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Sample records for early-lactation dairy cows

  1. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch content and monensin (MON) on metabolism of dairy cows during early lactation. Before parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% neutral detergent fiber, 22.7% acid detergent fiber, 15.5% crude protein) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% neutral detergent fiber, 25.2% acid detergent fiber, 15.4% crude protein) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d monensin (CON) or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, all cows were fed HS and continued with the assigned topdress treatment until d 63. Cows fed HS had higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) than cows fed LS during d 1 to 21 postpartum. Cows fed LS had elevated early-lactation β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) compared with cows fed HS. Cows fed HS had greater insulin resistance and increased plasma haptoglobin in the early lactation period. There was no effect of MON on postpartum plasma NEFA. Cows fed MON had higher plasma glucose compared with CON cows, which was driven by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had greater plasma glucose concentrations than cows fed CON. Cows fed MON had lower plasma BHBA compared with CON, which was contributed to by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had lower BHBA concentrations than CON. Starch treatment had no effect on overall liver triglyceride content. Primiparous cows fed MON had increased liver triglyceride content compared with CON primiparous cows, and multiparous cows fed MON had decreased liver triglyceride content compared with CON cows. Multiparous cows fed LS with MON had higher liver glycogen content than multiparous

  2. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea. PMID:21897097

  3. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    González, Felix Diaz; Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea.

  4. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Koch, Franziska; Lamp, Ole; Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  5. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  6. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  7. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  8. Increased plasma leptin attenuates adaptive metabolism in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Richard A; Foskolos, Andreas; Giesy, Sarah L; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Krumm, Christopher S; Butler, W Ronald; Quirk, Susan M; Waldron, Matthew R; Boisclair, Yves R

    2016-05-01

    Mammals meet the increased nutritional demands of lactation through a combination of increased feed intake and a collection of adaptations known as adaptive metabolism (e.g., glucose sparing via insulin resistance, mobilization of endogenous reserves, and increased metabolic efficiency via reduced thyroid hormones). In the modern dairy cow, adaptive metabolism predominates over increased feed intake at the onset of lactation and develops concurrently with a reduction in plasma leptin. To address the role of leptin in the adaptive metabolism of early lactation, we asked which adaptations could be countered by a constant 96-h intravenous infusion of human leptin (hLeptin) starting on day 8 of lactation. Compared to saline infusion (Control), hLeptin did not alter energy intake or milk energy output but caused a modest increase in body weight loss. hLeptin reduced plasma glucose by 9% and hepatic glycogen content by 73%, and these effects were associated with a 17% increase in glucose disposal during an insulin tolerance test. hLeptin attenuated the accumulation of triglyceride in the liver by 28% in the absence of effects on plasma levels of the anti-lipolytic hormone insulin or plasma levels of free fatty acids, a marker of lipid mobilization from adipose tissue. Finally, hLeptin increased the plasma concentrations of T4 and T3 by nearly 50% without affecting other neurally regulated hormones (i.e., cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH)). Overall these data implicate the periparturient reduction in plasma leptin as one of the signals promoting conservation of glucose and energy at the onset of lactation in the energy-deficient dairy cow. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Identifying poor metabolic adaptation during early lactation in dairy cows using cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, M; Kammer, M; Lange, H; Plattner, S; Baumgartner, C; Stegeman, J A; Duda, J; Mansfeld, R; Döpfer, D

    2018-05-02

    Currently, cows with poor metabolic adaptation during early lactation, or poor metabolic adaptation syndrome (PMAS), are often identified based on detection of hyperketonemia. Unfortunately, elevated blood ketones do not manifest consistently with indications of PMAS. Expected indicators of PMAS include elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin, decreased rumen fill, reduced rumen contractions, and a decrease in milk production. Cows with PMAS typically are higher producing, older cows that are earlier in lactation and have greater body condition score at the start of lactation. It was our aim to evaluate commonly used measures of metabolic health (input variables) that were available [i.e., blood β-hydroxybutyrate acid, milk fat:protein ratio, blood nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA)] to characterize PMAS. Bavarian farms (n = 26) with robotic milking systems were enrolled for weekly visits for an average of 6.7 wk. Physical examinations of the cows (5-50 d in milk) were performed by veterinarians during each visit, and blood and milk samples were collected. Resulting data included 790 observations from 312 cows (309 Simmental, 1 Red Holstein, 2 Holstein). Principal component analysis was conducted on the 3 input variables, followed by K-means cluster analysis of the first 2 orthogonal components. The 5 resulting clusters were then ascribed to low, intermediate, or high PMAS classes based on their degree of agreement with expected PMAS indicators and characteristics in comparison with other clusters. Results revealed that PMAS classes were most significantly associated with blood NEFA levels. Next, we evaluated NEFA values that classify observations into appropriate PMAS classes in this data set, which we called separation values. Our resulting NEFA separation values [<0.39 mmol/L (95% confidence limits = 0.360-0.410) to identify low PMAS observations and ≥0.7 mmol/L (95% confidence limits = 0.650-0.775) to identify high PMAS observations] were similar to values

  10. Comparative composition, diversity, and abundance of oligosaccharides in early lactation milk from commercial dairy and beef cows.

    PubMed

    Sischo, William M; Short, Diana M; Geissler, Mareen; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types. The goal of this study was to compare OS in milk from commercial dairy and beef cows in early lactation. Early-lactation multiparous cows (5-12 d in milk) from 5 commercial Holstein dairy herds and 5 Angus or Angus hybrid beef herds were sampled once. Milk was obtained from each enrolled cow and frozen on the farm. Subsequently, each milk sample was assessed for total solids, pH, and OS content and relative abundance. Oligosaccharide diversity and abundance within and between samples was transformed through principal component analysis to reduce data complexity. Factors from principal component analysis were used to create similarity clusters, which were subsequently used in a multivariate logistic regression. In total, 30 OS were identified in early-lactation cow milk, including 21 distinct OS and 9 isomers with unique retention times. The majority of OS detected in the milk samples were present in all individual samples regardless of production type. Two clusters described distribution patterns of OS for the study sample; when median OS abundance was compared between the 2 clusters, we found that overall OS relative abundance was consistently greater in the cluster dominated by beef cows. For several of the structures, including those with known prebiotic effect, the difference in abundance was 2- to 4-fold greater in the beef-dominated cluster. Assuming that beef OS content in milk is the gold standard for cattle, it is likely that preweaning dairy

  11. Circulating blood metabolites in early-lactation dairy cows fed canola or soybean meals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A successful transition from pregnancy to lactation is imperative for dairy cows to maximize milk production potential. Altering the dietary protein source can change the availability of energy to the cow. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) source canol...

  12. Comparative composition, diversity, and abundance of oligosaccharides in early lactation milk from commercial dairy and beef cows

    PubMed Central

    Sischo, William M.; Short, Diana M.; Geissler, Mareen; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types. The goal of this study was to compare OS in milk from commercial dairy and beef cows in early lactation. Early-lactation multiparous cows (5–12 d in milk) from 5 commercial Holstein dairy herds and 5 Angus or Angus hybrid beef herds were sampled once. Milk was obtained from each enrolled cow and frozen on the farm. Subsequently, each milk sample was assessed for total solids, pH, and OS content and relative abundance. Oligosaccharide diversity and abundance within and between samples was transformed through principal component analysis to reduce data complexity. Factors from principal component analysis were used to create similarity clusters, which were subsequently used in a multivariate logistic regression. In total, 30 OS were identified in early-lactation cow milk, including 21 distinct OS and 9 isomers with unique retention times. The majority of OS detected in the milk samples were present in all individual samples regardless of production type. Two clusters described distribution patterns of OS for the study sample; when median OS abundance was compared between the 2 clusters, we found that overall OS relative abundance was consistently greater in the cluster dominated by beef cows. For several of the structures, including those with known prebiotic effect, the difference in abundance was 2- to 4-fold greater in the beef-dominated cluster. Assuming that beef OS content in milk is the gold standard for cattle, it is likely that preweaning dairy

  13. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  14. [Prevalence and severity of lameness in early lactation in dairy cows and the effect on reproductive performance].

    PubMed

    Orgel, Corina; Ruddat, Inga; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2016-08-17

    To examine the impact of different degrees of lameness on the fertility of dairy cows. Seven dairy herds housed in free stall barns with cubicles were visited at 4-week intervals and all cows were examined for locomotion characteristics using a locomotion scoring system. The cows received scores from 1 (normal gait) to 5 (severely lame). During the study period of 18 months, 893 cows in the first month of lactation and 944 cows in the second, third and fourth months of lactation were evaluated. Reproductive measures between non-lame cows (score 1), mild lame cows (score 2) and cows with clear lameness (score ≥ 3) were compared. Independent of parity and herd effects, cows with scores ≥ 3 in the first month of lactation displayed a 6 days longer calving to first service interval (CFSI) (86.2 ± 35.6 vs. 80.2 ± 34.1 days; p = 0.002) and a 16 days longer calving to conception interval (CCI) (119.7 ± 51.4 vs. 103.8 ± 55.5 days; p = 0.048) than non-lame cows. Additionally, the risk for non-conception was significantly higher in cows suffering from lameness in the first month of lactation (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.095, 4.040; p = 0.026). Cows affected by mild lameness in the third month of lactation had a 4 days longer CFSI (84.7 ± 35.6 vs. 80.1 ± 30.5 days; p = 0.026) and a 18 days longer CCI (120.1 ± 55.4 vs. 102.3 ± 47.6 days; p = 0.016) than non-lame cows, while the CSFI in distinct lame cows was extended by 7 days compared to non-lame cows (87.2 ± 34.9 vs. 80.1 ± 30.5 days; p = 0.002). Cows with the score 1 in the first month and score 3 in the third month of lactation showed the longest CSFI (94.3 ± 33.9 vs. 76.5 ± 16.0 days in non-lame cows; p = 0.046). This study suggests that both distinct and mild lameness in early lactation lead to a decline in reproduction in dairy herds. A regular determination of the lameness prevalence in dairy herds and optimizing claw health management

  15. Randomized clinical trial of a calcium supplement for improvement of health in dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Miltenburg, Cynthia L; Duffield, Todd F; Bienzle, Dorothee; Scholtz, Elizabeth L; LeBlanc, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Prophylactic Ca supplementation immediately after calving is a common strategy to prevent clinical and subclinical hypocalcemia in parturient dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prophylactic administration of an injected Ca supplement on blood Ca concentration at 24 and 48h after treatment, incidence risk of clinical disease and culling, milk production in early lactation, and probability of pregnancy at first insemination. Cows without signs of visible milk fever (n=984) from 7 farms were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to receive either Ca gluconate (35% wt/vol) in combination with Ca glucoheptonate (10% wt/vol; TheraCalcium, Vétoquinol Canada Inc., Lavaltrie, Quebec) or a placebo (medication vehicle solution with no Ca) at first contact with each cow after calving and again 12 to 24h later. Each dose was 120mL injected subcutaneously over 2 sites. Total serum Ca concentration (tCa) was measured from coccygeal blood samples before (time 0) and 24 and 48h after first treatment in a subsample of cows (n=129). Blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured from all cows twice between 3 and 16d in milk at weekly visits and cows were evaluated for vaginal discharge once between 28 and 42d in milk. Disease events, production data from the first 3 Dairy Herd Improvement milk tests, reproduction, and culling data were collected from each herd. For cows that had received 1 injection of Ca before the blood sample at 24h (n=95), tCa was significantly higher in the treated cows: mean ± standard error, 2.03±0.03 versus 1.90±0.03mmol/L, accounting for tCa at time of enrollment and a treatment by tCa at enrollment interaction. At 48h, no significant difference was found in tCa between treatment and control (mean ± SE, 2.12±0.02 and 2.10±0.03mmol/L, respectively). Cows treated with the Ca product were significantly less likely to have received intravenous, subcutaneous, or oral supplemental Ca for exhibiting clinical signs

  16. Molecular insights into the mechanisms of liver-associated diseases in early-lactating dairy cows: hypothetical role of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ringseis, R; Gessner, D K; Eder, K

    2015-08-01

    The transition period represents the most critical period in the productive life of high-yielding dairy cows due to both metabolic and inflammatory stimuli, which challenge the liver and predispose dairy cows to develop liver-associated diseases such as fatty liver and ketosis. Despite the fact that all high-yielding dairy cows are affected by marked metabolic stress due to a severe negative energy balance (NEB) during early lactation, not all cows develop liver-associated diseases. Although the reason for this is largely unknown, this indicates that the capacity of the liver to cope with metabolic and inflammatory challenges varies between individual high-yielding dairy cows. Convincing evidence exists that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a key role in the development of fatty liver, and it has been recently shown that ER stress occurs in the liver of high-yielding dairy cows. This indicates that ER stress may be involved in the development of liver-associated diseases in dairy cows. The present review shows that the liver of dairy cows during early lactation is exposed to several metabolic and inflammatory challenges, such as non-esterified fatty acids, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, reactive oxygen species and lipopolysaccharides, which are known inducers of ER stress. Thus, ER stress may represent a molecular basis for fatty liver development and account for the frequent occurrence of fatty liver and ketosis in high-yielding dairy cows. Interindividual differences between dairy cows in the activation of hepatic stress response pathways, such as nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, which is activated during ER stress and reduces the sensitivity of tissues to oxidative and inflammatory damage, might provide an explanation at the molecular level for differences in the capacity to cope with pathological inflammatory challenges during early lactation and the susceptibility to develop liver-associated diseases between early-lactating dairy cows

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid prohormone processing and neuropeptides stimulating feed intake of dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William

    2015-02-06

    After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake.

