Science.gov

Sample records for early years learning

  1. The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian, Ed.; Catherwood, Di, Ed.

    Designed for teachers, students, caregivers, and health professionals who work with children from birth to age 8, this book provides a review of recent research and theories of development and learning in the early childhood years, with an emphasis on implications for effective teaching. Where appropriate, the book takes an Australian perspective,…

  2. Learning to Teach in the Early Years Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaise, Mindy; Nuttal, Joce

    2011-01-01

    "Learning to Teach in the Early Years Classroom" helps teacher education students understand the complexities of teaching in early years' classrooms. It integrates research and theory with practice through vignettes, based on authentic classroom case studies, in order to show students how educators make decisions and achieve expected outcomes.…

  3. Children at Play: Learning Gender in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This captivating book illuminates our understanding of how young children develop gender identities. A two year longitudinal research project on children's own understandings of gender casts new light on how 3 and 4 year old newcomers in early years classes learn rules for gendered behaviour from older children, in their imaginative and…

  4. Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Gardner, John

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of…

  5. Leadership of Learning in Early Years Practice: A Professional Learning Resource [Includes DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallet, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses upon effective pedagogical leadership and practice in the leadership of learning within early years settings and children's centres. The book and accompanying DVD, containing real-life examples of early years leaders, provides a framework for reflective thinking and learning for those leading practice and working with children,…

  6. iPads: Improving Numeracy Learning in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Peta

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mobile technologies is now an emergency theme in educational research, yet the playing of these edutainment applications and their impact on early childhood learning needs to be fully explored. This study highlights current research and explores how iPads improve student learning. It also examines how the introduction of iPads,…

  7. Learning from Children: Learning from Caroline Pratt (1867-1954). Early Progressives in Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    This review of Caroline Pratt's life and work in early years education includes an account of how a six-year-old boy taught a woman in her thirties what she needed to know in order to open a school--in 1914--that continues to this day, a school that was, in the founder's own words, fitted to the child and not the other way around. It finds a clear…

  8. Invisible to Visible: Mapping the Continuum of Literacy Learning Experiences in an Early Years Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kervin, Lisa; Turbill, Jan; Harden-Thew, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    The face of early childhood education continues to change. In Australia, the national early childhood guidelines, "Early Years Learning Framework" (2009) and the "National Quality Framework" have articulated and defined the work of early years' educators in a range of areas, including literacy. Both frameworks state that their…

  9. Power and Identity in Immigrant Parents' Involvement in Early Years Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki

    2018-01-01

    This study examined immigrant parents' involvement in early years mathematics learning, focusing on learning of multiplication in in- and out-of-school settings. Ethnographic interviews and workshops were conducted in an urban city in Japan, to examine out-of-school practices of immigrant families. Drawing from sociocultural theory of learning and…

  10. Contributions of Early Work-Based Learning: A Case Study of First Year Pharmacy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Kang Nee; Wong, Kok Thong; Thang, Siew Ming

    2009-01-01

    Generally work-based learning opportunities are only offered to students in their penultimate year of undergraduate study. Little is known about the benefits and shortcomings of such experiential learning for students in the early stages of their undergraduate education. This is a mixed method study investigating first year undergraduate pharmacy…

  11. Signature Pedagogy in Early Years Education: A Role for COTS Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David; Robertson, Derek; Hudson, Alison; Shimi, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In this article we look at the links between early years pedagogy and the use of digital game-based learning. Early years education is a distinctive phase of the education system in many countries, generally covering the age range from 3-6 or 7 years. In the United Kingdom, it tends to bridge preschool and the first two years in primary school.…

  12. Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…

  13. Early Years Learning, Play Pedagogy and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirrup, Julie; Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Despite 50 years and more of "progressive education" in the United Kingdom, classed patterns of educational success and failure stubbornly prevail. So how, where and when does it all go wrong for the many children who continue to fail or underachieve? Drawing on the work of Basil Bernstein, this article centres processes within early…

  14. The Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge Year Two Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The human brain develops rapidly in the first five years of life. High-quality early learning experiences can have a profound and lasting positive effect on young children during these years, setting the stage for success in kindergarten and beyond. This is especially true for young children with high needs who are from low-income families; who…

  15. The Genetic and Environmental Origins of Learning Abilities and Disabilities in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Yulia; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of learning abilities and disabilities in education and child development, little is known about their genetic and environmental origins in the early school years. We report results for English (which includes reading, writing, and speaking), mathematics, and science as well as general cognitive ability in a large and…

  16. Early Years Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs and Beliefs about Children's Moral Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, S.; Brownlee, J.; Whiteford, C.; Cobb-Moore, C.; Johansson, E.; Ailwood, J.; Boulton-Lewis, G.

    2012-01-01

    There is strong political and social interest in values education both internationally and across Australia. Investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society; however, little is known about early years teachers' beliefs about moral values teaching and learning. The aim of the…

  17. Symbolic Representation in Early Years Learning: The Acquisition of Complex Notions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veraksa, Aleksander; Veraksa, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concepts related to symbolic and sign representations, cognition and learning in the early years. The first study experiment of teaching 33 preschool children (19 boys and 14 girls; M = 68, 5 months) the notion of rainbow phenomenon proved the equal effectiveness of the use of both sign and symbolic tools. The second study…

  18. The Role of Computer Technology in Supporting Children's Learning in Jordanian Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Mustafa; Hyassat, Mizyed; Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The current research investigated early years teachers' perspectives regarding the role of computer technology in supporting children's learning in Jordanian kindergartens. Thirty semistructured interviews were conducted with preschool teachers. The sample of kindergartens in this study was purposefully selected from the targeted population of…

  19. Supporting Creativity and Imagination in the Early Years. Supporting Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Bernadette

    2006-01-01

    Learning through the arts has the potential to stimulate open ended activity that encourages discovery, exploration, experimentation and invention, thus contributing to children's development in all areas of learning and helping to make the curriculum meaningful to them. In this book, the author draws on her extensive experience of promoting young…

  20. (Re)Affirming Identities: Implementing a Play-Based Approach to Learning in the Early Years of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Andrea; Paatsch, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Learning through play has traditionally been a central tenet in early childhood education, however, in recent times primary schools have begun to consider the benefits of introducing a play-based approach into early years classrooms to support young children's learning, especially in the areas of language and literacy. This study focuses on the…

  1. Science Learning and Graphic Symbols: An Exploration of Early Years Teachers' Views and Use of Graphic Symbols When Teaching Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambouri, Maria; Pampoulou, Eliada Salowm; Pieridou, Myria; Allen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated early years teachers' understanding and use of graphic symbols, defined as the visual representation(s) used to communicate one or more "linguistic" concepts, which can be used to facilitate science learning. The study was conducted in Cyprus where six early years teachers were observed and interviewed. The results…

  2. The Theory of "Belonging": Defining Concepts Used within Belonging, Being and Becoming--the Australian Early Years Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris; Fleer, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    The implementation in 2009-10 of the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) spearheaded the efforts of the Australian Commonwealth government to institute a national curriculum. The theme of the new early childhood framework follows three guiding concepts: Belonging, Being and Becoming. In this article, we discuss these three concepts in order to…

  3. "Let's Count": Improving Community Approaches to Early Years Mathematics Learning, Teaching and Dispositions through Noticing, Exploring and Talking about Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Bob; Hampshire, Ann; Gervaxoni, Ann; O'Neill, Will

    2016-01-01

    "Let's Count" is a preschool mathematics intervention implemented by The Smith Family from 2012 to the present in "disdvantaged" communities across Australia. It is based on current mathematics and early childhood education research and aligns with the Early Years Learning Framework. Let's Count has been shown to be effective…

  4. The Importance of Teaching and Learning Nature of Science in the Early Childhood Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buck, Gayle A.; Donnelly, Lisa A.; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri; Weiland, Ingrid S.

    2011-01-01

    Though research has shown that students do not have adequate understandings of nature of science (NOS) by the time they exit high school, there is also evidence that they have not received NOS instruction that would enable them to develop such understandings. How early is "too early" to teach and learn NOS? Are students, particularly young…

  5. Foregrounding Silences in the South African National Early Learning Standards for Birth to Four Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahim, Hasina Banu

    2014-01-01

    The development of standards in early childhood is associated with governments wanting to assert their influence on what young children should know and be able to do before they enter formal schooling. In South Africa the National Early Learning and Development Standards (NELDS), released in 2009, attempts to assert influence in the context of…

  6. The Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Head Start, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a revision of the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework (2000), renamed The Head Start Child Development and Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old. The Framework outlines the essential areas of development and learning that are to be used by Head Start programs…

  7. Typical Didactical Activities in the Greek Early-Years Science Classroom: Do They Promote Science Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Psillos, Dimitris; Tselfes, Vassilis

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an epistemological analysis of typical didactical activities noted in early-years science lessons, which was carried out in an attempt to diagnose the extent to which the teaching practices adopted by early-years educators are successful in supporting young children's understanding in science. The analysis of didactical…

  8. Infants of the Knowledge Economy: The Ambition of the Australian Government's Early Years Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheeseman, Sandra; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Shifts in global education policy to formalise curricula and make explicit learning outcomes for ever younger children have become popular for a number of countries responding to changes in global market economics. Human capital discourses, broadly aimed at shaping national prosperity, have entered the early childhood education and care policy…

  9. A Dynamic Learning Concept in Early Years' Education: A Possible Way to Prevent Schoolification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broström, Stig

    2017-01-01

    In early childhood education and care, Nordic social pedagogy approach is challenged by a learning orientation that often results in unproductive "either/or" thinking. Therefore, based on the two approaches and by analysing several dimensions of Froebel's ideas and prevailing social-historical activity (play) theory, the author deduces…

  10. Early Clinical Exposure as a Learning Tool to Teach Neuroanatomy for First Year MBBS Students.

    PubMed

    Kar, Maitreyee; Kar, Chinmaya; Roy, Hironmoy; Goyal, Parmod

    2017-12-01

    Early clinical exposure (ECE) is one of the important tools to teach basic science to the MBBS students. It is one form of vertical integration between basic science and clinical subjects. This study is an effort at exploring the use of ECE as a motivational tool toward better learning in neuroanatomy for first year MBBS students. This study aims to make the students interested and motivated to study neuroanatomy by using ECE as learning tool in neuroanatomy and to make the students enable to retain the knowledge of neuroanatomy more efficiently and correlate the knowledge of neuroanatomy with neuromedicine. This study was conducted in collaboration with the Departments of Anatomy, General Medicine and Medical Education Unit in the year 2016. This was cross-sectional study. One hundred and fifty students of 1 st Professional MBBS were subdivided into two groups. After preliminary classes on brain, brainstem, and spinal cord for both groups, conventional lecture classes were taken for Group A only on upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) paralysis, and only Group B visited General Medicine ward where HOD, General Medicine showed and examined patients of UMN paralysis and LMN paralysis, elicited different symptoms, and discussed different investigation. It was followed by assessment of all by problem-based multiple choice questions (MCQ) and short answer questions. Then, Group B attended lecture class on different cranial nerve palsy whereas Group A visited medicine ward. It was followed by assessment of both groups by problem-based MCQ and short answer questions. The performance was compared. Then, the feedback of the students on ECE was collected by means of reflection writing followed by administration of questionnaire. Then, the perception of teachers regarding ECE was recorded by focused group discussion. Student's t -test was used to compare the performance of both batches. Reflection writing and focus group discussion were analyzed

  11. Learning One's Place and Position through Play: Social Class and Educational Opportunity in Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirrup, Julie; Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical work of the British sociologist Basil Bernstein, this paper documents how learning is structured and organised through play in three Early Years Education (EYE) settings catering for children aged three to five in England, UK. Its data address current issues raised within EYE research relating to "quality and high…

  12. Epistemic Beliefs and Beliefs about Teaching Practices for Moral Learning in the Early Years of School: Relationships and Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn Brownlee, Jo; Johansson, Eva; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Walker, Sue; Ailwood, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    While investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society, little is known about early years teaching practices that promote learning of moral values. This paper reports on observations and interviews with 11 Australian teachers, focusing on their epistemic beliefs and beliefs about…

  13. What More Has Been Learned? the Science of Early Childhood Development 15 Years after "Neurons to Neighborhoods"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    The new Institute of Medicine/National Research Council report, "Transforming the Workforce for Children From Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation" (2015), begins with a summary of the science of early development and learning, with particular attention to discoveries during the past 15 years since the publication of "From…

  14. Australian Children with Special Health Care Needs: Social-Emotional and Learning Competencies in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteford, Chrystal; Walker, Sue; Berthelsen, Donna

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between special health care needs and social-emotional and learning competence in the early years, reporting on two waves of data from the Kindergarten Cohort of "Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children" (LSAC). Six hundred and fifty children were identified through the…

  15. Watching, Creating and Achieving: Creative Technologies as a Conduit for Learning in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Susan; Howell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of robotics in an Early Years classroom as a tool to aid the development of technological skills in a creative environment rich with literacy and numeracy opportunities. The pilot project illustrates how a three-phase process can result in the development of: (1) emergent literacy and numeracy, (2) digital access for…

  16. Learning How to Do Up Buttons: Professionalism, Teacher Identity and Bureaucratic Subjectivities in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pupala, Branislav; Kascak, Ondrej; Tesar, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Early years education in Europe and elsewhere around the world is currently in the spotlight due to political and economical changes and subsequent promises of effective investment into its provision. In this article we analyse everyday preschool practices in Slovakia in terms of tensions between policies, the teachers workforce and the concept of…

  17. Learning in the Early Years: Social Interactions around Picturebooks, Puzzles and Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops an approach to thinking about young children, digital technologies and learning, drawing on research literature that relates children's learning to the use of books, and on literature that discusses the nature of interaction between adults and children and its relationship to children's learning. An analysis is given of parents…

  18. Investigating Learning through Developmental Dance Movement as a Kinaesthetic Tool in the Early Years Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Alison; Boes, Claudia; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the significance of movement to learning benefits from advances in neuroscience. This study considered a neurophysiological perspective in relation to the educational theory of Accelerated Learning (AL) for which little empirical evidence exists. Childhood development themes and learning strategies from a…

  19. "It's Just More in the Real World Really": How Can a Local Project Support Early Years Practitioners from Different Settings in Working and Learning Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Lizzie

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how early years practitioners working in different settings, with different experiences and qualifications, can work and learn together. It is a small-scale case study of an eight-month project, with a grass-roots approach, involving early years settings within the reach area of an inner-London Children's Centre. The data…

  20. Movement and Learning in the Early Years: Supporting Dyspraxia (DCD) and Other Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintrye, Christine; McVitty, Kim

    2004-01-01

    This book is written to support parents and practitioners who wish to understand movement and how it contributes to all aspects of learning--intellectual, social and emotional, as well as the movement/motor aspect itself. Moreover, as there is a huge increase in the number of children with movement learning difficulties (Keen, 2001), that is…

  1. Preventing Early Learning Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornson, Bob, Ed.

    Noting that thousands of young children with the capacity to experience school success do not because they are unprepared for school learning activities, have experienced physical or emotional setbacks that cause them to be at risk for early learning failure, have never experienced limits on their behavior, or have mild sensory or motor deficits,…

  2. Creativity: The Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Rick; Shade, Patti Garrett

    2016-01-01

    There is a myth that some people are creative and others are not. However, all children are born creative. They love to explore, ask questions, and are incredibly imaginative. Parents are key in nurturing their child's creativity in the early years. This article offers resources and strategies parents can use at different ages and stages (newborn,…

  3. Understanding Early Years Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, Peter; Fitzgerald, Damien; Kay, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The book is about policy in the area of early years services and that phrase may need some clarification. For the most part, therefore, this book deals with nursery schools and classes and with services provided by full day care nurseries, pre-schools, creches, childminders, after-school clubs and holiday play schemes. This book begins with…

  4. Assessing Learning in the Early Years' Outdoor Classroom: Examining Challenges in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ruth; Hamilton, Paula

    2018-01-01

    The benefit the outdoor environment has for young children's development is widely documented. However, there is less literature outlining practitioners' experiences of assessing learning in the outdoors and factors which impact the level and quality of assessments undertaken. This study, based on a pragmatic mixed methods approach, undertaken in…

  5. Learning Conversations: Teacher Researchers Evaluating Dialogic Strategies in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Learning conversations, dialogic interactions with adults, are important opportunities for children to develop their thinking as well as their speech and language skills. This area of teachers' practice is informed by a well-established body of research evidence and professional guidance literature. The design and facilitation of this practitioner…

  6. Early Years Education: Are Young Students Intrinsically or Extrinsically Motivated Towards School Activities? A Discussion about the Effects of Rewards on Young Children's Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    Rewards can reinforce and at the same time forestall young children's willingness to learn. However, they are broadly used in the field of education, especially in early years settings, to stimulate children towards learning activities. This paper reviews the theoretical and research literature related to intrinsic and extrinsic motivational…

  7. Assessment of the Continuous Progress Report for the Early Learning Years (An Examination of Scale Construction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Kathy D.

    An evaluation was conducted to examine the structure and design of the Continuous Progress Report (CPR), an observation scale used to measure students' early developmental skills in the District of Columbia public schools. Item construction and the relative consistency of measurement constructs in the CPR were the specific focus of the evaluation.…

  8. Going on Safari: The Design and Development of an Early Years Literacy iPad Application to Support Letter-Sound Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Sophie; Spence, Aaron; Nicholas, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the design, development and evaluation of an early childhood literacy iPad application, focusing on the English Alphabet, called "A to Z Safari" trialled in Australian classrooms. A to Z Safari was designed to assist students in the early years of schooling with learning the alphabet and building on their knowledge of…

  9. Early understandings of simple food chains: A learning progression for the preschool years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Aspects of preschoolers' ecological understandings were explored in a cross-age, quantitative study that utilised a sample of seventy-five 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, their concepts of feeding relationships were determined by presenting physical models of three-step food chains during structured interviews. A majority of children, particularly 5-year olds, were capable of grasping concepts inherent in food chain topics that are scheduled to appear later in their schooling. In part, age differences in children's reasoning can be accounted for by attentional theory based on evolutionary predator avoidance adaptations, which tended to become significant at 5 years. Data suggest that these aspects of preschool ecological education could be increased in sophistication, thus accelerating children's understandings about the environment beyond what is currently the case.

  10. Early Understandings of Simple Food Chains: A Learning Progression for the Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Aspects of preschoolers' ecological understandings were explored in a cross-age, quantitative study that utilised a sample of seventy-five 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, their concepts of feeding relationships were determined by presenting physical models of three-step food chains during structured interviews. A majority of children,…

  11. Inquiry-Based Learning: A Framework for Assessing Science in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Hazel; Jackson, Claire

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on current literature leading to the development of a holistic framework to support practitioners in observation and assessment of childrens evolving inquiry skills. Evidence from the 2011 Trends in International Maths and Science Study (TIMSS) in England identifies a decline of year five student achievement in science. A…

  12. Early Career Teacher Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Ann; Gore, Jennifer; Thomas, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Becoming a teacher requires not only the development of a professional identity but the construction of professional knowledge and practice through continued professional learning. This study tracked a sample group of 16 early career teachers through their first year of teaching. The participants were encouraged to write about their experiences in…

  13. Inquiry in early years science teaching and learning: Curriculum design and the scientific story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Barbara Alexander

    2001-07-01

    Inquiry in school science, as conceived by the authors of the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes K--12, is dependent upon four areas of skills. These are the skills of initiating and planning, performing and recording, analysing and interpreting, and communication and teamwork that map onto what Hodson calls the five phases of scientific inquiry in school science: initiation, design and planning, performance, interpretation, and reporting and communicating. This study looked at initiation in a multiage (Grades 1--3) classroom, and the curriculum, design tools, and inquiry acts believed to be necessary precursors of design and planning phases whether the inquiry in which young children engage is archival or laboratory investigation. The curriculum was designed to build upon children's everyday biological knowledge and through a series of carefully organized lessons to help them to begin to build scientifically valid conceptual models in the area of animal life cycles. The lessons began with what is called benchmark-invention after the historical work of Robert Karplus and the contemporary work of Earl Hunt and Jim Minstrell. The introduction of a biological concept was followed by a series of exploration activities in which children were encouraged to apply the concept invented in the benchmark lesson. Enlargement followed. This was the instructional phase in which children were helped to establish scientifically valid relationships between the invented concept and other biological concepts. The pre-instruction and post-instruction interview data suggest that the enacted curriculum and sequence in which the biological knowledge was presented helped the nineteen children in the study to recognize the connections and regularities within the life cycles of the major groupings of animals, and to begin to build scientific biological conceptual models. It is, however, argued that everyday biology, in the form of the person analogy, acts as an obstacle to

  14. Early Years Students' Relationships with Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki; Towers, Jo; Plosz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early years mathematics experiences have been shown to be a significant predictor for students' school readiness and future mathematics achievement. Previous research also indicates an important connection between emotion and mathematics learning. How do students in early years education in Alberta describe their emotional relationship with…

  15. Learning Together: A Study of Six B.A. Completion Cohort Programs in Early Care and Education--Year 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, F.; Whitebook, M.; Almaraz, M.; Sakai, L.; Austin, L. J. E.

    2012-01-01

    The Learning Together longitudinal study focuses on four counties' efforts to expand bachelor's degree opportunities in early care and education (ECE) for adults currently working in the field. The "student cohort" model--in which small groups of ECE students with similar interests and characteristics pursue a bachelor's degree together,…

  16. Young Children Learning about Well-Being and Environmental Education in the Early Years: A Funds of Knowledge Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan; Skouteris, Helen; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Rutherford, Leonie; O'Conner, Mandy; Mantilla, Ana; Morris, Heather; Elliot, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood educators currently provide content focused learning opportunities for children in the areas of well-being and environmental education. However, these are usually seen as discrete content areas and educators are challenged with responding to children's interests in popular-culture inspired food products given these influence their…

  17. [Learning during the early clinical years takes more than good study habits: Perceptions of students and teachers].

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, Denisse; Leiva, Isabel; Calderón, Maribel; Tomicic, Alemka; Padilla, Oslando; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Bitran, Marcela

    2015-11-01

    Teaching methods of the undergraduate medical curriculum change considerably from the first years to clinical training. Clinical learning occurs in complex and varied scenarios while caring for patients. Students have to adapt their learning approaches and strategies to be able to integrate theory and clinical practice and become experiential learners. To identify the strategies used by medical students to learn during the initial clinical years, as reported by students themselves and by their clinical tutors. We performed eight focus group discussions with 54 students enrolled in years three to six and we interviewed eight clinical tutors. Both focus group discussions and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to Grounded Theory. Four main themes were identified in the discourse of both students and tutors: Strategies oriented to theoretical learning, strategies oriented to experiential learning, strategies for integrating theory and practice and strategies oriented to evaluation. The mentioning of individual differences was present across the reports of both students and tutors. Students use a rich variety of strategies to face the challenges of clinical learning. Both students and tutors recognize that the learning approaches and strategies vary according the nature of the task and individual differences. The responses of students bring particular knowledge of the approaches used for the theoretical and practical integration and delve into the social dimension of learning.

  18. Music, Language and Learning: Investigating the Impact of a Music Workshop Project in Four English Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    The Soundplay project ran in four early years settings in Sheffield, UK, in 2014-15, using a series of music workshops to attempt to increase the music and language attainment of children aged two to four years. The associated research investigated the impact of the programme, using a combination of observation, music and language tracker tools,…

  19. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at Eight Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A., III.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on language outcomes at eight years from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled study of foster care. We previously have shown that children placed in foster care by age two have substantially stronger preschool language outcomes than children placed later and children remaining in institutional care.…

  20. PHOBOS, the Early Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2002-06-01

    The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.

  1. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  2. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... meetings and written submissions, is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and... intervention service providers and other providers of services to young children), students, technical... receive all written submissions of comments on the four early learning topics on or before 5 p.m...

  3. Geometry in the Early Years: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dindyal, Jaguthsing

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to provide a commentary on the teaching and learning of geometry in the early years of schooling with the set of papers in this issue as a guiding factor. It is structured around issues about geometry education of young learners, such as: what should we teach in geometry and why; representation of geometrical…

  4. Value-Added Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichter, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Elected state leaders often prioritize economic prosperity and competitiveness, which provides an important opportunity too rarely taken for investing in early education. In 2003, Pennsylvania recognized the connection between early education and the economy, and smartly embraced early learning as part of its economic prosperity and…

  5. A Good Foundation for Number Learning for Five-Year-Olds? An Evaluation of the English Early Learning "Numbers" Goal in the Light of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to evaluate the English Early Years Foundation Stage Goal for Numbers, in relation to research evidence. The Goal, which sets out to provide "a good foundation in mathematics", has greater breadth of content and higher levels of difficulty than previous versions. Research suggests that the additional expectations…

  6. Identifying Learning Preferences Early.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Judith C.

    The Picture Learning Style Inventory was administered to 42 first graders and 46 second graders attending two public schools in a Southern university community. The inventory consists of 13 individual picture booklets, each illustrating a different element of learning style (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physical). The inventory is…

  7. Supporting Early Learning Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Himes, James A. [D-CT-4

    2014-02-03

    House - 06/13/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Early Learning Innovation Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Himes, James A. [D-CT-4

    2009-10-29

    House - 12/08/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Early Learning Alignment Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Altmire, Jason [D-PA-4

    2010-09-29

    House - 11/18/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Strategies, Systems and Services: A Northern Ireland Early Years Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Dorothy J.; McConnell, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Following a lengthy consultation process across Northern Ireland (NI), 2013 saw the publication of Learning to Learn: A Framework for Early Years Education and Learning [DE (Department of Education). 2013. "Learning to Learn: A Framework for Early Years Education and Learning." Accessed July 15, 2014.…

  11. The Littlest Historians: Early Years Programming in History Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leftwich, Mariruth; Haywood, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Working with children under five years old and the adults that accompany them is a rapidly growing area within the museum and wider cultural sector, with important emphasis being placed on early learning in both the United Kingdom and United States. For history museums in particular, early learning offers a unique set of questions and challenges,…

  12. The First Three Years: Experiences of Early Career Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This study considers two discourses of current relevance to national and international educators--early professional learning (EPL) and curriculum change. Induction arrangements for early career teachers (ECTs), EPL and informal learning have received considerable attention in the past few years. Changes to induction inevitably have knock-on…

  13. A Computer-Assisted Framework Based on a Cognitivist Learning Theory for Teaching Mathematics in the Early Primary Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradmand, Nasrin; Datta, Amitava; Oakley, Grace

    2012-01-01

    With the world moving rapidly into digital media and information, the ways in which learning activities in mathematics can be created and delivered are changing. However, to get the best results from the integration of ICTs in education, any application's design and development needs to be based on pedagogically appropriate principles, in terms of…

  14. How Children Can Support Their Learning to Write and Read by Computer in the Early Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmilaakso, Marja

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades the nature and form of what children can choose to read has changed radically, partly as a consequence of rapid technological advances and the increasing dominance of the image. The research questions were: (1) "How do children learn to read and write by computer?"; (2) "How can one support children's learning…

  15. Early Childhood Education Learning System for Three-and Four-Year-Old Migrant Children, McAllen, Texas. Evaluation Report, 1968-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This document reports on a program seen as an integral part of a total educational development plan for migrant children. The Early Childhood Education Learning System is an instructional program which includes staff development and parent-school-community involvement. Focus is on the special learning problems of Mexican-American children and the…

  16. Assessment and Stability of Early Learning Abilities in Preterm and Full-Term Infants across the First Two Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Infants born preterm have increased risk for learning disabilities yet we lack assessments to successfully detect these disabilities in early life. We followed 23 full-term and 29 preterm infants from birth through 24 months to assess for differences in and stability of learning abilities across time. Measures included the Bayley-III cognitive…

  17. A Year in Space: Early Results and Lessons Learned from the First Year-Long Expedition Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. B.; Bogomolov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    the astronaut and cosmonaut to perform rudimentary tasks requiring sensorimotor coordination immediately after landing to define human capabilities soon after landing on Mars after an extended transit. Both investigations were highly successful in large part to the thorough integration of the implementation processes of the two partners. Kelly's assignment as the one-year crewmember also provided a serendipitous opportunity for the "Twins Study" comparing changes in his body at the genetic level with those occurring on Earth in his identical twin brother Mark Kelly. Data analysis from this expedition will commence in earnest after frozen in-flight samples are delivered to Earth in May aboard a commercial cargo spacecraft. Detailed results are expected in early 2017. Preliminary results and implementation improvements will be reviewed in this presentation.

