. Overall, 68% of variability in early adolescents' emotional well-being was explained. Positive self-concept directly predicted emotional well-being. Supportive classroom environment predicted emotional well-being directly and indirectly through increases in positive social relationships and self-concept. Positive social relationships predicted well-being only indirectly through positive self-concept. Contextual and personal assets are central for early adolescents' emotional well-being. The interrelation among assets needs to be considered when understanding, and ultimately promoting students' emotional well-being. The present findings extend previous research and inform school-based intervention and prevention programming and teacher professional development. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Sembiante, Sabrina F.; Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Justice, Laura M.
Research Findings: This study examined preschool teachers' literal talk (LT) and inferential talk (IT) during shared book readings in early childhood education (ECE) and early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms. We aimed to characterize and compare teachers' LT and IT in these 2 classroom contexts and determine whether differences in LT…
Heikonen, Lauri; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Toom, Auli; Soini, Tiina
Teachers' capacity to learn intentionally and responsively in the classroom is particularly vulnerable during the first years in the profession. This study investigated the interrelations between early career teachers' turnover intentions, perceived inadequacy in teacher-student interaction, and sense of professional agency in the classroom. The…
Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline
Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a longitudinal birth cohort, we examined the unique contribution of household tobacco smoke exposure to children's subsequent classroom engagement at age 10. From child ages 1.5 to 7 years, parents of 2,055 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development reported on household smoking by themselves and other home occupants. At age 10, fourth-grade teachers reported on the child's classroom engagement. In terms of prevalence, 58% of parents reported that their children were never exposed to smoke in the home, while 34% and 8% of children were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke, respectively. Compared with never exposed children, those who were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke scored 13% and 9% of a standard deviation lower on classroom engagement in fourth grade, standardized B = -.128 (95% confidence interval = -.186, -.069) and standardized B = -.093 (95% confidence interval = -.144, -.043), respectively. Compared with their never exposed peers, children exposed to transient and continuous early childhood household smoke showed proportionately less classroom engagement, which reflects task-orientation, following directions, and working well autonomously and with others. This predisposition poses risks for high school dropout, which from a population health perspective is closely linked with at-risk lifestyle habits and unhealthy outcomes. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Lennox, Maria; Garvis, Susanne; Westerveld, Marleen
This paper explores teachers' and teacher assistants' self-efficacy of delivering PrepSTART, a classroom based, oral language and early literacy program for five-year-old students. In the current study, speech pathologists developed, provided training and monitored program implementation. Teachers and teacher assistants (n = 17) shared their…
Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Fan, Xitao; Sofka, Amy; Hunt, Aileen
Purpose: This study examined the impact of teacher use of a print referencing style during classroom-based storybook reading sessions conducted over an academic year. Impacts on preschoolers' early literacy development were examined, focusing specifically on the domain of print knowledge. Method: This randomized, controlled trial examined the…
Weber, Sandra; Tardif, Claudette
Reports on a study that explored the use of puppets and classroom-based interview protocols as a practical way for teachers and researchers to get feedback on young students' learning in second-language classrooms. (21 references) (GLR)
Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…
Engaging children's interest, inspiring active exploration of materials, and fostering cooperation between children and adults is the best way to promote the construction of knowledge. Some popular early childhood activities can be expanded to provide experiences and time for children to build on their prior knowledge. This column discusses…
Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Logan, Jessica A.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan
Background: Although classroom quality is an important consideration, few recent research studies have examined the process and structural quality in publicly funded early childhood education (ECE) and inclusive ECE classrooms. This study provides an important contribution to the literature by comparing two conceptualizations of quality in…
Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.
We examined gender differences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured…
Gámez, Perla B.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis…
Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas
This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N = 262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'…
Carlson, John S.; Tiret, Holly B.; Bender, Stacy L.; Benson, Laurie
This study examined changes in preschool teachers' perceptions of classroom management strategies following group training in the recently revised Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (C. Webster-Stratton, 2006). The authors used a pre/post follow-up design across 2 groups that each met for 8 sessions over an 8-10-week period for…
Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki; Towers, Jo; Plosz, Jennifer
Early years mathematics experiences have been shown to be a significant predictor for students' school readiness and future mathematics achievement. Previous research also indicates an important connection between emotion and mathematics learning. How do students in early years education in Alberta describe their emotional relationship with…
Maddox, Richard S.
This study set out to examine the relationships between the classroom social environment, motivation, engagement and achievement of a group of early entrant Honors students at a large urban university. Prior research on the classroom environment, motivation, engagement and high ability students was examined, leading to the assumption that the…
Curby, Timothy W.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Pianta, Robert C.
Early childhood classrooms support children's learning in a variety of ways. Of critical importance are the interactions teachers have with children. The type and quality of classroom interactions vary and can be grouped into three domains: instructional, organizational, and emotional. The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which…
The purpose of this critical action research study is to examine how critical literacy, when used in the social studies classroom, can open up spaces where children construct, deconstruct, and reconstruct superficial notions of race and racism in an early childhood classroom. A nine lesson unit on African American history was developed and…
Wood, Brenna K.; Ferro, Jolenea B.
Due to the unique features of early childhood classrooms, teachers routinely modify the social and physical environment to support children with mild to moderate challenges. Yet despite their access to behavioral consultants, school-based prekindergarten programs are more likely to expel young children from their classroom settings compared with…
The majority of children with exceptionalities aged 3-5 are being served in general education settings. Teachers working in these inclusion classrooms must have the ability and knowledge to work with all students under their care. The purpose of this study was to determine how teachers in early childhood inclusion classrooms plan to incorporate…
Fuller, Bruce; Dellagnelo, Lucia; Strath, Annelie; Barretto Bastos, Eni Santana; Holanda Maia, Mauricio; Lopes de Matos, Kelma Socorro; Luiza Portela, Adelia; Lerche Vieira, Sofia
A study of 140 first- and second-grade classrooms and 1,925 students in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Ceara examined teaching practices and teacher behaviors in the classroom and their effects on students' early literacy achievement, as well as the influences of student, home, teacher, and school characteristics on literacy scores. (SV)
The current study aimed to reveal classroom teachers' feelings and experiences in teaching early reading and writing. Phenomenological research design was applied in the qualitative research methodology of the study. The participants of the study were 15 classroom teachers working in different cities. The data were collected through…
Irving, Karen E.; Pape, Stephen J.; Owens, Douglas T.; Abrahamson, Louis; Silver, David; Sanalan, Vehbi A.
Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U.S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) professional development and classroom intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with…
Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007
Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…
Dittman, Cassandra K
The present study investigated the longitudinal relationships between inattention, phonological processing and word reading across the first 2 years of formal reading instruction. In all, 136 school entrants were administered measures of letter knowledge, phonological awareness, phonological memory, rapid naming, and word reading at the start and end of their 1st year of school, and the end of their 2nd year, while teachers completed rating scales of inattention. School entry inattentiveness predicted unique variance in word reading at the end of first grade, after controlling for verbal ability, letter knowledge, and phonological processing. End-of-first-grade inattention predicted a small but significant amount of unique variance in second-grade word reading and word-reading efficiency. Inattention, however, was not a reliable predictor of phonological processing in either first or second grade. Early classroom inattentiveness influences learning to read independent of critical developmental precursors of word-reading development. © The Author(s) 2013.
Schwartz, Sydney L.; Copeland, Sherry M.
The most pressing challenge in early childhood education today is to find a way to meet the standards within a developmentally appropriate approach. In this book, two active early childhood educators provide teachers with resources to bring content alive and document it in every-day, action-based pre-K and Kindergarten classrooms. The book…
Interactive instructional radio programming is an innovative, inexpensive, and highly effective educational tool. In interactive radio programming, lessons are provided by a radio instructor, but unlike other radio education programs, the instructor prompts responses from the radio audience, provides pauses for audience responses, and then supplies the correct response to the prompt. The lessons are generally supervised by a classroom teacher, and the students respond to the radio prompts either orally or in writing. The lessons encourage student participation, and the programs frequently require more than 100 audience responses for each 1/2 hour of radio programing. The US Agency for International Development's Office of Education in the Bureau for Science and Technology researched and developed the tool during the last 10 years, and conducted highly successful experimental projects with it in Kenya, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic. In September 1984 a conference, jointly sponsored by the agency and Kenya's Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology, was held in Nairobi to demonstrate the new tool and to encourage other countries to utilize the approach. Participants visited rural classrooms in Kenya where they had an opportunity to observe how the technique was being successfully used in Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project. In view of the successful results attained in the experimental projects of the 3 countries noted above, the conference participants recommended that the technique should immediately be integrated into the national curricula of these countries, and that the approach should be more widely used in other countries. They noted that the technique is especially appropriate for use in primary schools and in nonformal adult education programs and that the tool is especially useful for teaching mathematics and second languages. They recommended that educators in developing countries develop interactive instructional radio programs, evaluate
Wright, Cheryl; Diener, Marissa L.; Kemp, Jacqueline Lindsay
Healthy social-emotional development is promoted by building a safe, secure and respectful environment in an early childhood setting with positive and consistent relationships among adults, children, and their peers. This study explored storytelling dramas as an opportunity to build community within the context of one early childhood classroom.…
Farley, Kristin Sue; Piasta, Shayne; Dogucu, Mine; O'Connell, Ann
Research Findings: The present study assessed the extent to which early childhood educators utilized small-group literacy instruction and explored factors potentially associated with the use of this evidence-based practice. The classroom activities of 83 early childhood educators were observed in the fall and spring, and videos were coded to…
Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.
Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control, interpersonal…
Current reforms in mathematics education advocate the development of mathematical learning communities in which students have opportunities to engage in mathematical discourse and classroom practices which underlie algebraic reasoning. This article specifically addresses the pedagogical actions teachers take which structure student engagement in dialogical discourse and activity which facilitates early algebraic reasoning. Using videotaped recordings of classroom observations, the teacher and researcher collaboratively examined the classroom practices and modified the participatory practices to develop a learning environment which supported early algebraic reasoning. Facilitating change in the classroom environment was a lengthy process which required consistent and ongoing attention initially to the social norms and then to the socio-mathematical norms. Specific pedagogical actions such as the use of specifically designed tasks, materials and representations and a constant press for justification and generalisation were required to support students to link their numerical understandings to algebraic reasoning.
Gunn, Barbara; Feil, Ed; Seeley, John; Severson, Herb; Walker, Hill M.
This article reports the results of a pilot intervention to improve the social skills and literacy preparation of behaviorally at-risk Head Start children. Teachers in eight Head Start classrooms in two Oregon communities participated during the 2002-03 school year. Children in eight classrooms were screened and identified for participation using…
This paper addresses classroom design trends and the key issues schools should consider for better classroom space flexibility and adaptability. Classroom space design issues when schools embrace technology are discussed, as are design considerations when rooms must accommodate different grade levels, the importance of lighting, furniture…
McDonald, Susan; Howell, Jennifer
This paper describes the use of robotics in an Early Years classroom as a tool to aid the development of technological skills in a creative environment rich with literacy and numeracy opportunities. The pilot project illustrates how a three-phase process can result in the development of: (1) emergent literacy and numeracy, (2) digital access for…
The call for more "brave" male early years practitioners and primary classroom teachers remains prevalent as boys' underachievement continues to dominate education agendas. There is a recognised need, backed by government policy and public discourse in England, for more men to work in settings and schools (0-11) and act as "role…
Bartolini Bussi, Maria G.; Baccaglini-Frank, Anna
In early years schooling it is becoming common to propose activities that involve moving along paths, or programming robots to do so. In order to promote continuity towards the introduction of geometry in primary school, we developed a long-term teaching experiment (with 15 sessions) carried out over 4 months in a first grade classroom in northern…
Justice, Laura M; Kaderavek, Joan N; Fan, Xitao; Sofka, Amy; Hunt, Aileen
This study examined the impact of teacher use of a print referencing style during classroom-based storybook reading sessions conducted over an academic year. Impacts on preschoolers' early literacy development were examined, focusing specifically on the domain of print knowledge. This randomized, controlled trial examined the effects of a print referencing style on 106 preschool children attending 23 classrooms serving disadvantaged preschoolers. Following random assignment, teachers in 14 classrooms used a print referencing style during 120 large-group storybook reading sessions during a 30-week period. Teachers in 9 comparison classrooms read at the same frequency and with the same storybooks but used their normal style of reading. Children whose teachers used a print referencing style showed larger gains on 3 standardized measures of print knowledge: print concept knowledge, alphabet knowledge, and name writing, with medium-sized effects. The convergence of the present findings with those of previous efficacy studies indicates that print referencing intervention can be used confidently as an approach for facilitating print knowledge in preschool-age children. Speech-language pathologists can serve an important role in supporting preschool educators as they use this evidence-based technique with pupils in their classrooms.
Warren, Elizabeth; Cooper, Tom
In early years' (primary grade) classrooms in Australia repeated patterns are commonly explored as an early introductory activity to mathematics. Most young students have an extensive knowledge of and exhibit success in copying, continuing, creating and transferring patterns into other media. By contrast, research indicates one of the most…
Victor, Kelly Rae
Every educator has a dream to maintain a classroom free from disruptions; one in which each child is being molded, shaped, and corrected in a loving and caring environment that inspires appropriate behavior. The purpose of this research project was to determine how to create an effective behavior management plan and effectively teach classroom…
Hoot, James L.; Kimler, Michele
Word processing and the LOGO programing language are two microcomputer applications that are beginning to show benefits as learning tools in elementary school classrooms. Word processing packages are especially useful with beginning writers, whose lack of motor coordination often slows down their acquisition of competence in written communication.…
Favazza, Paddy C.
Offers suggestions to kindergarten teachers for creating a more accepting environment in their classrooms for children with disabilities. Three key influences in attitude formation are discussed--indirect experiences, direct experiences, and the child's primary social group--and ideas for examining these influences and adapting them are suggested.…
Grebennikov, Leonid; Wiggins, Mark
The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between exposure to classroom noise and the psychological well-being of full-time teaching staff in 14 preschool settings located across Western Sydney. The participants comprised 25 teachers, each of whom was administered a range of instruments. The results indicated that 40% of teachers…
Boulton-Lewis, Gillian, Ed.; Catherwood, Di, Ed.
Designed for teachers, students, caregivers, and health professionals who work with children from birth to age 8, this book provides a review of recent research and theories of development and learning in the early childhood years, with an emphasis on implications for effective teaching. Where appropriate, the book takes an Australian perspective,…
The primary goal of this paper is to provide a commentary on the teaching and learning of geometry in the early years of schooling with the set of papers in this issue as a guiding factor. It is structured around issues about geometry education of young learners, such as: what should we teach in geometry and why; representation of geometrical…
Chen, Jing; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Justice, Laura; Sawyer, Brook
Interaction with peers is an important contributor to young children's social and cognitive development. Yet, little is known about the nature of social networks within preschool inclusive classrooms. The current study applied a social network analysis to characterize children's peer interactions in inclusive classrooms and their relations with children's disability status. The participants were 485 preschoolers from 64 early childhood special education (ECSE) inclusive classrooms. Results from teachers' report of children's social networks showed that children with disabilities formed smaller play networks compared to their typically developing peers in the classroom, but no evidence indicated that children with disabilities engaged in more conflict networks than their counterparts. Children's play and conflict networks were segregated by children's disability status.
Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Newcomer, Lori L.; Herman, Keith C.
This article focuses on the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training (IY TCM) intervention as an example of an evidence-based program that embeds coaching within its design. First, the core features of the IY TCM program are described. Second, the IY TCM coaching model and processes utilized to facilitate high fidelity of…
Whitmore, Kathryn F.; Crowell, Caryl G.
Ten years ago, an ethnographic study in a bilingual whole-language third-grade classroom identified conditions that defined the classroom as a learning community: a high level of intellectual expectation, symmetric power and trust relationships, authenticity, and additive bilingualism and biliteracy. The students' insights strengthened the…
Mainhard, M. Tim; Brekelmans, Mieke; den Brok, Perry; Wubbels, Theo
In this study the mean stability of classroom social climates during the first months of the school year and the deviation of individual classrooms (N = 48) and students (N = 1208) from this general trend were investigated by taping students' interpersonal perceptions of their teachers. Multilevel growth modeling was used to identify the average…
Duval, Stéphanie; Bouchard, Caroline; Pagé, Pierre; Hamel, Christine
The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the quality of classroom interactions in kindergarten and executive functions (EFs) among 5-year-old children. The sample consisted of 118 children, with a mean age of 73.34 months (SD = 4.22), from 12 kindergarten classes. The quality of classroom interactions was measured using the…
Unal, Zafer; Unal, Aslihan
This study provided a basis for answering the following essential question: Does the years of experience affect teachers' classroom management approaches? Data were collected from 268 primary school teachers. The findings of this study demonstrated that experienced teachers are more likely to prefer to be in control in their classrooms than…
Radcliffe, Barbara J.