  18. Evaluation of hyperketonemia risk period and screening protocols for early-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mahrt, A; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the onset of hyperketonemia, the number of positive hyperketonemia test results, and the duration of the longest hyperketonemic period during the first 42 d in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. Furthermore, we set out to evaluate test characteristics of single and repeated measurements of β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) during this period to diagnose hyperketonemia. Using an electronic handheld meter, 252 cows from 3 farms were tested twice weekly for hyperketonemia (blood BHBA ≥1.2 mmol/L) during the first 42 DIM, resulting in 12 test results per cow (i.e., in lactation wk 0.5 to 6). Prevalence and incidence of hyperketonemia were calculated for the 12 examination days and the 42-d period, respectively. Test characteristics for the diagnosis of hyperketonemia were calculated for 4 different testing scenarios (testing all cows 1, 2, 3, or 6 times during the first 42 DIM) and 2 different gold-standard definitions (BHBA ≥1.2 mmol/L at least once during the observation period or BHBA ≥1.2 mmol/L at least twice during the observation period). Mean prevalence of hyperketonemia was 11.8%, ranging from 9.6% in lactation wk 0.5 and 2.0 to 14.6% in lactation wk 5.5. In total, 134 cows (53.2%) had at least 1 positive hyperketonemia test result during the whole 42-d period. Of these cows, 46.3% had only 1 positive result. The median first positive hyperketonemia test result was in lactation wk 2.0 [interquartile range (IQR) 1.0-3.5]. Median frequency of positive test results in cows affected by hyperketonemia was 2 positive test results (IQR 1-3). Median duration of the longest hyperketonemic period per cow affected was 1 examination interval (3-4 d; IQR 1-2). Considering a minimum of 1 positive hyperketonemia test result during the first 42 DIM as the gold standard, sensitivity of a single BHBA measurement during this period to diagnose hyperketonemia was 21%. A weekly testing protocol had a sensitivity of 72%. Specificity was 100

  19. Manipulating the dietary cation-anion difference via drenching to early-lactation dairy cows grazing pasture.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Petch, S; Kay, J K

    2005-01-01

    Diets offered to grazing dairy cows can vary considerably in their dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and are often well in excess of what has been considered optimal. The effects of a range of DCAD on the health and production of pasture-based dairy cows in early lactation was examined in a randomized block design. Four groups of 8 cows were offered a generous allowance of pasture (45 +/- 6 kg/d of dry matter (DM) per cow) for 35 d and achieved mean pasture intakes of approximately 17 kg/d of DM per cow. Cows were drenched twice daily with varying combinations of mineral compounds to alter the DCAD. Dietary cation-anion difference ranged from +23 to +88 mEq/100 g of DM. A linear increase in blood pH and HCO(3)(-) concentration and blood base excess, and a curvilinear increase in the pH of urine with increasing DCAD indicated a nonrespiratory effect of DCAD on metabolic acid-base balance. Plasma concentrations of Mg, K, and Cl declined as DCAD increased, whereas Na concentration increased. Urinary excretion of Ca decreased linearly as DCAD increased, although the data suggest that the decline may be curvilinear. These results in conjunction with the increased concentrations of ionized Ca suggest that intestinal absorption of Ca or bone resorption, or both, increased as DCAD declined. Dry matter intake, as measured using indigestible markers, was not significantly affected by DCAD. However, the linear increase in the yield of linolenic acid, vaccenic acid, and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in milk, as DCAD increased is consistent with a positive effect of DCAD on DM intake. Increasing DCAD did not significantly affect milk yield or milk protein, but the concentration and yield of milk fat linearly increased with increasing DCAD. The increased milk fat yield was predominantly a result of increased de novo synthesis in the mammary epithelial cells, although an increase in the yield of preformed fatty acids also occurred. Milk production results suggest

  20. Effect of limestone reactivity and percent on production by dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Nocek, J E; Braund, D G; English, J E

    1983-12-01

    Seventy-two Holstein cows (16 first lactation) were assigned to four treatments: A) normal-grind limestone (800 to 1000 mu) added to provide .77% calcium (total ration dry basis); B) fine-grind limestone (less than 150 mu) at .77% calcium; C) normal-grind at 1.15% calcium; and D) fine-grind limestone at 1.15% calcium. Cows fed diets containing .77% calcium had higher percent milk fat and fat yield than those fed 1.15% calcium diets, and cows fed fine-grind limestone had greater percent fat and fat yield than those fed normal-grind limestone. Four percent fat-corrected milk was higher for cows fed .77% calcium diets. Trends were similar for heifers in first lactation. Dry matter intake was higher for cows fed .77% calcium diets, and nutrient efficiency for milk synthesis favored cows fed fine-grind 1.15% calcium. Fecal pH was higher during wk 4 on treatment for cows fed high calcium diets; however, 8 wk were not different. Fecal starch and calcium and phosphorus in plasma were not different between treatments: however, heifers fed fine-grind 1.15% calcium showed a decrease of fecal starch with time.

  1. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  2. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  3. Long-term infusions of ghrelin and obestatin in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Sheahan, A J; Chagas, L M; Blache, D; Berry, D P; Kay, J K

    2008-12-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and a potential orexigenic agent in monogastrics and ruminants. Obestatin has been reported to have the opposite (anorexigenic) effect. Fifty one multiparous cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 groups (n = 17): a control group and 2 groups with cows continuously infused with 0.74 mumol/d of ghrelin (GHR group) or obestatin (OBE group) subcutaneously. Infusions began 21 d in milk, and treatments continued for 8 wk. Generalized linear models were used to determine the treatment effect on average daily and cumulative milk production and composition, and plasma ghrelin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, leptin, nonesterified fatty acids, and glucose. Mixed models, with cow included as a repeated effect, were used to determine if treatment effects differed by week postcalving for milk production, body weight, and body condition score (BCS; scale 1 to 10). Parity, breed, week of the year at calving, treatment, week postcalving, and the 2 wk preexperimental average of each measure (covariate) were included as fixed effects. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake. Cows infused with GHR lost more BCS (-0.71 units) over the 8-wk study period than the control (-0.23 BCS units) cows, and on average were thinner than cows in either of the other 2 treatments (0.2 BCS units). Consistent with the extra BCS loss in GHR cows, plasma IGF-1, glucose, and leptin concentrations were reduced and plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were greater in GHR cows. Despite a numerical tendency for GHR cows to produce more milk (1,779 kg) than control (1,681 kg) or OBE (1,714 kg) cows during the 8-wk period, milk production differences were not statistically different. However, the timing of the numerical separation of the lactation curves coincided with the significant changes in BCS, IGF-1, and leptin. Results indicate a positive effect of ghrelin infusion on lipolysis. Further

  4. Symposium review: Modulating adipose tissue lipolysis and remodeling to improve immune function during the transition period and early lactation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G Andres; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; De Koster, Jenne

    2018-03-01

    transition and early lactation cows will reduce disease incidence and improve lactation performance. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of substitution of different levels of steam-flaked corn for finely ground corn on lactation and digestion in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R Z; Li, J G; Gao, Y X; Tan, Z L; Ren, G P

    2008-10-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of them fitted with rumen cannulas, were used to test the effects of substitution of steam-flaked corn (SFC) for equal amounts of finely ground corn (FGC) in diets on feed intake and digestion, blood metabolites, and lactation performance in early lactation dairy cows. Cows were fed 4 diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. The fistulated cows formed 1 replicate. Each experimental period lasted for 3 wk. The 4 diets contained 0, 10, 20, or 40% SFC and 40, 30, 20, or 0% FGC (dry matter basis), respectively. The milk protein content and yield, milk solid nonfat content and yield, plasma glucose concentration, and dry matter intake increased as the proportion of SFC increased in diets. Apparent total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and average ruminal fluid NH(3)-N concentration decreased with increasing levels of SFC. The ruminal fluid pH was not affected by the substitution of SFC for FGC. The 20% SFC substitution improved digestion of crude protein, yield of fat-corrected milk, milk lactose content, fat, and fat yield. The 40% SFC substitution increased urea concentration in both plasma and milk. It was concluded that 20% of SFC substitution for FGC appeared to be an appropriate level in diet for early lactation dairy cows.

  6. Comparative evaluation of alternative forages to grass silage in the diet of early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burke, F; Murphy, J J; O'Donovan, M A; O'Mara, F P; Kavanagh, S; Mulligan, F J

    2007-02-01

    Fifty-six autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows, blocked on the basis of days in milk (27.6 +/- 10.65 d), lactation number (3.1 +/- 2.21), and preexperimental milk yield (28.4 +/- 6.69 kg) were used to examine the effects of replacing 330 g/kg of dry matter (DM) of first-cut perennial ryegrass silage with either fermented whole-crop wheat (WCW), urea-treated processed WCW, or corn silage on subsequent feed intake, milk production, and efficiency of nitrogen utilization. The DM (g/kg), crude protein (CP, g/kg of DM) and in vitro DM digestibility (g/kg) of the forages were 204, 179, and 762 for grass silage; 389, 90, and 711 for fermented WCW; 795, 141, and 768 for urea-treated processed WCW; and 346, 93, and 783 for corn silage, respectively. Four forage treatments were evaluated as follows: 1) grass silage as the sole forage (GS); 2) a mixture of grass silage and fermented WCW silage, (F-WCW); 3) a mixture of grass silage and urea-treated processed WCW, (UP-WCW); and 4) a mixture of grass silage and corn silage (CS). In all cases, the alternative forages comprised 67% of the forage mix on a DM basis. Isonitrogenous diets were formulated by offering all cows 8 kg of concentrate as fed, formulated to different CP concentrations. Cows were offered these diets from 28 to 104 d in milk. Total DM intake and milk yield were greater on UP-WCW (20.0 and 30.2 kg/d) and CS (18.3 and 33.2 kg/d) than on GS (13.5 and 26.5 kg/d). Although DM intake was greater on F-WCW (17.1 kg/d) than on GS, milk yield was not significantly greater (+2.7 kg/d). Milk protein concentration was greater on F-WCW (30.5 g/kg), UP-WCW (31.3 g/kg), and CS (30.7 g/kg) than on GS (28.5 g/kg). However, there was no difference between treatments in milk fat or lactose concentrations. Body weight change was greater for cows offered GS (-0.27 kg/d) than for those offered UP-WCW (-0.01 kg/d) and CS (+0.05 kg/d) but not compared with those offered F-WCW (-0.06 kg/d). There was no effect of treatment on plasma

  7. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Gross, J J; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 3×2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n=56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n=84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had

  8. Short communication: Associations between blood glucose concentration, onset of hyperketonemia, and milk production in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, J; Borchardt, S; Heuwieser, W

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the associations between hypoglycemia and the onset of hyperketonemia (HYK) within the first 6 wk of lactation, to evaluate the effects of body condition score at calving on glucose concentration, and to study the effects of hypoglycemia on milk production. A total of 621 dairy cows from 6 commercial dairy farms in Germany were enrolled between 1 and 4 d in milk (DIM). Cows were tested twice weekly using an electronic handheld meter for glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), respectively, for a period of 42 d. Hypoglycemia was defined as glucose concentration ≤2.2 mmol/L. Hyperketonemia was defined as a BHB concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L. The onset of HYK was described as early onset (first HYK event within the first 2 wk postpartum) and late onset (first HYK event in wk 3 to 6 postpartum). The effect of ketosis status on blood glucose within 42 DIM was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model. No effect was observed of HYK on glucose concentration in primiparous cows. Multiparous cows with early-onset HYK had a lower glucose concentration (-0.21 mmol/L) compared with nonketotic cows. Overall, primiparous cows had a lower prevalence and incidence of hypoglycemia than multiparous cows. Hypoglycemia in multiparous cows was associated with higher first test-day milk production and 100 DIM milk production. In conclusion, hypoglycemia mainly occurred in multiparous cows with early-onset HYK, whereas primiparous cows were at a lower risk for hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of hepatic transcript profile and plasma lipid profile in early lactating dairy cows fed grape seed and grape marc meal extract.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Denise K; Winkler, Anne; Koch, Christian; Dusel, Georg; Liebisch, Gerhard; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2017-03-23

    transition period at 1 week postpartum indicates that polyphenol-rich feed components are able to inhibit ER stress-induced UPR and inflammatory processes, both of which are considered to contribute to liver-associated diseases and to impair milk performance in dairy cows, in the liver of dairy cows during early lactation.