  18. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  19. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  20. Early Learning Canada: Workshop Leader Guide [and] Participant Resource [and] Trainer Manual. Learning & Reading Partners Adult Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estey, Nancy; MacIsaac, Maitland; Rendell, Sandra

    Based on the understanding that the capacity to learn is optimized in the early years, Early Learning Canada (ELC) is a community workshop program for parents and adults who work with children from birth to age 6 and their families to facilitate life-long learning. This workshop leader guide explains the ELC principles, examines learning styles…

  1. Computer Use within a Play-Based Early Years Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Justine; Miles, Gareth E.; Rees-Davies, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Early years curricula promote learning through play and in addition emphasise the development of computer literacy. Previous research, however, has described that teachers feel unprepared to integrate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and play. Also, whereas research has suggested that effective computer use in the early years is…

  2. Adapting Japanese Lesson Study to Enhance the Teaching and Learning of Geometry and Spatial Reasoning in Early Years Classrooms: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joan; Hawes, Zachary; Naqvi, Sarah; Caswell, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Increased efforts are needed to meet the demand for high quality mathematics in early years classrooms. Despite the foundational role of geometry and spatial reasoning for later mathematics success, the strand receives inadequate instructional time and is limited to concepts of static geometry. Moreover, early years teachers typically lack both…

  3. Traces of an Early Learned Second Language in Discontinued Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadat, Jasmin; Pureza, Rita; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Can an early learned second language influence speech production after living many years in an exclusively monolingual environment? To address this issue, we investigated the consequences of discontinued early bilingualism in heritage speakers who moved abroad and switched language dominance from the second to the primary learned language. We used…

  4. Sowing the Seeds of Science Understanding in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    For practitioners in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) in English schools (ages 3-5), the ethos of learning by "investigating and doing" is a major component of the pleasure of teaching very young children. The "Knowledge and understanding of the world" area of the EYFS (where scientific learning is mainly anchored)…

  5. Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

  6. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  7. Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

  8. Towards Collaborative Professional Learning in the First Year Early Childhood Teacher Education Practicum: Issues in Negotiating the Multiple Interests of Stakeholder Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alice; Danaher, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses data from two sources of stakeholder feedback--first year pre-service teachers and supervising teachers/centre directors--about the issues involved in creating more collaborative approaches to the first year early childhood teacher education practicum at an Australian regional university. The collection of this feedback was…

  9. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  10. Mathematics in the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Juanita V., Ed.

    Noting that young children are capable of surprisingly complex forms of mathematical thinking and learning, this book presents a collection of articles depicting children discovering mathematical ideas, teachers fostering students' informal mathematical knowledge, adults asking questions and listening to answers, and researchers examining…

  11. Early Years Children Think Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Laura

    2013-01-01

    During a recent theme on "Ourselves," Laura Mooney's class focused on height and looking at similarities and differences between a range of objects. This involved not only looking at each other, but also linked to their self-portrait development, where they had been learning about their facial features and comparing them to other…

  12. The Early Years: Animal Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Children can have a new favorite animal every week or even every hour. The more familiar the children become with an animal, the more they will be able to understand how its body form and behavior allow it to survive. Learning about the characteristics of organisms and how organisms relate to their environment is part of the National Science…

  13. The Early Years: Documenting Discoveries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    By observing an organism over time, children can identify patterns in their observations, note growth or other changes, learn about the needs of the organism, and see how the organism creates the next generation of its species; all of these skills are science and engineering practices noted in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education"…

  14. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  15. The Early Years: Integrating Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy; Nellor, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is such a common part of children's work in early childhood programs that teachers can simply look around the room to identify examples where students have engaged in engineering practices. This article presents a classroom activity that integrates engineering design by building on the everyday problems that young children encounter in…

  16. The Early Years: Mixing Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Engaging children's interest, inspiring active exploration of materials, and fostering cooperation between children and adults is the best way to promote the construction of knowledge. Some popular early childhood activities can be expanded to provide experiences and time for children to build on their prior knowledge. This column discusses…

  17. Beyond Subprime Learning: Accelerating Progress in Early Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornfreund, Laura; McCann, Clare; Williams, Conor; Guernsey, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Earlier this year, in "Subprime Learning: Early Education in America since the Great Recession," the current state of early education in the U.S. was surveyed by examining progress over the last five years . It was found that while the public, political, and research consensus is stronger than ever, the field remains in dire need of…

  18. Early Years Swimming: A Way of Supporting School Transitions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…

  19. Exploring the Contribution of Teaching and Learning Processes in the Construction of Students' Gender Identity in Early Year Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baig, Amina

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group…

  20. Early clinical experience: do students learn what we expect?

    PubMed

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes. Learning in medical practice includes a socialisation process in which some learning outcomes may be valued, but others neglected or discouraged. This study describes students' learning goals (prior to a Year 1 nursing attachment) and learning outcomes (after the attachment) in relation to institutional educational goals, and evaluates associations between learning outcomes, student characteristics and place of attachment. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions about learning goals and learning outcomes was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n = 347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in either a hospital or a nursing home. Two confirmatory focus group interviews were conducted and data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. Students' learning goals corresponded with educational goals with a main emphasis on communication and empathy. Other learning goals included gaining insight into the organisation of health care and learning to deal with emotions. Self-reported learning outcomes were the same, but students additionally mentioned reflection on professional behaviour and their own future development. Women and younger students mentioned communication and empathy more often than men and older students. Individual learning goals, with the exception of communicating and empathising with patients, did not predict learning outcomes. Students' learning goals closely match educational goals, which are adequately met in early nursing attachments in both hospitals and nursing homes. Learning to deal with emotions was under-represented as a learning goal and learning outcome, which may indicate that emotional aspects

  1. Close Early Learning Gaps with Rigorous DAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Mowry, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous DAP (developmentally appropriate practices) is a set of 11 principles of instruction intended to help close early childhood learning gaps. Academically rigorous learning environments create the conditions for children to learn at high levels. While academic rigor focuses on one dimension of education--academic--DAP considers the whole…

  2. The Early Years: Integrating Digital Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. This month's issue discusses how digital media and robotics fit into the early childhood curriculum, and how time on devices supports learning goals and developmentally appropriate practice.

  3. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  4. An early start to STEM education among year 1 primary students through project-based inquiry learning in the context of a magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safiee, N.; Jusoh, Z. M.; Noor, A. M. H. M.; Tek, O. E.; Salleh, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    For the needs of the 21st century, the Government of Malaysia has conceptualized the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025 which embodies 11 strategic and operational shifts. In Shift 1, it is emphasized that the quality of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education will be enhanced. This study employed the mixed-method approach using the “one-group pre-test and post-test design”. Accordingly, this paper describes the pedagogical practice of Project-based Inquiry Learning (PIL) which promotes STEM Education among Year 1 students in the move to progress in tandem with Shift 1. Specifically, using the context of a magnet which has been stipulated in the Primary School Standard Curriculum, Year 1 students experienced the STEM Education through the STEM Pedagogy in which they raised questions upon the presentation of a relevant stimulus (Inquiry Phase), explored the ways in which a train carriage or coach could be assembled by means of recycled materials and magnets (Exploration Phase), designed a train carriage (Design Phase), and ultimately reflected on their inventions (Reflection Phase). The cognitive and affective impacts through the use of this Project-based Inquiry Learning are presented. Implications for the teaching and learning of science are discussed within the context of STEM Education.

  5. Fostering Effective Early Learning (FEEL) through a professional development programme for early childhood educators to improve professional practice and child outcomes in the year before formal schooling: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Melhuish, Edward; Howard, Steven J; Siraj, Iram; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine; Kingston, Denise; de Rosnay, Marc; Duursma, Elisabeth; Luu, Betty

    2016-12-19

    A substantial research base documents the benefits of attendance at high-quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) for positive behavioural and learning outcomes. Research has also found that the quality of many young children's experiences and opportunities in ECEC depends on the skills, dispositions and understandings of the early childhood adult educators. Increasingly, research has shown that the quality of children's interactions with educators and their peers, more than any other programme feature, influence what children learn and how they feel about learning. Hence, we sought to investigate the extent to which evidence-based professional development (PD) - focussed on promoting sustained shared thinking through quality interactions - could improve the quality of ECEC and, as a consequence, child outcomes. The Fostering Effective Early Learning (FEEL) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial for evaluating the benefits of a professional development (PD) programme for early childhood educators, compared with no extra PD. Ninety long-day care and preschool centres in New South Wales, Australia, will be selected to ensure representation across National Quality Standards (NQS) ratings, location, centre type and socioeconomic areas. Participating centres will be randomly allocated to one of two groups, stratified by centre type and NQS rating: (1) an intervention group (45 centres) receiving a PD intervention or (2) a control group (45 centres) that continues engaging in typical classroom practice. Randomisation to these groups will occur after the collection of baseline environmental quality ratings. Primary outcomes, at the child level, will be two measures of language development: verbal comprehension and expressive vocabulary. Secondary outcomes at the child level will be measures of early numeracy, social development and self-regulation. Secondary outcomes at the ECEC room level will be measures of environmental quality derived from full

  6. Mathematics in Early Years Education. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague-Smith, Ann; Price, Alison

    2012-01-01

    This third edition of the best-selling "Mathematics in Nursery Education" provides an accessible introduction to the teaching of mathematics in the early years. Covering all areas of mathematics learning--number and counting, calculation, pattern, shape, measures and data handling--it summarises the research findings and underlying key concepts…

  7. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  8. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  9. Problem Solving in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…

  10. The Early Years: Embracing the Challenges. 1997 Early Years of Schooling Conference Proceedings (Melbourne, Australia, July 20-21, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).

    These conference proceedings comprise 19 papers and the plenary session presented at the Early Years Schooling Conference held in Melbourne, Australia. The plenary session was "A Developmental Approach to Teaching Young Children" conducted by Lilian Katz. The keynote addresses and breakout sessions were: (1) "Developmental Learning:…

  11. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  12. Mobile Learning and Early Age Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Shir; Schocken, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop engaging simulations and constructive learning experiences using mobile devices is unprecedented, presenting a disruption in educational practices of historical proportions. In this paper we describe some of the unique virtues that mobile learning hold for early age mathematics education. In particular, we describe how…

  13. Early Foreign Language Learning: The Biological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer-Karpf, Annemarie

    A discussion of the biological and developmental issues in early second language learning first looks at psycholinguistic research on brain growth patterns and the relationship of first and second language learning. Focus is on three phenomena observed in the self-organization of living systems: selection of input data; organization of specialized…

  14. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  15. Learning Partnerships in Rural Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Kennece; Lubawy, Joy

    A study examined six aspects of learning communities in early childhood settings in rural New South Wales (Australia). These aspects are reflection, individual development, diversity, conversation, caring, and shared responsibility. Surveys of 15 directors of early childhood programs indicated that the reflective component of the learning…

  16. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2014 Annual Performance Report. Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2014 describes Wisconsin's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Wisconsin will implement to address those challenges. During the second year of the Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) in Wisconsin, there have…

  17. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2014 Annual Performance Report. Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2014 describes Delaware's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Delaware will implement to address those challenges. At the end of Year Three of the Early Learning Challenge Grant, Delaware continues to make significant progress…

  18. Early Years Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching through Multiple Metaphors and Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildenhall, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Recent research findings indicate that using multiple metaphors in multimodal learning experiences are effective teaching approaches in early years mathematics. Using a social semiotic lens this paper reports on eight early years teachers' perceptions of this approach whilst engaging in a small collaborative professional learning group. This group…

  19. Science of Materials: A Case Study of Intentional Teaching in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackling, Mark; Barratt-Pugh, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Australia's Early Years Learning Framework and leading international researchers argue for more intentional and purposeful teaching of science in the early years. This case study of exemplary practice illustrates intentional teaching of science materials which opened-up learning opportunities in literacy and number. Student-led hands-on…

  20. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    PubMed Central

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18- month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The three experiments show that infants learn names for objects when those objects have predictable rather than varied locations, that infants who anticipate the location of named objects better learn those object names, and that infants integrate experiences that are separated in time but share a common location. Taken together, these results suggest that localized attention, cued attention, and spatial indexing are an inter-related set of processes in young children that aid in the early building of coherent object representations. The relevance of the experimental results and spatial attention for everyday word learning are discussed. PMID:22989872

  1. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Physical Development and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  2. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Parenting and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  3. Highlighting in Early Childhood: Learning Biases Through Attentional Shifting.

    PubMed

    Burling, Joseph M; Yoshida, Hanako

    2017-02-01

    The literature on human and animal learning suggests that individuals attend to and act on cues differently based on the order in which they were learned. Recent studies have proposed that one specific type of learning outcome, the highlighting effect, can serve as a framework for understanding a number of early cognitive milestones. However, little is known how this learning effect itself emerges among children, whose memory and attention are much more limited compared to adults. Two experiments were conducted using different versions of the general highlighting paradigm: Experiment 1 tested 3 to 6 year olds with a newly developed image-based version of the paradigm, which was designed specifically to test young children. Experiment 2 tested the validity of an image-based implementation of the highlighting paradigm with adult participants. The results from Experiment 1 provide evidence for the highlighting effect among children 3-6 years old, and they suggest age-related differences in dividing attention among multiple cues during learning. Experiment 2 replicated results from previous studies by showing robust biases for both image-based and text-based versions of the highlighting task. This study suggests that sensitivity to learning order emerges early through the process of cued attention, and the role of the highlighting effect in early language learning is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Full Day Early Learning Kindergarten Program Team: Perspectives from the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahbazi, Sara; Salinitri, Geri

    2016-01-01

    The Full Day Early Learning Kindergarten (FDK) Program has expanded the role of the principal and has altered the teaching dynamics of the classroom with the introduction of an early years team. The early years team consists of a certified teacher with the Ontario College of Teachers and a registered early childhood educator from the College of…

  5. Learning Together: A Study of Six B.A. Completion Cohort Programs in Early Care and Education. Year 2 Report. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; Sakai, Laura; Kipnis, Fran; Bellm, Dan; Almaraz, Mirella

    2010-01-01

    Interest in expanding access to higher education has been driven by concerns about ethnic and linguistic stratification within the early childhood workforce, and building a pipeline for diversifying the early care and education (ECE) field's leadership. "Cohort" B.A. completion programs, which target small groups of adults working in ECE…

  6. Autism and Early Years Practice: A Guide for Early Years Professionals, Teachers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Kate

    2004-01-01

    In this book the author discusses the field of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) as one in which practitioners are highly committed, dedicated and willing to learn. Generally, they try to do their very best for the children with whom they work. However, the author also shows that the field has hitherto been neglected in the areas of…

  7. Assessing Vocabulary Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.; Paciga, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread agreement with in the field of early childhood education that vocabulary is important to literacy achievement and that reading aloud can support vocabulary growth. However, there are unexplored and significant problems with the ways we assess young children's vocabulary learning from read-alouds. This paper critically reviews…

  8. Technical Report: Kindergarten Early Learning Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon; Jung, Kwanghee; Quinn, Jorie

    2014-01-01

    The Kindergarten Early Learning Scale (KELS) was developed as a concise observational assessment for young children. It examines three domains including (1) Math/Science, (2) Social Emotional/Social Studies, and (3) Language and Literacy, with a total of 10 items across the domains. Scores reported for each of the 10 items are based upon…

  9. Learning "from Europe" and "for Europe" with David Raffe--Insights into Early Years of European Cooperation in "Vocational Education and Training Research"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kämäräinen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a picture on the contribution of David Raffe to European cooperation in the field of vocational education and training (VET). It is based on the experiences of the author and his colleagues on European events and projects in which David participated from the early 1990s until 2009. The Section 2 gives impressions of David's…

  10. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  11. Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children’s early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be documented at a remarkably early point in development, and these early measures predict performance in children’s language and pre-reading abilities in the second, third, and fifth year of life, a finding with theoretical and educational import. There is evidence that children’s early mastery of language requires learning in a social context, and this finding also has important implications for education. Evidence relating socio-economic status (SES) to brain function for language suggests that SES should be considered a proxy for the opportunity to learn and that the complexity of language input is a significant factor in developing brain areas related to language. The data indicate that the opportunity to learn from complex stimuli and events are vital early in life, and that success in school begins in infancy. PMID:21892359

  12. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years.

    PubMed

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-06-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa-contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development.

  13. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    PubMed Central

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

  14. Using Arrays to Build towards Multiplicative Thinking in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Lorraine; Mulligan, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Lorraine Jacob and Joanne Mulligan discuss how arrays can be used to promote students' early learning in relation to multiplication and division. They provide examples of activities that can be used from Foundation to Year 5.

  15. Becoming Professional? Exploring Early Years Professional Status and Its Implications for Workforce Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Across the "European learning space" (Lawn, 2006) professionalisation of early years workforces has become a key priority and there has been a flow of this policy between borders (Oberhuemer, 2005). Early Years Professional Status (EYPS) is central to these developments in England. Within what is regarded as a traditionally…

  16. Thinking Skills in the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayley, Ros

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the High/Scope Cognitively Oriented Pre-School Curriculum that recognizes that the power to learn resides in the child and focuses on active learning practices. It discusses child-initiated learning, key skills for thinking, key concepts involved in teaching thinking skills, and activities that support the development of…

  17. Creating a Regional Drought Early Warning System (DEWS) for California and Nevada: Building Off of Information Gathered and Lessons Learned after 5 Years of Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, A. M.; Marrs, A.; Wall, T. U.; Cayan, D.; Kalansky, J.; Redmond, K. T.; Huntington, J. L.; McEvoy, D.

    2016-12-01

    In California and Nevada, a diverse set of sectors and regional variation amidst a 5-year spell of drought presents multiple needs, gaps and challenges in providing usable available information for drought preparedness. In response to the findings of Governor Sandoval's Nevada Drought Forum and a series of stakeholder meetings and drought and climate outlooks in California, NOAA's National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) has created the California-Nevada DEWS to leverage the activities of the existing California DEWS to better reflect the needs of the region after five years of unprecedented drought. In addition to presenting timely drought status and outlooks, these stakeholder-oriented meetings and listening sessions explored local drought impacts and drought informational needs. The information gathered will be integrated into a strategic plan for California-Nevada DEWS. This strategic plan will provide a roadmap of planned research and activities to enhance the ability of stakeholders in the region to better plan, prepare for and mitigate the impacts of drought. The implementation will involve key partners from a diverse network of federal, regional, tribal, state and local agencies and interests and will result in regionally specific deliverables to advance the California-Nevada DEWS.

  18. Four years of problem-based learning: a student's perspective.

    PubMed Central

    von Doebeln, G.

    1996-01-01

    After four years as a student in a medical school using problem-based learning I still find it an excellent way to learn. Group work has developed my personal skills and abilities. Learning how to obtain knowledge on my own has given me independence and confidence. Motivation to study has been encouraged by early clinical experience. Training in critical thinking has been further enhanced by in-depth studies. Medical education at the University of Linkoping has developed over the years and a contributing factor has been students' involvement in designing the medical training. There are benefits and disadvantages with problem-based learning, but on the whole it is an enjoyable and fruitful experience. Images p98-a PMID:8871459

  19. K-3 Policymakers' Guide to Action: Making the Early Years Count. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchison, Bruce; Diffey, Louisa; Workman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    High-quality early elementary years offer a critical opportunity for child development and academic learning for all children, regardless of their race, family-income level, or culture and home language. All students deserve access to high-quality teachers and leaders trained in how to effectively support their learning. They deserve to attend…

  20. Responding to the Challenges of Active Citizenship through the Revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…

  1. Informing Transitions in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy; Fabian, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    An increased emphasis on an early start in group day care and educational settings for young children means that by the time children enter statutory education, they may already have had several transitional experiences: each will have an impact. This book explores early transitions from a variety of international perspectives. Each chapter is…

  2. The Year We Learned to Collaborate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Janice; Contreras, Kathia

    2011-01-01

    In 2008-09, Colegio Ingles had a watershed year in terms of teachers learning to enhance one another's skills. Beneath a deceptively congenial surface, teachers at this Mexican preK-9th grade school were avoiding professional confrontations and rarely observed one another's classes or shared teaching solutions and innovations. That same year, the…

  3. Visits to Cultural Learning Places in the Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudiappa, Michael; Kluczniok, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Studies show the important role of the home learning environment in early childhood for later school success. This article focuses on a particular aspect of the home learning environment: visits to cultural learning places (e.g. museums) as a component of the quality of the home learning environment. Therefore the educational concept of…

  4. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2015 Annual Performance Report. New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2015 describes New Mexico's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies New Mexico will implement to address those challenges. New Mexico is pleased to report that at the end of Year Three of the RTT-ELC grant, the State continues to…

  5. High School Biology: The Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dorothy B.; Bybee, Rodger W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of the biology curriculum which replaced physiology, zoology, and botany in high school science courses and supplanted an early form of general science known as natural history. (RT)

  6. 2013-2014 Office of Early Learning Annual Report: Moving in the Right Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    While fiscal year 2012-2013 was a year of transition for the Office of Early Learning (OEL), fiscal year 2013-2014 proved to be a year when new leadership, organizational structure, direction and vision coalesced, producing results that demonstrated the office was moving in the right direction. The first day of the fiscal year--July 1, 2013--was…

  7. Building a Model of Early Years Professionalism from Practitioners’ Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Avril

    2013-01-01

    Practitioner voice has been absent from debates regarding what constitutes professional behaviour and practice in the early years. This research identifies and uses the professional knowledge of a group of early years educators to create a typology of professionalism. The typology comprises seven inter-related dimensions of early years…

  8. Parent Involvement in the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Parents are young children's greatest resource, and quality parenting helps develop children's self-esteem. Every child needs caring parents to be teachers as well as nurturers. Parents can create learning experiences for their children in everyday activities, such as cooking, cleaning, and grocery shopping. In addition to teaching, parents should…

  9. The Early Years: About the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Observing and documenting elements of weather teach children about using tools and their senses to learn about the environment. This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. This month's issue describes an activity where students indirectly document local weather by counting outdoor clothing types worn…

  10. Unlearning Discrimination in the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Babette

    With guidance and support even young children can actively challenge unfairness and learn not to discriminate. They can be taught to unlearn the misconceptions and stereotypical thinking they have absorbed from their environments. This book provides practical ways teachers can teach young children about racism and other forms of discrimination:…

  11. Introducing Zentangle in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesterman, Sandra; McAuliffe, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    People of different ages, skills, and interests enjoy Zentangle as a visual arts practice. It is adopted as a hobby with the intention of creating an abstract art form comprised of drawn images and using repetitive and structured patterns. Zentangle has an associative language and a method that is easy to learn. Participants of Zentangle report…

  12. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: Opening for Debate and Contestation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter; Dahlberg, Gunilla; Grieshaber, Susan; Mantovani, Susanna; May, Helen; Pence, Alan; Rayna, Sylvie; Swadener, Beth Blue; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is initiating the International Early Learning Study, a cross-national assessment of early learning outcomes involving the testing of 5-year-old children in participating countries. The authors use this colloquium to inform members of the early childhood community about this project and to…

  13. Early-Years Absenteeism Seen as Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    While efforts to reduce chronic absenteeism typically focus on adolescents, experts say that the early grades are the place to start. Statistics show that rates of absenteeism in kindergarten and 1st grade can rival those in high school. An average of one in 10 pupils in grades K-12 nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing…

  14. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  15. How Do Learning Communities Affect First-Year Latino Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Juan Carlos; Bray, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Do learning communities with pedagogies of active learning, collaborative learning, and integration of course material affect the learning, achievement, and persistence of first-year Latino university students? The data for this project was obtained from a survey of 1,330 first-year students in the First-Year Learning Community Program at Texas…

  16. Still Learning after All These Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Adult Learners' Week is based on a simple idea--that extolling the achievements of adult learners and promoting the benefits of learning will encourage others to take the plunge. Each year, through thousands of events and award ceremonies, and in media coverage that would cost millions of pounds if purchased as advertising, Adult Learners' Week…

  17. English Learners (ELs) and Early Learning. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) and Office of Early Learning (OEL) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) and early learning into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report include: (1) State-funded preschool programs with highest percentage of ELs: Fall 2013; (2)…

  18. Meeting the Early Learning Challenge: Supporting English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    The Race to The Top-Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) is designed to improve the quality of early learning and development and close the achievement gap for children with high needs. The Departments of Education and Health and Human Services define high needs to include children who are English learners, often referred to as English Language…

  19. Effective Leadership and Management in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyles, Janet

    2006-01-01

    There has recently been an unprecedented focus on early years care and education, particularly on the impact of the various adults who work and play with children in the birth to five/six-years age range. Staff in early years settings have had to adapt to many changes and demands, locally and nationally, from local authorities and national…

  20. Early Years Education Resource Guide. Early Education Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy, Comp.

    The aim of this resource guide is to provide practitioners in preschool settings with information to help them plan, implement, augment with resources, and review practice based on the "Curriculum Framework for Children in Their Pre-School Year" issued by the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department. The guide presents a…

  1. Highlighting in Early Childhood: Learning Biases through Attentional Shifting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burling, Joseph M.; Yoshida, Hanako

    2017-01-01

    The literature on human and animal learning suggests that individuals attend to and act on cues differently based on the order in which they were learned. Recent studies have proposed that one specific type of learning outcome, the highlighting effect, can serve as a framework for understanding a number of early cognitive milestones. However,…

  2. A Learning Progressions Approach to Early Algebra Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We detail a learning progressions approach to early algebra research and how existing work around learning progressions and trajectories in mathematics and science education has informed our development of a four-component theoretical framework consisting of: a curricular progression of learning goals across big algebraic ideas; an instructional…

  3. Big Fish, Little Fish: Teaching and Learning in the Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groundwater-Smith, Susan, Ed.; Mockler, Nicole, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    "Big Fish, Little Fish: Teaching and Learning in the Middle Years" provides pre-service and early career teachers with a pathway to understanding the needs of students as they make the important transition from primary to secondary schooling. The book explores contemporary challenges for teaching and learning in the middle years, with a…

  4. Blended Learning: The Perceptions of First-Year Geography Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Phillipa; Forer, Pip

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on "Digital Worlds", a first-year geography blended learning course at the University of Auckland, this paper gives voice to the students, examining how they perceived e-learning versus traditional learning mechanisms; how e-learning mechanisms have affected their learning behaviour; and why certain e-learning mechanisms offered…

  5. Assessment and Program Accountability in Early Childhood Education: Lessons Learned in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boat, Mary; Zorn, Debbie; Austin, James T.