All classrooms are active social systems; the middle school classroom involves complex interactions between and among peers as well as between students and teachers. In the elementary years, attention is often given to nurturing students and fostering relationships, yet when young adolescents transition to the middle school, a focus on control and…
Treble-Barna, Amery; Schultz, Hanna; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L
The present study utilized ecobehavioral assessment to examine classroom functioning several years following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopedic injury (OI) and its association with injury factors, neuropsychological abilities, and academic performance. Participants included 39 children with moderate to severe TBI and 51 children with OI sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. At 7.2 (± 1.3) years post injury, ecobehavioral assessment was used to examine classroom functioning. Additional outcomes included neuropsychological tests, parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior, and teacher ratings of academic performance. Groups were compared on measures controlling for demographic characteristics, and associations among outcomes were examined using linear regression. Children with TBI showed lower academic engagement relative to children with OI, as well as more frequent individual teacher attention for children with more severe injuries. For children with TBI, difficulties in classroom functioning were associated with lower cognitive flexibility and higher parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior. Lower scores on a test of fluid reasoning and a greater frequency of individual teacher attention were also associated with lower academic performance in children with TBI. Difficulties in classroom functioning are evident several years after early childhood TBI and were associated with greater injury severity, neuropsychological weaknesses, and poorer academic performance. Children with impaired cognitive flexibility and fluid reasoning skills were at greatest risk for these difficulties and associated weaknesses in academic performance. Instructional interactions may be a potential target for intervention to promote academic progress in at-risk children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Nolan, Andrea; Paatsch, Louise
Learning through play has traditionally been a central tenet in early childhood education, however, in recent times primary schools have begun to consider the benefits of introducing a play-based approach into early years classrooms to support young children's learning, especially in the areas of language and literacy. This study focuses on the…
Chuenmanee, Chanoknat; Thathong, Kongsak
Multiple representations have been widely used as a reasoning tool for understanding complex scientific concepts. Thus this study attempted to investigate the current practice of using multiple representations on Year 4 science classrooms in terms of modes and levels which appear in curriculum documents, teaching plans, tasks and assessments, teaching practices, and students' behaviors. Indeed, documentary analysis, classroom observation, and interview were used as the data collection methods. First of all, Year 4 science documents were analyzed. Then classroom observation was used as a collecting method to seek what actually happen in the classroom. Finally, in-depth interviews were used to gather more information and obtain meaningful data. The finding reveals that many modes of verbal, visual, and tactile representations within three levels of representations are posed in Year 4 documents. Moreover, according to classroom observations and interviews, there are three main points of applying multiple representations into classrooms. First of all, various modes of representations were used, however, a huge number of them did not come together with the levels. The levels of representations, secondly, macroscopic and cellular levels were introduced into all classrooms while symbolic level was provided only in some classrooms. Finally, the connection of modes and levels pointed out that modes of representations were used without the considerations on the levels of them. So, it seems to be that teaching practice did not meet the aims of curriculum. Therefore, these issues were being considered in order to organize and design the further science lessons.
Engel, Janet Wolfe
Describes how to create a context for Cosmic Education, which develops an awareness of the interrelationships between the elements of the cosmos and the individual's place in that continuum, in the early childhood Montessori classroom. Discusses the importance of meeting the child's developmental needs, and preparing the adult teacher spiritually,…
Presents a draft for a principle-centered position statement of a Montessori early childhood program in central Pennsylvania, on the pros and cons of computer use in a Montessori 3-6 classroom. Includes computer software rating form. (Author/KB)
Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; Hawkins, Sarah R.; Winchell, Brooke N.
Preschool teachers working in blended classrooms are faced with identifying which children need intensive instruction as well as being responsible for directly linking individualized learning outcomes with state or federal early learning standards. The series of studies presented were designed to illustrate how teachers working in blended…
Fincham, Emmanuelle N.; Fellner, Amanda R.
Transitions from one classroom to the next as children reach a certain age or achieve certain milestones seem inevitable; however, this taken-for-granted practice in early childhood centers has not been looked at closely in research. This article considers what happens when we look more in depth at these day-to-day experiences of teachers and…
This paper explores the metaphor of the classroom as a "crucible" for early professional learning where beginning teachers forge professional identities in complex, unpredictable, paradoxical, affectively and physically potent contexts of practice. It works into the dissonances and contradictions of the micro-narratives embedded in the…
Sonnenschein, Susan; Galindo, Claudia
This study used Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort data to examine influences of the home and classroom learning environments on kindergarten mathematics achievement of Black, Latino, and White children. Regardless of race/ethnicity, children who started kindergarten proficient in mathematics earned spring scores about 7-8…
Hoffman, Abigail S.
This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the role of teacher attunement (teacher accuracy in identifying the peer group memberships of individual students) in children's peer experiences in early elementary classrooms (1st-3rd grades). Social cognitive mapping (SCM) procedures assessed and compared students' and teachers'…
Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.
The Morning Message is a commonly implemented activity in early childhood settings, appearing as a part of the daily schedule in many classrooms. However, there is limited research on what are the most effective ways to use the Morning Message to promote print awareness. The goal of this paper is to present suggested guidelines for implementing…
With the advent of Web 2.0, Vygotsky's traditional role of the more knowledgeable other (MKO) has been transformed. This transformation shifts the power of a facilitator of learning from an elite group of MKOs to all students. Such a transformation possesses significant value in the early childhood mathematics classroom where collaboration is…
Conradson, Diane R.
Reported is a study on effects of early classroom teaching experience upon the attitudes and performance of teacher candidates from a student group primarily composed of science majors or minors. The subjects were paired mainly on their choice of a credential or noncredential program. One of each pair was randomly assigned to the experimental…
Mongillo, Maria Boeke
Disciplinary literacy focuses on the specific ways a content area thinks, uses language, and shares information. While much of the literature on disciplinary literacy suggests it is an advanced language strategy to be taught to secondary students, early childhood classrooms may be the ideal environment in which to introduce this type of…
Computers have become an increasingly accepted learning tool in the early childhood classroom. Despite initial concerns regarding the effect of computers on children's development, past research has indicated that computer use by young children can support their learning and developmental outcomes (Siraj-Blatchford & Whitebread, 2003; Yelland,…
Chen, Jie-Qi; Chang, Charles
To better prepare early childhood teachers for computer use, more information about their current skills and classroom practices is needed. Sampling from a large metropolitan public school system in the USA, the study surveyed 297 state pre-kindergarten teachers, gathering information about their attitudes, skills, and instructional methods…
Tippett, Christine D.; Milford, Todd M.
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in early childhood education is an area currently given little attention in the literature, which is unfortunate since young children are natural scientists and engineers. Here, we outline our mixed-methods design-based research investigation of a pre-kindergarten (Pre-K) classroom where two…
Guo, Ying; Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the literacy environment in inclusive early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms ("N" = 54). The first aim was to describe the quality of the literacy environment in terms of structure (i.e., book materials and print/writing materials) and instruction (i.e., instructional…
Teaching is hard. It's the most rewarding, fulfilling job in the world, but it's also frustrating, infuriating, and really, really hard. In this article, the author reflects on the importance of free play in early childhood classrooms. If teachers want to create happy children who love learning, forcing them to sit at desks or tables through early…
Berson, Ilene R.
A podcast is an audio file published to the Internet for playback on mobile devices and personal computers; the meaning of the term has expanded to include video files, or "enhanced podcasts" as well. Many students are already engaged with digital technologies when they first step into early childhood classrooms. Children as young as…
Friedman, Mollie; Woods, Juliann
This study investigates the use of a situated coaching protocol in Early Head Start (EHS) classrooms to increase teachers' use of communication facilitation strategies with children identified with delays during typical play and caregiving routines. A single-case, multiple baseline design across 3 EHS teachers and children with communication…
Furman, Cara Elizabeth
Early childhood writing curriculums typically focus on skills and encouraging interest. What children are asked to write is rarely closely examined. Through a self-study of my first and second grade classroom, in this paper I look at the implications of genre when teaching young children. I first identify some of the problems of a popular personal…
Pagani, Linda S.; Fitzpatrick, Caroline
Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a…
Pinkham, Ashley M., Ed.; Kaefer, Tanya, Ed.; Neuman, Susan B., Ed.
Synthesizing cutting-edge research from multiple disciplines, this book explores how young children acquire knowledge in the "real world" and describes practical applications for early childhood classrooms. The breadth and depth of a child's knowledge base are important predictors of later literacy development and academic achievement. Leading…
Koops, Lisa Huisman
In this article, I suggest that providing opportunities for agency (student choice or control) in the early childhood classroom could enhance student learning. One important way that young children demonstrate agency is through expressing color preference. I encourage teachers to look for opportunities to give children choices and control in the…
Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly
We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…
Evans, Martha; And Others
As the second in a four volume final report of a Right to Read preservice, competency-based modular reading specialist project, this volume presents the module outlines for components two through six of the classroom program. Component two (readiness and beginning reading) trains the students in language development, dialect differences, language…
Earle, Richard; And Others
As the third in a four volume final report of a Right to Read preservice competency-based, modular reading specialist project, this volume presents the module outlines for components seven, eight and nine of the classroom program. Component seven, administration and supervision, offers on-the-job practical training where students experience…
This paper presents a 2-year collaborative action research project that investigated the use of digital technologies to support inclusive practices in Early French Immersion (EFI) classrooms. The findings reveal that the collaborative action research project contributed to empowering teachers in using digital technologies to support the…
A five-year study of college classroom incivilities (CI) in large survey courses at a large research university found the most problematic to be teachers displaying aloof, distancing mannerisms; teachers discouraging student involvement with fast-paced lectures; student noisiness and indifference; students coming late, leaving early; and students'…
Pianta, Robert; Downer, Jason; Hamre, Bridget
Parents, professionals, and policymakers agree that quality is crucial for early education. But precise, consistent, and valid definitions of quality have been elusive. In this article, Robert Pianta, Jason Downer, and Bridget Hamre tackle the questions of how to define quality, how to measure it, and how to ensure that more children experience…
Donegan-Ritter, Mary; Kohler, Frank W.
Preparing early childhood teachers for inclusion requires the blending of high quality developmentally appropriate practices with environmental adaptations and individualized instructional practices. This article describes how a field experience was redesigned to incorporate evidence based practices in teaming and collaboration, environment and…
Neelly, Linda P.
Suggests developmentally appropriate ways early childhood teachers can help young children express, interpret, and understand their experiences through song. Discusses the importance of singing for gaining music and literacy skills and encouraging self-expression and creativity. Includes tips related to posture, breathing, vocal exploration, vocal…
Zane, Linda M.
The intersection of design and learning is a new and burgeoning area of interest in all levels of education. "Pedagogy and Space" combines architectural design information with early childhood theory to enhance children's learning and educators' experience within the space. Filled with colorful, inspiring photographs of intentionally…
Galler, Janina R.; And Others
The classroom behaviors of 129 Barbadian children (77 boys and 52 girls) ages 5 to 11 years, who had suffered from moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition in the first year of life were compared with children with no history of malnutrition. Data were gathered from questionnaires administered to teachers who were unaware of the children's…
Lau, Carrie; Rao, Nirmala
Vocabulary instruction during English language learning was observed for one week in six classrooms (three K2 classes for four-year olds and three K3 classes for five-year olds) from three kindergartens in two districts of Hong Kong. From 23 sessions of observations and 535 minutes of data, field notes were coded to identify instances of…
Durber, Chelsea M; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L
This study examined how the family environment predicts long-term academic and behavioral functioning in school following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood. Using a concurrent cohort, prospective design, 15 children with severe TBI, 39 with moderate TBI, and 70 with orthopedic injury (OI) who were injured when they were 3-7 years of age were compared on tests of academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of school performance and behavior on average 6.83 years postinjury. Soon after injury and at the longer term follow-up, families completed measures of parental psychological distress, family functioning, and quality of the home environment. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined group differences in academic outcomes and their associations with measures of the early and later family environment. The severe TBI group, but not the moderate TBI group, performed worse than did the OI group on all achievement tests, parent ratings of academic performance, and teacher ratings of internalizing problems. Higher quality early and late home environments predicted stronger academic skills and better classroom behavior for children with both TBI and OI. The early family environment more consistently predicted academic achievement, whereas the later family environment more consistently predicted classroom functioning. The quality of the home environment predicted academic outcomes more strongly than did parental psychological distress or family functioning. TBI in early childhood has long-term consequences for academic achievement and school performance and behavior. Higher quality early and later home environments predict better school outcomes for both children with TBI and children with OI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Clark, Patricia; Kragler, Sherry
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of incorporating writing materials in all areas of the preschool classroom on the early literacy development of young children from low-income families. The researchers worked with six teachers in three preschool classrooms to incorporate literacy materials--particularly those materials that…
This paper is based on data generated from a qualitative study of gender and sexuality in a kindergarten classroom. Post-developmental perspectives of sex, gender, and sexuality are used to show how young children are constructing gender and heterosexual discourses in the early childhood classroom. Drawing from feminist post-structuralism and…
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Kainz, Kirsten; Hedrick, Amy; Ginsberg, Marnie; Amendum, Steve
This study evaluated whether the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), a classroom teacher professional development program delivered through webcam technology literacy coaching, could provide rural classroom teachers with the instructional skills to help struggling readers progress rapidly in early reading. Fifteen rural schools were randomly…
Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Veenstra, Rene; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ormel, Johan
This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 plus or minus 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We assessed peer status with respect to…
Noting that the design of the classroom used for early childhood and kindergarten classes can contribute in powerful ways to the education of young children, this paper applies principles of architecture to the organization and shaping of the interior classroom space. The paper maintains that five principles, when applied, create a climate of…
Background: The objective was to predict early adolescents' emotional well-being from personal and contextual assets in the classroom. Emotional well-being is a key indicator of health. Aligned with the positive youth development (PYD) framework, a supportive classroom environment and positive relationships with teachers and peers were contextual…
American School & University, 2003
Presents K-12 and college classrooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…
Wallinga, Charlotte; Coleman, Mick; Bales, Diane
Dramatic improvements have been made in the lives of children over the last century. Even so, many health and safety challenges remain unresolved. For example, unintentional injuries claim the lives of more children each year than any other cause of death. In addition, a panel of pediatricians reported that the incidence of childhood obesity…
Drawing from a four-year critical ethnographic study of young girls and their literacy practices inside and outside school, this article foregrounds a lived pedagogical moment when conflicting discourses about reading instruction collided in a critically focused second-grade classroom. Through my analyses I make the argument that the pervasiveness…
Meszaros, Bonnie T.; Evans, Stella
There never seems to be enough time to teach everything that administrators, policy advocates, parents, legislators, and the general public think should be addressed in the elementary classroom. Each year, elementary teachers are asked to add more and more to their already crowded curriculum. Add to this the pressures of state standards and making…
Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel
In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…
Wohlwend, Karen E.
In this article, semiotic analysis of children's practices and designs with video game conventions considers how children use play and drawing as spatializing literacies that make room to import imagined technologies and user identities. Microanalysis of video data of classroom interactions collected during a three year ethnographic study of…
Sometimes it is important to put aside the research journals, political commentaries, and popular news about the state of education and stop long enough to listen to a voice of a 9-year-old. In this article, the author shares letters from her 9-year-old daughter Lina, who expresses her perspective on what matters most in a classroom. Lina's…
Murray, Desiree W.; Murr, Natalie; Rabiner, David L.
The overall purpose of this IES-funded Goal 3 study, now entering its third year, is to evaluate the efficacy of Incredible Years Teacher program (IYT) for improving K-2 students' academic achievement, attention, and social-emotional competence. The authors will also examine the extent to which classroom behavior mediates the relationship between…
Dunlop, Aline-Wendy; Fabian, Hilary
An increased emphasis on an early start in group day care and educational settings for young children means that by the time children enter statutory education, they may already have had several transitional experiences: each will have an impact. This book explores early transitions from a variety of international perspectives. Each chapter is…
Rosenthal, Dorothy B.; Bybee, Rodger W.
Discusses the emergence of the biology curriculum which replaced physiology, zoology, and botany in high school science courses and supplanted an early form of general science known as natural history. (RT)
Practitioner voice has been absent from debates regarding what constitutes professional behaviour and practice in the early years. This research identifies and uses the professional knowledge of a group of early years educators to create a typology of professionalism. The typology comprises seven inter-related dimensions of early years…
Saterbak, Ann; Volz, Tracy; Wettergreen, Matthew
Faculty at Rice University are creating instructional resources to support teaching first-year engineering design using a flipped classroom model. This implementation of flipped pedagogy is unusual because content-driven, lecture courses are usually targeted for flipping, not project-based design courses that already incorporate an abundance of…
Ly, Rinna K.; Malone, John A.
This paper describes the development of an instrument to assess teachers' views on their geometry instruction and their classroom learning environments in six government high schools in southwest Sydney. The sample consisted of 18 Years 9/10 ESL teachers from participating schools. The study involved completion of a survey form using a modified…
McMullen, Steven C.; Rouse, Kathryn E.
This study exploits a unique policy environment and a large panel dataset to evaluate the impact of school crowding on student achievement in Wake County, NC. We also estimate the effects of two education policy initiatives that are often used to address crowding: multi-track year-round calendars and mobile classrooms. We estimate a multi-level…
Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Toom, Auli; Pyhältö, Kirsi
This study explores Finnish first-year primary teacher students' (N = 244) sense of professional agency in the classroom. In addition, the interrelation between student teachers' sense of professional agency and the perceptions of teacher education as a learning environment is explored. The sense of professional agency in the classroom…
Sparks, Sarah D.
While efforts to reduce chronic absenteeism typically focus on adolescents, experts say that the early grades are the place to start. Statistics show that rates of absenteeism in kindergarten and 1st grade can rival those in high school. An average of one in 10 pupils in grades K-12 nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing…
"Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…
This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. This month's issue discusses how digital media and robotics fit into the early childhood curriculum, and how time on devices supports learning goals and developmentally appropriate practice.
Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…
Bull, Rebecca; Yao, Shih-Ying; Ng, Ee Lynn
The early childhood sector in Singapore has witnessed vast changes in the past two decades. One of the key policy aims is to improve classroom quality. To ensure a rigorous evaluation of the quality of early childhood environments in Singapore, it is important to determine whether commonly used assessments of quality are valid indicators across…
Floyd, Connie; Cooper, Patsy
The authors have worked together since 1986, though not always in the same building, and not always in the same area or even zip code. Over the years their titles have changed, as well as their employers, not to mention their roles and responsibilities. But there is no getting around the fact that when asked what has been keeping either one of…
Harrp, David N.
Copying adjacent answer sheets on the oft-used multiple-choice exams can be prevented if exam material is scrambled. The latter mode has been a requirement for all exams of this type at McGill University for 26 years. Cheating by copying has been reduced to nearly zero in this time. The experiment carried out used permissive seating and a single…
Emmer, Edmund T.; And Others
The major goals of the project reported here were to learn how teachers who are effective managers handle beginning-of-the-year activities and to determine what basic principles of management underlie their teaching. Twenty-seven third-grade teachers in eight elementary schools served as subjects. (MP)
There has recently been an unprecedented focus on early years care and education, particularly on the impact of the various adults who work and play with children in the birth to five/six-years age range. Staff in early years settings have had to adapt to many changes and demands, locally and nationally, from local authorities and national…
Dunlop, Aline-Wendy, Comp.