  10. Once-daily milking during a feed deficit decreases milk production but improves energy status in early lactating grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milking frequency (MF) at 2 feeding levels (FL) on milk production, body condition score, and metabolic indicators of energy status in grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) grazed pasture and were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 FL: adequately fed [AF; 14.3 kg dry matter intake (DMI)/cow per d] or underfed (UF; 8.3 kg of DMI/cow per d) and 2 MF: 2× or once daily (1×). Treatments were imposed for 3 wk. After the treatment period, all cows were offered a generous pasture allowance (grazing residuals >1,600 kg of dry matter/ha) and milked 2×. During the 3-wk treatment period, we observed an interaction between FL and MF for energy-corrected milk (ECM), such that the decrease due to 1× milking was greater in AF than in UF cows (20 and 14% decrease, respectively). No interactions were found posttreatment. Cows previously UF produced 7% less ECM than AF cows during wk 4 to 12; however, no subsequent effect was observed of the previous underfeeding. Cows previously milked 1× produced 5% less ECM during wk 4 to 12, and differences remained during wk 13 to 23. During the 3-wk treatment period, UF cows lost 0.2 body condition score units (1-10 scale) and this was not affected by 1× milking. During the treatment period, UF cows had lower plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and greater nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than AF cows. Cows milked 1× had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and lower nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with cows milked 2×. In conclusion, energy status was improved by 1× milking; however, when UF cows were milked 1

  11. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis in mainly pasture-grazed dairy cows in New Zealand in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Compton, C W R; McDougall, S; Young, L; Bryan, M A

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of primary subclinical ketosis (SCK) in mainly pasture-grazed dairy cows in three dairy-farming regions of New Zealand 7-12, and 35-40 days post-calving. A second aim was to investigate herd- and cow-level factors associated with the prevalence of SCK. A cross-sectional longitudinal prevalence survey was undertaken in 1,620 dairy cows from 57 herds. A random sample of cows without disease in the prior 30 days were enrolled at one farm visit within 5 days of calving, and blood samples were collected 7 and 28 days later (7-12 and 35-40 days post-calving) for measurement of beta-hydroxy butyrate (BHBA) concentrations using an electronic cow-side meter. SCK was defined as blood BHBA concentration ≥1.4 mmol/L. Mean cow-level prevalence of SCK varied with interval post-calving (16.8 and 3.2% at 7-12 days and 35-40 days post-calving, respectively) and age (13.0 and 13.1% of 2-year olds and ≥8-year olds, respectively, compared to 7.2% of 3-4-year-old cows). Mean herd-level prevalence of SCK was 14.3 (min 0, max 60.0)% and 2.6 (min 0, max 24.4)% at 7-12 days and 35-40 days post-calving, respectively, and was greater in Southland (13.3%) than Waikato and Canterbury herds (6.9 and 4.7%, respectively). This is the first population-based report of the prevalence of SCK in New Zealand dairy herds and demonstrates that age and interval post-calving are important risk factors determining prevalence; and that there is wide variation in prevalence between herds. Subclinical ketosis may be unrecognised but common in many New Zealand dairy cows in the first 2 weeks of lactation.

  12. Prepartum supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) increased milk energy output and decreased serum fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in early lactation dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Rafael Caputo; Pralle, Ryan S.; de Resende, Lucas C.; Nova, Carlos Henrique P. C.; Caprarulo, Valentina; Jendza, Joshua A.; Troescher, Arnulf

    2018-01-01

    Prepartum supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may influence lipolysis and hyperketonemia in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of prepartum CLA supplementation on lactation performance and serum fatty acids (FA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in early lactation dairy cows, and secondarily on reproductive performance. Multiparous cows were enrolled in the study at 18 days prior to expected calving date, and randomly assigned 100 g/day of Lutrell Pure (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany; 75% FA), providing 10 g/day of each CLA isomer (trans-10 cis-12 and cis-9 trans-11 CLA) or equivalent amount of rumen inert fatty acids as control (78 g/day of Energy Booster 100; Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN). Treatments were top dressed daily to individual cows from enrollment to calving and all cows were offered the same ration. Blood samples were collected on the first day of supplementation, 10 days prepartum, and 1, 7, 14, and 30 days postpartum. Hyperketonemia was defined as serum BHB ≥ 1.2 mM. Milk yield was recorded daily until 60 days postpartum and averaged weekly. Milk samples were obtained weekly for component analysis. Prepartum CLA supplementation tended to increase serum concentration of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and increased trans-10, cis-12 CLA prepartum. Cows supplemented with CLA had increased milk protein yield and tended to have increased milk fat yield and milk yield, which together resulted in greater energy content of milk. Cows supplemented with CLA had lower serum FA on day 1 and 7 postpartum and overall lower serum BHB postpartum, which resulted in decreased prevalence of hyperketonemia on day 14 postpartum. There were no differences in body condition score change, other health disorders, or reproductive outcomes by treatment. Together, these findings indicate that prepartum CLA supplementation may be a plausible strategy to positively influence postpartum performance. PMID:29772023

  13. Associations between the degree of early lactation inflammation and performance, metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Felippe, M J B; Overton, T R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine associations between the severity of systemic inflammation during the early postpartum period and performance, energy metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows. Cows were assigned to categorical quartiles (Q; Q1=0.18-0.59, Q2=0.60-1.14, Q3=1.15-2.05, and Q4=2.06-2.50 g of haptoglobin/L) based on the highest plasma haptoglobin (Hp) concentration measured during wk 1 postpartum. Although cows were assigned to different categories of inflammation during the postpartum period, we detected a quadratic relationship of inflammation on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight (BW) such that cows in Q2 had lower prepartum DMI and cows in Q2 and Q3 had lower prepartum BW compared with cows in the other quartiles. We also detected a quadratic association of inflammation with postpartum DMI and BW such that cows in Q2 and Q3 also had generally lower postpartum DMI and BW compared with cows in Q1. There was a tendency for a Q × time interaction for milk yield and Q × time interactions for 3.5% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yields; quadratic relationships suggested decreased milk yield for Q2 and Q3 cows. We also found Q × parity and Q × time interactions for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, suggesting alterations with differing degrees of inflammation. There was also a Q × time interaction for plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration. In addition, alterations in liver triglyceride and glycogen contents for cows with inflammation as well as alterations in [1-(14)C]propionate oxidation in vitro were observed. Although we observed limited effects of inflammation on neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis at d 7 postpartum, inflammation appeared to alter neutrophil and monocyte oxidative burst. Overall, cows with any degree of elevated haptoglobin in the first week after calving had alterations in both pre- and postpartum intake and postpartum metabolism. Copyright © 2016 American

  14. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS <3.0; n=10) or overweight (BCS >4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as

  15. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A

    2015-01-01

    that administration of glucocorticoids in early lactation resulted in short-term improvement of metabolism in postpartum dairy cows in biochemical terms.

  16. Effect of oral calcium bolus administration on milk production, concentrations of minerals and metabolites in serum, early-lactation health status, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Chashnidel, Y; Teimouri-Yansari, A; Mahjoubi, E; Dirandeh, E

    2018-05-01

    To determine the effects of oral Ca bolus administration in the early postpartum period of cows on milk yield and composition, blood metabolites, early-lactation health status, and reproductive performance. Multiparous Holstein dry cows (n=66) with a mean parity of 3.1 (SD 0.35) were fed a diet with a positive dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) prior to calving. They were randomly assigned to receive no treatment (Control; n=33) or two oral Ca boluses (n=33, 45 g of Ca per bolus); one was administered immediately after calving (Day 0) and the second 24 hours (±30 minutes) later. Blood samples were collected at calving, and on Days 2 and 7 to determine concentrations in serum of Ca, P, Mg, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA). Milk yield was recorded daily and milk composition was determined weekly from calving until 28 day postpartum. Health and outcomes were determined during the first 30 days postpartum and reproductive outcomes to 180 days postpartum. Mean milk yields and composition over the first month of lactation were similar between cows in the two treatment groups (p>0.1). Mean concentrations of Ca in serum were not different between treatment groups on Day 0, but were higher on Day 2 for cows that received oral Ca boluses (1.77 (SE 0.07)) compared with Control cows (1.54 (SE 0.08)) (p=0.04). Concentrations in serum of P, Mg, glucose, NEFA and ΒHBA did not differ between treatment groups on any day of measurement. Fewer cows that received oral Ca were diagnosed with hypocalcaemia (total concentrations of Ca in serum <1.5 mmol/L) by Day 2 (2/33; 6%) compared with Control cows (12/33; 36%) (p=0.01). There was no difference in the prevalence of other health outcomes between treatment groups. The proportion of cows conceiving to first insemination was greater in cows that received an oral Ca bolus (19/29; 65%) than Control cows (12/29; 41%) (p=0.01). Oral Ca bolus administration increased concentrations of Ca

  17. Alfalfa baleage with increased concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates supplemented with a corn-based concentrate did not improve production and nitrogen utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding alfalfa baleage with different concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) supplemented with a common corn-based concentrate on performance, ruminal fermentation profile, N utilization, and omasal flow of nutrients in dairy cows during early lactation. Ten multiparous (8 ruminally cannulated) and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments (high- or low-NSC diet) in a crossover design. The difference in NSC concentration between the 2 alfalfa baleages fed from d14 to 21 averaged 14 g of NSC/kg of dry matter (DM). Forages and concentrate were offered in separate meals with forages fed once and concentrate offered 3 times daily. Except for the molar proportion of valerate, which was lowest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, no other changes in ruminal fermentation were observed. Omasal flows of most nitrogenous fractions, including bacterial nonammonia N and AA, were not affected by treatments. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber and N were lowest, whereas that of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest when feeding the high-NSC diet. Postruminal digestibilities of DM, organic matter, fiber, and N were highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, resulting in no difference in total-tract digestibilities. Total-tract digestibility of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but that of starch did not differ across treatments. Although milk yield and total DM intake did not differ between treatments, yields of milk fat and 4% fat-corrected milk decreased significantly in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Milk concentration of urea N was lowest, and that of ruminal NH3-N highest, in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Plasma urea N concentration tended to be decreased in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but concentrations of AA were not affected by treatments, with the exception of Asp and Cys, both of which were lowest in

  18. Gene expression of tumour necrosis factor and insulin signalling-related factors in subcutaneous adipose tissue during the dry period and in early lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sadri, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Rahmani, H R; Ghorbani, G R; Morel, I; van Dorland, H A