    2005-01-01

    Ensuring that children, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, start school ready to learn is an important goal. This paper presents lessons learned from the state of Ohio's multi-year program to develop a standards-based assessment system for programs delivering state-funded early childhood education (ECE) through programs receiving…

  6. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2014 Annual Performance Report Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2014 describes Kentucky's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Kentucky will implement to address those challenges. In December of 2013, Kentucky received notice that they would join 19 other States as a winner of the Race to…

  7. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2015 Annual Performance Report. Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2015 describes Maryland's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Maryland will implement to address those challenges. Maryland's remarkable progress in increasing participation in their tiered quality rating and improvement…

  8. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2015 Annual Performance Report. New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2015 describes New Jersey's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies New Jersey will implement to address those challenges. New Jersey's remarkable progress in increasing participation in their tiered quality rating and improvement…

  9. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2015 Annual Performance Report. Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2015 describes Vermont's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Vermont will implement to address those challenges. Vermont's remarkable progress in increasing participation in their tiered quality rating and improvement system,…

  10. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2015 Annual Performance Report. Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2015 describes Pennsylvania's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Pennsylvania will implement to address those challenges. Pennsylvania's remarkable progress in increasing participation in their tiered quality rating and…

  11. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2015 Annual Performance Report. Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2015 describes Minnesota's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Minnesota will implement to address those challenges. Minnesota's remarkable progress in increasing participation in their tiered quality rating and improvement…

  12. Inside the Content: The Breadth and Depth of Early Learning Standards. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Little, Catherine; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Frelow, Victoria Stebbins

    2005-01-01

    This executive summary describes a study that analyzes the content of early learning standards, operationally defined as documents that articulate expectations for children's development and learning during the preschool period (ages three to five years). Standards from 36 states were collected and analyzed to address the following research…

  13. Early Intervention and AAC: What a Difference 30 Years Makes.

    PubMed

    Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A; Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Whitmore, Ani S

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of early intervention and AAC over the 30-year period since the founding of the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication in 1985. It discusses the global context for early intervention and addresses issues pertaining to young children from birth to 6 years of age. It provides a narrative review and synthesis of the evidence base in AAC and early intervention. Finally, it provides implications for practice and future research directions.

  14. Positioning in Relationships between Parents and Early Years Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims-Schouten, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Early years care and education have been high on British political agendas. This includes partnership working between early years practitioners and parents. Yet, more research is needed to examine how childcare staff engage with parents and vice versa. This study addresses the role of position and positioning in parent-practitioner relationships,…

  15. Early Years Education and the Value for Money Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Barr, Verity

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended as a contribution to the debate on the role of human capital in determining value for money in early years education. The article explores how the idea that early years education offers value for money has become folklore amongst policymakers and more widely. However, drawing on both interview data and existing literature…

  16. Parent Partnership and "Quality" Early Years Services: Practitioners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Michelle; Alexander, Elise

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by outlining the historical and political context of "parent partnership" within the UK. It locates the perspectives of early years' practitioners within this context, drawing on data from an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded study of eighteen English early years settings, including interviews and…

  17. Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

  18. Learning abilities and disabilities: generalist genes in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Davis, Oliver S P; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The new view of cognitive neuropsychology that considers not just case studies of rare severe disorders but also common disorders, as well as normal variation and quantitative traits, is more amenable to recent advances in molecular genetics, such as genome-wide association studies, and advances in quantitative genetics, such as multivariate genetic analysis. A surprising finding emerging from multivariate quantitative genetic studies across diverse learning abilities is that most genetic influences are shared: they are "generalist", rather than "specialist". We exploited widespread access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections in the United Kingdom to assess over 5000 pairs of 12-year-old twins from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) on four distinct batteries: reading, mathematics, general cognitive ability (g) and, for the first time, language. Genetic correlations remain high among all of the measured abilities, with language as highly correlated genetically with g as reading and mathematics. Despite developmental upheaval, generalist genes remain important into early adolescence, suggesting optimal strategies for molecular genetic studies seeking to identify the genes of small effect that influence learning abilities and disabilities.

  19. "Intensive Mothering" in the Early Years: The Cultivation and Consolidation of (Physical) Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirrup, Julie; Duncombe, Rebecca; Sandford, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Growing pressure on parents to equip their children with the skills required for future success, coupled with an increased focus on providing quality learning experiences in the early years, has contributed to an upsurge in the enrolment of young children in formal (often privatised) activities. Moreover, in response to growing societal concerns…

  20. Aistear vis-à-vis the Primary Curriculum: The Experiences of Early Years Teachers in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Colette; Ryan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Launched in 2009, the Aistear early years curriculum framework sought to complement and extend the primary school curriculum (PSC) at infant class level in the Republic of Ireland. While Aistear focuses on the development of attitudes, values and learning dispositions and is neither statutory nor inspected, the PSC centres on the acquisition of…

  1. Learning Partnerships in Rural Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Kennece; Lubawy, Joy

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the value of six theoretical aspects of learning communities in rural New South Wales (Australia) preschools. Surveys of nine preschool directors indicated that they recognized the value of shared decision making, reflection, and delegating power, and that open communication was necessary for developing a learning environment…

  2. Instrumental learning and cognitive flexibility processes are impaired in children exposed to early life stress.

    PubMed

    Harms, Madeline B; Shannon Bowen, Katherine E; Hanson, Jamie L; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-10-19

    Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings. Adolescents with histories of early life stress eventually learned to pair stimuli with both positive and negative outcomes, but did so more slowly than their peers. Furthermore, these stress-exposed adolescents showed markedly impaired cognitive flexibility; they were less able than their peers to update those pairings when the contingencies changed. These learning problems were reflected in abnormal activity in learning- and attention-related brain circuitry. Both altered patterns of learning and neural activation were associated with the severity of lifetime stress that the adolescents had experienced. Taken together, the results of this experiment suggest that basic learning processes are impaired in adolescents exposed to early life stress. These general learning mechanisms may help explain the emergence of social problems observed in these individuals. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Dyslexia in the Early Years: A Handbook for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that early identification and intervention is crucial and can in fact minimise, and may even prevent, the challenges of dyslexia from becoming too detrimental at later stages of education. This book offers both research insights and practical guidance for teachers working in Early Years settings on how to create resource…

  4. Segments and Stutters: Early Years Teachers and Becoming-Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Nikki

    2017-01-01

    There has been extensive research and analysis of the professionalization of early childhood educators/teachers. The recent promotion of a teacher-led workforce in England has further focused discussions on the modelling of early years teachers as professionals. In this article, the author develops an alternative analysis using the concepts of…

  5. Early Adolescence: Understanding the 10 to 15 Year Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caissy, Gail A.

    Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…

  6. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  7. Families' Perceptions of Early Childhood Educators' Fostering Conversations and Connections by Sharing Children's Learning through Pedagogical Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Bronwyn; Duff, Katia

    2016-01-01

    "Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" emphasises that families have an important role in their children's learning and it recognises that their earliest development is influenced through these relationships and adds that partnerships can be fostered with families by early childhood educators…

  8. Early Learning and Development: Cultural-Historical Concepts in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    "Early Learning and Development" provides a unique synthesis of cultural-historical theory from Vygotsky, Elkonin and Leontiev in the 20th century to the ground-breaking research of scholars such as Siraj-Blatchford, Kratsova and Hedegaard today. It demonstrates how development and learning are culturally embedded and institutionally defined, and…

  9. A New Tool to Facilitate Learning Reading for Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…

  10. Formula for Success: Engaging Families in Early Math Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Global Family Research Project, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Early math ability is one of the best predictors of children's later success in school. Because children's learning begins in the home, families are fundamental in shaping children's interest and skills in math. The experience of learning and doing math, however, looks different from the instruction that was offered when most adults were in…

  11. Early Education of the Language-Learning Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter Seal Treatment Center of Montgomery County, Rockville, MD.

    The brochure descrbies a demonstration program on the early education of the language learning handicapped preschool child. Discussed are symptoms of the language learning problem (such as misunderstanding what is said), a remedial approach based on specific disability intervention, the Easter Seal Treatment Center, project objectives (such as the…

  12. Digital Discourses in Early Childhood Educator Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Emily Brown

    2017-01-01

    Active, dialogic participation is a necessary component of high quality teacher professional learning (Dunst, Bruder, & Hamby, 2015). However, logistical problems arise when implementing cooperative learning opportunities for early childhood educators, as preschool teachers are habitually separated from peers both institutionally and…

  13. Early Learning and Early Identification Follow-Up Study: Transition from the Early to the Later Childhood Grades, 1990-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    As follow-up to an in-depth study of the District of Columbia's early learning programs and their impact, this study provided data on the transition of previously studied children from primary education to upper elementary grades. Academic progress of the original group of pre-kindergarten and Head Start children was studied during years 5 and 6…

  14. Couples as Partners and Parents over Children's Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marcia J.; Pilkauskas, Natasha V.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how couple relationship quality and parental engagement are linked over children's early years--when they are infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Our sample included 1,630 couples who were coresident over Years 1-3 and 1,376 couples who were coresident over Years 3-5…

  15. Overview: Measuring Early Learning Quality and Outcomes (MELQO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookings Institution, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The Measuring Early Learning Quality and Outcomes (MELQO) initiative began in 2014 in anticipation of a new global emphasis on early childhood development (ECD). Led by UNESCO, the World Bank, the Center for Universal Education at the Brookings Institution, and UNICEF, the initiative aims to promote feasible, accurate and useful measurement of…

  16. Learning with Technology for Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Anne; Scotellaro, Grazia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative pilot project at the University of Canberra aimed at providing pre-service early childhood teachers with the skills, confidence and ideological change required to include technology-enhanced learning as part of the early childhood curriculum. The impact of the project was evaluated through participant…

  17. Building a Community of Learning through Early Residential Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Cathy; Larsen, Carl; Parry, Damian

    2014-01-01

    The positioning of residential fieldwork early in students' higher education is an established way of attempting to build and engage them in a community of learning. In the study reported here, the benefits of such early residential fieldwork were investigated using Krausse and Coates's seven scales of engagement. These scales consider a number of…

  18. Early Boost and Slow Consolidation in Motor Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Motor skill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as…

  19. Bacterial Chemotaxis: The Early Years of Molecular Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hazelbauer, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the early years of molecular studies of bacterial chemotaxis and motility, beginning in the 1960s with Julius Adler's pioneering work. It describes key observations that established the field and made bacterial chemotaxis a paradigm for the molecular understanding of biological signaling. Consideration of those early years includes aspects of science seldom described in journals: the accidental findings, personal interactions, and scientific culture that often drive scientific progress. PMID:22994495

  20. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wyverne

    2008-01-01

    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  1. Perceptual learning as improved probabilistic inference in early sensory areas.

    PubMed

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Beck, Jeffrey M; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Pouget, Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Extensive training on simple tasks such as fine orientation discrimination results in large improvements in performance, a form of learning known as perceptual learning. Previous models have argued that perceptual learning is due to either sharpening and amplification of tuning curves in early visual areas or to improved probabilistic inference in later visual areas (at the decision stage). However, early theories are inconsistent with the conclusions of psychophysical experiments manipulating external noise, whereas late theories cannot explain the changes in neural responses that have been reported in cortical areas V1 and V4. Here we show that we can capture both the neurophysiological and behavioral aspects of perceptual learning by altering only the feedforward connectivity in a recurrent network of spiking neurons so as to improve probabilistic inference in early visual areas. The resulting network shows modest changes in tuning curves, in line with neurophysiological reports, along with a marked reduction in the amplitude of pairwise noise correlations.

  2. Two Processes in Early Bimanual Motor Skill Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh Doost, Maral; Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Bihin, Benoît; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Most daily activities are bimanual and their efficient performance requires learning and retention of bimanual coordination. Despite in-depth knowledge of the various stages of motor skill learning in general, how new bimanual coordination control policies are established is still unclear. We designed a new cooperative bimanual task in which subjects had to move a cursor across a complex path (a circuit) as fast and as accurately as possible through coordinated bimanual movements. By looking at the transfer of the skill between different circuits and by looking at training with varying circuits, we identified two processes in early bimanual motor learning. Loss of performance due to the switch in circuit after 15 min of training amounted to 20%, which suggests that a significant portion of improvements in bimanual performance is specific to the used circuit (circuit-specific skill). In contrast, the loss of performance due to the switch in circuit was 5% after 4 min of training. This suggests that learning the new bimanual coordination control policy dominates early in the training and is independent of the used circuit. Finally, switching between two circuits throughout training did not affect the early stage of learning (i.e., the first few minutes), but did affect the later stage. Together, these results suggest that early bimanual motor skill learning includes two different processes. Learning the new bimanual coordination control policy predominates in the first minutes whereas circuit-specific skill improvements unfold later in parallel with further improvements in the bimanual coordination control policy. PMID:29326573

  3. Early adversity and learning: implications for typical and atypical behavioral development.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; van den Bos, Wouter; Roeber, Barbara J; Rudolph, Karen D; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-07-01

    Children who experience early adversity often develop emotion regulatory problems, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relation. We tested whether general associative learning processes contribute to associations between adversity, in the form of child maltreatment, and negative behavioral outcomes. Eighty-one participants between 12 and 17 years of age were recruited for this study and completed a probabilistic learning Task. Forty-one of these participants had been exposed to physical abuse, a form of early adversity. Forty additional participants without any known history of maltreatment served as a comparison group. All participants (and their parents) also completed portions of the Youth Life Stress Interview to understand adolescent's behavior. We calculated measures of associative learning, and also constructed mathematical models of learning. We found that adolescents exposed to high levels of adversity early in their lives had lower levels of associative learning than comparison adolescents. In addition, we found that impaired associative learning partially explained the higher levels of behavioral problems among youth who suffered early adversity. Using mathematical models, we also found that two components of learning were specifically affected in children exposed to adversity: choice variability and biases in their beliefs about the likelihood of rewards in the environment. Participants who had been exposed to early adversity were less able than their peers to correctly learn which stimuli were likely to result in reward, even after repeated feedback. These individuals also used information about known rewards in their environments less often. In addition, individuals exposed to adversity made decisions early in the learning process as if rewards were less consistent and occurred more at random. These data suggest one mechanism through which early life experience shapes behavioral development. © 2017 Association for Child and

  4. Early adversity and learning: implications for typical and atypical behavioral development

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; van den Bos, Wouter; Roeber, Barbara J.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Children who experience early adversity often develop emotion regulatory problems, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relation. We tested whether general associative learning processes contribute to associations between adversity, in the form of child maltreatment, and negative behavioral outcomes. Methods Eighty-one participants between 12 and 17 years of age were recruited for this study and completed a probabilistic learning Task. Forty-one of these participants had been exposed to physical abuse, a form of early adversity. Forty additional participants without any known history of maltreatment served as a comparison group. All participants (and their parents) also completed portions of the Youth Life Stress Interview to understand adolescent’s behavior. We calculated measures of associative learning, and also constructed mathematical models of learning. Results We found that adolescents exposed to high levels of adversity early in their lives had lower levels of associative learning than comparison adolescents. In addition, we found that impaired associative learning partially explained the higher levels of behavioral problems among youth who suffered early adversity. Using mathematical models, we also found that two components of learning were specifically affected in children exposed to adversity: choice variability and biases in their beliefs about the likelihood of rewards in the environment. Conclusions Participants who had been exposed to early adversity were less able than their peers to correctly learn which stimuli were likely to result in reward, even after repeated feedback. These individuals also used information about known rewards in their environments less often. In addition, individuals exposed to adversity made decisions early in the learning process as if rewards were less consistent and occurred more at random. These data suggest one mechanism through which early life experience shapes behavioral

  5. Learning in Early Childhood: Experiences, Relationships and "Learning to Be"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayler, Collette

    2015-01-01

    Learning in the earliest stage of life--the infancy, toddlerhood and preschool period--is relational and rapid. Child-initiated and adult-mediated conversations, playful interactions and learning through active involvement are integral to young children making sense of their environments and to their development over time. The child's experience…

  6. Supporting State Systems of Early Learning Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Himes, James A. [D-CT-4

    2011-11-02

    House - 11/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Early onset marijuana use is associated with learning inefficiencies.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Evins, A Eden; Gilman, Jodi M

    2016-05-01

    Verbal memory difficulties are the most widely reported and persistent cognitive deficit associated with early onset marijuana use. Yet, it is not known what memory stages are most impaired in those with early marijuana use. Forty-eight young adults, aged 18-25, who used marijuana at least once per week and 48 matched nonusing controls (CON) completed the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Marijuana users were stratified by age of initial use: early onset users (EMJ), who started using marijuana at or before age 16 (n = 27), and late onset marijuana user group (LMJ), who started using marijuana after age 16 (n = 21). Outcome variables included trial immediate recall, total learning, clustering strategies (semantic clustering, serial clustering, ratio of semantic to serial clustering, and total number of strategies used), delayed recall, and percent retention. Learning improved with repetition, with no group effect on the learning slope. EMJ learned fewer words overall than LMJ or CON. There was no difference between LMJ and CON in total number of words learned. Reduced overall learning mediated the effect on reduced delayed recall among EMJ, but not CON or LMJ. Learning improved with greater use of semantic versus serial encoding, but this did not vary between groups. EMJ was not related to delayed recall after adjusting for encoding. Young adults reporting early onset marijuana use had learning weaknesses, which accounted for the association between early onset marijuana use and delayed recall. No amnestic effect of marijuana use was observed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Early Onset Marijuana Use Is Associated with Learning Inefficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Hoeppner, Susanne S.; Evins, A. Eden; Gilman, Jodi M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Verbal memory difficulties are the most widely reported and persistent cognitive deficit associated with early-onset marijuana use. Yet, it is not known what memory stages are most impaired in those with early marijuana use. Method Forty-eight young adults, aged 18–25, who used marijuana at least once per week and 48 matched non-using controls (CON) completed the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Marijuana users were stratified by age of initial use: ‘early onset’ users (EMJ), who started using marijuana at or before age 16 (n = 27), and ‘late onset’ marijuana user group (LMJ), who started using marijuana after age 16 (n = 21). Outcome variables included trial immediate recall, total learning, clustering strategies (semantic clustering, serial clustering, ratio of semantic to serial clustering, and total number of strategies used), delayed recall, and percent retention. Results Learning improved with repetition, with no group effect on the learning slope. EMJ learned fewer words overall than LMJ or CON. There was no difference between LMJ and CON in total number of words learned. Reduced overall learning mediated the effect on reduced delayed recall among EMJ, but not CON or LMJ. Learning improved with greater use of semantic versus serial encoding, but this did not vary between groups. EMJ was not related to delayed recall after adjusting for encoding. Conclusions Young adults reporting early onset marijuana use had learning weaknesses, which accounted for the association between early onset marijuana use and delayed recall. No amnestic effect of marijuana use was observed. PMID:26986749

  9. Joy in Learning: Making It Happen in Early Childhood Classes. NEA Early Childhood Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leon H.

    A premise of this book for teachers of young children is that all learning should be challenging, interesting, and enjoyable. Chapters include: (1) A Philosophy for Early Education (concerning the nature of young children, learning contexts, societal expectations); (2) Child Development (concerning independence, self-esteem, cooperative…

  10. Start Early to Build a Healthy Future: The Research Linking Early Learning and Health. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Brooke; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Every child deserves a fair chance. A chance to learn, grow, explore possibilities, persevere and achieve his or her potential. The Ounce of Prevention Fund believes that no child's potential should be limited by poor health. Good health in early childhood is an essential component of school readiness. The benefits of health and learning are…

  11. Lifewide Learning for Early Reading Development.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Amy Jo; Friedlander, Elliott; Jonason, Christine; Leer, Jane; Sorensen, Lisa Zook; Guajardo, Jarrett; D'Sa, Nikhit; Pava, Clara; Pisani, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The authors examine the relationships between children's reading abilities and the enabling environment for learning in the context of Save the Children's Literacy Boost program. They conceptualize the enabling environment at a micro level, with two components: the home literacy environment, represented by reading materials/habits at home, and the community learning environment (community reading activities). Using longitudinal reading scores of 6,874 students in 424 schools in 12 sites across Africa and Asia, there was 1) a modest but consistent relationship between students' home literacy environments and reading scores, and 2) a strong relationship between reading gains and participation in community reading activities, suggesting that interventions should consider both home and community learning environments and their differential influences on interventions across different low-resource settings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Practitioner Perspectives: Children's Use of Technology in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formby, Susie

    2014-01-01

    This research, a collaboration between Pearson and the National Literacy Trust, was designed to explore the use of technology by children in the early years. In 2013 Pearson and the National Literacy Trust invited practitioners who work with three to five-year-olds to take part in an online survey to explore how they support children's language…

  13. Learning Clicks: Year End Report 2008/2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Learning Clicks was developed in 2003 as an interactive, fun way for Alberta students to learn about these opportunities. Learning Clicks is a program designed to support Strategy 2.4 in Alberta Advanced Education and Technology's 2007-10 Business Plan. The 2008/2009 season was the 5th year of the Learning Clicks program. This paper offers a…

  14. Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…

  15. Visual variability affects early verb learning.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Katherine E; Lush, Lauren; Pearce, Ruth; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-09-01

    Research demonstrates that within-category visual variability facilitates noun learning; however, the effect of visual variability on verb learning is unknown. We habituated 24-month-old children to a novel verb paired with an animated star-shaped actor. Across multiple trials, children saw either a single action from an action category (identical actions condition, for example, travelling while repeatedly changing into a circle shape) or multiple actions from that action category (variable actions condition, for example, travelling while changing into a circle shape, then a square shape, then a triangle shape). Four test trials followed habituation. One paired the habituated verb with a new action from the habituated category (e.g., 'dacking' + pentagon shape) and one with a completely novel action (e.g., 'dacking' + leg movement). The others paired a new verb with a new same-category action (e.g., 'keefing' + pentagon shape), or a completely novel category action (e.g., 'keefing' + leg movement). Although all children discriminated novel verb/action pairs, children in the identical actions condition discriminated trials that included the completely novel verb, while children in the variable actions condition discriminated the out-of-category action. These data suggest that - as in noun learning - visual variability affects verb learning and children's ability to form action categories. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Early Language Learning: Complexity and Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enever, Janet, Ed.; Lindgren, Eva, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first collection of research studies to explore the potential for mixed methods to shed light on foreign or second language learning by young learners in instructed contexts. It brings together recent studies undertaken in Cameroon, China, Croatia, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tanzania and…

  17. Parents Resourcing Children's Early Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue; Nixon, Helen; Pudney, Valerie; Jurvansuu, Sari

    2009-01-01

    Parents deal with a complex web of choices when seeking and using knowledge and resources related to their young children's literacy development. Information concerning children's learning and development comes in many forms and is produced by an increasingly diverse range of players including governments, non-government organizations and…

  18. [Associative Learning between Orientation and Color in Early Visual Areas].

    PubMed

    Amano, Kaoru; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2017-08-01

    Associative learning is an essential neural phenomenon where the contingency of different items increases after training. Although associative learning has been found to occur in many brain regions, there is no clear evidence that associative learning of visual features occurs in early visual areas. Here, we developed an associative decoded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback (A-DecNef) to determine whether associative learning of color and orientation can be induced in early visual areas. During the three days' training, A-DecNef induced fMRI signal patterns that corresponded to a specific target color (red) mostly in early visual areas while a vertical achromatic grating was simultaneously, physically presented to participants. Consequently, participants' perception of "red" was significantly more frequently than that of "green" in an achromatic vertical grating. This effect was also observed 3 to 5 months after training. These results suggest that long-term associative learning of two different visual features such as color and orientation, was induced most likely in early visual areas. This newly extended technique that induces associative learning may be used as an important tool for understanding and modifying brain function, since associations are fundamental and ubiquitous with respect to brain function.

  19. Professional learning communities (PLCs) for early childhood science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, Jungwon

    This study explored the content, processes, and dynamics of Professional Learning Community (PLC) sessions. This study also investigated changes in preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science teaching after they participated in two different forms of PLCs including workshop and face-to-face PLC as well as workshop and online PLC. Multiple sources of data were collected for this study including participant artifacts and facilitator field notes during the PLC sessions. The participants in this study were eight teachers from NAEYC-accredited child care centers serving 3- to 5-year-old children in an urban Midwest city. All teachers participated in a workshop entitled, "Ramps and Pathways." Following the workshop, the first group engaged in face-to-face PLC sessions and the other group engaged in online PLC sessions. Qualitative data were collected through audio recordings, online archives, and open-ended surveys. The teachers' dialogue during the face-to-face PLC sessions was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed for emerging themes. Online archives during the online PLC sessions were collected and analyzed for emerging themes. Four main themes and 13 subthemes emanated from the face-to-face sessions, and 3 main themes and 7 subthemes emanated from the online sessions. During the face-to-face sessions, the teachers worked collaboratively by sharing their practices, supporting each other, and planning a lesson together. They also engaged in inquiry and reflection about their science teaching and child learning in a positive climate. During the online sessions, the teachers shared their thoughts and documentation and revisited their science teaching and child learning. Five themes and 15 subthemes emanated from the open-ended survey responses of face-to-face group teachers, and 3 themes and 7 subthemes emanated from the open-ended survey responses of online group teachers. Quantitative data collected in this study showed changes in teachers' attitudes and

  20. Using Computers in Early Years Education: What Are the Effects on Children's Development? Some Suggestions Concerning Beneficial Computer Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Technology in education is considered in empirical and theoretical literature as both beneficial and harmful to children's development. In the field of the early years settings there is a dilemma whether or not early childhood teachers should use technology as a teaching and learning resource. This paper has a pedagogical focus, discussing the…

  1. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists: a model for experiential learning in professional development for students and early career researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.