The aim of this resource guide is to provide practitioners in preschool settings with information to help them plan, implement, augment with resources, and review practice based on the "Curriculum Framework for Children in Their Pre-School Year" issued by the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department. The guide presents a…
Irvin, Dwight W; Crutchfield, Stephen A; Greenwood, Charles R; Kearns, William D; Buzhardt, Jay
Children's movement is an important issue in child development and outcome in early childhood research, intervention, and practice. Digital sensor technologies offer improvements in naturalistic movement measurement and analysis. We conducted validity and feasibility testing of a real-time, indoor mapping and location system (Ubisense, Inc.) within a preschool classroom. Real-time indoor mapping has several implications with respect to efficiently and conveniently: (a) determining the activity areas where children are spending the most and least time per day (e.g., music); and (b) mapping a focal child's atypical real-time movements (e.g., lapping behavior). We calibrated the accuracy of Ubisense point-by-point location estimates (i.e., X and Y coordinates) against laser rangefinder measurements using several stationary points and atypical movement patterns as reference standards. Our results indicate that activity areas occupied and atypical movement patterns could be plotted with an accuracy of 30.48 cm (1 ft) using a Ubisense transponder tag attached to the participating child's shirt. The accuracy parallels findings of other researchers employing Ubisense to study atypical movement patterns in individuals at risk for dementia in an assisted living facility. The feasibility of Ubisense was tested in an approximately 90-min assessment of two children, one typically developing and one with Down syndrome, during natural classroom activities, and the results proved positive. Implications for employing Ubisense in early childhood classrooms as a data-based decision-making tool to support children's development and its potential integration with other wearable sensor technologies are discussed.
McKenzie, Sophie; Spence, Aaron; Nicholas, Maria
This paper explores the design, development and evaluation of an early childhood literacy iPad application, focusing on the English Alphabet, called "A to Z Safari" trialled in Australian classrooms. A to Z Safari was designed to assist students in the early years of schooling with learning the alphabet and building on their knowledge of…
Kibbe, Debra L; Hackett, Jacqueline; Hurley, Melissa; McFarland, Allen; Schubert, Kathryn Godburn; Schultz, Amy; Harris, Suzanne
Current literature supports the link between physical activity (PA) or fitness and a child's ability to achieve academically; however, little structured activity time is incorporated into elementary school classrooms. This paper explores the impact of a classroom-based PA program, TAKE 10!, and health-academic integration through existing state and federal policy and programming. Evidence from journal articles, published abstracts, and reports were examined to summarize the impact of TAKE 10! on student health and other outcomes. This paper reviews 10 years of TAKE 10! studies and makes recommendations for future research. Teachers are willing and able to implement classroom-based PA integrated with grade-specific lessons (4.2 days/wk). Children participating in the TAKE 10! program experience higher PA levels (13%>), reduced time-off-task (20.5%), and improved reading, math, spelling and composite scores (p<0.01). Furthermore, students achieved moderate energy expenditure levels (6.16 to 6.42 METs) and studies suggest that BMI may be positively impacted (decreases in BMI z score over 2 years [P<0.01]). TAKE 10! demonstrates that integrating movement with academics in elementary school classrooms is feasible, helps students focus on learning, and enables them to realize improved PA levels while also helping schools achieve wellness policies. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Piasta, Shayne B; Logan, Jessica A R; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L; Petrill, Stephen A
Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators' provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children ( n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children's math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children's learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age.
McLeod, Bryce D; Sutherland, Kevin S; Martinez, Ruben G; Conroy, Maureen A; Snyder, Patricia A; Southam-Gerow, Michael A
Educators are increasingly being encouraged to implement evidence-based interventions and practices to address the social, emotional, and behavioral needs of young children who exhibit problem behavior in early childhood settings. Given the nature of social-emotional learning during the early childhood years and the lack of a common set of core evidence-based practices within the early childhood literature, selection of instructional practices that foster positive social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes for children in early childhood settings can be difficult. The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a study designed to identify common practice elements found in comprehensive intervention models (i.e., manualized interventions that include a number of components) or discrete practices (i.e., a specific behavior or action) designed to target social, emotional, and behavioral learning of young children who exhibit problem behavior. We conducted a systematic review of early childhood classroom interventions that had been evaluated in randomized group designs, quasi-experimental designs, and single-case experimental designs. A total of 49 published articles were identified, and an iterative process was used to identify common practice elements. The practice elements were subsequently reviewed by experts in social-emotional and behavioral interventions for young children. Twenty-four practice elements were identified and classified into content (the goal or general principle that guides a practice element) and delivery (the way in which a teacher provides instruction to the child) categories. We discuss implications that the identification of these practice elements found in the early childhood literature has for efforts to implement models and practices.
Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A; Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Whitmore, Ani S
This article provides an overview of early intervention and AAC over the 30-year period since the founding of the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication in 1985. It discusses the global context for early intervention and addresses issues pertaining to young children from birth to 6 years of age. It provides a narrative review and synthesis of the evidence base in AAC and early intervention. Finally, it provides implications for practice and future research directions.
Howard, Justine; Miles, Gareth E.; Rees-Davies, Laura
Early years curricula promote learning through play and in addition emphasise the development of computer literacy. Previous research, however, has described that teachers feel unprepared to integrate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and play. Also, whereas research has suggested that effective computer use in the early years is…
Early years care and education have been high on British political agendas. This includes partnership working between early years practitioners and parents. Yet, more research is needed to examine how childcare staff engage with parents and vice versa. This study addresses the role of position and positioning in parent-practitioner relationships,…
This article is intended as a contribution to the debate on the role of human capital in determining value for money in early years education. The article explores how the idea that early years education offers value for money has become folklore amongst policymakers and more widely. However, drawing on both interview data and existing literature…
Cottle, Michelle; Alexander, Elise
This article begins by outlining the historical and political context of "parent partnership" within the UK. It locates the perspectives of early years' practitioners within this context, drawing on data from an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded study of eighteen English early years settings, including interviews and…
Through a program wide survey (n = 87) and qualitative data of five case participants, this mixed methods study explores how teachers develop as urban classroom managers throughout their first year. Results indicate teachers learned from programmatic training and personnel, school personnel, and classroom experience. Specifically, personnel who…
Bose, Pia; Hinojosa, Jim
This grounded theory study described the perspectives of school-based occupational therapists working in inclusive early childhood classrooms emphasizing interactions with teaching staff. Six therapists were interviewed multiple times over several months. The participants viewed their interactions with teaching staff as challenging but potentially rewarding experiences. Viewing collaboration as valuable, their descriptions nonetheless generally omitted many collaborative features, with therapists often assigned the role of "expert." Data analysis revealed four major themes: (1) "It's Not Like I Don't Value Collaboration" (the benefits of collaboration); (2) "Collaboration--I Can't Do It Alone" (the challenges of interactions); (3) "My Opinion, Please Ask for It" (attachment to the expert status), and (4) "Is This Collaboration?" (interactions in practice). The results of this study suggest that current recommendations for collaboration for inclusion in school-based occupational therapy are not optimally implemented in all practice settings.
Honig, Alice Sterling
Research shows that stress in the crucial early years of a child's life can pose dramatic, lasting challenges to development, learning, and behavior. This is the practical book early childhood professionals need to recognize stress in young children--and intervene with proven relief strategies before pressures turn into big problems. Developed by…
Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen
Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…
This study aims to examine kindergarten children's mental models of the day and night cycle and provide implications for pedagogical practices targeting space science concepts in early childhood classrooms. A total of 46 kindergartners participated in the study, their age ranging from 60 to 75 months, including 22 boys and 24 girls.…
In this article, I synthesize extant research that documents how teachers foster and sustain children's diverse literacy practices within the early childhood classroom. Framing this review with Bakhtin's heteroglossia, I draw on theoretical and empirical scholarship in the fields of biliteracy, translanguaging, and culturally sustaining pedagogy.…
Irwin, Clare W.; Madura, John P.; Bamat, David; McDermott, Paul A.
Measuring classroom quality and ensuring high-quality learning experiences for young children are interests of the Early Childhood Education Research Alliance, a research alliance of Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands. This study, conducted in collaboration with the alliance, addresses these interests by examining multiple…
Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Langill, Carolyn C.; Peterson, Carla A.; Luze, Gayle J.; Carta, Judith J.; Atwater, Jane B.
This study examined relations among children's individual experiences, global classroom quality, and school readiness. Preschool children from low-income backgrounds (N = 138; M = 62.16 months; SD = 3.93; range = 55-70) were observed in their early care and education settings, and their language and cognitive skills were assessed. Research…
Putman, Rebecca S.
Guided by Vygotsky's social learning theory, this study reports a 24-week investigation on whether regular use of Istation®, an integrated learning system used by approximately 4 million students in the United States, had an effect on the early literacy achievement of children in twelve kindergarten classrooms. A mixed-method, quasi-experimental…
Nagy, A.; Danielson, C. A.; Lee, R. L.; Winter, P. S.; Valentine, J. R.
The General Atomics education program ``Scientist in the Classroom'' uses scientists, engineers, and technicians to discuss plasma physics with students in the classroom. A program goal is to make science an enjoyable experience while showing students how plasma physics plays an important role in their world. A fusion overview is presented, including topics on energy and environment. Using hands-on equipment, students manipulate plasma discharges using magnetic fields and observe their spectral properties. Students also observe physical properties of liquid nitrogen, infrared waves, and radioactive particles. The benefit of this program, relative to facility tours, is that it optimizes cost and scheduling between the scientific staff and students. This program and its equipment are receiving accolades as an adjunct teaching option available to schools at no cost. This year we have presented to over 1000 students at 11 schools. Student exit interviews reflect strong positive comments regarding their hands-on learning experience and science appreciation.
Research has shown that early identification and intervention is crucial and can in fact minimise, and may even prevent, the challenges of dyslexia from becoming too detrimental at later stages of education. This book offers both research insights and practical guidance for teachers working in Early Years settings on how to create resource…
There has been extensive research and analysis of the professionalization of early childhood educators/teachers. The recent promotion of a teacher-led workforce in England has further focused discussions on the modelling of early years teachers as professionals. In this article, the author develops an alternative analysis using the concepts of…
Caissy, Gail A.
Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…
Leftwich, Mariruth; Haywood, Clare
Working with children under five years old and the adults that accompany them is a rapidly growing area within the museum and wider cultural sector, with important emphasis being placed on early learning in both the United Kingdom and United States. For history museums in particular, early learning offers a unique set of questions and challenges,…
Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…
This study considers two discourses of current relevance to national and international educators--early professional learning (EPL) and curriculum change. Induction arrangements for early career teachers (ECTs), EPL and informal learning have received considerable attention in the past few years. Changes to induction inevitably have knock-on…
Carlson, Marcia J.; Pilkauskas, Natasha V.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how couple relationship quality and parental engagement are linked over children's early years--when they are infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Our sample included 1,630 couples who were coresident over Years 1-3 and 1,376 couples who were coresident over Years 3-5…
This captivating book illuminates our understanding of how young children develop gender identities. A two year longitudinal research project on children's own understandings of gender casts new light on how 3 and 4 year old newcomers in early years classes learn rules for gendered behaviour from older children, in their imaginative and…
Chen, Ying-Chih; Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori
The purpose of this study was to investigate the various roles that early elementary teachers adopt when questioning, to scaffold dialogic interaction and students' cognitive responses for argumentative practices over time. Teacher questioning is a pivotal contributing factor that shapes the role teachers play in promoting dialogic interaction in argumentative practice and that different roles serve different functions for promoting students' conceptual understanding. The multiple-case study was designed as a follow-up study after a 4-year professional development program that emphasized an argument-based inquiry approach. Data sources included 30 lessons focusing on whole class discussion from three early elementary teachers' classes. Data were analyzed through two approaches: (1) constant comparative method and (2) enumerative approach. This study conceptualized four critical roles of teacher questioning—dispenser, moderator, coach, and participant—in light of the ownership of ideas and activities. The findings revealed two salient changes in teachers' use of questions and the relationships between teachers' question-asking and students' cognitive responses: (1) teachers increasingly used multiple roles in establishing argumentative discourse as they persistently implemented an argument-based inquiry approach, and (2) as teachers used multiple roles in establishing patterns of questioning and framing classroom interactions, higher levels of student cognitive responses were promoted. This study suggests that an essential component of teacher professional development should include the study of the various roles that teachers can play when questioning for establishing dialogic interaction in argumentation and that this development should consist of ongoing training with systematic support.
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.
This research investigated how the level of disruptive behavior and friend influence on disruptive behavior varies across classrooms in relation to teacher emotional support. Data were collected from 48 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (N = 879 students) and included classroom observations at Wave 1 and student reports of their disruptive…
Hazelbauer, Gerald L.
This review focuses on the early years of molecular studies of bacterial chemotaxis and motility, beginning in the 1960s with Julius Adler's pioneering work. It describes key observations that established the field and made bacterial chemotaxis a paradigm for the molecular understanding of biological signaling. Consideration of those early years includes aspects of science seldom described in journals: the accidental findings, personal interactions, and scientific culture that often drive scientific progress. PMID:22994495
Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.
Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children’s math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators’ provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children (n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children’s math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children’s learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age. PMID:26257434
This report describes classroom observation techniques used to record the behavior of educational specialists (teachers) and students in a kindergarten and a first grade classroom of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). Classroom behavior was observed and recorded daily during the 1973-1974 school year. Each student was observed three…
Reinfeld, Erika L.; Harman, P.; Lee, M. H.; Bailey, J. M.
The International Year of Astronomy offers unparalleled opportunity to expand our audiences’ understanding about the universe. However, many learners, students and adults alike, are unfamiliar with the universe beyond the solar system. This collaborative workshop explores strategies for teacher professional development around the origin and evolution of the universe, using the resources of the Beyond the Solar System Professional Development Project as a guide. The Beyond the Solar System (BtSS) Professional Development Project is a NASA-supported initiative from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) designed to foster public understanding of NASA's exciting astronomy and space science research. The BtSS portfolio includes video resources, assessment tools, data about common student ideas, content presentations, online telescope investigations, and other classroom activities designed to deepen content knowledge and improve the quality of teaching and learning about current scientific models and evidence for the origin and evolution of our universe of galaxies. During this session, members of the BtSS Leadership Team from around the country will share their experience using these resources in educator workshops and teacher-training courses, and facilitate discussions among workshop participants about how these materials and pedagogical strategies can be used in their own professional development efforts during the International Year of Astronomy. EPO specialists and scientists will engage in focused exploration of the project's DVD--"Expanding the Universe in the Classroom"--in order make explicit connections between the themes of the International Year of Astronomy and their own work. The goals of this workshop are to equip professional development providers to support IYA education efforts in classrooms, afterschool programs, and informal education venues and to raise awareness about the opportunities for continuing Galileo's legacy of discovery
In this book the author discusses the field of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) as one in which practitioners are highly committed, dedicated and willing to learn. Generally, they try to do their very best for the children with whom they work. However, the author also shows that the field has hitherto been neglected in the areas of…
Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…
This research, a collaboration between Pearson and the National Literacy Trust, was designed to explore the use of technology by children in the early years. In 2013 Pearson and the National Literacy Trust invited practitioners who work with three to five-year-olds to take part in an online survey to explore how they support children's language…
Pacheco-Guffrey, H. A.
Classroom teachers face many challenges today such as new standards, the moving targets of high stakes tests and teacher evaluations, inconsistent/insufficient access to resources and evolving education policies. Science education in the K-5 context is even more complex. NGSS can be intimidating, especially to K-5 educators with little science background. High stakes science tests are slow to catch up with newly drafted state level science standards, leaving teachers unsure about what to change and when to implement updated standards. Amid all this change, many schools are also piloting new technology programs. Though exciting, tech initiatives can also be overwhelming to teachers who are already overburdened. A practical way to support teachers in science while remaining mindful of these stressors is to design and share resources that leverage other K-5 school initiatives. This is often done by integrating writing or math into science learning to meet Common Core requirements. This presentation will suggest a method for bringing Earth and space science learning into elementary / early childhood classrooms by utilizing the current push for tablet technology. The goal is to make science integration reasonable by linking it to technology programs that are in their early stages. The roles and uses of K-5 Earth and space science apps will be examined in this presentation. These apps will be linked to NGSS standards as well as to the science and engineering practices. To complement the app resources, two support frameworks will also be shared. They are designed to help educators consider new technologies in the context of their own classrooms and lessons. The SAMR Model (Puentadura, 2012) is a conceptual framework that helps teachers think critically about the means and purposes of integrating technology into existing lessons. A practical framework created by the author will also be shared. It is designed to help teachers identify and address the important logistical
Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly; Gershoff, Elizabeth
The federal Head Start program, designed to improve the school readiness of children from low-income families, often serves 3- and 4-year-old children in the same classrooms. Given the developmental differences between 3 and 4 year olds, it is unknown if educating them together in the same classrooms benefits one, both, or neither. Using data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort, this study leveraged a peer effects framework to examine the associations between mixed-age classrooms and the school readiness of a nationally representative sample of newly enrolled 3- (n= 1,644) and 4-year-old (n= 1,185) Head Start children. Results revealed that 4-year-old children displayed fewer gains in academic skills during the preschool year when they were enrolled in classrooms with a greater number of 3 year olds; effect sizes corresponded to four-to-five months of academic development. In contrast, classroom age composition was not consistently associated with 3-year-old's school readiness. PMID:26566635
Mushin, Ilana; Gardner, Rod; Munro, Jennifer M.
In classrooms tests, students are regularly required to demonstrate their understanding of mathematical concepts. When children encounter problems in demonstrating such understanding, it is often not clear whether this is because of the language of the teachers' questions and instructions or a genuine non-understanding of the concept itself. This paper uses Conversation Analysis to investigate the role that language plays in Year 1 oral maths assessment in an Australian Indigenous community school. This approach allows us to monitor the very subtle communicative gestures, verbal and non-verbal, that contribute to the trajectory of a particular test task. Here we are able to bring to light a range of ways in which language may interfere with demonstrations of understanding of mathematical concepts. These include particular mathematical words (e.g., size, shape, same), as well as problems with what is being asked in an instruction. We argue that while all children must learn new mathematical language in their early years of schooling, the challenge for the students we have recorded may be compounded by the language differences between the Indigenous variety of language they speak in the community, and the Standard Australian English of the classroom and teachers.
Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.
Concerns regarding students' learning and reasoning in chemistry classrooms are well documented. Students' reasoning in chemistry should be characterized by conscious consideration of chemical phenomenon from laboratory work at macroscopic, molecular/sub-micro and symbolic levels. Further, students should develop metacognition in relation to such ways of reasoning about chemistry phenomena. Classroom change eliciting metacognitive experiences and metacognitive reflection is necessary to shift entrenched views of teaching and learning in students. In this study, Activity Theory is used as the framework for interpreting changes to the rules/customs and tools of the activity systems of two different classes of students taught by the same teacher, Frances, who was teaching chemical equilibrium to those classes in consecutive years. An interpretive methodology involving multiple data sources was employed. Frances explicitly changed her pedagogy in the second year to direct students attention to increasingly consider chemical phenomena at the molecular/sub-micro level. Additionally, she asked students not to use the textbook until toward the end of the equilibrium unit and sought to engage them in using their prior knowledge of chemistry to understand their observations from experiments. Frances' changed pedagogy elicited metacognitive experiences and reflection in students and challenged them to reconsider their metacognitive beliefs about learning chemistry and how it might be achieved. While teacher change is essential for science education reform, students are not passive players in change efforts and they need to be convinced of the viability of teacher pedagogical change in the context of their goals, intentions, and beliefs.
Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Hagger, Hazel; Burn, Katharine; Mutton, Trevor; Colls, Helen
The aims of the present study are to investigate whether and how teachers change in their observed classroom quality (emotional and instructional support, classroom organization, and students' engagement; measured with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System observation measure for secondary school [CLASS-S]; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2006)…
For years, research has shown that language learning at an early age has great benefits. Most recently, a May 2015 study published in "Science Daily" suggests that exposure to multiple languages in childhood produces better communicators ("Children exposed to multiple languages"). A 2014 study in Singapore showed that infants…
Primary teachers play a key role in their students' future mathematical success in the early secondary years. While the word "algebra" may make some primary teachers feel uncomfortable or worried, the basic arithmetic ideas underlying algebra are vitally important for older primary students as they are increasingly required to use "algebraic…
Poduska, Jeanne; Kellam, Sheppard; Brown, C Hendricks; Ford, Carla; Windham, Amy; Keegan, Natalie; Wang, Wei
While a number of preventive interventions delivered within schools have shown both short-term and long-term impact in epidemiologically based randomized field trials, programs are not often sustained with high-quality implementation over time. This study was designed to support two purposes. The first purpose was to test the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based intervention, the Whole Day First Grade Program (WD), aimed at two early antecedents to drug abuse and other problem behaviors, namely, aggressive, disruptive behavior and poor academic achievement. The second purpose--the focus of this paper--was to examine the utility of a multilevel structure to support high levels of implementation during the effectiveness trial, to sustain WD practices across additional years, and to train additional teachers in WD practices. The WD intervention integrated three components, each previously tested separately: classroom behavior management; instruction, specifically reading; and family-classroom partnerships around behavior and learning. Teachers and students in 12 schools were randomly assigned to receive either the WD intervention or the standard first-grade program of the school system (SC). Three consecutive cohorts of first graders were randomized within schools to WD or SC classrooms and followed through the end of third grade to test the effectiveness of the WD intervention. Teacher practices were assessed over three years to examine the utility of the multilevel structure to support sustainability and scaling-up. The design employed in this trial appears to have considerable utility to provide data on WD effectiveness and to inform the field with regard to structures required to move evidence-based programs into practice. NCT00257088.
Kervin, Lisa; Comber, Barbara; Woods, Annette
This article examines the resources, tools, and opportunities children enact as they engage with teacher-devised writing experiences within their classroom space. We begin with discussion about classroom writing time from the perspective of both the teacher and children of one Grade 1/2 composite class. We also reveal resources within the…
Spiegel, Samuel A., Ed.; And Others
Action research is one of the more increasingly popular and innovative techniques for engaging teachers in shaping change in the classroom. The research in this monograph was conducted by teachers in classrooms in Florida and Georgia. Papers were selected from 65 action research papers written in fulfillment of one of the requirements of the…
Gillam, Sandra Laing; Olszewski, Abbie; Fargo, Jamison; Gillam, Ronald B.
Purpose: This nonrandomized feasibility study was designed to provide a preliminary assessment of the impact of a narrative and vocabulary instruction program provided by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) in a regular classroom setting. Method: Forty-three children attending 2 first-grade classrooms participated in the study. Children in each…
Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Paden, Amber; Dickes, Nitasha
We evaluated a discrete-trial functional analysis implemented by regular classroom staff in a classroom setting. The results suggest that the discrete-trial functional analysis identified a social function for each participant and may require fewer staff than standard functional analysis procedures.
Guardino, Caroline; Fullerton, Elizabeth Kirby
High levels of aggressive behaviors were observed during the transition times in two selfcontained special education classrooms: a kindergarten and pre-kindergarten. The present case studies examine how modifying the classroom infrastructure impacts students' aggressive behavior. Teachers were assisted on the usage of select modifications (visual…
Serriere, Stephanie C.
Although much energy has been spent designing children's books and curriculum to bring issues of diversity and acceptance into classrooms, perhaps the most meaningful and relevant curricular materials only require a digital camera and a space for students to talk about photos of their own classroom community, creating an organic and everyday…
Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W; Paden, Amber; Dickes, Nitasha
We evaluated a discrete-trial functional analysis implemented by regular classroom staff in a classroom setting. The results suggest that the discrete-trial functional analysis identified a social function for each participant and may require fewer staff than standard functional analysis procedures. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Association for Science Education, Herts (England).
This CD-ROM describes how science can be used in schools to show that students can be excited and engaged in science and how science can be integrated into other disciplines. Science Year is a 12-month packed calendar of events, projects and resources, designed to stimulate the imagination about science and technology. Activities include the…
Carson, Karyn L; Gillon, Gail T; Boustead, Therese M
Despite strong investment in raising literacy achievement for all children, significant inequalities in literacy outcomes continue to exist among some of the world's most advanced economies. This study investigated the influence of a short, intensive period of phonological awareness (PA) instruction implemented by classroom teachers on raising the literacy achievement of children with and without spoken language impairment (SLI). A quasi-experimental design was employed to measure the PA, reading, and spelling development of one hundred twenty-nine 5-year-olds. Thirty-four children received 10 weeks of PA instruction from their teachers. Ninety-five children continued with their usual reading program, which included phonics instruction but did not target PA. Children who received PA instruction demonstrated superior literacy outcomes compared to children who followed the usual literacy curriculum. Children with SLI showed significant improvements in PA, reading, and spelling but had a different pattern of response to instruction compared to children with typical language. Importantly, the number of children experiencing word decoding difficulties at the end of the program was 26% among children who followed the usual literacy curriculum compared to 6% among children who received the PA instruction. A short, intensive period of classroom PA instruction can raise the literacy profiles of children with and without spoken language difficulties.
For practitioners in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) in English schools (ages 3-5), the ethos of learning by "investigating and doing" is a major component of the pleasure of teaching very young children. The "Knowledge and understanding of the world" area of the EYFS (where scientific learning is mainly anchored)…
Fricke, Silke; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Haley, Allyson J.; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.
Background: Oral language skills in the preschool and early school years are critical to educational success and provide the foundations for the later development of reading comprehension. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 180 children from 15 UK nursery schools ("n" = 12 from each setting; M[subscript age] = 4;0) were randomly…
Manches, Andrew; Plowman, Lydia
International changes in policy and curricula (notably recent developments in England) have led to a focus on the role of computing education in the early years. As interest in the potential of computing education has increased, there has been a proliferation of programming tools designed for young children. While these changes are broadly to be…
Lybolt, John; Armstrong, Jennifer; Techmanski, Kristin Evans; Gottfred, Catherine
For children from low-resource backgrounds, a literacy-rich preschool experience with a skilled and engaged teacher can offset risk factors and lay the groundwork for lifelong academic success. Now schools can ensure effective early literacy instruction with this field-tested, research-based curriculum for children 3 to 5 years of age. These 41…
Montague-Smith, Ann; Price, Alison
This third edition of the best-selling "Mathematics in Nursery Education" provides an accessible introduction to the teaching of mathematics in the early years. Covering all areas of mathematics learning--number and counting, calculation, pattern, shape, measures and data handling--it summarises the research findings and underlying key concepts…
Stennett, R. G.; Earl, L. M.
During the academic year 1978-79, school teams implemented a newly developed early identification system in all kindergarten and grade one classes in London, Ontario schools. After analysis and revision of the system, the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the process and a test of its short-term predictive validity were investigated.…
Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna
The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…
Shaklee, Harriet; Paszek, Donald
Related research suggests that children may show some simple understanding of event covariations by the early elementary school years. The present experiments use a rule analysis methodology to investigate covariation judgments of children in this age range. In Experiment 1, children in second, third and fourth grade judged covariations on 12…
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…
Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…
Pierson, Donald E.
This is the third progress report of the Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP) which is a program designed to provide diagnostic and educational services to the family through their child's preschool years. This document provides information on (1) the BEEP center, (2) playgroups: transition phase of the education program, (3) dental screening…
Mooney, Ann; Boddy, Janet; Statham, June; Warwick, Ian
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to consider the opportunities and difficulties in developing health-promotion work in early years settings in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: As the first study of its kind conducted in the UK, a multi-method approach was adopted involving: an overview of health-related guidance and of effective…
Kendall, Alexandra; Carey, Danielle; Cramp, Andy; Perkins, Helen
Shifts in UK social and economic policy have focused on education and care in the Early Years as key to improving social inclusion, skills acquisition and longer term social and economic prosperity. The implications for practitioners in the sector have been significant as roles, functions and foci have been renegotiated through the processes of…
"Monsters Under the Bed" is an essential text focussing on critical and contemporary issues surrounding writing for "early years" children. Containing a critically creative and a creatively critical investigation of the cult and culture of the child and childhood in fiction and non-fictional writing, it also contains a wealth of ideas and critical…
Theobald, Maryanne; Danby, Susan; Ailwood, Jo
The view that children should have a say in and participate in the decision making of matters that affect them is now an accepted position when considering research and policy in the early years. This paper reviews the field of child participation in the Australian context to show that, despite growing evidence of support within policy and…
This article draws on interviews with 29 managers and deputy managers within 15 nurseries in the private sector in England. The author argues that, whilst there is a growing literature on management and professionalism within the Early Years (EY) sector, there is less known about the actual experiences of being a manager in this context. Many of…
34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE INN MUSICIANS SAT AND PLAYED FOR THE GUESTS IN THE LOBBY BELOW. THE EARTHQUAKE IN 1959 CAUSED SOME STRUCTURAL DAMAGE AND NOW THE CROW'S NEST IS NOT ACCESSIBLE TO THE PUBLIC. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY
This paper focuses on young children's scientific preconceptions and discusses teachers' identification of these preconceptions when teaching science in the early years, on which research is still limited. This paper is based on the theoretical framework of constructivism and it defines preconceptions as children's erroneous concepts prior to…
Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz
This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which…
This paper gives an account of an exploratory piece of research focused on understanding more fully the nature of pre-service teachers' developing approaches to classroom behaviour management on a one-year postgraduate teacher education programme in the Scottish context. Drawing on individual and focus group interviews as well as journaling of…
Blau, Harold; And Others
A 2-year study was done on the effect of group therapy on the teacher-perceived classroom behavior of 82 hyperactive minority boys (ages 10-16 years) in a day school for disruptive children. By the end of the study, there were a minimum of four behaviors which indicated that the group therapy was accomplishing a statistically significant change in…
An innovative icebreaker initiative--"classroom karaoke"--was deployed at the beginning of a first-year undergraduate course in youth studies at an Australian university. The study used karaoke as a social and academic transition strategy to enhance students' first-year experience at university. Students responded positively to this…
Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).
These conference proceedings comprise 19 papers and the plenary session presented at the Early Years Schooling Conference held in Melbourne, Australia. The plenary session was "A Developmental Approach to Teaching Young Children" conducted by Lilian Katz. The keynote addresses and breakout sessions were: (1) "Developmental Learning:…
D'Alessio, M. A.
A discussion of P- and S-waves seems an ubiquitous part of studying earthquakes in the classroom. Textbooks from middle school through university level typically define the differences between the waves and illustrate the sense of motion. While many students successfully memorize the differences between wave types (often utilizing the first letter as a memory aide), textbooks rarely give tangible examples of how the two waves would "feel" to a person sitting on the ground. One reason for introducing the wave types is to explain how to calculate earthquake epicenters using seismograms and travel time charts -- very abstract representations of earthquakes. Even when the skill is mastered using paper-and-pencil activities or one of the excellent online interactive versions, locating an epicenter simply does not excite many of our students because it evokes little emotional impact, even in students located in earthquake-prone areas. Despite these limitations, huge numbers of students are mandated to complete the task. At the K-12 level, California requires that all students be able to locate earthquake epicenters in Grade 6; in New York, the skill is a required part of the Regent's Examination. Recent innovations in earthquake early warning systems around the globe give us the opportunity to address the same content standard, but with substantially more emotional impact on students. I outline a lesson about earthquakes focused on earthquake early warning systems. The introductory activities include video clips of actual earthquakes and emphasize the differences between the way P- and S-waves feel when they arrive (P arrives first, but is weaker). I include an introduction to the principle behind earthquake early warning (including a summary of possible uses of a few seconds warning about strong shaking) and show examples from Japan. Students go outdoors to simulate P-waves, S-waves, and occupants of two different cities who are talking to one another on cell phones
Greer, Brian D; Neidert, Pamela L; Dozier, Claudia L; Payne, Steven W; Zonneveld, Kimberley L M; Harper, Amy M
We conducted functional analyses (FA) with 4 typically developing preschool children during ongoing classroom activities and evaluated treatments that were based on FA results. Results of each child's FA suggested social-positive reinforcement functions, and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior plus time-out was effective in decreasing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior. We discuss the utility of classroom-based FAs and potential compromises to experimental control. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa-contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development.
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159
In this paper, we present a professional development/upgrading programme in science for early-years teachers and investigate its impact on the teachers' competencies in relation to their knowledge and teaching of science. The basic idea of the programme was to motivate the teachers by making them members of an action research group aimed at developing and implementing curriculum activities to which they would contribute and thus meaningfully engaging them in their own learning. The programme used a `collaborative partnership' model for the development of the activities. In this model, the collaborative notion is defined as an act of `shared creation': partners share a goal and members bring their expertise to the partnership. Within this context, the partners were a researcher in science education with a background in physics, who also served as a facilitator, and six in-service early-years teachers with a background in early-years pedagogy and developmental sciences, who had many years of experience (classroom experts). These teachers participated in the programme as co-designers, but were involved to a significantly lesser degree than the researcher. The programme procedures comprised group work and individual teachers' class work. Data sources included teachers' essays, field-notes, lesson recordings and group-work records. Data were qualitatively analysed. The main results indicate improvement of teachers' `transformed' knowledge of the subject matter, development/improvement of knowledge of instructional strategies, including factors related to quality of implementation of the activities, knowledge of the pupils and improvement of the teachers' efficacy.
Over the past three decades, more than a quarter of a million children have become citizens of the United States through international adoption. Kindergarten teacher Jane Katch recently found herself with three such children in her class: Katya, born in Russia, Jasper, from Cambodia, and Caleb, from Romania. Each child had spent early years in an…
This paper describes a structured attempt to integrate the flipped classroom model into a senior-level course at the higher education level. This study's purpose is to examine and compare the impact of flipped classrooms versus non-flipped as a means to contribute to the growing line of research on flipped teaching through an evaluation of both…
Our schools have been experiencing three overlapping waves of technology adoption since the mid-1980s: the personal computer lab wave, the online learning wave and the digital classroom wave. In this position paper, I tried to explain why we are now at the onset of the digital classroom wave, why it will cause great changes in education and why…
This paper is a re-engagement with some ethnographic data, originally analysed using a sociocultural approach. It makes use of a recent proposal that Lacan's "mirror stage" when applied to an analysis of classroom settings and interactions can offer a fruitful way of explaining and understanding classroom lives, identities and…
Millis, Richard M.; Dyson, Sharon; Cannon, Dawn
The advent of internet-based delivery of basic medical science lectures may unintentionally lead to decreased classroom attendance and participation, thereby creating a distance learning paradigm. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that classroom attendance/participation may be positively correlated with performance on a written examination…
Drummond, Mary Jane
This review of Caroline Pratt's life and work in early years education includes an account of how a six-year-old boy taught a woman in her thirties what she needed to know in order to open a school--in 1914--that continues to this day, a school that was, in the founder's own words, fitted to the child and not the other way around. It finds a clear…
Human Resources Development Canada, 2003
Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…
Human Resources Development Canada, 2003
Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…
Wilms, Douglas J.
Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…
Human Resources Development Canada, 2003
Willms, J. Douglas
The purpose of this study is to elaborate on the emotional problems faced by Turkish early childhood teachers in their interaction with students, parents, administrators and colleagues in the first three years of their professional lives. Data for this research consists of in-depth interviews with Turkish kindergarten teachers, where these…
Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan; Flache, Andreas
Two theoretical approaches underlie this investigation of the determinants of early study success among first-year university students. Specifically, to extend Walberg's educational productivity model, this study draws on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation in a contemporary university context. The survey data came from 407…
This article examines the relationship between children's talk in the classroom and their multimodal texts. The article uses an analytic framework derived from Bourdieu's concept of habitus to examine how 6-7-year-old children's regular ways of being and doing can be found in their multimodal texts together with their talk (Bourdieu, 1977, 1990).…
Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori A.; Gunel, Murat; Akkus, Recai
How can classrooms become communities of inquiry that connect intellectually challenging science content with language-based activities (opportunities to talk, listen, read, and write) especially in settings with diverse populations? This question guided a 3-year mixed-methods research study using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach in…
Silfver, Eva; Sjöberg, Gunnar; Bagger, Anette
This article draws on data from a bigger project where we explore what is taking place in the daily life of classrooms during the national testing period in mathematics for 9-10-year-old children in Sweden. Data were produced by observations, video-recordings and interviews with children. The article shows on a micro level how assessment trends,…
Aus, Kati; Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Poom-Valickis, Katrin; Eisenschmidt, Eve; Kikas, Eve
We focus on assessing whether newly qualified teachers' professional outcome expectations and their beliefs about students' intellectual potential are associated with teachers' self-reported classroom management and instructional practices. One hundred and eighteen novice teachers participating in the induction year programme were studied during…
Dunn, Peter K.; Richardson, Alice; McDonald, Christine; Oprescu, Florin
Student engagement at first-year level is critical for student achievement, retention and success. One way of increasing student engagement is to use a classroom response system (CRS), the use of which has been associated with positive educational outcomes by fostering student engagement and by allowing immediate feedback to both students and…
Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz
This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children's language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children's math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers' structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness.
Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz
This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children’s language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children’s math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers’ structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness. PMID:22665945
Bush, Andrew; Sly, Peter D
Most treatment of newborn screening-diagnosed cystic fibrosis is not evidence-based; there are very few randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Furthermore, the advent of novel molecular therapies, which could be started at diagnosis, mandates performing RCTs in very young children. However, unless the natural history of early cystic fibrosis lung disease is known, RCTs are impossible. Here, we review the results of two large prospective cohorts of these infants - London Cystic Fibrosis Collaboration (LCFC) (London, UK) and Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST-CF) (Australia). Nutritional status remained excellent in both the cohorts. Both cohorts reported abnormal lung function aged at 3 months. AREST-CF, which previously reported rapidly declining preschool lung function, now report good conventional school-age spirometry. LCFC reported improvement between 3 months and 1 year, and stability in the second year. AREST-CF also reported a high prevalence of high resolution computed tomographic abnormalities related to free neutrophil elastase in bronchoalveolar lavage; LCFC reported high resolution computed tomographic changes at 1 year, which were too mild to be scored reproducibly. At least in the first 2 years of life, lung function is not a good end-point for RCTs; routine bronchoalveolar lavage and HRCT cannot be justified. Newborn screening has greatly improved outcomes, but we need better point-of-care biomarkers.
Edwards, S.; Skouteris, H.; Rutherford, L.; Cutter-Mackenzie, A.
In today's fast food, fast-paced consumer society, too few questions are asked about the influence of digital media on young children's health and sustainability choices, and indeed how such choices are expressed in children's play (and early childhood classrooms). By interviewing children and parents, and using such data to prompt teacher…
Steed, Elizabeth A.; Noh, Jina; Heo, Kay H.
This study examined the implementation of critical features associated with positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in early childhood classrooms in the United States and South Korea. Each country has a distinct approach to providing early education for young children. There is some evidence that preschool teachers' approaches to…
Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia
Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Craig, N.; Peticolas, L. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thompson, B.
2007 Celebrates the International Heliophysics year and its outreach has a primary objective, to "demonstrate the beauty, relevance and significance of Space and Earth Science to the world." NASA's first five-satellite mission, THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms), was launched on February 17, 2007 and is to investigate a key mystery surrounding the dynamics of the auroras- when, where, and how are they triggered? When the five probes align perfectly over the North American continent- every four days - and with 20 ground stations in Northern Canada and Alaska with automated, all-sky cameras will document the auroras from Earth. To monitor the large-scale local effects of the currents in space, THEMIS Education and Outreach program has installed 10 ground magnetometers, instruments that measure Earth's magnetic field, in competitively selected rural schools around the country and receive data. The THEMIS Education and Outreach Program shares the IHY objective by bringing in this live local space weather data in the classrooms and engaging the teachers and students on authentic research in the classroom. The data are displayed on the school computer monitors as well as on the THEMIS E/PO website providing the local data to the science mission as well as schools. Teachers use the data to teach about the aurora not only in math and science, but also in Earth science, history and art. These students and their teachers are our ambassadors to rural America and share the excitement of learning and teaching with their regional teachers. We will share how authentic space science data related to Earth's magnetic field and auroras can be understood, researched, predicted and shared via the internet to any school around the globe that wished to be part of tracking solar storms. Complimenting IHY, World Space Week will take place from October 4-10th and this year. World Space week is "an international celebration of science and technology
Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary
This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters…
Macy, Marisa G.; Bricker, Diane D.
This study examined the effectiveness of embedding children's social goals into routine activities within inclusive preschool classroom settings. An AB (i.e. baseline and intervention) single-subject design was used across three male participants with identified disabilities. Three student-teachers, enrolled in a master's program at a university,…
Greer, Brian D.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Payne, Steven W.; Zonneveld, Kimberley L. M.; Harper, Amy M.
We conducted functional analyses (FA) with 4 typically developing preschool children during ongoing classroom activities and evaluated treatments that were based on FA results. Results of each child's FA suggested social-positive reinforcement functions, and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior plus time-out was effective in…
Mac Iver, Douglas; Reuman, David A.
In many upper-elementary school classrooms, students are given few decision-making prerogatives. In junior high school, it becomes increasingly rare for them to receive the decision-making opportunities they believe they should have. Both person-environment fit theory and pawn theory would predict that a failure to provide students with such…
Brennan, Heather R.
The move to a more integrated setting for preschool classrooms has become a primary choice in the education of young children. The current research suggests that inclusion at the preschool level has a social impact on the behaviors of young children. Studies examining child play preference and attitudes towards children with disabilities have…
Lozano, Leticia I.
It is essential for teachers to provide a setting where student interaction is fostered as a mediational tool for learning, thus expediting the natural transfer of language and knowledge among students (Cummins, 1979). Doing so provides students a way of learning in an additive environment (Soltero, 2004). Could such a classroom have the potential…
Amendum, Steven J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Ginsberg, Marnie C.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a classroom-teacher-delivered reading intervention for struggling readers called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), designed particularly for kindergarten and first-grade teachers and their struggling students in rural, low-wealth communities. The TRI was delivered via an innovative…
Robertson, Dylan L.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Fraser, Mark W.; Day, Steven H.; Duncan, Tisha; Crowther, Amity; Dadisman, Kimberly A.
Social relations of second grade students (247 boys, 290 girls) were examined in rural elementary classrooms. Cluster analysis of teacher ratings was used to identify interpersonal competence configurations including perceived unpopular-aggressive (i.e., "Troubled") and perceived popular-aggressive (i.e., "Tough") subtypes for…
Caudle, Lori A.; Jung, Min-Jung; Fouts, Hillary N.; Wallace, Heather S.
Observations of preservice teachers often lack information about specific strategies they use when guiding children's behavior. This study investigated how preservice teachers used verbal and non-verbal behavior modification techniques within structured and transition classroom contexts. Using an on-the-mark 20- second observe and 10-second record…
Becraft, Jessica L.; Borrero, John C.; Mendres-Smith, Amber E.; Castillo, Mariana I.
Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules can be used to decrease, but not eliminate, excessive bids for teacher attention in a classroom. There are two primary methods of implementing a DRL: full session and spaced responding. Some research suggests that the full-session DRL may eliminate target responding. The purpose of the current…
Lee, Yoon-Joo; Recchia, Susan L.
This study explored issues of social inclusion for young children with disabilities through a systematic reanalysis of six preschool case studies focusing on strategies that teachers used in daily practice. Our analysis process entailed a reexamination of classroom observations and teacher inquiry data, focusing back and forth between the…
Howes, Carollee; Guerra, Alison Wishard; Fuligni, Allison; Zucker, Eleanor; Lee, Linda; Obregon, Nora B.; Spivak, Asha
The purpose of this study was to test a model for predicting preschool-age children's behaviors with peers from dimensions of the classroom and teacher-child relationship quality when the children were from diverse race, ethnic, and home language backgrounds. Eight hundred children, (M=age 63 months, SD=8.1 months), part of the National Evaluation…
Hyland, Nora E.
Children from very young ages internalize messages about power and privilege with regard to gender, race/ethnicity, class, sexual orientation, and language, which they perpetuate through their play and talk. While families are a critical piece in shaping children's values on such matters, classroom practices communicate and reinforce strong,…
Kermani, Hengameh; Aldemir, Jale
The purpose of the present study was to study if purposeful math, science, and technology curriculum projects and activities would support Pre-K children's performance in these subject matter areas. In this study, 58 Pre-K children from 4 Pre-K classrooms in a public Pre-K programme in North Carolina participated. Through a quasi-experimental,…
This paper offers teachers basic information about sensory integration and suggests strategies for managing classrooms which include children with sensory integrative dysfunction. The first section looks at what sensory integration is, noting especially the roles of the three "near senses": the vestibular system, the proprioceptive system, and the…
Based on Piaget's theory "children learn best by doing," play offers a natural way of learning for young children. The "Playful Teaching" Workshop Sampler offers teachers several different movement activities for incorporation into academic classroom curricula. The play ideas were presented at national and regional teaching workshops. The…
Creating a classroom of attentive learners takes more than swift discipline. "Difficult Behavior" can help inspire positive behavioral change and healthy, productive development. Following Acknowledgments, About the Author and Introduction, the book is divided into five sections. Part I, The Role of Discipline, includes: (1) Discipline in…
Choi, Aeran; Notebaert, Andrew; Diaz, Juan; Hand, Brian
A critical component of science is the role of inquiry and argument in moving scientific knowledge forward. However, while students are expected to engage in inquiry activities in science classrooms, there is not always a similar emphasis on the role of argument within the inquiry activities. Building from previous studies on the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH), we were keen to find out if the writing structure used in the SWH approach helped students in Year 5, 7, and 10 to create well constructed arguments. We were also interested in examining which argument components were important for the quality of arguments generated by these students. Two hundred and ninety six writing samples were scored using an analysis framework to evaluate the quality of arguments. Step-wise multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine important argument components. The results of this study suggest that the SWH approach is useful in assisting students to develop reasonable arguments. The critical element determining the quality of the arguments is the relationship between the student’s written claims and his or her evidence.
Moreland, Judy; Jones, Alister; Northover, Ann
This paper reports on a two-year classroom investigation of primary school (Years 1-8) technology education. The first year of the project explored emerging classroom practices in technology. In the second year intervention strategies were developed to enhance teaching, learning and assessment practices. Findings from the first year revealed that assessment was often seen in terms of social and managerial aspects, such as teamwork, turn taking and co-operative skills, rather than procedural and conceptual technological aspects. Existing formative interactions with students distorted the learning away from the procedural and conceptual aspects of the subject. The second year explored the development of teachers' technological knowledge in order to enhance formative assessment practices in technology, to inform classroom practice in technology, and to enhance student learning. Intervention strategies were designed to enhance the development of procedural, conceptual, societal and technical aspects of technology for teachers and students. The results from this intervention were very positive. This paper highlights the importance of developing teacher expertise pertaining to broad concepts of technology, detailed concepts in different technological areas and general pedagogical knowledge. The findings from this research therefore have implications for thinking about teaching, learning and assessment in technology.
Garwood, Justin D.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
Many children with behavior problems perform poorly academically and can disrupt regular classroom instruction. Although good classroom management strategies can benefit children with behavior problems, it is not clear whether these students need consistently good classroom management across the early elementary school years to improve their…
Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C
The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.
Miranda, Rommel J.; Damico, Julie B.
This mixed-methods study examines how engaging science teachers in a summer Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) followed by an academic-year Professional Learning Community (PLC) focused on translating teacher research experiences to inquiry-based classroom lessons might facilitate changes in their beliefs and classroom practices regarding…
Clarke, Doug M.
This case study research investigated changing teacher roles associated with two teachers' use of innovative mathematics materials at Grade Six level, in a setting which contained all the ideal ingredients for professional growth. Participant observation and interviews with the teachers over a seven-month period early in the use of the innovative materials and for a brief time five years later provided a picture of changing teacher roles, but also a sense of issues that had emerged. or persisted in the longer term. The greatest changes in these teachers' roles (in the short and long term) related to increasing comfort with posing non-routine problems to students and allowing them to struggle together, and the provision of structured opportunities for student reflection upon activities and learning. However, little change was evident over the five year period in the teachers' use of assessment practices or in their articulation of the "big ideas" of mathematics in the middle school years.
Burke, B. F.
Radio Astronomy in the U.S. went through two distinct phases, the pioneering phase before the Second World War, when Karl Jansky and Grote Reber were the only two radio astronomers in the world, and the post-WWII era, when the subject blossomed throughout the world, especially in England and Australia, while U.S. radio astronomy languished at a relatively low level, until its resurgence a decade later. Here in Budapest we are celebrating the 70th anniversary of Jansky's discovery, and I shall start with a review of his work, and the subsequent work of Grote Reber, who died, regrettably, in December 2002. Two historical references will be cited frequently: Serendipitous Discoveries in Radio Astronomy (Kellermann & Sheets, eds. 1983, referred to as Paper 1) and the two historical collections edited by W.T. Sullivan, Classics in Radio Astronomy (1982, referred to as Paper 2) and The Early Years of Radio Astronomy (1984, Paper 3).
Denig, W. F.; McVaugh, M. R.
A set of sunspot drawings from the early nineteenth century were discovered in the journals of the Reverend Jonathan Fisher. These drawings were made during a time when abnormally cold weather caused crops in New England to fail due to intermittent frost throughout the summer months of 1816, normally referred to as the "year without a summer." Global changes in weather patterns were the result of the Mount Tambora volcano eruption. Since this association was unknown at the time, there was speculation that the Sun was the cause inspiring the Reverend Fisher to monitor changes in sunspots during the summer of 1816 and continuing into 1817. These sunspot drawings for the summer of 1816 overlap the solar observations of Sir William Hershel.
In recent times discussion surrounding the use of computers in early childhood education has emphasised the role computers play in children's everyday lives. This realisation has replaced early debate regarding the appropriateness or otherwise of computer use for young children in early childhood education. An important component of computer use…
Heidemann, Sandra; Chang, Claire; Hewitt, Deb; Menninga, Beth
Words Work! and Community Action Head Start have been working together for seven years to provide training, consultation, mentoring, and resources to teachers in pilot classrooms as they learned to implement effective early literacy strategies. In its work with teachers, Words Work! developed a culture "where ongoing assessment, reflective…
Kervin, Lisa; Turbill, Jan; Harden-Thew, Kathryn
The face of early childhood education continues to change. In Australia, the national early childhood guidelines, "Early Years Learning Framework" (2009) and the "National Quality Framework" have articulated and defined the work of early years' educators in a range of areas, including literacy. Both frameworks state that their…
This essay explores what the development of writing might look like and how it might take shape in a secondary English classroom. The study problematises current definitions of progress. In direct opposition to standards-driven models, I propose an alternative way of thinking about the development of writers through a series of narrative accounts…
Smythe, Suzanne; Neufeld, Paul
In response to uneven academic outcomes and resistance to reading and writing among ELLs in a Canadian grade 7 classroom, teachers and university-based researchers collaborated to introduce a podcast project in which children learned new digital and multimodal literacy skills as a pathway to success in academic literacies. Throughout the four…
Choi, Aeran; Notebaert, Andrew; Diaz, Juan; Hand, Brian
A critical component of science is the role of inquiry and argument in moving scientific knowledge forward. However, while students are expected to engage in inquiry activities in science classrooms, there is not always a similar emphasis on the role of argument within the inquiry activities. Building from previous studies on the Science Writing…
The purpose of this mixed methods case study research was to investigate the reasons teachers chose online professional development (OPD) focusing on technology integration and how this OPD impacted teachers' classroom practices over a six month period. Previous research identified that OPD provides flexibility beyond what traditional face-to-face…
As the twentieth anniversary of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda approaches, Mark Gudgel argues that we should face the challenges posed by teaching about Rwanda. Drawing on his experience as a history teacher in the US, his experience researching and supporting others' classrooms in the US and UK, his training in Holocaust education and his knowledge…
McLennan, Deanna Pecaski
In this article, the author describes how placing a plastic, gazebo-style bird feeder outside the classroom windows one cold autumn morning had been a catalyst for capturing and inspiring the children's imaginations. This empowered them to explore self-directed activities that resulted in meaningful, collaborative learning for most of the school…
Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.
Concerns regarding students' learning and reasoning in chemistry classrooms are well documented. Students' reasoning in chemistry should be characterized by conscious consideration of chemical phenomenon from laboratory work at macroscopic, molecular/sub-micro and symbolic levels. Further, students should develop metacognition in relation to such…
Henry, Jim; Bruland, Holly H.
Reflective practice has become a mainstay in many inquiries into teaching and learning, presenting reflective practitioners with the challenge of accounting for their own institutional positions when interpreting student performance in the binary teacher-student configurations of most classrooms. This study analyzes the perspectives of TAs cast as…
Kirch, Susan A.
Many educators and researchers are convinced that age limits what students can learn and achieve in science. Elementary school curricula focus on isolated process skills under the faulty assumption that young students are not capable of combining the process skills and content knowledge necessary for reasoning scientifically. In the present study, I demonstrate that many process skills are produced in conversations between second grade students and between these students and their teachers, including: questioning, hypothesis formation, experimental design, identifying relevant evidence, critical analysis of hypotheses and predictions, hypothesis reconstruction, and variable identification. Through conversation analysis I show that most classroom community members adopted the role of skeptic at some time, but there was a strong tendency to defer to authoritative sources when resolving debates. This latter observation led to further investigation of when and how authoritative sources were consulted and used, and when and how a skeptical stance was taken. I show that, as students used science process skills and interacted with each other and teacher-mediators, community practices, values, and mores were shaped and an ethos of science began to emerge. It is my contention that this ethos often emerges unconsciously as part of the community's dynamic set of rules and schema. Teachers who are attuned to the tension between open-mindedness and skepticism, and how they and their students cope with this dialectic, however, can actively shape the scientific ethos of their classroom community.
