Research has shown that early identification and intervention is crucial and can in fact minimise, and may even prevent, the challenges of dyslexia from becoming too detrimental at later stages of education. This book offers both research insights and practical guidance for teachers working in Early Years settings on how to create resource…
In this book the author discusses the field of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) as one in which practitioners are highly committed, dedicated and willing to learn. Generally, they try to do their very best for the children with whom they work. However, the author also shows that the field has hitherto been neglected in the areas of…
This book focuses upon effective pedagogical leadership and practice in the leadership of learning within early years settings and children's centres. The book and accompanying DVD, containing real-life examples of early years leaders, provides a framework for reflective thinking and learning for those leading practice and working with children,…
This article examines the effectiveness of action research as a continuous professional development (CPD) tool. The aim of the CPD programme was to support 14 community-based Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) centres in Ireland to improve quality in their settings through the implementation of the national quality and curriculum frameworks…
The practitioner's own self is a resource in early childhood education and care (ECEC). It is proposed that an experiential training focusing on the "professional self" helps to raise awareness of how psychological dispositions may impair or enhance quality of provision. A key concept in such training is emotional labour, explored with…
"Understanding the HighScope Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the HighScope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the HighScope Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years practice. Exploring…
Arnold, Cath, Ed.
"Improving Your Reflective Practice through Stories of Practitioner Research" shows how research has informed and created effective and valuable reflective practice in early years education, and offers depth to the arguments for a research-orientated stance to this vital field of study. This thought-provoking text explores and documents a variety…
Early Years Professionals are graduate leaders working with children below 5 years of age, their families and practitioners in early years settings in the private, voluntary and independent sectors and children's centres in England. Their leadership of practice role is central to raising the quality of early years provision and practice. In this…
Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S; May, Ashleigh; Rose, Chelsea; Birch, Leann
Evidence suggests an association of breastfeeding with a maternal feeding style (MFS) that is less controlling than formula feeding, which, in turn, may improve a child's self-regulation of eating. This study examines associations of bottle-feeding practices during infancy with MFS and children's eating behavior (CEB) at 6 years old. We linked data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II to the Year 6 Follow-Up, which include 8 MFS and CEB measures adapted from previous validated instruments. Bottle-feeding practices during the first 6 months estimated by using the Infant Feeding Practices Study II were bottle-feeding intensity (BFI), mother's encouragement of infant to finish milk in the bottle, and infant finishing all milk in the bottle. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations of bottle-feeding practices with MFS and CEB at 6 years old were calculated by using multivariable logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and other feeding practices (N = 1117). Frequent bottle emptying encouraged by mothers during infancy increased odds of mothers encouraging their child to eat all the food on their plate (aOR: 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-3.41] and making sure their child eats enough (aOR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.14-2.31) and of children eating all the food on their plate at 6 years old (aOR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.05-3.83). High BFI during early infancy also increased the odds of mothers being especially careful to ensure their 6-year-old eats enough. Bottle-feeding practices during infancy may have long-term effects on MFS and CEB. Frequent bottle emptying encouraged by mothers and/or high BFI during early infancy increased the likelihood of mothers pressuring their 6-year-old child to eat and children's low satiety responsiveness. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Literacy as a social practice has a fundamental role in children's lives especially in the early years context, in which social interactions are in the centre of knowledge achievement. Several pieces of research investigate the positive contribution of the arts in children's literacy development in the early years settings. However, most of them…
This report outlines findings from Pearson and the National Literacy Trust's second annual early years literacy survey, conducted in May to July 2014. 1,012 parents of children aged 3 to 5 and 567 early years practitioners who work with this age group participated. Attainment data in the form of vocabulary abilities were available for a subsample…
Payler, Jane K.; Locke, Rachel
This article reports on the views of early years practitioners in England from settings that were identified as "reluctant to engage" with one of the government's key policies, the introduction of Early Years Professional Status (EYPS), to drive forwards workforce reform. Focus groups, interviews and a survey were undertaken in 2009 with…
Macfarlane, Kym; Nolan, Andrea; Cartmel, Jennifer
The aim of this article is to examine current national early years' policy reform, which emphasises the importance of service integration, national quality standards and a quality knowledge base for educators concerning the provision of early childhood education and care. Using Queensland, Australia, as an example, a policy discourse analysis…
This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…
After a preface, the first chapter of this book sets out to explore the nature of intelligence. It considers the labels used to describe gifted and talented children and looks at how the adult's beliefs about intelligence will impact on what they do, say and look for in the early years setting. It challenges educators to think about the nature of…
Fenton, Angela; Walsh, Kerryann; Wong, Sandie; Cumming, Tamara
Strengths-based approaches draw upon frameworks and perspectives from social work and psychology but have not necessarily been consistently defined or well articulated across disciplines. Internationally, there are increasing calls for professionals in early years settings to work in strengths-based ways to support the access and participation of…
Shannon, Deborah; Posada, Susan
Following suggestions for updated models of service within the early years educational psychologist (EP) role, the study aimed to provide exploratory research evidence of current models of service delivery and EP attitudes. Questionnaires were completed by 32 EPs. Interviews were conducted with three EPs. Quantitative data obtained were analysed…
Lunn Brownlee, Jo; Johansson, Eva; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Walker, Sue; Ailwood, Joanne
While investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society, little is known about early years teaching practices that promote learning of moral values. This paper reports on observations and interviews with 11 Australian teachers, focusing on their epistemic beliefs and beliefs about…
The first rationale of the study was not only to determine the topics taught in Turkish early childhood settings but also to define the frequency and time allocation for teaching science (n?=?382). In the second phase, through semi-structured interview questions, the aim was to gain detailed information about Turkish early childhood teachers'…
Nicol, Janni; Taplin, Jill
Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Steiner Waldorf High Scope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the Steiner Waldorf Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years…
This article explores the perceptions of professional development held by a selection of early years educators who have experience of working in statutory and private early years settings in the north of England. The research participants (n = 20) reflected on their experiences of professional development in early years. The research process is…
Savva, Andri; Erakleous, Valentina
The present study reports findings on pre-service teachers' thinking during planning and implementing play-based art activities. "Thinking" (in the present study) is informed by discourses emphasising art teaching and learning in relation to play and theoretical assumptions conceptualising planning as "practice of knowing."…
Davies, Sarah; Artaraz, Kepa
Recent Government agendas in England highlight a need to involve children in policy and service design, provision and evaluation of services they use or which affect them. While consultation with older children has become more common, this is not the case for younger children. This article reports on a study exploring the current practice and…
Shade, Rick; Shade, Patti Garrett
There is a myth that some people are creative and others are not. However, all children are born creative. They love to explore, ask questions, and are incredibly imaginative. Parents are key in nurturing their child's creativity in the early years. This article offers resources and strategies parents can use at different ages and stages (newborn,…
Baldock, Peter; Fitzgerald, Damien; Kay, Janet
The book is about policy in the area of early years services and that phrase may need some clarification. For the most part, therefore, this book deals with nursery schools and classes and with services provided by full day care nurseries, pre-schools, creches, childminders, after-school clubs and holiday play schemes. This book begins with…
Technology in education is considered in empirical and theoretical literature as both beneficial and harmful to children's development. In the field of the early years settings there is a dilemma whether or not early childhood teachers should use technology as a teaching and learning resource. This paper has a pedagogical focus, discussing the…
Lasen, Michelle; Skamp, Keith; Simoncini, Kym
This Australian case study provides a snapshot of Education for Sustainability (EfS) practice of early years teachers in the school sector (Preparatory to Year 3), during the first phase of implementation of the Australian national curriculum. Interviews with teachers, located in government, Catholic and independent schools, were conducted by…
Olaussen, Bodil Stokke
Understanding that classroom discourse is important for reading comprehension and critical thinking is emerging. The aim of the present study was to analyze what teachers say and do, to promote discussion at a teacher-led station in the Early Years Literacy Program (EYLP). The EYLP is a program for reading instruction, organized at different…
This article is an exploration of the possibilities encountered through shifting from a "logic of quality" to a "space of meaning-making" within early years education. Focusing on ideas of "readiness", this discussion aims to challenge normative understandings that relate this concept to the predictable achievement of…
Blackburn, Carolyn; Aubrey, Carol
The aim was to investigate the policy-to-practice context of delays and difficulties in the acquisition of speech, language and communication (SLC) in children from birth to five in one local authority within the context of Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological model. Methods included a survey of early years practitioners (64 responses), interviews with…
Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue
This paper has three key aims. First it examines the authors' attempts to use knowledge creation activity as a way of developing evidence informed practice amongst a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in the London Borough of Camden. Second, it seeks to illustrate how the authors approached the idea of measuring evidence use and…
Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue
This paper examines our use of knowledge-creation activity as a way of developing evidence-informed practice among a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in one London borough. It also seeks to illustrate how we approached the idea of measuring evidence use and our engagement with, and adapted use of, two separate measurement scales:…
Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue
This paper has two key aims. First, it examines the authors' attempts to use knowledge creation activity as a way of developing evidence-informed practice amongst a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in Camden, London. Second, it illustrates how the authors approached the idea of measuring evidence use and our engagement with two…
Fabi, Alessandra; Falcicchio, Chiara; Giannarelli, Diana; Maggi, Gabriella; Cognetti, Francesco; Pugliese, Patrizia
Little is known about the cancer related fatigue (CRF) along cancer course and risk factors that could predict CRF development and persistence in breast cancer (BC) survivors. This prospective study detected incidence, timing of onset, duration of CRF, impact on QoL and psychological distress. Seventy-eight early BC patients, undergoing chemotherapy (CT) followed or not by hormonal therapy were assessed for QoL and psychological distress by EORTC QLQC30 and HADs questionnaires. Fatigue was investigated with mix methods, structured interview and psychometric measures. A qualitative analysis was added to assess the behavioral pattern of CRF. Low fatigue levels were identified after surgery (9%), increasing during (49%) and at the end of CT (47%), maintaining after 1 year (31%) and declining up to ten years of follow-up. Prevalence of CRF was higher at the end of CT and lower at follow-up. At the end and after 1 and 2 years from CT, persistence of CRF was associated to anxiety in 20%, 11% and 5% and to depression in 15%, 10% and 5% respectively. A relationship between CRF and psychological distress was observed; patients presenting depression and anxiety before CT were at higher risk for fatigue onset at a later period. A relationship between fatigue and QoL was noted at the end of CT. Our study shows the fatigue timely trend in early BC patients from surgery, CT and follow-up. Identification of biological, psychological, social predictor factors related to fatigue could be helpful for early interventions in patients at higher risk of developing fatigue. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.
The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.
Ashbrook, Peggy; Nellor, Sue
Engineering is such a common part of children's work in early childhood programs that teachers can simply look around the room to identify examples where students have engaged in engineering practices. This article presents a classroom activity that integrates engineering design by building on the everyday problems that young children encounter in…
Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis
This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…
Research has shown that the quality of early years provisions is directly linked to the quality of leadership and management of early years settings. The extant research also shows that the quality of preschool settings are almost always characterised by strong leadership, where leaders and practitioners share a clear vision of the setting's…
In the UK Centres of Excellence were funded by the DfES to model high quality, multi-agency, early years services for young children and their families. They were precursors to Children's Centres to be established across the UK. Early Excellence Centres were evaluated at national and local levels. This article will draw on data from local…
Practitioner voice has been absent from debates regarding what constitutes professional behaviour and practice in the early years. This research identifies and uses the professional knowledge of a group of early years educators to create a typology of professionalism. The typology comprises seven inter-related dimensions of early years…
Bründl, M.; Stoffel, L.
As a consequence of the avalanche winter in January/February 1999 in Switzerland the project "intercantonal early warning and crisis information system" (IFKIS) was initialised. The goal of this project was to close the gaps recognised in the event analysis of this one-month avalanche period, which caused 17 fatalities and over 600 million CHF of damage [1,2]. Whereas the system of integral avalanche protection consisting of technical measures, land use planning and protection forests proved to be successful, the most important gaps were found to be in the organisational part. Especially communities who did not have an every-winter-experience had faced problems in managing the extraordinary event. The main deficiencies were less experienced or even missing local avalanche safety services and missing information and communication. The results of the IFKIS project embrace a concept for education courses, a concept for compulsory booklets and a guideline for the daily work in local avalanche safety services, and the information system IFKIS-InfoManager improving the two-way communication between the national avalanche warning service and the local services on the one side and enhancing the communication between local and regional avalanche services (IFKIS-MIS) on the other side . The results of the project IFKIS are implemented in practice since 10 years. Since 2000 every winter two to three courses were conducted at two levels either in German, French and Italian. Since 2000 about thousand participants completed the courses. Feedback from participants and observations made by cantonal authorities and the national avalanche warning centre SLF revealed that these education courses greatly improved the local capacity for dealing with critical avalanche situations. The system of regular avalanches courses at the community level served meanwhile as a good-practice example for comparable courses initialised by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) as a
Sennehed, Charlotte P; Holmberg, Sara; Axén, Iben; Stigmar, Kjerstin; Forsbrand, Malin; Petersson, Ingemar F; Grahn, Birgitta
Workplace involvement in rehabilitation for patients with musculoskeletal pain may improve work ability. Convergence Dialogue Meeting (CDM) is a model aimed at helping the patient, the care giver, and the employer to support work ability and return-to-work. Our aim was to study the effect on work ability when adding a workplace dialogue according to CDM in physiotherapy practice for patients with pain in ordinary primary care. We conducted a prospective pairwise cluster randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02609750) in primary care involving 20 primary care rehabilitation units with 1-year follow-up. Adult patients with acute/subacute neck and back pain, worked ≥4 weeks past year and not currently on sick leave or no more than 60 days of sick leave and considered at-risk of sick leave were included (n = 352). All patients received structured physiotherapy and the intervention was the addition of CDM, delivered by the treating physiotherapist. The main confirmatory outcome, work ability (defined as working at least 4 consecutive weeks at follow-up), was assessed by a weekly short text message question on number of sick leave days past week. Work ability was reached by significantly more patients in the intervention group (108/127, 85%) compared with the reference group (127/171, 74%) (P = 0.02). The intervention increased the odds of having work ability at 1-year follow-up, also after adjustment for baseline health-related quality of life (odds ratio 1.85, confidence interval 1.01-3.38). We conclude that an early workplace dialogue in addition to structured physiotherapy improved work ability significantly.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
Blaise, Mindy; Nuttal, Joce
"Learning to Teach in the Early Years Classroom" helps teacher education students understand the complexities of teaching in early years' classrooms. It integrates research and theory with practice through vignettes, based on authentic classroom case studies, in order to show students how educators make decisions and achieve expected outcomes.…
Cumming, Tamara; Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie
Early childhood practice has often been described as complex in both policy documents and research literature; however, less attention has been given to exploring the nature and consequences of complexity in early childhood practice. At a time of intense policy attention in many national contexts, there is the potential for closing down, as well…
Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A; Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Whitmore, Ani S
This article provides an overview of early intervention and AAC over the 30-year period since the founding of the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication in 1985. It discusses the global context for early intervention and addresses issues pertaining to young children from birth to 6 years of age. It provides a narrative review and synthesis of the evidence base in AAC and early intervention. Finally, it provides implications for practice and future research directions.
Day, Kate; Starbuck, Rachael; Petrakis, Melissa
The role of family in supporting service users in coping with illness and engaging in relapse prevention in early psychosis is important. Taking on this caring though is stressful and challenging, and it has been found that support and information for carers assists in their coping and reduces isolation. To evaluate the current utility of a psychoeducation group program in a public adult mental health service, for the families of people experiencing early psychosis. A purpose-designed pre- and post-intervention questionnaire was administered to quantitatively measure group participants' changes in perceptions of their understanding of mental illness and its treatment through attending the group. Additional qualitative items were used to determine other knowledge, benefits and any critical feedback. The group program continues to result in highly significant improvements in family members' understanding of psychosis, recovery, medications, relapse prevention and substance co-morbidities. Additional feedback reaffirmed previous findings that family members find group peer support valuable and that this reduces isolation and the experience of stigma. The current evaluation, conducted following 10 years of early psychosis group work, found there to be efficacy in family peer support groups and that it is important to provide family interventions in public early psychosis mental health services.
Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…
Engaging children's interest, inspiring active exploration of materials, and fostering cooperation between children and adults is the best way to promote the construction of knowledge. Some popular early childhood activities can be expanded to provide experiences and time for children to build on their prior knowledge. This column discusses…
By observing an organism over time, children can identify patterns in their observations, note growth or other changes, learn about the needs of the organism, and see how the organism creates the next generation of its species; all of these skills are science and engineering practices noted in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education"…
In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…
Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki; Towers, Jo; Plosz, Jennifer
Early years mathematics experiences have been shown to be a significant predictor for students' school readiness and future mathematics achievement. Previous research also indicates an important connection between emotion and mathematics learning. How do students in early years education in Alberta describe their emotional relationship with…
Bingham, Gary E.; Culatta, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.
This study examined teachers' implementation of an early literacy intervention, Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy (SEEL), on kindergarten children's development of early literacy skills. One hundred forty-nine kindergarten children (102 treatment) across six classrooms participated in this study. Results reveal that children who received SEEL…
Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007
Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…
Fostering Effective Early Learning (FEEL) through a professional development programme for early childhood educators to improve professional practice and child outcomes in the year before formal schooling: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.
Melhuish, Edward; Howard, Steven J; Siraj, Iram; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine; Kingston, Denise; de Rosnay, Marc; Duursma, Elisabeth; Luu, Betty
A substantial research base documents the benefits of attendance at high-quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) for positive behavioural and learning outcomes. Research has also found that the quality of many young children's experiences and opportunities in ECEC depends on the skills, dispositions and understandings of the early childhood adult educators. Increasingly, research has shown that the quality of children's interactions with educators and their peers, more than any other programme feature, influence what children learn and how they feel about learning. Hence, we sought to investigate the extent to which evidence-based professional development (PD) - focussed on promoting sustained shared thinking through quality interactions - could improve the quality of ECEC and, as a consequence, child outcomes. The Fostering Effective Early Learning (FEEL) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial for evaluating the benefits of a professional development (PD) programme for early childhood educators, compared with no extra PD. Ninety long-day care and preschool centres in New South Wales, Australia, will be selected to ensure representation across National Quality Standards (NQS) ratings, location, centre type and socioeconomic areas. Participating centres will be randomly allocated to one of two groups, stratified by centre type and NQS rating: (1) an intervention group (45 centres) receiving a PD intervention or (2) a control group (45 centres) that continues engaging in typical classroom practice. Randomisation to these groups will occur after the collection of baseline environmental quality ratings. Primary outcomes, at the child level, will be two measures of language development: verbal comprehension and expressive vocabulary. Secondary outcomes at the child level will be measures of early numeracy, social development and self-regulation. Secondary outcomes at the ECEC room level will be measures of environmental quality derived from full
This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. This month's issue discusses how digital media and robotics fit into the early childhood curriculum, and how time on devices supports learning goals and developmentally appropriate practice.
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.
Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…
Boulton-Lewis, Gillian, Ed.; Catherwood, Di, Ed.
Designed for teachers, students, caregivers, and health professionals who work with children from birth to age 8, this book provides a review of recent research and theories of development and learning in the early childhood years, with an emphasis on implications for effective teaching. Where appropriate, the book takes an Australian perspective,…
The primary goal of this paper is to provide a commentary on the teaching and learning of geometry in the early years of schooling with the set of papers in this issue as a guiding factor. It is structured around issues about geometry education of young learners, such as: what should we teach in geometry and why; representation of geometrical…
Dunlop, Aline-Wendy, Comp.
The aim of this resource guide is to provide practitioners in preschool settings with information to help them plan, implement, augment with resources, and review practice based on the "Curriculum Framework for Children in Their Pre-School Year" issued by the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department. The guide presents a…
Clemens, Norman A; Plakun, Eric M; Lazar, Susan G; Mellman, Lisa
Though psychiatric residents are expected to be competent psychotherapists on graduation, further growth in skill and versatility requires continued experience in their ongoing career. Maturity as a psychotherapist is essential because a psychiatrist is the only mental health provider who, as a physician, can assume full responsibility for biopsychosocial patient care and roles as supervisor, consultant, and team leader. Graduating residents face an environment in which surveys show a steady and alarming decline in practice of psychotherapy by psychiatrists, along with a decline in job satisfaction. High educational debts, practice structures, intrusive management, and reimbursement policies that devalue psychotherapy discourage early career psychiatrists from a practice style that enables providing it. For the early-career psychiatrist there is thus the serious risk of being unable to develop a critical mass of experience or a secure identity as a psychiatric psychotherapist. Implementation of parity laws and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect the situation in unpredictable ways that call for vigilance and active response. Additional service and administrative demands may result from the ACA, creating ethical dilemmas about meeting urgent patient needs versus biopsychosocial standards of care. The authors recommend 1) vigorous advocacy for better payment levels for psychotherapy and freedom from disruptive management; 2) aggressive action against violations of the parity act, 3) active preparation of psychiatric residents for dealing with career choices and the environment for providing psychotherapy in their practice, and 4) post-graduate training in psychotherapy through supervision/consultation, continuing education courses, computer instruction, and distance learning.
Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan
This study investigated the leadership skills Early Years leaders demonstrated through their daily practice of teaching, assessing and teamwork within their setting. It explored how revealing the potential of Early Years leaders could have a positive impact on the leadership practice of other leaders in the same setting to improve pupil outcomes.…
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.
Stage– environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents’ behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents’ antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent’s activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time. PMID:21688899
Henderson, Margaret; Upham, Susan; King, David; Dick, Marie-Louise; van Driel, Mieke
Introduction Community-based longitudinal clinical placements for medical students are becoming more common globally. The perspective of supervising clinicians about their experiences and processes involved in maximising these training experiences has received less attention than that of students. Aims This paper explores the general practitioner (GP) supervisor perspective of positive training experiences with medical students undertaking urban community-based, longitudinal clinical placements in the early years of medical training. Methods Year 2 medical students spent a half-day per week in general practice for either 13 or 26 weeks. Transcribed semi-structured interviews from a convenience sample of participating GPs were thematically analysed by two researchers, using a general inductive approach. Results Identified themes related to the attributes of participating persons and organisations: GPs, students, patients, practices and their supporting institution; GPs' perceptions of student development; and triggers enhancing the experience. A model was developed to reflect these themes. Conclusions Training experiences were enhanced for GPs supervising medical students in early longitudinal clinical placements by the synergy of motivated students and keen teachers with support from patients, practice staff and academic institutions. We developed an explanatory model to better understand the mechanism of positive experiences. Understanding the interaction of factors enhancing teaching satisfaction is important for clinical disciplines wishing to maintain sustainable, high quality teaching.
Hackling, Mark; Barratt-Pugh, Caroline
Australia's Early Years Learning Framework and leading international researchers argue for more intentional and purposeful teaching of science in the early years. This case study of exemplary practice illustrates intentional teaching of science materials which opened-up learning opportunities in literacy and number. Student-led hands-on…
Kallery, Maria; Psillos, Dimitris; Tselfes, Vassilis
This paper presents an epistemological analysis of typical didactical activities noted in early-years science lessons, which was carried out in an attempt to diagnose the extent to which the teaching practices adopted by early-years educators are successful in supporting young children's understanding in science. The analysis of didactical…
Dunlop, Aline-Wendy; Fabian, Hilary
An increased emphasis on an early start in group day care and educational settings for young children means that by the time children enter statutory education, they may already have had several transitional experiences: each will have an impact. This book explores early transitions from a variety of international perspectives. Each chapter is…
Cumming, Tamara; Sumsion, Jennifer
A growing body of research suggests that a range of "hidden" or "less tangible" aspects of early childhood practice play an important part in early childhood practice. The purpose of this article is to contribute to this existing research literature by identifying some of the complex ways that less tangible aspects…
Blamey, Katrin; Beauchat, Katherine
Four evidence-based instructional approaches create an essential resource for any early literacy teacher or coach. Improve your teaching practices in all areas of early literacy. Use four proven instructional approaches--standards based, evidenced based, assessment based, and student based--to improve their teaching practice in all areas of early…
Rosenthal, Dorothy B.; Bybee, Rodger W.
Discusses the emergence of the biology curriculum which replaced physiology, zoology, and botany in high school science courses and supplanted an early form of general science known as natural history. (RT)
Neff, Lisa A; Broady, Elizabeth F
As all couples experience stressful life events, addressing how couples adapt to stress is imperative for understanding marital development. Drawing from theories of stress inoculation, which suggest that the successful adaptation to moderately stressful events may help individuals develop a resilience to future stress, the current studies examined whether experiences with manageable stressors early in the marriage may serve to make the relationship more resilient to future stress. In Study 1, 61 newlywed couples provided data regarding their stressful life events, relationship resources (i.e., observed problem-solving behaviors), and marital satisfaction at multiple points over 2½ years. Results revealed that among spouses displaying more effective problem-solving behaviors, those who experienced moderate stress during the early months of marriage exhibited fewer future stress spillover effects and reported greater increases in felt efficacy than did spouses who had less experience with early stress. Study 2 examined stress resilience following the transition to parenthood in a new sample of 50 newlywed couples. Again, spouses who experienced moderate stress during the early months of marriage and had good initial relationship resources (i.e., observed support behaviors) reported greater marital adjustment following the transition to parenthood than did spouses who had good initial resources but less prior experience coping with stress. Together, results indicate that entering marriage with better relationship resources may not be sufficient to shield marital satisfaction from the detrimental effects of stress; rather, couples may also need practice in using those resources to navigate manageable stressful events.
Sparks, Sarah D.
While efforts to reduce chronic absenteeism typically focus on adolescents, experts say that the early grades are the place to start. Statistics show that rates of absenteeism in kindergarten and 1st grade can rival those in high school. An average of one in 10 pupils in grades K-12 nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing…
"Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…
Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…
Donegan-Ritter, Mary; Kohler, Frank W.
Preparing early childhood teachers for inclusion requires the blending of high quality developmentally appropriate practices with environmental adaptations and individualized instructional practices. This article describes how a field experience was redesigned to incorporate evidence based practices in teaming and collaboration, environment and…
This article describes the High/Scope Cognitively Oriented Pre-School Curriculum that recognizes that the power to learn resides in the child and focuses on active learning practices. It discusses child-initiated learning, key skills for thinking, key concepts involved in teaching thinking skills, and activities that support the development of…
With guidance and support even young children can actively challenge unfairness and learn not to discriminate. They can be taught to unlearn the misconceptions and stereotypical thinking they have absorbed from their environments. This book provides practical ways teachers can teach young children about racism and other forms of discrimination:…
Hesterman, Sandra; McAuliffe, Gillian
People of different ages, skills, and interests enjoy Zentangle as a visual arts practice. It is adopted as a hobby with the intention of creating an abstract art form comprised of drawn images and using repetitive and structured patterns. Zentangle has an associative language and a method that is easy to learn. Participants of Zentangle report…
There has recently been an unprecedented focus on early years care and education, particularly on the impact of the various adults who work and play with children in the birth to five/six-years age range. Staff in early years settings have had to adapt to many changes and demands, locally and nationally, from local authorities and national…
Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.
THE EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT ATTEMPTS TO DETERMINE WHETHER EARLY ADMISSION TO SCHOOL CAN OVERCOME BARRIERS TO LEARNING WHICH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS SEEM TO IMPOSE. A DEPRIVED CHILD OFTEN DOES NOT RECEIVE ATTENTION, AFFECTION, OR GUIDANCE WITHIN HIS HOME. THE YOUNG CHILD SHOULD BE HELPED TO DEVELOP A WHOLESOME SELF-CONCEPT, TO ACQUIRE THE DRIVE TO…
O'Connor, Michelle; Fleischmann, Charles; Kenner, Emily; McCobin, Allison; McGoey, Kara
In the area of early childhood gifted education and effective interventions for young children identified as intellectually gifted, there appears to be a persistent lack of research. There is also very little research on the characteristics and social-emotional development of young gifted children, particularly those of preschool age. The small…
Farley, Kristin S.; Brock, Matthew E.; Winterbottom, Christian
Early childhood education represents a pivotal opportunity to improve the developmental trajectories of young children, and evidence-based practices (EBPs) are scientifically proven to improve these outcomes. Furthermore, federal law mandates that early childhood practitioners implement EBPs. However, because EBP has not been clearly defined in…
Summers, Susan Janko, Ed.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel, Ed.
Integrating infant mental health services into early education programs leads to better child outcomes and stronger parent-child relationships--the big question is how to do it appropriately and effectively. Clear answers are in this accessible textbook, created to prepare early childhood professionals and programs to weave best practices in…
Hu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xijie
Early intervention services to young children with developmental delays in China have experienced significant growth since 1978, the beginning of the period of Reform and Opening. This article described the present situation of early intervention practices in mainland China, framed around the key components and guiding principles of Guralnick's…
Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.
Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…
Brawley, Susan; Stormont, Melissa A.