  2. Understanding Cognitive Development: Automaticity and the Early Years Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Colette

    2004-01-01

    In recent years a growing body of evidence has implicated deficits in the automaticity of fundamental facts such as word and number recognition in a range of disorders: including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, apraxia and autism. Variously described as habits, fluency, chunking and over learning, automatic processes are best…

  3. Developmental changes in automatic rule-learning mechanisms across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jutta L; Friederici, Angela D; Männel, Claudia

    2018-06-27

    Infants' ability to learn complex linguistic regularities from early on has been revealed by electrophysiological studies indicating that 3-month-olds, but not adults, can automatically detect non-adjacent dependencies between syllables. While different ERP responses in adults and infants suggest that both linguistic rule learning and its link to basic auditory processing undergo developmental changes, systematic investigations of the developmental trajectories are scarce. In the present study, we assessed 2- and 4-year-olds' ERP indicators of pitch discrimination and linguistic rule learning in a syllable-based oddball design. To test for the relation between auditory discrimination and rule learning, ERP responses to pitch changes were used as predictor for potential linguistic rule-learning effects. Results revealed that 2-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, showed ERP markers of rule learning. Although, 2-year-olds' rule learning was not dependent on differences in pitch perception, 4-year-old children demonstrated a dependency, such that those children who showed more pronounced responses to pitch changes still showed an effect of rule learning. These results narrow down the developmental decline of the ability for automatic linguistic rule learning to the age between 2 and 4 years, and, moreover, point towards a strong modification of this change by auditory processes. At an age when the ability of automatic linguistic rule learning phases out, rule learning can still be observed in children with enhanced auditory responses. The observed interrelations are plausible causes for age-of-acquisition effects and inter-individual differences in language learning. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Social Experience of Early Childhood for Children with Learning Disabilities: Inclusion, Competence and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Flewitt, Rosie; Payler, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper tells of the social experiences of three four-year-old children with learning disabilities as they negotiate their daily lives in their homes and early education settings in England. We apply a social model of childhood disability to the relatively unexplored territory of young children and use vignettes drawn from video observation to…

  5. Socio-Economic Status, Parenting Practices and Early Learning at French Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…

  6. Differential Effects of Home and Preschool Learning Environments on Early Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmerse, Daniel; Anders, Yvonne; Flöter, Manja; Wieduwilt, Nadine; Roßbach, Hans-Günther; Tietze, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    The present study is based on longitudinal data from a German early childhood education and care (ECEC) governmental initiative assessing children's grammatical and vocabulary development between 2;6 and 4;0 years (N = 1,331), quality of the home learning environment and quality of the preschool setting. Results showed that the quality of the home…

  7. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  8. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  9. Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives on Social-Emotional Competence and Learning in Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Williams, Brittney V.; May, Tanginia

    2018-01-01

    The promotion of social-emotional competence and implementation of social-emotional learning programs have increased substantially in schools; however, little is known about teachers' perceptions of such programs. This qualitative study explored early childhood (3 to 8 years old) teachers' perceptions of classroom-based social-emotional learning…

  10. Efficacy Trial of the Second Step Early Learning (SSEL) Curriculum: Preliminary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upshur, Carole C.; Heyman, Miriam; Wenz-Gross, Melodie

    2017-01-01

    A classroom randomized trial (n = 31 classrooms) was conducted using the Second Step Early Learning (SSEL) curriculum compared to usual curricula. Head Start and community preschool classrooms enrolling low income children were randomly assigned to deliver SSEL (n = 16) or usual curricula (n = 15). Data are reported for four year olds…

  11. Brain Development and Early Learning: Research on Brain Development. Quality Matters. Volume 1, Winter 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, David; Schmid, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    For decades researchers have been aware of the extraordinary development of a child's brain during the first five years of life. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped crystallize earlier findings, bringing new clarity and understanding to the field of early childhood brain development. Children are born ready to learn. They cultivate 85…

  12. 78 FR 38957 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Race to the Top-Early Learning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Department of Defense and Full- Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, and the Department of Education... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [Docket No. ED-2013-ICCD-0085] Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge Annual Performance Report AGENCY: Office of...

  13. Clinical imprinting: the impact of early clinical learning on career long professional development in nursing.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Nicola

    2013-05-01

    The literature recognises a relationship between clinical experience and a successful undergraduate experience in nursing; however what constitutes an effective approach remains the subject of debate, particularly in relation to first year of learning. There is evidence from a biological standpoint that early experience impacts on the behavioural development of animals, described by Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) as 'imprinting'. The concept of imprinting has resonance for nursing. In this article the importance of 'getting it right at the beginning' is explored and what, if anything, Lorenz's theory tells us about the impact of early clinical learning on subsequent professional development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Teacher Responses to Learning Cycle Science Lessons for Early Childhood Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Emily N.

    Three learning cycle science lessons were developed for preschoolers in an early childhood children's center in Costa Mesa, California. The lessons were field tested by both novice and experienced teachers with children ranging from three to five years old. Teachers were then interviewed informally to collect feedback on the structure and flow the lessons. The feedback was encouraging remarks towards the use of learning cycle science lessons for early childhood educators. Adjustments were made to the lessons based on teacher feedback. The lessons and their implications for preschool education are discussed.

  15. Efficacy of Language Intervention in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricke, Silke; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Haley, Allyson J.; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral language skills in the preschool and early school years are critical to educational success and provide the foundations for the later development of reading comprehension. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 180 children from 15 UK nursery schools ("n" = 12 from each setting; M[subscript age] = 4;0) were randomly…

  16. Computing Education in Children's Early Years: A Call for Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manches, Andrew; Plowman, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    International changes in policy and curricula (notably recent developments in England) have led to a focus on the role of computing education in the early years. As interest in the potential of computing education has increased, there has been a proliferation of programming tools designed for young children. While these changes are broadly to be…

  17. Building Language Throughout the Year: The Preschool Early Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lybolt, John; Armstrong, Jennifer; Techmanski, Kristin Evans; Gottfred, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    For children from low-resource backgrounds, a literacy-rich preschool experience with a skilled and engaged teacher can offset risk factors and lay the groundwork for lifelong academic success. Now schools can ensure effective early literacy instruction with this field-tested, research-based curriculum for children 3 to 5 years of age. These 41…

  18. Multimodal Transcription of Video: Examining Interaction in Early Years Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Video is an increasingly popular data collection tool for those undertaking social research, offering a temporal, sequential, fine-grained record which is durable, malleable and sharable. These characteristics make video a valuable resource for researching Early Years classrooms, particularly with regard to the study of children's interaction in…

  19. Early Identification System: Year Two. Research Report 80-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stennett, R. G.; Earl, L. M.

    During the academic year 1978-79, school teams implemented a newly developed early identification system in all kindergarten and grade one classes in London, Ontario schools. After analysis and revision of the system, the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the process and a test of its short-term predictive validity were investigated.…

  20. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  1. Eliciting Systematic Rule Use in Covariation Judgment [the Early Years].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; Paszek, Donald

    Related research suggests that children may show some simple understanding of event covariations by the early elementary school years. The present experiments use a rule analysis methodology to investigate covariation judgments of children in this age range. In Experiment 1, children in second, third and fourth grade judged covariations on 12…

  2. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  3. The Third Year of the Brookline Early Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Donald E.

    This is the third progress report of the Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP) which is a program designed to provide diagnostic and educational services to the family through their child's preschool years. This document provides information on (1) the BEEP center, (2) playgroups: transition phase of the education program, (3) dental screening…

  4. Approaches to Developing Health in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Ann; Boddy, Janet; Statham, June; Warwick, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to consider the opportunities and difficulties in developing health-promotion work in early years settings in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: As the first study of its kind conducted in the UK, a multi-method approach was adopted involving: an overview of health-related guidance and of effective…

  5. Barriers and Solutions to HE Progression for Early Years' Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Alexandra; Carey, Danielle; Cramp, Andy; Perkins, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Shifts in UK social and economic policy have focused on education and care in the Early Years as key to improving social inclusion, skills acquisition and longer term social and economic prosperity. The implications for practitioners in the sector have been significant as roles, functions and foci have been renegotiated through the processes of…

  6. Monsters under the Bed: Critically Investigating Early Years Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melrose, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    "Monsters Under the Bed" is an essential text focussing on critical and contemporary issues surrounding writing for "early years" children. Containing a critically creative and a creatively critical investigation of the cult and culture of the child and childhood in fiction and non-fictional writing, it also contains a wealth of ideas and critical…

  7. Child Participation in the Early Years: Challenges for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Maryanne; Danby, Susan; Ailwood, Jo

    2011-01-01

    The view that children should have a say in and participate in the decision making of matters that affect them is now an accepted position when considering research and policy in the early years. This paper reviews the field of child participation in the Australian context to show that, despite growing evidence of support within policy and…

  8. Being a Manager in the English Early Years Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on interviews with 29 managers and deputy managers within 15 nurseries in the private sector in England. The author argues that, whilst there is a growing literature on management and professionalism within the Early Years (EY) sector, there is less known about the actual experiences of being a manager in this context. Many of…

  9. 34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE INN MUSICIANS SAT AND PLAYED FOR THE GUESTS IN THE LOBBY BELOW. THE EARTHQUAKE IN 1959 CAUSED SOME STRUCTURAL DAMAGE AND NOW THE CROW'S NEST IS NOT ACCESSIBLE TO THE PUBLIC. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  10. Investigating Early Years Teachers' Understanding and Response to Children's Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambouri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on young children's scientific preconceptions and discusses teachers' identification of these preconceptions when teaching science in the early years, on which research is still limited. This paper is based on the theoretical framework of constructivism and it defines preconceptions as children's erroneous concepts prior to…

  11. Learning to Learn in Years 1 and 2 of Hungarian Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habók, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Learning to learn (L2L) is an important component of lifelong learning. First, the article discusses various possible definitions of L2L and identifies the most comprehensible definition, which provides the basis for the analysis. Subsequently, it presents the results of a pilot study carried out in the early stage of primary education. This study…

  12. Learning to Read and the Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    You have young preschool children. You think ahead to when they will begin school, and wonder what you might do to make it easy for your children to learn to read. This article offers some hints for parents and caregivers about learning to read: (1) Reading can begin at birth; (2) When reading aloud to an infant, make the experience a warm, loving…

  13. Early boost and slow consolidation in motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; Maertens de Noordhout, Alain; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Motorskill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as 5-30 min after training but no longer observed 4 h later. This early boost is predictive of the performance achieved 48 h later, suggesting its functional relevance for memory processes.

  14. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  15. Rethinking Early Learning and Development Standards in the Ugandan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…

  16. Workjobs: Activity-Centered Learning for Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorton, Mary Baratta

    Based on the idea that through active involvement with the materials the child would draw out the generalizations within the material, a teacher's method of activity-centered learning for early childhood education is presented. The first section of the book deals with the development of language through workjobs, emphasizing perception, matching,…

  17. Report to the Legislature: Child Welfare and Early Learning Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Department of Early Learning, 2015

    2015-01-01

    House Bill 2519, sponsored by Representative Tana Senn, was passed during the 2014 legislative session and signed into law by Governor Jay Inslee. HB 2519 directs the Department of Early Learning (DEL) and the Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) to jointly develop recommendations on methods to "better partner to ensure children…

  18. Agency in Early Childhood Learning and Development in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsamenang, A. Bame

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on agency, as a natural disposition in children to be active and participative. Africa's parenting attitudes and education in African family traditions encourage and foster children's responsible agency in family life, cultural and economic activities, and their own developmental learning from an early, especially within the…

  19. Assessing the Impact of Early Learning Programs in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, Amber; Brunette, Tracy; Bulat, Jennae; Carrol, Bidemi; Henny, Catherine; Macon, Wykia; Nderu, Evangeline; Sitabkhan, Yasmin

    2017-01-01

    We present results from early learning programs in six African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. In partnership with ministries of education, RTI International has worked within government systems to support the design and deployment of locally contextualized materials, training, and assessment tools, with the goal…

  20. Promoting Meaningful Learning: Innovations in Educating Early Childhood Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola J., Ed.

    Grounded in active learning, inquiry, and problem solving embedded in a social and cultural context, this book presents a collection of ideas illustrating innovative practices for educating early childhood professionals in university and other contexts. The book is presented in three parts. Part 1, "Listening to Student Voices," is…

  1. A Collaborative Inquiry into Museum and Library Early Learning Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirinides, Phil; Fink, Ryan; DuBois, Tesla

    2016-01-01

    As states, cities, and communities take a more active role in ensuring that all children have access to high quality experiences and opportunities to learn, many are looking to museums and libraries as part of the early childhood education system. Museums and libraries can play a critical role in these efforts, and there is clear momentum and…

  2. Learning in the Early Grades: Parents and Teachers Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Midge, Ed.

    This booklet contains four articles, from the perspective of both parents and teachers, concerned with learning in the early grades. "From Kindergarten to Grade One: Making the Transition" (J. Ward), is a teacher's narrative on the importance of creating a child-centered classroom and an integrated, play-based curriculum. This article…

  3. A Study of Early Learning Services in Museums and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirinides, P.; Fink, R.; DuBois, T.

    2017-01-01

    Museums and libraries can play a role in providing opportunities for early learning, and there is clear momentum and infrastructure already in place to help make this happen. Researchers conducted a mixed-methods descriptive study to generate new evidence about the availability of services for young children in museums and libraries, and the…

  4. Never Too Early to Learn: Antibias Education for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooven, Jennifer; Runkle, Katherine; Strouse, Laurie; Woods, Misty; Frankenberg, Erica

    2018-01-01

    Four early childhood educators, along with a university researcher, describe their efforts to implement an antiracist, antibias curriculum in a daycare and preschool setting. Even very young children can learn important lessons about race, diversity, and equity, they argue, and teachers should not shy away from addressing these issues at staff…

  5. Learning with Nature and Learning from Others: Nature as Setting and Resource for Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences--in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners--are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A…

  6. Informal Science Learning through Inquiry: Effects on Preschool Students' Achievement in Early Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Haniza, Noor Hasyimah; Ismail, Juliah; Abd-Talib, Corrienna

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the effects of informal science learning outside the classroom on preschool students' achievement in the Early Science learning topic (plant-related topics that presented concepts about tree leaves, height and roots) using an inquiry method. A sample of 64 preschool students was selected using purposive…

  7. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These three journals include articles on issues related to language learning. The fall 1998 journal presents: "Attention! Are You Seeking a Position with Excellent Long-Term Benefits? Be an Advocate!" (Mary Lynn Redmond); "National Town Meeting Energizes Support for Early Language Learning" (Marcia Harmon Rosenbusch);…

  8. When Service Learning Meets the Project Approach: Incorporating Service Learning in an Early Childhood Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Eul Jung; Hertzog, Nancy B.; Gaffney, Janet S.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2012-01-01

    The researchers described in this case study how Service Learning was incorporated within the context of an early childhood program where the teachers used the Project Approach. The Service Learning project was embedded in an investigation about water and was designed to help tsunami victims in Asia. Participants included two teachers and 12…

  9. Understanding the Early Career Benefits of Learning Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Davina

    2015-01-01

    European and U.S. institutions have promoted the value of a learning abroad experience for many years. As Australian higher education institutions have adopted policies and strategies to increase participation in learning abroad, with employability as a central argument, it is important to study this claim. This article examines the links between…

  10. Learning Mentors Eight Years on: Still Removing Barriers to Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jo

    2011-01-01

    The Learning Mentor role has been seen as one of the success stories of education policy introduced under New Labour, establishing itself as a key figure in the explosion of new non-teaching roles in the schools workforce. But have they stuck to their original, somewhat narrow brief of "removing barriers to learning" with the primary aim…

  11. Leadership for Learning: Lessons from 40 Years of Empirical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a research-based model of leadership for learning. It argues that the field has made substantial progress over the past 40 years in identifying ways in which leadership contributes to learning and school improvement. Four specific dimensions of leading for learning are presented: values and beliefs, leadership…

  12. Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge: An Analysis of Impact on IDEIA, Part C Early Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohjanen, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    Infants and toddlers who live in poverty are more likely to experience developmental delays or disabilities and less likely to access early intervention (EI) services. The federal initiative Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) was designed to increase access to high quality early learning programs for children at risk for…

  13. Twenty years of immunocontraceptive research: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Eckery, Douglas C

    2013-12-01

    The National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) began immunocontraception vaccine research by testing porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Early PZP research demonstrated that PZP induced infertility; however, increased length of the rut was observed in PZP-treated deer. An alternative vaccine using a keyhole limpet hemocyanin-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (KLH-GnRH) conjugate formulated with modified Freund's adjuvant was developed at NWRC. Suppression of GnRH has reduced reproduction in both sexes but is most effective in females. This vaccine was effective in preventing contraception in female deer for several years after a prime and boost. Due to adverse side effects of Freund's adjuvant, NWRC developed a new adjuvant called AdjuVac, a mineral oil/surfactant adjuvant with the addition of Mycobacterium avium as an immunostimulant. The price of KLH prompted a search for a more economical hemocyanin carrier protein for the GnRH peptide. Blue protein, derived from the mollusk Concholepas concholepas, proved to be a successful option. Formulation improvements resulted in a vaccine that can be effective as a single injection for multiple years, now called GonaCon. GonaCon is registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in white-tailed deer in urban/suburban areas and for wild horses (Equus caballus) and burros (Equus asinus). Future GonaCon applications may include reducing reproduction to manage populations of other wildlife species, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in urban areas and suppressing reproduction to reduce the spread of venereal diseases such as brucellosis. Research is being conducted to develop a GnRH vaccine used in combination with the rabies vaccine to control population growth in free-roaming dogs, with the secondary effect of managing the spread of rabies. The EPA would regulate all these uses. Research is also ongoing on a GnRH vaccine to delay the onset of adrenocortical

  14. Suitable Work for Women? Roles, Relationships and Changing Identities of "Other Adults" in the Early Years Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkham, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This article explores some of the issues around the agenda for workforce reform as it applies to professionals who work in early years classrooms (4-7 year olds), who work alongside class teachers in supporting learning. Their changing roles, responsibilities and professional identities are examined through a small scale case study of four women,…

  15. Margaret and Rachel McMillan: Their Influences on Open-Air Nursery Education and Early Years Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebovich, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Rachel and Margaret McMillan created an open-air nursery in Deptford, London that has influenced early years education for 100 years. Their vision for young children living in poverty and deprivation to have access to fresh air through outdoor learning, nutritious meals, and an enriching environment to explore and develop has been embraced and…

  16. Speaker variability augments phonological processing in early word learning

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McMurray, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Infants in the early stages of word learning have difficulty learning lexical neighbors (i.e., word pairs that differ by a single phoneme), despite the ability to discriminate the same contrast in a purely auditory task. While prior work has focused on top-down explanations for this failure (e.g. task demands, lexical competition), none has examined if bottom-up acoustic-phonetic factors play a role. We hypothesized that lexical neighbor learning could be improved by incorporating greater acoustic variability in the words being learned, as this may buttress still developing phonetic categories, and help infants identify the relevant contrastive dimension. Infants were exposed to pictures accompanied by labels spoken by either a single or multiple speakers. At test, infants in the single-speaker condition failed to recognize the difference between the two words, while infants who heard multiple speakers discriminated between them. PMID:19143806

  17. Observing and Assessing Young Children's Digital Play in the Early Years: Using the Digital Play Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan; Bird, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood education settings are characterized by the use of play-based learning and the assessment of children's play by teachers to promote further learning. A problem with technology use in early childhood settings is that little is known about how children learn to use technologies through play. This lack of knowledge makes it difficult…

  18. Learning from parents' stories about what works in early intervention.

    PubMed

    Pighini, Maria J; Goelman, Hillel; Buchanan, Marla; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly; Brynelsen, Dana

    2014-08-01

    Using a multiple case study approach, this ethnography examined the experiences of parents of children deemed at risk for developmental delays or disabilities who had received early intervention (EI) services (birth to age 3 years) in a large urban location in Western Canada. Participants (11 adult parents and 7 children) were drawn from six families. Methods of data collection included focus groups (FG), face-to-face interviews and file reviews. Member check and expert reviews were conducted throughout data collection and data analyses as part of the validation process in this ethnography. Qualitative content analyses followed by thematic analyses highlighted the implementation of family-centred practices (FCP) as a main theme. Parents identified how EI professionals using FCP embraced collaborative practices. FCP resulted in parents leading the EI process for their children. More specifically, EI professionals shared strategies and information to support parents in gaining a deeper understanding of their children's individual developmental characteristics. Parents expressed how empowering this level of understanding was for them as they learned to articulate what were their children's needs for developmental, health and educational services. Recommendations for future research include inquiring about parents' experiences for families of diverse constellations and/or residing in smaller urban or rural communities. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Early Learning: Birth to Third Grade Continuum. Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that persistent achievement gaps among children begin as early as 18 months, years before most publicly funded prekindergarten programs offer enrollment. Early childhood development necessitates more than access to pre-K at age four. Proper brain development requires adequate nutrition, access to quality healthcare, and…

  20. Narrative assessment: making mathematics learning visible in early childhood settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories—the preferred form of narrative assessment—currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.

  1. Early Foundations for Mathematics Learning and Their Relations to Learning Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Geary, David C

    2013-02-01

    Children's quantitative competencies upon entry into school can have lifelong consequences. Children who start behind generally stay behind, and mathematical skills at school completion influence employment prospects and wages in adulthood. I review the current debate over whether early quantitative learning is supported by (a) an inherent system for representing approximate magnitudes, (b) an attentional-control system that enables explicit processing of quantitative symbols, such as Arabic numerals, or (c) the logical problem-solving abilities that facilitate learning of the relations among numerals. Studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities and difficulties have suggested that each of these competencies may be involved, but to different degrees and at different points in the learning process. Clarifying how and when these competencies facilitate early quantitative learning and developing interventions to address their impact on children have the potential to yield substantial benefits for individuals and for society.

  2. Early Life Manipulations Alter Learning and Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kosten, Therese A; Kim, Jeansok J; Lee, Hongjoo J.

    2012-01-01

    Much research shows early life manipulations have enduring behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. However, findings of learning and memory performance vary widely across studies. We reviewed studies in which pre-weaning rat pups were exposed to stressors and tested on learning and memory tasks in adulthood. Tasks were classified as aversive conditioning, inhibitory learning, or spatial/relational memory. Variables of duration, type, and timing of neonatal manipulation and sex and strain of animals were examined to determine if any predict enhanced or impaired performance. Brief separations enhanced and prolonged separations impaired performance on spatial/relational tasks. Performance was impaired in aversive conditioning and enhanced in inhibitory learning tasks regardless of manipulation duration. Opposing effects on performance for spatial/relational memory also depended upon timing of manipulation. Enhanced performance was likely if the manipulation occurred during postnatal week 3 but performance was impaired if it was confined to the first two postnatal weeks. Thus, the relationship between early life experiences and adulthood learning and memory performance is multifaceted and decidedly task-dependent. PMID:22819985

  3. Lifelong Learning: Thirty Years of Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Arthur

    In the 1960s, most individuals engaged in adult education in Great Britain were romantics in the sense that they considered the impetus of the field to be not just to remedy deficits, make up for inadequate educational resources in the broader society, or meet new needs but also to make learning part of the process of social change itself.…

  4. Toward a Model for Early Childhood Environmental Education: Foregrounding, Developing, and Connecting Knowledge through Play-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education represents a growing area of interest in early childhood education, especially since the inclusion of environmental principles and practices in the Australian Early Years Learning Framework. Traditionally, these two fields of education have been characterized by diverse pedagogical emphases. This article considers how…

  5. Early Childhood Development in the Montreal Study Area (Quebec). Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  6. Early Childhood Development in Abbotsford, British Columbia. Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  7. Early Childhood Development in Niagara Falls, Ontario. Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilms, Douglas J.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  8. Early Childhood Development in the Dixie Bloor Community of Mississauga, Ontario. Understanding the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  9. Early Childhood Development in Hampton/Sussex, New Brunswick. Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, J. Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  10. Turkish Early Childhood Teachers' Emotional Problems in Early Years of Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotaman, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elaborate on the emotional problems faced by Turkish early childhood teachers in their interaction with students, parents, administrators and colleagues in the first three years of their professional lives. Data for this research consists of in-depth interviews with Turkish kindergarten teachers, where these…

  11. Early Tracking or Finally Leaving? Determinants of Early Study Success in First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan; Flache, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches underlie this investigation of the determinants of early study success among first-year university students. Specifically, to extend Walberg's educational productivity model, this study draws on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation in a contemporary university context. The survey data came from 407…

  12. Learning to Read the World: Language and Literacy in the First Three Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp-Philo, Joanne, Ed.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The newborn is amazingly equipped to acquire language and literacy--these early years are the foundation upon which later learning is built. Drawing on current research, the authors of this book examine the elements of beginning language and literacy and look at how families, programs, and communities can encourage beginning language and literacy…

  13. Evaluation of First-Year Faculty Learning Communities on Teaching Effectiveness and Scholarship: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhavsar, Grishma P.; Grote, Kandice; Galvan, Melisa C.; Tyutina, Svetlana V.; Guan, Shu-Sha Angie; Stapleton, Lissa D.; Knotts, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Faculty in their early careers discover unique and unanticipated concerns in navigating academia and attempting to create life balance. These needs must be addressed to ensure retention and success in the tenure process. This exploratory study found the creation of first-year faculty learning communities (FLCs) provides needed, integral, and…

  14. Behavior Disorders and Learning Disabilities over 15 Years in Rural Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huessy, Hans R.

    Early identification of Minimal Brain Dysfunction (MBD) is now easier, partly as a result of a series of 3 studies made in rural Vermont over a period of 15 years. MBD victims exhibit different behaviors at different ages. "Fidgetiness", a "nuisance" factor, and poor learning are all strong predictors of MBD for children at the…

  15. Results and Implications of a 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Science Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing…

  16. Evolution of cystic fibrosis lung function in the early years.

    PubMed

    Bush, Andrew; Sly, Peter D

    2015-11-01

    Most treatment of newborn screening-diagnosed cystic fibrosis is not evidence-based; there are very few randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Furthermore, the advent of novel molecular therapies, which could be started at diagnosis, mandates performing RCTs in very young children. However, unless the natural history of early cystic fibrosis lung disease is known, RCTs are impossible. Here, we review the results of two large prospective cohorts of these infants - London Cystic Fibrosis Collaboration (LCFC) (London, UK) and Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST-CF) (Australia). Nutritional status remained excellent in both the cohorts. Both cohorts reported abnormal lung function aged at 3 months. AREST-CF, which previously reported rapidly declining preschool lung function, now report good conventional school-age spirometry. LCFC reported improvement between 3 months and 1 year, and stability in the second year. AREST-CF also reported a high prevalence of high resolution computed tomographic abnormalities related to free neutrophil elastase in bronchoalveolar lavage; LCFC reported high resolution computed tomographic changes at 1 year, which were too mild to be scored reproducibly. At least in the first 2 years of life, lung function is not a good end-point for RCTs; routine bronchoalveolar lavage and HRCT cannot be justified. Newborn screening has greatly improved outcomes, but we need better point-of-care biomarkers.