    2010-10-01

    Gene expression of adipose factors, which may be part of the mechanisms that underlie insulin sensitivity, were studied in dairy cows around parturition. Subcutaneous fat biopsies and blood samples were taken from 27 dairy cows in week 8 antepartum (a.p.), on day 1 postpartum (p.p.) and in week 5 p.p. In the adipose tissue samples, mRNA was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), insulin-independent glucose transporter (GLUT1), insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4), insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (p85) and catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Blood plasma was assayed for concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin. Plasma parameters followed a pattern typically observed in dairy cows. Gene expression changes were observed, but there were no changes in TNFα concentrations, which may indicate its local involvement in catabolic adaptation of adipose tissue. Changes in GLUT4 and GLUT1 mRNA abundance may reflect their involvement in reduced insulin sensitivity and in sparing glucose for milk synthesis in early lactation. Unchanged gene expression of IRS1, IRS2 and p85 over time may imply a lack of their involvement in terms of insulin sensitivity dynamics. Alternatively, it may indicate that post-transcriptional modifications of these factors came into play and may have concealed an involvement. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Characterization of the bovine milk proteome in early-lactation Holstein and Jersey breeds of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tacoma, Rinske; Fields, Julia; Ebenstein, David B; Lam, Ying-Wai; Greenwood, Sabrina L

    2016-01-01

    Milk is a highly nutritious natural product that provides not only a rich source of amino acids to the consumer but also hundreds of bioactive peptides and proteins known to elicit health-benefitting activities. We investigated the milk protein profile produced by Holstein and Jersey dairy cows maintained under the same diet, management and environmental conditions using proteomic approaches that optimize protein extraction and characterization of the low abundance proteins within the skim milk fraction of bovine milk. In total, 935 low abundance proteins were identified. Gene ontology classified all proteins identified into various cellular localization and function categories. A total of 43 low abundance proteins were differentially expressed between the two dairy breeds. Bioactive proteins involved in host-defense, including lactotransferrin (P=0.0026) and complement C2 protein (P=0.0001), were differentially expressed by the two breeds, whereas others such as osteopontin (P=0.1788) and lactoperoxidase (P=0.2973) were not. This work is the first to outline the protein profile produced by two important breeds of dairy cattle maintained under the same diet, environment and management conditions in order to observe likely true breed differences. This research now allows us to better understand and contrast further research examining the bovine proteome that includes these different breeds. Within the last decade, the amount of research characterizing the bovine milk proteome has increased due to growing interest in the bioactive proteins that are present in milk. Proteomic analysis of low abundance whey proteins has mainly focused on human breast milk; however, previous research has highlighted the presence of bioactive proteins in bovine milk. Recent publications outlining the cross-reactivity of bovine bioactive proteins on human biological function highlight the need for further investigation into the bovine milk proteome. The rationale behind this study is to

  20. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in serum and liver of dairy cows receiving conjugated linoleic acids or a control fat supplement during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Sadri, H; Dänicke, S; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, J; Frank, J; Sauerwein, H

    2015-10-01

    The fat-soluble vitamin E comprises the 8 structurally related compounds (congeners) α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (with a saturated side chain) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol (with a 3-fold unsaturated side chain). Little is known regarding the blood and liver concentrations of the 8 vitamin E congeners during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in dairy cows. We thus quantified tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) in serum and liver and hepatic expression of genes involved in vitamin E metabolism in pluriparous German Holstein cows during late gestation and early lactation and investigated whether dietary supplementation (from d 1 in milk) with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA; 100g/d; each 12% of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA; n=11) altered these compared with control-fat supplemented cows (CTR; n=10). Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected on d -21, 1, 21, 70, and 105 (liver only) relative to calving. In both groups, the serum concentrations of αT, γT, βT3, and δT3 increased from d -21 to d 21 and remained unchanged between d 21 and 70, but were unaffected by CLA. The concentrations of the different congeners of vitamin E in liver did not differ between the CTR and the CLA groups. In both groups, the concentrations of the vitamin E forms in liver changed during the course of the study. The hepatic mRNA abundance of genes controlling vitamin E status did not differ between groups, but α-tocopherol transfer protein and tocopherol-associated protein mRNA increased with time of lactation in both. In conclusion, the concentrations of vitamin E congeners and the expression of genes related to vitamin E status follow characteristic time-related changes during the transition from late gestation to early lactation but are unaffected by CLA supplementation at the dosage used. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of body condition at calving and supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on energy status and some reproductive parameters in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    AlIbrahim, R M; Crowe, M A; Duffy, P; O'Grady, L; Beltman, M E; Mulligan, F J

    2010-08-01

    NE output, and consequently had a significantly (P<0.05) exacerbated negative energy balance in comparison with low BCS cows (moderately conditioned) during early lactation. Higher (P<0.05) insulin concentrations and a tendency for higher (P=0.06) pre-ovulatory peak oestradiol concentrations in low BCS group were detected in the early PP period. Supplementing the diet with YS had no effect (P>0.10) on NE intake, NE milk output or energy balance. On the other hand it increased (P<0.01) insulin concentration and tended to increase (P=0.07) pre-ovulatory peak oestradiol concentrations and the size of first ovulatory follicle (P=0.09) early PP. Feeding YS had no effect on energy status of lactating dairy cows with high or low BCS at calving, whilst it improved serum insulin concentration, pre-ovulatory peak of oestradiol and the size of first ovulatory follicle in the early PP period. These observed effects of YS supplementation require to be substantiated with further research. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2017-02-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids (FA) on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows. Treatment diets were offered from 3 to 16 wk postpartum (the treatment period), in which all cows grazed elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum 'Cameroon') and treatments were added to a concentrate supplement. The treatments were (1) control (concentrate without supplemental fat); (2) concentrate with calcium salts of soybean FA (CSSO); and (3) concentrate with calcium salts of palm FA (CSPO). From 17 to 42 wk postpartum (the carryover period), all cows received a common diet fed as a total mixed ration. During the treatment period, CSPO increased milk yield, milk fat yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and cumulative milk yield compared with control and CSSO. Treatment CSSO increased the yield of milk but did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk or energy-corrected compared with control. Also, CSSO decreased milk fat yield, dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, and body weight and body condition loss. Compared with control, both CSSO and CSPO increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk:dry matter intake), and CSPO increased feed efficiency compared with CSSO. When considering energy partitioning (as % energy intake), CSPO increased energy partitioning toward milk and increased energy mobilized from body reserves compared with control and CSSO. Furthermore, CSSO tended to reduce the mobilization of energy from body reserves compared with control. In the carryover period, no differences in milk composition were observed among treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed during the carryover period for milk yield because cows on CSPO maintained higher production compared with control and CSSO cows until 30 wk postpartum; CSSO had a lower carryover effect sustaining higher milk yield compared with

  3. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, H; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Jahanian, R; Kamalian, E

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50 ± 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A randomized controlled trial on the effect of incomplete milking during early lactation on ketonemia and body condition loss in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, P-A; Krug, C; Chorfi, Y; Dubuc, J; Lacasse, P; Roy, J-P; Santschi, D E; Dufour, S

    2018-05-01

    Limiting milk production for a short period of time in early lactation could be a relevant strategy to prevent hyperketonemia (HYK). From December 2013 to March 2015, 838 multiparous Holstein cows from 13 herds were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of incomplete milking in early lactation on ketonemia and its effect on body condition score (BCS) loss. Cows were randomly assigned 4 wk before expected calving date to 1 of 2 treatment groups, (1) a conventional milking protocol (CON) for which cows were completely milked or (2) an incomplete milking protocol (INC) for which a maximum of 10 to 14 kg of milk/d were withdrawn during the first 5 d in milk (DIM). β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations were measured from blood samples collected on each cow 3 times at weekly intervals. Hyperketonemia was defined as BHB ≥1.4 mmol/L. Body condition score variation in the postcalving period was calculated by subtracting BCS assessed at wk 7 from BCS assessed at first week after calving. Effect of treatment on ketonemia and prevalence of HYK were evaluated for 4 specific time periods: 1 to 3, 4 to 7, 8 to 17, and 18 to 26 DIM. Effect of treatment on ketonemia was investigated using linear mixed models with natural logarithm of BHB measurements as outcome and treatment groups as fixed effect. Generalized linear mixed models with HYK as outcome, using logit link, and treatment groups as fixed effect were used to investigate effect of treatment on odds of HYK. A logistic regression model with BCS loss (<0.75 or ≥0.75) as outcome and treatment groups and herd as fixed effects was used to study effect of INC on odds of having BCS loss ≥0.75. A total of 813 lactations had complete data and were used for statistical analysis of ketonemia and HYK. A total of 709 lactations had complete data and were used for analysis of BCS loss. Geometric means of blood BHB concentrations during the 1 to 3, 4 to 7, 8 to 17, and 18 to 26 DIM periods were

  5. Proteomics and metabolomics characterizing the pathophysiology of adaptive reactions to the metabolic challenges during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Lecchi, Cristina; Urh, Christiane; Sauerwein, Helga

    2018-04-30

    The transition from late pregnancy to early lactation is a critical period in a dairy cow's life due to the rapidly increasing drain of nutrients from the maternal organism towards the foetus and into colostrum and milk. In order to cope with the challenges of parturition and lactation, comprehensive adaptive reactions comprising the endocrine and the immune system need to be accomplished. There is high variation in this coping ability and both metabolic and infectious diseases, summarized as "production diseases", such as hypocalcaemia (milk fever), fatty liver syndrome, laminitis and ketosis, may occur and impact welfare, productive lifespan and economic outcomes. Proteomics and metabolomics have emerged as valuable techniques to characterize proteins and metabolite assets from tissue and biological fluids, such as milk, blood and urine. In this review we provide an overview on metabolic status and physiological changes during the transition period and the related production diseases in dairy cows, and summarize the state of art on proteomics and metabolomics of biological fluids and tissues involved in metabolic stress during the peripartum period. We also provide a current and prospective view of the application of the recent achievements generated by omics for biomarker discovery and their potential in diagnosis. For high-yielding dairy cows there are several "occupational diseases" that occur mainly during the metabolic challenges related to the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Such diseases and their sequelae form a major concern for dairy production, and often lead to early culling of animals. Beside the economical perspective, metabolic stress may severely influence animal welfare. There is a multitude of studies about the metabolic backgrounds of such so called production diseases like ketosis, fatty liver, or hypocalcaemia, although the investigations aiming to assess the complexity of the pathophysiological reactions are largely focused on gene

  6. The control of short-term feed intake by metabolic oxidation in late-pregnant and early lactating dairy cows exposed to high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to integrate the dynamics of feed intake and metabolic oxidation in late pregnant and early lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. On day 21 before parturition and again on day 20 after parturition, seven Holstein cows were kept for 7days at thermoneutral (TN) conditions (15°C; temperature-humidity-index (THI)=60) followed by a 7day heat stress (HS) period at 28°C (THI=76). On the last day of each temperature condition, gas exchange, feed intake and water intake were recorded every 6min in a respiration chamber. Pre- and post-partum cows responded to HS by decreasing feed intake. The reduction in feed intake in pre-partum cows was achieved through decreased meal size, meal duration, eating rate and daily eating time with no change in meal frequency, while post-partum cows kept under HS conditions showed variable responses in feeding behavior. In both pre- and post-partum cows exposed to heat stress, daily and resting metabolic heat production decreased while the periprandial respiratory quotient (RQ) increased. The prolonged time between meal and the postprandial minimum in fat oxidation and the postprandial RQ maximum, respectively, revealed that HS as compared to TN early-lactating cows have slower postprandial fat oxidation, longer feed digestion, and thereby showing a shift from fat to glucose utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05) high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01) and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01). Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively) higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01) higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score) of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  8. Short communication: Effects of dietary 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole supplementation on vitamin B12 supply, lactation performance, and energy balance in dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Wang, D M; Zhang, B X; Wang, J K; Liu, H Y; Liu, J X