The importance of collecting and using data for educational decision making is clear. However, little information has been gathered about the systematic collection and use of data in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of data collection practices in early childhood. Participants included 137 early…
Francois, Jennifer R.; Coufal, Kathy L.; Subramanian, Anu
The preparation of students for professional practice in the field of early intervention has changed as a result of mandates through Part C, Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this survey research was to describe the knowledge and skill areas, specific to early intervention, included in pre-professional curricula…
Olson, Marianne E
Each year, thousands of novice nurses join the workforce. The overwhelming majority begin their careers in an acute care facility. Most of what we know about novice nurses comes from studies conducted over the last several decades. These studies have focused heavily on issues such as novice/expert differences on the performance of tasks. While they illuminate differences in judgment and decision-making skills, they provide little information on the reality of the novices' clinical practice. What is missing in the literature is an insider's look from the perspective of the millennial-born (1980-1999) novice nurse. Millennial novice nurses have both educators and experienced nurses searching for communication and learning strategies to engage the newest members of the nursing profession, yet the perceptions of millennial novice nurses have not yet been identified. This is a qualitative interpretive longitudinal study that utilized phenomenology as the philosophical and context method to illuminate the perceptions of millennial novice nurses. Audio-taped interviews were conducted at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. Findings have implications for both nurse educators and nurses in acute care facilities, especially those orienting the newest generation of novice nurses.
Howard, Justine; Miles, Gareth E.; Rees-Davies, Laura
Early years curricula promote learning through play and in addition emphasise the development of computer literacy. Previous research, however, has described that teachers feel unprepared to integrate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and play. Also, whereas research has suggested that effective computer use in the early years is…
Early years care and education have been high on British political agendas. This includes partnership working between early years practitioners and parents. Yet, more research is needed to examine how childcare staff engage with parents and vice versa. This study addresses the role of position and positioning in parent-practitioner relationships,…
This article is intended as a contribution to the debate on the role of human capital in determining value for money in early years education. The article explores how the idea that early years education offers value for money has become folklore amongst policymakers and more widely. However, drawing on both interview data and existing literature…
Cottle, Michelle; Alexander, Elise
This article begins by outlining the historical and political context of "parent partnership" within the UK. It locates the perspectives of early years' practitioners within this context, drawing on data from an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded study of eighteen English early years settings, including interviews and…
A study was conducted to determine and compare the literacy beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices of early childhood educators who espouse emergent literacy and reading readiness philosophies; to explore the relationship among beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices; and to examine the degree to which beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices were…
Makin, Laurie; Diaz, Criss Jones
Acknowledging that young children's early understandings about literacy occur within their cultural and linguistic communities, the book compiles articles challenging traditional views of literacy and suggesting positive new practices. Each chapter includes "reflection" and "followup" sections that reinforce the link between theory and practice,…
Objective Describe the epidemiologic literature related to early-life feeding practices and early childhood caries (ECC) with regard to publication attributes and trends in these attributes over time. Methods Systematic literature review including electronic and manual searches (in BIOSIS, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, LILACS, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and WHOLIS), covering the years 1990–2013. Attributes of publications meeting a priori inclusion criteria were abstracted and organized by global region and trends over time. Attributes included country of origin and study design of included publications and age and caries prevalence of the populations studied. Results 244 publications drawn from 196 independent study populations were included. The number of publications and the countries represented increased over time, although some world regions remained underrepresented. Most publications were cross sectional (75%); while this percentage remained fairly constant over time, the percentage of studies to account for confounding factors increased. Publications varied with respect to the caries experience and age range of children included in each study. Conclusions Publication productivity regarding feeding practices and ECC research has grown, but this growth has not been evenly distributed globally. Individual publication attributes (i.e. methods and context) can differ significantly and should be considered when interpreting and synthesizing the literature. PMID:25328911
Walsh, Glenda; Sproule, Liz; McGuinness, Carol; Trew, Karen
Playful structure is a new pedagogic image representing a more balanced and integrated perspective on early years pedagogy, aiming to blend apparent dichotomies and contradictions and to sustain and evolve play-based practice beyond Year 1. Playful structure invites teachers and children to initiate and maintain a degree of playfulness in the…
Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen
Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…
There has been extensive research and analysis of the professionalization of early childhood educators/teachers. The recent promotion of a teacher-led workforce in England has further focused discussions on the modelling of early years teachers as professionals. In this article, the author develops an alternative analysis using the concepts of…
Caissy, Gail A.
Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…
Leftwich, Mariruth; Haywood, Clare
Working with children under five years old and the adults that accompany them is a rapidly growing area within the museum and wider cultural sector, with important emphasis being placed on early learning in both the United Kingdom and United States. For history museums in particular, early learning offers a unique set of questions and challenges,…
Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…
This study considers two discourses of current relevance to national and international educators--early professional learning (EPL) and curriculum change. Induction arrangements for early career teachers (ECTs), EPL and informal learning have received considerable attention in the past few years. Changes to induction inevitably have knock-on…
Carlson, Marcia J.; Pilkauskas, Natasha V.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how couple relationship quality and parental engagement are linked over children's early years--when they are infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Our sample included 1,630 couples who were coresident over Years 1-3 and 1,376 couples who were coresident over Years 3-5…
This captivating book illuminates our understanding of how young children develop gender identities. A two year longitudinal research project on children's own understandings of gender casts new light on how 3 and 4 year old newcomers in early years classes learn rules for gendered behaviour from older children, in their imaginative and…
Gibbs, B G; Forste, R
Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n = 8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (< 4 months) and putting the child to bed with a bottle also increased the likelihood of obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric
Hazelbauer, Gerald L.
This review focuses on the early years of molecular studies of bacterial chemotaxis and motility, beginning in the 1960s with Julius Adler's pioneering work. It describes key observations that established the field and made bacterial chemotaxis a paradigm for the molecular understanding of biological signaling. Consideration of those early years includes aspects of science seldom described in journals: the accidental findings, personal interactions, and scientific culture that often drive scientific progress. PMID:22994495
Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue
This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…
McKenna, Michael C., Ed.; Walpole, Sharon, Ed.; Conradi, Kristin, Ed.
Bringing together leading scholars, this book describes proven ways to enhance early literacy skills in 3- and 4-year-olds, especially those from low-income families. Presented are scientifically based methods and approaches that are being applied in Early Reading First programs around the country. Important topics include promoting oral language…
This qualitative case study approaches early childhood education and care practices from a socio-spatial point of view. One Finnish daycare group for one- to three-year-olds participated in the study. The ethnographic observations from the practices are analyzed together with the ECE practitioners' audio-recorded team meetings and video-elicited…
Bryant, Carla; Connolly, Faith; Doss, Chris; Grigg, Jeffrey; Gorgen, Perry; Wentworth, Laura
This panel examines research on early education from two research practice partnerships, the Baltimore Education Research Consortium (BERC) with Baltimore City Schools and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, and the Stanford-SFUSD Partnership with San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) and Stanford University in San Francisco,…
Christian, Linda Garris
Working with families is one of the most important aspects of being an early childhood professional, yet it is an area in which many educators have received little preparation (Nieto 2004). Teachers spend hours learning about child development, developmentally appropriate practices, health and safety, playgrounds, and play. At times it seems that…
Hile, Kimberly A.; Milagros Santos, Rosa; Hughes, Mary-alayne
The reauthorization of IDEA in 1997 placed greater emphasis on providing early intervention services to the family unit versus solely focusing on children with disabilities or children who are at risk for disabilities. Due to the shift from child-focused services to family-focused services, the need to implement family-centered practices became…
Stein, Amanda; Connors, Maia C.
Educare is a network of enhanced Early Head Start (EHS)/Head Start (HS) (birth to age 5) programs that implement innovative Research-Program Partnerships (RPPs) to engage researchers, program leaders, staff, and at times, other stakeholders in a collaborative approach to supporting data use practices for decision-making and continuous quality…
This paper is concerned with the transformation of the field of early education in Germany. It poses the question whether these changes can be generally related to the German concept of "Bildung"--as denoting the children's autonomous activity of engaging themselves and the world. Investigating film material on practices of documentation…
McManus, Melissa A; Khalessi, Ali A; Lin, Joyce; Ashraf, Jahanzeb; Reich, Stephanie M
Early parenting practices, such as infant feeding, can affect children's physical health. Additionally, negative prenatal maternal affect can influence feeding choices, such as breast-feeding, and can have a detrimental effect on children's health. Little is known, however, about the contribution of positive maternal affect during pregnancy on feeding practices and children's health. This study explored whether positive prenatal feelings influenced children's health during the first 18 months, and whether early feeding practices mediated the relationship between these two variables. Low-income, ethnically diverse, primiparous women (n = 114) reported their feelings of pregnancy uplifts and hassles during their third trimester. These women were interviewed again at 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months post-partum about their feeding practices. A retrospective audit of their infants' medical charts was completed from birth to 18 months. Using structural equation modeling, having more uplifts than hassles during pregnancy was associated with longer breast-feeding duration and greater adherence to recommended schedules for introducing fruits and vegetables, solids, and baby cereal. These feeding practices were linked to better child health outcomes, including reduced risk of upper respiratory tract infections, conjunctivitis, otitis media, and thrush. Positive maternal feelings during pregnancy were associated with better feeding practices, and these better feeding practices were associated with fewer common childhood illnesses. Helping expectant women focus on the positive aspects of their pregnancy may lead to postnatal care methods that are fiscally advantageous, preventive of detrimental postnatal choices, and medically beneficial for children. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…
This research, a collaboration between Pearson and the National Literacy Trust, was designed to explore the use of technology by children in the early years. In 2013 Pearson and the National Literacy Trust invited practitioners who work with three to five-year-olds to take part in an online survey to explore how they support children's language…
Mligo, Ignasia; Mitchell, Linda; Bell, Beverley
The purpose of this study was to examine current pedagogical practices in early childhood education and care in Tanzania, a reflection from policy and practices to the implementation of Learner-Centred Pedagogy and to put forward possible improvements for the future. In 2005 a new pre-school education curriculum introduced a learner-centred…
Gokmen-Ozel, H; MacDonald, A; Daly, A; Ashmore, C; Preece, M A; Hendriksz, C; Vijay, S; Chakrapani, A
In glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1), dietary treatment with emergency management (EM) is essential to prevent encephalopathic crisis (EC). In the present study, dietary practices were examined in a single UK centre without access to newborn screening. Twenty GA1 patients (11 males, median age: 10.2 years, range 2.2-24.1 years) were evaluated. Nine presented without EC (median diagnosis age: 1.1 years, range 4 days to 8 years) and 11 with EC (median diagnosis age 10 months, range 6 months to 1.7 years). Dietary treatment, neurological outcome, anthropometry and biochemical/haematological markers were assessed. Diet treatment varied according to age of diagnosis and symptom severity. Four of six pre-encephalopathic children diagnosed before 2 years of age were treated with carnitine, protein restriction (medium l.2 g kg day(-1)) and lysine-free/low tryptophan protein substitute (PS) (medium dose: 1.6 g kg day(-1)). EM consisted of natural protein cessation and glucose polymer with PS delivered via an enteral feeding tube. Older children (>3 years) without EC were given carnitine and protein restriction, and seven of nine EC patients had PS via an enteral feeding tube. Clinical deterioration occurred in two patients without EC; one taking PS and protein restriction (with a second untreatable pathology) and one after protein restriction only. In patients presenting with EC, four died and one had some improvement in movement, with the rest remaining stable but with severe disability. Patients taking PS had better nutritional markers [serum vitamin B(12) (P < 0.001), albumin (P < 0.001), haemoglobin (P < 0.001) and essential plasma amino acids]. Early diagnosis of GA1 before EC is essential because PS and protein restriction with meticulous EM prevents EC. PS also improves nutritional status irrespective of clinical condition. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Levenson, Esther; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal
This study investigates practicing early-years teachers' concept images and concept definitions for triangles, circles, and cylinders. Teachers were requested to define each figure and then to identify various examples and non-examples of the figure. Teachers' use of correct and precise mathematical language and reference to critical and…
Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki
This study examined immigrant parents' involvement in early years mathematics learning, focusing on learning of multiplication in in- and out-of-school settings. Ethnographic interviews and workshops were conducted in an urban city in Japan, to examine out-of-school practices of immigrant families. Drawing from sociocultural theory of learning and…
The paper presents findings from research aimed at identifying effective approaches to the recruitment and retention of child care workers, conducted to assist the UK Government's Childcare Strategy. The paper explores the practices and views of child care employers, Early Years Development and Childcare Partnerships (EYDCPs) and child care…
Ihmeideh, Fathi Mahmoud
It has been widely recognised that fathers can play a key role in the development and well-being of young children. In many cases, however, fathers still have limited involvement in the early years education of their children and their voices are as yet unheard. This study examined the beliefs and practices of Jordanian fathers of kindergarten…
Pupala, Branislav; Kascak, Ondrej; Tesar, Marek
Early years education in Europe and elsewhere around the world is currently in the spotlight due to political and economical changes and subsequent promises of effective investment into its provision. In this article we analyse everyday preschool practices in Slovakia in terms of tensions between policies, the teachers workforce and the concept of…
Simons, Jill M.
The purpose of this study was to explore the state of student early alert models at nonprofit, four-year institutions of higher education through both quantitative and qualitative lenses. The use of these retention initiatives has become a much heralded practice on college campuses (Kuh, 2007a; Kuh 2007b; Seidman, 2005; Tinto, 2008). However,…
Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette
The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…
Murray-Orr, Anne; Mitton-Kukner, Jennifer
This paper focuses upon the case of one early career teacher, Don, a participant in a longitudinal study examining the transfer of learning about literacy practices from pre-service teacher education to the classrooms of secondary content area teachers. We followed Don from his B. Ed. program into his first two years of teaching in an Indigenous…
The purpose of this research-to-practice article is to describe the literacy and oral language professional development (PD) model that took place in a 3-year Early Reading First project in 9 Head Start and community-based school classrooms. Through our data-driven PD model, we provided 55 hr of training workshops for all classroom teaching staff…
For practitioners in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) in English schools (ages 3-5), the ethos of learning by "investigating and doing" is a major component of the pleasure of teaching very young children. The "Knowledge and understanding of the world" area of the EYFS (where scientific learning is mainly anchored)…
Fricke, Silke; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Haley, Allyson J.; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.
Background: Oral language skills in the preschool and early school years are critical to educational success and provide the foundations for the later development of reading comprehension. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 180 children from 15 UK nursery schools ("n" = 12 from each setting; M[subscript age] = 4;0) were randomly…
Manches, Andrew; Plowman, Lydia
International changes in policy and curricula (notably recent developments in England) have led to a focus on the role of computing education in the early years. As interest in the potential of computing education has increased, there has been a proliferation of programming tools designed for young children. While these changes are broadly to be…
Lybolt, John; Armstrong, Jennifer; Techmanski, Kristin Evans; Gottfred, Catherine
For children from low-resource backgrounds, a literacy-rich preschool experience with a skilled and engaged teacher can offset risk factors and lay the groundwork for lifelong academic success. Now schools can ensure effective early literacy instruction with this field-tested, research-based curriculum for children 3 to 5 years of age. These 41…
Video is an increasingly popular data collection tool for those undertaking social research, offering a temporal, sequential, fine-grained record which is durable, malleable and sharable. These characteristics make video a valuable resource for researching Early Years classrooms, particularly with regard to the study of children's interaction in…
Walsh, Glenda; Gardner, John
This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of…
Montague-Smith, Ann; Price, Alison
This third edition of the best-selling "Mathematics in Nursery Education" provides an accessible introduction to the teaching of mathematics in the early years. Covering all areas of mathematics learning--number and counting, calculation, pattern, shape, measures and data handling--it summarises the research findings and underlying key concepts…
Stennett, R. G.; Earl, L. M.
During the academic year 1978-79, school teams implemented a newly developed early identification system in all kindergarten and grade one classes in London, Ontario schools. After analysis and revision of the system, the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the process and a test of its short-term predictive validity were investigated.…
Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna
The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…
Shaklee, Harriet; Paszek, Donald
Related research suggests that children may show some simple understanding of event covariations by the early elementary school years. The present experiments use a rule analysis methodology to investigate covariation judgments of children in this age range. In Experiment 1, children in second, third and fourth grade judged covariations on 12…
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…
Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…
Pierson, Donald E.
This is the third progress report of the Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP) which is a program designed to provide diagnostic and educational services to the family through their child's preschool years. This document provides information on (1) the BEEP center, (2) playgroups: transition phase of the education program, (3) dental screening…
Mooney, Ann; Boddy, Janet; Statham, June; Warwick, Ian
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to consider the opportunities and difficulties in developing health-promotion work in early years settings in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: As the first study of its kind conducted in the UK, a multi-method approach was adopted involving: an overview of health-related guidance and of effective…
Kendall, Alexandra; Carey, Danielle; Cramp, Andy; Perkins, Helen
Shifts in UK social and economic policy have focused on education and care in the Early Years as key to improving social inclusion, skills acquisition and longer term social and economic prosperity. The implications for practitioners in the sector have been significant as roles, functions and foci have been renegotiated through the processes of…
"Monsters Under the Bed" is an essential text focussing on critical and contemporary issues surrounding writing for "early years" children. Containing a critically creative and a creatively critical investigation of the cult and culture of the child and childhood in fiction and non-fictional writing, it also contains a wealth of ideas and critical…
Theobald, Maryanne; Danby, Susan; Ailwood, Jo
The view that children should have a say in and participate in the decision making of matters that affect them is now an accepted position when considering research and policy in the early years. This paper reviews the field of child participation in the Australian context to show that, despite growing evidence of support within policy and…
This article draws on interviews with 29 managers and deputy managers within 15 nurseries in the private sector in England. The author argues that, whilst there is a growing literature on management and professionalism within the Early Years (EY) sector, there is less known about the actual experiences of being a manager in this context. Many of…
34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE INN MUSICIANS SAT AND PLAYED FOR THE GUESTS IN THE LOBBY BELOW. THE EARTHQUAKE IN 1959 CAUSED SOME STRUCTURAL DAMAGE AND NOW THE CROW'S NEST IS NOT ACCESSIBLE TO THE PUBLIC. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY
This paper focuses on young children's scientific preconceptions and discusses teachers' identification of these preconceptions when teaching science in the early years, on which research is still limited. This paper is based on the theoretical framework of constructivism and it defines preconceptions as children's erroneous concepts prior to…
Morgan, C Jane
Graduates entering the healthcare workforce can expect to undertake interprofessional practices, requiring them to work at the intersection of knowledge and practice boundaries that have been built over years of socialisation in their respective professions. Yet, in complex health environments, where health challenges go beyond the knowledge and skills of any single profession, there is a growing concern that healthcare practitioners lack capability to collaborate with each other. This article presents the findings from a year-long hermeneutic phenomenological study of graduates' temporal experiences of practice roles in their respective fields of healthcare and in collaboration with other professions. Research findings emerged through an inductive analytic process using thematic analysis techniques and provides an insight into graduates' early professional practice in contemporary healthcare contexts and the development of their professional practice at the interface of professional boundaries. The 18 graduates from six health professions developed their professional practice in working contexts where intersecting professional boundaries resulted in strengthening professional identity in their chosen professions, through articulating distinct knowledge and skills to other professions during collaborative work. Concurrently they established flexible working relationships with members of other professions, resulting in expanding health perspectives and extending practice knowledge and skills beyond their distinct professions. The study provides new understanding of the relationship between areas of professionalism, identity, and collaborative practice in an evolving health workforce, through the experiences of graduates in their early work as registered health practitioners.
Öztürk Yilmaztekin, Elif; Erden, Feyza Tantekin
This study investigates early childhood teachers' views about science teaching practices in an early childhood settings. It was conducted in a preschool located in Ankara, Turkey. The data of the study were collected through multiple sources of information such as interviews with early childhood teachers and observations of their practices in the…
Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).
These conference proceedings comprise 19 papers and the plenary session presented at the Early Years Schooling Conference held in Melbourne, Australia. The plenary session was "A Developmental Approach to Teaching Young Children" conducted by Lilian Katz. The keynote addresses and breakout sessions were: (1) "Developmental Learning:…
Stuart, Paul H
During the profession's first decades, social workers tried to improve their clients’ financial capability (FC). This article describes the methods used by early social workers who attempted to enhance the FC of their clients, based on contemporary descriptions of their practice. Social workers initially emphasized thrift, later adding more sophisticated consideration of the cost of foods, rent, and other necessities. Social work efforts were furthered by home economists, who served as specialists in nutrition, clothing, interior design, and other topics related to homemaking. Early home economists included specialists in nutrition and family budgeting; these specialists worked with social services agencies to provide a financial basis for family budgets and assisted clients with family budgeting. Some agencies engaged home economists as consultants and as direct providers of instruction on home budgets for clients. By the 1930s, however, social work interest in family budget problems focused on the psychological meaning of low income to the client, rather than in measures to increase client FC. Consequently, social workers’ active engagement with family budget issues—engagement that characterized earlier decades—faded. These early efforts can inform contemporary practice as social workers are once again concerned about improving their clients’ FC.
Ahmad, Shamail; Orrell, Martin; Iliffe, Steve; Gracie, Antonia
Background In primary care, the diagnosis of dementia is often delayed and the 2007 National Audit Office Report concluded action was needed to improve patient care and value for money. Aim To investigate the attitudes, awareness, and practice of GPs in England regarding early diagnosis and management of patients with dementia, and perceptions of local specialist services, to identify training or support needs. Design of study Secondary analysis of survey data that capture the above attitudes, awareness, and practice. Setting Online survey, targeting GP members of medeConnect. Method Survey data were obtained using an anonymised online self-completion questionnaire, and then analysed using standard data-analysis software. Results A total of 1011 GPs across the eight English regions responded. Older GPs were more confident in diagnosing and giving advice about dementia, but less likely to feel that early diagnosis was beneficial, and more likely to feel that patients with dementia can be a drain on resources with little positive outcome. Younger GPs were more positive and felt that much could be done to improve quality of life. Attitudes had no correlation with sex. GPs in general felt they had not had sufficient basic and post-qualifying training in dementia, and overall knowledge about dementia was low. Conclusion Much could be done to improve GPs' knowledge of dementia, and the confidence of older GPs could be an educational resource. However, greater experience may create scepticism about early diagnosis because of the perceived poor quality of specialist services. PMID:20849686
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa-contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development.
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159
Lambert, Trevor; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael
Background In the UK many practising GPs did not choose general practice as their first choice of career when they originally graduated as doctors. Aim To compare job satisfaction of GPs who chose general practice early or later in their career. Design and setting Questionnaires were sent to all UK-trained doctors who graduated in selected years between 1993 and 2000. Method Questionnaires were sent to the doctors 1, 3, 7 and 10 years after graduation. Results Of all 3082 responders working in general practice in years 7 and 10, 38% had first specified general practice as their preferred career when responding 1 year after graduation, 19% by year 3, 21% by year 5, and 22% after year 5. Job satisfaction was high and, generally, there was little difference between the first three groups (although, when different, the most positive responses were from the earliest choosers); but there were slightly lower levels of job satisfaction in the ‘more than 5 years’ group. For example, in response to the statement ‘I find enjoyment in my current post’, the percentages agreeing in the four groups, respectively, were 91.5%, 91.1%, 91.0% and 88.2%. In response to ‘I am doing interesting and challenging work’ the respective percentages were 90.2%, 88.0%, 86.6% and 82.6%. Conclusions Job satisfaction levels were generally high among the late choosers as well as the early choosers. On this evidence, most doctors who turn to general practice, after preferring another specialty in their early career, are likely to have a satisfying career. PMID:24267855
Daniels, Lynne Allison; Mallan, Kimberley Margaret; Nicholson, Jan Maree; Thorpe, Karen; Nambiar, Smita; Mauch, Chelsea Emma; Magarey, Anthea
Report long-term outcomes of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial (RCT), which evaluated a universal intervention commencing in infancy to provide anticipatory guidance to first-time mothers on "protective" complementary feeding practices that were hypothesized to reduce childhood obesity risk. The NOURISH RCT enrolled 698 mothers (mean age 30.1 years, SD = 5.3) with healthy term infants (51% female). Mothers were randomly allocated to usual care or to attend two 6-session, 12-week group education modules. Outcomes were assessed 5 times: baseline (infants 4.3 months); 6 months after module 1 (infants 14 months); 6 months after module 2 (infants 2 years) and at 3.5 and 5 years of age. Maternal feeding practices were self-reported using validated questionnaires. BMI Z-score was calculated from measured child height and weight. Linear mixed models evaluated intervention (group) effect across time. Retention at age 5 years was 61%. Across ages 2 to 5 years, intervention mothers reported less frequent use of nonresponsive feeding practices on 6 of 9 scales. At 5 years, they also reported more appropriate responses to food refusal on 7 of 12 items (Ps ≤ .05). No statistically significant group effect was noted for anthropometric outcomes (BMI Z-score: P = .06) or the prevalence of overweight/obesity (control 13.3% vs intervention 11.4%, P = .66). Anticipatory guidance on complementary feeding resulted in first-time mothers reporting increased use of protective feeding practices. These intervention effects were sustained up to 5 years of age and were paralleled by a nonsignificant trend for lower child BMI Z-scores at all postintervention assessment points. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Drummond, Mary Jane
This review of Caroline Pratt's life and work in early years education includes an account of how a six-year-old boy taught a woman in her thirties what she needed to know in order to open a school--in 1914--that continues to this day, a school that was, in the founder's own words, fitted to the child and not the other way around. It finds a clear…
Human Resources Development Canada, 2003
Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…
Human Resources Development Canada, 2003
Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…
Wilms, Douglas J.
Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…
Human Resources Development Canada, 2003
Willms, J. Douglas
The purpose of this study is to elaborate on the emotional problems faced by Turkish early childhood teachers in their interaction with students, parents, administrators and colleagues in the first three years of their professional lives. Data for this research consists of in-depth interviews with Turkish kindergarten teachers, where these…
Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan; Flache, Andreas
Two theoretical approaches underlie this investigation of the determinants of early study success among first-year university students. Specifically, to extend Walberg's educational productivity model, this study draws on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation in a contemporary university context. The survey data came from 407…
Madsen, Clifford K.
This study was designed to determine if adults are able to remember how much time they actually spent practicing during a past time period of their lives where detailed daily records were kept of actual number of minutes practiced. It also addressed how past practice time relates to their highest level of musical performance across the 30 years on…
Bush, Andrew; Sly, Peter D
Most treatment of newborn screening-diagnosed cystic fibrosis is not evidence-based; there are very few randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Furthermore, the advent of novel molecular therapies, which could be started at diagnosis, mandates performing RCTs in very young children. However, unless the natural history of early cystic fibrosis lung disease is known, RCTs are impossible. Here, we review the results of two large prospective cohorts of these infants - London Cystic Fibrosis Collaboration (LCFC) (London, UK) and Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST-CF) (Australia). Nutritional status remained excellent in both the cohorts. Both cohorts reported abnormal lung function aged at 3 months. AREST-CF, which previously reported rapidly declining preschool lung function, now report good conventional school-age spirometry. LCFC reported improvement between 3 months and 1 year, and stability in the second year. AREST-CF also reported a high prevalence of high resolution computed tomographic abnormalities related to free neutrophil elastase in bronchoalveolar lavage; LCFC reported high resolution computed tomographic changes at 1 year, which were too mild to be scored reproducibly. At least in the first 2 years of life, lung function is not a good end-point for RCTs; routine bronchoalveolar lavage and HRCT cannot be justified. Newborn screening has greatly improved outcomes, but we need better point-of-care biomarkers.
Descalzo, Miguel Ángel; Carbonell, Jordi; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Sanmartí, Raimon; Balsa, Alejandro; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentín; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; Ivorra-Cortés, José; Lisbona, Pilar; Alperi, Mercedes; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Carmona, Loreto
To compare the outcome of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in a country where early clinics were established versus the outcome of patients in nonprotocolized clinics. We compared 2 multicenter cohorts: an RA cohort derived from an early arthritis registry set in 36 reference hospitals in which a specific intervention was established (Evaluation of a Model for Arthritis Care in Spain [SERAP]), and a historical control cohort of patients with early RA attending 34 rheumatology departments (Prognosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis [PROAR] cohort). Effectiveness was tested by comparing the change in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), the change in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the change in the Sharp/van der Heijde radiologic score using marginal structural models. A total of 161 early RA patients were recruited in the PROAR cohort and 447 in the SERAP cohort. Being a SERAP patient was inversely correlated with activity, resulting in a decrease of -0.24 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -0.39, -0.08) units in the population average of the DAS28 after adjustment was made. Moreover, intervention may be seen as a protective factor of radiologic damage, with a decrease of -0.05 (95% CI -0.09, -0.01) units in the logarithm of the total Sharp/van der Heijde score. On the other hand, a decrease in functional impairment was detected, but intervention was not statistically associated with HAQ changes. Preventing major radiographic progression in a 2-year term inside structured and organized special programs for the management of disease, such as early arthritis clinics, are effective compared to nonprotocolized referrals, treatment, and followup. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary
This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters…
Montgomery, C M
Adaptive designs (ADs) have been proposed for anti-tuberculosis treatment trials. This call for innovation occurs against the backdrop of fundamental changes in the acceptable evidence base in anti-tuberculosis treatment. To contextualise ADs for tuberculosis (TB) and explore early responses from those working in the field. In this qualitative study investigating processes of theoretical and practical change in randomised controlled trials, 24 interviews were conducted with professionals involved in AD trials, half of whom worked in the TB field. Clinical trialists working on AD trials in TB are positive about the efficiency these designs offer, but remain cautious about their suitability. In addition to technical concerns, informants discussed the challenges of implementing AD in developing countries, including limited regulatory capacity to evaluate proposals, investments needed in infrastructure and site capacity, and challenges regarding informed consent. Respondents identified funding, interdisciplinary communication and regulatory and policy responses as additional concerns potentially affecting the success of AD for TB. Empirical research is needed into patient experiences of AD, including informed consent. Further consideration of the contexts of innovation in trial design is needed. These are fundamental to the successful translation of theory into practice.
Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C
The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.
Kerr, A Ross; Cruz, Gustavo D
Approximately 2,000 patients a year are diagnosed with oral cancer in New York State. In an effort to control this deadly disease, Governor George Pataki has taken a leadership role in the United States by mandating and funding training for dentists in the prevention and early detection of oral cancer. The purpose of this article is to highlight the epidemiology of oral cancer, to show how the dental profession can contribute to the health of the citizens of New York State, and to provide practical guidelines for both tobacco cessation intervention and utilization of existing technology for the early detection of oral cancer and precancerous conditions in the general dental practice setting.
Brotman, Laurie Miller; O'Neal, Colleen R.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Shrout, Patrick E.
Background: Parenting practices predict early childhood physical aggression. Preventive interventions that alter parenting practices and aggression during early childhood provide the opportunity to test causal models of early childhood psychopathology. Although there have been several informative preventive intervention studies that test mediation…
Burke, B. F.
Radio Astronomy in the U.S. went through two distinct phases, the pioneering phase before the Second World War, when Karl Jansky and Grote Reber were the only two radio astronomers in the world, and the post-WWII era, when the subject blossomed throughout the world, especially in England and Australia, while U.S. radio astronomy languished at a relatively low level, until its resurgence a decade later. Here in Budapest we are celebrating the 70th anniversary of Jansky's discovery, and I shall start with a review of his work, and the subsequent work of Grote Reber, who died, regrettably, in December 2002. Two historical references will be cited frequently: Serendipitous Discoveries in Radio Astronomy (Kellermann & Sheets, eds. 1983, referred to as Paper 1) and the two historical collections edited by W.T. Sullivan, Classics in Radio Astronomy (1982, referred to as Paper 2) and The Early Years of Radio Astronomy (1984, Paper 3).
Denig, W. F.; McVaugh, M. R.
A set of sunspot drawings from the early nineteenth century were discovered in the journals of the Reverend Jonathan Fisher. These drawings were made during a time when abnormally cold weather caused crops in New England to fail due to intermittent frost throughout the summer months of 1816, normally referred to as the "year without a summer." Global changes in weather patterns were the result of the Mount Tambora volcano eruption. Since this association was unknown at the time, there was speculation that the Sun was the cause inspiring the Reverend Fisher to monitor changes in sunspots during the summer of 1816 and continuing into 1817. These sunspot drawings for the summer of 1816 overlap the solar observations of Sir William Hershel.
Bondy, Elizabeth; Ross, Dorene D.; Hambacher, Elyse; Acosta, Melanie
In the literature on culturally responsive pedagogy "warm demanders" are teachers who embrace values and enact practices that are central to their students' success. Few scholars have examined the experience of novice teachers who attempt to enact this stance. In this study of two first-year, female, European American teachers who attempted to be…
Tukibayeva, Malika; Gonyea, Robert M.
High-impact practices, programs, and activities where students commit considerable time and effort in different settings can help to define the first-year college experience and are likely to increase success in areas like persistence, deep learning, and self-reported gains.
This paper explores the possibility that early childhood institutions can be, first and foremost, places of political practice--and specifically of democratic political practice. The case for the primacy of democratic political practice in early childhood institutions is made more urgent by two developments apparent in many countries today: the…
Hickman, Robbin; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Long, Toby M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.
Changes in early childhood science, theory, and best practices for improving outcomes of children with motor delay or dysfunction and their families have evolved rapidly since EI began. Changes in daily early intervention (EI) practice have been more elusive. Closing the gap between knowledge and practice requires EI providers to piece together…
McLeod, Bryce D; Sutherland, Kevin S; Martinez, Ruben G; Conroy, Maureen A; Snyder, Patricia A; Southam-Gerow, Michael A
Educators are increasingly being encouraged to implement evidence-based interventions and practices to address the social, emotional, and behavioral needs of young children who exhibit problem behavior in early childhood settings. Given the nature of social-emotional learning during the early childhood years and the lack of a common set of core evidence-based practices within the early childhood literature, selection of instructional practices that foster positive social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes for children in early childhood settings can be difficult. The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a study designed to identify common practice elements found in comprehensive intervention models (i.e., manualized interventions that include a number of components) or discrete practices (i.e., a specific behavior or action) designed to target social, emotional, and behavioral learning of young children who exhibit problem behavior. We conducted a systematic review of early childhood classroom interventions that had been evaluated in randomized group designs, quasi-experimental designs, and single-case experimental designs. A total of 49 published articles were identified, and an iterative process was used to identify common practice elements. The practice elements were subsequently reviewed by experts in social-emotional and behavioral interventions for young children. Twenty-four practice elements were identified and classified into content (the goal or general principle that guides a practice element) and delivery (the way in which a teacher provides instruction to the child) categories. We discuss implications that the identification of these practice elements found in the early childhood literature has for efforts to implement models and practices.
Kervin, Lisa; Turbill, Jan; Harden-Thew, Kathryn
The face of early childhood education continues to change. In Australia, the national early childhood guidelines, "Early Years Learning Framework" (2009) and the "National Quality Framework" have articulated and defined the work of early years' educators in a range of areas, including literacy. Both frameworks state that their…
Schwab, Elizabeth Falk
Taking the leap toward a career as a private practice owner is daunting. When in the initial stages of starting a private practice, I searched for current advice from an audiologist who had recently confronted the same challenges I was about to face. Because of the limited information available, I documented my process in hopes of providing an overview of my startup experience to help others. Included is a timeline of startup tasks and a sample budget to use as a reference. In this chapter, I share my experiences, both the positives and the negatives, and tips with the goal of helping you survive and thrive in your first year in private practice. PMID:28028322
Zaman, S; Jalil, F; Karlberg, J
Child care practices and hygiene measures were studied at 6 months of age in a longitudinally followed cohort of 1476 infants born between September 1984 to March 1987 in four socio-economically different areas in and around Lahore, Pakistan. Although, 76-98% of the mothers looked after their infants during health and 96-98% during a diarrhoeal illness, child care practices and hygiene measures differed significantly between the four areas. During a diarrhoeal episode, the mothers from the upper middle class took timely medical help, fed ample food and Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) to the sick infants and provided uncontaminated food to them in clean surroundings. The mothers from the village and the periurban slum took their sick child, mostly after the second day of illness, to a doctor, but preferred home remedies. Fourteen percent of the mothers in the village and 6% in the periurban slum did not seek any medical help at all. One-third of the families, from these two areas, fed food to children 12 hours after cooking; the surroundings of the child were dirty with large numbers of flies present throughout the year, though the food was commonly kept covered with a lid. We constructed a simple measure of the surroundings of the child, rated as dirty, medium or clean; it was found to be associated to both parental illiteracy and child growth, but not with housing standard. The main conclusion is that any attempt to improve child-care practices and the hygienic environment for the child, should focus on maternal literacy and simple health messages.
Clark, Kim D; Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beerenfels, Susan; Rowell, Anne-Marie C
Tambellup is a small rural town in the Great Southern region of Western Australia (WA), approximately 300 km south-east of state capital Perth. Tambellup has a much higher Aboriginal population than the national average and achieved very positive results for year one children in 2007 regional Australian Early Development Index testing. In 2009 the Great Southern GP Network (which has a facilitating role in providing early intervention strategies to families with young children at risk of disadvantage) requested that public health staff at Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA undertake an exploratory study to discover the factors protective of children's development in Tambellup. This article describes the subsequent research and its findings. This 2009 qualitative study interviewed both adult members of the local Aboriginal community (Noongar people; n = 23), and non-Aboriginal leaders from a cross-section of organisations, services and the community (n = 14) to determine what made growing up in Tambellup a positive experience. Aboriginal participants were introduced to the researchers by a local cultural consultant. Non-Aboriginal participants were initially sourced from a list provided by the GSGPN and extended by asking those listed to identify other appropriate contacts. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with Aboriginal participants and telephone interviews were undertaken with non-Aboriginal participants. All interviews were conducted using a standard schedule of questions as a guide, supplemented by clarifying and broadening questions from research team members. Data were analysed in a multi-stage process of collation, extraction of common themes and verification of themes with study participants and other stakeholders. Findings were presented to local Aboriginal leaders at a community meeting and a final report was prepared and circulated to community members. There was substantial evidence of widespread trust and positive relationships in this close
Walker, Lorraine O; Kirby, Russell S
Early parenting practices are significant to public health because of their linkages to child health outcomes. This paper focuses on the current state of the science regarding conceptual frameworks that incorporate early parenting practices in epidemiologic research and evidence supporting reliability and validity of self-report measures of such practices. Guided by a provisional definition of early parenting practices, literature searches were conducted using PubMed and Sociological Abstracts. Twenty-five published studies that included parent-report measures of early parenting practices met inclusion criteria. Findings on conceptual frameworks were analyzed qualitatively, whereas evidence of reliability and validity were organized into four domains (safety, feeding and oral health, development promotion, and discipline) and summarized in tabular form. Quantitative estimates of measures of reliability and validity were extracted, where available. We found two frameworks incorporating early parenting: one a program theory and the other a predictive model. We found no reported evidence of the reliability or validity of parent-report measures of safety or feeding and oral health practices. Evidence for reliability and validity were reported with greater frequency for development promotion and discipline practices, but report of the most pertinent type of reliability estimation, test-retest reliability, was rare. Failure to examine associations of early parenting practices with any child outcomes within most studies resulted in missed opportunities to indirectly estimate validity of parenting practice measures. Stronger evidence concerning specific measurement properties of early parenting practices is important to advancing maternal-child research, surveillance, and practice.
Roberts-Holmes, Guy; Bradbury, Alice
This article raises important questions about whether the increasing control of early years education through performance data is genuinely a means for school improvement. This composite article, examines the pervasiveness of attainment data in early years education professional activity, its impact on early years teachers' consciousness and…
In her new book, popular author Ann Lewin-Benham draws on her intimate knowledge and experience with the Reggio Approach to present 12 "best practices" inspired not only by Reggio, but also by play-based and Montessori approaches to early childhood education. These practices are demonstrated, one per chapter, with scenarios from classrooms,…
Carstairs, Sharon A; Craig, Leone C A; Marais, Debbi; Kiezebrink, Kirsty
The first year of a child's life is a key period of transition from an exclusive milk diet to solid foods to meet growing nutritional demands. An increased requirement for nutrients includes the introduction of protein-rich solid foods, such as seafood, which additionally provides valuable omega-3 fatty acids. However, consumption of seafood is low in the British child population. The aim of this study was to identify maternal perceptions of the factors that can influence the decision on whether to provide seafood during early years' feeding using a multi-method qualitative study design. A total of 26 discussions posted by mothers on parenting websites; Mumknowsbest, Mumsnet and Netmums, accessed July 2013, together with discussions from six focus groups (February-July 2014) in the North East of Scotland were included for thematic qualitative analysis. Discussions on the inclusion of seafood during the early years were centred across four interrelating themes; - food-related attributes, mother-centred aspects, family-centred aspects, and external information sources. Concerns regarding safety and mothers' limited knowledge and skills on seafood were apparent from discussions; however, the practicalities of providing a cost effective family meal were also issues raised by mothers. An understanding of the numerous and sometimes contradictory influences on mothers' decisions to include seafood during early years' period could be used to develop strategies to help increase regular seafood consumption. In particular, ensuring formal information and guidance clearly addresses the safety concerns of mothers and the development of practical education schemes to encourage and teach cooking skills should be considered. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clark, Rory McDowall
This article examines the leadership role of the "new professional," in particular those who have obtained or are establishing themselves as Early Years Professionals (EYP). Central to this process is the ability to "lead practice"; however, this concept is ill-defined and used loosely within the context of day-to-day routine. This article uses…
Tyler-Merrick, Gaye; Church, John
Early intervention for children with behavioural difficulties can be effective in terms of outcomes for both the children and their families. Early intervention can save a child from long-term outcomes such as school failure, peer rejection and later offending. However, in terms of accurate assessment of young children's behavioural difficulties,…
This paper aims to contribute to conversations around child participation within early childhood settings in Australia. Ethnographic approach was used for this study to explore child participatory workshops in Early Childhood Centers. The center in which this study took place was chosen as one of the sites of analysis for a broader PhD research…
Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Kleinman, Dushanka V; Wang, Min Qi; Massey, Meredith
The purpose of this study was to assess Maryland dental hygienists' knowledge, practices and opinions regarding dental caries prevention and early detection. A 30 item survey was mailed to 1,258 Maryland dental hygienists. Two follow-up mailings and email reminders were sent. The response rate was 43% (n=540). Nearly all respondents were female (98%), and 58% practiced in solo settings. Knowledge and certainty of knowledge were moderate: sealants are needed regardless of topical fluoride use (55% certain, 40% less certain), newly erupted permanent molars are the best candidates for sealants (54%, 36%) and professionally applied fluorides are desirable in areas without fluoridated water (55%, 36%). Fewer were certain that incipient lesions can be remineralized before cavitation (23%, 69%), and dilute, frequently administered fluorides are more effective in caries prevention than concentrated, less frequently administered fluorides (6%, 24%). Opinions regarding effectiveness of protocols for 2 age groups from 6 months to 6 years, the challenges of early childhood caries (ECC), prevention practices regarding sealant and topical fluoride applications varied widely. Eighty-nine percent reported routinely assessing dental caries risk factors of child patients and 90% were interested in continuing education courses. There were no significant differences between different types of practice settings, year of graduation, race/ethnicity or gender. Knowledge of recommended guidelines for fluoride and sealant application support clinical decision-making and self-care counseling. Misinformation and lack of understanding of current research and recommendations identify a need for educational interventions in undergraduate dental hygiene programs and through continuing education for practicing hygienists.
Smith, Teresa M; Blaser, Casey; Geno-Rasmussen, Cristy; Shuell, Julie; Plumlee, Catherine; Gargano, Tony; Yaroch, Amy L
The National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives (ECELC) project aims to facilitate best practices in nutrition, physical activity, screen time, and breastfeeding support and infant feeding among early care and education (ECE) programs across multiple states. The project uses a train-the-trainer approach with 5, in-person learning-collaborative sessions, technical assistance, and action planning. We describe the longitudinal practice-based evaluation of the project and assess whether ECE programs evaluated (n = 104) sustained changes in policies and practices 1 year after completing the project. The number of best practices increased from pre-assessment to post-assessment (P < .01) but did not change significantly from post-assessment to follow-up assessment. ECELC shows promise as an approach to incorporate professional development and training focused on improving best practices for environment-level child nutrition and physical activity, which is one strategy among many that are warranted for obesity prevention in young children.
Soon after its discovery, the attempts to develop anti-AIDS therapeutics focused on the retroviral protease (PR)-an enzyme used by lentiviruses to process the precursor polypeptide into mature viral proteins. An urgent need for the three-dimensional structure of PR to guide rational drug design prompted efforts to produce milligram quantities of this enzyme. However, only minute amounts of PR were present in the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses, and initial attempts to express this protein in bacteria were not successful. This review describes X-ray crystallographic studies of the retroviral proteases carried out at NCI-Frederick in the late 1980s and early 1990s and puts into perspective the crucial role that the total protein chemical synthesis played in unraveling the structure, mechanism of action, and inhibition of HIV-1 PR. Notably, the first fully correct structure of HIV-1 PR and the first cocrystal structure of its complex with an inhibitor (a substrate-derived, reduced isostere hexapeptide MVT-101) were determined using chemically synthesized protein. Most importantly, these sets of coordinates were made freely available to the research community and were used worldwide to solve X-ray structures of HIV-1 PR complexes with an array of inhibitors and set in motion a variety of theoretical studies. Publication of the structure of chemically synthesized HIV-1 PR complexed with MVT-101 preceded only by six years the approval of the first PR inhibitor as an anti-AIDS drug. Copyright (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Daniels, Lynne Allison; Mallan, Kimberley Margaret; Nicholson, Jan Maree; Battistutta, Diana; Magarey, Anthea
The goal of this study was to evaluate outcomes of a universal intervention to promote protective feeding practices that commenced in infancy and aimed to prevent childhood obesity. The NOURISH randomized controlled trial enrolled 698 first-time mothers (mean ± SD age: 30.1 ± 5.3 years) with healthy term infants (51% female) aged 4.3 ± 1.0 months at baseline. Mothers were randomly allocated to self-directed access to usual care or to attend two 6-session interactive group education modules that provided anticipatory guidance on early feeding practices. Outcomes were assessed 6 months after completion of the second information module, 20 months from baseline and when the children were 2 years old. Maternal feeding practices were self-reported by using validated questionnaires and study-developed items. Study-measured child height and weight were used to calculate BMI z scores. Retention at follow-up was 78%. Mothers in the intervention group reported using responsive feeding more frequently on 6 of 9 subscales and 8 of 8 items (all, P ≤ .03) and overall less controlling feeding practices (P < .001). They also more frequently used feeding practices (3 of 4 items; all, P < .01) likely to enhance food acceptance. No statistically significant differences were noted in anthropometric outcomes (BMI z score: P = .10) nor in prevalence of overweight/obesity (control 17.9% vs intervention 13.8%; P = .23). Evaluation of NOURISH data at child age 2 years found that anticipatory guidance on complementary feeding, tailored to developmental stage, increased use by first-time mothers of "protective" feeding practices that potentially support the development of healthy eating and growth patterns in young children.
Carstairs, Sharon A; Marais, Debbi; Craig, Leone C A; Kiezebrink, Kirsty
Seafood consumption is recommended as part of a healthy, balanced diet. Under-exposure to seafood during early years feeding, when taste and food acceptance is developed, may impact on the future development of a varied diet. This study aimed to investigate the availability and nutritional content of seafood in commercial infant meals compared to the other food types. A survey was conducted of all commercial infant main meal products available for purchase in supermarkets, high street retailers and online stores within the United Kingdom. The primary food type (seafood, poultry, meat and vegetables) within each product, nutritional composition per 100 g, and ingredient contribution were assessed. Of the original 341 main meal products seafood (n = 13; 3.8%) was underrepresented compared to poultry (103; 30.2%), meat (121; 35.5%) and vegetables (104; 30.5%). The number of the seafood meals increased three years later (n = 20; 6.3%) vegetable meals remained the largest contributor to the market (115; 36.4%) with meat (99; 31.3%) and poultry (82; 26.0%) both contributing slightly less than previously. Seafood-based meals provided significantly higher energy (83.0 kcal), protein (4.6 g), and total fat (3.2 g) than vegetable (68 kcal, 2.7 g, 1.9 g), meat (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and poultry-based meals (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and higher saturated fat (1.3 g) than poultry (0.4 g) and vegetable-based (0.6 g) meals (all per 100 g) which may be attributed to additional dairy ingredients. Parents who predominantly use commercial products to wean their infant may face challenges in sourcing a range of seafood products to enable the introduction of this food into the diet of their infant. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lehew, Charles W; Kaste, Linda M
The purpose of the study was to assess Illinois dentists' self-reported knowledge and practices concerning oral cancer prevention, early detection, and management as a baseline prior to conducting interventions designed to increase dentists' capacity to detect and manage oral cancers and counsel their patients about risk reduction. A weighted sample to represent licensed dentists in 19 counties yielded 518 dentists who responded to a 38-item mailed survey in 2004. Over 92 percent of the dentists reported providing oral cancer exams. However, many are not doing them properly or at frequent intervals. Over two-thirds had oral cancer continuing education, but 40 percent had it more than 2 years prior to the survey. Training in risk counseling was rare. Interventions are needed to assure appropriate skill and knowledge levels for oral cancer early detection, management, and risk counseling by Illinois dentists.
Zaidel, Dahlia W
Art is expressed in multiple formats in today's human cultures. Physical traces of stone tools and other archaeological landmarks suggest early nonart cultural behavior and symbolic cognition in the early Homo sapiens (HS) who emerged ~300,000-200,000 years ago in Africa. Fundamental to art expression is the neural underpinning for symbolic cognition, and material art is considered its prime example. However, prior to producing material art, HS could have exploited symbolically through art-rooted biological neural pathways for social purpose, namely, those controlling interpersonal motoric coordination and sound codependence. Aesthetics would not have been the primary purpose; arguments for group dance and rhythmical musical sounds are offered here. In addition, triggers for symbolic body painting are discussed. These cultural art formats could well have preceded material art and would have enhanced unity, inclusiveness, and cooperative behavior, contributing significantly to already existing nonart cultural practices. © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Coogle, Christan Grygas
The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate the early intervention experiences of mothers who have a young child at risk for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). More specifically, the goal was to explore the family centered help giving practices mothers identify and how these practices affect their early intervention experiences. Five…
Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David
This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…
The Research in Practice Series has been developed to provide practical, easy to read, up-to-date information and support to a growing national readership of early childhood workers. Digital photography opens a whole new world of communication within early childhood settings, giving scope for devising more effective ways of engaging children,…
Kilgo, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Larry; Lamontagne, Maggie; Stayton, Vicky; Cook, Martha; Cooper, Carolyn
A study examined the perceptions of 169 early childhood educators and 238 early childhood special educators on the importance of practices when applied to young children with and without disabilities. Findings indicate that few differences existed between the two professional groups' perceptions of the importance of these practices. (Author/CR)
Dunst, Carl J.
Findings from three field tests evaluations of early childhood intervention practitioner performance checklists and three parent practice guides are reported. Forty-two practitioners from three early childhood intervention programs reviewed the checklists and practice guides and made (1) social validity judgments of both products, (2) judgments of…
The purposes of this study were (a) to examine early elementary grade teachers' developmentally appropriate beliefs and their teaching practices in public schools in Bangkok, (b) to explore the functioning of developmentally appropriate practice in the two chosen early elementary schools, and (c) to determine the factors that influence the…
Doran, Natasha; Fox, Fiona; Rodham, Karen; Taylor, Gordon; Harris, Michael
The loss of GPs in the early stages of their careers is contributing to the GP workforce crisis. Recruitment in the UK remains below the numbers needed to support the demand for GP care. To explore the reasons why GPs leave general practice early. A mixed methods study using online survey data triangulated with qualitative interviews. Participants were GPs aged <50 years who had left the English Medical Performers List in the last 5 years (2009-2014). A total of 143 early GP leavers participated in an online survey, of which 21 took part in recorded telephone interviews. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and qualitative data using thematic analysis techniques. Reasons for leaving were cumulative and multifactorial. Organisational changes to the NHS have led to an increase in administrative tasks and overall workload that is perceived by GP participants to have fundamentally changed the doctor-patient relationship. Lack of time with patients has compromised the ability to practise more patient-centred care, and, with it, GPs' sense of professional autonomy and values, resulting in diminished job satisfaction. In this context, the additional pressures of increased patient demand and the negative media portrayal left many feeling unsupported and vulnerable to burnout and ill health, and, ultimately, to the decision to leave general practice. To improve retention of young GPs, the pace of administrative change needs to be minimised and the time spent by GPs on work that is not face-to-face patient care reduced. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…
Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Logan, S. Wood; Lucas, W. Amarie; Barber, Laura T.
Early childhood educators, especially those in preschool centers, are often expected to design and implement movement programs. However, these individuals may not have been taught these skills during their education. The purpose of this study was to determine if early childhood majors could successfully be taught to implement a mastery climate…
Bennett, Susan V.; Gunn, AnnMarie Alberton; Gayle-Evans, Guda; Barrera, Estanislado S.; Leung, Cynthia B.
Early childhood educators continue to see an increase in their culturally diverse student population. As our country continues to grow as a multicultural nation, it is imperative that our early childhood classrooms embrace this rich diversity and provide experiences that affirm all students, families and communities. We (teacher educators)…
This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…
Murphy, Jeanne Lovo; Hatton, Deborah; Erickson, Karen A.
Practices endorsed by 192 teachers of young children with visual impairments who completed an online early literacy survey included facilitating early attachment (70%), providing early literacy support to families (74%), and providing adaptations to increase accessibility (55%). Few teachers reported using assistive technology, providing…
Cilliers, Johanna Albertha
Although the merits of practical work in physics is often questioned, it remains part of physics curricula word- wide. In distance education the incorporation of practical work into the curriculum is considerably complicated by the unique logistics of the setting and the high cost involved. The research reported in this thesis emanated from the need to improve the practical work module for first year physics at the University of South Africa, one of the largest distance education universities in the world. Specifically, the home-based component which, up to the commencement of the research had been entirely text-based, needed to be addressed. To this end it was necessary to identify a valid and attainable set of objectives and to determine the characteristics, abilities and needs of the students in the target group. A survey polling the viewpoints of South African physics lecturers and students about the objectives of practical work was conducted and an extensive student profile comprising a biographic, cognitive and affective component was compiled. Biographically, the target group is unique in the sense that it consists mainly of adult learners, a large percentage of whom study in a second language. The cognitive component of the profile covered aptitude, proficiency in English, mathematics and the integrated science process skills and level of cognitive development, all of which were investigated for possible influence on performance in practical work. On an affective level, students displayed a very positive attitude towards practical work, seated mainly in their need for concrete exploration of the theory. A practical work module structured around an experiential learning cycle adapted to the distance education environment was subsequently designed. The study material developed for the module comprised an interactive study guide on data processing and experimental procedure, a home experiment kit with accompanying workbook and a laboratory manual. From the
Kang, L-J; Palisano, R J; Simeonsson, R J; Hwang, A-W
Family-centred practices emphasize professional supports for forming partnerships with families in early intervention. The Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers (MPOC-SP) measures the perceptions of paediatric service providers in supporting children and families. This study aimed to establish reliability of the Chinese version of the MPOC-SP (C-MPOC-SP) and to examine professional perceptions of family-centred practices in relation to professional discipline and years of experience. A convenience sample of 94 physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, social workers and early childhood educators completed the C-MPOC-SP. Thirty-seven professionals completed the measure a second time within 2-4 weeks for test-retest reliability. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were examined by Cronbach's α and intra-class correlation coefficient. Comparisons were made across professional disciplines by multivariate analyses of variance followed by analyses of variance. Relationships between years of experience and ratings of family-centred practices were examined by Pearson's correlation coefficients (r). Cronbach's α for items on each of the four scales of the C-MPOC-SP ranged from 0.80 to 0.92, indicating adequate internal consistency. Intra-class correlation coefficient between the initial and repeat completion of the C-MPOC-SP for each scale ranged from 0.56 to 0.77, indicating adequate to excellent test-retest reliability. Mean ratings for the Communicating Specific Information were significantly higher for physical therapists, occupational therapists and speech-language pathologists than for social workers (P = 0.001). The C-MPOC-SP scores were positively correlated with years of experience for all four scales (r = 0.23-0.38; P < 0.05). This study established adequate internal consistency and adequate to excellent test-retest reliability of the C-MPOC-SP in measuring perceptions of family centeredness of early
Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…
Wiley, Mary O'Leary
Adoption involves the legal transfer of parental rights and responsibilities from a child's birth parents to adults who will raise the child (Reitz & Watson, 1992). Research related to adoption has expanded over the past 10 years and has incorporated more focus on implications for practice and public policy. This expansion has reflected increased awareness of the lived experience of adopted individuals, in addition to that of adoptive families and birth or first parents and families, collectively known as the adoption kinship network (Grotevant & McRoy, 1998). Trends discussed included research and social trends or movements (2007-2017) since the publication of the final article in a series of articles in the psychological literature related to adoption in The Counseling Psychologist (Baden & Wiley, 2007; Lee, 2003; O'Brien & Zamostny, 2003; Wiley & Baden, 2005; Zamostny, O'Brien, Baden, & Wiley, 2003; Zamostny, Wiley, O'Brien, Lee, & Baden, 2003). This article summarizes the social trends and research related to adoption over the last 10 years, including longitudinal and meta-analytic studies, increased research and conceptualization of ethnic and racial identity development, research on microaggressions, and research on diverse adoptive families, including those with gay and lesbian parents. Social trends included increased knowledge related to Internet accessibility, genetic information, continued focus on openness, and viewing adoption through a more critical lens. Implications are discussed for the development of programs that enhance competence of mental health professionals and adoption professionals in adoption-competent practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Walsh, Bridget A.; Petty, Karen
The frequency of early childhood education approaches spanning 10 years of publications was investigated. A content analysis of publications (N = 492) from "Early Childhood Education Journal" was conducted. From a previous content analysis six approaches or search words were identified: Bank Street, Head Start, High/Scope, Montessori, Reggio…
McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Amerine, Lindsey B; Chen, Sheh-Li; Luter, David N; Arnall, Justin; Smith, Shayna; Roth, Mary T; Rodgers, Philip T; Williams, Dennis M; Pinelli, Nicole R
To examine student outcomes associated with the Student Medication and Reconciliation Team (SMART) program, which was designed to provide second-year student pharmacists at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Eshelman School of Pharmacy direct patient care experience at UNC Medical Center. Twenty-two second-year student pharmacists were randomly selected from volunteers, given program training, and scheduled for three 5-hour evening shifts in 2013-2014. Pre/post surveys and reflection statements were collected from 19 students. Data were analyzed with a mixed methods approach. Survey results revealed an increase in student self-efficacy (p<0.05) and positive perceptions of SMART. Qualitative findings suggest the program provided opportunities for students to develop strategies for practice, promoted an appreciation for the various roles pharmacists play in health care, and fostered an appreciation for the complexity of real-world practice. Early clinical experiences can enhance student learning and development while fostering an appreciation for pharmacy practice.
McWilliam, R. A.