  17. Culture and the Brain: Making the Most of Learning in the Early Childhood Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Fair, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the impetus for higher quality, culturally appropriate early learning experiences. It investigates the economic costs of low quality learning and the absence of early learning programs as well. The article identifies and explores the tenets of brain-based learning and its connection to culture. Finally, the article describes…

  18. Dorsolateral Striatum Engagement Interferes with Early Discrimination Learning.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Hadley C; Lipkin, Anna M; Lieberman, Abby G; Pinard, Courtney R; Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Brockway, Emma T; Taylor, William W; Nonaka, Mio; Bukalo, Olena; Wills, Tiffany A; Rubio, F Javier; Li, Xuan; Pickens, Charles L; Winder, Danny G; Holmes, Andrew

    2018-05-22

    In current models, learning the relationship between environmental stimuli and the outcomes of actions involves both stimulus-driven and goal-directed systems, mediated in part by the DLS and DMS, respectively. However, though these models emphasize the importance of the DLS in governing actions after extensive experience has accumulated, there is growing evidence of DLS engagement from the onset of training. Here, we used in vivo photosilencing to reveal that DLS recruitment interferes with early touchscreen discrimination learning. We also show that the direct output pathway of the DLS is preferentially recruited and causally involved in early learning and find that silencing the normal contribution of the DLS produces plasticity-related alterations in a PL-DMS circuit. These data provide further evidence suggesting that the DLS is recruited in the construction of stimulus-elicited actions that ultimately automate behavior and liberate cognitive resources for other demands, but with a cost to performance at the outset of learning. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning needs in clinical biochemistry for doctors in foundation years.

    PubMed

    Khromova, Victoria; Gray, Trevor A

    2008-01-01

    Most medical school curricula have reduced the amount of time available for teaching in pathology despite the fact that junior staff in the early stages of their training were responsible for requesting the majority of pathology tests on acutely ill hospital patients. So, the lack of specific training in this area means that test requesting may be poorly performed and the results ill understood by these staff. This paper describes a questionnaire, which was designed to assist laboratory staff providing targeted teaching in this area. Doctors in Foundation year 1 (F1) and Foundation year 2 (F2) in Sheffield teaching hospitals were given a questionnaire to ascertain how confident they were in requesting and interpreting the results of clinical biochemistry tests. The doctors were also asked about which areas of laboratory medicine they would like to be taught. Responses were received from 82 doctors, about half those in F1 and F2. The survey revealed areas where juniors are less confident in requesting tests and interpreting results. Despite lack of confidence in interpreting the result, 18% were confident about requesting tests. Doctors were also unsure of the effects of common problems like haemolysis on the interpretation of results. More than 70% of the doctors requested specific teaching in these areas. Foundation doctors have learning needs in clinical biochemistry, addressing which would assist them in patient care. While better training in medical school may help in future, there are specific needs for those on the wards now that require targeted teaching.

  20. A neurocomputational theory of how explicit learning bootstraps early procedural learning.

    PubMed

    Paul, Erick J; Ashby, F Gregory

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that human learning and memory is mediated by multiple memory systems that are each best suited to different requirements and demands. Within the domain of categorization, at least two systems are thought to facilitate learning: an explicit (declarative) system depending largely on the prefrontal cortex, and a procedural (non-declarative) system depending on the basal ganglia. Substantial evidence suggests that each system is optimally suited to learn particular categorization tasks. However, it remains unknown precisely how these systems interact to produce optimal learning and behavior. In order to investigate this issue, the present research evaluated the progression of learning through simulation of categorization tasks using COVIS, a well-known model of human category learning that includes both explicit and procedural learning systems. Specifically, the model's parameter space was thoroughly explored in procedurally learned categorization tasks across a variety of conditions and architectures to identify plausible interaction architectures. The simulation results support the hypothesis that one-way interaction between the systems occurs such that the explicit system "bootstraps" learning early on in the procedural system. Thus, the procedural system initially learns a suboptimal strategy employed by the explicit system and later refines its strategy. This bootstrapping could be from cortical-striatal projections that originate in premotor or motor regions of cortex, or possibly by the explicit system's control of motor responses through basal ganglia-mediated loops.

  1. The Source of Child Care Center Preschool Learning and Program Standards: Implications for Potential Early Learning Challenge Fund Grantees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Debra J.; Sansanelli, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    The proposed federal Early Learning Challenge Fund (ELCF) aims to improve the quality of early care and education programs by promoting the integration of more stringent program and early learning standards than are typically found in child care centers. ELCF grantees also must outline their plans for professional development and technical…

  2. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters…

  3. Fanatically Formative: Successful Learning during the Crucial K-3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornson, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Helping children experience early learning success and acquire essential skills by third grade is a crucial part of any school reform effort. Yet, many teachers and children are overwhelmed by the ineffective curriculum-driven education system and the "rush to cover" climate in schools. "Fanatically Formative" shows how you can rediscover the joy…

  4. Children's Participation Rights in Early Childhood Education and Care: The Case of Early Literacy Learning and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This position article argues that educators' knowledge of young children's perspectives on aspects of early learning, including literacy learning, and subsequent interpretations of the ways that these perspectives can inform and shape pedagogy are key to promoting children's participation rights in early childhood education and care. Drawing on…

  5. Approaches to Learning in a Second Year Chemical Engineering Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Jennifer M.; Gunstone, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates student approaches to learning in a second year chemical engineering course by means of a qualitative research project which utilized interview and journal data from a group of 11 students. Identifies three approaches to learning: (1) conceptual; (2) algorithmic; and (3) information-based. Presents student responses to a series of…

  6. Readiness To Learn Project: End of Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armijo, Eduardo J.; Yount, Darrell E.

    This report outlines the Quillayute Valley Child and Family Consortium's End of Year Readiness to Learn program activities, including outcomes through May 1995. The program was established in part by the Washington State Readiness to Learn Initiative, designed to help children benefit from schooling by enabling schools and social services…

  7. Learning Skills Workshops Supporting First-Year Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grills, Sheilagh

    2017-01-01

    Student Services support, including learning skills assistance, can be integral in empowering learners. First-year students are expected to be self-directed in their learning, yet may have neither been challenged nor experienced negative consequences for a lack of perseverance. Academic skills professionals can be partners with teaching faculty in…

  8. The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: effect of direct instruction and discovery learning.

    PubMed

    Klahr, David; Nigam, Milena

    2004-10-01

    In a study with 112 third- and fourth-grade children, we measured the relative effectiveness of discovery learning and direct instruction at two points in the learning process: (a) during the initial acquisition of the basic cognitive objective (a procedure for designing and interpreting simple, unconfounded experiments) and (b) during the subsequent transfer and application of this basic skill to more diffuse and authentic reasoning associated with the evaluation of science-fair posters. We found not only that many more children learned from direct instruction than from discovery learning, but also that when asked to make broader, richer scientific judgments, the many children who learned about experimental design from direct instruction performed as well as those few children who discovered the method on their own. These results challenge predictions derived from the presumed superiority of discovery approaches in teaching young children basic procedures for early scientific investigations.

  9. Creative Little Scientists: Exploring Pedagogical Synergies between Inquiry-Based and Creative Approaches in Early Years Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremin, Teresa; Glauert, Esme; Craft, Anna; Compton, Ashley; Stylianidou, Fani

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the European Union's interest in creativity and innovation, this paper, drawing on data from the EU project Creative Little Scientists (2011-2014), explores the teaching and learning of science and creativity in Early Years education. The project's conceptual framework, developed from detailed analysis of relevant literatures,…

  10. Exploring Students' Experiences in First-Year Learning Communities from a Situated Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Kerry L.; Saucier, Donald A.; Eiselein, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study looked to situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991) in order to explore students' participation in the social practices of first-year learning communities. Wenger's (1998) elaboration on "communities of practice" provides insight into how such participation transforms learners. These perspectives frame learning as a…

  11. Preliminary Development of the Parent Involvement in Early Learning Scale for Low-Income Families Enrolled in a Child-Development-Focused Home Visiting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manz, Patricia H.; Gernhart, Amanda L.; Bracaliello, Catherine B.; Pressimone, Vanessa J.; Eisenberg, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Salient early intervention approaches for children below the age of 3 years, such as home visiting, seek to strengthen the pivotal role that parents play in fostering their young children's early learning. Yet, measures that identify and monitor the ways in which low-income parents support toddlers' learning experiences are lacking. Without parent…

  12. Building Blocks: Making Children Successful in the Early Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeroff, Gene I.

    2006-01-01

    A student's entire journey along the educational spectrum is affected by what occurs--and, crucially, by what does not occur--before the age of eight or nine. Yet early learning has never received the attention it deserves and needs. In his latest book, education expert Gene Maeroff takes a hard look at early learning and the primary grades of…

  13. Learning to trust: trust and attachment in early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fett, A-K J; Shergill, S S; Korver-Nieberg, N; Yakub, F; Gromann, P M; Krabbendam, L

    2016-05-01

    Distrust and social dysfunction are characteristic in psychosis and may arise from attachment insecurity, which is elevated in the disorder. The relationship between trust and attachment in the early stages of psychosis is unknown, yet could help to understand interpersonal difficulties and disease progression. This study aimed to investigate whether trust is reduced in patients with early psychosis and whether this is accounted for by attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety. We used two trust games with a cooperative and unfair partner in a sample of 39 adolescents with early psychosis and 100 healthy controls. Patients had higher levels of attachment anxiety, but the groups did not differ in attachment avoidance. Basic trust was lower in patients than controls, as indicated by lower initial investments. During cooperation patients increased their trust towards levels of controls, i.e. they were able to learn and to override initial suspiciousness. Patients decreased their trust less than controls during unfair interactions. Anxious attachment was associated with higher basic trust and higher trust during unfair interactions and predicted trust independent of group status. Discussion Patients showed decreased basic trust but were able to learn from the trustworthy behaviour of their counterpart. Worries about the acceptance by others and low self-esteem are associated with psychosis and attachment anxiety and may explain behaviour that is focused on conciliation, rather than self-protection.

  14. Job-Embedded Professional Learning Essential to Improving Teaching and Learning in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacchiano, Debra; Klein, Rebecca; Hawley, Marsha Shigeyo

    2016-01-01

    Improving classroom teaching improves children's learning outcomes. In pursuit of those goals, the early education field has made substantial investments aimed at increasing the quality of classroom environments and teacher-child interactions. Yet, in publicly funded programs across the country, the quality of instruction remains low and…

  15. Early School Experiences: Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Gilah C.

    This study of gender differences in mathematics learning examined two 4-year-olds who attended a Melbourne, Australia preschool. The study traces the experiences of the students, one female and one male, during their first formal exposure to mathematics in kindergarten. Of particular concern was how the preschoolers interacted with their teacher,…

  16. The role of food experiences during early childhood in food pleasure learning.

    PubMed

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but have to learn what to eat. This must occur early, because the mode of feeding evolves dramatically, from "tube" feeding in utero to eating family foods. Eating habits established during early years contribute to the development of subsequent eating habits. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important early periods (between birth and 2 years, i.e. onset of food neophobia) for the development of eating habits and the drivers of this development. The role of pleasure in eating is central, especially during childhood when cognitive drivers of food choices may be less prominent than later in life. It is not easy to define and measure pleasure of eating in early childhood. However, it is possible to identify the characteristics of the eating experience which contribute to drive infant's eating and to shape preferences (food sensory properties; food rewarding properties; social context of eating). The learning processes involve repeated exposure (including to a variety of flavours), association with post-absorptive consequences and with contextual signals (including family members). The important early periods for learning food pleasure start being well identified. Beyond the first flavour discoveries during the prenatal and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavours from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phase may be the beginning of complementary feeding. Infants discover the sensory (texture, taste and flavour) and nutritional properties (energy density) of the foods that will ultimately compose their adult diet; parents are still in charge of providing appropriate foods, timing, context for eating. Inter-individual differences in food pleasure learning, related to temperamental dimensions, or to sensory sensitivity also have to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  18. Differential Training Facilitates Early Consolidation in Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I.

    2016-01-01

    Current research demonstrates increased learning rates in differential learning (DL) compared to repetitive training. To date, little is known on the underlying neurophysiological processes in DL that contribute to superior performance over repetitive practice. In the present study, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activation patterns after DL and repetitive badminton serve training. Twenty-four semi-professional badminton players performed badminton serves in a DL and repetitive training schedule in a within-subjects design. EEG activity was recorded from 19 electrodes according to the 10–20 system before and immediately after each 20-min exercise. Increased theta activity was obtained in contralateral parieto-occipital regions after DL. Further, increased posterior alpha activity was obtained in DL compared to repetitive training. Results indicate different underlying neuronal processes in DL and repetitive training with a higher involvement of parieto-occipital areas in DL. We argue that DL facilitates early consolidation in motor learning indicated by post-training increases in theta and alpha activity. Further, brain activation patterns indicate somatosensory working memory processes where attentional resources are allocated in processing of somatosensory information in DL. Reinforcing a somatosensory memory trace might explain increased motor learning rates in DL. Finally, this memory trace is more stable against interference from internal and external disturbances that afford executively controlled processing such as attentional processes. PMID:27818627

  19. Snoring during early childhood and academic performance at ages thirteen to fourteen years.

    PubMed

    Gozal, D; Pope, D W

    2001-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in young children is associated with an adverse effect on learning. However, the long-term impact of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during early childhood on learning remains unknown. Questionnaires were mailed to seventh and eighth graders attending public schools whose class ranking was either in the top 25% (high performance [HP]) or bottom 25% of their class (low performance [LP]), and who were matched for age, gender, race, school, and street of residence. Snoring frequency and loudness at 2 to 6 years of age, tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) for snoring or recurrent infection, school grades, and parental smoking and snoring were assessed. The questionnaire response rate was 82.8%. Because of ongoing ring, 13 responders were excluded, such that 1588 questionnaires could be analyzed (797 in LP and 791 in HP group). Frequent and loud snoring during early childhood was reported in 103 LP children (12.9%) compared with 40 HP children (5.1%; odds ratio: 2.79; confidence interval: 1.88-4.15). Furthermore, 24 LP and 7 HP children underwent T&A for snoring (odds ratio: 3.40; confidence interval: 1.47-7.84), while 21 LP and 19 HP children required surgery for recurrent tonsillitis. Children with lower academic performance in middle school are more likely to have snored during early childhood and to require T&A for snoring compared with better performing schoolmates. These findings support the concept that SDB-associated neurocognitive morbidity may be only partially reversible or that a "learning debt" may develop with SDB during early childhood and hamper subsequent school performance.

  20. Lexically-based learning and early grammatical development.

    PubMed

    Lieven, E V; Pine, J M; Baldwin, G

    1997-02-01

    Pine & Lieven (1993) suggest that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. The present study tests this claim on a second, larger sample of eleven children aged between 1;0 and 3;0 from a different social background, and extends the analysis to later in development. Results indicate that the positional analysis can account for a mean of 60% of all the children's multiword utterances and that the great majority of all other utterances are defined as frozen by the analysis. Alternative explanations of the data based on hypothesizing underlying syntactic or semantic relations are investigated through analyses of pronoun case marking and of verbs with prototypical agent-patient roles. Neither supports the view that the children's utterances are being produced on the basis of general underlying rules and categories. The implications of widespread distributional learning in early language development are discussed.

  1. Early years of Radio Astronomy in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, B. F.

    Radio Astronomy in the U.S. went through two distinct phases, the pioneering phase before the Second World War, when Karl Jansky and Grote Reber were the only two radio astronomers in the world, and the post-WWII era, when the subject blossomed throughout the world, especially in England and Australia, while U.S. radio astronomy languished at a relatively low level, until its resurgence a decade later. Here in Budapest we are celebrating the 70th anniversary of Jansky's discovery, and I shall start with a review of his work, and the subsequent work of Grote Reber, who died, regrettably, in December 2002. Two historical references will be cited frequently: Serendipitous Discoveries in Radio Astronomy (Kellermann & Sheets, eds. 1983, referred to as Paper 1) and the two historical collections edited by W.T. Sullivan, Classics in Radio Astronomy (1982, referred to as Paper 2) and The Early Years of Radio Astronomy (1984, Paper 3).

  2. Early American sunspot drawings from the "year without a summer"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, W. F.; McVaugh, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    A set of sunspot drawings from the early nineteenth century were discovered in the journals of the Reverend Jonathan Fisher. These drawings were made during a time when abnormally cold weather caused crops in New England to fail due to intermittent frost throughout the summer months of 1816, normally referred to as the "year without a summer." Global changes in weather patterns were the result of the Mount Tambora volcano eruption. Since this association was unknown at the time, there was speculation that the Sun was the cause inspiring the Reverend Fisher to monitor changes in sunspots during the summer of 1816 and continuing into 1817. These sunspot drawings for the summer of 1816 overlap the solar observations of Sir William Hershel.

  3. Influences of early child nutritional status and home learning environment on child development in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa; Kim, Nicole; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development plays a key role in a child's future health, educational success, and economic status. However, suboptimal early development remains a global challenge. This study examines the influences of quality of the home learning environment (HOME) and child stunting in the first year of life on child development. We used data collected from a randomized controlled trial of preconceptional micronutrient supplementation in Vietnam (n = 1,458). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III were used to assess cognition, language, and motor development domains at 2 years. At 1 year, 14% of children were stunted, and 15%, 58%, and 28% of children lived in poor, medium, and high HOME environments, respectively. In multivariate generalized linear regression models, living in a high HOME environment was significantly associated with higher scores (0.10 to 0.13 SD) in each of the developmental domains. Stunted children scored significantly lower for cognitive, language, and motor development (-0.11 to -0.18), compared to nonstunted children. The negative associations between stunting on development were modified by HOME; the associations were strong among children living in homes with a poor learning environment whereas they were nonsignificant for those living in high-quality learning environments. In conclusion, child stunting the first year of life was negatively associated with child development at 2 years among children in Vietnam, but a high-quality HOME appeared to attenuate these associations. Early interventions aimed at improving early child growth as well as providing a stimulating home environment are critical to ensure optimal child development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Early Career Academics Learning the Game in Whackademia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Loraine; Monk, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The initial years as an early career academic (ECA) are challenging times as those new to the academy attempt to balance the three aspects of their role: teaching, research and service, while also coming to terms with both overt and hidden expectations. Formal mentoring arrangements for ECAs are threatened by competing demands on time.…

  5. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms.

    PubMed

    Piasta, Shayne B; Logan, Jessica A R; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-05-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators' provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children ( n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children's math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children's learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age.

  6. Second-Language Learning in Early Childhood: Some Thoughts for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Barry

    There is much that can be done in early childhood education programs to foster second language learning in young children. The research literature on early childhood bilingualism clearly indicates that children can learn two languages simultaneously without apparent effort, without cognitive strain or interference in learning either language…

  7. SELF (Supports for Early Learning Foundations): A Non-Directed Model Demonstration Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Holly

    This final report describes achievements and activities of Project SELF (Supports for Early Learning Foundations), a federally funded project in New Mexico which developed, evaluated, and replicated an innovative model that provides strategies for early interventionists and families to support early learning foundations. The project identified…

  8. The CAI/Cooperative Learning Project. First Year Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Francine S.

    This report presents a first year evaluation of the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)/ Cooperative Learning Project, a 3-year collaborative effort by two Pennsylvania school districts--the Pittston Area School District and the Hatboro-Horsham School District--and Research for Better Schools (RBS). The project proposed to integrate advanced…

  9. Learning and Teaching Early Math: The Learning Trajectories Approach, 2nd Edition. Studies in Mathematical Thinking and Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In this important book for pre- and in-service teachers, early math experts Douglas Clements and Julie Sarama show how "learning trajectories" help diagnose a child's level of mathematical understanding and provide guidance for teaching. By focusing on the inherent delight and curiosity behind young children's mathematical reasoning,…

  10. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  11. Using Early Learning Standards to Provide High-Quality Education for All Children: The Early Learning Guidelines Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Roseanne L.; Curby, Timothy W.; Coleman, Hardin; Melo, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    Today with the rise in the number of 3- to 6-year-old children enrolled in center-based early childhood programs, and a focus on program quality, it becomes imperative for educators to have a better understanding of the role research plays in establishing high-quality programs as these programs provide much of the foundation that supports early…

  12. Jump-Starting Early Childhood Education at Home: Early Learning, Parent Motivation, and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Erin A; Converse, Benjamin A; Gibbs, Chloe R; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-11-01

    By the time children begin formal schooling, their experiences at home have already contributed to large variations in their math and language development, and once school begins, academic achievement continues to depend strongly on influences outside of school. It is thus essential that educational reform strategies involve primary caregivers. Specifically, programs and policies should promote and support aspects of caregiver-child interaction that have been empirically demonstrated to boost early learning and should seek to impede "motivational sinkholes" that threaten to undermine caregivers' desires to engage their children effectively. This article draws on cognitive and behavioral science to detail simple, low-cost, and effective tools caregivers can employ to prepare their children for educational success and then describes conditions that can protect and facilitate caregivers' motivation to use those tools. Policy recommendations throughout focus on using existing infrastructure to more deeply engage caregivers in effective early childhood education at home. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Fifteen Years of Chandra Operation: Scientific Highlights and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, designed for three years of operation with a goal of five years is now entering its 15-th year of operation. Thanks to its superb angular resolution, the Observatory continues to yield new and exciting results, many of which were totally unanticipated prior to launch. We will review some scientific highlights and present "lessons learned" from the experience of operating this great observatory.

  14. Making the best of the early years: the Tambellup way.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kim D; Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beerenfels, Susan; Rowell, Anne-Marie C

    2010-01-01

    Tambellup is a small rural town in the Great Southern region of Western Australia (WA), approximately 300 km south-east of state capital Perth. Tambellup has a much higher Aboriginal population than the national average and achieved very positive results for year one children in 2007 regional Australian Early Development Index testing. In 2009 the Great Southern GP Network (which has a facilitating role in providing early intervention strategies to families with young children at risk of disadvantage) requested that public health staff at Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA undertake an exploratory study to discover the factors protective of children's development in Tambellup. This article describes the subsequent research and its findings. This 2009 qualitative study interviewed both adult members of the local Aboriginal community (Noongar people; n = 23), and non-Aboriginal leaders from a cross-section of organisations, services and the community (n = 14) to determine what made growing up in Tambellup a positive experience. Aboriginal participants were introduced to the researchers by a local cultural consultant. Non-Aboriginal participants were initially sourced from a list provided by the GSGPN and extended by asking those listed to identify other appropriate contacts. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with Aboriginal participants and telephone interviews were undertaken with non-Aboriginal participants. All interviews were conducted using a standard schedule of questions as a guide, supplemented by clarifying and broadening questions from research team members. Data were analysed in a multi-stage process of collation, extraction of common themes and verification of themes with study participants and other stakeholders. Findings were presented to local Aboriginal leaders at a community meeting and a final report was prepared and circulated to community members. There was substantial evidence of widespread trust and positive relationships in this close

  15. Inspiring Young Minds: Scientific Inquiry in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Learn to use inquiry-based practice to inspire young minds through science. This book gives educators a solid guide for using research-based principles of inquiry to help children explore their world. With real-life examples and information on facilitating and guiding children, you will be able to engage and maximize STEM learning. Web content and…

  16. Recommendations for Implementing the New Illinois Early Learning and Development Standards to Affect Classroom Practices for Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Dusenbury, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The state of Illinois in the central United States has long been a trendsetter both in the development of learning standards and in addressing social and emotional learning in education settings. With a recent revision to the state's early learning standards, published in 2013, the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) fully aligned its…

  17. The Datafication of Early Years Education and Its Impact upon Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy; Bradbury, Alice

    2016-01-01

    This article raises important questions about whether the increasing control of early years education through performance data is genuinely a means for school improvement. This composite article, examines the pervasiveness of attainment data in early years education professional activity, its impact on early years teachers' consciousness and…

  18. Children's Early Literacy Practices at Home and in Early Years Settings: Second Annual Survey of Parents and Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formby, Susie

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines findings from Pearson and the National Literacy Trust's second annual early years literacy survey, conducted in May to July 2014. 1,012 parents of children aged 3 to 5 and 567 early years practitioners who work with this age group participated. Attainment data in the form of vocabulary abilities were available for a subsample…

  19. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  20. Preferences for Team Learning and Lecture-Based Learning among First-Year Undergraduate Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opdecam, Evelien; Everaert, Patricia; Van Keer, Hilde; Buysschaert, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates students' "preference" for team learning and its effectiveness, compared to lecture-based learning. A quasi-experiment was set up in a financial accounting course in the first-year undergraduate of the Economics and Business Administration Program, where students had to choose between one of the two learning…

  1. Machine Learning Seismic Wave Discrimination: Application to Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zefeng; Meier, Men-Andrin; Hauksson, Egill; Zhan, Zhongwen; Andrews, Jennifer

    2018-05-01

    Performance of earthquake early warning systems suffers from false alerts caused by local impulsive noise from natural or anthropogenic sources. To mitigate this problem, we train a generative adversarial network (GAN) to learn the characteristics of first-arrival earthquake P waves, using 300,000 waveforms recorded in southern California and Japan. We apply the GAN critic as an automatic feature extractor and train a Random Forest classifier with about 700,000 earthquake and noise waveforms. We show that the discriminator can recognize 99.2% of the earthquake P waves and 98.4% of the noise signals. This state-of-the-art performance is expected to reduce significantly the number of false triggers from local impulsive noise. Our study demonstrates that GANs can discover a compact and effective representation of seismic waves, which has the potential for wide applications in seismology.

  2. The Importance of Effective Behaviour Screening in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler-Merrick, Gaye; Church, John

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention for children with behavioural difficulties can be effective in terms of outcomes for both the children and their families. Early intervention can save a child from long-term outcomes such as school failure, peer rejection and later offending. However, in terms of accurate assessment of young children's behavioural difficulties,…

  3. Supporting Child Participation in the Early Years of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Marion

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to conversations around child participation within early childhood settings in Australia. Ethnographic approach was used for this study to explore child participatory workshops in Early Childhood Centers. The center in which this study took place was chosen as one of the sites of analysis for a broader PhD research…

  4. Using early standardized language measures to predict later language and early reading outcomes in children at high risk for language-learning impairments.