Gonzálvez, María T.; Espada, José P.; Orgilés, Mireia; Soto, Daniel; Sussman, Steve
Background Tobacco use prevalence rates are high among Spanish adolescents. Programming to counteract tobacco use is needed. Methods and Findings The current study provides a one-year follow-up outcome evaluation of Project EX, an eight-session classroom-based curriculum. The intervention was tested using a randomized controlled trial with 1,546 Spanish students, involving three program and three control schools. Compared to the control condition, the program condition revealed a greater reduction in nicotine dependence (p < .05) and CO ppm levels (p < .001), and lower consumption of cigarettes at last month (p = .03). Conclusions Long-term outcomes of the Project EX classroom-based program are promising for adolescent prevention and possibly cessation in Spain. PMID:26090821
Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.
Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…
Lockeman, Kelly S; Lanning, Sharon K; Dow, Alan W; Zorek, Joseph A; DiazGranados, Deborah; Ivey, Carole K; Soper, Shawne
Although interprofessional practice is important for improving healthcare delivery, there is little evidence describing interprofessional education (IPE) outcomes beyond changes in attitudes and knowledge of prelicensure learners. More rigorous evaluation of early IPE is needed to determine its impact on teaching interprofessional collaborative practice and providing a solid foundation for applying collaborative skills in the clinical environment. First-year students (N = 679) in 7 health professions programs participated in a 4-session series focusing on professional roles and responsibilities, teams and teamwork, and the healthcare system. Interprofessional teams of 5-6 students, from at least 3 professions, were assembled for the duration of the series and created a team charter during their first session to guide their work. Each subsequent session included a brief lecture and interactive exercises. Faculty facilitators from the participating programs provided support to students during the sessions. As a culminating project, each team created a short video depicting a barrier to interprofessional collaboration. Students evaluated the performance of their team members using a web-based peer assessment survey. A course evaluation with an embedded validated attitudinal scale was used to assess changes in student perceptions about IPE. A sample of videos were also scored by 2 faculty using a rubric linked to course expectations. This educational offering took place on the health sciences campus of a large, mid-Atlantic research university with more than 3,200 clinical learners in schools of allied health professions, dentistry, medicine, nursing, and pharmacy. It was the first interprofessional activity for most of the learners. There were 555 students who participated in some or all of the sessions. Comments indicated that students enjoyed interacting with their peers and prefer activities allowing them to apply content to their profession over lectures. The
Miksza, Peter; Gault, Brent M.
The primary purpose of this study was to describe the music experiences elementary school children in the United States receive in the academic classroom setting. The data were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of the Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), a nationally representative study that followed kindergarteners through…
Bennett, Ruth; And Others
Designed for use in preschool and early elementary school classrooms, this collection of eight American Indian legends provides patterns for making feltboard cutouts of their characters and props to be used in story telling activities. Seven of the legends originate with the Hupa, Karuk, or Yurok Indians of northwestern California and one is from…
This article considers the emergence of classroom wall charts as a teaching technology in Swedish elementary schools in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, using Biblical history teaching as an example. There has been some work done internationally on wall charts as an instructional technology, but few studies have looked at their…
Clark, Kim D; Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beerenfels, Susan; Rowell, Anne-Marie C
Tambellup is a small rural town in the Great Southern region of Western Australia (WA), approximately 300 km south-east of state capital Perth. Tambellup has a much higher Aboriginal population than the national average and achieved very positive results for year one children in 2007 regional Australian Early Development Index testing. In 2009 the Great Southern GP Network (which has a facilitating role in providing early intervention strategies to families with young children at risk of disadvantage) requested that public health staff at Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA undertake an exploratory study to discover the factors protective of children's development in Tambellup. This article describes the subsequent research and its findings. This 2009 qualitative study interviewed both adult members of the local Aboriginal community (Noongar people; n = 23), and non-Aboriginal leaders from a cross-section of organisations, services and the community (n = 14) to determine what made growing up in Tambellup a positive experience. Aboriginal participants were introduced to the researchers by a local cultural consultant. Non-Aboriginal participants were initially sourced from a list provided by the GSGPN and extended by asking those listed to identify other appropriate contacts. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with Aboriginal participants and telephone interviews were undertaken with non-Aboriginal participants. All interviews were conducted using a standard schedule of questions as a guide, supplemented by clarifying and broadening questions from research team members. Data were analysed in a multi-stage process of collation, extraction of common themes and verification of themes with study participants and other stakeholders. Findings were presented to local Aboriginal leaders at a community meeting and a final report was prepared and circulated to community members. There was substantial evidence of widespread trust and positive relationships in this close
Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Daugherty, Lindsay; Howes, Carollee; Karoly, Lynn
The aim of the study was to uncover early childhood educators' beliefs about how to best work with children getting ready for kindergarten. The study involved 11 focus groups with providers from three types of early education settings located in Los Angeles County: (1) public center-based programs, (2) private center-based programs, and (3) family…
Vo, Abigail; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.
As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…
This article focuses on an early childhood programme that has been initiated by the Institute for Educational Development at the Aga Khan University in Karachi, Pakistan. The programme is a Certificate in Education and involves training teachers so as to enable them to understand early childhood education and development, and to become effective…
Gupta, Sarika S.; Daniels, Janese
Coaching is one of several professional development approaches being used in early childhood to facilitate improved teacher instruction to promote child outcomes. Despite its use, little is known about how coaching promotes teacher knowledge and skills (Sheridan, Edwards, Marvin, & Knoche, 2009). We reviewed the early childhood coaching literature…
Dachyshyn, Darcey; Kirova, Anna
The project described here was aimed at piloting an intercultural, multilingual, early learning program that was genuinely responsive to the circumstances and early learning needs of preschool refugee children and parents from three ethnocultural communities--Somali, Sudanese, and Kurdish--in a large city in Western Canada. We discuss the unique…
This article reviews the impetus for higher quality, culturally appropriate early learning experiences. It investigates the economic costs of low quality learning and the absence of early learning programs as well. The article identifies and explores the tenets of brain-based learning and its connection to culture. Finally, the article describes…
Marchalot, Antoine; Dureuil, Bertrand; Veber, Benoit; Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Hervé; Lorne, Emmanuel; Gerard, Jean-Louis; Compère, Vincent
Blended learning, which combines internet-based platform and lecturing, is used in anaesthesiology and critical care teaching. However, the benefits of this method remain unclear. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, non-randomised work between 2007 and 2014 to study the effect of blended learning on the results of first year anaesthesia and critical care residents in comparison with traditional teaching. Blended learning was implemented in Rouen University Hospital in 2011 and residents affiliated to this university corresponded as the blended learning group. The primary outcome was the resident's results as measured with multiple-choice questions between blended learning and control groups after beginning blended learning (post-interventional stage). The secondary outcomes included residents' results between pre and post-interventional stages and homework's time. Moreover, comparison between control and blended learning group before beginning blended learning (pre-interventional stage) was performed. From 2007 to 2014, 308 residents were included. For the pre-interventional period, the mean score in the blended learning group (n=53) was 176 (CI 95% 163 to 188) whereas the mean score in the control group (n=106) was 167 (CI 95% 160 to 174) (no difference). For the post-interventional period, the mean score in blended learning group (n=54) was 232 on 300 (CI95% 227-237) whereas the mean score in the control group (n=95) is 215 (CI95% 209-220) (P<0.001). In the two groups, comparison between pre and post-interventional stages showed the increase of mean score, stronger for blended learning group (32% and 28% in blended learning and control group, P<0.05). The average time of homework in the blended learning group was 27h (CI 95% 18.2-35.8) and 10h in the control group (CI 95% 2-18) (P<0.05). This work suggests the positive effect of blended learning (associating internet-based learning and flipped classroom) on the anaesthesia and critical care residents
Roberts-Holmes, Guy; Bradbury, Alice
This article raises important questions about whether the increasing control of early years education through performance data is genuinely a means for school improvement. This composite article, examines the pervasiveness of attainment data in early years education professional activity, its impact on early years teachers' consciousness and…
Stearns, Richard G.; Corgan, James X.
Between 1817 and 1838 professors at the University of Pennsylvania, South Carolina College, Yale College, and Columbia College published six syllabi for earth science courses. All stressed geology. These syllabi give unique insight into classrooms of almost 200 years ago. The greatest difference between the six syllabi involved historical geology.…
This report outlines findings from Pearson and the National Literacy Trust's second annual early years literacy survey, conducted in May to July 2014. 1,012 parents of children aged 3 to 5 and 567 early years practitioners who work with this age group participated. Attainment data in the form of vocabulary abilities were available for a subsample…
Tyler-Merrick, Gaye; Church, John
Early intervention for children with behavioural difficulties can be effective in terms of outcomes for both the children and their families. Early intervention can save a child from long-term outcomes such as school failure, peer rejection and later offending. However, in terms of accurate assessment of young children's behavioural difficulties,…
This paper aims to contribute to conversations around child participation within early childhood settings in Australia. Ethnographic approach was used for this study to explore child participatory workshops in Early Childhood Centers. The center in which this study took place was chosen as one of the sites of analysis for a broader PhD research…
Soon after its discovery, the attempts to develop anti-AIDS therapeutics focused on the retroviral protease (PR)-an enzyme used by lentiviruses to process the precursor polypeptide into mature viral proteins. An urgent need for the three-dimensional structure of PR to guide rational drug design prompted efforts to produce milligram quantities of this enzyme. However, only minute amounts of PR were present in the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses, and initial attempts to express this protein in bacteria were not successful. This review describes X-ray crystallographic studies of the retroviral proteases carried out at NCI-Frederick in the late 1980s and early 1990s and puts into perspective the crucial role that the total protein chemical synthesis played in unraveling the structure, mechanism of action, and inhibition of HIV-1 PR. Notably, the first fully correct structure of HIV-1 PR and the first cocrystal structure of its complex with an inhibitor (a substrate-derived, reduced isostere hexapeptide MVT-101) were determined using chemically synthesized protein. Most importantly, these sets of coordinates were made freely available to the research community and were used worldwide to solve X-ray structures of HIV-1 PR complexes with an array of inhibitors and set in motion a variety of theoretical studies. Publication of the structure of chemically synthesized HIV-1 PR complexed with MVT-101 preceded only by six years the approval of the first PR inhibitor as an anti-AIDS drug. Copyright (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Carstairs, Sharon A; Marais, Debbi; Craig, Leone C A; Kiezebrink, Kirsty
Seafood consumption is recommended as part of a healthy, balanced diet. Under-exposure to seafood during early years feeding, when taste and food acceptance is developed, may impact on the future development of a varied diet. This study aimed to investigate the availability and nutritional content of seafood in commercial infant meals compared to the other food types. A survey was conducted of all commercial infant main meal products available for purchase in supermarkets, high street retailers and online stores within the United Kingdom. The primary food type (seafood, poultry, meat and vegetables) within each product, nutritional composition per 100 g, and ingredient contribution were assessed. Of the original 341 main meal products seafood (n = 13; 3.8%) was underrepresented compared to poultry (103; 30.2%), meat (121; 35.5%) and vegetables (104; 30.5%). The number of the seafood meals increased three years later (n = 20; 6.3%) vegetable meals remained the largest contributor to the market (115; 36.4%) with meat (99; 31.3%) and poultry (82; 26.0%) both contributing slightly less than previously. Seafood-based meals provided significantly higher energy (83.0 kcal), protein (4.6 g), and total fat (3.2 g) than vegetable (68 kcal, 2.7 g, 1.9 g), meat (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and poultry-based meals (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and higher saturated fat (1.3 g) than poultry (0.4 g) and vegetable-based (0.6 g) meals (all per 100 g) which may be attributed to additional dairy ingredients. Parents who predominantly use commercial products to wean their infant may face challenges in sourcing a range of seafood products to enable the introduction of this food into the diet of their infant. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 (n = 11,000), this study examined the developmental outcomes of 5-year-old children in multigrade classrooms (combined prekindergarten and kindergarten classrooms serving 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) compared with those of 5-year-olds attending kindergarten-only…
Winkel, S.; Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0; Sullivan, J.
The Inreach program combines the Deep River Science Academy (DRSA) 'learning through research' approach with state of the art communication technology to bring scientific research to high school classrooms. The Inreach program follows the DRSA teaching model where a university student tutor works on a research project with scientific staff at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. Participating high school classes are located across Canada. The high school students learn about the ongoing research activities via weekly web conferences. In order to engage the students and encourage participation in the conferences, themed exercises linked to the research project are provided to themore » students. The DRSA's Inreach program uses a cost-effective internet technology to reach a wide audience, in an interactive setting, without anyone leaving their desks or offices. An example Inreach research project is presented here: an investigation of the potential of the Canadian supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) concept to burn transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) to reduce the impact of used nuclear fuel. During this project a university student worked with AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) researchers on technical aspects of the project, and high school students followed their progress and learned about the composition, hazards, and disposition options for used nuclear fuel. Previous projects included the effects of tritium on cellular viability and neutron diffraction measurement of residual stresses in automobile engines.« less
Prior, Megan A.; Niesz, Tricia
Researchers have suggested that a paucity of research exists on refugee youth in early childhood education settings. Arguing that children's stories provide educators a valuable resource for understanding the meaning children make of initial cross-cultural experiences, this article presents a narrative inquiry into the stories and artwork of three…
Canbeldek, Merve; Isikoglu Erdogan, Nesrin
Purpose: The numbers of early childhood education programs are dramatically increasing throughout Turkey, and the regulations to ensure quality are frequently changing. A very limited number of studies have examined the quality of Turkish ECE programs on children's development. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the effects of…
Milford, Todd; Tippett, Christine
Across K-12 education, there has been recent attention to the learning opportunities available to students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Early childhood education (ECE) has been excluded from this process. The scholarly literature contains good evidence for including science teaching and learning at the ECE…
Bales, Diane; Wallinga, Charlotte; Coleman, Mick
Early childhood teachers have a variety of health and safety resources to draw upon, including information about and educational programs dealing with such issues as fire safety, obesity, and dental hygiene. However, teachers may face a number of challenges when attempting to incorporate health and safety resources into the curriculum. In some…
Brooks, Jacqueline Grennon
Strong evidence from recent brain research shows that the intentional teaching of science is crucial in early childhood. "Big Science for Growing Minds" describes a groundbreaking curriculum that invites readers to rethink science education through a set of unifying concepts or "big ideas." Using an integrated learning approach, the author shows…
Adair, Jennifer Keys
In this essay, Jennifer Keys Adair aims to clarify the concept of "agency" as a tool for improving the educational experiences of young children in the early grades. She conceptualizes agency in the context of schooling as the ability to influence what and how something is learned in order to expand capabilities, drawing on economic…
Brown, Elizabeth Todd
This was a correlational study conducted with a population of prekindergarten educators from a large, metropolitan school district. The purpose was to examine if there were relationships between and among early childhood teachers' sense of self-efficacy, their beliefs about the importance of mathematics, and their mathematics instructional…
Kuger, Susanne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Kaplan, David; Rossbach, Hans-Guenther
Many education systems worldwide have dedicated a significant amount of resources to improve quality levels in early childhood education and care. Research can contribute to this goal by providing information about conditions of high-quality education and care and reasons for changes in the quality provided to children. This study therefore…
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of religion on Turkish early childhood teachers' factuality judgments and reasoning. Participants responded following questions about the story of "Moses's stick": 1) Can Moses run water from a dry fountain just by hitting his stick to the ground? 2) Why, or why not? 3) Would you read…
Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…
Wilson, Kaitlyn P.; Dykstra, Jessica R.; Watson, Linda R.; Boyd, Brian A.; Crais, Elizabeth R.
Coaching is gaining attention as a promising professional development approach in early education. However, in practice, many adult educators continue to rely on methods with inconsistent effectiveness, such as one-time trainings and workshops. In addition, there is limited evidence supporting the use of specific coaching models in early…
Lopes, Celi Espasandin; Grando, Regina Célia; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz Silva
Our goal in this article is to discuss the importance of problems in early childhood education for the child's development and engagement with the mathematics existing in childhood culture. Our assumption is that an important task for young children's education is to create a democratic and critical environment, in which multiplicity of…
Naqvi, Rahat; Thorne, Keoma J; Pfitscher, Christina M; Nordstokke, David W; McKeough, Anne
Research has determined that dual language books have a positive effect on literacy achievement, motivation, and family involvement in children’s schooling. In this study we used quantitative methods to complement the largely qualitative extant research. We analyzed the early literacy skills of 105 kindergarten children (45 comparison, 60…
Walsh, Bridget A.; Petty, Karen
The frequency of early childhood education approaches spanning 10 years of publications was investigated. A content analysis of publications (N = 492) from "Early Childhood Education Journal" was conducted. From a previous content analysis six approaches or search words were identified: Bank Street, Head Start, High/Scope, Montessori, Reggio…
Reed, D. E.; Kaplita, E.; McKenzie, D. A.; Jones, R.; May, L. W.
Students often enter college with preconceived notions about science. These misconceptions, coupled with a potential for a limited number of science classes during college for non-science majors, can make correcting misconceptions a very daunting challenge. In order to efficiently commutate climate science in a limited number of science classes, instructors need to understand the student experiences that have created their preconceived notions. In many cases, a lack of data about student's experiences leads to instructors simply guessing at how students are thinking about and interacting with science. Student surveys were used in our work to quantify pre-college experiences, both in and out of the classroom, in order to examine the connection to both academic major and choice of college or university students attended. Surveys were given to nearly 400 students across 4 different schools in the Oklahoma City Metro area. The location of students (rural or urban) affected science experiences as well as what types of actives (local libraries, museums, or parks) were available to the students. Connections between the timing of experience (elementary through high school) and the type of experience (in the classroom, with family/friends, or on their own) may influence choice of college or university as well as academic major. A better understating of positive student science experiences will allow instructors to better tailor their pedagogy and facilitate better connections between climate science and students.