Identifies characteristics (such as cure claims, practitioner specialization, and questionable research) of controversial practices in early intervention. Evaluates 13 such practices grouped into medical, educational, and therapeutic categories and suggests reasons that professionals and parents adopt such practices. Suggestions for the field…
Two assumptions that underlie much research in early childhood music education are that music is a social endeavor and musical participation is beneficial to children's overall social development. As members of cultural and social groups, young children engage with music in a multitude of ways and with different companions. This article examines…
The concept of mobile technologies is now an emergency theme in educational research, yet the playing of these edutainment applications and their impact on early childhood learning needs to be fully explored. This study highlights current research and explores how iPads improve student learning. It also examines how the introduction of iPads,…
Taylor, P. J.; And Others
A method of instruction in gynecology is described that encouraged the formulation of early diagnostic hypotheses, an important part of clinical problem-solving. Students were given a set of clinical clues to help them make broad diagnostic hypotheses. Student ability, results, and student perceptions of the course are provided. (Author/LBH)
Bateman, Amanda; Church, Amelia
Early childhood research has investigated children's use of objects largely focusing on cognitive and motor development. Yet members of a particular culture, such as young children's peer groups, use objects that have cultural relevance as "conversational" items, as a means to interacting with other members of the group. This article…
Wilson, Ruth A.
This book is based on the understanding that fostering a sense of wonder and appreciation for the natural world is important to the development of young children and the preservation of planet Earth. It is also based on the belief that experiences children have early in life impact the attitudes and behaviors they carry with them throughout their…
Conoyer, Sarah J.; Foegen, Anne; Lembke, Erica S.
Two studies using similar methods in two states investigated the long-term predictive utility of two single-skill early numeracy Curriculum Based Measures (CBMs) and the degree to which they can adequately predict high-stakes test scores. Data were drawn from kindergarten and first-grade students. State standardized assessment data from the…
Strengthening the home-school partnership is a strategy to raise achievement levels and to engage "hard-to-reach" parents with education in the UK, however this political ideal has been critiqued as exclusive and based on a white, middle class model. This article explores how six asylum-seeking mothers manage their children's early years…
Brian, Ali; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Logan, Jessica A.; Sutherland, Sue
Background: Fundamental motor skill (FMS) interventions when delivered by an expert can significantly improve the FMS of young children with and without developmental delays. However, there is a gap in the literature as few early childhood centers employ experts with the professional background to deliver FMS intervention. Purpose: The primary…
Wang, Shi-Ping; Wilkes, Andreas; Wang, Ya-Yun; Bai, Ling
The case study preliminarily compared the CH4 reduction potential and CH4 emission intensity of 7 year-old and 4 year-old grazing yak after early off-take practice based on the 2006 IPCC GHG inventory guidelines and under the premise of equal herbage consumption. Our results showed that the total CH4 emission was greater by about 86.3 kg for 2.1 4-year yaks compared with 7 years old yak during their life assuming that their total herbage consumption was the same, because total herbage consumption for a 7-year yak was equal to that of 2.1 4-year yaks. However, CH4 emission per unit body weight (1.374 kg x kg(-1)) for a 7-year yak (i. e. emission intensity) was higher than that of 2.1 4-year yaks (0.973 kg x kg(-1)) because total body weight of 2.1 4-year yaks was higher by 192 kg than that of a 7-year yak. According to CH4 emission intensity, change of the early off-take practice from 7-year to 4-year yak could reduce 77 kg CH4 if producing 192 kg body weight through 2.1 4-year yaks compared with a 7-year yak, i. e. reduction potential was about 1 600 kg CO2 equivalent under the same consuming forage. Therefore, for grassland-based animal husbandry, early off-take practice for grazing animals had a great reduction potential in the intensity of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions per unit output rather than total emissions of GHGs.
Chen, Peter; Rice, Cynthia
Based on a 180-day school year, any student who misses 18 days or more per year--or about two days per month--is considered chronically absent. An alarming 4,328 Newark students in grades kindergarten through 3rd grade were chronically absent during the 2013-14 school year. When young students miss too much school, they will likely struggle…
Krieg, Susan; Whitehead, Kay
Although international definitions of early childhood repeatedly refer to a birth-8 age span, there are complex, institutional divides within this age range. This paper explores the divide between pre-compulsory and compulsory early childhood institutions. In countries such as Finland this divide is not such an issue because children do not begin…
Learn to use inquiry-based practice to inspire young minds through science. This book gives educators a solid guide for using research-based principles of inquiry to help children explore their world. With real-life examples and information on facilitating and guiding children, you will be able to engage and maximize STEM learning. Web content and…
The basic arrangements and practices of American broadcast audience research and measurement were established during the first decade (1920-29) of the field's existence, and were motivated by commercial and competing institutional concerns within the broader context of evolving forms of imagination and expression. A review of the evidence found in…
DeFord, LouAnn; And Others
Six brief articles by elementary school teachers in Foxfire's East Tennessee Teachers' Network focus on applying Foxfire core practices in a developmentally appropriate manner in grades K-3, and describe kindergarten journals, student decision making, and projects involving local history and garbage recycling. (SV)
Bernat, Debra H.; August, Gerald J.; Hektner, Joel M.; Bloomquist, Michael L.
We examined effects of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" early-age-targeted prevention program on serious conduct problems following 5 years of continuous intervention and one year of follow-up. We also examined if intervention effects on proximally-targeted variables found after 3 years mediated intervention effects on conduct…
Seager, Emily; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten
Language comprehension delays in pre-schoolers are predictive of difficulties in a range of developmental domains. In England, early years practitioners are required to assess the language comprehension of 2-year-olds in their care. Many use a format based on the Early Years Foundation Stage Unique Child Communication Sheet (EYFS:UCCS) in which…
This article argues for an early childhood professionalism based upon notions of professional community and professional knowledge. Professionalism is conceived here as shaped by the relation between the social and the epistemic, with certain types of professional knowledge given precedence in accordance with the involvement of different…
Vu, Jennifer A.; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Howes, Carollee
Research Findings: This study is intended to widen the debate around the bachelor's degree (BA) as preparation for early childhood teaching when head teachers possess various levels of credentials and education. We examined classroom quality and teacher involvement in 231 classrooms sponsored by 122 different agencies, staffed and supervised by…
Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina
Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…
McNaughton, Kathryn; Krentz, Caroline
The work of Malaguzzi (in Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998; Fraser, 2006) has made the fundamentals of the preschools of Reggio Emilia familiar to many early childhood educators. The article describes an authentic project that enhanced undergraduate and postgraduate participants' understanding of the impact of collaboration, conversation, and…
This article explores the implications of young learners' dispositions towards the use of digital technologies in contemporary early childhood settings. It is proposed that young learners have grown up in very different social conditions from previous generations, mainly through the saturation of digital technologies, in particular computers. This…
Fonger, Nicole L.; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric
We detail a learning progressions approach to early algebra research and how existing work around learning progressions and trajectories in mathematics and science education has informed our development of a four-component theoretical framework consisting of: a curricular progression of learning goals across big algebraic ideas; an instructional…
Neelly, Linda P.
Suggests developmentally appropriate ways early childhood teachers can help young children express, interpret, and understand their experiences through song. Discusses the importance of singing for gaining music and literacy skills and encouraging self-expression and creativity. Includes tips related to posture, breathing, vocal exploration, vocal…
Mallory, Bruce L., Ed.; New, Rebecca S., Ed.
The current conceptualization of what is appropriate in early childhood education is overly narrow in its interpretation of the role of the teacher, and with respect to variations in cultural and developmental diversity. Based on this observation, this book discusses various issues surrounding diversity, inclusion, and appropriate early…
Smith, Steven Lynn, Ed.; Rundall, Dick, Ed.
This manual, developed from an Early Childhood Institute on the Assessment of Young Children conducted in 1981, acquaints education and counseling professionals with a variety of assessment instruments for young handicapped children and assists them in understanding how to adapt instruments to a child's unique disability. Information to facilitate…
Law, J.; Dockrell, J. E.; Castelnuovo, E.; Williams, K.; Seeff, B.; Normand, C.
Background: High levels of early language difficulties raise practical issues about the efficient and effective means of meeting children's needs. Persistent language difficulties place significant financial pressures on health and education services. This has led to large investment in intervention in the early years; yet, little is known about…
This article discusses how children in New Zealand make meaning in their spontaneous pretend play from kindergarten (four years old) through to their first year of primary school (five years old). The findings discussed here are taken from a wider project investigating children's storytelling where 12 child participants were video recorded during…
Browne, Naima, Ed.
During the early 1980s there was a lack of research regarding gender issues for early childhood and elementary education. This document attempts to fill this chasm by addressing gender issues in science and technology for primary education schooling and early-years education. The following chapters are included: (1) "Science and Technology in the…
Recent research suggests early math, science, and social studies knowledge may boost achievement for the nation's youngest students and provides a better chance at future reading success--more so even than early reading skills. This issue explores the benefits of including a strong science curriculum in the early years and includes recommendations…
Self, Trisha L.; Parham, Douglas F.; Rajagopalan, Jagadeesh
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a policy statement in 2007 urging physicians to screen for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at 18 and 24 months. This study sought to identify the screening practices of pediatricians and family physicians (FPs) in following the AAP guidelines for ASD. A survey was mailed to 1,500 pediatricians and…
Meadows, Eddie S.
Presents background information on the evolution of rhythm and blues (R & B) from the 1940s to the 1960s: the origin and naming of selected R & B groups, role of instruments in R & B orchestras, soloist/group vocal practices, and the role that independent record labels played in artists' successes and failures. (Author/ML)
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Christensen, Katherine J.; Day, Randal D.
The purpose of the current study was to explore clusters of proactive parenting practices, and how they might vary as a function of parental demographics, the quality of the parent-child relationship, and the traits and behaviors of the adolescent child. Data were taken from the "Flourishing Families Project", which includes 500 families with an…
Jung, Sunyoung; Fuller, Bruce; Galindo, Claudia
Poverty-related developmental-risk theories dominate accounts of uneven levels of household functioning and effects on children. But immigrant parents may sustain norms and practices--stemming from heritage culture, selective migration, and social support--that buffer economic exigencies. "Comparable" levels of social-emotional functioning in…
School readiness is currently a strong focus for education policy in England. However, understanding what it means to be ready for school, and how this is reflected in policy and enacted in practice, are sites of contention. This paper explores the genesis of the current disparity in understandings in the context of the English education system. A…
Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope
Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of
Jung, Sunyoung; Fuller, Bruce; Galindo, Claudia
Poverty-related developmental-risk theories dominate accounts of uneven levels of household functioning and effects on children. But immigrant parents may sustain norms and practices-stemming from heritage culture, selective migration, and social support-that buffer economic exigencies. Comparable levels of social-emotional functioning in homes of foreign-born Latino mothers were observed relative to native-born Whites, despite sharp social-class disparities, but learning activities were much weaker, drawing on a national sample of mothers with children aging from 9 to 48months (n=5,300). Asian-heritage mothers reported weaker social functioning-greater martial conflict and depression-yet stronger learning practices. Mothers' migration history, ethnicity, and social support helped to explain levels of functioning, after taking into account multiple indicators of class and poverty. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Caspe, Margaret; Lopez, M. Elena
Positive early-literacy experiences--whether at home, in early-childhood programs, schools, or libraries--set children on a trajectory to become confident readers by the time they reach third grade, which is an important milestone on the pathway toward high school graduation. This review outlines seven practices that research shows families use to…
Winton, Pamela J., Ed; McCollum, Jeanette A., Ed.; Catlett, Camille, Ed.
The key to improving the early education of all young children, including those with special needs, is the effective preparation and development of the professionals who work with them. "Practical Approaches to Early Childhood Professional Development" is a comprehensive planning resource for college faculty and consultants engaged in preservice …
Jacobson, Linda; Rollins, S. Kwesi; Brown, Janet; Naviasky, Heather
This "Patterns of Practice: Case Studies of Early Childhood Education & Family Engagement in Community Schools" report updates the community school case studies through a description of ongoing developments in Cincinnati, OH; Evansville, IN; Multnomah County, OR; and Tulsa, OK and adds to that knowledge base of early learning and…
Perry, Gail, Ed.; Henderson, Barbara, Ed.; Meier, Daniel R., Ed.
Through "teacher research", teachers engage in the systematic study of their own practice to answer questions they have about teaching and learning, and their own effectiveness. This book explores what teacher research in the early childhood setting looks like, why it is important to the field of early childhood education, and how…
Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.
This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…
Fenech, Marianne; Lotz, Mianna
Dominant constructions of professionalism in early childhood education can diminish early childhood teachers' and educators' undertaking of advocacy at the systems or political level. In this paper, we propose an ethically grounded construction of professionalism that provides space for professional practice to move beyond the classroom and into…
White, Burton L.
This document reports the first phase of a longitudinal research project designed to produce information on how to raise children so their basic abilities may develop optimally during the first six years of life. Although this Preschool Project has been in operation five years, the study is not yet completed because statements about the effects of…
Landmark, Leena Jo; Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun
Since the transition movement in the 1980s, numerous transition practices have been developed. Kohler (1993) provided a comprehensive review and analysis of transition best practices and divided them into substantiated and implied practices based on the existence of empirical evidence. Since that review was published, the field of transition has…
Quinones, Gloria; Ridgway, Avis
The focus of this study is to investigate early childhood students' discourses of play-based curriculum. In this paper we focus on how students made implicit and explicit links to the Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework (VEYLDF). Twenty-six early childhood students had volunteered their de-identified play and pedagogy…
Papatheodorou, Theodora, Ed.
Globally, early years policies and documents have set out aspirational outcomes and benefits for children, their families and the wider society. These policies have emphasised the place of early childhood provision within the wider global agenda, by tackling inequality and disadvantage early on in children's lives. However, these strategies have…
Dabawala, Suhel; Suprabha, Baranya S; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Arathi; Shah, Nachiket
There is a need to carry out controlled investigations regarding risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). To study the type of parenting style and oral health practices as risk factors among children with ECC in an Indian preschool population. Two hundred and eleven children with ECC and equal number of controls participated in this case-control study. A questionnaire was answered by parents regarding oral health practices such as oral hygiene methods, feeding habits, daily sugar intake, and dental attendance pattern along with socioeconomic and demographic status. The parenting style was determined using Parenting Styles Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ) index. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Risk factors associated with ECC were higher birth order, lower socioeconomic status, non-use of fluoridated toothpaste, breast/bottle feeding for more than one year, presence of formula milk or milk with sugar in the feeding bottle while falling asleep, higher sweet scores in the diet chart, and visiting dentist only when a problem was perceived. Majority of parents of children with and without ECC had authoritative parenting style. Improper oral health practices are the risk factors for ECC. The association of parenting style with ECC could not be confirmed. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Prakash, Preeti; Lawrence, Herenia P; Harvey, Bart J; McIsaac, Warren J; Limeback, Hardy; Leake, James L
OBJECTIVES To assess the knowledge of early childhood caries and to examine the current preventive oral health-related practices and training among Canadian paediatricians and family physicians who provide primary care to children younger than three years. METHODS A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was mailed to a random sample of 1928 paediatricians and family physicians. RESULTS A total of 1044 physicians met the study eligibility criteria, and of those, 537 returned completed surveys, resulting in an overall response rate of 51.4% (237 paediatricians and 300 family physicians). Six questions assessed knowledge of early childhood caries; only 1.8% of paediatricians and 0.7% of family physicians answered all of these questions correctly. In total, 73.9% of paediatricians and 52.4% of family physicians reported visually inspecting children’s teeth; 60.4% and 44.6%, respectively, reported counselling parents or caregivers regarding teething and dental care; 53.2% and 25.6%, respectively, reported assessing children’s risk of developing tooth decay; and 17.9% and 22.3%, respectively, reported receiving no oral health training in medical school or residency. Respondents who felt confident and knowledgeable and who considered their role in promoting oral health as “very important” were significantly more likely to carry out oral health-related practices. CONCLUSION Although the majority of paediatricians and family physicians reported including aspects of oral health in children’s well visits, a reported lack of dental knowledge and training appeared to pose barriers, limiting these physicians from playing a more active role in promoting the oral health of children in their practices. PMID:19030271
In recent years a growing body of evidence has implicated deficits in the automaticity of fundamental facts such as word and number recognition in a range of disorders: including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, apraxia and autism. Variously described as habits, fluency, chunking and over learning, automatic processes are best…
Bicehouse, Vaughn L.
In 2007, the Autism Society of America (ASA) estimated that 1.5 million Americans and their families were affected by autism. As the current ASD prevalence rates continue to rise (10%-17% each year) so does the awareness that ASD is no respecter of persons. ASD touches children of every racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic background. Additionally,…
Stirrup, Julie; Evans, John; Davies, Brian
Despite 50 years and more of "progressive education" in the United Kingdom, classed patterns of educational success and failure stubbornly prevail. So how, where and when does it all go wrong for the many children who continue to fail or underachieve? Drawing on the work of Basil Bernstein, this article centres processes within early…
Arevalo, Amanda; Kolobe, Thubi H A; Arnold, Sandra; DeGrace, Beth
To examine whether parenting behaviors and childrearing practices in the first 3 years of life among Mexican American (MA) families predict children's academic performance at school age. Thirty-six children were assessed using the Parent Behavior Checklist, Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory, and Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Academic performance was measured with the Illinois Standards Achievement Test during third grade. Correlation between parents' developmental expectations, nurturing behaviors, discipline, and academic performance were statistically significant (P < .05). Developmental expectations and discipline strategies predicted 30% of the variance in the Illinois Standards Achievement Test of reading. The results of this study suggest that early developmental expectations that MA parents have for their children, and the nurturing and discipline behaviors they engage in, are related to how well the children perform on academic tests at school age.
Miller, David; Robertson, Derek; Hudson, Alison; Shimi, Jill
In this article we look at the links between early years pedagogy and the use of digital game-based learning. Early years education is a distinctive phase of the education system in many countries, generally covering the age range from 3-6 or 7 years. In the United Kingdom, it tends to bridge preschool and the first two years in primary school.…
Drawing on survey data from over 2000 parents, this paper explores the possibility of early-years swimming to add mathematical capital to young children. Using developmental milestones as the basis, it was found that parents reported significantly earlier achievement on many of these milestones. Such data suggest that the early years swim…
Across the "European learning space" (Lawn, 2006) professionalisation of early years workforces has become a key priority and there has been a flow of this policy between borders (Oberhuemer, 2005). Early Years Professional Status (EYPS) is central to these developments in England. Within what is regarded as a traditionally…
Recent research findings indicate that using multiple metaphors in multimodal learning experiences are effective teaching approaches in early years mathematics. Using a social semiotic lens this paper reports on eight early years teachers' perceptions of this approach whilst engaging in a small collaborative professional learning group. This group…
Presents concerns over the "Early Years Study" (McCain & Mustard). Focuses on diversity issues related to the readiness measure used, parenting styles, and the importance of first language development. Questions the report's definition of "developmentally-attuned." Concludes by expressing hope that the Early Years Study…
McMillan, Dorothy J.; McConnell, Barbara
Following a lengthy consultation process across Northern Ireland (NI), 2013 saw the publication of Learning to Learn: A Framework for Early Years Education and Learning [DE (Department of Education). 2013. "Learning to Learn: A Framework for Early Years Education and Learning." Accessed July 15, 2014.…
Tesar, Marek; Pupala, Branislav; Kascak, Ondrej; Arndt, Sonja
This article examines Slovak early years teachers' concerns with conceptions of teacher professionalism. It suggests that there is a mismatch between understandings of professionalism, policy aspirations and the attitudes of teachers to their own professionalism, and that this mismatch fuels early years teachers' sense of agency. These tensions…
Gustavsson, Laila; Jonsson, Agneta; Ljung-Djärf, Agneta; Thulin, Susanne
The Swedish school system offers curriculum-based early childhood education (ECE) organised as preschool (for 0-5-year-olds) and preschool class (for 6-year-olds). The intention to create a playful and educational environment based on children's perspectives, interests, and questions is strongly based on historical and cultural traditions. This article develops knowledge of ECE teachers' approaches to science-learning situations. The study applies a phenomenographic approach. The analysis is based on approximately 9.5 hours of video documentation of teacher-led and child-initiated Swedish ECE science activities. We identified two descriptive categories and four subcategories dealing with science-learning situations: (A) making anything visible, containing the three subcategories (Aa) addressing everyone, (Ab) addressing everything, and (Ac) addressing play and fantasy; and (B) creating a shared space for learning (Ba) addressing common content. These categories are related to how efforts to take advantage of children's perspectives are interpreted and addressed in educational practice. The article discusses and exemplifies the use of various categories and their potential implications for ECE learning practice.
Vartuli, Sue; Snider, Karrie; Holley, Maggie
In early childhood teacher education programs, the reality of educational systems must be understood and teacher candidates must be ready to deal with the current challenges schools face. The rationale and application of the principles of practice based teacher education are presented in this article. Practice-based teacher education programs…
Reflective practice is at the core of teacher education programmes and is highly regarded as an essential component in the education of new and experienced teachers. Given the recent interest in language use and the role of discourse in articulating knowledge of one's practice, this paper focuses on how two groups of early career teachers from…
Nash, Kindel; Panther, Leah; Arce-Boardman, Alicia
This article features a culturally sustaining practice that many early literacy teachers can adapt and use: "la historia de mi nombre"/the story of my name. The practice is described in the context of a second-grade bi/multilingual class as the Latinx students are learning about their names through culturally authentic literature,…
Dunst, Carl J.
A conceptualization-operationalization-measurement framework is described for developing evidence-informed early childhood intervention performance checklists. Performance checklists include lists of practice indicators where the indicators, taken together, operationally define particular types of intervention practices that, when used as…
Paynter, Jessica M.; Ferguson, Sarah; Fordyce, Kathryn; Joosten, Annette; Paku, Sofia; Stephens, Miranda; Trembath, David; Keen, Deb
A number of autism intervention practices have been demonstrated to be effective. However, the use of unsupported practices persists in community early intervention settings. Recent research has suggested that personal, professional and workplace factors may influence intervention choices. The aim of this research was to investigate knowledge and…
Brenner, Aimee M.; Brill, Jennifer M.
The purpose of this study was to identify instructional technology integration strategies and practices in preservice teacher education that contribute to the transfer of technology integration knowledge and skills to the instructional practices of early career teachers. This study used a two-phase, sequential explanatory strategy. Data were…
The "Guidelines for Effective Practice" series was begun in 1991 to meet the need for better definition and articulation of what constitutes best practice in family support programs. This guide, the first issue of the series, focuses on the importance and necessity of linkages between family support and early childhood programs. Chapter…
Caner, Mustafa; Subasi, Gonca; Kara, Selma
The purpose of the study was to examine whether teacher beliefs would play a role in their actual practices while teaching target language in early phases of primary education, principally, in kindergarten and first grades in a state school. As it is a very broad research area, the researchers exclusively analyzed teaching practices and teaching…
Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.
Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland
Fairman, J; Mahon, M M
Florence Downs is a well-recognized nursing leader, educator, editor, and scholar who helped shape nursing as an intellectual discipline, and wrote extensively about the importance of links between research and practice. Through the use of oral history data garnered over 15 hours of interviews, we constructed a narrative that describes some of Downs' formative experiences. Oral history is used to place the "stories" of an individual into a social and cultural context, in this case, the development of the profession of nursing. From the interviews, several strands emerged that defined Downs' extended career, including the importance of developing a community of scholars both in and outside of nursing, the dangers of parochialism, and the necessity of a perspective on life that melded a keen sense of humor. Factors that affected Downs' style and choice, especially her mother, and her educational experiences, were revealed. From the interviews we gained a sense of how Downs constructed her conceptual universe of nursing, as well as the language and political effectiveness to overcome barriers confronting the intellectual growth of nursing mounted by other nursing leaders as well as traditional academic disciplines.
Tao, Dan-ying; Shu, Chen-bin; Pan, Ying; Feng, Xi-ping
To help dental students acquaint the medical environment, doctor-patient communication and relationship, early clinic education was arranged in our college of stomatology. The interesting topics were chosen to enhance the learning enthusiasm of the students in the teaching practice of preventive dentistry. Students were encouraged to practice the skill of doctor-patient communication. To obtain the satisfactory teaching effect and aim, it was important to pay attention to the aspects in the groups and clinical practice. Early clinic education in preventive dentistry help the students understand the specialty of preventive dentistry.
Salamon, Andi; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances; Harrison, Linda
This article proposes utilising the theory of practice architectures to uncover and make explicit the beliefs and implicit theories of early childhood educators, as well as to examine the conditions out of which they have emerged. The beliefs and implicit theories of early childhood educators influence many early childhood practices and play a…
Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert
Using a subsample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 1,550), this study identified parents who engaged in more developmentally problematic parenting—in the form of low investment, above average television watching, and use of spanking—when their children were very young (M = 24.41 months, SD = 1.23) but changed their parenting in more positive directions over time. Latent profile analysis and other techniques revealed that parents who demonstrated less optimal parenting behaviors when their children were 2 years old were more likely to be African American, from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and experiencing greater depressive symptoms. Approximately half of such parents, however, made positive changes in their parenting practices, with 5% in the profile characterized by high investment and low use of spanking by the time that their children were in elementary school. These positive changes in parenting behavior were more likely to occur among parents whose children were already demonstrating early reading skills and less problem behavior. These potential “child effects”, suggesting that children elicited improvements in parenting, were more pronounced among higher income families but did not vary according to parents’ educational attainment. Findings from this study have important implications for intervention programs, suggesting that children's academic and behavioral skills can be leveraged as one means of facilitating positive parenting. PMID:26124539
Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert
Using a subsample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 1,550), this study identified parents who engaged in more developmentally problematic parenting-in the form of low investment, above average television watching, and use of spanking-when their children were very young ( M = 24.41 months, SD = 1.23) but changed their parenting in more positive directions over time. Latent profile analysis and other techniques revealed that parents who demonstrated less optimal parenting behaviors when their children were 2 years old were more likely to be African American, from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and experiencing greater depressive symptoms. Approximately half of such parents, however, made positive changes in their parenting practices, with 5% in the profile characterized by high investment and low use of spanking by the time that their children were in elementary school. These positive changes in parenting behavior were more likely to occur among parents whose children were already demonstrating early reading skills and less problem behavior. These potential "child effects", suggesting that children elicited improvements in parenting, were more pronounced among higher income families but did not vary according to parents' educational attainment. Findings from this study have important implications for intervention programs, suggesting that children's academic and behavioral skills can be leveraged as one means of facilitating positive parenting.
Despite their success in boosting cereals production overall, the Green Revolution programs of the 1950s and 1960s were often criticized for failing to achieve their declared aim of alleviating world hunger. Most critics argued that the programs had produced a technology unsuited to the needs of small peasant farmers. This paper explores why such inappropriate technology might have been developed, focusing on the early years of the Rockefeller Foundation's Mexican Agricultural Program (MAP). It shows that some foundation officers as well as agricultural advisors had prior experience of the problems faced by small farmers in the United States and elsewhere. Moreover, the foundation's expressed concern for rural poverty does not appear to have been mere posturing by an organization anxious to be seen as an agent of philanthropy. Furthermore, the program's early work in maize-breeding was well tailored to the conditions of Mexican agriculture. Once the MAP was up and running, however, it became apparent that the task of getting new varieties and cultivation practices to small farmers was going to be difficult. Needing to make some kind of impact quickly, MAP staff chose to concentrate upon projects that were likely to find a rapid uptake. This meant setting aside the needs of peasant farmers to develop high-yielding varieties suited to large commercial farms.
Burns, Kathleen A; Reber, Tracey; Theodore, Karen; Welch, Brenda; Roy, Debra; Siedlecki, Sandra L
To determine how an enhanced early warning system has an impact on nursing practice. Early warning systems score physiologic measures and alert nurses to subtle changes in patient condition. Critics of early warning systems have expressed concern that nurses would rely on a score rather than assessment skills and critical thinking to determine the need for intervention. Enhancing early warning systems with innovative technology is still in its infancy, so the impact of an enhanced early warning system on nursing behaviours or practice has not yet been studied. Phenomenological design. Scripted, semistructured interviews were conducted in September 2015 with 25 medical/surgical nurses who used the enhanced early warning system. Data were analysed using thematic analysis techniques (coding and bracketing). Emerging themes were examined for relationships and a model describing the enhanced early warning system experience was developed. Nurses identified awareness leading to investigation and ease of prioritization as the enhanced early warning system's most important impact on their nursing practice. There was also an impact on organizational culture, with nurses reporting improved communication, increased collaboration, increased accountability and proactive responses to early changes in patient condition. Rather than hinder critical thinking, as many early warning systems' critics claim, nurses in this study found that the enhanced early warning system increased their awareness of changes in a patient's condition, resulting in earlier response and reassessment times. It also had an impact on the organization by improving communication and collaboration and supporting a culture of proactive rather than reactive response to early signs of deterioration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Giovannini, M; Riva, E; Banderali, G; Scaglioni, S; Veehof, S H E; Sala, M; Radaelli, G; Agostoni, C
To investigate infant feeding practices through the first year of life in Italy, and to identify factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding and early introduction of solid foods. Structured phone interviews on feeding practices were conducted with 2450 Italian-speaking mothers randomly selected among women who delivered a healthy-term singleton infant in November 1999 in Italy. Interviews were performed 30 d after delivery and when the infants were aged 3, 6, 9 and 12 mo. Type of breastfeeding was classified according to the WHO criteria. Breastfeeding started in 91.1% of infants. At the age of 6 and 12 mo, respectively, 46.8% and 11.8% of the infants was still breastfed, 68.4% and 27.7% received formula, and 18.3% and 65.2% were given cow's milk. Solids were introduced at the mean age of 4.3 mo (range 1.6-6.5 mo). Introduction of solids occurred before age 3 and 4 mo in 5.6% and 34.2% of infants, respectively. The first solids introduced were fruit (73.1%) and cereals (63.9%). The main factors (negatively) associated with the duration of breastfeeding were pacifier use (p < 0.0001), early introduction of formula (p < 0.0001), lower mother's age (p < 0.01) and early introduction of solids (p = 0.05). Factors (negatively) associated with the introduction of solids foods before the age of 3 mo were mother not having breastfed (p < 0.01), early introduction of formula (p < 0.01), lower infant bodyweight at the age of 1 mo (p = 0.05) and mother smoking (p = 0.05). The duration of breastfeeding in Italy is still inadequate, as well as compliance with international recommendations for timing of introduction of complementary foods. National guidelines, public messages and educational campaigns should be promoted in Italy.