    PubMed

    Flax, Judy F; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia; Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the profiles of children with a family history (FH+) of language-learning impairments (LLI) and a control group of children with no reported family history of LLI (FH-) and identify which language constructs (receptive or expressive) and which ages (2 or 3 years) are related to expressive and receptive language abilities, phonological awareness, and reading abilities at ages 5 and 7 years. Participants included 99 children (40 FH+ and 59 FH-) who received a standardized neuropsychological battery at 2, 3, 5, and 7 years of age. As a group, the FH+ children had significantly lower scores on all language measures at 2 and 3 years, on selected language and phonological awareness measures at 5 years, and on phonological awareness and nonword reading at 7 years. Language comprehension at 3 years was the best predictor of later language and early reading for both groups. These results support past work suggesting that children with a positive family history of LLI are at greater risk for future language and reading problems through their preschool and early school-age years. Furthermore, language comprehension in the early years is a strong predictor of future language-learning status.

  5. Napping facilitates word learning in early lexical development.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. The early years of retroviral protease crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Soon after its discovery, the attempts to develop anti-AIDS therapeutics focused on the retroviral protease (PR)-an enzyme used by lentiviruses to process the precursor polypeptide into mature viral proteins. An urgent need for the three-dimensional structure of PR to guide rational drug design prompted efforts to produce milligram quantities of this enzyme. However, only minute amounts of PR were present in the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses, and initial attempts to express this protein in bacteria were not successful. This review describes X-ray crystallographic studies of the retroviral proteases carried out at NCI-Frederick in the late 1980s and early 1990s and puts into perspective the crucial role that the total protein chemical synthesis played in unraveling the structure, mechanism of action, and inhibition of HIV-1 PR. Notably, the first fully correct structure of HIV-1 PR and the first cocrystal structure of its complex with an inhibitor (a substrate-derived, reduced isostere hexapeptide MVT-101) were determined using chemically synthesized protein. Most importantly, these sets of coordinates were made freely available to the research community and were used worldwide to solve X-ray structures of HIV-1 PR complexes with an array of inhibitors and set in motion a variety of theoretical studies. Publication of the structure of chemically synthesized HIV-1 PR complexed with MVT-101 preceded only by six years the approval of the first PR inhibitor as an anti-AIDS drug. Copyright (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. An Ecological Footprint for an Early Learning Centre: Identifying Opportunities for Early Childhood Sustainability Education through Interdisciplinary Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNichol, Heidi; Davis, Julie Margaret; O'Brien, Katherine R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, engineers and educators worked together to adapt and apply the ecological footprint (EF) methodology to an early learning centre in Brisbane, Australia. Results were analysed to determine how environmental impact can be reduced at the study site and more generally across early childhood settings. It was found that food, transport…

  8. Seafood inclusion in commercial main meal early years' food products.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Sharon A; Marais, Debbi; Craig, Leone C A; Kiezebrink, Kirsty

    2016-10-01

    Seafood consumption is recommended as part of a healthy, balanced diet. Under-exposure to seafood during early years feeding, when taste and food acceptance is developed, may impact on the future development of a varied diet. This study aimed to investigate the availability and nutritional content of seafood in commercial infant meals compared to the other food types. A survey was conducted of all commercial infant main meal products available for purchase in supermarkets, high street retailers and online stores within the United Kingdom. The primary food type (seafood, poultry, meat and vegetables) within each product, nutritional composition per 100 g, and ingredient contribution were assessed. Of the original 341 main meal products seafood (n = 13; 3.8%) was underrepresented compared to poultry (103; 30.2%), meat (121; 35.5%) and vegetables (104; 30.5%). The number of the seafood meals increased three years later (n = 20; 6.3%) vegetable meals remained the largest contributor to the market (115; 36.4%) with meat (99; 31.3%) and poultry (82; 26.0%) both contributing slightly less than previously. Seafood-based meals provided significantly higher energy (83.0 kcal), protein (4.6 g), and total fat (3.2 g) than vegetable (68 kcal, 2.7 g, 1.9 g), meat (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and poultry-based meals (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and higher saturated fat (1.3 g) than poultry (0.4 g) and vegetable-based (0.6 g) meals (all per 100 g) which may be attributed to additional dairy ingredients. Parents who predominantly use commercial products to wean their infant may face challenges in sourcing a range of seafood products to enable the introduction of this food into the diet of their infant. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Investigating the Teaching and Learning of Proof: First Year Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Tami S.; McCrone, Sharon Soucy

    Although proof and reasoning are seen as fundamental components of learning mathematics, research shows that many students continue to struggle with geometric proofs. In order to relate pedagogical methods to students' understanding of geometric proof, this 3-year project focuses on 2 components of student understanding of proof, namely, students'…

  10. The Effectiveness of a First-Year Learning Strategies Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Cassandra C.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of high school graduates who lack "college-readiness" skills and require more remediation. This study purposed to report the impact of a learning strategies course on first-year students' academic success and persistence as indicated by first semester, second-semester, and third semester grade point…

  11. NAEYC Accreditation: A Decade of Learning and the Years Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredekamp, Sue, Ed.; Willer, Barbara A., Ed.

    The year 1995-96 marks the 10th anniversary of NAEYC accreditation. This collection brings together essays that examine what educators have learned from the past decade along with future directions for accreditation. The chapters focus on three broad themes: (1) effects of NAEYC accreditation on program quality and outcomes for children; (2)…

  12. Skills, Learning Styles and Success of First-Year Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfinch, Judy; Hughes, Moira

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between students' confidence in their generic skills on entry to university, their learning styles and their academic performance in first year. Research based on a large cohort of Scottish undergraduates found that students generally entered university feeling very confident that they already possessed…

  13. Freshmen Marketing: A First-Year Experience with Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an experiential learning activity designed for a New England university freshmen course, BUS101-Marketing First-Year Experience (FYE). The purpose of the activity is to teach basic principles of marketing, develop a general perspective of business, and provide FYE activities that facilitate the college transition. The specific…

  14. School-Community Links: Supporting Learning in the Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on research into how schools, parents and local communities work together to support students' learning during the transition from primary to secondary schools in what is referred to as the middle years of schooling. The research was conducted in four Australian schools within one urban school district. These schools were…

  15. 77 FR 58359 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... amended by section 1832(b) of Division B of Pub. L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2 AGENCY: Department of Education and Department of...

  16. Early-Years Teachers' Professional Upgrading in Science: a Long-Term Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present a professional development/upgrading programme in science for early-years teachers and investigate its impact on the teachers' competencies in relation to their knowledge and teaching of science. The basic idea of the programme was to motivate the teachers by making them members of an action research group aimed at developing and implementing curriculum activities to which they would contribute and thus meaningfully engaging them in their own learning. The programme used a `collaborative partnership' model for the development of the activities. In this model, the collaborative notion is defined as an act of `shared creation': partners share a goal and members bring their expertise to the partnership. Within this context, the partners were a researcher in science education with a background in physics, who also served as a facilitator, and six in-service early-years teachers with a background in early-years pedagogy and developmental sciences, who had many years of experience (classroom experts). These teachers participated in the programme as co-designers, but were involved to a significantly lesser degree than the researcher. The programme procedures comprised group work and individual teachers' class work. Data sources included teachers' essays, field-notes, lesson recordings and group-work records. Data were qualitatively analysed. The main results indicate improvement of teachers' `transformed' knowledge of the subject matter, development/improvement of knowledge of instructional strategies, including factors related to quality of implementation of the activities, knowledge of the pupils and improvement of the teachers' efficacy.

  17. Contextual learning and context effects during infancy: 30 years of controversial research revisited.

    PubMed

    Revillo, D A; Cotella, E; Paglini, M G; Arias, C

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30years a considerable number of reports have explored learning about context during infancy in both humans and rats. This research was stimulated by two different theoretical frameworks. The first, known as the neuromaturational model, postulates that learning and behavior are context-independent during early ontogeny, a hypothesis based on the idea that contextual learning is dependent on the hippocampal function, and that this brain structure does not reach full maturity until late in infancy. The second theoretical framework views infants not as immature organisms, but rather as perfectly matured ones, given that their behavioral and cognitive capacities allow them to adapt appropriately to the demands of their specific environment in accordance with their maturational level. This model predicts significant ontogenetic variations in learning and memory due to developmental differences in what is perceived and attended to during learning episodes, which can result in ontogenetic differences in contextual learning depending on the specific demands of the task. The present manuscript reviews those studies that have examined potential developmental differences in contextual learning and context effects in rats. The reviewed results show that, during infancy, context can exert a similar influence over learning and memory as that described for the adult rat. Moreover, in some cases, contextual learning and context effects were greater in infants than in adults. In contrast, under other experimental conditions, no evidence of contextual learning or context effects was observed. We analyzed the procedural factors of these studies with the aim of detecting those that favor or impede contextual learning during infancy, and we discussed whether existing empirical evidence supports the claim that the functionality of the hippocampus is a limiting factor for this type of learning during infancy. Finally, conclusions from human research into contextual learning

  18. Selective effects of explanation on learning during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Legare, Cristine H; Lombrozo, Tania

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examined the specificity of effects of explanation on learning by prompting 3- to 6-year-old children to explain a mechanical toy and comparing what they learned about the toy's causal and non-causal properties with children who only observed the toy, both with and without accompanying verbalization. In Study 1, children were experimentally assigned to either explain or observe the mechanical toy. In Study 2, children were classified according to whether the content of their response to an undirected prompt involved explanation. Dependent measures included whether children understood the toy's functional-mechanical relationships, remembered perceptual features of the toy, effectively reconstructed the toy, and (for Study 2) generalized the function of the toy when constructing a new one. Results demonstrate that across age groups, explanation promotes causal learning and generalization but does not improve (and in younger children can even impair) memory for causally irrelevant perceptual details. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rational Number Learning in the Early Years: What is Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunting, Robert P.

    This report describes an investigation of how young children respond to two types of tasks: (1) finding one-half of a continuous and a discrete material; and (2) attempting to share continuous and discrete material equally between two dolls. Continuous material, such as string, paper, or liquid, is quantified by adults using measurement units. A…

  20. Introducing Bruner: A Guide for Practitioners and Students in Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Sandra Smidt takes the reader on a journey through the key concepts of Jerome Bruner, a significant figure in the field of early education whose work has spanned almost a century. His wide-ranging and innovative principles of early learning and teaching are unpicked here using everyday language and the links between his ideas and those of other…

  1. K-6 Early Intervention Project: Evaluation of the First Year of Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaid, Janet L.

    California's K-6 Early Intervention Project was established in 1986 under the authority of California Assembly Bill 1535, Pilot Project on Hyperactivity, to provide a system of early identification and assistance to children in kindergarten through grade 6 whose behavior problems interfere with learning. This report contains evaluation findings…

  2. Age-related changes in learning across early childhood: a new imitation task.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Kelly; Gerhardstein, Peter; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    Imitation plays a critical role in social and cognitive development, but the social learning mechanisms contributing to the development of imitation are not well understood. We developed a new imitation task designed to examine social learning mechanisms across the early childhood period. The new task involves assembly of abstract-shaped puzzle pieces in an arbitrary sequence on a magnet board. Additionally, we introduce a new scoring system that extends traditional goal-directed imitation scoring to include measures of both children's success at copying gestures (sliding the puzzle pieces) and goals (connecting the puzzle pieces). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated an age-invariant baseline from 1.5 to 3.5 years of age, accompanied by age-related changes in success at copying goals and gestures from a live demonstrator. In Experiment 2, we applied our new task to learning following a video demonstration. Imitation performance in the video demonstration group lagged behind that of the live demonstration group, showing a protracted video deficit effect. Across both experiments, children were more likely to copy gestures at earlier ages, suggesting mimicry, and only later copy both goals and gestures, suggesting imitation. Taken together, the findings suggest that different social learning strategies may predominate in imitation learning dependent upon the degree of object affordance, task novelty, and task complexity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Resources on Social and Emotional Development and Early Learning Standards. CEELO FastFacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors-Tadros, L.

    2013-01-01

    In this "FastFacts," a state's Department of Education requests information from the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) on how the research defines skills in social-emotional development, approaches to learning, and executive function, to inform planned revisions to the early childhood indicators of progress for children…

  4. 78 FR 53991 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... gaps for Children with High Needs.\\1\\ This program focuses on improving early learning and development... disadvantaged children in each age group of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers who are enrolled in high-quality... implement an integrated system of high-quality Early Learning and Development Programs and services. \\1...

  5. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  6. Feature Biases in Early Word Learning: Network Distinctiveness Predicts Age of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelthaler, Tomas; Hills, Thomas T.

    2017-01-01

    Do properties of a word's features influence the order of its acquisition in early word learning? Combining the principles of mutual exclusivity and shape bias, the present work takes a network analysis approach to understanding how feature distinctiveness predicts the order of early word learning. Distance networks were built from nouns with edge…

  7. Parent Engagement in Early Learning: Strategies for Working with Families. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This updated second edition of "Parent-Friendly Early Learning" brings to life real scenarios that care providers face in today's world. We know parent engagement is important for a child's success, but how do you turn parent-provider relationships into partnerships? "Parent Engagement in Early Learning" will help you: (1)…

  8. Parent Engagement in Early Learning: Strategies for Working with Families, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This updated second edition of Parent ­Friendly Early Learning brings to life real scenarios that care providers face in today's world. We know parent engagement is important for a child's success, but how do you turn parent ­provider relationships into partnerships? Parent Engagement in Early Learning will help you: (1) Improve parent-­teacher…

  9. Building Early Learning Leaders: New Jersey's PreK-3rd Leadership Training. A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Cynthia; Costanza, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    New Jersey school administrators are finding themselves in need of the supports necessary to build on the state's existing model preschools toward a broader vision of early learning, including making strong connections to the early learning system. Clearly, changing the educational mindset and building the related capacity of front-line leaders is…

  10. Classroom Challenges in Developing an Intercultural Early Learning Program for Refugee Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dachyshyn, Darcey; Kirova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The project described here was aimed at piloting an intercultural, multilingual, early learning program that was genuinely responsive to the circumstances and early learning needs of preschool refugee children and parents from three ethnocultural communities--Somali, Sudanese, and Kurdish--in a large city in Western Canada. We discuss the unique…

  11. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  12. Solid-State Lighting. Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, L. J.; Cort, K. A.; Gordon, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of issues and lessons learned during the early stages of solid-state lighting market introduction in the U.S., which also summarizes early actions taken to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps.

  13. Ways of dealing with science learning: a study based on Swedish early childhood education practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Laila; Jonsson, Agneta; Ljung-Djärf, Agneta; Thulin, Susanne

    2016-07-01

    The Swedish school system offers curriculum-based early childhood education (ECE) organised as preschool (for 0-5-year-olds) and preschool class (for 6-year-olds). The intention to create a playful and educational environment based on children's perspectives, interests, and questions is strongly based on historical and cultural traditions. This article develops knowledge of ECE teachers' approaches to science-learning situations. The study applies a phenomenographic approach. The analysis is based on approximately 9.5 hours of video documentation of teacher-led and child-initiated Swedish ECE science activities. We identified two descriptive categories and four subcategories dealing with science-learning situations: (A) making anything visible, containing the three subcategories (Aa) addressing everyone, (Ab) addressing everything, and (Ac) addressing play and fantasy; and (B) creating a shared space for learning (Ba) addressing common content. These categories are related to how efforts to take advantage of children's perspectives are interpreted and addressed in educational practice. The article discusses and exemplifies the use of various categories and their potential implications for ECE learning practice.

  14. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the three issues of the journal "Learning Languages" published during volume year 2. These issues contain the following major articles: "Minneapolis and Brittany: Children Bridge Geographical and Social Differences Through Technology" (Janine Onffroy Shelley); "Student Reasons for Studying…

  15. Learning from gesture: How early does it happen?

    PubMed

    Novack, Miriam A; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Woodward, Amanda L

    2015-09-01

    Iconic gesture is a rich source of information for conveying ideas to learners. However, in order to learn from iconic gesture, a learner must be able to interpret its iconic form-a nontrivial task for young children. Our study explores how young children interpret iconic gesture and whether they can use it to infer a previously unknown action. In Study 1, 2- and 3-year-old children were shown iconic gestures that illustrated how to operate a novel toy to achieve a target action. Children in both age groups successfully figured out the target action more often after seeing an iconic gesture demonstration than after seeing no demonstration. However, the 2-year-olds (but not the 3-year-olds) figured out fewer target actions after seeing an iconic gesture demonstration than after seeing a demonstration of an incomplete-action and, in this sense, were not yet experts at interpreting gesture. Nevertheless, both age groups seemed to understand that gesture could convey information that can be used to guide their own actions, and that gesture is thus not movement for its own sake. That is, the children in both groups produced the action displayed in gesture on the object itself, rather than producing the action in the air (in other words, they rarely imitated the experimenter's gesture as it was performed). Study 2 compared 2-year-olds' performance following iconic vs. point gesture demonstrations. Iconic gestures led children to discover more target actions than point gestures, suggesting that iconic gesture does more than just focus a learner's attention, it conveys substantive information about how to solve the problem, information that is accessible to children as young as 2. The ability to learn from iconic gesture is thus in place by toddlerhood and, although still fragile, allows children to process gesture, not as meaningless movement, but as an intentional communicative representation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning from gesture: How early does it happen?

    PubMed Central

    Novack, Miriam A.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Iconic gesture is a rich source of information for conveying ideas to learners. However, in order to learn from iconic gesture, a learner must be able to interpret its iconic form--a nontrivial task for young children. Our study explores how young children interpret iconic gesture and whether they can use it to infer a previously unknown action. In Study 1, 2- and 3-year-old children were shown iconic gestures that illustrated how to operate a novel toy to achieve a target action. Children in both age groups successfully figured out the target action more often after seeing an iconic gesture demonstration than after seeing no demonstration. However, the 2-year-olds (but not the 3-year-olds) figured out fewer target actions after seeing an iconic gesture demonstration than after seeing a demonstration of an incomplete-action and, in this sense, were not yet experts at interpreting gesture. Nevertheless, both age groups seemed to understand that gesture could convey information that can be used to guide their own actions, and that gesture is thus not movement for its own sake. That is, the children in both groups produced the action displayed in gesture on the object itself, rather than producing the action in the air (in other words, they rarely imitated the experimenter’s gesture as it was performed). Study 2 compared 2-year-olds’ performance following iconic vs. point gesture demonstrations. Iconic gestures led children to discover more target actions than point gestures, suggesting that iconic gesture does more than just focus a learner’s attention--,it conveys substantive information about how to solve the problem, information that is accessible to children as young as 2. The ability to learn from iconic gesture is thus in place by toddlerhood and, although still fragile, allows children to process gesture, not as meaningless movement, but as an intentional communicative representation. PMID:26036925

  17. Affecting Primary Science: A Case from the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Mike; Walsh, Amanda

    1997-01-01

    Claims that there is a "down-drift" in the teaching of science, with even preschools now obligated to teach science content. Investigates (through one teacher's diary) how primary teachers interact with scientific teachings and how they can best be inducted into the teaching and learning of science. Concludes that incorporating personal…

  18. Priorities, Identity and the Environment: Negotiating the Early Teenage Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eames, Chris; Barker, Miles; Scarff, Carol

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the negotiation of environmental identity by 10 New Zealand students as they progressed from late primary school to junior secondary school. Interviews with these students and their parents focused on six theoretical perspective prominent in environmental education: significant life experiences, transformative learning,…

  19. Start Smart! Building Brain Power in the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Pam

    Noting current brain development research, this book offers simple, straightforward ways to boost children's brain power with active exploration, repetition, sensory exploration, laughter, and more. The chapters describe how and why the brain develops and explain how parents can give their children the best foundation for future learning.…

  20. Designing Science Learning in the First Years of Schooling. An intervention study with sequenced learning material on the topic of `floating and sinking'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuchter, Miriam; Saalbach, Henrik; Hardy, Ilonca

    2014-07-01

    Research on learning and instruction of science has shown that learning environments applied in preschool and primary school rarely makes use of structured learning materials in problem-based environments although these are decisive quality features for promoting conceptual change and scientific reasoning within early science learning. We thus developed and implemented a science learning environment for children in the first years of schooling which contains structured learning materials with the goal of supporting conceptual change concerning the understanding of the floating and sinking of objects and fostering students' scientific reasoning skills. In the present implementation study, we aim to provide a best-practice example of early science learning. The study was conducted with a sample of 15 classes of the first years of schooling and a total of 244 children. Tests were constructed to measure children's conceptual understanding before and after the implementation. Our results reveal a decrease in children's misconceptions from pretest to posttest. After the curriculum, the children were able to produce significantly more correct predictions about the sinking or floating of objects than before the curriculum and also relative to a control group. Moreover, due to the intervention, the explanations given for their predictions implied a more elaborated concept of material kinds. All in all, a well-structured curriculum promoting comparison and scientific reasoning by means of inquiry learning was shown to support children's conceptual change.

  1. Frequency of Six Early Childhood Education Approaches: A 10-Year Content Analysis of Early Childhood Education Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Petty, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of early childhood education approaches spanning 10 years of publications was investigated. A content analysis of publications (N = 492) from "Early Childhood Education Journal" was conducted. From a previous content analysis six approaches or search words were identified: Bank Street, Head Start, High/Scope, Montessori, Reggio…

  2. How do early emotional experiences in the operating theatre influence medical student learning in this environment?

    PubMed

    Bowrey, David J; Kidd, Jane M

    2014-01-01

    The emotions experienced by medical students on first exposure to the operating theatre are unknown. It is also unclear what influence these emotions have on the learning process. To understand the emotions experienced by students when in the operating theatre for the first time and the impact of these emotions on learning. Nine 3rd-year medical students participated in semistructured interviews to explore these themes. A qualitative approach was used; interviews were transcribed and coded thematically. All participants reported initial negative emotions (apprehension, anxiety, fear, shame, overwhelmed), with excitement being reported by 3. Six participants considered that their anxiety was so overwhelming that it was detrimental to their learning. Participants described a period of familiarization to the environment, after which learning was facilitated. Early learning experiences centered around adjustment to the physical environment of the operating theatre. Factors driving initial negative feelings were loss of familiarity, organizational issues, concerns about violating protocol, and a fear of syncope. Participants considered that it took a median of 1 week (range = 1 day-3 weeks) or 5 visits to the operating theatre (range = 1-10) before feeling comfortable in the new setting. Emotions experienced on subsequent visits to the operating theatre were predominantly positive (enjoyment, happiness, confident, involved, pride). Two participants reported negative feelings related to social exclusion. Being included in the team was a powerful determinant of enjoyment. These findings indicate that for learning in the operating theatre to be effective, addressing the negative emotions of the students might be beneficial. This could be achieved by a formal orientation program for both learners and tutors in advance of attendance in the operating theatre. For learning to be optimized, students must feel a sense of inclusion in the theatre community of practice.

  3. Music in the Early Years: Pathways into the Social World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Two assumptions that underlie much research in early childhood music education are that music is a social endeavor and musical participation is beneficial to children's overall social development. As members of cultural and social groups, young children engage with music in a multitude of ways and with different companions. This article examines…

  4. Using Action Research to Support Quality Early Years Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of action research as a continuous professional development (CPD) tool. The aim of the CPD programme was to support 14 community-based Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) centres in Ireland to improve quality in their settings through the implementation of the national quality and curriculum frameworks…

  5. Introducing First-Year Medical Students to Early Diagnostic Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, P. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A method of instruction in gynecology is described that encouraged the formulation of early diagnostic hypotheses, an important part of clinical problem-solving. Students were given a set of clinical clues to help them make broad diagnostic hypotheses. Student ability, results, and student perceptions of the course are provided. (Author/LBH)

  6. Sustaining Care: Cultivating Mindful Practice in Early Years Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    The practitioner's own self is a resource in early childhood education and care (ECEC). It is proposed that an experiential training focusing on the "professional self" helps to raise awareness of how psychological dispositions may impair or enhance quality of provision. A key concept in such training is emotional labour, explored with…

  7. Children's Use of Objects in an Early Years Playground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Amanda; Church, Amelia

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood research has investigated children's use of objects largely focusing on cognitive and motor development. Yet members of a particular culture, such as young children's peer groups, use objects that have cultural relevance as "conversational" items, as a means to interacting with other members of the group. This article…

  8. Fostering a Sense of Wonder during the Early Childhood Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Ruth A.

    This book is based on the understanding that fostering a sense of wonder and appreciation for the natural world is important to the development of young children and the preservation of planet Earth. It is also based on the belief that experiences children have early in life impact the attitudes and behaviors they carry with them throughout their…

  9. Early Numeracy Indicators: Examining Predictive Utility Across Years and States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conoyer, Sarah J.; Foegen, Anne; Lembke, Erica S.

    2016-01-01

    Two studies using similar methods in two states investigated the long-term predictive utility of two single-skill early numeracy Curriculum Based Measures (CBMs) and the degree to which they can adequately predict high-stakes test scores. Data were drawn from kindergarten and first-grade students. State standardized assessment data from the…

  10. Othered Voices: Asylum-Seeking Mothers and Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmarsh, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening the home-school partnership is a strategy to raise achievement levels and to engage "hard-to-reach" parents with education in the UK, however this political ideal has been critiqued as exclusive and based on a white, middle class model. This article explores how six asylum-seeking mothers manage their children's early years…

  11. SKIPing with Teachers: An Early Years Motor Skill Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Logan, Jessica A.; Sutherland, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fundamental motor skill (FMS) interventions when delivered by an expert can significantly improve the FMS of young children with and without developmental delays. However, there is a gap in the literature as few early childhood centers employ experts with the professional background to deliver FMS intervention. Purpose: The primary…

  12. Exploring Staff Perceptions: Early Childhood Teacher Educators Examine Online Teaching and Learning Challenges and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Julie; Lennox, Sandra; Walker, Sue; Walsh, Kerryann

    2007-01-01

    Early Childhood teacher educators at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) have been engaging with online teaching and learning since the mid 1990s. On campus students have lectures and tutorials supported by information and communication technologies via QUT's home grown learning management system, Online Learning and Teaching (OLT). We…

  13. Learning curve and early clinical outcomes for a robotic surgery novice performing robotic single site cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Angus, Andrew A; Sahi, Saad L; McIntosh, Bruce B

    2014-06-01

    A rapid training protocol has been developed for robotic surgery novices to learn robotic single-incision techniques. This study assesses the learning curve and early clinical results for a robotic surgery novice starting single-site cholecystectomy. A chart review was performed on the surgeon's first 55 patients to undergo this procedure. Average patient age was 46.01 ± 4.25 (range 21-86) years and BMI was 26.57 ± 4.25 (range 19.4-36.6) kg/m(2) . The mean port placement with docking time was 11.34 ± 3.74 (range 7-23) min. Mean console time was 28.74 ± 11.04 (range 15-66) min. Average total OR time was 61.84 ± 14.66 (range 40-105) min. All procedures were successfully completed without conversion or added ports. Complications included several minor procedural gall bladder perforations and miscellaneous postoperative symptomatic complaints. Robotic single site cholecystectomy can be safely performed by a robotic novice within a minimal learning curve and have early clinical results that are comparable to the published data of robotic experts. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Mathematics Anxiety: What Have We Learned in 60 Years?