    2018-03-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) supplementation to the feed during the transition period and early lactation on the vitamin B 12 supply, lactation performance, and energy balance in postpartum cows. Twenty-four prepartum Holstein dairy cows were divided into 12 blocks based on their parity and milk yield at the last lactation and were then randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatments: a basal diet without DMB (control) or a treatment diet that contained 1.5 g of DMB/d per cow. The study started at wk 3 before the expected calving day and ended at wk 8 postpartum. The feed intake and the lactation performance were measured weekly after calving. Blood parameters were measured on d -10, 0, 8, 15, 29, 43, and 57 relative to the calving day. Body weight was measured on the calving day and on d 57 after calving. The yields of milk, protein, and lactose in cows fed DMB were higher than in the control throughout the whole postpartum stage. On wk 8 postpartum, the vitamin B 12 content in the milk and sera was greater in cows fed DMB than in the control. The overall body weight loss from wk 1 to 8 postpartum was less in cows fed DMB than in the control. The plasma content of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyric acid was significantly lower in cows fed DMB than in the control throughout the whole experimental stage. In conclusion, dietary DMB fed during the transition period and early lactation improved the vitamin B 12 supply, milk production, and energy balance of postpartum dairy cows. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of energy concentration in roughage and allowance of concentrates on performance, health and energy efficiency of pluriparous dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Rolf; Schnabel, Karina; von Soosten, Dirk; Meyer, Ulrich; Spiekers, Hubert; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different energy supplies from roughage and concentrates on performance, health and energy efficiency during early lactation. For this purpose an experiment was conducted containing 64 pluriparous German Holstein cows from 3 weeks prepartum until 16 weeks postpartum. During dry period all cows received an equal dry cow ration. After calving, cows were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to one of four groups, receiving either a moderate (MR, 6.0 MJ NE L ) or a high (HR, 6.4 MJ NE L ) energy concentration in roughage and furthermore moderate (MC, 150 g/kg energy-corrected milk (ECM)) or high amounts of concentrates (HC, 250 g/kg ECM) on dry matter (DM) basis, which were allocated from an automatic feeding system. Higher allocation of concentrates resulted in an increase of DM intake at expense of roughage intake. HC cows had a higher milk yield than MC cows, whereas ECM was higher in HR cows due to a decrease of milk fat yield in MR groups. Energy balance and body condition score were elevated in HC cows, but no differences occurred in development of subclinical ketosis. Furthermore, energy efficiency variables were lower in HC groups because the greater energy intake was not associated with a considerable elevation of milk yield. Consistency of faeces did not indicate digestive disorders in any of the treatment groups although the faecal manure score was significantly lower in HR groups. Our results underline the importance of a high energy uptake from roughage, which can contribute to an adequate performance and beneficial efficiency, especially at lower amounts of concentrates in ration. Feeding concentrates on an average amount of 9.4 kg/d compared to 6.4 kg/d on DM basis improved the energy balance in our trial, but without consequences for metabolic blood variables and general health of the cows.

  10. Association of residual feed intake with abundance of ruminal bacteria and biopolymer hydrolyzing enzyme activities during the peripartal period and early lactation in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Elolimy, Ahmed A; Arroyo, José M; Batistel, Fernanda; Iakiviak, Michael A; Loor, Juan J

    2018-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle typically calculated at peak lactation is a measure of feed efficiency independent of milk production level. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in ruminal bacteria, biopolymer hydrolyzing enzyme activities, and overall performance between the most- and the least-efficient dairy cows during the peripartal period. Twenty multiparous Holstein dairy cows with daily ad libitum access to a total mixed ration from d - 10 to d 60 relative to the calving date were used. Cows were classified into most-efficient (i.e. with low RFI, n  = 10) and least-efficient (i.e. with high RFI, n  = 10) based on a linear regression model involving dry matter intake (DMI), fat-corrected milk (FCM), changes in body weight (BW), and metabolic BW. The most-efficient cows had ~ 2.6 kg/d lower DMI at wk 4, 6, 7, and 8 compared with the least-efficient cows. In addition, the most-efficient cows had greater relative abundance of total ruminal bacterial community during the peripartal period. Compared with the least-efficient cows, the most-efficient cows had 4-fold greater relative abundance of Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens at d - 10 and d 10 around parturition and tended to have greater abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Megaspheara elsdenii . In contrast, the relative abundance of Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus and Streptococcus bovis was lower and Succinimonas amylolytica and Prevotella bryantii tended to be lower in the most-efficient cows around calving. During the peripartal period, the most-efficient cows had lower enzymatic activities of cellulase, amylase, and protease compared with the least-efficient cows. The results suggest that shifts in ruminal bacteria and digestive enzyme activities during the peripartal period could, at least in part, be part of the mechanism associated with better feed efficiency in dairy cows.

  11. Epidemiology of subclinical ketosis in early lactation dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows in early lactation and determine the association of (1) days in milk (DIM) at onset of SCK, and (2) blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at onset of SCK with development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 DIM, conception to first service, days to conception within 150 DIM, and early lactation milk yield. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a BHBA concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Mixed-effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate days to conception, and repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate milk yield in the first 30 DIM. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible cows had a least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Peak incidence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 22.3% of cows had their first SCK-positive test. Peak prevalence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 28.9% of cows had a SCK-positive test. Median time from first positive SCK test until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L was 5d. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 5 DIM were 6.1 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3 to 16.0] to develop a DA than cows first testing SCK positive at 6 DIM or later. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 7 DIM were 4.5 times more likely (95% CI = 1.7 to 11.7) to be removed from the herd, were 0.7 times as likely (95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8) to conceive to first service, and produced 2.2 kg less milk per day for the first 30 DIM than cows first testing positive at 8 DIM or later. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in BHBA at first SCK-positive test increased the risk of developing a DA by a factor of 1.1 (95% CI = 1.0 to 1

  12. An evaluation of the effect of altering nutrition and nutritional strategies in early lactation on reproductive performance and estrous behavior of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, H S; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Wylie, A R G; Law, R A; Kilpatrick, D J; Elliott, C T; Mayne, C S

    2011-07-01

    Reproductive performance in the high-yielding dairy cow has severely decreased in the last 40 yr. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 4 nutritional strategies in improving the reproductive performance of high-yielding dairy cows. It was hypothesized that offering cows a high-starch ration in early lactation would enhance the onset of luteal activity, and that decreasing the severity of negative energy balance in the early postcalving period would improve reproductive parameters. Nutritional regimens aimed at improving fertility were applied to 96 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals. Upon calving, animals were allocated in a balanced manner to one of 4 dietary treatments. Primiparous animals were balanced according to live weight, body condition score and calving date. Multiparous animals were balanced according to parity, previous lactation milk yield, liveweight, body condition score and calving date. Treatment 1 was based on an industry best practice diet (control) to contain 170 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter. Treatment 2 was an individual cow feeding strategy, whereby the energy balance (EB) of individual animals was managed so as to achieve a predetermined target daily EB profile (±10 MJ/d). Treatment 3 was a high-starch/high-fat combination treatment, whereby an insulinogenic (high-starch) diet was offered in early lactation to encourage cyclicity and followed by a lipogenic (low-starch, high-fat) diet to promote embryo development. Treatment 4 was a low-protein diet, containing 140 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter, supplemented with protected methionine at an inclusion level of 40 g per animal per day. The nutritional strategies implemented in this study had no statistically significant effects on cow fertility measures, which included the onset of luteal activity, conception rate, in-calf rate, and the incidence of atypical cycles. The individual cow feeding strategy improved EB in early lactation but had no benefit on conception

  13. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A.

    2015-01-01

    protein percentages. Conclusions The results suggested that administration of glucocorticoids in early lactation resulted in short-term improvement of metabolism in postpartum dairy cows in biochemical terms. PMID:26422371

  14. Effect of microencapsulated sodium butyrate in the close-up diet on performance of dairy cows in the early lactation period.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Z M; Górka, P; Flaga, J; Barteczko, A; Burakowska, K; Oprządek, J; Zabielski, R

    2015-05-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of sodium butyrate microencapsulated within triglyceride matrix (Na-butyrate) in the close-up period on performance of dairy cows and rumen papillae development. In trial 1, 26 Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly allocated to 2 groups (13 cows/group) and fed prepartum a total mixed ration (TMR) without or with 300g of Na-butyrate/d from 30 d before expecting calving to parturition. After calving, the same lactational TMR without Na-butyrate was offered to both treatments. Dry matter intake and milk yield were monitored daily to 60 d in milk, and body condition of cows was scored on d 30, 21, and 4 before parturition and d 14, 31, and 60 after parturition. On d 15, 10, and 5 before parturition blood samples were collected from 6 cows randomly chosen from each group and analyzed for plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations. No differences in dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield, body condition score, or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations was observed between treatments; however, in the last 5 d before parturition the cows receiving Na-butyrate ate 1.7kg of DM/d more, on average, as compared with control cows. In trial 2, 12 Holstein-Friesian growing bulls (404±48; body weight ± SD) were used to determine the effect of Na-butyrate inclusion in the diet on rumen papillae development. Bulls were randomly allocated to 2 groups (6 bulls/group) and fed TMR without or with 2% (on a dry matter basis) of Na-butyrate for 21 d. At the end of the study, bulls were killed and rumen fluid and rumen tissue samples from dorsal and ventral sac of the rumen were collected. No effect of Na-butyrate supplementation on BW of bulls and DMI during the trial period was observed. Sodium butyrate supplementation increased total short-chain fatty acid concentration in the rumen but had no effect on rumen pH, molar proportions of short-chain fatty acids, and NH3-N concentration

  15. Effectiveness of potassium carbonate sesquihydrate to increase dietary cation-anion difference in early lactation cows.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J; White, R; Kincaid, R; Block, E; Jenkins, T; St-Pierre, N

    2012-07-01

    The effect of additional dietary potassium in early lactation dairy cows was evaluated with the addition of potassium carbonate sesquihydrate, which increased dietary K from 1.3 to 2.1% of dry matter (DM) from wk 3 to 12 of lactation. Cows fed potassium carbonate sesquihydrate in the form of DCAD Plus (Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) had increased DM intake, milk fat percentage and yield, energy-corrected milk, and efficiency of milk production per unit of DM intake. Milk fat of cows fed higher dietary K had a lower concentration of trans fatty acids, suggesting a role for potassium carbonate sesquihydrate in the rumen in the biohydrogenation processes converting linoleic to stearic acid. Cows fed the diet with 2.1% K had greater apparent balance of K, and no effects were noted on the concentration of blood Mg or amount of fecal Mg. The data support the feeding of greater amounts of K in the early lactation cow. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. TNFα Altered Inflammatory Responses, Impaired Health and Productivity, but Did Not Affect Glucose or Lipid Metabolism in Early-Lactation Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Mamedova, Laman K.; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Bradford, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNFα), affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control), 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNFα, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNFα administration. Plasma TNFα concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P<0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but no dose effect (P>0.10) was detected; rbTNFα treatments increased (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma haptoglobin. Most plasma eicosanoids were not affected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (P<0.05) over the first week of lactation, reflecting elevated inflammatory mediators in the days immediately following parturition. Dry matter and water intake, milk yield, and milk fat and protein yields were all decreased (P<0.05) by rbTNFα treatments by 15 to 18%. Concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, 3-methylhistidine, and liver triglyceride were unaffected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P = 0.18) by rbTNFα administration. The higher dose of rbTNFα tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P = 0.08). Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNFα daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:24260367

  17. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    Some cows are able to achieve relatively high milk yields during extended lactations beyond 305 d in milk, and farmers may be able to use this potential by selecting the most suitable cows for an extended lactation. However, the decision to postpone insemination has to rely on information available in early lactation. The main objectives of this study were, therefore, to assess the association between the information available in early lactation and the relative milk production of cows on extended lactation, and to investigate if this information can be used to differentiate time of first insemination between cows. Data came from 4 Danish private herds practicing extended lactation in which some cows are selected to have a delayed time of planned first insemination. Average herd size varied from 93 to 157 cows, and milk yield varied from 7,842 to 12,315 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per year across herds. The analysis was based on 422 completed extended lactations (427 ± 87 d), and each lactation was assigned to 1 of 3 (low, medium, and high) milk performance groups (MPG) within parity group within herd based on a standardized lactation yield. For cows in the high MPG, peak ECM yield, and ECM yield at dry off were significantly greater, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was significantly smaller, and a smaller proportion had a body condition score (scale: 1-5) at dry off of 3.5 or greater compared with cows in low MPG. Previous lactation days in milk at peak ECM yield and ECM yield at dry off were higher, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was smaller, and the number of inseminations per conception was higher for multiparous cows in high MPG compared with low. Current lactation ECM yield at second and third milk recording were greater for cows in high MPG compared with low. A principal component analysis indicated that variables related to fertility, diseases, and milk yield explained most

  18. Effect of calcium soaps of fatty acids and administration of somatotropin in early lactation on productive and reproductive performance of high producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Kaim, M; Folman, Y; Sklan, D

    1997-09-01

    This study examined the mechanisms by which calcium soaps of fatty acids and bovine somatotropin (bST) affect production and reproduction of high producing cows. Calcium soaps of fatty acids were fed at 2.2% dry matter, and 500 mg of Zn-sometribove (Monsanto Inc., St Louis, MO) were injected subcutaneously every 14 d from 10 to 150 d in milk (DIM). Production of fat-corrected milk was increased by 3.5 kg/d when calcium soaps of fatty acids were fed, by 6.1 kg/d when bST was administered, and by 7.4 kg/d when calcium soaps of fatty acids were fed and bST was administered. Body weight was similar for cows on all treatments until 85 DIM after which cows that were treated with bST had lower body weights. Body condition scores decreased more for cows treated with bST and began increasing later and more slowly. Treatment with bST resulted in more cows that experienced first ovulation after 30 DIM, and more cows on the control treatment exhibited first estrus before 35 DIM. Days open were greater when bST was administered. After the first artificial insemination, conception rates were similar for cows on the control treatment and for cows fed calcium soaps of fatty acids; conception rates after the first artificial insemination were low for all cows treated with bST. Pregnancy rates at 120 and 150 DIM were decreased by bST. Number of DIM to first ovulation, number of DIM to first estrus, and days open were negatively correlated with glucose and cholesterol concentrations in plasma. Production of fat-corrected milk was correlated with days open and with concentrations of triglycerides in plasma, nonesterified fatty acids, and cholesterol. Increased production had different effects on reproduction when induced by calcium soaps of fatty acids or bST treatment. Some of the adverse effects of bST treatments were alleviated by calcium soaps of fatty acids.