Two assumptions that underlie much research in early childhood music education are that music is a social endeavor and musical participation is beneficial to children's overall social development. As members of cultural and social groups, young children engage with music in a multitude of ways and with different companions. This article examines…
This article examines the effectiveness of action research as a continuous professional development (CPD) tool. The aim of the CPD programme was to support 14 community-based Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) centres in Ireland to improve quality in their settings through the implementation of the national quality and curriculum frameworks…
The concept of mobile technologies is now an emergency theme in educational research, yet the playing of these edutainment applications and their impact on early childhood learning needs to be fully explored. This study highlights current research and explores how iPads improve student learning. It also examines how the introduction of iPads,…
Taylor, P. J.; And Others
A method of instruction in gynecology is described that encouraged the formulation of early diagnostic hypotheses, an important part of clinical problem-solving. Students were given a set of clinical clues to help them make broad diagnostic hypotheses. Student ability, results, and student perceptions of the course are provided. (Author/LBH)
The practitioner's own self is a resource in early childhood education and care (ECEC). It is proposed that an experiential training focusing on the "professional self" helps to raise awareness of how psychological dispositions may impair or enhance quality of provision. A key concept in such training is emotional labour, explored with…
Bateman, Amanda; Church, Amelia
Early childhood research has investigated children's use of objects largely focusing on cognitive and motor development. Yet members of a particular culture, such as young children's peer groups, use objects that have cultural relevance as "conversational" items, as a means to interacting with other members of the group. This article…
Wilson, Ruth A.
This book is based on the understanding that fostering a sense of wonder and appreciation for the natural world is important to the development of young children and the preservation of planet Earth. It is also based on the belief that experiences children have early in life impact the attitudes and behaviors they carry with them throughout their…
Conoyer, Sarah J.; Foegen, Anne; Lembke, Erica S.
Two studies using similar methods in two states investigated the long-term predictive utility of two single-skill early numeracy Curriculum Based Measures (CBMs) and the degree to which they can adequately predict high-stakes test scores. Data were drawn from kindergarten and first-grade students. State standardized assessment data from the…
Strengthening the home-school partnership is a strategy to raise achievement levels and to engage "hard-to-reach" parents with education in the UK, however this political ideal has been critiqued as exclusive and based on a white, middle class model. This article explores how six asylum-seeking mothers manage their children's early years…
Brian, Ali; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Logan, Jessica A.; Sutherland, Sue
Background: Fundamental motor skill (FMS) interventions when delivered by an expert can significantly improve the FMS of young children with and without developmental delays. However, there is a gap in the literature as few early childhood centers employ experts with the professional background to deliver FMS intervention. Purpose: The primary…
This study followed two teacher candidates from the Communities as Resources in Early Childhood Teacher Education (CREATE) project into their first year classrooms to determine whether they were able to translate the theoretical principles from their teacher preparation program into practice during their first year of teaching. It also examined…
Chen, Peter; Rice, Cynthia
Based on a 180-day school year, any student who misses 18 days or more per year--or about two days per month--is considered chronically absent. An alarming 4,328 Newark students in grades kindergarten through 3rd grade were chronically absent during the 2013-14 school year. When young students miss too much school, they will likely struggle…
Krieg, Susan; Whitehead, Kay
Although international definitions of early childhood repeatedly refer to a birth-8 age span, there are complex, institutional divides within this age range. This paper explores the divide between pre-compulsory and compulsory early childhood institutions. In countries such as Finland this divide is not such an issue because children do not begin…
Bernat, Debra H.; August, Gerald J.; Hektner, Joel M.; Bloomquist, Michael L.
We examined effects of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" early-age-targeted prevention program on serious conduct problems following 5 years of continuous intervention and one year of follow-up. We also examined if intervention effects on proximally-targeted variables found after 3 years mediated intervention effects on conduct…
Seager, Emily; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten
Language comprehension delays in pre-schoolers are predictive of difficulties in a range of developmental domains. In England, early years practitioners are required to assess the language comprehension of 2-year-olds in their care. Many use a format based on the Early Years Foundation Stage Unique Child Communication Sheet (EYFS:UCCS) in which…
Hecht, Silke; Adams, W H; Cunningham, M A; Lane, I F; Howell, N E
Effective teaching of veterinary radiology can be challenging in a traditional classroom environment. Audience response systems, colloquially known as "clickers," provide a means of encouraging student interaction. The purpose of this study was to compare student performance and course evaluations before and after using the Classroom Performance System™ in the third-year (fifth semester) didactic radiology course at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine. Overall student performance was assessed by comparing median numeric final course grades (%) between years without and with use of the Classroom Performance System™. Grades of students were determined for individual instructors' sections. Student evaluations of the radiology course were compared for the years available (2007-2010). Student interactions were also evaluated subjectively by instructors who used the Classroom Performance System™. There was a significant difference (p = 0.009) between the median student grade before (2005 - 2008, median 82.2%; interquartile range 77.6-85.7%; range 61.9-95.5%) and after use of the classroom performance system (2009-2010, median 83.6%; interquartile range 79.9-87.9%; range 68.2-93.2%). There was no statistically significant difference in median student grades for individual instructors over the study period. The radiology course student evaluation scores were significantly higher in years where the Classroom Performance System™ was used in comparison to previous years (P = 0.019). Subjectively, students appeared more involved when using clickers. Findings indicated that the Classroom Performance System™ may be a useful tool for enhancing veterinary radiology education. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.
Since the moral panic discourse is shutting down discussions about how children are making meaning of gender and sexuality, this paper argues that a new logic is needed for understanding childhood sexuality. A postdevelopmental logic is created by working with Deleuze and Guattari's ["Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizoprhenia."…
Davies, Ruth; Hamilton, Paula
The benefit the outdoor environment has for young children's development is widely documented. However, there is less literature outlining practitioners' experiences of assessing learning in the outdoors and factors which impact the level and quality of assessments undertaken. This study, based on a pragmatic mixed methods approach, undertaken in…
Parkinson, Julia; Meakin, John; Salinger, Terry
Student achievement in literacy has been a focal concern in the United States for many years. Improving teachers' knowledge and skill that leads to improved student achievement, particularly in the early grades, can place children on an improved trajectory that can have long-term impacts on life outcomes. Over the past decade, a large body of…
Davenport, Lisa A.; Johnston, Susan S.
Mathematics and numeracy are valuable cognitive learning areas that need to be addressed during the early childhood years. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an intervention strategy comprised of creating opportunities, prompting, providing consequences, and prompt fading when teaching preschool children with…
This study is aimed to gain insights into adolescents' classroom peer climate by examining descriptive and status norms of academic and social behaviors. Descriptive norm was assessed as the average score for each behavior and status norm was assessed using the correlation between each behavior and social status within each classroom. Expanded…
DiNatale, Lorenza; Steele, Tammy; Elliott, Crystal
In order for teachers to create child-centered and emergent curriculum for their classrooms it is important for them to observe children to discover their interests and then develop investigations around these interests by using the enthusiasm, knowledge, and curiosity of the other children in the classroom. It is equally as important to allow…
King, Elizabeth; La Paro, Karen
Research Findings: This study examined 34 Head Start teachers' use of four categories of mental state talk (verbalizations of mental processes using emotion terms, cognition terms, desire terms, and perception terms) during naturally occurring classroom interactions. Transcriptions from classroom videos were coded for mental state talk…
Browne, Naima, Ed.
During the early 1980s there was a lack of research regarding gender issues for early childhood and elementary education. This document attempts to fill this chasm by addressing gender issues in science and technology for primary education schooling and early-years education. The following chapters are included: (1) "Science and Technology in the…
Recent research suggests early math, science, and social studies knowledge may boost achievement for the nation's youngest students and provides a better chance at future reading success--more so even than early reading skills. This issue explores the benefits of including a strong science curriculum in the early years and includes recommendations…
Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Dominguez, Ximena; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.
The relations between early emotional and behavioral problems in classroom situations and peer social competence were examined for a representative sample of urban Head Start children. Behavior problems were assessed within the context of routine peer, teacher, and structured learning classroom situations early in the preschool year. Two path…
Berson, Ilene R.; Baggerly, Jennifer
Children around the world are being exposed to traumatic events at a troubling rate. In large, nationally representative studies of children in the United States, researchers have reported that 71% of children have been exposed to at least one potentially traumatic event in the past year, and almost 70% of children have experienced multiple…
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of behaviours characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. This study evaluates the effects of a tailored Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IYTCM) programme aimed to improve participating children's on-task behaviour in a group of 6 to 10 year old…
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 (ECLS-K: 2011; n = 11,000), this study examined the developmental outcomes of 5-year-old children in multi-grade classrooms (combined pre-kindergarten and kindergarten classrooms serving 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) compared with 5-year-olds attending…
In fall 1966, Eliot Wigginton took his first teaching job in Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School, a semiprivate rural Georgia high school with both local and boarding students. This book is his account of his early struggle to control and interest his students, the genesis and development of the student-produced Foxfire publications, and his views on the…
Opportunities for play and self-initiated activity, considered to be an important part of children's learning in early childhood settings, diminish as children progress into school. Previous studies suggest that losing time for play/self-initiated activity can impact negatively on children's attitudes to school learning. This article discusses the…
In recent years a growing body of evidence has implicated deficits in the automaticity of fundamental facts such as word and number recognition in a range of disorders: including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, apraxia and autism. Variously described as habits, fluency, chunking and over learning, automatic processes are best…
Bicehouse, Vaughn L.
In 2007, the Autism Society of America (ASA) estimated that 1.5 million Americans and their families were affected by autism. As the current ASD prevalence rates continue to rise (10%-17% each year) so does the awareness that ASD is no respecter of persons. ASD touches children of every racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic background. Additionally,…
Stirrup, Julie; Evans, John; Davies, Brian
Despite 50 years and more of "progressive education" in the United Kingdom, classed patterns of educational success and failure stubbornly prevail. So how, where and when does it all go wrong for the many children who continue to fail or underachieve? Drawing on the work of Basil Bernstein, this article centres processes within early…
Miller, David; Robertson, Derek; Hudson, Alison; Shimi, Jill
In this article we look at the links between early years pedagogy and the use of digital game-based learning. Early years education is a distinctive phase of the education system in many countries, generally covering the age range from 3-6 or 7 years. In the United Kingdom, it tends to bridge preschool and the first two years in primary school.…
Drawing on survey data from over 2000 parents, this paper explores the possibility of early-years swimming to add mathematical capital to young children. Using developmental milestones as the basis, it was found that parents reported significantly earlier achievement on many of these milestones. Such data suggest that the early years swim…
This book focuses upon effective pedagogical leadership and practice in the leadership of learning within early years settings and children's centres. The book and accompanying DVD, containing real-life examples of early years leaders, provides a framework for reflective thinking and learning for those leading practice and working with children,…
Across the "European learning space" (Lawn, 2006) professionalisation of early years workforces has become a key priority and there has been a flow of this policy between borders (Oberhuemer, 2005). Early Years Professional Status (EYPS) is central to these developments in England. Within what is regarded as a traditionally…
Recent research findings indicate that using multiple metaphors in multimodal learning experiences are effective teaching approaches in early years mathematics. Using a social semiotic lens this paper reports on eight early years teachers' perceptions of this approach whilst engaging in a small collaborative professional learning group. This group…
Presents concerns over the "Early Years Study" (McCain & Mustard). Focuses on diversity issues related to the readiness measure used, parenting styles, and the importance of first language development. Questions the report's definition of "developmentally-attuned." Concludes by expressing hope that the Early Years Study…
Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan
This study investigated the leadership skills Early Years leaders demonstrated through their daily practice of teaching, assessing and teamwork within their setting. It explored how revealing the potential of Early Years leaders could have a positive impact on the leadership practice of other leaders in the same setting to improve pupil outcomes.…
McMillan, Dorothy J.; McConnell, Barbara
Following a lengthy consultation process across Northern Ireland (NI), 2013 saw the publication of Learning to Learn: A Framework for Early Years Education and Learning [DE (Department of Education). 2013. "Learning to Learn: A Framework for Early Years Education and Learning." Accessed July 15, 2014.…
Hackling, Mark; Barratt-Pugh, Caroline
Australia's Early Years Learning Framework and leading international researchers argue for more intentional and purposeful teaching of science in the early years. This case study of exemplary practice illustrates intentional teaching of science materials which opened-up learning opportunities in literacy and number. Student-led hands-on…
Payler, Jane K.; Locke, Rachel
This article reports on the views of early years practitioners in England from settings that were identified as "reluctant to engage" with one of the government's key policies, the introduction of Early Years Professional Status (EYPS), to drive forwards workforce reform. Focus groups, interviews and a survey were undertaken in 2009 with…
Tesar, Marek; Pupala, Branislav; Kascak, Ondrej; Arndt, Sonja
This article examines Slovak early years teachers' concerns with conceptions of teacher professionalism. It suggests that there is a mismatch between understandings of professionalism, policy aspirations and the attitudes of teachers to their own professionalism, and that this mismatch fuels early years teachers' sense of agency. These tensions…
Upshur, Carole C.; Heyman, Miriam; Wenz-Gross, Melodie
A classroom randomized trial (n = 31 classrooms) was conducted using the Second Step Early Learning (SSEL) curriculum compared to usual curricula. Head Start and community preschool classrooms enrolling low income children were randomly assigned to deliver SSEL (n = 16) or usual curricula (n = 15). Data are reported for four year olds…
This paper analyses the experience of a teacher and her Year 6 class (10-11 year-olds) over a school year, while participating in a pilot project introducing Personal Digital Assistants as a learning tool. The intervention was initiated and supported by the local City Learning Centre, which was concerned with how best to use technologies for…
Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.
Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland
Davila, J; Karney, B R; Bradbury, T N
The authors examined 4 models of attachment change: a contextual model, a social-cognitive model, an individual-difference model, and a diathesis-stress model. Models were examined in a sample of newlyweds over the first 2 years of marriage, using growth curve analyses. Reciprocal processes, whereby attachment representations and interpersonal life circumstances affect one another over time, also were studied. On average, newlyweds became more secure over time. However, there was significant within-subject variability on attachment change that was predicted by intra- and interpersonal factors. Attachment representations changed in response to contextual, social-cognitive, and individual-difference factors. Reciprocal processes between attachment representations and marital variables emerged, suggesting that these factors influence one another in an ongoing way.
Duhon, Gwendolyn M.
This book presents 20 cases that address racism in one form or another. Many of the cases are from actual experience. They are intended to bring out actual or possible solutions so that student teachers, novice teachers, and seasoned teachers can find ideas for solving racist problems in their classrooms. The first part focuses on the early years,…
Kelly, Angela M.; Gningue, Serigne M.; Qian, Gaoyin
This study explored the challenges facing 1st-year alternatively certified teachers of mathematics and science in urban middle schools. Four teachers, participants in a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded Robert Noyce Scholarship Program, were followed from preservice training through their 1st year of teaching, having taken part in…
Dunn, Peter K.; Richardson, Alice; McDonald, Christine; Oprescu, Florin
Student engagement at first-year level is critical for student achievement, retention and success. One way of increasing student engagement is to use a classroom response system (CRS), the use of which has been associated with positive educational outcomes by fostering student engagement and by allowing immediate feedback to both students and instructors. Traditional CRS rely on special and often costly hardware (clickers), and often special software, requiring IT support. As a result, the costs of implementation and use may be substantial. This study explores the use of a low-cost CRS (VotApedia) from an instructor perspective. The use of VotApedia enabled first-year students to become anonymously engaged in a large-class environment by using their mobile phones to vote on multiple-choice questions posed by instructors during lectures. VotApedia was used at three Australian universities in first-year undergraduate statistics classes. The instructors in the study collected qualitative and quantitative data specifically related to interacting with the VotApedia interface, the in-class delivery, and instructor perceptions of student engagement. This article presents the instructors' perceptions of the advantages and challenges of using VotApedia, the practicalities for consideration by potential adopters and recommendations for the future.
Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa
Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.
Keys, Margo A.
College student persistence is examined. The unique nature of the students and environment of the two-year college setting warrant concentrated research effort. The purpose of the study is to examine student variables associated with persistence and program completion to develop a pre-entrance risk assessment in the two-year college setting.…
In England, the overwhelming majority (78%) of under fives' nursery places, remains in the private, voluntary and independent (PVI) sector where there is no requirement to employ a qualified teacher. Compared to the maintained state sector early years workforce, this dominant PVI sector tends to be staffed by a poorly qualified workforce. From…
Sezer, Adem; Inel, Yusuf; Seçkin, Ahmet Çagdas; Uluçinar, Ufuk
This study aimed to detect any relationship that may exist between classroom teacher candidates' class participation and their attention levels. The research method was a convergent parallel design, mixing quantitative and qualitative research techniques, and the study group was composed of 21 freshmen studying in the Classroom Teaching Department…
Skurat Harris, Heidi A.
Students enter composition classrooms in the twenty-first century with various levels of computer proficiency and comfort with technology and digital media. Instructors often make assumptions that their students' are familiar with technology, even though students may be hesitant to use technology in the classroom. This dissertation gathers data…
Sotiriou, S.; Bogner, F. X.
The ancient Eratosthenes experiment concerning the earth's circumference offers the opportunity of an inquiry-based revival in today's science classrooms: A multinational European science education initiative (acronym: OSR) introduced this experiment as a hands-on basis to extract the required variables and to exchange results with classroom peers…
Graham, Marnie; McLean, Jessica; Read, Alexander; Suchet-Pearson, Sandie; Viner, Venessa
The flipped classroom approach, a form of blended learning, is currently popular in education praxis. Initial reports on the flipped classroom include that it offers opportunities to increase student engagement and build meaningful learning and teaching experiences. In this article, we analyse teacher and student experiences of a trial flipped…
Knowlton, Steven R., Ed.; Barefoot, Betsy O., Ed.
Thirty-eight brief articles first make the case for using newspapers in the college classroom and then offer examples of how newspapers should be used in the following subject areas: business (advertising, business writing, management); English (composition, research writing, women's studies); first-year seminar (honors seminar, reading, study…
Sparks, Dinah; Malkus, Nat
This Statistics in Brief explores teacher autonomy in the classroom during the 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 school years. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), the Statistics in Brief examines a construct of teacher autonomy based on teachers' responses to six questions regarding…
A school-year research experiment using primary resources to teach an important national issue--protest movements against the Vietnam War at the local level--is an excellent way to motivate students and energize classroom teaching. Every local community in America has its own story to tell about the war in Vietnam. Whether it is about a local son…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2015
The study authors examined the impact of "Responsive Classroom," a professional development program for teachers, on student achievement. This study took place in a large, ethnically and socioeconomically diverse district in a mid-Atlantic state. The intervention was implemented during 3 school years from 2008 to 2011. Study authors…
Zee, Marjolein; Koomen, Helma M. Y.