    PubMed

    Dowker, Ann; Sarkar, Amar; Looi, Chung Yen

    2016-01-01

    The construct of mathematics anxiety has been an important topic of study at least since the concept of "number anxiety" was introduced by Dreger and Aiken (1957), and has received increasing attention in recent years. This paper focuses on what research has revealed about mathematics anxiety in the last 60 years, and what still remains to be learned. We discuss what mathematics anxiety is; how distinct it is from other forms of anxiety; and how it relates to attitudes to mathematics. We discuss the relationships between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance. We describe ways in which mathematics anxiety is measured, both by questionnaires, and by physiological measures. We discuss some possible factors in mathematics anxiety, including genetics, gender, age, and culture. Finally, we describe some research on treatment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what still needs to be learned.

  15. Mathematics Anxiety: What Have We Learned in 60 Years?

    PubMed Central

    Dowker, Ann; Sarkar, Amar; Looi, Chung Yen

    2016-01-01

    The construct of mathematics anxiety has been an important topic of study at least since the concept of “number anxiety” was introduced by Dreger and Aiken (1957), and has received increasing attention in recent years. This paper focuses on what research has revealed about mathematics anxiety in the last 60 years, and what still remains to be learned. We discuss what mathematics anxiety is; how distinct it is from other forms of anxiety; and how it relates to attitudes to mathematics. We discuss the relationships between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance. We describe ways in which mathematics anxiety is measured, both by questionnaires, and by physiological measures. We discuss some possible factors in mathematics anxiety, including genetics, gender, age, and culture. Finally, we describe some research on treatment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what still needs to be learned. PMID:27199789

  16. Showing up Matters: Newark Chronic Absenteeism in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Peter; Rice, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 180-day school year, any student who misses 18 days or more per year--or about two days per month--is considered chronically absent. An alarming 4,328 Newark students in grades kindergarten through 3rd grade were chronically absent during the 2013-14 school year. When young students miss too much school, they will likely struggle…

  17. Tracking the Eye Movement of Four Years Old Children Learning Chinese Words.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan; Chen, Guangyao; Liu, Yingyi; Liu, Jiaxin; Pan, Jue; Mo, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Storybook reading is the major source of literacy exposure for beginning readers. The present study tracked 4-year-old Chinese children's eye movements while they were reading simulated storybook pages. Their eye-movement patterns were examined in relation to their word learning gains. The same reading list, consisting of 20 two-character Chinese words, was used in the pretest, 5-min eye-tracking learning session, and posttest. Additionally, visual spatial skill and phonological awareness were assessed in the pretest as cognitive controls. The results showed that the children's attention was attracted quickly by pictures, on which their attention was focused most, with only 13% of the time looking at words. Moreover, significant learning gains in word reading were observed, from the pretest to posttest, from 5-min exposure to simulated storybook pages with words, picture and pronunciation of two-character words present. Furthermore, the children's attention to words significantly predicted posttest reading beyond socioeconomic status, age, visual spatial skill, phonological awareness and pretest reading performance. This eye-movement evidence of storybook reading by children as young as four years, reading a non-alphabetic script (i.e., Chinese), has demonstrated exciting findings that children can learn words effectively with minimal exposure and little instruction; these findings suggest that learning to read requires attention to the basic words itself. The study contributes to our understanding of early reading acquisition with eye-movement evidence from beginning readers.

  18. Early testimonial learning: monitoring speech acts and speakers.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Elizabeth; Suarez, Sarah; Koenig, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Testimony provides children with a rich source of knowledge about the world and the people in it. However, testimony is not guaranteed to be veridical, and speakers vary greatly in both knowledge and intent. In this chapter, we argue that children encounter two primary types of conflicts when learning from speakers: conflicts of knowledge and conflicts of interest. We review recent research on children's selective trust in testimony and propose two distinct mechanisms supporting early epistemic vigilance in response to the conflicts associated with speakers. The first section of the chapter focuses on the mechanism of coherence checking, which occurs during the process of message comprehension and facilitates children's comparison of information communicated through testimony to their prior knowledge, alerting them to inaccurate, inconsistent, irrational, and implausible messages. The second section focuses on source-monitoring processes. When children lack relevant prior knowledge with which to evaluate testimonial messages, they monitor speakers themselves for evidence of competence and morality, attending to cues such as confidence, consensus, access to information, prosocial and antisocial behavior, and group membership. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceptual Learning Selectively Refines Orientation Representations in Early Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jehee, Janneke F.M.; Ling, Sam; Swisher, Jascha D.; van Bergen, Ruben S.; Tong, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Although practice has long been known to improve perceptual performance, the neural basis of this improvement in humans remains unclear. Using fMRI in conjunction with a novel signal detection-based analysis, we show that extensive practice selectively enhances the neural representation of trained orientations in the human visual cortex. Twelve observers practiced discriminating small changes in the orientation of a laterally presented grating over 20 or more daily one-hour training sessions. Training on average led to a two-fold improvement in discrimination sensitivity, specific to the trained orientation and the trained location, with minimal improvement found for untrained orthogonal orientations or for orientations presented in the untrained hemifield. We measured the strength of orientation-selective responses in individual voxels in early visual areas (V1–V4) using signal detection measures, both pre- and post-training. Although the overall amplitude of the BOLD response was no greater after training, practice nonetheless specifically enhanced the neural representation of the trained orientation at the trained location. This training-specific enhancement of orientation-selective responses was observed in the primary visual cortex (V1) as well as higher extrastriate visual areas V2–V4, and moreover, reliably predicted individual differences in the behavioral effects of perceptual learning. These results demonstrate that extensive training can lead to targeted functional reorganization of the human visual cortex, refining the cortical representation of behaviorally relevant information. PMID:23175828

  20. Perceptual learning selectively refines orientation representations in early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Jehee, Janneke F M; Ling, Sam; Swisher, Jascha D; van Bergen, Ruben S; Tong, Frank

    2012-11-21

    Although practice has long been known to improve perceptual performance, the neural basis of this improvement in humans remains unclear. Using fMRI in conjunction with a novel signal detection-based analysis, we show that extensive practice selectively enhances the neural representation of trained orientations in the human visual cortex. Twelve observers practiced discriminating small changes in the orientation of a laterally presented grating over 20 or more daily 1 h training sessions. Training on average led to a twofold improvement in discrimination sensitivity, specific to the trained orientation and the trained location, with minimal improvement found for untrained orthogonal orientations or for orientations presented in the untrained hemifield. We measured the strength of orientation-selective responses in individual voxels in early visual areas (V1-V4) using signal detection measures, both before and after training. Although the overall amplitude of the BOLD response was no greater after training, practice nonetheless specifically enhanced the neural representation of the trained orientation at the trained location. This training-specific enhancement of orientation-selective responses was observed in the primary visual cortex (V1) as well as higher extrastriate visual areas V2-V4, and moreover, reliably predicted individual differences in the behavioral effects of perceptual learning. These results demonstrate that extensive training can lead to targeted functional reorganization of the human visual cortex, refining the cortical representation of behaviorally relevant information.

  1. Where Are the Early Years of School in Contemporary Early Childhood Education Reforms? An Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieg, Susan; Whitehead, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Although international definitions of early childhood repeatedly refer to a birth-8 age span, there are complex, institutional divides within this age range. This paper explores the divide between pre-compulsory and compulsory early childhood institutions. In countries such as Finland this divide is not such an issue because children do not begin…

  2. Value of Play as An Early Learning Instrument in Bangladesh Context: A Socio-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Nurun Nahar; Rivalland, Corine

    2012-01-01

    In early childhood education the dominant discourse of play-based pedagogy is greatly influenced by a western play approach. This paper examines how play is valued as early learning in Bangladesh. It reports on a qualitative study that explored the understandings of four parents and four early childhood educators in semi-rural Bangladesh. Findings…

  3. Equal Access to Early Learning. Cantigny Conference Report (Chicago, Illinois, June 5-7, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Black Child Development Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    Despite a growing acknowledgement that the United States needs to invest more in the early care and education needs of children, the country lacks a common vision for a comprehensive approach to an early childhood care and education system. The Equal Access to Early Learning Conference, sponsored by the National Black Child Development Institute…

  4. Making the Case for Early Identification and Intervention for Young Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2004-01-01

    The early identification of children with learning disabilities (LD) is difficult but can be accomplished. Observation of key behaviors which are indicators of LD by preschool and kindergarten teachers can assist in this process. This early identification facilitates the use of intervention strategies to provide a positive early experience for…

  5. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  6. The Learning Experiences of Early-Career Indonesian Government Employees: A Case Study in Cross-Cultural Workforce Development Based in a University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Omarova, Amina; Grill, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The research provides a selective report on the learning experiences covering a whole year of study for a double-degree Master's programme by a cohort of early-career Indonesians. They were undertaking the second half of the programme at The University of Adelaide in South Australia, and for all 18 students it was their first taste of learning in…

  7. Focus for Impact: The PacifiCorp Foundation for Learning's Early Childhood Literacy Initiative. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case Study Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    The PacifiCorp Foundation for Learning was at a turning point in August 2006. It had been five years since the corporate foundation had shifted its focus from general-purpose grantmaking to supporting individual and community learning, and its flagship Early Childhood Literacy Initiative--launched in 2003 to raise literacy rates in the communities…

  8. The Early Risers Preventive Intervention: Testing for Six-year Outcomes and Mediational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernat, Debra H.; August, Gerald J.; Hektner, Joel M.; Bloomquist, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" early-age-targeted prevention program on serious conduct problems following 5 years of continuous intervention and one year of follow-up. We also examined if intervention effects on proximally-targeted variables found after 3 years mediated intervention effects on conduct…

  9. Can Early Years Professionals Determine Which Preschoolers Have Comprehension Delays? A Comparison of Two Screening Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Emily; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension delays in pre-schoolers are predictive of difficulties in a range of developmental domains. In England, early years practitioners are required to assess the language comprehension of 2-year-olds in their care. Many use a format based on the Early Years Foundation Stage Unique Child Communication Sheet (EYFS:UCCS) in which…

  10. First-year medical students prefer multiple learning styles.

    PubMed

    Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2006-03-01

    Students have preferences for the ways in which they receive information. The visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire identifies student's preferences for particular modes of information presentation. We administered the VARK questionnaire to our first-year medical students, and 166 of 250 students (66%) returned the completed questionnaire. Only 36.1% of the students preferred a single mode of information presentation. Among these students, 5.4% preferred visual (learning from graphs, charts, and flow diagrams), 4.8% preferred auditory (learning from speech), 7.8% preferred printed words (learning from reading and writing), and 18.1% preferred using all their senses (kinesthetics: learning from touch, hearing, smell, taste, and sight). In contrast, most students (63.8%) preferred multiple modes [2 modes (24.5%), 3 modes (32.1%), or 4 modes (43.4%)] of information presentation. Knowing the students preferred modes can 1) help provide instruction tailored to the student's individual preference, 2) overcome the predisposition to treat all students in a similar way, and 3) motivate teachers to move from their preferred mode(s) to using others.

  11. Does Entrepreneurship Education in the First Year of Higher Education Develop Entrepreneurial Intentions? The Role of Learning and Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabi, Ghulam; Walmsley, Andreas; Liñán, Francisco; Akhtar, Imran; Neame, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on entrepreneurship education (EE) theory, this article examines the role of learning and inspiration in developing students' entrepreneurial intentions in the First Year in Higher Education. This addresses the paucity of research on early university experiences of EE and their influence on entrepreneurial intentions. Using a longitudinal…

  12. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children’s math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators’ provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children (n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children’s math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children’s learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age. PMID:26257434

  13. Early deprivation disruption of associative learning is a developmental pathway to depression and social problems.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A; Winter, Warren; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A

    2018-06-07

    Exposure to psychosocial deprivation is associated with elevations in numerous forms of impairment throughout the life-course. Disruptions in associative learning may be a key mechanism through which adversity, particularly psychosocial deprivation, increases risk for impairment. Existing data consistent with this claim come entirely from correlational studies. Here, we present the first experimental evidence relating psychosocial deprivation and disruptions in multiple forms of associative learning. Using data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, we demonstrate that randomized placement into a family caregiving environment during the infant/toddler period as compared to prolonged institutional care normalizes two forms of associative learning in early adolescence: reward responsivity and implicit motor learning. These forms of associative learning significantly mediate the effect of institutional rearing on depressive symptoms and peer relationships. In sum, we provide evidence for a novel pathway linking early experience to psychopathology and peer relationships through basic associative learning mechanisms.

  14. Results and Implications of a 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Science Concept Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing consensus at the time that primary school children were either preoperational or concrete operational in their cognitive development and they could not learn abstract concepts. Our early research, based on Ausubelian theory, suggested otherwise. The paper describes the development and implementation of a Grade 1-2 audio tutorial science instructional sequence, and the subsequent tracing over 12 years, of the children's conceptual understandings in science compared to a matched control group. During the study the concept map was developed as a new tool to trace children's conceptual development. We found that students in the instruction group far outperformed their non-instructed counterparts, and this difference increased as they progressed through middle and high school. The data clearly support the earlier introduction of science instruction on basic science concepts, such as the particulate nature of matter, energy and energy transformations. The data suggest that national curriculum standards for science grossly underestimate the learning capabilities of primary-grade children. The study has helped to lay a foundation for guided instruction using computers and concept mapping that may help both teachers and students become more proficient in understanding science.

  15. Science and Technology in the Early Years. An Equal Opportunities Approach. Gender and Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Naima, Ed.

    During the early 1980s there was a lack of research regarding gender issues for early childhood and elementary education. This document attempts to fill this chasm by addressing gender issues in science and technology for primary education schooling and early-years education. The following chapters are included: (1) "Science and Technology in the…

  16. Science in the Early Years. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 15, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests early math, science, and social studies knowledge may boost achievement for the nation's youngest students and provides a better chance at future reading success--more so even than early reading skills. This issue explores the benefits of including a strong science curriculum in the early years and includes recommendations…

  17. Statistical Learning Is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one's environment, plays a role in young children's acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from…

  18. Multivariate Genetic Analysis of Learning and Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Wadsworth, Sally; Boehme, Kristi; Talk, Andrew C.; Coventry, William L.; Olson, Richard K.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Corley, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The genetic factor structure of a range of learning measures was explored in twin children, recruited in preschool and followed to Grade 2 ("N"?=?2,084). Measures of orthographic learning and word reading were included in the analyses to determine how these patterned with the learning processes. An exploratory factor analysis of the…

  19. Exploring ESL students' understanding of mathematics in the early years: factors that make a difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more prominent for students who also have English as their second language (ESL). This paper explores the impact of the representations, oral language and engagement in mathematics (RoleM) learning experiences on ESL students' performance in mathematics in the early years (foundation-year 2). All students participating in the study are from disadvantaged contexts ( n = 461). The sample comprised 328 students who identified themselves as having English as a second language (ESL) and 133 mainstream students. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the commencement and completion of each school year. All students demonstrated a significant improvement on their post-test scores, with ESL students displaying greater gains than the mainstream students. Additionally, students' results were meeting norm-referenced expectations for students of the same age. A hypothesised taxonomy was developed to further investigate which types of test items foundation ESL students displayed greatest gains. ESL students again outperformed the mainstream cohort on all levels of test categorisation, including questions that were linguistically and conceptually challenging for foundation students.

  20. Fifty years of computer analysis in chest imaging: rule-based, machine learning, deep learning.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, Bram

    2017-03-01

    Half a century ago, the term "computer-aided diagnosis" (CAD) was introduced in the scientific literature. Pulmonary imaging, with chest radiography and computed tomography, has always been one of the focus areas in this field. In this study, I describe how machine learning became the dominant technology for tackling CAD in the lungs, generally producing better results than do classical rule-based approaches, and how the field is now rapidly changing: in the last few years, we have seen how even better results can be obtained with deep learning. The key differences among rule-based processing, machine learning, and deep learning are summarized and illustrated for various applications of CAD in the chest.

  1. Regulating approaches to learning: Testing learning strategy convergences across a year at university.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Luke K; Vermunt, Jan D

    2018-03-01

    Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supporting student learning across university experiences. Develop and test a person-centred longitudinal model of learning strategies across the first-year university experience. Japanese university students (n = 933) completed surveys (deep and surface approaches to learning; self, external, and lack of regulation) at the beginning and end of their first year. Following invariance and cross-sectional tests, latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) was undertaken. Initial difference testing supported small but significant differences for self-/external regulation. Fit indices supported a four-group model, consistent across both measurement points. These subgroups were labelled Low Quality (low deep approaches and self-regulation), Low Quantity (low strategy use generally), Average (moderate strategy use), and High Quantity (intense use of all strategies) strategies. The stability of these groups ranged from stable to variable: Average (93% stayers), Low Quality (90% stayers), High Quantity (72% stayers), and Low Quantity (40% stayers). The three largest transitions presented joint shifts in processing/regulation strategy preference across the year, from adaptive to maladaptive and vice versa. Person-centred longitudinal findings presented patterns of learning transitions that different students experience during their first year at university. Stability/variability of students' strategy use was linked to the nature of initial subgroup membership. Findings also indicated strong connections between processing and regulation strategy changes across first-year university experiences. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  2. Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, Linda J.; Cort, Katherine A.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document early challenges and lessons learned in the solid-state lighting (SSL) market development as part of the DOE’s SSL Program efforts to continually evaluate market progress in this area. This report summarizes early actions taken by DOE and others to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps and identifies issues, challenges, and new lessons that have been learned in the early stages of the SSL market introduction. This study identifies and characterizes12 key lessons that have been distilled from DOE SSL program results.

  3. Learning to remember: The early ontogeny of episodic memory☆

    PubMed Central

    Mullally, Sinéad L.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 60 years the neural correlates of human episodic memory have been the focus of intense neuroscientific scrutiny. By contrast, neuroscience has paid substantially less attention to understanding the emergence of this neurocognitive system. In this review we consider how the study of memory development has evolved. In doing so, we concentrate primarily on the first postnatal year because it is within this time window that the most dramatic shifts in scientific opinion have occurred. Moreover, this time frame includes the critical age (∼9 months) at which human infants purportedly first begin to demonstrate rudimentary hippocampal-dependent memory. We review the evidence for and against this assertion, note the lack of direct neurocognitive data speaking to this issue, and question how demonstrations of exuberant relational learning and memory in infants as young as 3-months old can be accommodated within extant models. Finally, we discuss whether current impasses in the infant memory literature could be leveraged by making greater use of neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which have been deployed so successfully in adults. PMID:24480487

  4. Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoung

    Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students

  5. Learning mathematics in two dimensions: a review and look ahead at teaching and learning early childhood mathematics with children's literature.

    PubMed

    Flevares, Lucia M; Schiff, Jamie R

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children's literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne and Griffiths, 1991; Welchman-Tischler, 1992; Hong, 1996; Hellwig etal., 2000; Haury, 2001). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children's mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O'Neill etal., 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004). For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children's understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and van den Boogaard, 2008; Skoumpourdi and Mpakopoulou, 2011) and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (van Hiele, 1986; Clements etal., 1999; Hannibal, 1999). We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000), Schiro (1997), Hunsader (2004), and van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012). Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Clements and Sarama, 2000; Chard etal., 2008) which lead to misconceptions (Oberdorf and Taylor-Cox, 1999; Inan and Dogan-Temur, 2010). Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children's literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children's books in mathematics activities and for teacher training.

  6. Using variability to guide dimensional weighting: Associative mechanisms in early word learning

    PubMed Central

    Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2013-01-01

    At 14 months, children appear to struggle to apply their fairly well developed speech perception abilities to learning similar sounding words (e.g. bih/dih; Stager & Werker, 1997). However, variability in non-phonetic aspects of the training stimuli seems to aid word learning at this age. Extant theories of early word learning cannot account for this benefit of variability. We offer a simple explanation for this range of effects based on associative learning. Simulations suggest that if infants encode both non-contrastive information (e.g. cues to speaker voice) and meaningful linguistic cues (e.g. place of articulation or voicing), then associative learning mechanisms predict these variability effects in early word learning. Crucially, this means that despite the importance of task variables in predicting performance, this body of work shows that phonological categories are still developing in this age, and that the structure of non-informative cues has critical influences on word learning abilities. PMID:21609356

  7. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    PubMed

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Years Educators at Play: A Research-Based Early Childhood Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Sultan; Kelley, Michael F.; Millinger, Jenny; Adams, Korbi

    2016-01-01

    Every culture has developed some version of performance art. Children especially appreciate performance; their innate openness, forgiveness, and self-love make them delightful performers and audience members. Every time they engage with performance art, children are learning about storytelling, history, sociability, artistry, and physicality.…

  9. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  10. The Portraiture of Nick: Scene One, the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicehouse, Vaughn L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Autism Society of America (ASA) estimated that 1.5 million Americans and their families were affected by autism. As the current ASD prevalence rates continue to rise (10%-17% each year) so does the awareness that ASD is no respecter of persons. ASD touches children of every racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic background. Additionally,…

  11. Learning to Become a Learning Professional: Reflections on One Year of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attard, Karl; Armour, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    This research aims to study the ways in which a teacher learns through and about professional practice. Data presented here is drawn from one year of teaching and focuses on pedagogical practices, critical reflection upon those practices and the impact of the implementation of a new physical education syllabus in Maltese secondary schools. The…

  12. Early hospital mortality prediction of intensive care unit patients using an ensemble learning approach.

    PubMed

    Awad, Aya; Bader-El-Den, Mohamed; McNicholas, James; Briggs, Jim

    2017-12-01

    Mortality prediction of hospitalized patients is an important problem. Over the past few decades, several severity scoring systems and machine learning mortality prediction models have been developed for predicting hospital mortality. By contrast, early mortality prediction for intensive care unit patients remains an open challenge. Most research has focused on severity of illness scoring systems or data mining (DM) models designed for risk estimation at least 24 or 48h after ICU admission. This study highlights the main data challenges in early mortality prediction in ICU patients and introduces a new machine learning based framework for Early Mortality Prediction for Intensive Care Unit patients (EMPICU). The proposed method is evaluated on the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database. Mortality prediction models are developed for patients at the age of 16 or above in Medical ICU (MICU), Surgical ICU (SICU) or Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU). We employ the ensemble learning Random Forest (RF), the predictive Decision Trees (DT), the probabilistic Naive Bayes (NB) and the rule-based Projective Adaptive Resonance Theory (PART) models. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The explanatory variables included demographic, physiological, vital signs and laboratory test variables. Performance measures were calculated using cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to minimize bias. 11,722 patients with single ICU stays are considered. Only patients at the age of 16 years old and above in Medical ICU (MICU), Surgical ICU (SICU) or Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU) are considered in this study. The proposed EMPICU framework outperformed standard scoring systems (SOFA, SAPS-I, APACHE-II, NEWS and qSOFA) in terms of AUROC and time (i.e. at 6h compared to 48h or more after admission). The results show that although there are many values missing in the first few hour of ICU admission

  13. Early-Years Swimming: Creating Opportunities for Adding Mathematical Capital to Under 5s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on survey data from over 2000 parents, this paper explores the possibility of early-years swimming to add mathematical capital to young children. Using developmental milestones as the basis, it was found that parents reported significantly earlier achievement on many of these milestones. Such data suggest that the early years swim…

  14. Reversing the Real Brain Drain: Early Years Study--A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, Isabel

    2001-01-01

    Presents concerns over the "Early Years Study" (McCain & Mustard). Focuses on diversity issues related to the readiness measure used, parenting styles, and the importance of first language development. Questions the report's definition of "developmentally-attuned." Concludes by expressing hope that the Early Years Study…

  15. How Can the Skills of Early Years Leaders Support Other Leaders in a Primary School Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the leadership skills Early Years leaders demonstrated through their daily practice of teaching, assessing and teamwork within their setting. It explored how revealing the potential of Early Years leaders could have a positive impact on the leadership practice of other leaders in the same setting to improve pupil outcomes.…

  16. Disrupting Communities of Practice? How "Reluctant" Practitioners View Early Years Workforce Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payler, Jane K.; Locke, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the views of early years practitioners in England from settings that were identified as "reluctant to engage" with one of the government's key policies, the introduction of Early Years Professional Status (EYPS), to drive forwards workforce reform. Focus groups, interviews and a survey were undertaken in 2009 with…

  17. Teachers' Voice, Power and Agency: (Un)Professionalisation of the Early Years Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesar, Marek; Pupala, Branislav; Kascak, Ondrej; Arndt, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    This article examines Slovak early years teachers' concerns with conceptions of teacher professionalism. It suggests that there is a mismatch between understandings of professionalism, policy aspirations and the attitudes of teachers to their own professionalism, and that this mismatch fuels early years teachers' sense of agency. These tensions…

  18. The simulated early learning of cervical spine manipulation technique utilising mannequins.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Peter D; Stomski, Norman J; Losco, Barrett; Walker, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    Trivial pain or minor soreness commonly follows neck manipulation and has been estimated at one in three treatments. In addition, rare catastrophic events can occur. Some of these incidents have been ascribed to poor technique where the neck is rotated too far. The aims of this study were to design an instrument to measure competency of neck manipulation in beginning students when using a simulation mannequin, and then examine the suitability of using a simulation mannequin to teach the early psychomotor skills for neck chiropractic manipulative therapy. We developed an initial set of questionnaire items and then used an expert panel to assess an instrument for neck manipulation competency among chiropractic students. The study sample comprised all 41 fourth year 2014 chiropractic students at Murdoch University. Students were randomly allocated into either a usual learning or mannequin group. All participants crossed over to undertake the alternative learning method after four weeks. A chi-square test was used to examine differences between groups in the proportion of students achieving an overall pass mark at baseline, four weeks, and eight weeks. This study was conducted between January and March 2014. We successfully developed an instrument of measurement to assess neck manipulation competency in chiropractic students. We then randomised 41 participants to first undertake either "usual learning" (n = 19) or "mannequin learning" (n = 22) for early neck manipulation training. There were no significant differences between groups in the overall pass rate at baseline (χ(2) = 0.10, p = 0.75), four weeks (χ(2) = 0.40, p = 0.53), and eight weeks (χ(2) = 0.07, p = 0.79). This study demonstrates that the use of a mannequin does not affect the manipulation competency grades of early learning students at short term follow up. Our findings have potentially important safety implications as the results indicate that students could initially

  19. A Two Hundred Year History of Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to track the history of learning disabilities and collect intervention theories which might be helpful for adult college students suffering from any number of learning disabilities (LD). There is a vast difference between a learning difficulty and a learning disability; an individual with learning difficulty can learn…

  20. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  1. Early Literacy and Assessment for Learning (K-3) Series: Little Book Insert: Little Honu's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noto, Lee

    2005-01-01

    This illustrated children's story accompanies "Exploring Comprehension through Retelling: A Teacher's Story", part of the Early Literacy and Assessment for Learning (K-3) Series (ED490189). It describes a baby turtle's adventures on his journey to the ocean.