  19. First report about the mode of action of combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin on hepatic metabolism in nonketotic early lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Kreipe, L; Deniz, A; Bruckmaier, R M; van Dorland, H A

    2011-10-01

    The primary aim was to investigate the effect of combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin on liver metabolism in early lactating cows through mRNA expression measurements of genes encoding 31 enzymes and transport proteins of major metabolic processes in the liver using 16 multiparous early lactating dairy cows. The treatments included i.v. injection of 10 mL/100 kg of body weight combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin (TG, n = 8) on 3 d consecutively at 25 ± 3 d in milk or injection with physiological saline solution similarly applied (CG, n = 8). Results include a higher daily milk production for TG cows (41.1 ± 0.9 kg, mean ± SEM) compared with CG cows (39.5 ± 0.7 kg). In plasma, the concentration of inorganic phosphorus was lower in the TG cows (1.25 ± 0.08 mmol/L) after the treatment than in the CG cows (1.33 ± 0.07 mmol/L). The plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was 0.65 ± 0.13 mmol/L for all cows before the treatment, and remained unaffected post treatment. The unique result was that in the liver, the mRNA abundance of acyl-coenzyme A synthetase long-chain family member 1, involved in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis, was lower across time points after the treatment for TG compared with CG cows (17.5 ± 0.15 versus 18.1 ± 0.24 cycle threshold, log(2), respectively). In conclusion, certain effects of combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin were observed on mRNA abundance of a gene in the liver of nonketotic early lactating cows. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatic thyroid signaling of heat-stressed late pregnant and early lactating cows

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, Joachim M; Viergutz, Torsten; Albrecht, Dirk; Bruckmaier, Rupert; Schmicke, Marion; Tuchscherer, Armin; Koch, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    During the transition between late gestation and early lactation, dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress due to the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus and the mammary gland. Additional thermal stress that occurs with rising temperatures during the ongoing climate change has further adverse implications on energy intake, metabolism and welfare. The thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated cellular signaling has a pivotal role in regulation of body temperature, energy intake and metabolic adaptation to heat. To distinguish between energy intake and heat stress-related effects, Holstein cows were first kept at thermoneutrality at 15°C followed by exposure to heat stress (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days, in late pregnancy and again in early lactation. Herein, we focused on hepatic metabolic changes associated with alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis in HS and PF animals. T3 and T4 levels dropped with HS or PF; however, in HS animals, this decline was more pronounced. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels remain unaffected, while plasma cholesterol concentrations were lower in HS than PF animals. Hepatic marker genes for TH action (THRA, DIO1 and PPARGC1) decreased after HS and were lower compared to PF cows but only post-partum. Proteomics data revealed reduced hepatic amino acid catabolism ante-partum and a shift toward activated beta-oxidation and gluconeogenesis but declined oxidative stress defense post-partum. Thus, liver metabolism of HS and PF cows adapts differently to diminished energy intake both ante-partum and post-partum, and a different TH sensitivity is involved in the regulation of catabolic processes. PMID:28500083

  1. Brown midrib corn silage and Tifton 85 bermudagrass in rations for early-lactation cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, J J; Bernard, J K; Mullis, N A; Eggleston, R B

    2010-05-01

    Forty Holstein cows were used in an 8-wk randomized trial to evaluate the effects of feeding combinations of forages with improved fiber digestibility on performance during early lactation. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial to include silage from normal (NCS) or brown midrib (BMR) corn silage with or without 10% Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay (T85). In a simultaneous digestion trial, degradation and passage kinetics and ruminal fermentation parameters were evaluated in a 4 x 4 Latin square design trial using late-lactation Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas. Dry matter intake (DMI) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake were greater with BMR than with NCS; however, milk yield and composition were similar among corn silage types. Inclusion of T85 reduced milk yield but supported higher milk fat percentage, resulting in similar yields of energy-corrected milk. Blood glucose concentrations were higher for BMR compared with NCS, and inclusion of T85 increased blood urea N concentrations. Treatments did not alter liquid or solid phase passage rates or rumen turnover. Corn silage type did not affect ruminal pH or volatile fatty acid concentrations, but inclusion of T85 increased pH and molar proportion of acetate but decreased butyrate. Molar proportions of propionate were greater for NCS and T85 compared with BMR and T85, resulting in an interaction. Results of this trial indicate that combinations of forages with improved fiber digestibility can be used to support intake and performance of cows during early lactation. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced serum vitamin D concentrations in healthy early-lactation dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, S J; Wisnieski, L; Gandy, J; Norby, B; Sordillo, L M

    2018-02-01

    Cattle obtain vitamin D by ingestion or cutaneous exposure to UV light. Dairy cattle diets are frequently supplemented with vitamin D to compensate for limited sun exposure or during times of increased metabolic demands, such as the periparturient period, to maintain calcium homeostasis. Whether housing and supplemental vitamin D practices supply adequate amounts of vitamin D to optimally support the transition from gestation to lactation in dairy cattle is unknown. Our objective was to determine how serum vitamin D concentrations of dairy cows change with season, age, parity, and stage of lactation. Clinically healthy cows (n = 183) from 5 commercial dairies were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected at dry off, within 7 d of entering the close-up group, and within 7 d after calving (calving+7). Vitamin D status was determined by measuring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] by radioimmunoassay. We performed repeated-measures mixed-effects linear regression to determine the effects of season, age, parity, and lactation stage (dry off, close-up, and calving+7) on 25(OH)D concentrations in serum. Bivariable analysis indicated that parity, age, and season were not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Sample period affected 25(OH)D concentrations, with the highest 25(OH)D levels at dry off (99.7 ± 1.9 ng/mL) followed by close up (93.8 ± 2.1 ng/mL), with the lowest levels at calving+7 (82.6 ± 1.7 ng/mL). These data showed a large depletion of 25(OH)D in dairy cattle postpartum compared with late prepartum, although the biological significance of this change in these healthy cattle is unclear. Consumption of serum 25(OH)D by immune system functions and calcium homeostasis in early lactation likely caused the reduction in serum 25(OH)D concentrations after calving. These results suggest that determining whether serum 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with the incidence of transition period disease is an appropriate next step. Assessing the

  3. The effect of grape seed and grape marc meal extract on milk performance and the expression of genes of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in the liver of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Koch, C; Romberg, F-J; Winkler, A; Dusel, G; Herzog, E; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    During the periparturient phase, cows are typically in an inflammation-like condition, and it has been suggested that inflammation associated with the development of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the liver contributes to the development of fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that feeding grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) as a plant extract rich in flavonoids attenuates inflammation and ER stress in the liver of dairy cows. Two groups of cows received either a total mixed ration as a control diet or the same total mixed ration supplemented with 1% of GSGME over the period from wk 3 prepartum to wk 9 postpartum. Dry matter intake during wk 3 to 9 postpartum was not different between the 2 groups. However, the cows fed the diet supplemented with GSGME had an increased milk yield and an increased daily milk protein yield. Cows supplemented with GSGME moreover had a significantly reduced mRNA abundancy of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21, a stress hormone induced by various stress conditions, in the liver in wk 1 and 3 postpartum. In contrast, mRNA abundances of a total of 3 genes involved in inflammation and 14 genes involved in ER stress response, as well as concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol, in liver samples of wk 1 and 3 postpartum did not differ between the 2 groups. Overall, this study shows that supplementation of GSGME did not influence inflammation or ER stress in the liver but increased milk yield, an effect that could be due to effects on ruminal metabolism. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of different dosages of propylene glycol in dry cows and cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Michaela; Peinhopf, Walter; Gottschalk, Jutta; Einspanier, Almut; Koeller, Gabor; Wittek, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    In this Research Paper we hypothesised that the temporary insulin resistance seen during the transition period in dairy cows may cause significant differences in the efficacy of PG at different sampling periods and that in some cases this effect will be dose dependent. Eighty four sampling sets were generated by studying 7 multiparous Holstein cows repeatedly at 4 sampling periods of 3 d length (dry cows: days 40, 39 and 38 antepartum; close up cows: days 10, 9 and 8 antepartum; fresh cows: days 3, 4 and 5 post-partum; lactating cows: days 38, 39 and 40 post-partum). On each of these days 3 h after morning feeding propylene glycol was drenched in different dosages of 100, 300 or 500 ml once per day (cross over study). The different doses were applied in an alternating order (Latin square). Blood samples were taken before, every 30 min up to 4 h, after 6 and 12 h after PG application. Following parameters have been measured: insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), betahydroxybutyrate (BHB), bilirubin, cholesterol, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH). Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (RQUICKI) was calculated. It was found that glucose, insulin, NEFA, BHB, bilirubin and potassium concentrations were influenced differently by the three defined dosages of propylene glycol at four different sampling periods. Whereas RQUICKI, cholesterol, AST and GLDH did not differ between the sampling periods and treatments. The major results of the study are that the effect of PG is dose-dependent and that the effect of PG is depending on the time of application according to calving. It can be concluded that in fresh cows higher dosages are necessary to provoke similar effects in comparison to dry, close up and lactating cows. Although the study did not compare to topdressing of PG from the results it is reasonable to believe that bolus application of a specific PG volume is necessary to provoke the effect.

  5. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of early lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of events occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple events occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These events included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur

  6. Comparison of surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity with parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in early lactation dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Alves-Nores, V; Castillo, C; Hernandez, J; Abuelo, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between different surrogate indices and parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in dairy cows at the start of their lactation. Ten dairy cows underwent IVGTT on Days 3 to 7 after calving. Areas under the curve during the 90 min after infusion, peak and nadir concentrations, elimination rates, and times to reach half-maximal and basal concentrations for glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate were calculated. Surrogate indices were computed using the average of the IVGTT basal samples, and their correlation with the IVGTT parameters studied through the Spearman's rank test. No statistically significant or strong correlation coefficients (P > 0.05; |ρ| < 0.50) were observed between the insulin sensitivity measures derived from the IVGTT and any of the surrogate indices. Therefore, these results support that the assessment of insulin sensitivity in early lactation cattle cannot rely on the calculation of surrogate indices in just a blood sample, and the more laborious tests (ie, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test or IVGTT) should be employed to predict the sensitivity of the peripheral tissues to insulin accurately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of butafosfan with or without cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of early lactating cows with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Nuber, U; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-one dairy cows with subclinical ketosis were used to investigate the effects of butafosfan alone or in combination with cyanocobalamin on metabolism. Treatments included i.v. injection of 10 ml/100 kg of body weight with butafosfan (BUT) or combined cyanocobalamin with butafosfan (BUTCO) at a similar concentration as in Catosal(®) . Control cows (CON) received a 0.9% saline solution. Cows were injected on days 1-3 at 22.3 ± 0.7 days post-partum. Milk production and composition were not affected by the treatments. In plasma, CON cows had a significantly higher plasma NEFA concentration (0.59 ± 0.03 mm) across the study period than BUTCO cows (p < 0.05; 0.42 ± 0.03 mm), whereas the plasma NEFA concentration of BUT was intermediate (0.52 ± 0.03 mm) but not significantly different from CON. Both BUTCO and BUT cows had lower (p < 0.05) plasma BHBA concentrations (1.02 ± 0.06 mm and 1.21 ± 0.06 mm, respectively) across the study period than CON (1.34 ± 0.06 mm). Plasma glucose was not different between treatments, but plasma glucagon concentrations were consistently high in BUT compared to BUTCO and CON. Lowest post-treatment glucagon levels were observed in BUTCO. Hepatic mRNA abundance of liver X receptor α, a nuclear receptor protein involved in lipid metabolism, was higher in BUTCO compared to BUT and CON (p < 0.05) on day 7. Furthermore, on day 7, the mRNA abundance of beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 2 was higher in BUTCO compared to BUT and CON (p < 0.01). In conclusion, injections of combined cyanocobalamin with butafosfan post-partum in early lactation ketotic dairy cows act on lipid metabolism with effects on plasma metabolites, most likely mediated via modified activity of key factors in the liver. Results indicate that the application of butafosfan only in combination with cyanocobalamin exhibits the expected positive effects on metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. An economic analysis of hyperketonemia testing and propylene glycol treatment strategies in early lactation dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R; Guard, C L