This study integrates 40 years of teacher self-efficacy (TSE) research to explore the consequences of TSE for the quality of classroom processes, students' academic adjustment, and teachers' psychological well-being. Via a criteria-based review approach, 165 eligible articles were included for analysis. Results suggest that TSE shows positive…
Aber, J. Lawrence; Torrente, Catalina; Starkey, Leighann; Johnston, Brian; Seidman, Edward; Halpin, Peter; Shivshanker, Anjuli; Weisenhorn, Nina; Annan, Jeannie; Wolf, Sharon
This article examines the effects of one year of exposure to "Learning to Read in a Healing Classroom" (LRHC) on the reading and math skills of second- to fourth-grade children in the low-income and conflict-affected Democratic Republic of the Congo. LRHC consists of two primary components: teacher resource materials that infuse…
Khrisat, Abdulhafeth A.; Mahmoud, Salameh Saleem
This study investigates the effect of ten teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) oriented features of mobile phones in the English language classroom on the achievement of foundation-year students in King Abdulaziz University (KAU) in General English. The study also explores students' attitudes towards this new method of teaching. The study…
Blue, Levon Ellen; O'Brien, Mia; Makar, Katie
From an early age, children are faced with financial dilemmas and are expected to make effective financial decisions about money. In this paper, we explore the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education. We observed an inquiry-based mathematics lesson in a Year 4 primary school classroom. The…
Rennie, Léonie J.
The term gender-inclusive has become well known in Australian education since the late 1980s. In policy terms, it is associated with an education structured to value girls and women, their knowledge and experience, equally with that of boys and men. This paper reports an analysis of the gender-inclusivity of teaching and learning activities in a combined Year 2/3 class studying an integrated, science and technology topic themed about pirates. The data include field notes from class visits, interviews with the teacher, informal conversations with children, a videotape recording of one class and inspection of children's work. The content of an inherently gendered topic, like pirates, provides teachers with opportunities to challenge the structure of gender in ways that enable children to begin to understand how males and females are positioned in the prevailing discourse and how some groups are privileged over others. In this Year 2/3 class, the teacher was able to help children to develop different views of, in this case, who pirates are, what they might do, and what a more socially just pirate existence might be like. Opportunities to challenge the gendered way we think about things, even pirates, are taken too infrequently in our classrooms.
Slater, Jessica; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina
Temporal processing underlies both music and language skills. There is increasing evidence that rhythm abilities track with reading performance and that language disorders such as dyslexia are associated with poor rhythm abilities. However, little is known about how basic time-keeping skills can be shaped by musical training, particularly during critical literacy development years. This study was carried out in collaboration with Harmony Project, a non-profit organization providing free music education to children in the gang reduction zones of Los Angeles. Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing important evidence that fundamental time-keeping skills may be strengthened by short-term music training. This sets the stage for further examination of how music programs may be used to support the development of basic skills underlying learning and literacy, particularly in at-risk populations which may benefit the most.
Berger, Andrea R.; Cole, Susan; Melton, Janet; Safran, Stephanie; Vogel, Tyler; Walton, Laura; Adelman, Nancy; Hall, Catherine; Keating, Kaelie Knowles; Murray, Samantha; Nielsen, Natalie; Schaffner, Monika
This is the first year-end report produced as part of the on-going evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Early College High School Initiative. The program provides funding and support for the establishment of Early College High Schools, which are organized to allow all enrolled students the opportunity to earn a high school diploma…
Garnier, Pascale; Rayna, Sylvie; Brougère, Gilles; Rupin, Pablo
In a French early childhood care and education system that is strongly divided by age and institution, the current research studies the collective life of children at the pivotal age of two to three years of age in four different early childhood settings: (1) a group of "grands" (nursery) in a "crèche" (daycare centre), (2) a…
In this book, Bernard van Leer Foundation programs in Israel that combined early childhood education and community development approaches across a 10-year period are described. Chapter (1) provide an introduction; (2) discuss the evolution of this combined approach, its theoretical roots in the separate disciplines of early childhood education and…
Murray, Janet; Clark, Rory McDowall
Traditional notions of leadership are at odds with the pedagogy and ethos of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), prompting increasing international concern to develop new understandings which are better suited and create greater leadership capacity. The introduction of the Early Years Professional (EYP) in England, as a leader of practice…
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009
This report presents the findings of the formative evaluation of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative. The evaluation was conducted to examine issues of implementation and design, early progress in achieving immediate objectives, and issues related to accountability. The evaluation team was also asked to provide preliminary guidance…
Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen
This teaching guide on the body for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood environments.…
Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie
In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…
"Understanding the HighScope Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the HighScope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the HighScope Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years practice. Exploring…
Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.
Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…
Brogaard Clausen, Sigrid
International comparisons strongly influence national policy agendas in the early years. However, an appreciation of details and national context and differences is imperative to promote democracy. From the perspective of a Danish social pedagogue lecturing in Early Childhood Studies in England, the author presents a cross-national comparison to…
This paper draws upon the findings of a body of recent research in early childhood education to explore the possibilities that may be available to overcome structural inequalities associated with socio-economic class, gender and ethnicity in the early years. Research has shown that preschool education makes a real difference for all children and…
Hymes, James L., Jr.
This is a report on the happenings in early childhood education in the United States in 1988. Contents focus on: (1) the week, the year, and the decade of the young child; (2) the proposed Act for Better Child Care Services; (3) other child care developments; (4) other early childhood programs; (5) growth of pre-kindergarten programs; (6) the need…
Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen
This teaching guide on earth sciences for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…
Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen
This teaching guide on earth sciences for 3-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…
Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison
This article explores how visual impairment might impact on early social and emotional development including self-awareness and communication with others. Some children show a "developmental setback" and other worrying developmental trajectories in the early years, including autistic related behaviours and autistic spectrum disorders.…
Macfarlane, Kym; Nolan, Andrea; Cartmel, Jennifer
The aim of this article is to examine current national early years' policy reform, which emphasises the importance of service integration, national quality standards and a quality knowledge base for educators concerning the provision of early childhood education and care. Using Queensland, Australia, as an example, a policy discourse analysis…
Ward, Vida Jane
The quality of teacher education allows first-year teachers to meet mandates at federal and state levels (Darling-Hammond, 2010a). The teaching profession is complex and requires new and innovative quality preparation programs (Wei, Andree, & Darling-Hammond, 2009). This study involved examination of the perceptions of 17 building principals…
Bannister-Tyrrell, Michelle; Clary, Deidre
This article investigates the perceptions and lived experience of practising middle years' and pre-service teachers of English in their efforts to make sense of, and use metacognition. The investigation focuses on metacognition as a means to enhance student learning by fostering self-awareness of their students' thinking as they engage in reading,…
Despite strong philosophical arguments supporting the inclusion of music in all students' education, declining student participation rates in school music activities during the middle years of schooling remain an ongoing issue for music education researchers. This paper presents the findings of a case study examining the motivational factors…
Pompea, Stephen M.; Isbell, Douglas
The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was conceived to honor the 400th anniversary of the first use of an astronomical telescope by Galileo Galilei in 1609, and has evolved into an engaging series of worldwide programs. IYA2009 is sponsored by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and endorsed by the U.S. House of…
Alberta Education, 2008
This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…
James, Peggy; Hudspeth, Christopher
We suggest four changes to the first-year experience (FYE): reconceptualize practices of engagement as verbs rather than nouns; remove the discrete borders between teacher and student; develop manifold opportunities within FYE; and create a learning place rather than a learning space.
Burenheide, Bradley J.
As a Methods Professor in a Research I institution in the Midwest and the largest education program in its respective state, I faced a crisis after ten years in higher education. The concern I faced was whether or not the repertoire I taught my students was appropriate and meaningful in their training. While staying abreast of current research and…
Rushton, Stephen; Juola-Rushton, Anne
Six years have gone by since the passing of "No Child Left Behind" (2002) and due to the "high-stake" riders attached to this legislation, educators at all levels have found themselves in a state of both emotional and cognitive dissonance. Recent research in the field of neuroscience combined with principles gained from…
Edmiston, Brian; Sobjack, Laura
Using a dialogue format, a college professor and a teacher of 11- to 12-year-old children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) report on a case study of four children (three boys and a girl) when over a three-week period dramatic inquiry pedagogy (focused on the meaning for students of fictional violent events depicted in extracts…
Alberta Education, 2008
This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the German Language and Culture Nine-year…
Forest, Kaya; Rayne, Sierra
Studies on student learning during primary- and secondary-school course-related field trip activities have shown lasting cognitive and socio-cultural effects. However, fewer studies have investigated the potential benefits of incorporating field trip activities into post-secondary education. The curriculum in a first-year university chemistry…
Alberta Education, 2008
This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year…
Carter, V.; Ryan, J. G.; Singer, J.
The National Science Foundation recognizes the significant role provided by two-year institutions in providing high quality STEM courses to large numbers of students. For some students the STEM courses completed while attending a two-year institution represent the only STEM courses a student may take; for others the courses serve as the foundation to continue on into a STEM major at a four-year institution; and some students complete STEM courses that lead directly into the workforce. Several programs in the Division of Undergraduate Research, including the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program, STEM Talent Expansion Program (STEP), and the Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM (TUES) program, support the inclusion of student research experiences at two-year institutions. Information about these programs and examples of successful funded projects will be provided. Resources for faculty considering applying for support will be shared with special attention to a faculty development program designed to help faculty learn about funding opportunities and prepare proposals for submission to the TUES and ATE programs.
Larkin, Damian; King, Donna; Kidman, Gillian
One way to integrate indigenous perspectives in junior science is through links between indigenous stories of the local area and science concepts. Using local indigenous stories about landforms, a teacher of Year 8 students designed a unit on geology that catered for the diverse student population in his class. This paper reports on the…
COMBS, ARTHUR W.; SOPER, DANIEL W.
THIS RESEARCH EXPLORED CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE PERCEPTIONS OF CHILDREN AND THEIR BEHAVIOR DURING EARLY SCHOOL YEARS. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES WERE--(1) TO DETERMINE IF CHANGING PERCEPTIONS OF SELF AND THE WORLD ARE ACCOMPANIED FROM YEAR TO YEAR BY CHANGES IN BEHAVIOR AND ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) TO SEE IF A KNOWLEDGE OF A CHILD'S PERCEPTIONS CAN…
Derov, John S.; Hammond, Richard; Youngs, Ian J.
This article discusses the historical events that occurred in the early years of metamaterials leading to the current development of metamaterials in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Defense, and Ministry of Defence.
Jacob, Lorraine; Mulligan, Joanne
In this article, Lorraine Jacob and Joanne Mulligan discuss how arrays can be used to promote students' early learning in relation to multiplication and division. They provide examples of activities that can be used from Foundation to Year 5.
Solvie, Pamela A.
This research project sought to examine the ways in which early childhood preservice teachers develop an understanding of diversity and the teacher's role in supporting learning in diverse classrooms. Preservice teachers in their initial foundations course and in their initial placements in early childhood settings were participants in the…
Lightfoot, Sarah; Frost, David
This article examines the professional identity of nine early years educators currently working in the early years sector of education in England. These educators include teachers, teaching assistants, nursery practitioners and nursery nurses working with children three to five years old in the Early Years Foundation Stage in state-maintained…
Early Years Professionals are graduate leaders working with children below 5 years of age, their families and practitioners in early years settings in the private, voluntary and independent sectors and children's centres in England. Their leadership of practice role is central to raising the quality of early years provision and practice. In this…
Hakkila, Jon; Runyon, Cassndra; Benfield, M. P. J.; Turner, Matthew W.; Farrington, Phillip A.
We report on five years of an exciting and successful educational collaboration in which science undergraduates at the College of Charleston work with engineering seniors at the University of Alabama in Huntsville to design a planetary science mission in response to a mock announcement of opportunity. Alabama high schools are also heavily involved in the project, and other colleges and universities have also participated. During the two-semester course students learn about scientific goals, past missions, methods of observation, instrumentation, and component integration, proposal writing, and presentation. More importantly, students learn about real-world communication and teamwork, and go through a series of baseline reviews before presenting their results at a formal final review for a panel of NASA scientists and engineers. The project is competitive, with multiple mission designs competing with one another for the best review score. Past classes have involved missions to Venus, Europa, Titan, Mars, asteroids, comets, and even the Moon. Classroom successes and failures have both been on epic scales.
Barghaus, Katherine; Fantuzzo, John; LeBoeuf, Whitney; Henderson, Cassandra; Li, Feifei; McDermott, Paul
Research Findings: The aim of this study was to provide an initial investigation into the psychometric properties of the Problems in Classroom Engagement Scale (PCES). The PCES was designed and tested for district-wide use as part of the report card system for a large urban school district. The PCES was administered to all 1st-, 2nd-, and…
Hu, Bi Ying; Zhou, Yisu; Li, Kejian
This study compared Chinese kindergarten teachers' values and perceptions of program quality with trained raters' assessments of quality in order to gain insights into effective professional development for improving teacher quality. A total of 284 Chinese kindergarten teachers self-assessed the quality of their classroom teaching and rated their…
Fraivillig, Judith L.
Understanding place value is a critical and foundational competency for elementary mathematics. Classroom teachers who endeavor to promote place-value development adopt a variety of established practices to varying degrees of effectiveness. In parallel, researchers have validated models of how young children acquire place-value understanding.…
Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine
This study explored whether or not, and how, an on-site and research-teacher community of practice model for professional development addressed the challenges to classroom practices in a Head Start program. Data sources included interviews with teachers, videos of planning and teaching sessions, and the researchers' fieldwork log and reflective…
After hours of introducing team training, facilitation skills, and Total Quality Management tools, the old classroom practices of "chalk and talk" faded in Virginia Beach schools' technical and career education classes. Academic teachers also improved instruction, using innovative TQM tools such as nominal group voting, course mission…
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Amendum, Steve; Kainz, Kirsten; Ginsburg, Marnie
The two studies presented in this report were designed to test the effectiveness of a new diagnostic-based reading intervention for classroom teachers, called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI). This TRI Tier 2 intervention stressed diagnostic teaching as the key to helping struggling readers make rapid progress in reading in the regular…
Heirdsfield, Ann; Walker, Sue; Walsh, Kerryann
At Queensland University of Technology (QUT, Australia), in the Bachelor of Education (BEd) (Early Childhood) (EC), Technical and Further Education (TAFE) students with a diploma enroll with advanced standing (1 year's credit). These students share many challenges faced by 1st-year university students--workload, technology, academic orientation,…
Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others
Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…
Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Harrison, Linda J.
This longitudinal study examined developmental links between closeness in teacher-child relationships and children's receptive language ability from the end of the preschool years into the early elementary years, while controlling for changes in peer interaction quality and child behavioral functioning. The sample included children and their…
Potocki, Anna; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie
The aim of this study was to investigate the early characteristics of four profiles of readers established in second grade (7-8 years of age): good readers, specific poor decoders, specific poor comprehenders and general poor readers. These profiles were compared retrospectively on a range of measures administered 2 years earlier, in kindergarten.…
Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam
"Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…
Jaszczak, Ronald Jack
The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s.
Jaszczak, Ronald Jack
The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s.
US Department of Education, 2014
The human brain develops rapidly in the first five years of life. High-quality early learning experiences can have a profound and lasting positive effect on young children during these years, setting the stage for success in kindergarten and beyond. This is especially true for young children with high needs who are from low-income families; who…
Ting, Kang Nee; Wong, Kok Thong; Thang, Siew Ming
Generally work-based learning opportunities are only offered to students in their penultimate year of undergraduate study. Little is known about the benefits and shortcomings of such experiential learning for students in the early stages of their undergraduate education. This is a mixed method study investigating first year undergraduate pharmacy…
This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…
Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan
This article investigates why there appears to be an under-representation of males in comparison to their female colleagues in the Early Years (EY) sector, and the perception of male teachers progressing more quickly to leadership positions when they do enter this context. Using case studies of final year male students on an Initial Teacher…
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…
Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.
Costa Monteiro, Lucia M; Cruz, Glaura O; Fontes, Juliana M; Vieira, Eliane T R C; Santos, Eloá N; Araújo, Grace F; Ramos, Eloane G
To evaluate the association between early treatment and urodynamic improvement in pediatric and adolescent patients with neurogenic bladder. Retrospective longitudinal and observational study (between 1990 and 2013) including patients with neurogenic bladder and myelomeningocele treated based on urodynamic results. The authors evaluated the urodynamic follow-up (bladder compliance and maximum bladder capacity and pressure) considering the first urodynamic improvement in two years as the outcome variable and early referral as the exposure variable, using a descriptive and multivariate analysis with logistic regression model. Among 230 patients included, 52% had an early referral. The majority were diagnosed as overactive bladder with high bladder pressure (≥40cm H 2 O) and low bladder compliance (3mL/cmH 2 O) and were treated with oxybutynin and intermittent catheterization. Urodynamic follow-up results showed 68% of improvement at the second urodynamic examination decreasing bladder pressure and increasing bladder capacity and compliance. The percentage of incontinence and urinary tract infections decreased over treatment. Early referral (one-year old or less) increased by 3.5 the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years (95% CI: 1.81-6.77). Treatment onset within the first year of life improves urodynamic prognosis in patients with neurogenic bladder and triplicates the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years. The role of neonatologists and pediatricians in early referral is extremely important. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
This article explores the perceptions of professional development held by a selection of early years educators who have experience of working in statutory and private early years settings in the north of England. The research participants (n = 20) reflected on their experiences of professional development in early years. The research process is…
Shahbazi, Sara; Salinitri, Geri
The Full Day Early Learning Kindergarten (FDK) Program has expanded the role of the principal and has altered the teaching dynamics of the classroom with the introduction of an early years team. The early years team consists of a certified teacher with the Ontario College of Teachers and a registered early childhood educator from the College of…
Hultén, Magnus; Larsson, Bo
The aim of this study is to contribute to an increased understanding of the flipped classroom movement. A total of 7 teachers working in school years 4-9 and who both actively flipped their classrooms and had been early adopters in this movement were interviewed. Two research questions were posed: "What characterizes flipped classroom…