Blanco, Cheryl D.
Student financial assistance has long been a means to promote access to postsecondary education and attainment of college degrees. Numerous types of financial aid programs have proliferated over the years, including a relatively new concept that specifically targets high-risk, low-income students, focusing not just on getting them to go to college…
Reifel, Stuart, Ed.; Dunst, Carl J., Ed.; Wolery, Mark, Ed.
Family issues are an abiding concern for members of the profession of early education, and debate regarding government policies about families and child care continues to be timely. This volume provides a foundation for understanding programs, families, and the current social context, as well as particular areas of concern for families and child…
Davila, J; Karney, B R; Bradbury, T N
The authors examined 4 models of attachment change: a contextual model, a social-cognitive model, an individual-difference model, and a diathesis-stress model. Models were examined in a sample of newlyweds over the first 2 years of marriage, using growth curve analyses. Reciprocal processes, whereby attachment representations and interpersonal life circumstances affect one another over time, also were studied. On average, newlyweds became more secure over time. However, there was significant within-subject variability on attachment change that was predicted by intra- and interpersonal factors. Attachment representations changed in response to contextual, social-cognitive, and individual-difference factors. Reciprocal processes between attachment representations and marital variables emerged, suggesting that these factors influence one another in an ongoing way.
Deutsch, Tobias; Hönigschmid, Petra; Frese, Thomas; Sandholzer, Hagen
Demographic change and recruitment problems in family practice are increasingly threatening an adequate primary care workforce in many countries. Thus, it is important to attract young physicians to the field. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of an early community-based 28-h family practice elective with one-to-one mentoring on medical students' consideration of family practice as a career option, their interest in working office-based, and several perceptions with regard to specific aspects of a family physician's work. First- and second-year medical students completed questionnaires before and after a short community-based family practice elective, consisting of a preparatory course and a community-based practical experience with one-to-one mentoring by trained family physicians. We found a significantly higher rate of students favoring family practice as a career option after the elective (32.7% vs. 26.0%, p = 0.039). Furthermore, the ranking of family practice among other considered career options improved (p = 0.002). Considerations to work office-based in the future did not change significantly. Perceptions regarding a family physician's job changed positively with regard to the possibility of long-term doctor-patient relationships and treatment of complex disease patterns. The majority of the students described identification with the respective family physician tutor as a professional role model and an increased interest in the specialty. Our results indicate that a short community-based family practice elective early in medical education may positively influence medical students' considerations of a career in family practice. Furthermore, perceptions regarding the specialty with significant impact on its attractiveness may be positively adjusted. Further research is needed to evaluate the influence of different components of a family practice curriculum on the de facto career decisions of young physicians after graduation.
Spelman, Tim; Meyniel, Claire; Rojas, Juan Ignacio; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Grand'Maison, Francois; Boz, Cavit; Alroughani, Raed; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Iuliano, Gerardo; Duquette, Pierre; Terzi, Murat; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Pucci, Eugenio; Verheul, Freek; Fiol, Marcela; Van Pesch, Vincent; Cristiano, Edgardo; Petersen, Thor; Moore, Fraser; Kalincik, Tomas; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Trojano, Maria; Butzkueven, Helmut
Characteristics at clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) examination assist in identification of patient at highest risk of early second attack and could benefit the most from early disease-modifying drugs (DMDs). To examine determinants of second attack and validate a prognostic nomogram for individualised risk assessment of clinical conversion. Patients with CIS were prospectively followed up in the MSBase Incident Study. Predictors of clinical conversion were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Prognostic nomograms were derived to calculate conversion probability and validated using concordance indices. A total of 3296 patients from 50 clinics in 22 countries were followed up for a median (inter-quartile range (IQR)) of 1.92 years (0.90, 3.71). In all, 1953 (59.3%) patients recorded a second attack. Higher Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at baseline, first symptom location, oligoclonal bands and various brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics were all predictors of conversion. Conversely, older age and DMD exposure post-CIS were associated with reduced rates. Prognostic nomograms demonstrated high concordance between estimated and observed conversion probabilities. This multinational study shows that age at CIS onset, DMD exposure, EDSS, multiple brain and spinal MRI criteria and oligoclonal bands are associated with shorter time to relapse. Nomogram assessment may be useful in clinical practice for estimating future clinical conversion.
Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa
Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.
Keys, Margo A.
College student persistence is examined. The unique nature of the students and environment of the two-year college setting warrant concentrated research effort. The purpose of the study is to examine student variables associated with persistence and program completion to develop a pre-entrance risk assessment in the two-year college setting.…
In England, the overwhelming majority (78%) of under fives' nursery places, remains in the private, voluntary and independent (PVI) sector where there is no requirement to employ a qualified teacher. Compared to the maintained state sector early years workforce, this dominant PVI sector tends to be staffed by a poorly qualified workforce. From…
Denduluri, Neelima; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Telli, Melinda L; Eisen, Andrea; Graff, Stephanie L; Hassett, Michael J; Holloway, Jamie N; Hurria, Arti; King, Tari A; Lyman, Gary H; Partridge, Ann H; Somerfield, Mark R; Trudeau, Maureen E; Wolff, Antonio C; Giordano, Sharon H
Purpose To update key recommendations of the ASCO guideline adaptation of the Cancer Care Ontario guideline on the selection of optimal adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for early breast cancer and adjuvant targeted therapy for breast cancer. Methods An Expert Panel conducted targeted systematic literature reviews guided by a signals approach to identify new, potentially practice-changing data that might translate to revised practice recommendations. Results The Expert Panel reviewed phase III trials that evaluated adjuvant capecitabine after completion of standard preoperative anthracycline- and taxane-based combination chemotherapy by patients with early-stage breast cancer HER2-negative breast cancer with residual invasive disease at surgery; the addition of 1 year of adjuvant pertuzumab to combination chemotherapy and trastuzumab for patients with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer; and the use of neratinib as extended adjuvant therapy for patients after combination chemotherapy and trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer. Recommendations Patients with early-stage HER2-negative breast cancer with pathologic, invasive residual disease at surgery following standard anthracycline- and taxane-based preoperative therapy may be offered up to six to eight cycles of adjuvant capecitabine. Clinicians may add 1 year of adjuvant pertuzumab to trastuzumab-based combination chemotherapy in patients with high-risk, early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer. Clinicians may use extended adjuvant therapy with neratinib to follow trastuzumab in patients with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer. Neratinib causes substantial diarrhea, and diarrhea prophylaxis must be used. Additional information can be found at www.asco.org/breast-cancer-guidelines .
Feldman, Robert S., Ed.
The first year of college represents an enormous milestone in students' lives. Whether attending a four-year or two-year institution of higher education, living on campus or at home, or enrolled in a highly selective school or a college with an open-admissions policy, students are challenged in unique and demanding ways during their first year.…
Harris, Karen T
e 2015 ANA Code of Ethics is foundational to professional nursing practice and is aligned with AWHONN’s core values, standards of care and position statement on ethical decision-making in the clinical setting. Understanding the roles and responsibilities of nurses to ensure an ethical practice environment is critical to perinatal health outcomes and sta engagement and to the prevention of moral distress.
Zheng, X Q; Zhu, G W; Zheng, Z Q; Yang, Y; Gong, C D; Deng, S S; Wu, Q L; Peng, Y M
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of eczema in early childhood and effect of infant feeding practice on eczema by different regions of China with diverse climate and dietary patterns. Method: A questionnaire survey was conducted from June 2012 to October 2012 in Shanghai, Hohhot, and Fuzhou. The parent or guardian of the children aged between 2.5 to 3.5 years attending routine health visit in the chosen communities were invited to complete a modified questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC). Logistic regression model was used to analyze of the family history of allergy, duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods and other potential confounders. Result: A total of 2 242 children were interviewed, 750 from Shanghai, 716 from Hohhot, and 776 from Fuzhou. The prevalence of eczema in early childhood was significantly different among Shanghai (16.9%, 95% CI 16.87-16.93), Hohhot (34.5%, 95% CI 34.46-34.54)and Fuzhou (44.3%, 95% CI 44.26-44.34). The difference was statistically significant between 3 groups (χ 2 =72.05, P <0.05). Introducing complementary food after the age of 6 months was associated with a decreased risk for eczema when compared to introduction between 4 to 6 months(odds ratio (OR) 0.58, 95% CI 0.41-0.81) in Fuzhou, while there was no significant association between timing of introduction of complementary foods and eczema in Shanghai and Hohhot. Conclusion: The prevalence of eczema during early childhood is various among three cities. The relationship between timing of introduction of complementary foods and eczema in Fuzhou is different from that in Shanghai and Hohhot. The role of climate and dietary patterns on prevalence of eczema needs further studies.
Penn-Edwards, Sorrel; Donnison, Sharn; Albion, Lisa
First year Australian Initial Teacher Education students are at a high risk of not completing their studies, particularly in the transition into their tertiary studies in first year, and then if achieving graduation, many are likely to leave the profession in the early years. While the reasons vary, it is known that early departure from a career…
Reicks, Marla; Banna, Jinan; Cluskey, Mary; Gunther, Carolyn; Hongu, Nobuko; Richards, Rickelle; Topham, Glade; Wong, Siew Sun
Among early adolescents (10–14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions. PMID:26506384
Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.
Objective To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control and treated for two years. Comprehensive data on cognition and employment were collected annually. Results Individuals treated with CET were significantly more likely to be competitively employed, had greater earnings from employment, and were more satisfied with their employment status by the end of treatment compared to EST recipients. Mediator analyses revealed that improvements in both social and non-social cognition mediated the CET effects on employment. Conclusion CET can help facilitate employment in early schizophrenia, by addressing the cognitive impairments that limit functioning in the disorder. Inclusion of cognitive rehabilitation in social work practice can support more optimal functional recovery from schizophrenia. PMID:23885163
Hansen, Pernille Libach; Hjertholm, Peter; Vedsted, Peter
Accurate diagnostic activity in general practice before colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis is crucial for an early detection of CRC. This study aimed to investigate the rates of daytime consultations, hemoglobin (Hb) measurements and medicine prescriptions for hemorrhoids in general practice in the year preceding CRC diagnosis. Using Danish registries, we conducted a population-based matched cohort study including CRC patients aged 40-80 years (n = 19,209) and matched references (n = 192,090). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) using a conditional logistical regression model and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) using a negative binomial regression model. The CRC patients had significantly more consultations from 9 months before diagnosis and significantly increased rates of Hb measurements from up to 17 months before diagnosis compared with references. Furthermore, up to 18 months before diagnosis, CRC patients had significantly higher rates of prescriptions for hemorrhoids; and 2 months before diagnosis, the IRR was 12.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.29-14.55) for men. The positive predictive value (PPV) of CRC for having a first-time prescription for hemorrhoids was highest among men aged 70-80 years [PPV = 3.2% (95% CI: 2.8-3.7)]. High prescription rates were predominantly seen among rectal cancer patients, whereas colon cancer patients had higher rates of consultations and Hb measurements. This study revealed a significant increase in healthcare seeking and diagnostic activity in general practice in the year prior to CRC diagnosis, which indicates the presence of a "diagnostic time window" and a potential for earlier diagnosis of CRC based on clinical signs and symptoms. © 2015 UICC.
Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Toomey, Elaine; Delaney, Lisa; Harrington, Janas; Byrne, Molly; Kearney, Patricia M
Childhood obesity is a global public health challenge. Parental feeding practices, such as responsive feeding, are implicated in the etiology of childhood obesity. This systematic review aimed to examine of effects of healthcare professional-delivered early feeding interventions, on parental feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes for children up to 2 years. The role of responsive feeding interventions was also specifically examined. Databases searched included: CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Maternity and Infant Care. participants are parents of children ≤2 years; intervention includes focus on early child feeding to prevent overweight and obesity; intervention delivered by healthcare professionals. Sixteen papers, representing 10 trials, met inclusion criteria for review. Six interventions included responsive feeding components. Interventions demonstrated inconsistent effects on feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes. Findings suggest some reductions in pressure to eat and infant consumption of non-core beverages. Responsive feeding based interventions demonstrate greater improvements in feeding approaches, and weight outcomes. The findings of this review highlight the importance of incorporating responsive feeding in healthcare professional delivered early feeding interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Observed inconsistencies across trials may be explained by methodological limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McEwin, C. Kenneth; And Others
The 1990s will likely be a watershed period for middle level education, as the real challenges surrounding making "second level" changes replace the euphoria that accompanied early growth of the middle school movement. Yet, zealousness still characterizes reform efforts at the middle level. This study, the most comprehensive ever…
Kolb, G; Breuninger, K; Gronemeyer, S; van den Heuvel, D; Lübke, N; Lüttje, D; Wittrich, A; Wolff, J
Geriatric medicine, as a specialized form of treatment for the elderly, is gaining in importance due to demographic changes. Especially important for geriatric medicine is combining acute care with the need to maintain functionality and participation. This includes prevention of dependency on structured care or chronic disability and handicap by means of rehabilitation. Ten years ago, the German DRG system tried to incorporate procedures (e.g., "early rehabilitation in geriatric medicine") in the hospital reimbursement system. OPS 8-550.x, defined by structural quality, days of treatment, and number of therapeutic interventions, triggers 17 different geriatric DRGs, covering most of the fields of medicine. OPS 8-550.x had been revised continuously to give a clear structure to quality aspects of geriatric procedures. However, OPS 8-550.x is based on proven need of in-hospital treatment. In the last 10 years, no such definition has been produced taking aspects of the German hospital system into account as well as aspects of transparency and benefit in everyday work. The German DRG system covers just basic reimbursement aspects of geriatric medicine quite well; however, a practicable and patient-oriented definition of "hospital necessity" is still lacking, but is absolutely essential for proper compensation. A further problem concerning geriatric medicine reimbursement in the DRG system is due to the different structures of providing geriatric in-hospital care throughout Germany.
Mohamed, Nadia; Barnes, Jo
This retrospective survey highlighted the characteristics of children less than six years of age presenting with early childhood caries (ECC) who had two or more teeth extracted under intravenous sedation at the Tygerberg Oral Health Centre in Cape Town, South Africa. This survey was carried out in order to plan a community-appropriate intervention strategy. Records of 140 patients kept by the pediatric Dentistry Division met the inclusion criteria and were included in this survey. Most of the patients originate from economically disadvantaged areas. Diet, feeding and oral hygiene habits were shown to be the most significant factors that contributed to the development of ECC in these patients. All the children were either breast- or bottle-fed past one year of age. 93.6% of the children went to sleep with the bottle or while on the breast and 90% of them were fed on demand during the night. On average, breastfeeding was stopped at 9 months of age compared to bottle-feeding that, on average, was stopped at a much later mean age of 23 months. Where oral hygiene practices were concerned, 52.6% of children brushed their own teeth without supervision. Frequency of brushing varied between subjects. The results of this study have demonstrated that there is a need for culturally appropriate education campaigns to inform parents (especially those in disadvantaged communities) about the importance of oral health and the prevention of oral disease.
Berger, Andrea R.; Cole, Susan; Melton, Janet; Safran, Stephanie; Vogel, Tyler; Walton, Laura; Adelman, Nancy; Hall, Catherine; Keating, Kaelie Knowles; Murray, Samantha; Nielsen, Natalie; Schaffner, Monika
This is the first year-end report produced as part of the on-going evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Early College High School Initiative. The program provides funding and support for the establishment of Early College High Schools, which are organized to allow all enrolled students the opportunity to earn a high school diploma…
Garnier, Pascale; Rayna, Sylvie; Brougère, Gilles; Rupin, Pablo
In a French early childhood care and education system that is strongly divided by age and institution, the current research studies the collective life of children at the pivotal age of two to three years of age in four different early childhood settings: (1) a group of "grands" (nursery) in a "crèche" (daycare centre), (2) a…
In this book, Bernard van Leer Foundation programs in Israel that combined early childhood education and community development approaches across a 10-year period are described. Chapter (1) provide an introduction; (2) discuss the evolution of this combined approach, its theoretical roots in the separate disciplines of early childhood education and…
Murray, Janet; Clark, Rory McDowall
Traditional notions of leadership are at odds with the pedagogy and ethos of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), prompting increasing international concern to develop new understandings which are better suited and create greater leadership capacity. The introduction of the Early Years Professional (EYP) in England, as a leader of practice…
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009
This report presents the findings of the formative evaluation of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative. The evaluation was conducted to examine issues of implementation and design, early progress in achieving immediate objectives, and issues related to accountability. The evaluation team was also asked to provide preliminary guidance…
Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen
This teaching guide on the body for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood environments.…
Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie
In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…
Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.
Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…
Brogaard Clausen, Sigrid
International comparisons strongly influence national policy agendas in the early years. However, an appreciation of details and national context and differences is imperative to promote democracy. From the perspective of a Danish social pedagogue lecturing in Early Childhood Studies in England, the author presents a cross-national comparison to…
This paper draws upon the findings of a body of recent research in early childhood education to explore the possibilities that may be available to overcome structural inequalities associated with socio-economic class, gender and ethnicity in the early years. Research has shown that preschool education makes a real difference for all children and…
Hymes, James L., Jr.
This is a report on the happenings in early childhood education in the United States in 1988. Contents focus on: (1) the week, the year, and the decade of the young child; (2) the proposed Act for Better Child Care Services; (3) other child care developments; (4) other early childhood programs; (5) growth of pre-kindergarten programs; (6) the need…
Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen
This teaching guide on earth sciences for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…
Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen
This teaching guide on earth sciences for 3-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…
Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison
This article explores how visual impairment might impact on early social and emotional development including self-awareness and communication with others. Some children show a "developmental setback" and other worrying developmental trajectories in the early years, including autistic related behaviours and autistic spectrum disorders.…
This book is designed to help early childhood teachers deal with common problems that arise in all aspects of their work. Part one addresses daily dilemmas such as schedule planning, meal and nap times, art, and outdoor play. Part two covers classroom concerns such as the physical environment, curriculum, individual student needs, field trips,…
Based on sound developmentally appropriate theory, this revised guide is designed to help early childhood teachers deal with common problems that arise in all aspects of their work. Following an introduction and a list of the 20 most important principles for successful preschool teaching, the guide is divided into nine parts. Part 1 addresses…
McFadden, Amanda; Tangen, Donna; Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Mergler, Amanda
We explored 3 general classroom teachers' experiences of including a child with Down syndrome in their early years classrooms. Located at 3 different Australian school settings, 1 teacher was the head of a Preparatory class, 1 was a Year 3 teacher, and the third was a teacher of a split Preparatory/Year 1 class. Interview data were drawn from a…
COMBS, ARTHUR W.; SOPER, DANIEL W.
THIS RESEARCH EXPLORED CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE PERCEPTIONS OF CHILDREN AND THEIR BEHAVIOR DURING EARLY SCHOOL YEARS. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES WERE--(1) TO DETERMINE IF CHANGING PERCEPTIONS OF SELF AND THE WORLD ARE ACCOMPANIED FROM YEAR TO YEAR BY CHANGES IN BEHAVIOR AND ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) TO SEE IF A KNOWLEDGE OF A CHILD'S PERCEPTIONS CAN…
Shaw, William S; Findley, Patricia A; Feuerstein, Michael
Early research of work disability in the 1980s showed a complexity of factors influencing pain and health-related functional limitation at work; hence, multidisciplinary perspectives were necessary to understand the complex interplay between biomechanical, organizational, social, and psychological factors impacting work disability. To address this need, the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation was founded in 1991 with the goal of providing a scientific, yet practical forum for presenting multidisciplinary research and practice in work disability. Now, the 20-year collection of articles in the Journal reflects important trends and directions in the field of occupational rehabilitation. We conducted a retrospective summary of the past 20 years of the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, including its inaugural goals and intent, rates of submission and acceptance, trends in the types of articles published, study topics, global distribution of authors, and future directions. The original goal of providing a multidisciplinary scientific and practical forum has been met, but current trends reflect a maturing scientific evidence base, with less representation of employer-based case studies and practical innovations. There has been a dramatic increase in the international representation of studies, authors, and peer reviewers outside of the US. Also, published studies now address work disability for a larger number of health concerns. Contributions to the Journal continue to reflect a multidisciplinary perspective, but the Journal has seen significant changes with respect to international representation, the expanding study of non-musculoskeletal sources of work disability, and the maturing scientific evidence base in the field of occupational rehabilitation. Future volumes of the Journal will likely reflect continuing changes in the global economy, workforce fitness, and job demands.
Derov, John S.; Hammond, Richard; Youngs, Ian J.
This article discusses the historical events that occurred in the early years of metamaterials leading to the current development of metamaterials in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Defense, and Ministry of Defence.
Jacob, Lorraine; Mulligan, Joanne
In this article, Lorraine Jacob and Joanne Mulligan discuss how arrays can be used to promote students' early learning in relation to multiplication and division. They provide examples of activities that can be used from Foundation to Year 5.
Hooper, Mary-Ellen; Browne, Graeme; O'Brien, Anthony Paul
New graduate nurses have reported negative experiences in mental health settings, particularly during the transitional period of practice. Previous research has focused on addressing the undergraduate preparation of nurses for practice instead of the experiences and outcomes of the transitional period. Recently, there has been growing interest in exploring the experiences of graduate nurses in transition and the implementation of promising interventions to facilitate new graduates' assimilation to practice. Despite these initiatives, the overall shortage of mental health nurses continues to rise, and graduates still report negative experiences in the mental health setting. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the experiences of new graduate nurses in mental health services in their first year of clinical practice. An integrative review was conducted with 22 studies sourced from the CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, and PsychINFO electronic databases, as well as through hand-searching the literature. Literature review findings have highlighted negative clinical experiences and increased attrition from mental health services for graduate nurses. These experiences were closely linked with the changes in the training of mental health nurses, role ambiguity, inadequate clinical preceptorship, encountering the reality of mental health services, and the role of health services in transitioning graduate nurses into clinical practice. Established research into organizational cultures demonstrates that negative organizational outcomes result from negative workplace experiences. Therefore, further research into new graduate nurses' experiences of mental health nursing and its culture might clarify the reasons why they might not be attracted to the discipline and/or are leaving early in their career. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Hayward, Lorna M; Black, Lisa L; Mostrom, Elizabeth; Jensen, Gail M; Ritzline, Pamela D; Perkins, Jan
Physical therapists work in complex health care systems requiring professional competence in clinical reasoning and confidence in decision-making skills. For novice physical therapists, the initial practice years are a time for developing professional identity and practical knowledge. The study purpose was to extend previous research describing the experiences, learning, and professional development of 11 promising novice therapists during their first year of practice. The present study examined the continued development of the same therapists during their second year of clinical practice. Seven researchers from 4 physical therapist educational programs in the eastern and midwestern United States used a longitudinal, qualitative, multiple case study approach. Eleven physical therapist graduates identified as "promising novices" were recruited using purposive sampling. Participants ranged in age from 24 to 29 years and entered varied practice settings. Data were collected for 2 years using semistructured interviews, reflective journals, and participant observation. A conceptual model describing the participants' ongoing development during the second year of practice emerged. The 3 themes were formal and informal learning, increasing confidence and expansion of skills, and engagement in an environment characterized by collaborative exchange and opportunities for teaching. The second year represented consolidation and elaboration of practice-based learning and skills. The expansion of confidence, skills, and responsibilities and the externalization of learning the participants experienced promoted professional role formation. Learning previously directed inward and self-focused turned outward, fueled by growing self-confidence. Research illuminating the professional role formation experienced during early clinical practice is not widely available. The current study and further research into the learning and development of novice practitioners may assist educators in
Young, Mary Eming
Interventions to enhance development of children ages 0-6 have profound benefits for children, families, and societies. The benefits are well documented, recognized internationally, and supportive of policies and programs targeting early child development (ECD). Intervening in the early years is a critical first step toward alleviating poverty,…
Pribble, Lois Marie
Social emotional competence is an essential developmental skill recognized as the most critical for school and later success. Rising rates in behavioral referrals and preschool expulsion have brought increased attention to the importance of helping children develop social-emotional skills in the early years. In early childhood education a central…
Hom, Jacqueline M; Lee, Jessica Y; Silverman, Janice; Casamassimo, Paul S
The authors evaluated the adherence of state Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) guidelines to recommended best oral health practices for infants and toddlers. The authors obtained state EPSDT guidelines via the Internet or from the Medicaid-CHIP State Dental Association, Washington. They identified best oral health practices through the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD), Chicago. They evaluated each EPSDT dental periodicity schedule with regard to the timing and content of seven key oral health domains. Thirty-two states and the District of Columbia (D.C.) had EPSDT dental periodicity schedules. With the exception of the dentist referral domain, 29 states (88 percent) adhered to the content and timing of best oral health practices, as established by the AAPD guideline. For the dentist referral domain, 31 of the 32 states and D.C. (94 percent) required referral of children to a dentist, but only 11 states (33 percent) adhered to best oral health practices by requiring referral by age 1 year. With the exception of the timing of the first dentist referral, there was high adherence to best oral health practices for infants and toddlers among states with separate EPSDT dental periodicity schedules. States with low adherence to best oral health practices, especially regarding the dental visit by age 1 year, can strengthen the oral health content of their EPSDT schedules by complying with the AAPD recommendations.
Lightfoot, Sarah; Frost, David
This article examines the professional identity of nine early years educators currently working in the early years sector of education in England. These educators include teachers, teaching assistants, nursery practitioners and nursery nurses working with children three to five years old in the Early Years Foundation Stage in state-maintained…
Martin, Andrew J.
Twenty years ago the development of a sports management program at Massey University was then the only one in New Zealand. Professional rugby was still a couple of years away. Kit McConnell, Head of the 2011 RWC and Tournament Director for the IRB, was a Masters student back then. He indicated "the academic staff were doing something new--and…
Mendes, Antonio E; Tonin, Fernanda S; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando
The aim of this study is to characterize the patterns and trends in the editorial process and features of the first decade of Pharmacy Practice, with the final goal of initiating a benchmarking process to enhance the quality of the journal. Metadata of all of the articles published from 2006 issue #3 to 2016 issue #2 were extracted from PubMed and complemented by a manual data extraction process on the full-text articles. Citations of these articles were retrieved from Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, and Google Scholar on August 15, 2016. The references from all of the articles published by Pharmacy Practice in 2015 were also extracted. International collaboration was explored with a network analysis. A total of 40 issues were published in this timespan, including 349 articles, 91.1% of which were original research articles. The number of citations received by these articles varies from 809, as reported by the WOS, to the 1162 reported by Scopus and the 2610 reported by Google Scholar. The journals cited by Pharmacy Practice are mainly pharmacy journals, including Pharm Pract (Granada), Int J Clin Pharm, Am J Health-Syst Pharm, Am J Pharm Educ, and Ann Pharmacother. Only 17.3% of the articles involved international collaboration. Delays in the editorial process increased in 2013, mainly due to an increase in acceptance delay (mean=138 days). Pharmacy Practice has improved its visibility and impact over the past decade, especially after 2014, when the journal became indexed in PubMed Central. The editorial process duration is one of the weaknesses that should be tackled. Further studies should investigate if the low international collaboration rate is common across other pharmacy journals.
Mendes, Antonio E.; Tonin, Fernanda S.; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando
Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize the patterns and trends in the editorial process and features of the first decade of Pharmacy Practice, with the final goal of initiating a benchmarking process to enhance the quality of the journal. Methods: Metadata of all of the articles published from 2006 issue #3 to 2016 issue #2 were extracted from PubMed and complemented by a manual data extraction process on the full-text articles. Citations of these articles were retrieved from Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, and Google Scholar on August 15, 2016. The references from all of the articles published by Pharmacy Practice in 2015 were also extracted. International collaboration was explored with a network analysis. Results: A total of 40 issues were published in this timespan, including 349 articles, 91.1% of which were original research articles. The number of citations received by these articles varies from 809, as reported by the WOS, to the 1162 reported by Scopus and the 2610 reported by Google Scholar. The journals cited by Pharmacy Practice are mainly pharmacy journals, including Pharm Pract (Granada), Int J Clin Pharm, Am J Health-Syst Pharm, Am J Pharm Educ, and Ann Pharmacother. Only 17.3% of the articles involved international collaboration. Delays in the editorial process increased in 2013, mainly due to an increase in acceptance delay (mean=138 days). Conclusion: Pharmacy Practice has improved its visibility and impact over the past decade, especially after 2014, when the journal became indexed in PubMed Central. The editorial process duration is one of the weaknesses that should be tackled. Further studies should investigate if the low international collaboration rate is common across other pharmacy journals. PMID:28042357
Yang, Chih-Hung; Hossain, Syeda Zakia; Sitharthan, Gomathi
Effective early childhood intervention (ECI) relies on collaboration among agencies, service providers, and families. Although previous literature has primarily focused on segments of collaboration within ECI service delivery, the actual process and how the adult stakeholders perceive and engage in collaborative practice have important…
Fincham, Emmanuelle N.; Fellner, Amanda R.