    2014-11-01

    The purpose was to develop stochastic economic models which address variation in disease risks and costs in order to evaluate different simulated on-farm testing and propylene glycol (PG) treatment strategies based on herd hyperketonemia (HYK) incidence during the first 30 DIM. Data used in model development concerning the difference in health and production consequences between HYK and non-ketotic cows were based on results from 10 studies representing over 13,000 cows from 833 dairy farms in North America, Canada, and Europe. Inputs for PG associated variables were based on a large field trial using cows from 4 free-stall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin). Four simulated on-farm testing and treatment strategies were analyzed at herd HYK incidences ranging from 5% to 80% and included: 1) treating all cows with 5d of PG starting at 5 DIM, 2) testing all cows for HYK 1 day per week (e.g. Mondays) from 3 to 16 DIM and treating all positive cows with 5d of oral PG, 3) testing all cows for HYK 2 days per week (e.g. Mondays and Thursdays) from 3 to 9 DIM and treating all positive cows with 5d of oral PG, and 4) testing all cows for HYK 3 days per week (e.g. Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from 3 to 16 DIM and treating all positive cows with 5d of oral PG. Cost-benefit analysis included the costs associated with labor to test cows, β-hydroxybutyrate test strips, labor to treat cows, PG, and the associated gain in milk production, decrease in DA and early removal risks of PG treated HYK positive cows compared to non-treated HYK positive cows. Stochastic models were developed to account for variability in the distribution of input variables. Per 100 fresh cows in a herd with an HYK incidence of 40%, the mean economic benefits of the 4 different strategies were $1088, $744, $1166, and $760, respectively. Testing cows 2 days per week from 3 to 9 DIM was the most cost-effective strategy for herds with HYK incidences between 15% and 50%; above 50%, treating all

  9. Hepatic gene expression involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in transition cows: effects of fat mobilization during early lactation in relation to milk performance and metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Hametner, C; Tuchscherer, A; Losand, B; Kanitz, E; Otten, W; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Becker, F; Kanitz, W; Hammon, H M

    2013-09-01

    Insufficient feed intake during early lactation results in elevated body fat mobilization to meet energy demands for milk production. Hepatic energy metabolism is involved by increasing endogenous glucose production and hepatic glucose output for milk synthesis and by adaptation of postcalving fuel oxidation. Given that cows differ in their degree of fat mobilization around parturition, indicated by variable total liver fat concentration (LFC), the study investigated the influence of peripartum fat mobilization on hepatic gene expression involved in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and cholesterol synthesis, as well as transcriptional factors referring to energy metabolism. German Holstein cows were grouped according to mean total LFC on d 1, 14, and 28 after parturition as low [<200mg of total fat/g of dry matter (DM); n=10], medium (200-300 mg of total fat/g of DM; n=10), and high (>300 mg of total fat/g of DM; n=7), indicating fat mobilization during early lactation. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum and held under equal conditions. Liver biopsies were taken at d 56 and 15 before and d 1, 14, 28, and 49 after parturition to measure mRNA abundances of pyruvate carboxylase (PC); phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; glucose-6-phosphatase; propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase α; carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A (CPT1A); acyl-CoA synthetase, long chain 1 (ASCL1); acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 and 2; sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1; and peroxisome proliferator-activated factor α. Total LFC postpartum differed greatly among cows, and the mRNA abundance of most enzymes and transcription factors changed with time during the experimental period. Abundance of PC mRNA increased at parturition to a greater extent in high- and medium-LFC groups than in the low-LFC group. Significant LFC × time interactions for ACSL1 and CPT1A during the experimental period indicated variable

  10. Effect of physical effectiveness on digestibility of ration for cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, B; Grubic, G; Djordjevic, N; Bozickovic, A; Ivetic, A; Davidovic, V

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a diet particle size on nutrient digestibility in cows in early lactation. Treatments were diets with forage to concentrate ratio 43:57% in diet dry matter, with four different physically effective fibres (peNDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. The physical effectiveness factors (pef) and peNDF content of TMRs (total mixed ration) were determined using Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS) with two (pef8.0 , peNDF8.0) or three (pef1.18, peNDF1.18) sieves. The reducing of cut length of forages and particle size of diets did not affect on dry matter intake, while decreased peNDF intake by 16.34 and 8.83%, for peNDF8.0 and peNDF1.18 respectively. Apparent total tract digestibility of the nutrients was measured using two indicators: acid insoluble ash (AIA) and acid detergent insoluble lignin (ADL). Decreasing of forages cut length significantly increased apparent total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 48.39% to 53.84% and from 53.9% to 58.66%, of crude protein from 73.96% to 79.24% and from 71.56% to 77.90%, with contemporary decreasing of non-fibre carbohydrate from 90.89% to 84.81% and from 91.99% to 86.80%, with AIA or ADL as indicator respectively. Dietary value of net energy for lactation (NEL) and energy intake was not affected by the peNDF content of the diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The effect of reducing alfalfa haylage particle size on cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kononoff, P J; Heinrichs, A J

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate effects of reducing forage particle size on cows in early lactation based on measurements of the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS). Eight cannulated, multiparous cows averaging 19 +/- 4 d in milk and 642 +/- 45 kg BW were assigned to one of two 4 x 4 Latin Squares. During each of the 23-d periods, animals were offered one of four diets, which were chemically identical but included alfalfa haylage of different particle size; short (SH), mostly short (MSH), mostly long (MLG), and long (LG). Physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) was determined by measuring the amount of neutral detergent fiber retained on a 1.18 mm screen and was similar across diets (25.7, 26.2, 26.4, 26.7%) but the amount of particles >19.0 mm significantly decreased with decreasing particle size. Reducing haylage particle size increased dry matter intake linearly (23.3, 22.0, 20.9, 20.8 kg for SH, MSH, MLG, LG, respectively). Milk production and percentage fat did not differ across treatments averaging 35.5 +/- 0.68 kg milk and 3.32 +/- 0.67% fat, while a quadratic effect was observed for percent milk protein, with lowest values being observed for LG. A quadratic effect was observed for mean rumen pH (6.04, 6.15, 6.13, 6.09), while A:P ratio decreased linearly (2.75, 2.86, 2.88, 2.92) with decreasing particle size. Total time ruminating increased quadratically (467, 498, 486, 468 min/d), while time eating decreased linearly (262, 253, 298, 287 min/d) with decreasing particle size. Both eating and ruminating per unit of neutral detergent fiber intake decreased with reducing particle size (35.8, 36.7, 44.9, 45.6 min/kg; 19.9, 23.6, 23.5, 23.5 min/kg). Although chewing activity was closely related to forage particle size, effects on rumen pH were small, indicating factors other than particle size are critical in regulating pH when ration neutral detergent fiber met recommended levels. Feeding alfalfa haylage based rations of reduced

  12. The high producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, H; Smith, RF; Royal, MD; Knight, CH; Sheldon, IM

    2009-01-01

    Contents: Intensive genetic selection has resulted in modern dairy cow with very high milk yields but reduced fertility, due mainly to an increase in postpartum clinical problems, poor expression of oestrus, defective oocytes/embryos and uterine infections. It is a challenge to get enough food into these cows to meet the high demands of peak milk yields in early lactation and the animals require considerable veterinary attention in the early period after calving. Both genetic and management changes to increase the persistency of lactations would reduce the number and intensity of clinical risk periods throughout a cow's life without compromising milk output. PMID:17688598

  13. Randomized noninferiority clinical trial evaluating 3 commercial dry cow mastitis preparations: II. Cow health and performance in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Arruda, A G; Godden, S; Rapnicki, P; Gorden, P; Timms, L; Aly, S S; Lehenbauer, T W; Champagne, J

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this randomized noninferiority clinical trial was to compare the effect of treatment with 3 different dry cow therapy formulations at dry-off on cow-level health and production parameters in the first 100 d in milk (DIM) in the subsequent lactation, including 305-d mature-equivalent (305 ME) milk production, linear score (LS), risk for the cow experiencing a clinical mastitis event, risk for culling or death, and risk for pregnancy by 100 DIM. A total of 1,091 cows from 6 commercial dairy herds in 4 states (California, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) were randomly assigned at dry-off to receive treatment with 1 of 3 commercial products: Quartermaster (QT; Zoetis Animal Health, Madison, NJ), Spectramast DC (SP; Zoetis Animal Health) or ToMorrow Dry Cow (TM; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St Joseph, MO). All clinical mastitis, pregnancy, culling, and death events occurring in the first 100 DIM were recorded by farm staff using an on-farm electronic record-keeping system. Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day records of milk production and milk component testing were retrieved electronically. Mixed linear regression analysis was used to describe the effect of treatment on 305ME milk production and LS recorded on the last Dairy Herd Improvement Association test day before 100 DIM. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to describe the effect of treatment on risk for experiencing a case of clinical mastitis, risk for leaving the herd, and risk for pregnancy between calving and 100 DIM. Results showed no effect of treatment on adjusted mean 305 ME milk production (QT=11,759 kg, SP=11,574 kg, and TM=11,761 kg) or adjusted mean LS (QT=1.8, SP=1.9, and TM=1.6) on the last test day before 100 DIM. Similarly, no effect of treatment was observed on risk for a clinical mastitis event (QT=14.8%, SP=12.7%, and TM=15.0%), risk for leaving the herd (QT=7.5%, SP=9.2%, and TM=10.3%), or risk for pregnancy (QT=31.5%, SP=26.1%, and TM=26

  14. Selenium and Antioxidant Status in Dairy Cows at Different Stages of Lactation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Xiao, Min

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-five multiparous Holstein cows averaging 550 ± 50 kg of body weight and in 2 to 4 parity were divided into three groups according to lactation stage (group A: nine cows from 4 to 1 weeks prepartum; group B: 11 cows from 1 to 30 days postpartum; group C: 15 cows from 30 to 100 days postpartum). Selenium concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum were determined to evaluate selenium and antioxidant status in dairy cows at different stages of lactation. The results showed that mean serum selenium concentration, MDA level, and GSH-Px activity of cows in early lactation increased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with cows in the dry period and peak lactation. Conversely, serum TrxR activity and TAS declined during this period (P < 0.05). The increase of serum MDA level during early lactation indicate that the reactive oxygen species, including lipid hydroperoxides, increase in this period, thus placing the cows at a greater risk of oxidative stress. The significant decrease in TrxR activity that is accompanied with a decrease in TAS during early lactation suggests that dairy cows have low antioxidant defense in this period and TrxR may be an important antioxidant defense mechanism in transition dairy cows.

  15. A model to estimate insulin sensitivity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holtenius, Paul; Holtenius, Kjell

    2007-10-11

    Impairment of the insulin regulation of energy metabolism is considered to be an etiologic key component for metabolic disturbances. Methods for studies of insulin sensitivity thus are highly topical. There are clear indications that reduced insulin sensitivity contributes to the metabolic disturbances that occurs especially among obese lactating cows. Direct measurements of insulin sensitivity are laborious and not suitable for epidemiological studies. We have therefore adopted an indirect method originally developed for humans to estimate insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. The method, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" (RQUICKI) is based on plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and free fatty acids (FFA) and it generates good and linear correlations with different estimates of insulin sensitivity in human populations. We hypothesized that the RQUICKI method could be used as an index of insulin function in lactating dairy cows. We calculated RQUICKI in 237 apparently healthy dairy cows from 20 commercial herds. All cows included were in their first 15 weeks of lactation. RQUICKI was not affected by the homeorhetic adaptations in energy metabolism that occurred during the first 15 weeks of lactation. In a cohort of 24 experimental cows fed in order to obtain different body condition at parturition RQUICKI was lower in early lactation in cows with a high body condition score suggesting disturbed insulin function in obese cows. The results indicate that RQUICKI might be used to identify lactating cows with disturbed insulin function.