  2. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan - Result of recent two years -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland

  3. Early Clinical Experiences for Second-Year Student Pharmacists at an Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Amerine, Lindsey B; Chen, Sheh-Li; Luter, David N; Arnall, Justin; Smith, Shayna; Roth, Mary T; Rodgers, Philip T; Williams, Dennis M; Pinelli, Nicole R

    2015-11-25

    To examine student outcomes associated with the Student Medication and Reconciliation Team (SMART) program, which was designed to provide second-year student pharmacists at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Eshelman School of Pharmacy direct patient care experience at UNC Medical Center. Twenty-two second-year student pharmacists were randomly selected from volunteers, given program training, and scheduled for three 5-hour evening shifts in 2013-2014. Pre/post surveys and reflection statements were collected from 19 students. Data were analyzed with a mixed methods approach. Survey results revealed an increase in student self-efficacy (p<0.05) and positive perceptions of SMART. Qualitative findings suggest the program provided opportunities for students to develop strategies for practice, promoted an appreciation for the various roles pharmacists play in health care, and fostered an appreciation for the complexity of real-world practice. Early clinical experiences can enhance student learning and development while fostering an appreciation for pharmacy practice.

  4. Language matters in demonstrations of understanding in early years mathematics assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushin, Ilana; Gardner, Rod; Munro, Jennifer M.

    2013-09-01

    In classrooms tests, students are regularly required to demonstrate their understanding of mathematical concepts. When children encounter problems in demonstrating such understanding, it is often not clear whether this is because of the language of the teachers' questions and instructions or a genuine non-understanding of the concept itself. This paper uses Conversation Analysis to investigate the role that language plays in Year 1 oral maths assessment in an Australian Indigenous community school. This approach allows us to monitor the very subtle communicative gestures, verbal and non-verbal, that contribute to the trajectory of a particular test task. Here we are able to bring to light a range of ways in which language may interfere with demonstrations of understanding of mathematical concepts. These include particular mathematical words (e.g., size, shape, same), as well as problems with what is being asked in an instruction. We argue that while all children must learn new mathematical language in their early years of schooling, the challenge for the students we have recorded may be compounded by the language differences between the Indigenous variety of language they speak in the community, and the Standard Australian English of the classroom and teachers.

  5. Lessons Learned from Twelve Years of Partnered Tobacco Cessation Research in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Ossip, Deborah J.; Diaz, Sergio; Quiñones, Zahira; McIntosh, Scott; Dozier, Ann; Chin, Nancy; Weber, Emily; Holderness, Heather; Torres, Essie; Bautista, Arisleyda; Sanchez, Jose Javier; Avendaño, Esteban; De Ver Dye, Timothy; McDonald, Paul; Bianco, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Engaging partners for tobacco control within low and middle income countries (LMICs) at early stages of tobacco control presents both challenges and opportunities in the global effort to avert the one billion premature tobacco caused deaths projected for this century. The Dominican Republic (DR) is one such early stage country. The current paper reports on lessons learned from 12 years of partnered United States (US)-DR tobacco cessation research conducted through two NIH trials (Proyecto Doble T, PDT1 and 2). The projects began with a grassroots approach of working with interested communities to develop and test interventions for cessation and secondhand smoke reduction that could benefit the communities, while concurrently building local capacity and providing resources, data, and models of implementation that could be used to ripple upward to expand partnerships and tobacco intervention efforts nationally. Lessons learned are discussed in four key areas: partnering for research, logistical issues in setting up the research project, disseminating and national networking, and mentoring. Effectively addressing the global tobacco epidemic will require sustained focus on supporting LMIC infrastructures for tobacco control, drawing on lessons learned across partnered trials such as those reported here, to provide feasible and innovative approaches for addressing this modifiable public health crisis. PMID:29104673

  6. Lessons Learned from Twelve Years of Partnered Tobacco Cessation Research in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Ossip, Deborah J; Diaz, Sergio; Quiñones, Zahira; McIntosh, Scott; Dozier, Ann; Chin, Nancy; Weber, Emily; Holderness, Heather; Torres, Essie; Bautista, Arisleyda; Sanchez, Jose Javier; Avendaño, Esteban; De Ver Dye, Timothy; McDonald, Paul; Bianco, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Engaging partners for tobacco control within low and middle income countries (LMICs) at early stages of tobacco control presents both challenges and opportunities in the global effort to avert the one billion premature tobacco caused deaths projected for this century. The Dominican Republic (DR) is one such early stage country. The current paper reports on lessons learned from 12 years of partnered United States (US)-DR tobacco cessation research conducted through two NIH trials (Proyecto Doble T, PDT1 and 2). The projects began with a grassroots approach of working with interested communities to develop and test interventions for cessation and secondhand smoke reduction that could benefit the communities, while concurrently building local capacity and providing resources, data, and models of implementation that could be used to ripple upward to expand partnerships and tobacco intervention efforts nationally. Lessons learned are discussed in four key areas: partnering for research, logistical issues in setting up the research project, disseminating and national networking, and mentoring. Effectively addressing the global tobacco epidemic will require sustained focus on supporting LMIC infrastructures for tobacco control, drawing on lessons learned across partnered trials such as those reported here, to provide feasible and innovative approaches for addressing this modifiable public health crisis.

  7. Learning with sublexical information from emerging reading vocabularies in exceptionally early and normal reading development.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G Brian; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Wilson, Kathryn J; McKay, Michael F; Margrain, Valerie G

    2015-03-01

    Predictions from theories of the processes of word reading acquisition have rarely been tested against evidence from exceptionally early readers. The theories of Ehri, Share, and Byrne, and an alternative, Knowledge Sources theory, were so tested. The former three theories postulate that full development of context-free letter sounds and awareness of phonemes are required for normal acquisition, while the claim of the alternative is that with or without such, children can use sublexical information from their emerging reading vocabularies to acquire word reading. Results from two independent samples of children aged 3-5, and 5 years, with mean word reading levels of 7 and 9 years respectively, showed underdevelopment of their context-free letter sounds and phoneme awareness, relative to their word reading levels and normal comparison samples. Despite such underdevelopment, these exceptional readers engaged in a form of phonological recoding that enabled pseudoword reading, at the level of older-age normal controls matched on word reading level. Moreover, in the 5-year-old sample further experiments showed that, relative to normal controls, they had a bias toward use of sublexical information from their reading vocabularies for phonological recoding of heterophonic pseudowords with irregular consistent spelling, and were superior in accessing word meanings independently of phonology, although only if the readers were without exposure to explicit phonics. The three theories were less satisfactory than the alternative theory in accounting for the learning of the exceptionally early readers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlations between Developmental Kindergarten Screenings and Early Reading Indicators One Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlan-Mainard, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    School districts in the U.S. are mandated to identify young children with disabilities. Developmental screeners are typically used to screen for such skill deficits. Academic tests are used in older students. A significant challenge is identifying children with potential learning disabilities early in their school career. This study identifies a…

  9. Critical Learning Periods and Programs of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Richard A.

    In an effort to clarify understanding of the concept of critical learning periods, this paper discusses problems that people concerned with the motor development of children have had determining relationships between critical periods and learning, and a "readiness model" is offered as a solution that could enhance understanding of critical…

  10. Attachment change processes in the early years of marriage.

    PubMed

    Davila, J; Karney, B R; Bradbury, T N

    1999-05-01

    The authors examined 4 models of attachment change: a contextual model, a social-cognitive model, an individual-difference model, and a diathesis-stress model. Models were examined in a sample of newlyweds over the first 2 years of marriage, using growth curve analyses. Reciprocal processes, whereby attachment representations and interpersonal life circumstances affect one another over time, also were studied. On average, newlyweds became more secure over time. However, there was significant within-subject variability on attachment change that was predicted by intra- and interpersonal factors. Attachment representations changed in response to contextual, social-cognitive, and individual-difference factors. Reciprocal processes between attachment representations and marital variables emerged, suggesting that these factors influence one another in an ongoing way.

  11. The prevalence of synaesthesia depends on early language learning.

    PubMed

    Watson, Marcus R; Chromý, Jan; Crawford, Lyle; Eagleman, David M; Enns, James T; Akins, Kathleen A

    2017-02-01

    According to one theory, synaesthesia develops, or is preserved, because it helps children learn. If so, it should be more common among adults who faced greater childhood learning challenges. In the largest survey of synaesthesia to date, the incidence of synaesthesia was compared among native speakers of languages with transparent (easier) and opaque (more difficult) orthographies. Contrary to our prediction, native speakers of Czech (transparent) were more likely to be synaesthetes than native speakers of English (opaque). However, exploratory analyses suggested that this was because more Czechs learned non-native second languages, which was strongly associated with synaesthesia, consistent with the learning hypothesis. Furthermore, the incidence of synaesthesia among speakers of opaque languages was double that among speakers of transparent languages other than Czech, also consistent with the learning hypothesis. These findings contribute to an emerging understanding of synaesthetic development as a complex and lengthy process with multiple causal influences. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Addressing Early Learning Standards for All Children within Blended Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; Hawkins, Sarah R.; Winchell, Brooke N.

    2009-01-01

    Preschool teachers working in blended classrooms are faced with identifying which children need intensive instruction as well as being responsible for directly linking individualized learning outcomes with state or federal early learning standards. The series of studies presented were designed to illustrate how teachers working in blended…

  13. The Nature of Professional Learning Communities in New Zealand Early Childhood Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherrington, Sue; Thornton, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Professional learning communities are receiving increasing attention within the schooling sector but empirical research into their development and use within early childhood education contexts is rare. This paper reports initial findings of an exploratory study into the development of professional learning communities in New Zealand's early…

  14. Learning through English Language in Early Childhood Education: A Case of English Medium Schools in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwalongo, Leopard Jacob

    2016-01-01

    In China the English medium schools are now mushrooming and many parents send their children at very early age. These schools enroll children of pre-school to school age to learn through English as foreign language regardless of their proficiency in the first language. Therefore the study aims at examining the learning English language as a…

  15. Early-Career Academics' Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in Hong Kong: Implications for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Keith; McNaught, Carmel; Wong, Kin-Chi; Li, Yi-Ching

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses early-career academics' development at a university in Hong Kong. Reflecting the impact of local context, the paper explores cultural and structural influences that can impinge on teaching and learning strategies for new academics. Barriers such as student learning behaviour and publication pressure may discourage new…

  16. Effect of Formative and Ability Test Results on Early Learning of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadir, Abdul; Ardi, Muhammad; Nurhayati, B.; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of formative tests to early learning ability of students in the science learning style. This research used an experimental method with a 2 x 2 factorial design. The participants comprised all the students in class VII of the Islamic Junior High School State of Kolaka, a total of 343…

  17. Universal Design for Learning: Cognitive Theory into Practice for Facilitating Comprehension in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Dalton, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Addressing the unique needs of children of all ages and abilities, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is gaining momentum in schools and preschools around the nation and the globe. This article explores Universal Design for Learning and its promising applications to a variety of reading and language arts experiences in the Early Childhood…

  18. Predictive Coding Accelerates Word Recognition and Learning in the Early Stages of Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard…

  19. Categorical Structure among Shared Features in Networks of Early-Learned Nouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Maouene, Mounir; Maouene, Josita; Sheya, Adam; Smith, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The shared features that characterize the noun categories that young children learn first are a formative basis of the human category system. To investigate the potential categorical information contained in the features of early-learned nouns, we examine the graph-theoretic properties of noun-feature networks. The networks are built from the…

  20. 50 years of CP violation — What have we learned?

    SciTech Connect

    McKellar, Bruce H. J.

    Early after the discovery of CP violation, the explanation of how the Standard Model of particle physics could allow CP violation was quickly given, but it took many years for the original observation to be unequivocally explained on that basis. It was also proposed that this observation opened up the possibility that we could now explain the fact that the universe is made of matter. Remarkably, 50 years later we have no evidence in particle physics that there is any CP violation except that of the Kobayashi Maskawa mechanism of the standard model. Yet we fail completely to explain themore » baryon asymmetry of the Universe through that mechanism. After reviewing the main points in the history I describe the present experimental attempts to find CP violation beyond the standard model, and explain the theoretical attempts to explain the matter in the Universe.« less

  1. Statistical Learning is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one’s environment, plays a role in young children’s acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from fluent speech and the learning of syntactic structure, some recent studies have explored the extent to which individual differences in statistical learning are related to literacy-relevant knowledge and skills. The present study extends on this literature by investigating the relations between two measures of statistical learning and multiple measures of skills that are critical to the development of literacy—oral language, vocabulary knowledge, and phonological processing—within a single model. Our sample included a total of 553 typically developing children from prekindergarten through second grade. Structural equation modeling revealed that statistical learning accounted for a unique portion of the variance in these literacy-related skills. Practical implications for instruction and assessment are discussed. PMID:26478658

  2. Children's Early Approaches to Learning and Academic Trajectories through Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Grining, Christine P.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Haas, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Children's early approaches to learning (ATL) enhance their adaptation to the demands they experience with the start of formal schooling. The current study uses individual growth modeling to investigate whether children's early ATL, which includes persistence, emotion regulation, and attentiveness, explain individual differences in their academic…

  3. Meeting Basic Learning Needs through Programmes of Early Childhood Care and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development, Haydenville, MA.

    Noting that early childhood development is the foundation for basic education across the life span, the first chapter of this report discusses the benefits of early interventions for individuals and society and justifies the basis for programs which aim at meeting the basic learning needs of young children. It also suggests several questions which…

  4. Mental Health Problems in Early Childhood Can Impair Learning and Behavior for Life. Working Paper #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Significant mental health problems can and do occur in young children. In some cases, these problems can have serious consequences for early learning, social competence, and lifelong health. Furthermore, the foundations of many mental health problems that endure through adulthood are established early in life through the interaction of genetic…

  5. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) and the Center on School Turnaround (CST) collaborated to develop case studies of three selected schools receiving SIG funds that have, with the support of their districts, promoted the use of early childhood programming (PK-3) as a key strategy in their schools' turnaround models. The goal…

  6. Our Inquiry, Our Practice: Undertaking, Supporting, and Learning from Early Childhood Teacher Research(ers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gail, Ed.; Henderson, Barbara, Ed.; Meier, Daniel R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Through "teacher research", teachers engage in the systematic study of their own practice to answer questions they have about teaching and learning, and their own effectiveness. This book explores what teacher research in the early childhood setting looks like, why it is important to the field of early childhood education, and how…

  7. A Universal Good: Expanding Voluntary, Early Learning Opportunities for Illinois' Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Sean

    This report was written to stimulate discussion about the potential and need for expanding access to voluntary, high-quality early childhood care and education programs in Illinois. The report compiles 13 short articles pertaining to early learning as follows: (1) "Ready to Succeed: Preparing Children for School, and for Life"; (2)…

  8. Education and Learning in the Early Middle Ages: New Perspectives and Old Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreni, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses various scholarly views of education and learning in the early middle ages and identifies some problems confronting scholars investigating this period. Points out new perspectives relative to the role of education during this time. Asserts that future study of early medieval education will benefit from focusing on the minds of masters…

  9. Student Teacher Views of Text in Early Learning Environments: Images from Sweden and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellgren, Elisabeth; Margrain, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    A total of 659 photographs of text in early childhood environments were gathered by student teachers in New Zealand and Sweden, replicating an earlier Swedish study [Gustafsson, K., & Mellgren, E. (2002)." Using text in pre-school: A Learning Environment." "Early Child Development and Care", 172(6), 603-624]. The findings…

  10. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  11. Designing Informal Learning Experiences for Early Career Academics Using a Knowledge Ecosystem Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faye; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine; Hemmings, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a "knowledge ecosystem" model of how early career academics experience using information to learn while building their social networks for developmental purposes. Developed using grounded theory methodology, the model offers a way of conceptualising how to empower early career academics through (1) agency…

  12. Bottled water, spas, and early years of water chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.

  13. Designs for Living and Learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb; Carter, Margie

    While the early childhood field has formed standards to help in recognizing quality programs for children, practitioners seldom use values to guide in selection of materials or to help plan early childhood environments. This book draws on a variety of educational approaches, including Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia, to outline hundreds of…

  14. Idaho's Blueprint for Early Learning: "The Essential Elements."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Myrl, Ed.

    Designed to provide information related to quality early care and education services for providers, policy makers, and clients in Idaho, This "blueprint" outlines the nine essential elements for best practices in early care and education settings. The document is presented in three parts. Part 1 delineates standards and indicators in…

  15. Preparing Students for College: Lessons Learned from the Early College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Julie A.; Arshavsky, Nina; Lewis, Karla; Thrift, Beth; Unlu, Fatih; Furey, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This article utilizes mixed methods--a lottery-based experimental design supplemented by qualitative data--to examine college readiness within an innovative high school setting: early college high schools. Early colleges are small schools that merge the high school and college experiences and are targeted at students underrepresented in college.…

  16. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers.

  17. College Student Persistence in the Two-Year Setting: Identifying Risk Early to Guide Early Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Margo A.

    2013-01-01

    College student persistence is examined. The unique nature of the students and environment of the two-year college setting warrant concentrated research effort. The purpose of the study is to examine student variables associated with persistence and program completion to develop a pre-entrance risk assessment in the two-year college setting.…

  18. Knowledge Creation as an Approach to Facilitating Evidence Informed Practice: Examining Ways to Measure the Success of Using This Method with Early Years Practitioners in Camden (London)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper has three key aims. First it examines the authors' attempts to use knowledge creation activity as a way of developing evidence informed practice amongst a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in the London Borough of Camden. Second, it seeks to illustrate how the authors approached the idea of measuring evidence use and…

  19. Measuring the Effectiveness of Knowledge Creation as a Means of Facilitating Evidence-Informed Practice in Early Years Settings in One London Borough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines our use of knowledge-creation activity as a way of developing evidence-informed practice among a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in one London borough. It also seeks to illustrate how we approached the idea of measuring evidence use and our engagement with, and adapted use of, two separate measurement scales:…

  20. Measuring the Effectiveness of Knowledge Creation Activity as a Means to Facilitate Evidence-Informed Practice: A Study of Early Years Settings in Camden, London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper has two key aims. First, it examines the authors' attempts to use knowledge creation activity as a way of developing evidence-informed practice amongst a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in Camden, London. Second, it illustrates how the authors approached the idea of measuring evidence use and our engagement with two…

  1. The English Early Years Professional Status (EYPS) and the "Split" Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2013-01-01

    In England, the overwhelming majority (78%) of under fives' nursery places, remains in the private, voluntary and independent (PVI) sector where there is no requirement to employ a qualified teacher. Compared to the maintained state sector early years workforce, this dominant PVI sector tends to be staffed by a poorly qualified workforce. From…

  2. Attitude of medical students towards Early Clinical Exposure in learning endocrine physiology

    PubMed Central

    Sathishkumar, Solomon; Thomas, Nihal; Tharion, Elizabeth; Neelakantan, Nithya; Vyas, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    Background Different teaching-learning methods have been used in teaching endocrine physiology for the medical students, so as to increase their interest and enhance their learning. This paper describes the pros and cons of the various approaches used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology and goes on to describe the value of adding an Early Clinical Exposure program (ECE) to didactic instruction in endocrine physiology, as well as student reactions to it as an alternative approach. Discussion Various methods have been used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology such as case-stimulated learning, problem-based learning, patient-centred learning and multiple-format sessions. We devised a teaching-learning intervention in endocrine physiology, which comprised of traditional didactic lectures, supplemented with an ECE program consisting of case based lectures and a hospital visit to see patients. A focus group discussion was conducted with the medical students and, based on the themes that emerged from it, a questionnaire was developed and administered to further enquire into the attitude of all the students towards ECE in learning endocrine physiology. The students in their feedback commented that ECE increased their interest for the subject and motivated them to read more. They also felt that ECE enhanced their understanding of endocrine physiology, enabled them to remember the subject better, contributed to their knowledge of the subject and also helped them to integrate their knowledge. Many students said that ECE increased their sensitivity toward patient problems and needs. They expressed a desire and a need for ECE to be continued in teaching endocrine physiology for future groups of students and also be extended for teaching other systems as well. The majority of the students (96.4%) in their feedback gave an overall rating of the program as good to excellent on a 5 point Likert scale. Summary The ECE program was introduced

  3. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition.

  4. Early Verb Learning: How Do Children Learn How to Compare Events?

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Jane B.; Parrish, Rebecca; Olson, Christina V.; Burch, Clare; Fung, Gavin; McIntyre, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    An important problem verb learners must solve is how to extend verbs. Children could use cross-situational information to guide their extensions, however comparing events is difficult. Two studies test whether children benefit from initially seeing a pair of similar events (‘progressive alignment’) while learning new verbs, and whether this influence changes with age. In Study 1, 2 ½- and 3 ½-year-old children participated in an interactive task. Children who saw a pair of similar events and then varied events were able to extend verbs at test, differing from a control group; children who saw two pairs of varied events did not differ from the control group. In Study 2, events were presented on a monitor. Following the initial pair of events that varied by condition, a Tobii x120 eye tracker recorded 2 ½-, 3 ½- and 4 ½-year-olds’ fixations to specific elements of events (AOIs) during the second pair of events, which were the same across conditions. After seeing the pair of events that were highly similar, 2 ½-year-olds showed significantly longer fixation durations to agents and to affected objects as compared to the all varied condition. At test, 3 ½-year-olds were able to extend the verb, but only in the progressive alignment condition. These results are important because they show children’s visual attention to relevant elements in dynamic events is influenced by their prior comparison experience, and they show that young children benefit from seeing similar events as they learn to compare events to each other. PMID:27092030

  5. Early life programming of innate fear and fear learning in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Carl W; Meredith, John P; Spicer, Clare H; Mason, Rob; Marsden, Charles A

    2009-03-02

    The early rearing environment can impact on emotional reactivity and learning later in life. In this study the effects of neonatal maternal separation (MS) on innate fear and fear learning were assessed in the adult female rat. Pups were subjected to MS (360 min), brief handling (H; 15 min), or animal facility rearing (AFR) on post-natal days 2-14. In the first experiment, innate fear was tested in the open field. No differences between the early rearing groups were observed in unconditioned fear. In the second experiment, separate cohorts were used in a 3-day fear learning paradigm which tested the acquisition (Day 1), expression and extinction (both Day 2) of conditioning to an auditory cue; extinction recall was determined as well (Day 3). Contextual fear conditioning was also assessed prior to cue presentations on Days 2 and 3. Whereas MS attenuated the acquisition and expression of fear conditioning to the cue, H potentiated extinction learning. Cue-induced fear was reduced on Day 3, compared to Day 2, indicating that the recall of extinction learning was evident; however, no early rearing group differences in extinction recall were observed. Similarly, while contextual fear was decreased on Day 3, compared to Day 2, there were no differences between the early rearing groups on either day tested. The present findings of altered cue-conditioned fear learning, in the absence of innate fear changes, lend further support for the important role of the early rearing environment in mediating cognition in adulthood.

  6. Early College High School Initiative. Evaluation Year End Report: 2003?2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea R.; Cole, Susan; Melton, Janet; Safran, Stephanie; Vogel, Tyler; Walton, Laura; Adelman, Nancy; Hall, Catherine; Keating, Kaelie Knowles; Murray, Samantha; Nielsen, Natalie; Schaffner, Monika

    2005-01-01

    This is the first year-end report produced as part of the on-going evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Early College High School Initiative. The program provides funding and support for the establishment of Early College High Schools, which are organized to allow all enrolled students the opportunity to earn a high school diploma…

  7. Children of Two to Three Years of Age in France: Early Childhood Settings and Age Divisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier, Pascale; Rayna, Sylvie; Brougère, Gilles; Rupin, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    In a French early childhood care and education system that is strongly divided by age and institution, the current research studies the collective life of children at the pivotal age of two to three years of age in four different early childhood settings: (1) a group of "grands" (nursery) in a "crèche" (daycare centre), (2) a…

  8. Paths to Empowerment. Ten Years of Early Childhood Work in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz, Ruth

    In this book, Bernard van Leer Foundation programs in Israel that combined early childhood education and community development approaches across a 10-year period are described. Chapter (1) provide an introduction; (2) discuss the evolution of this combined approach, its theoretical roots in the separate disciplines of early childhood education and…

  9. Reframing Leadership as a Participative Pedagogy: The Working Theories of Early Years Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Janet; Clark, Rory McDowall

    2013-01-01

    Traditional notions of leadership are at odds with the pedagogy and ethos of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), prompting increasing international concern to develop new understandings which are better suited and create greater leadership capacity. The introduction of the Early Years Professional (EYP) in England, as a leader of practice…

  10. Formative Evaluation of the Understanding the Early Years Initiative. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the formative evaluation of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative. The evaluation was conducted to examine issues of implementation and design, early progress in achieving immediate objectives, and issues related to accountability. The evaluation team was also asked to provide preliminary guidance…

  11. My Body. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on the body for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood environments.…

  12. Understanding the HighScope Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Monica

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding the HighScope Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the HighScope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the HighScope Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years practice. Exploring…

  13. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  14. Schoolification or Early Years Democracy? A Cross-Curricular Perspective from Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogaard Clausen, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    International comparisons strongly influence national policy agendas in the early years. However, an appreciation of details and national context and differences is imperative to promote democracy. From the perspective of a Danish social pedagogue lecturing in Early Childhood Studies in England, the author presents a cross-national comparison to…

  15. Educational Disadvantage in the Early Years: How Do We Overcome It? Some Lessons from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws upon the findings of a body of recent research in early childhood education to explore the possibilities that may be available to overcome structural inequalities associated with socio-economic class, gender and ethnicity in the early years. Research has shown that preschool education makes a real difference for all children and…

  16. Early Childhood Education, The Year in Review: A Look at 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymes, James L., Jr.

    This is a report on the happenings in early childhood education in the United States in 1988. Contents focus on: (1) the week, the year, and the decade of the young child; (2) the proposed Act for Better Child Care Services; (3) other child care developments; (4) other early childhood programs; (5) growth of pre-kindergarten programs; (6) the need…

  17. Earth Science. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on earth sciences for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…

  18. Earth Science. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (3-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on earth sciences for 3-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…

  19. Social Identity, Autism and Visual Impairment (VI) in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how visual impairment might impact on early social and emotional development including self-awareness and communication with others. Some children show a "developmental setback" and other worrying developmental trajectories in the early years, including autistic related behaviours and autistic spectrum disorders.…

  20. Integrated Practice in the Early Years in Australia: The Assumptions, Omissions and Contradictions of Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Kym; Nolan, Andrea; Cartmel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine current national early years' policy reform, which emphasises the importance of service integration, national quality standards and a quality knowledge base for educators concerning the provision of early childhood education and care. Using Queensland, Australia, as an example, a policy discourse analysis…