Transitions from one classroom to the next as children reach a certain age or achieve certain milestones seem inevitable; however, this taken-for-granted practice in early childhood centers has not been looked at closely in research. This article considers what happens when we look more in depth at these day-to-day experiences of teachers and…
The purpose of the article is to describe Finnish media literacy policies and good media education practices in early childhood education and care. This article will focus on describing two central action lines related to the Children and Media Program, initiated by the Division for Cultural Policy of the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2004.…
Salisbury, Christine L.; Cushing, Lisa S.
Despite calls for adoption and use of triadic early intervention practices, remarkably little research has prospectively compared this approach with traditional, provider-led service delivery. The aim of this study was to compare the actions of providers and caregivers within triadic and provider-led interactions with regard to the following: (1)…
This paper explores the metaphor of the classroom as a "crucible" for early professional learning where beginning teachers forge professional identities in complex, unpredictable, paradoxical, affectively and physically potent contexts of practice. It works into the dissonances and contradictions of the micro-narratives embedded in the…
Thomas, Anne E.; Marvin, Christine A.
Program monitoring is an important and necessary assessment practice within the field of early childhood deaf education. Effective program monitoring requires a focus on both the consistent implementation of intervention strategies (fidelity) and the assessment of children's ongoing progress in response to interventions (progress monitoring).…
The aim of this study is to examine how early childhood education teachers recall educational situations concerning caring and power in their childhoods and in their work. The purpose is to study how caring and power are constructed and intertwined in educational practices. The intention is to examine how teachers reflect their work concerning…
Venn, Elizabeth Claire; Jahn, Monica Dacy
Students will benefit from this unique preschool framework that integrates individually appropriate practices, literacy activities, play, and explicit instruction into content area lessons. Included are chapters on Oral language development; Phonological awareness; Early reading and writing; Print concepts; Instruction in content areas; and…
Chen, Jie-Qi; Chang, Charles
To better prepare early childhood teachers for computer use, more information about their current skills and classroom practices is needed. Sampling from a large metropolitan public school system in the USA, the study surveyed 297 state pre-kindergarten teachers, gathering information about their attitudes, skills, and instructional methods…
Jimerson, Jo Beth; Choate, Marnie R.; Dietz, Laurel K.
Equipping teachers to use data is a critical piece of the school improvement puzzle. To help early career teachers (ECT) develop data-use acumen, some districts utilize mentoring supports. While research on mentoring in general is well-developed, research on how mentoring can or does support data-informed practice is not. To address this gap, we…
Blake, Sally; Winsor, Denise; Burkett, Candice; Allen, Lee
The integration of technology in early childhood classrooms has become a controversial issue among professionals in this field. One issue which may influence technology in these classrooms may be perceptions of what is developmentally appropriate practice (DAP). This article explores perceptions about technology and age appropriate recommendations…
Georgeson, Jan; Campbell-Barr, Verity; Bakosi, Éva; Nemes, Magdolna; Pálfi, Sándor; Sorzio, Paolo
Increasing interest in the provision of early childhood education and care services as a social investment strategy has been accompanied by worldwide concerns to identify appropriate pedagogical practices for working with young children. Here, we trace the developing interest in child-centred approaches, before considering whether there can be…
Young Children, 2009
Linda Halgunseth, head of NAEYC's Office of Applied Research (OAR), tells readers about Child Care and Early Education Research Connections, a Web site (www.researchconnections.org/teaching_modules) to help teacher educators integrate knowledge about evidence-based practices into teacher education programs. In addition, the article touts the…
Murphy, Caterina, Ed.; Thornton, Kate, Ed.
Mentoring is a fundamental and increasingly important part of professional learning and development for teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand. This book is a much-needed resource for mentors, leaders and teachers in early childhood education. It is the first of its kind: a wide ranging compilation that explores the thinking, pedagogy and practice of…
Lastikka, Anna-Leena; Lipponen, Lasse
Although the number of immigrant families is increasing in Finland, the research on their perspectives on early childhood and care (ECEC) services is scarce. The objective of this small-scale case study was to increase the understanding of immigrant families' perspectives on ECEC practices. Through the qualitative content analysis of…
Cox, Milton D.
This paper traces the history and impact of communities of practice (CoPs) in supporting early-career academics, although the primary focus here in the United States is on the faculty learning community (FLC) model, a special type of CoP in higher education. The initial development of this model, beginning in 1979, takes place over two decades at…
Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, Kimberly A.; McGrath, Greg S.; Harney, Corrine J.
Given the importance of social and emotional competence and confidence in early childhood, there has been growing attention on providing young children deliberate experiences to practice and acquire essential foundational skills for health and well-being. This article shares examples to illustrate how children can easily apply simple tools within…
McClintic, Sandra; Petty, Karen
This qualitative case study explored how early childhood teachers' beliefs and practices influence the function of preschool outdoor play. Teachers believed that supervision was paramount. They perceived that the physical design of the outdoor environment posed limitations for planning, preparation, and implementation. Teachers' recollections of…
Ensher, Gail L.; Clark, David A.
Strong working relationships with diverse families and children are the foundation of successful early intervention. Discover fresh, practical ways to build these relationships in this essential guidebook, every professional's blueprint for working with children and families within the specific context of their culture, family structure, and risk…
Koning, Ina M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
The present study examined the associations of alcohol-specific socialization practices and heavy parental drinking with alcohol use in early adolescents. Cross-sectional nationwide survey data from 2599 parent-adolescent (mean age = 12.16) dyads were used to conduct logistic regression analyses. Onset of alcohol use as well as infrequent and…
Vajoczki, Susan; Biegas, Tamara C.; Crenshaw, Melody; Healey, Ruth L.; Osayomi, Tolulope; Bradford, Michael; Monk, Janice
This paper provides a review of the practices and tensions informing approaches to professional development for early career academic geographers who are teaching in higher education. We offer examples from Britain, Canada, Nigeria and the USA. The tensions include: institutional and departmental cultures; models that offer generic and…
Bolduc, Jonathan; Evrard, Melanie
Children from birth to five are generally enthusiastic about music. However, because many early-childhood educators (ECEs) feel that they have insufficient knowledge to foster musical development, music education practices are not equivalent across ECEs. This study aimed to identify and determine the frequency of music activities used by ECEs. In…
Paynter, Jessica M.; Keen, Deb
This study investigated staff attitudes, knowledge and use of evidence-based practices (EBP) and links to organisational culture in a community-based autism early intervention service. An EBP questionnaire was completed by 99 metropolitan and regionally-based professional and paraprofessional staff. Participants reported greater knowledge and use…
This study makes two contributions to the literature. First, it bridges the sociological discussion of social class habitus with psychological notions of adolescents' educational expectations, locus of control, and self-concepts. Second, it empirically examines the relationships between early employed parental practices and expectations and…
Besnard, Thérèse; Letarte, Marie-Josée
It is believed children stand to benefit from a greater male teacher presence in early childhood education (ECE) where, internationally, the vast majority of ECE teachers are female. This study (N = 180) examines the relationship between children's social adaptation and the educational practices of 53 ECE teachers, 23 (44%) of which were male.…
This paper explores early childhood experience in Scotland in terms of how readily the aspirations of policy convert to day-to-day practices. Ambitions to improve the lives of children and families have been high on the political agenda. Policy may be understood as a tool that aims to influence childhood experience in positive ways. If this is to…
Carter, Allia L.
This constructivist multiple-case study examined the collaborative leadership practices of seven secondary and seven post-secondary leaders who participate in Ohio's Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI). The 14 educational leaders in this study partnered in an effort to respond to the access and success of traditionally underrepresented…
Eldering, Lotty, Ed.; Leseman, Paul, Ed.
This collection of 20 papers addresses child development and early intervention issues related to literacy acquisition from a cross-cultural perspective. Titles of the papers are: (1) "Preparing Young Children for Literacy: Issues in Theory and Practice" (Lotty Eldering and Paul Leseman); (2) "Jomtien Revisited: A Plea for a…
Mathews, Maria; Ryan, Dana; Samarasena, Asoka
In a previous study, we found a decline in the proportion of Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN) medical alumni practising in rural areas, particularly in Newfoundland and Labrador. The current study focused on the work location of recent graduates and examined the predictors of working in rural Canada and in rural Newfoundland and Labrador within the first 15 years following graduation. We linked data from graduating class lists and the alumni and postgraduate databases with Scott's Medical Database to create a record of all graduates from 1973 to 2008, including their work location. We identified differences and significant predictors for each outcome and then described and compared the characteristics of 4 cohorts of graduating classes. In their early career, 127/1113 (11.4%) MUN medical graduates were working in rural Canada, and 57 (5.1%) were working in rural Newfoundland and Labrador. Having a rural background and being a family physician were predictors of working in rural Canada, and having a rural background, doing at least part of the residency at MUN, being from Newfoundland and Labrador and being a family physician were predictors of working in rural Newfoundland and Labrador. Seventy-four (13.6%) and 33 (6.1%) of 1989-1998 graduates worked in rural Canada and rural Newfoundland and Labrador, respectively, compared to 53 (9.3%) and 24 (4.2%), respectively, of 1999-2008 graduates. The proportion of MUN medical graduates who worked in rural communities early in their career decreased among recent cohorts. The results show the impact of changes in the characteristics of MUN medical graduates, who increasingly opt for specialist practice and residency training outside the province, and the important role of local postgraduate training.
Terrell, Pamela; Watson, Maggie
As part of this clinical forum on curriculum-based intervention, the goal of this tutorial is to share research about the importance of language and literacy foundations in natural environments during emergent literacy skill development, from infancy through preschool. Following an overview of intervention models in schools by Powell (2018), best practices at home, in child care, and in preschool settings are discussed. Speech-language pathologists in these settings will be provided a toolbox of best emergent literacy practices. A review of published literature in speech-language pathology, early intervention, early childhood education, and literacy was completed. Subsequently, an overview of the impact of early home and preschool literacy experiences are described. Research-based implementation of best practice is supported with examples of shared book reading and child-led literacy embedded in play within the coaching model of early intervention. Finally, various aspects of emergent literacy skill development in the preschool years are discussed. These include phonemic awareness, print/alphabet awareness, oral language skills, and embedded/explicit literacy. Research indicates that rich home literacy environments and exposure to rich oral language provide an important foundation for the more structured literacy environments of school. Furthermore, there is a wealth of evidence to support a variety of direct and indirect intervention practices in the home, child care, and preschool contexts to support and enhance all aspects of oral and written literacy. Application of this "toolbox" of strategies should enable speech-language pathologists to address the prevention and intervention of literacy deficits within multiple environments during book and play activities. Additionally, clinicians will have techniques to share with parents, child care providers, and preschool teachers for evidence-based literacy instruction within all settings during typical daily
Tschudi, Peter; Bally, Klaus; Isler, Ruedi
The one-on-one tutorial is a new form of learning that is practice oriented. It is based on a teacher-student relationship continuing over two years. Since 1997, third- and fourth-year students have worked for one half day per week under the supervision of their tutor, be it in a private practice or in a hospital. This programme facilitates direct patient contact at an early stage of medical school. In addition, it allows students to apply their knowledge in everyday life. The interactive form of learning is of paramount importance in this module. The ARIVA learning model was developed specially for third-year students and the logbook for fourth-year students. After each tutorial third-year students completed the ARI VA worksheet and fourth-year students completed the logbook. They were handed in together with the structured learning report. Between 85 and 109 students per year participated in these tutorials, totalling 733 students. Each student was taught an average of 3.1 patients in the presence of the tutor. In addition students examined an average of 2.4 patients independently and fulfilled an average of 1.2 practical tasks. For the fourth-year students the number of contacts with patients and the spectrum of diseases examined are impressive. All learning goals were fulfilled The one-on-one tutorial is a practice-oriented, interactive learning method. It uses a variety of didactic methods based on the principals of problem-oriented learning. In a relatively early stage of their medical education one-on-one tutorials give students the opportunity to learn independently how to interview and examine patients. They also give students the possibility to acquaint themselves with a multitude of diseases with the aid of instructions and demonstrations. They are conducive to work with patients above all because students learn how to perform certain techniques.
Bham, Shireen Qassim; Saeed, Farhan; Shah, Manzar Alam
To assess Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of mothers on ARI (Acute Respiratory Tract Infection) in children less than five years of age. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Darul Sehat hospital from 1 st December 2014 to 28 th February 2015. Mothers(n=335) who were local residents, had at least one child below the age of five years and coming to the hospital for any medical problem along with accompanying women were included. Foreign mothers and/or those having difficulty in perceiving questions were excluded. Language used in the Questionnaire was English which was translated to Urdu for better understanding. Questionnaire was interviewer administered. Researchers and two house physicians took part in questioning the mothers. Total 335 children were studied. Out of 335 children 228(68%) had ARI. Mean age of the children was 20 months ±17 SD while mean Birth weight was 2.7 kg ± 1.8 SD. The most common symptom perceived was cough (n=303, 40%), mostly worsening during winter season (n=255,87%), commonest aggravating factor was dust (n=174,81%), most common complication was Pneumonia (n=135, 83%), and most mothers opted for medical practitioner (n=268,89%) for treatment. Self-medication was practiced by 192(58%) and paracetamol was frequently used medication (n=117,42%). The study reveals good knowledge of mothers on ARI symptoms, worsening environmental conditions, aggravating factors and complications. Their attitude towards ARI was appropriate with early consultation with qualified medical practitioner. Better literacy rate, has a positive influence on the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of mothers.
Vivekananda-Schmidt, Pirashanthie; Vernon, Bryan
There is little evidence of junior trainee perspectives in the design and implementation of medical ethics and law (MEL) curriculum in UK medical schools. To determine the ethical issues the foundation year 1 (FY1) doctors (first year after graduation) encountered during clinical practice and the skills and knowledge of MEL, which were useful in informing MEL curriculum development. The National Research Ethics Service gave ethical approval. Eighteen one-to-one interviews were conducted in each school with FY1 doctors. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim; a thematic analysis was undertaken with the transcriptions and saturation of themes was achieved. Themes closely overlapped between the two study sites. (1) Knowing my place as an FY1 (this theme consisted of four subthemes: challenging the hierarchy, being honest when the team is titrating the truth, taking consent for unfamiliar procedures and personal safety vs competing considerations); (2) Do not attempt resuscitation)/end-of-life pathway and its implications; (3) 'You have to be there' (contextualising ethics and law teaching through cases or role plays to allow students to explore future work situations); and (4) advanced interpersonal skills competency for ethical clinical practice. The data provide a snapshot of the real challenges faced by MEL FY1 doctors in early clinical practice: they may feel ill-prepared and sometimes unsupported by senior members of the team. The key themes suggest areas for development of undergraduate and postgraduate MEL curricula. We will work to develop our own curriculum accordingly. We intend to further investigate the applicability of our findings to UK medical ethics and law curriculum.
Fernald, Douglas H; Deaner, Nicole; O'Neill, Caitlin; Jortberg, Bonnie T; degruy, Frank Verloin; Dickinson, W Perry
Residency programs face inevitable challenges as they redesign their practices for higher quality care and resident training. Identifying and addressing early barriers can help align priorities and thereby augment the capacity to change. Evaluation of the Colorado Family Medicine Residency PCMH Project included iterative qualitative analysis of field notes, interviews, and documents to identify early barriers to change and strategies to overcome them. Nine common but not universal barriers were identified: (1) a practice's history reflected some negative past experiences with quality improvement or routines incompatible with transformative change, (2) leadership gaps were evident in unprepared practice leaders or hierarchical leadership, (3) resistance and skepticism about change were expressed through cynicism aimed at change or ability to change, (4) unproductive team processes were reflected in patterns of canceled meetings, absentee leaders, or lack of accountability, (5) knowledge gaps about the Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) were apparent from incomplete dissemination about the project or planned changes, (6) EHR implementation distracted focus or stalled improvement activity, (7) sponsoring organizations' constraints emerged from staffing rules and differing priorities, (8) insufficient staff participation resulted from traditional role expectations and structures, and (9) communication was hampered by ineffective methods and part-time faculty and residents. Early barriers responded to varying degrees to specific interventions by practice coaches. Some barriers that interfere with practices getting started with cultural and structural transformation can be addressed with persistent attention and reflection from on-site coaches and by realigning the talents, leaders, and priorities already in these residency programs.
Benova, Lenka; Macleod, David; Lynch, Caroline A.; Campbell, Oona M. R.
Abstract The aim of this study was to describe early breastfeeding practices (initiation within 1 hr of birth, no prelacteal feeding, and a combination of both—“optimal” early breastfeeding) according to childbirth location in low‐ and middle‐income countries. Using data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (2000–2013) for 57 countries, we extracted information on the most recent birth for women aged 15–49 with a live birth in the preceding 24 months. Childbirth setting was self‐reported by location (home or facility) and subtype (home delivery with or without a skilled birth attendant; public or private facility). We produced overall world and four region‐level summary statistics by applying national population adjusted survey weights. Overall, 39% of children were breastfed within 1 hr of birth (region range 31–60%), 49% received no prelacteal feeding (41–65%), and 28% benefited from optimal early breastfeeding (21–46%). In South/Southeast Asia and Sub‐Saharan Africa, early breastfeeding outcomes were more favourable for facility births compared to home births; trends were less consistent in Latin America and Middle East/Europe. Among home deliveries, there was a higher prevalence of positive breastfeeding practices for births with a skilled birth attendant across all regions other than Latin America. For facility births, breastfeeding practices were more favourable among those taking place in the public sector. This study is the most comprehensive assessment to date of early breastfeeding practices by childbirth location. Our results suggest that skilled delivery care—particularly care delivered in public sector facilities—appears positively correlated with favourable breastfeeding practices. PMID:29034551
Heirdsfield, Ann; Walker, Sue; Walsh, Kerryann
At Queensland University of Technology (QUT, Australia), in the Bachelor of Education (BEd) (Early Childhood) (EC), Technical and Further Education (TAFE) students with a diploma enroll with advanced standing (1 year's credit). These students share many challenges faced by 1st-year university students--workload, technology, academic orientation,…
Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others
Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…
Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Harrison, Linda J.
This longitudinal study examined developmental links between closeness in teacher-child relationships and children's receptive language ability from the end of the preschool years into the early elementary years, while controlling for changes in peer interaction quality and child behavioral functioning. The sample included children and their…
Potocki, Anna; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie
The aim of this study was to investigate the early characteristics of four profiles of readers established in second grade (7-8 years of age): good readers, specific poor decoders, specific poor comprehenders and general poor readers. These profiles were compared retrospectively on a range of measures administered 2 years earlier, in kindergarten.…
Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam
"Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…
Jaszczak, Ronald Jack
The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s.
Jaszczak, Ronald Jack
The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s.
US Department of Education, 2014
The human brain develops rapidly in the first five years of life. High-quality early learning experiences can have a profound and lasting positive effect on young children during these years, setting the stage for success in kindergarten and beyond. This is especially true for young children with high needs who are from low-income families; who…
Ting, Kang Nee; Wong, Kok Thong; Thang, Siew Ming
Generally work-based learning opportunities are only offered to students in their penultimate year of undergraduate study. Little is known about the benefits and shortcomings of such experiential learning for students in the early stages of their undergraduate education. This is a mixed method study investigating first year undergraduate pharmacy…
Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan
This article investigates why there appears to be an under-representation of males in comparison to their female colleagues in the Early Years (EY) sector, and the perception of male teachers progressing more quickly to leadership positions when they do enter this context. Using case studies of final year male students on an Initial Teacher…
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…
While numerous historiographical works have been written to shed light on Freud's early theoretical education in biology, physiology, and medicine and on the influence of that education on psychoanalysis, this paper approaches Freud's basic comprehension of science and methodology by focusing on his early research practice in physiology and neuranatomy. This practice, taking place in the specific context of Ernst Brücke's physiological laboratory in Vienna, was deeply concerned with problems of visuality and the revelation of hidden organic structures by use of proper preparation techniques and optical instruments. The paper explores the connection between such visualizing practices, shaped by a physiological context as they were, and Freud's later convictions of the scientific status of psychoanalysis and the function of its method as means to unveil the concealed structure of the "psychical apparatus". © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Background Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. Methods/Design This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a) initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b) introduction of solid food, c) intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d) fluoride exposure, and e) oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence. Discussion This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney. PMID:21223601
Arora, Amit; Scott, Jane A; Bhole, Sameer; Do, Loc; Schwarz, Eli; Blinkhorn, Anthony S
Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a) initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b) introduction of solid food, c) intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d) fluoride exposure, and e) oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence. This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney.
Burke, Meghan M.; Decker, Janet R.
This article clarifies what extended school year (ESY) is and who is eligible for it. It also describes, how it looks different for individual students, where and when it can be provided, and how to determine whether students are eligible. To illustrate common challenges in determining ESY, vignettes are provided based on four students' cases.…
Frisby, Craig L.; Henry, Betty
A little over 35 years have passed since the original "Larry P." decision was handed down in 1979 by Robert Peckham, a federal judge for the US District Court for the Northern District of California. The "Larry P. case" is a shorthand moniker that refers to a class action lawsuit, supported by the Bay Area Association of Black…
Quirk, Brady D.
Through this qualitative study, the perceptions of first-year superintendents in Missouri were obtained regarding their graduate preparation program and the types of supports they sought in their new position. The superintendency is a complex role, requiring the school district leader to work within the often-conflicting framework of…
Dhima, Matilda; Paulusova, Vladimira; Carr, Alan B; Rieck, Kevin L; Lohse, Christine; Salinas, Thomas J
Long-term practice-based clinical evaluations of various contemporary ceramic crown restorations from multiple practitioners are limited. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical performance of ceramic single crowns and to identify factors that influence their clinical performance. Ceramic single crowns that had been placed at the Mayo Clinic and in function since 2005 were identified and included in the study. The restorations were examined clinically, radiographically, and with photographs. Modified United States Public Health Services criteria were used for the clinical evaluation. The ceramic systems evaluated were bilayer and monolayer. Fifty-nine patients (41 women, 18 men) with 226 single teeth and implants restored with single ceramic crowns were identified. The mean duration from insertion date to study examination date was 6.1 years. Thirteen restorations (6%) were replaced at a mean 3.3 years after insertion date (range, 0.1-6.1 years). Estimated replacement-free survival rates (95% confidence interval [CI]; number of teeth/implants still at risk) at 5 years after insertion date were 95.1% (95% CI, 92.2-98.1; 153) and at 10 years were 92.8% (95% CI, 89.1-96.8; 8). The most common reason for replacement was fracture to the core of posterior layered ceramic crowns. The most commonly used luting agent was resin-modified ionomer cement. Most restorations exhibited clinically acceptable marginal integrity, shade, no caries recurrence, and no periapical pathology. The clinical performance of ceramic single crowns at 5 and 10 years supports their application in all areas of the mouth. With the majority of fractures to the core occurring early in the lifetime of layered ceramic posterior crowns, consideration of other monolithic ceramic systems for posterior crowns is advised. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.
Costa Monteiro, Lucia M; Cruz, Glaura O; Fontes, Juliana M; Vieira, Eliane T R C; Santos, Eloá N; Araújo, Grace F; Ramos, Eloane G
To evaluate the association between early treatment and urodynamic improvement in pediatric and adolescent patients with neurogenic bladder. Retrospective longitudinal and observational study (between 1990 and 2013) including patients with neurogenic bladder and myelomeningocele treated based on urodynamic results. The authors evaluated the urodynamic follow-up (bladder compliance and maximum bladder capacity and pressure) considering the first urodynamic improvement in two years as the outcome variable and early referral as the exposure variable, using a descriptive and multivariate analysis with logistic regression model. Among 230 patients included, 52% had an early referral. The majority were diagnosed as overactive bladder with high bladder pressure (≥40cm H 2 O) and low bladder compliance (3mL/cmH 2 O) and were treated with oxybutynin and intermittent catheterization. Urodynamic follow-up results showed 68% of improvement at the second urodynamic examination decreasing bladder pressure and increasing bladder capacity and compliance. The percentage of incontinence and urinary tract infections decreased over treatment. Early referral (one-year old or less) increased by 3.5 the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years (95% CI: 1.81-6.77). Treatment onset within the first year of life improves urodynamic prognosis in patients with neurogenic bladder and triplicates the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years. The role of neonatologists and pediatricians in early referral is extremely important. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Services for developmentally delayed children from birth to age three consider the family first. Eligibility for services is determined through a multidisciplinary assessment. Once a child qualifies for service, a multidisciplinary team that includes the family develops an IFSP. The SLP may serve as the service coordinator for the plan or as a team member. The plans must contain specific information that includes documentation of current status and major outcomes for the coming year. An SLP may find that contributing effectively to an IFSP requires new competencies. First, the SLP will need to learn to function in the family-centered, multidisciplinary process of early intervention. Second, the SLP may need to develop creative models to deliver effective service. SLPs can contribute valuable information to the IFSP by finding ways to activate daily life routines to promote a child's communication skills. SLPs can explore the child's life-space, including routines and partners, as a source of contexts for treatment. SLPs also can explore partner communication strategies, note their effects on the child's communication experiences, and recommend additional strategies for treatment. The case study illustrated an individual, home-based intervention program (Gillette, 1989; Lombardino and Magnan, 1983). Other service delivery models can include classroom-based approaches (Wilcox, Kouri, and Caswell, 1991); group parent training approaches (Weistuch, Lewis, and Sullivan, 1991; Cheseldine and McConkey, 1979); and video-assisted approaches (McConkey, 1988; Johnson and Harrison, 1990; Gillette, in press). Many SLPs may find that the process of early intervention with the birth-to-three population offers unique opportunities for practice in their profession. To function effectively in this process, the SLP needs communication-based information to promote the child's communication skills within his or her daily life and sensitivity with which to design a plan that considers
Kemple, Kristen M.
The purpose of this article is to examine the nature of appropriate social studies education in the Kindergarten and Pre-Kindergarten years. The importance of social competence development as a basic foundation of the social studies in the early years of schooling is examined, with particular attention to the commonalities shared between goals and…
Catzikiris, Nigel; Tapley, Amanda; Morgan, Simon; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Ball, Jean; Henderson, Kim; Elliott, Taryn; Spike, Neil; Regan, Cathy; Magin, Parker
Objectives Expanding learner cohorts of medical students and general practitioner (GP) vocational trainees and the impending retirement of the 'baby boomer' GP cohort threaten the teaching and supervisory capacity of the Australian GP workforce. Engaging newly qualified GPs is essential to sustaining this workforce training capacity. The aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence and associations of in-practice clinical teaching and supervision in early career GPs. Methods The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of recent (within 5 years) alumni of three of Australia's 17 regional general practice training programs. The outcome factor was whether the alumnus taught or supervised medical students, GP registrars or other learners in their current practice. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations of teaching and supervision with independent variables comprising alumnus demographics, current practice characteristics and vocational training experiences. Results In all, 230 alumni returned questionnaires (response rate 37.4%). Of currently practising alumni, 52.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 45.6-59.0%) reported current teaching or supervisory activities. Factors significantly (P<0.05) associated with alumni currently undertaking in-practice clinical teaching and supervision were: Australian medical graduation (odds ratio (OR) for international graduates 0.36; 95% CI 0.14-0.92), working in a regional or remote area (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.24-6.11) and currently undertaking nursing home visits, home visits or after-hours work (OR 2.01; CI 1.02-3.94). Conclusions Rural-urban and country-of-graduation differences in the engagement of early career GPs in practice-based apprenticeship-like teaching or training should inform strategies to maintain workforce training capacity. What is known about the topic? Projected changes in the demand for and supply of clinical teaching and supervision within Australian general
Peters, Brenda; Forlin, Chris
It is possible that many benefits may be found for all concerned in education and child development in understanding how knowledge of the brain and its development can inform early years practice. This article, written by Brenda Peters and Chris Forlin, both from the Hong Kong Institute of Education, reviews literature based on neuroscience to…
Takahashi, Yusuke; Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Anme, Tokie
This study used data from a nationwide survey in Japan to model the developmental course of social skills during early childhood. The goals of this study were to identify longitudinal profiles of social skills between 2 and 5 years of age using a group-based trajectory approach, and to investigate whether and to what extent parenting practices at 2 years of age predicted developmental trajectories of social skills during the preschool period. A relatively large sample of boys and girls (N > 1,000) was assessed on three social skill dimensions (Cooperation, Self-control, and Assertion) at four time points (ages 2, 3, 4, and 5), and on four parenting practices (cognitive and emotional involvement, avoidance of restriction and punishment, social stimulation, and social support for parenting) at age 2. The results indicated that for each social skill dimension, group-based trajectory models identified three distinct trajectories: low, moderate, and high. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that parenting practice variables showed differential contributions to development of child social skills. Specifically, Cooperation and Assertion were promoted by cognitive and emotional involvement, Self-control by social stimulation, and Assertion by avoidance of restriction and punishment. Abundant social support for parenting was not associated with higher child social skills trajectories. We found heterogeneity in developmental profiles of social skills during the preschool ages, and we identified parenting practices that contributed to different patterns of social skills development. We discussed the implications of higher-quality parenting practices on the improvement of child social skills across early childhood.
Takahashi, Yusuke; Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Anme, Tokie
This study used data from a nationwide survey in Japan to model the developmental course of social skills during early childhood. The goals of this study were to identify longitudinal profiles of social skills between 2 and 5 years of age using a group-based trajectory approach, and to investigate whether and to what extent parenting practices at 2 years of age predicted developmental trajectories of social skills during the preschool period. A relatively large sample of boys and girls (N > 1,000) was assessed on three social skill dimensions (Cooperation, Self-control, and Assertion) at four time points (ages 2, 3, 4, and 5), and on four parenting practices (cognitive and emotional involvement, avoidance of restriction and punishment, social stimulation, and social support for parenting) at age 2. The results indicated that for each social skill dimension, group-based trajectory models identified three distinct trajectories: low, moderate, and high. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that parenting practice variables showed differential contributions to development of child social skills. Specifically, Cooperation and Assertion were promoted by cognitive and emotional involvement, Self-control by social stimulation, and Assertion by avoidance of restriction and punishment. Abundant social support for parenting was not associated with higher child social skills trajectories. We found heterogeneity in developmental profiles of social skills during the preschool ages, and we identified parenting practices that contributed to different patterns of social skills development. We discussed the implications of higher-quality parenting practices on the improvement of child social skills across early childhood. PMID:26267439
Whittle, Sue R.; Bickerdike, Sue R.
Practical skills are important for the employability of biosciences graduates; however, first year science undergraduates often struggle to adapt to university practical classes, affecting skills development and decreasing their enthusiasm for laboratory work. This study describes the effects of introducing online multimedia practical support…
H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller
Adjacent Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia established on excellent growing sites were managed for a 34-year period using four regeneration practices. These practices included a commercial clearcut, 15.5-in diameter-limit, and two single-tree selection practices. An uncut area was maintained as a control. Stand development, growth response, and some stumpage...
Neeley, L.; Smith, B.; McLeod, K.; English, C. A.; Baron, N.
COMPASS is focused on helping scientists build the skills and relationships they need to effectively participate in public discourse. Founded in 2001 with an emphasis on ocean science, and since expanding to a broader set of environmental sciences, we have advised, coached, and/or trained thousands of researchers of all career stages. Over the years, our primary work has notably shifted from needing to persuade scientists why communication matters to supporting them as they pursue the question of what their communication goals are and how best to achieve them. Since our earliest forays into media promotion, we have evolved with the state of the science communication field. In recent years, we have adapted our approach to one that facilitates dialogue and encourages engagement, helps scientists identify the most relevant people and times to engage, tests our own assumptions, and incorporates relevant social science as possible. In this case study, we will discuss more than a decade of experience in helping scientists find or initiate and engage in meaningful conversations with journalists and policymakers.
Sheps, S B; Schechter, M T; Grantham, P; Finlayson, N; Sizto, R
Are there differences in patterns of practice between actively practising physicians who have been certified after a 2-year family practice residency and matched physicians without certification who have completed the standard 1-year internship? With the use of billing files prepared by the British Columbia Medical Association a group of 65 family practice certificants in active practice in British Columbia was compared with a control group of 130 internship trainees matched by year and school of graduation, category of billing (i.e., solo or group) and region. A wide range of practice features was assessed for the fiscal years 1984-85, 1985-86 and 1986-87. No differences were detected between the groups in 1986-87 for the following practice variables: number of patients (1888 and 1842 respectively), number of personal services billed for (7265 and 7173), number of personal services per patient (3.9), amount of funding for personal services ($140,192 and $140,100) and amount per patient for personal services ($77 and $79). Age-adjusted costs for male and female patients were similar in the two groups. Of six services thought to be influenced by type of training, only maternity care generated a significantly higher number of billings in the study group (341 v. 249). These results suggest that there is no demonstrable effect of training on patterns of practice. However, the question of the effect of training on quality of care and whether the 2-year residency may have a longer effect on practice patterns should be the focus of future research. PMID:2702528
This paper presents a 2-year collaborative action research project that investigated the use of digital technologies to support inclusive practices in Early French Immersion (EFI) classrooms. The findings reveal that the collaborative action research project contributed to empowering teachers in using digital technologies to support the…
Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Wang, Ping; Woo, Jessica G
We determined whether simple, clinical information on late and early menarche could help identify adult women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and oligomenorrhea. We carried out a 26-year prospective follow-up of 272 suburban schoolgirls from ages 5-22 to 30-46. Early menarche (≤10 years, 5.2% of girls) and late menarche (≥16 years, 6.7% of girls) were both associated with oligomenorrhea (≥42 days) in adulthood, 29% and 11%, vs. 5% for normal menarche (11-15 years), p=.004. Early menarche was characterized by high childhood BMI (LS mean±SE: 21.2 ±1.0 kg/m2) and by high childhood and adult MetS (15%, 36%). Girls with late menarche had the lowest childhood BMI (18.1±1.0), no childhood MetS, and the highest adult MetS (47%). Increasing age at menarche was associated with uniformly decreasing childhood BMI and MetS, but with a U-shaped pattern of BMI (p = .05), MetS (p=.008), and oligomenorrhea (p=.02) in adulthood. Change to MetS from median ages 13 to 38 was associated with early-late menarche (OR=3.11, 95% CI 1.37-7.07, p=.007). MetS in adulthood was associated with childhood MetS (OR=8.03, 95% CI 2.57-25.08, p=.0003) and with early-late menarche (OR =3.43, 95% CI 1.44-8.15, p=.005). Menarche age had a curvilinear ('U' shaped) relationship with MetS and oligomenorrhea in adulthood. Late menarche and early menarche are risk factors for adult oligomenorrhea, MetS, and cardiometabolic abnormalities. Girls with early (≤ age 10) and with late menarche (≥ 16) represent a group at high risk for adult cardiometabolic abnormalities and oligomenorrhea that is easily identifiable by physicians. © 2013.
Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP), a peer-reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. The journal emphasizes articles reporting on practice-related…
Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Early Childhood Research & Practice (ECRP), a peer-reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. ECRP emphasizes articles reporting on practice-related…
Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP), a peer-reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. ECRP emphasizes articles reporting on practice-related…
Ratjen, Felix; Moeller, Alexander; McKinney, Martha L; Asherova, Irina; Alon, Nipa; Maykut, Robert; Angyalosi, Gerhild
Antibiotic eradication treatment is the standard-of-care for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with early Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa)-infection; however, evidence from placebo-controlled trials is limited. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomised CF patients <7 years (N = 51) with early Pa-infection to tobramycin inhalation solution (TOBI 300 mg) or placebo (twice daily) for 28 days with an optional cross-over on Day 35. Primary endpoint was proportion of patients having throat swabs/sputum free of Pa on Day 29. On Day 29, 84.6% patients in the TOBI versus 24.0% in the placebo group were Pa-free (p < 0.001). At the end of the cross-over period, 76.0% patients receiving TOBI in the initial 28 days were Pa-free compared to 47.8% receiving placebo initially. Adverse events were consistent with the TOBI safety profile with no differences between TOBI and placebo. TOBI was effective in eradicating early Pa-infection with a favourable safety profile in young CF patients. NCT01082367. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yuan; Wong, Lena L N; Zhu, Shufeng; Xi, Xin
The aim in this study was to examine early speech perception outcomes in Mandarin-speaking children during the first year of cochlear implant (CI) use. A hierarchical early speech perception battery was administered to 80 children before and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation. Demographic information was obtained to evaluate its relationship with these outcomes. Regardless of dialect exposure and whether a hearing aid was trialed before implantation, implant recipients were able to attain similar pre-lingual auditory skills after 12 months of CI use. Children speaking Mandarin developed early Mandarin speech perception faster than those with greater exposure to other Chinese dialects. In addition, children with better pre-implant hearing levels and younger age at implantation attained significantly better speech perception scores after 12 months of CI use. Better pre-implant hearing levels and higher maternal education level were also associated with a significantly steeper growth in early speech perception ability. Mandarin-speaking children with CIs are able to attain early speech perception results comparable to those of their English-speaking counterparts. In addition, consistent single language input via CI probably enhances early speech perception development at least during the first-year of CI use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hoyles, A; Pollard, C; Lees, S; Glossop, D
This paper describes a pilot study addressing issues surrounding the balance and status given to both theory and practice in the foundation part of a pre-registration programme. Contemporary thinking seems to suggest that there is a need to reverse recent trends which have placed an emphasis on theory. To facilitate this a framework for clinical learning was adapted to guide students' early exposure to clinical practice. The focus was to develop the students' observational and reflective skills whilst also providing the students with a frame of reference within which they could explore their theoretical studies. The information and experiences gained as a result of this study have led to the integration of an Orientation Framework to support students' early clinical experiences in a pre-registration programme.
Hooper, Stephen R; Ashley, Timothy A; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A; Poe, Michele D
This study examined the impact of otitis media with effusion (OME) and associated hearing loss between 6 and 48 months of age on attention dimensions (i.e., selective/focus, sustained) during the elementary school years. A prospective cohort design in which 74 African American infants were recruited between ages 6 and 12 months. Ear examinations were done repeatedly using both otoscopy and tympanometry, and hearing was assessed using standard audiometric procedures between 6 and 48 months. Multiple measures of attention (i.e., direct assessment, behavioral observations, parent/teacher ratings) were administered from kindergarten through second grade to assess two theoretical dimensions of attention: selective/focused and sustained. The home environment was assessed annually. Results indicated that neither early childhood OME nor hearing loss showed significant correlations with any of the longitudinal or cross-sectional measures of selective/focused attention and sustained attention. In contrast, children with mothers who had fewer years of education and who lived in less responsive and supportive home environments scored higher on both parent and teacher ratings of sustained attention (i.e., hyperactivity) through the second grade of elementary school. For NEPSY Auditory Attention in second grade, a significant interaction between the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment and hearing loss was uncovered. This interaction showed that children with hearing loss from poor home environments experienced greater difficulties on the NEPSY Auditory Attention task than those with hearing loss from good home environments. These findings do not support a direct linkage of a history of OME and associated hearing loss to difficulties in selective/focused attention or sustained attention in early elementary school children. Relationships between sociodemographic variables and attention-related functions appear stronger and should be considered as mediators in any
Tran, T D; Luchters, S; Fisher, J
This study was to describe and quantify the relationships among family poverty, parents' caregiving practices, access to education and the development of children living in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Early childhood development was assessed in four domains: language-cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and approaches to learning. Countries were classified into three groups on the basis of the Human Development Index (HDI). Overall, data from 97 731 children aged 36 to 59 months from 35 LAMIC were included in the after analyses. The mean child development scale score was 4.93 out of a maximum score of 10 (95%CI 4.90 to 4.97) in low-HDI countries and 7.08 (95%CI 7.05 to 7.12) in high-HDI countries. Family poverty was associated with lower child development scores in all countries. The total indirect effect of family poverty on child development score via attending early childhood education, care for the child at home and use of harsh punishments at home was -0.13 SD (77.8% of the total effect) in low-HDI countries, -0.09 SD (23.8% of the total effect) in medium-HDI countries and -0.02 SD (6.9% of the total effect) in high-HDI countries. Children in the most disadvantaged position in their societies and children living in low-HDI countries are at the greatest risk of failing to reach their developmental potential. Optimizing care for child development at home is essential to reduce the adverse effects of poverty on children's early development and subsequent life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Orbuch, Terri L.; Bauermeister, José A.; Brown, Edna; McKinley, Brandyn-Dior
Spouses’ emotional ties to family early in marriage are linked to marital outcomes, but little is known about how these ties affect marital stability and whether these effects vary by race and gender. The present study examines the links between emotional ties to family of origin and in-laws in the first year of marriage and marital stability over the first 16 years of marriage. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study following Black American (n=199) and White American (n=174) married couples. Analyses revealed that perceptions of closeness to in-laws early in marriage were associated with odds of divorce over time, but the results varied by race and gender. Findings are discussed in terms of couples’ ties to family early in marriage and the role that in-law bonds play for marital stability. We also offer insights for practitioners who provide premarital and marital education and counseling services to couples. PMID:27594724
McKean, Cristina; Reilly, Sheena; Bavin, Edith L; Bretherton, Lesley; Cini, Eileen; Conway, Laura; Cook, Fallon; Eadie, Patricia; Prior, Margot; Wake, Melissa; Mensah, Fiona
To examine at 7 years the language abilities of children, the salience of early life factors and language scores as predictors of language outcome, and co-occurring difficulties METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study of 1910 infants recruited at age 8 to 10 months. Exposures included early life factors (sex, prematurity, birth weight/order, twin birth, socioeconomic status, non-English speaking background,family history of speech/language difficulties); maternal factors (mental health, vocabulary, education, and age); and child language ability at 2 and 4 years. Outcomes were 7-year standardized receptive or expressive language scores (low language: ≥1.25 SD below the mean), and co-occurring difficulties (autism, literacy, social, emotional, and behavioral adjustment, and health-related quality of life). Almost 19% of children (22/1204;18.9%) met criteria for low language at 7 years. Early life factors explained 9-13% of variation in language scores, increasing to 39-58% when child language scores at ages 2 and 4 were included. Early life factors moderately discriminated between children with and without low language (area under the curve: 0.68-0.72), strengthening to good discrimination with language scores at ages 2 and 4 (area under the curve: 0.85-0.94). Low language at age 7 was associated with concurrent difficulties in literacy, social-emotional and behavioral difficulties, and limitations in school and psychosocial functioning. Child language ability at 4 years more accurately predicted low language at 7 than a range of early child, family, and environmental factors. Low language at 7 years was associated with a higher prevalence of co-occurring difficulties. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Testimony of Gina Adams, Senior Fellow, Urban Institute. Before the Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education Subcommittee Hearing on "Improving Early Childhood Development Policies and Practices"
This paper presents the testimony of Gina Adams before the Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education Subcommittee Hearing on "Improving Early Childhood Development Policies and Practices." This testimony was presented to the House Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives last March 19, 2009. She talks about how…
Frana, Philip L.; Rice, Stacy
James Madison University (JMU) and Northern Virginia Community College (NOVA) teamed up in April 2014 to build a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between their respective four-year and two-year honors programs. This MOU is the basis for the continued work between these two institutions to collaborate and find research to assist other interested…
Formosinho, João; Figueiredo, Irene
This article presents an alternative participatory pedagogy in Early Years as a contribution to the promotion of equity and social justice for children, particularly those from ethnic minorities and low income families, enhancing their chances of educational success. The development of mass education was implemented in many countries by…
Koch, Janice, Ed.; Irby, Beverly, Ed.
In this volume, gender and schooling in the early years addresses a broad range of issues including, but not limited, to gender equity in education. We explore, for example, the complex world of play in Fromberg's chapter and are reminded that for young children, play involves issues of power and hierarchy in ways that parallel the role of gender…
Boswell, Robert A.; Passmore, David L.
The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence student success in two-year colleges, community colleges, or junior colleges. In determining the purpose of the study, a research framework is established to review the relationships between student success and biological children, marriage/co-habitation, early family configuration,…
Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia
In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…
Milman, Doris H.
Seventy-three patients, diagnosed in childhood as having either maturational lag or organic brain syndrome, were followed for an average of 12 years into late adolescence and early adult life for the purpose of discovering the outcome with respect to ultimate psychiatric status, educational attainment, social adjustment, and global adjustment. At…
This article presents research undertaken among male teachers and it explores their perceptions and experiences of working in early years contexts. It examines prevalent, contrary discourses and their impact on the construction of male teachers' identities. Public discourses in relation to male teachers reveal contradictions and ambiguities…
In this paper, we present a professional development/upgrading programme in science for early-years teachers and investigate its impact on the teachers' competencies in relation to their knowledge and teaching of science. The basic idea of the programme was to motivate the teachers by making them members of an action research group aimed at…
Stirrup, Julie; Duncombe, Rebecca; Sandford, Rachel
Growing pressure on parents to equip their children with the skills required for future success, coupled with an increased focus on providing quality learning experiences in the early years, has contributed to an upsurge in the enrolment of young children in formal (often privatised) activities. Moreover, in response to growing societal concerns…
During the first half of the current Coalition Government, co-production--a form of participatory governance--was implemented widely in the conceptualization, design and implementation of early years policies. Seen as a revolutionary approach to public service reform, resulting in more effective and more cost-effective public services, the joint…
Chappell, Kerry Anne; Pender, Tamsin; Swinford, Elizabeth; Ford, Katherine
This paper focuses on how wise humanising creativity (WHC) is manifested within early years interdisciplinary arts education. It draws on Arts Council-funded participatory research by Devon Carousel Project and University of Exeter's Graduate School of Education. It is grounded in previous AHRC-funded research, which conceptualised WHC in the face…
Bhana, Deevia; Nzimakwe, Thokozani; Nzimakwe, Phumzile
Understanding the ways in which young boys and girls give meaning to gender and sexuality is vital, and is especially significant in the light of South Africa's commitment to gender equality. Yet the, gendered cultures of young children in the early years of South African primary schools remains a, marginal concern in debate, research and…
McDonald, Susan; Howell, Jennifer
This paper describes the use of robotics in an Early Years classroom as a tool to aid the development of technological skills in a creative environment rich with literacy and numeracy opportunities. The pilot project illustrates how a three-phase process can result in the development of: (1) emergent literacy and numeracy, (2) digital access for…
Baglici, Stephanie Petreshock; Codding, Robin; Tryon, Georgiana
The purpose of this study was to extend the research on the "Tests of Early Numeracy" (TEN) by following a cohort of 61 students from kindergarten through first grade. Specifically, this study examined the relationship between kindergarten and first-grade TEN measures built within and across school years and their predictive validity of a math…
Kovas, Yulia; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
Despite the importance of learning abilities and disabilities in education and child development, little is known about their genetic and environmental origins in the early school years. We report results for English (which includes reading, writing, and speaking), mathematics, and science as well as general cognitive ability in a large and…
Gray, Colette; Ryan, Anna
Launched in 2009, the Aistear early years curriculum framework sought to complement and extend the primary school curriculum (PSC) at infant class level in the Republic of Ireland. While Aistear focuses on the development of attitudes, values and learning dispositions and is neither statutory nor inspected, the PSC centres on the acquisition of…
Cefai, Carmel; Camilleri, Liberato
Mental health problems in children represent a significant international health concern, with up to one in five children using mental health services during the course of any given year. Identifying the processes of what prevents social, emotional and behaviour difficulties (SEBD) and promotes healthy development from an early age can make a…
Schurch, Pam; Hopson, Elizabeth
This booklet reflects the past 10 year's thoughts and experiences and presents the current debate concerning multicultural early childhood education, as experienced by the Lady Gowrie Child Centre, in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The booklet describes how the center experienced the satisfying process of change and growth with such a program…
Julie C. Stromberg; Duncan T. Patten
Rush Creek, which feeds Mono Lake, has been diverted below Grant Lake, totally or in part, for over 40 years. In the early 1980's, because of above normal snow packs, runoff was released into the creek. Minimum flow releases have also been established. The riparian vegetation has responded to these releases. In a few areas, riparian trees and shrubs (e.g., black...
In studying the historical development of early years provision, a clear factor in raising its profile was the growth in scientific study of children, especially the reception and interpretation of Piaget's research. For an understanding of how the mediation of new thinking and new discoveries influenced students and teachers, textbooks provide an…
Rintakorpi, Kati; Reunamo, Jyrki
Documentation in early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions has been developed for decades in various contexts. Today, documentation is preferred as an inclusive method of evaluating, planning, and developing ECEC in the curricula of many countries. Qualitative research on documentation has increased in past years, but quantitative…
This article presents research on female teachers exploring their perceptions and experiences of male teachers in the early years and it also examines the views of male teachers in relation to this environment. It considers the dominant UK public discourse calling for more men in primary teaching and it shows how this affects both male and female…
Migliorini, Laura; Rania, Nadia; Tassara, Tatiana
Based on an ecological perspective on competence, this study analyzed the attitudes, skills, and knowledge of practitioners in educational services for 0-6-years-old children in Italy, examining competence profiles in the Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) workforce. Our study considered three areas of competence, which previously have…
Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru
This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants were…
Walker, S.; Brownlee, J.; Whiteford, C.; Cobb-Moore, C.; Johansson, E.; Ailwood, J.; Boulton-Lewis, G.
There is strong political and social interest in values education both internationally and across Australia. Investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society; however, little is known about early years teachers' beliefs about moral values teaching and learning. The aim of the…
Roberts-Holmes, Guy; Bradbury, Alice
In this paper we attempt to critically "make visible the flow and circulation of data" through analysing the datafication of the early years education sector in England (children aged 2-5). The concept of datafication is used to understand the processes and impacts of burgeoning data-based governance and accountability regimes. This…
Atchison, Bruce; Diffey, Louisa; Workman, Emily
High-quality early elementary years offer a critical opportunity for child development and academic learning for all children, regardless of their race, family-income level, or culture and home language. All students deserve access to high-quality teachers and leaders trained in how to effectively support their learning. They deserve to attend…
Researchers have made convincing arguments for the benefits of a smooth transition to school. The passage through this significant social change may have a lasting influence on children's progress. For example, social, emotional and academic difficulties in the early years of schooling have been shown to persist through school and into…
Veraksa, Aleksander; Veraksa, Nikolay
This article defines the concepts related to symbolic and sign representations, cognition and learning in the early years. The first study experiment of teaching 33 preschool children (19 boys and 14 girls; M = 68, 5 months) the notion of rainbow phenomenon proved the equal effectiveness of the use of both sign and symbolic tools. The second study…
This project aimed to investigate the types of digital technologies children under the age of five are using at home and assess the possible implications for early years pedagogy. The research, carried out between 2010 and 2012, was based in four European countries: England, Greece, Malta and Luxemburg. A mixed methods approach was employed to…
Alkhawaldeh, Mustafa; Hyassat, Mizyed; Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal
The current research investigated early years teachers' perspectives regarding the role of computer technology in supporting children's learning in Jordanian kindergartens. Thirty semistructured interviews were conducted with preschool teachers. The sample of kindergartens in this study was purposefully selected from the targeted population of…
The call for more "brave" male early years practitioners and primary classroom teachers remains prevalent as boys' underachievement continues to dominate education agendas. There is a recognised need, backed by government policy and public discourse in England, for more men to work in settings and schools (0-11) and act as "role…
Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso
Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…
Laurie, Robert; Sloat, Elizabeth
This research investigates key psychometric properties of the French Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment measure designed to systematically assess kindergarten children across five social and academic developmental domains: awareness of self and environment, social skills and behaviour, cognitive abilities, language and communication, and…
Bartolini Bussi, Maria G.; Baccaglini-Frank, Anna
In early years schooling it is becoming common to propose activities that involve moving along paths, or programming robots to do so. In order to promote continuity towards the introduction of geometry in primary school, we developed a long-term teaching experiment (with 15 sessions) carried out over 4 months in a first grade classroom in northern…
Klentschy, Michael P.; Hoge, Suzi
The Pasadena Unified School District, in northwest Los Angeles County, recognized that an early intervention program for economically disadvantaged children should be part of its comprehensive district revitalizing and restructuring plan. Consequently, staff developed the Kindergarten Program for Four-Year-Olds, which was designed to provide: (1)…
This article presents a critical review of the literature surrounding the potential impact of undiagnosed and untreated vision impairment on reading development in the early years of primary school. Despite pre-school screening programmes, it is still possible for children to enter school with undiagnosed, uncorrected vision impairments. This can…
Baker, Fiona S.
The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…
During the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been increasing numbers of bilingual children entering early years settings, many of whom are new to English. Twelve percent of school children in the UK are identified as having a mother tongue other than English and this number rises to 50% in urban areas such as inner London. In…
Ingleby, Ewan; Hedges, Clive
This article is based on quantitative and qualitative data that have been generated since 2009 on the study skills needs of early years practitioners working in England. The research has identified that developing information technology skills appears to be a particular professional development need for these practitioners. The practitioners are…
Bakhru, Rita N; McWilliams, David J; Wiebe, Douglas J; Spuhler, Vicki J; Schweickert, William D
Early mobilization (EM) improves outcomes for mechanically ventilated patients. Variation in structure and organizational characteristics may affect implementation of EM practices. We queried intensive care unit (ICU) environment and standardized ICU practices to evaluate organizational characteristics that enable EM practice. We recruited 151 ICUs in France, 150 in Germany, 150 in the United Kingdom, and 500 in the United States by telephone. Survey domains included respondent characteristics, hospital and ICU characteristics, and ICU practices and protocols. We surveyed 1,484 ICU leaders and received a 64% response rate (951 ICUs). Eighty-eight percent of respondents were in nursing leadership roles; the remainder were physiotherapists. Surveyed ICUs were predominantly mixed medical-surgical units (67%), and 27% were medical ICUs. ICU staffing models differed significantly (P < 0.001 each) by country for high-intensity staffing, nurse/patient ratios, and dedicated physiotherapists. ICU practices differed by country, with EM practices present in 40% of French ICUs, 59% of German ICUs, 52% of U.K. ICUs, and 45% of U.S. ICUs. Formal written EM protocols were present in 24%, 30%, 20%, and 30%, respectively, of those countries' ICUs. In multivariate analysis, EM practice was associated with multidisciplinary rounds (odds ratio [OR], 1.77; P = 0.001), setting daily goals for patients (OR, 1.62; P = 0.02), presence of a dedicated physiotherapist (OR, 2.48; P < 0.001), and the ICU's being located in Germany (reference, United States; OR, 2.84; P < 0.001). EM practice was also associated with higher nurse staffing levels (1:1 nurse/patient ratio as a reference; 1:2 nurse/patient ratio OR, 0.59; P = 0.05; 1:3 nurse/patient ratio OR, 0.33; P = 0.005; 1:4 or less nurse/patient ratio OR, 0.37; P = 0.005). Those responding rarely cited ambulation of mechanically ventilated patients, use of a bedside cycle, or neuromuscular electrical stimulation
Raustorp, Anders; Lindwall, Magnus
One variable that has been consistently associated with adolescents' physical activity is perceived activity competence. Perceived physical (or sport) competence is considered a sub-domain to the physical self-esteem or self-worth (i.e., a person's valuation of what is good and worthy in their self-description). This study aimed to describe levels of and inter-correlations among physical self-esteem, physical activity, and body mass index in a longitudinal design spanning adolescence to early adulthood. At mean ages of 12.7, 15.7, 17.7 and 22.7 years, we measured perceived physical self-esteem in 39 (22 boys) Swedish adolescents. Physical activity (steps/day) for four consecutive schooldays, height, and weight were also measured. No significant difference between the four time points for any variable of perceived physical self-esteem was seen, neither in boys nor girls. In general, all physical self-variables revealed non-linear trajectories across time, where the general trend was an increase during the younger ages followed by a decrease during older ages. At ages 12 and 15 years in boys and girls physical condition and physical strength as well as body attractiveness and physical strength, respectively, had the strongest correlations to physical self-esteem. At age 17 and 22 years sports competence had the strongest correlation to self-esteem in girls, while body attractiveness and physical strength had the strongest correlation to self-esteem in boys. An overall stability in physical self-esteem was found. However the impact of a sub-domain upon physical self-esteem vary during adolescence and early adulthood. Such information may be useful when creating physical activity programs that support and develop physical self-esteem.
Beuker, Karin T; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K
The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental trajectory of specific joint attention skills, to investigate the developmental interrelations of these different joint attention skills with vocabulary size, and to examine whether the order of development of following and directing attention influences the development of other early communication skills such as language. All joint attention skills emerged between 8 and 15 months of age and responsive joint attention skills tend to emerge before initiative joint attention. Early joint attention skills influenced later language development, but not the other way around. Children in whom directing attention with gaze alternation developed early (in age or order) showed a relatively larger early vocabulary growth. A fine grained mapping of the normal development of early communication skills can be helpful in the early detection of abnormalities in these skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burgess, Caroline; Cornelius, Victoria; Love, Sharon; Graham, Jill; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda
Objective To examine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer in the five years after diagnosis. Design Observational cohort study. Setting NHS breast clinic, London. Participants 222 women with early breast cancer: 170 (77%) provided complete interview data up to either five years after diagnosis or recurrence. Main outcome measures Prevalence of clinically important depression and anxiety (structured psychiatric interview with standardised diagnostic criteria) and clinical and patient risk factors, including stressful life experiences (Bedford College life events and difficulties schedule). Results Nearly 50% of the women with early breast cancer had depression, anxiety, or both in the year after diagnosis, 25% in the second, third, and fourth years, and 15% in the fifth year. Point prevalence was 33% at diagnosis, falling to 15% after one year. 45% of those with recurrence experienced depression, anxiety, or both within three months of the diagnosis. Previous psychological treatment predicted depression, anxiety, or both in the period around diagnosis (one month before diagnosis to four months after diagnosis). Longer term depression and anxiety, were associated with previous psychological treatment, lack of an intimate confiding relationship, younger age, and severely stressful non-cancer life experiences. Clinical factors were not associated with depression and anxiety, at any time. Lack of intimate confiding support also predicted more protracted episodes of depression and anxiety. Conclusion Increased levels of depression, anxiety, or both in the first year after a diagnosis of early breast cancer highlight the need for dedicated service provision during this time. Psychological interventions for women with breast cancer who remain disease free should take account of the broader social context in which the cancer occurs, with a focus on improving social support. PMID:15695497
LaRowe, Tara L; Tomayko, Emily J; Meinen, Amy M; Hoiting, Jill; Saxler, Courtney; Cullen, Bridget
Early childcare and education (ECE) is a prime setting for obesity prevention and the establishment of healthy behaviors. The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the efficacy of the Active Early guide, which includes evidenced-based approaches, provider resources, and training, to improve physical activity opportunities through structured (i.e. teacher-led) activity and environmental changes thereby increasing physical activity among children, ages 2-5 years, in the ECE setting. Twenty ECE programs in Wisconsin, 7 family and 13 group, were included. An 80-page guide, Active Early, was developed by experts and statewide partners in the fields of ECE, public health, and physical activity and was revised by ECE providers prior to implementation. Over 12 months, ECE programs received on-site training and technical assistance to implement the strategies and resources provided in the Active Early guide. Main outcome measures included observed minutes of teacher-led physical activity, physical activity environment measured by the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) instrument, and child physical activity levels via accelerometry. All measures were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months and were analyzed for changes over time. Observed teacher-led physical activity significantly increased from 30.9 ± 22.7 min at baseline to 82.3 ± 41.3 min at 12 months. The change in percent time children spent in sedentary activity decreased significantly after 12 months (-4.4 ± 14.2 % time, -29.2 ± 2.6 min, p < 0.02). Additionally, as teacher led-activity increased, percent time children were sedentary decreased (r = -0.37, p < 0.05) and percent time spent in light physical activity increased (r = 0.35, p < 0.05). Among all ECE programs, the physical activity environment improved significantly as indicated by multiple sub-scales of the EPAO; scores showing the greatest increases were the
Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo
This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
J. Stephen Brewer; Christine Bertz; Jeffery B. Cannon; Jason D. Chesser; Erynn E. Maynard
Stand-replacing natural disturbances in mature forests are traditionally seen as events that cause forests to revert to early stages of succession and maintain species diversity. In some cases, however, such transitions could be an artifact of salvage logging and may increase biotic homogenization. We present initial (two-year) results of a study of the effects of...
Muhlenhaupt, Mary; Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Schefkind, Sandra; Chandler, Barbara; Harvison, Neil
Occupational therapy provides a unique contribution in early intervention programs for families and their children from birth to 3 years old who are at risk for, or who have, identified disabilities. This article describes occupational therapy's distinct value and presents the profession's perspective on services to enhance families' caregiving…
For the first time across Australia, early education and care services are subject to a single, national set of regulations and standards governing the quality of provision. Concurrently, a set of outcomes for all children aged from birth to 5 years and a ranking system to make transparent the performance of programmes have been developed. This…
Ford, Paul R.; Ward, Paul; Hodges, Nicola J.; Williams, A. Mark
Experts acquire domain-specific skills as a result of the activities in which they participate throughout their development. We examine the domain-specific activities in which two groups of elite youth soccer players participated between six and 12 years of age. Our goal was to examine early participation differences between those who progressed…
Falase, Bode; Sanusi, Michael; Animasahun, Adeola; Mgbajah, Ogadinma; Majekodunmi, Adetinuwe; Nzewi, Onyekwelu; Nwiloh, Jonathan; Oke, David
Although the specialty of cardiothoracic surgery has been practiced in Nigeria for many years, open heart surgery (OHS) has only in the last decade become relatively more frequent, mainly through visiting foreign cardiac surgical teams. At this early phase of development it is faced with multiple challenges, especially financing and local skilled manpower for which solutions have to be identified in order to ensure sustainability and future growth. This study is aimed at highlighting these obstacles to growth of cardiothoracic surgery based on our own institutional experience at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) and the current status of OHS activity in other cardiothoracic centers in Nigeria. Prospectively acquired data from our center from March 2004 to December 2015 was reviewed. A telephone survey was also conducted with all other institutions in Nigeria performing cardiac surgery. During the study period 1,520 patients underwent various procedures with a mean age of 37±22.4 years and 813 (53.5%) were males. There were 450 major procedures (29.6%), 889 minor procedures (58.5%) and 181 endoscopic procedures (11.9%). The top ten clinical diagnoses were empyema thoracis (17.5%), malignant pleural effusion (14.7%), chest trauma (12%), hemodialysis access (6.1%), bradyarrhythmia (5.3%), aerodigestive foreign bodies (4.1%), vascular injury (3.9%), pericardial disease (3.8%), lung cancer (3.6%) and congenital heart disease (3.4%). The range of procedures was chest tube insertion (41.6%), endoscopy (11.9%), lung procedures (7%), arterio-venous fistula (6.1%), pacemaker implantation (5.3%), vascular repair (4.4%), OHS (3.4%), esophageal procedures (2.6%), chest wall surgery (2%), video assisted thoracic surgery (2%), closed heart surgery (1.6%), diaphragmatic procedures (1.6%) and thymectomy (1%). Survey of 15 centers in Nigeria with cardiac surgery activity showed a total of 496 OHS cases between 1974 and 2016, with 330 cases (66.5%) done between 2012
Schwartz, J; Dube, K; Alexy, U; Kalhoff, H; Kersting, M
An appropriate supply of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) during early childhood may enhance cognitive development. Little attention is paid to the fatty acid (FA) supply during the complementary feeding period. We examined the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and LC-PUFAs pattern in dietary practice of two study groups and evaluated the results against the present Dietary Guidelines in Germany. The food consumption and FA pattern of dietary practice in subjects from two prospective studies (n=102 and n=184, respectively) at the age of 3, 6 and 9 months was assessed by weighed diet records, and changes during the first year of life were compared with the food-based dietary guidelines for the first year of life. Dietary practice in the complementary feeding period was clearly dominated by commercial food products. The FA composition in dietary practice was different from the Guideline Diet and the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was less favorable. Consumption of breast milk or formula was still of major importance for the intake of LC-PUFAs in the complementary feeding period. LC-PUFAs are predominantly provided by breast milk and formula during the first year of life and consequently decrease when milk consumption decreases. For compensation, commercial complementary food might come closer to the Guideline Diet by lowering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio through appropriate vegetable oil along with an increase in total fat content up to the legal limit.
Bich, Tran Huu; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Vui, Le Thi; Nghia, Dang Thi; Målqvist, Mats
Fathers have an important but often neglected role in the promotion of healthy breastfeeding practices in developing countries. A community-based education intervention was designed to mobilize fathers' support for early breastfeeding. This study aimed to evaluate an education intervention targeting fathers to increase the proportion of early breastfeeding initiation and to reduce prelacteal feeding. Quasi-experimental study design was used to compare intervention and control areas located in two non-adjacent rural districts that shared similar demographic and health service characteristics in northern Viet Nam. Fathers and expectant fathers with pregnant wives from 7 to 30 weeks gestational age were recruited. Fathers in the intervention area received breastfeeding education materials, counselling services at a commune health centre and household visits. They were also invited to participate in a breastfeeding promotion social event. After intervention, early breastfeeding initiation rate was 81.2% in the intervention area and 39.6% in the control area (P < 0.001). Babies in the intervention area were more likely to be breastfed within the first hour after birth [odds ratio (OR) 7.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.81-12.12] and not to receive any prelacteal feeding (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.88-6.82) compared with those in the control area. Fathers may positively influence the breastfeeding practices of mothers, and as a resource for early childcare, they can be mobilized in programmes aimed at improving the early initiation of breastfeeding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mai, X-M; Neuman, A; Ostblom, E; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, L; Almqvist, C; van Hage, M; Wickman, M
The predictive value of reported early symptoms to pollen or fruits on later allergic disease is unclear. Our aim is to evaluate if symptoms to pollen and/or to fruits early in life are associated with allergic disease and sensitization to pollen at 4 years. The study included 3619 children from the Barn (Children), Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology project (BAMSE) birth cohort. Reported symptoms of wheeze, sneeze or rash to birch, grass or weed, symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, rash, facial edema, sneeze, or wheeze) to fruits including tree-nuts at 1 or 2 years of age, and definitions of asthma, rhinitis and eczema at 4 years were derived from questionnaire data. Sensitization to pollen allergens was defined as allergen-specific IgE-antibodies to any pollen (birch/timothy/mugwort) > or =0.35 kU(A)/l. At 1 or 2 years of age, 6% of the children were reported to have pollen-related symptoms, 6% had symptoms to fruits, and 1.4% to both pollen and fruits. Children with symptoms to both pollen and fruits at 1 or 2 years of age had an increased risk for sensitization to any pollen allergen at age 4 (OR(adj) = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.1-9.2). This group of children also had a substantially elevated risk for developing any allergic disease (asthma, rhinitis, or eczema) at 4 years irrespective of sensitization to pollen (OR(adj) = 8.6, 95% CI = 4.5-16.4). The prevalence of reported symptoms to pollen and fruits is very low in early childhood. However, children with early symptoms to both pollen and fruits appear to have a markedly elevated risk for allergic disease.
Banna, Jinan Corinne; Reicks, Marla; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Wong, Siew Sun; Misner, Scottie; Hongu, Nobuko; Johnston, N Paul
Setting healthful beverage expectations, making calcium-rich foods and beverages (CRF/B) available, and role modeling are parenting practices promoting calcium intake among early adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate emotion-based messages designed to motivate parents of early adolescents to perform these practices. Emotion-based messages were developed for each parenting practice and tested in 35 parents from 5 states. Findings were used to modify messages and develop a survey administered via Amazon MechanicalTurk to a convenience sample of Asian (n = 166) and Hispanic (n = 184) parents of children 10-13 years. Main outcome measures were message comprehension, motivation, relevance, acceptability, and novelty. Engagement in the parenting practices was also assessed. Message comprehension was acceptable for the majority of parents. Most also agreed that messages were motivational (setting healthful beverage expectations (69.0%), making CRF/B available (67.4%), and role modeling (80.0%)), relevant and acceptable. About 30-50% indicated they had not seen the information before. Many parents indicated they were already engaging in the practices (> 70%). No racial/ethnic differences were observed for responses to messages or engaging in parenting practices. Results indicate that emotion-based messages designed to motivate parents to engage in parenting practices that promote calcium intake among early adolescents were motivating, relevant, and acceptable.
Henry, Elizabeth G; Lehnertz, Nicholas B; Alam, Ashraful; Ali, Nabeel Ashraf; Williams, Emma K; Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Ahmed, Salahuddin; El Arifeen, Shams; Baqui, Abdullah H; Winch, Peter J
The practice of adolescent marriage continues in communities throughout Bangladesh, with adolescent childbearing a common result. This early childbearing is associated with increased medical risks for both mothers and their newborns. Because of the need to understand the persistence of these behaviors in spite of the risks, various qualitative research methods were used to identify and better understand the various socio cultural factors perpetuating the practices of early marriage and childbirth. Delaying the first birth after marriage can cause rumors of infertility, bring shame on the family, and in some cases lead the husband's family to seek another wife for their son. In addition, social stigma for childless women, emigration of husbands, and the belief that using modern contraceptives prior to the birth of the first child results in infertility also inhibits couples from delaying their first pregnancy. Future efforts to promote delay in marriage and subsequent early childbearing should focus on allaying the fears of infertility related to delay in childbearing or secondary to contraceptive use, both for newly married couples and household decision-makers such as mothers-in-law. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Developing and implementing a plan for a NASA space mission can be a complicated process. The needs, goals, and objectives of any proposed mission or technology must be assessed early in the Project Life Cycle. The key to successful development of a space mission or flight project is the inclusion of systems engineering in early project formulation, namely during Pre-phase A, Phase A, and Phase B of the NASA Project Life Cycle. When a space mission or new technology is in pre-development, or "pre-Formulation", feasibility must be determined based on cost, schedule, and risk. Inclusion of system engineering during project formulation is key because in addition to assessing feasibility, design concepts are developed and alternatives to design concepts are evaluated. Lack of systems engineering involvement early in the project formulation can result in increased risks later in the implementation and operations phases of the project. One proven method for effective systems engineering practice during the pre-Formulation Phase is the use of a mission conceptual design or technology development laboratory, such as the Mission Design Lab (MDL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will review the engineering process practiced routinely in the MDL for successful mission or project development during the pre-Formulation Phase.
Lalani, Tahaniyat; Chu, Vivian H; Park, Lawrence P; Cecchi, Enrico; Corey, G Ralph; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Fowler, Vance G; Gordon, David; Grossi, Paolo; Hannan, Margaret; Hoen, Bruno; Muñoz, Patricia; Rizk, Hussien; Kanj, Souha S; Selton-Suty, Christine; Sexton, Daniel J; Spelman, Denis; Ravasio, Veronica; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Wang, Andrew
There are limited prospective, controlled data evaluating survival in patients receiving early surgery vs medical therapy for prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). To determine the in-hospital and 1-year mortality in patients with PVE who undergo valve replacement during index hospitalization compared with patients who receive medical therapy alone, after controlling for survival and treatment selection bias. Participants were enrolled between June 2000 and December 2006 in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS), a prospective, multinational, observational cohort of patients with infective endocarditis. Patients hospitalized with definite right- or left-sided PVE were included in the analysis. We evaluated the effect of treatment assignment on mortality, after adjusting for biases using a Cox proportional hazards model that included inverse probability of treatment weighting and surgery as a time-dependent covariate. The cohort was stratified by probability (propensity) for surgery, and outcomes were compared between the treatment groups within each stratum. Valve replacement during index hospitalization (early surgery) vs medical therapy. In-hospital and 1-year mortality. Of the 1025 patients with PVE, 490 patients (47.8%) underwent early surgery and 535 individuals (52.2%) received medical therapy alone. Compared with medical therapy, early surgery was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in the unadjusted analysis and after controlling for treatment selection bias (in-hospital mortality: hazard ratio [HR], 0.44 [95% CI, 0.38-0.52] and lower 1-year mortality: HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.49-0.67]). The lower mortality associated with surgery did not persist after adjustment for survivor bias (in-hospital mortality: HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.76-1.07] and 1-year mortality: HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.89-1.23]). Subgroup analysis indicated a lower in-hospital mortality with early surgery in the highest surgical propensity quintile (21
Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.
In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or…
Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Zanesco, Angelina
Early sport practice prevents development of diseases in children/adolescents, but still unclear its effect over health in adulthood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the association between sport practice in early life and chronic diseases in adulthood. A retrospective population-based survey carried out in eight Brazilian cities with adults of both genders. Throughout a multistage random process 2720 adults (1096 male and 1624 female) were selected and interviewed. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension were assessed in a face-to-face interview through a self-report, which was necessarily based on previous medical diagnosis. Early sport practice was assessed in childhood (7-10 years old) and adolescence (11-17 years old). Current physical activity and body mass index were assessed in adulthood throughout a face-to-face interview. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension were identified in 8.1% (95% CI, 7.1-9.2) and 23.5% (95% CI, 21.9-25.1) of the sample, respectively. Early sport practice during childhood and adolescence was associated with lower occurrence of arterial hypertension (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33-0.73) and type 2 diabetes (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.88) in adulthood. Independently of obesity and current physical activity, early sport practice in early life was positively associated with lower occurrence of chronic diseases in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Kirkman, Matthew A; Watkins, Laurence D; Kitchen, Neil D; Sethi, Huma
The past decade has seen significant changes to the face of neurosurgical training in the United Kingdom, driven in part by an increasing focus on patient safety and the introduction of Modernising Medical Careers and the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Recent reforms to neurosurgical training over the past few years have resulted in creation of an 8-year 'run-through' training programme. In this programme, early years (ST1 and ST2) trainees often lack dedicated time for elective theatre lists and outpatient clinics. Further, any time spent in theatre and clinics is often with different teams. Here we describe a training model for early years trainees at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, who are given the responsibilities traditionally associated with a more senior trainee including dedicated weekly theatre and clinic time under the supervision of a single consultant, in addition to out of hours experience. The advantages and considerations for implementing this model are discussed, including the benefit of guidance under a single consultant in the early stages of training, along with key educational concepts necessary for understanding its utility. We feel that this is an effective model for junior neurosurgical training in the EWTD era, expediting the trainee's development of key technical and non-technical skills, with potentially significant rewards for patient, trainee and trainer. National implementation of this model should be considered.
Feldens, C A; Kramer, P F; Sequeira, M C; Rodrigues, P H; Vitolo, M R
To identify risk factors for cariogenic feeding practices in the first year of life. Cohort study. 500 children born within the public health care system in São Leopoldo, Brazil, were recruited in a follow-up program. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected soon after birth; data on feeding practices were assessed at 12 months of age using a standardised questionnaire; clinical examination at 4 years of age allowed identification of cariogenic feeding practices in the first year of life and to quantify their relative risks. In the present study, the attributable risks of each child were summed, and the outcome was assessed for the upper quartile of scores for cariogenic feeding practices. Adjusted relative risks for the outcome were estimated using robust Poisson regression models. A total of 327 children comprised the final study sample, i.e. were followed from birth to 4 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of cariogenic feeding practices doubled in children from mothers with less than 5 years of education (RR 2.19, 95%CI 1.26-3.82) and was 70% higher in children from mothers with 5-8 years of education when compared with maternal education >8 years. The other independent variables were not associated with the outcome. Low maternal education is a risk factor for cariogenic feeding practices, independently of other factors. Mothers with low educational levels should be the focus of child health promotion interventions, especially those aimed at controlling dental caries.
Sullivan, Debra Ren-Etta
There has been much attention given to the opportunity gap between white and minority students, especially African American children. Using research and years of experience "Cultivating the Genius of Black Children" is able to break down the cultural influences on learning style and provides a practical approach to helping Black children…
Balatti, Jo; Belward, Shaun
This paper describes how a group of university lecturers are adopting an action research approach to improve the learning experience of students in first year mathematics. Using the three categories of saying/thinking, doing, and relating (Kemmis, 2009) to explore practice, it describes the new practices of the action research team, the…
Gilder, Sharon Allen
Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…
The purpose of the study was to determine what student teachers perceive as an effective practice used by their cooperating teacher and school district to enhance the success of the year-long student teaching experience. In addition, the study intended to determine the differences in what student teachers perceive as effective practice based on…
Diaz-Guzman, Enrique; Sanchez, Juan; Arroliga, Alejandro C
During the last 5 years, new randomized trials in critically ill patients have challenged a number of traditional treatment strategies in intensive care. The authors review eight studies that helped change their medical practices.
Brown, Kyle S; Marean, Curtis W; Jacobs, Zenobia; Schoville, Benjamin J; Oestmo, Simen; Fisher, Erich C; Bernatchez, Jocelyn; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Matthews, Thalassa
There is consensus that the modern human lineage appeared in Africa before 100,000 years ago. But there is debate as to when cultural and cognitive characteristics typical of modern humans first appeared, and the role that these had in the expansion of modern humans out of Africa. Scientists rely on symbolically specific proxies, such as artistic expression, to document the origins of complex cognition. Advanced technologies with elaborate chains of production are also proxies, as these often demand high-fidelity transmission and thus language. Some argue that advanced technologies in Africa appear and disappear and thus do not indicate complex cognition exclusive to early modern humans in Africa. The origins of composite tools and advanced projectile weapons figure prominently in modern human evolution research, and the latter have been argued to have been in the exclusive possession of modern humans. Here we describe a previously unrecognized advanced stone tool technology from Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 on the south coast of South Africa, originating approximately 71,000 years ago. This technology is dominated by the production of small bladelets (microliths) primarily from heat-treated stone. There is agreement that microlithic technology was used to create composite tool components as part of advanced projectile weapons. Microliths were common worldwide by the mid-Holocene epoch, but have a patchy pattern of first appearance that is rarely earlier than 40,000 years ago, and were thought to appear briefly between 65,000 and 60,000 years ago in South Africa and then disappear. Our research extends this record to ~71,000 years, shows that microlithic technology originated early in South Africa, evolved over a vast time span (~11,000 years), and was typically coupled to complex heat treatment that persisted for nearly 100,000 years. Advanced technologies in Africa were early and enduring; a small sample of excavated sites in Africa is the best explanation for any
Parker, Johanna E; Hudson, Ben; Wilkinson, Tim J
General practice is under-represented in student career choices. This study aimed to identify and explore factors that influence the attitudes of final year medical students to general practice as a career. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews of focus groups of final year undergraduate medical students at the University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. Thematic analysis and grounded theory were used to interpret the data. General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in influencing medical students' attitudes to general practice as a career. Students identified their general practice placement during medical school training and personal contact with their own GP as principal factors. The media portrayal of general practice and the attitudes of friends and family were also influential. Students were positively influenced when they were made to feel part of the team, involved with consultations, allowed to carry out practical procedures under supervision, and witnessed what they perceived as good medical practice during clinical placements. Positive experiences often occurred later in training, when students felt more confident of their clinical abilities. While students reported occasional negative comments about general practice by some hospital doctors, these had a lesser role in influencing their perceptions of general practice compared with their own experiences, both as students and patients. GPs have a strong influence, positively and negatively, on the attitudes of medical students to general practice as a career. Effective influences include being made to feel welcome, involved, valued, and given legitimate roles during clinical placements.
The early Fellows of the Royal Society received letters, papers and printed books written in several European vernaculars. In many cases a translation was needed to make these texts accessible. Translators, though, had to negotiate the Society's corporate views on language and prose style, and also prevailing contemporary theories of literary translation set out by popular poets such as John Dryden and Abraham Cowley. This article examines the translation practices of early Fellows of the Royal Society, showing that translations formed part of a set of knowledge-making processes at meetings. It also discusses the statements about translation theory found in the prefaces to printed volumes produced by or for Royal Society Fellows, arguing that although translators were aware of the requirement for a faithful translation, in fact they often modified their source texts to make them more useful for an English audience.
Storbeck, Claudine; Calvert-Evers, Jennifer
It is well documented that undetected hearing loss can have a profound effect on a child's holistic development, including communicative, language and cognitive development. It is crucial therefore that deaf and hard of hearing infants are detected as early as possible so that appropriate intervention services and support can be initiated. To assist parents in enabling their child's optimal growth and development, HI HOPES-the first South African home-based early intervention project-was launched in August 2006, offering families weekly home-based support that is both child-centred and family-directed. A critical overview of the pilot implementation of HI HOPES is presented, from inception to implementation, focusing on its innovative services and practices, and issues that influence the intervention process including a reflection on the challenges and areas for development.
Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Gan, Wan Ying; Tan, Kit-Aun
The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age. This is a prospective cohort study of mothers and infants recruited from government health clinics in Seremban district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Infants are followed-up at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. Pre-natal factors that include mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, blood glucose and blood pressure during pregnancy, infant's gestational age, birth weight and head circumference at birth are obtained from patient card. Post-natal factors assessed at each follow-up are feeding practices, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements and cognitive development of infants. Iron status is assessed at 6 months, while infant temperament and home environment are assessed at 12 months. Maternal intelligence is assessed at 18 months. Early life nutritional programming is of current interest as many longitudinal studies are actively being conducted in developed countries to investigate this concept. The concept however is relatively new in developing countries such as Malaysia. This study will provide useful information on early nutrition and infant development in the first two years of life which can be further followed up to identify factors that track into childhood and contribute to growth and cognitive deviations.
Eisner, Emily; Drake, Richard; Lobban, Fiona; Bucci, Sandra; Emsley, Richard; Barrowclough, Christine
Early signs interventions show promise but could be further developed. A recent review suggested that 'basic symptoms' should be added to conventional early signs to improve relapse prediction. This study builds on preliminary evidence that basic symptoms predict relapse and aimed to: 1. examine which phenomena participants report prior to relapse and how they describe them; 2. determine the best way of identifying pre-relapse basic symptoms; 3. assess current practice by comparing self- and casenote-reported pre-relapse experiences. Participants with non-affective psychosis were recruited from UK mental health services. In-depth interviews (n=23), verbal checklists of basic symptoms (n=23) and casenote extracts (n=208) were analysed using directed content analysis and non-parametric statistical tests. Three-quarters of interviewees reported basic symptoms and all reported conventional early signs and 'other' pre-relapse experiences. Interviewees provided rich descriptions of basic symptoms. Verbal checklist interviews asking specifically about basic symptoms identified these experiences more readily than open questions during in-depth interviews. Only 5% of casenotes recorded basic symptoms; interviewees were 16 times more likely to report basic symptoms than their casenotes did. The majority of interviewees self-reported pre-relapse basic symptoms when asked specifically about these experiences but very few casenotes reported these symptoms. Basic symptoms may be potent predictors of relapse that clinicians miss. A self-report measure would aid monitoring of basic symptoms in routine clinical practice and would facilitate a prospective investigation comparing basic symptoms and conventional early signs as predictors of relapse. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Imai, Cindy Mari; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorisdottir, Birna; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Thorsdottir, Inga
Rapid growth during infancy is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity and differences in weight gain are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding. The aim was to assess the associations between infant feeding practice in early infancy and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years of age. Icelandic infants (n = 154) were prospectively followed from birth to 12 months and again at age 6 years. Birth weight and length were gathered from maternity wards, and healthcare centers provided the measurements made during infancy up to 18 months of age. Information on breastfeeding practices was documented 0–12 months and a 24-h dietary record was collected at 5 months. Changes in infant weight gain were calculated from birth to 18 months. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between infant feeding practice at 5 months and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years. Infants who were formula-fed at 5 months of age grew faster, particularly between 2 and 6 months, compared to exclusively breastfed infants. At age 6 years, BMI was on average 1.1 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.2, 2.0) higher among infants who were formula fed and also receiving solid foods at 5 months of age compared to those exclusively breastfed. In a high-income country such as Iceland, early introduction of solid foods seems to further increase the risk of high childhood BMI among formula fed infants compared with exclusively breastfed infants, although further studies with greater power are needed. PMID:24747694
Summary The 1902 Midwives Act introduced training and supervision for midwives in England and Wales, outlawing uncertified-and-untrained midwives (handywomen) and phasing out certified-but-untrained (bona fide) midwives. This paper compares the numbers and practices of these two different types of birth attendant with each other, with qualified and certified midwives and with doctors in early twentieth-century Derbyshire during this period of change, and examines the spatial and social factors influencing women's choice of birth attendant. It finds that the new legislation did not entirely eliminate continuity in traditional practices and allegiance, and that both social and spatial factors governed the choice of delivery attendant, with fewer midwives available in rural areas and a surviving network of untrained bona fide midwives in mining communities. Within this spatial pattern, however, although wealthier women were more likely to have chosen a doctor or a qualified midwife, familiarity and loyalty allowed bona fide midwives to maintain their case loads.
Churn, M; Kelly, V
The value of frequent outpatient follow-up in the first few years after primary treatment for early breast cancer is a controversial issue. Schedules involving 3-4 monthly visits in the first 2-3 years and 6-monthly from years 3-5 are still commonplace. In this study we audited such a policy from a single cancer centre, identifying a cohort of all 612 patients with early breast cancer (pT(1-3)pN(0-1)NxM0) referred for adjuvant therapy in 1993. The hospital records were reviewed to ascertain patient and tumour characteristics, the surgical and adjuvant treatment received, the timing and sequencing of recurrences and their mode of detection. Five hundred and five patients had breast conservation surgery. The actuarial local recurrence-free survival rate at 5 years in this group was 94.5%. Twenty-five of the 31 local recurrences that occurred were the first site of relapse. Eight (32%) of these were detected at routine clinic appointments, seven (28%) by routine mammography, and nine (36%) were interim referrals. Significant risk factors for local recurrence identified were lymph node status (P = 0.03) and tumour grade (P = 0.04). One hundred and four patients underwent mastectomy. The actuarial local recurrence-free survival at 5 years in this group was 85.4%. Nine of the 13 local recurrences were the first site of relapse. Six (66.7%) of these were detected at routine appointments. The significant risk factor for local recurrence identified was tumour grade (P = 0.03). Overall, 60.1% of metastases presented as interim referrals. Nodal status, tumour grade and tumour stage were confirmed as significant risk factors for metastasis (P < or = 0.001). Hazard rate analysis demonstrated a peak incidence of both local and metastatic recurrences in the second year, diminishing thereafter. This peak was largely confined to patients with tumours with poor prognostic features. We identified only eight patients out of a total of 612 followed up as outpatients for 5 years who had
'We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.' President John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 12 September 1962. It is now 50 years since the first artificial satellite was launched. This article looks at the early years of space travel and some of the key moments during that time.
Adjogatse, D; Thanopoulou, E; Okines, A; Thillai, K; Tasker, F; Johnston, S R D; Harper-Wynne, C; Torrisi, E; Ring, A
Low rates of adjuvant chemotherapy use are frequently reported in older women with early breast cancer. One of the reasons for this may be the risk of febrile neutropaenia or the perception that older patients will probably not complete the chemotherapy course prescribed. There are no data regarding these adverse outcomes in routine clinical practice. We identified 128 patients aged 70 years or over who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer in seven UK cancer centres between 2006 and 2012. Data were collected regarding standard clinical and pathological variables and treatment toxicity and outcomes. Twenty-four patients (19%) had an episode of febrile neutropaenia. Overall, 27 patients (21%) did not complete their planned therapy. Chemotherapy discontinuation was more common in those patients with an episode of febrile neutropaenia (46% versus 16%, P = 0.004). Thirty patients (23%) were admitted with chemotherapy-related complications. There were no treatment-related deaths. The rates of febrile neutropaenia and treatment discontinuation are high in women aged 70 years or over receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Close attention should be paid to the choice or regimen and the use of supportive therapies in this patient population. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.