  16. Dairy cow disability weights.

    PubMed

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  17. The effect of different treatments for early-lactation hyperketonemia on blood β-hydroxybutyrate, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and glucagon in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Behling-Kelly, E; McArt, J A A

    2017-08-01

    Despite increased efforts in preventing the occurrence of metabolic disorders in transition cows, hyperketonemia remains a frequent early-lactation metabolic disease affecting an average of 40% of cows in herds in the United States. Despite the demonstrated economic effect of this disorder, controlled clinical trials comparing different treatment strategies in affected cows are lacking. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of treatment with intravenous glucose, oral propylene glycol, or a combination of both on the reduction in blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations of early-lactation hyperketonemic dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows between 3 to 9 d in milk were screened for hyperketonemia using a handheld meter 3 times per week, and enrolled at whole blood BHB concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L to 1 of 4 treatment groups: (1) 500 mL of a 50% dextrose solution i.v. once daily for 3 d (GLU, n = 9), (2) 300 mL of propylene glycol as a drench once daily for 3 d (PG, n = 9), (3) a combination treatment of a 500 mL of 50% dextrose solution i.v. and 300 mL of propylene glycol orally once daily for 3 d (GLU+PG, n = 8), or (4) an untreated control group (CTRL, n = 8). Blood samples were collected immediately before as well as at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h after administration of the first treatment through a jugular catheter and 3 times per week thereafter from coccygeal vessels. Concentrations of BHB were measured in whole blood, and plasma samples were analyzed for glucose, fatty acid (NEFA), insulin, glucagon, and electrolyte concentrations. The EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples were assessed for red blood cell indices, and smears were made for evaluation of red blood cell morphology. Outcomes were analyzed using repeated measures analysis. Overall least squares means (95% CI) of whole blood BHB concentrations between 1 h and d 11 relative to first treatment were 1.11 (0.95 to 1.30), 1.26 (1.07 to 1.47), 0.96 (0.81 to 1.13), and 1

  18. Effects of dietary cation-anion difference on intake, milk yield, and blood components of the early lactation cow.

    PubMed

    Chan, P S; West, J W; Bernard, J K; Fernandez, J M

    2005-12-01

    Early lactation Holsteins cows (15 primiparous and 18 multiparous) were offered rations with dietary cation-anion difference, calculated as mEq (Na + K - Cl - S)/100 g of feed dry matter (DCAD:S), of 20, 35, or 50 mEq from d 0 (calving) to 42 d postpartum (August 20, 2000 to January 9, 2001) to determine the effects of increasing DCAD:S on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and blood metabolites. For DCAD:S of 20, 35, and 50, DMI was 3.30, 3.38, 2.96 kg/100 kg of body weight (BW); milk yield was 25.5, 24.2, and 22.4 kg/d, respectively. No differences were observed for concentration or yield of milk fat or milk protein. Serum Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, cation-anion difference, insulin, and glucose did not differ with DCAD. Serum HCO3- was 26.07, 25.88, and 27.64 mEq/L for 20, 35, and 50 DCAD:S. Serum Ca, Mg, Na, and K concentrations were greater for primiparous cows (9.52 mg/dL, 2.35 mg/dL, 140.03 mEq/L, 4.66 mEq/L, respectively) than for multiparous cows (9.27 mg/dL, 2.12 mg/dL, 137.63 mEq/L, 4.46 mEq/ L, respectively). A DCAD:S between 23 and 33 mEq/100 g of dry matter (DM) appears to be adequate during cool weather for the milk yield that occurred in the present study based on DMI (kg/100 kg of BW), whereas DCAD:S of 50 mEq/100 g of DM may be excessive and could be too alkaline or unpalatable, resulting in decreased DMI (kg/100 kg of BW).

  19. Identification of potential markers in blood for the development of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle at parturition and during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Moyes, K M; Larsen, T; Friggens, N C; Drackley, J K; Ingvartsen, K L

    2009-11-01

    Our objective was to identify specific blood markers as risk factors for the development of mastitis during early lactation. We used a subset of cows from a larger experiment that consisted of a total of 634 lactations from 317 cows. Cows were of 3 breeds and ranged from parity 1 to 4. Blood samples were collected weekly from 56 d before expected calving date through 90 d in milk (DIM). Blood was analyzed for several hormones, metabolites, and enzymes, and energy intake and energy balance were calculated. Veterinary treatment records and daily composite milk somatic cell counts were analyzed and used to determine incidence and severity of mastitis in early lactation. Cows were separated into 2 groups: 1) WK0, consisting of cows that developed clinical mastitis (CM), cows that developed subclinical mastitis (SM), or cows that were healthy (H) during the first 7 DIM; and 2) EL, consisting of CM, SM, or H cows during wk 2 through 13 of lactation. Data were adjusted for numerous fixed effects (e.g., parity, breed, season, and DIM) before statistical analysis. The time of mastitis (TOM) was recorded as the DIM in which the first rise in somatic cell count was observed and was recorded as TOM = 0. The time before and after TOM was distinguished as +/- n wk relative to TOM = 0. Healthy cows were paired with either a SM or CM cow and the TOM for each H cow was equal to the TOM for its paired SM or CM cow. Data from wk -1 and -2 relative to TOM were analyzed for group WK0 and EL, respectively. For all parameters, SM cows did not differ from H cows from either group. The CM cows had higher nonesterified fatty acid levels and a tendency toward higher beta-hydroxybutyrate levels than H cows before mastitis for both groups. For group WK0, glucose was higher -1 wk relative to calving in CM than H cows. For group EL, aspartate aminotransferase was higher -2 wk relative to mastitis in CM than H cows during 8 to 90 DIM. All other variables were similar among CM, SM, and H cows for

  20. Insulin resistance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Koster, Jenne D; Opsomer, Geert

    2013-07-01

    Glucose is the molecule that drives milk production, and insulin plays a pivotal role in the glucose metabolism of dairy cows. The effect of insulin on the glucose metabolism is regulated by the secretion of insulin by the pancreas and the insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscles, the adipose tissue, and the liver. Insulin resistance may develop as part of physiologic (pregnancy and lactation) and pathologic processes, which may manifest as decreased insulin sensitivity or decreased insulin responsiveness. A good knowledge of the normal physiology of insulin is needed to measure the in vivo insulin resistance of dairy cows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of acarbose on milk yield and composition in early-lactation dairy cattle fed a ration to induce subacute ruminal acidosis.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C L; Thompson, A; Greenwood, K; Sherington, J; Bruce, C

    2009-09-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis reduces lactation performance in dairy cattle and most often occurs in animals fed a high concentrate:forage ration with large amounts of readily fermentable starch, which results in increased production of volatile fatty acids and lactic acid and a reduction in ruminal pH. Acarbose is commercially available (Glucobay, Bayer, Wuppertal, Germany) and indicated for the control of blood glucose in diabetic patients. In cattle, acarbose acts as an alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitor that slows the rate of degradation of starch to glucose, thereby reducing the rate of volatile fatty acid production and maintaining rumen pH at higher levels. The ability of acarbose to reverse the reduced feed intake and milk fat percentage and yield associated with a high concentrate:forage ration with a high risk of inducing subacute ruminal acidosis was evaluated in 2 experiments with lactating dairy cattle. In 2 preliminary experiments, the effects of a 70:30 concentrate:forage ration on ruminal pH and lactation were evaluated. Ruminal pH was monitored in 5 Holstein steers with ruminal cannulas every 10 min for 5 d. Ruminal pH was <5.5 for at least 4 h in 79% of the animal days. In dairy cows, the 70:30 concentrate:forage ration decreased feed intake 5%, milk fat percentage 7%, and milk fat yield 8% compared with a 50:50 concentrate:forage ration but did not affect milk yield. Early lactating dairy cattle were offered the 70:30 concentrate:forage ration with 0 or 0.75 g/d of acarbose added in a crossover design in 2 experiments. In the first experiment, acarbose increased dry matter feed intake (23.1 vs. 21.6 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (33.7 vs. 31.7 kg/d) because of an increase in percentage milk fat (3.33 vs. 3.04%) compared with control cows. In the second experiment, cows were fasted for 3 h before the morning feeding to induce consumption of a large meal to mimic conditions that might be associated with unplanned delayed feeding. In this

  2. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the underlying disease, currently, hepatic lipidosis can only be ascertained by liver biopsy. We hypothesized that the condition of fatty liver disease may be accompanied by an altered profile of endogenous metabolites in the blood of affected animals. Results To identify potential small-molecule biomarkers as a novel diagnostic alternative, the serum samples of diseased dairy cows were subjected to a targeted metabolomics screen by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A subsequent multivariate test involving principal component and linear discriminant analyses yielded 29 metabolites (amino acids, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelines) that, in conjunction, were able to distinguish between dairy cows with no hepatic lipidosis and those displaying different stages of the disorder. Conclusions This proof-of-concept study indicates that metabolomic profiles, including both amino acids and lipids, distinguish hepatic lipidosis from other peripartal disorders and, hence, provide a promising new tool for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. By generating insights into the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis, metabolomics studies may also facilitate the prevention of this syndrome. PMID:24888604

  3. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Imhasly, Sandro; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Jungnickel, Harald; Potratz, Sarah; Gerspach, Christian

    2014-06-02

    Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the underlying disease, currently, hepatic lipidosis can only be ascertained by liver biopsy. We hypothesized that the condition of fatty liver disease may be accompanied by an altered profile of endogenous metabolites in the blood of affected animals. To identify potential small-molecule biomarkers as a novel diagnostic alternative, the serum samples of diseased dairy cows were subjected to a targeted metabolomics screen by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A subsequent multivariate test involving principal component and linear discriminant analyses yielded 29 metabolites (amino acids, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelines) that, in conjunction, were able to distinguish between dairy cows with no hepatic lipidosis and those displaying different stages of the disorder. This proof-of-concept study indicates that metabolomic profiles, including both amino acids and lipids, distinguish hepatic lipidosis from other peripartal disorders and, hence, provide a promising new tool for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. By generating insights into the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis, metabolomics studies may also facilitate the prevention of this syndrome.

  4. Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Humer, Elke; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Gruber, Leonhard; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous) cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10), medium (n = 8), and high (n = 12) lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows.

  5. Associations of insulin resistance later in lactation on fertility of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baruselli, P S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Mingoti, R D; Ferreira, R M; Chiaratti, M R; Oliveira, L H; Sales, J N; Sartori, R

    2016-07-01

    The challenge of getting dairy cows pregnant during early lactation is a well-described, worldwide problem. However, specifically in farms with poor reproductive, nutritional, and environmental conditions/management, a low pregnancy rate during early lactation is followed inevitably by an increased number of nonpregnant cows after 150 days in milk, with even more difficulties to achieve pregnancy. Therefore, several studies were designed to understand and develop strategies to mitigate reduced fertility of cows during late lactation. Experiments were performed under tropical regions to determine metabolic status during lactation and association of stage of lactation on oocyte quality and fertility. Lactating cows with extended days not pregnant (e.g.,>150 days in milk) often had systemic metabolic alterations, including development of peripheral insulin resistance and various oocyte alterations, including reduced expression of genes encoding glucose transport proteins, reduced amounts of mtDNA, increased expression of mitochondria-related genes, and increased expression of apoptosis-related genes. Additionally, in vitro embryo production and pregnancy per AI were lower in late- versus early-lactation cows in some but not all studies. Notwithstanding, when a normal embryo was transferred to a cow in late lactation, the pregnancy per transfer was reasonable, reinforcing the assertion that fertility problems in late-lactation cows may be associated with oocyte quality, fertilization, and/or failure of early embryo development. In conclusion, insulin resistance may reduce oocyte competence and consequently fertility in late-lactation dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene-Based Mapping and Pathway Analysis of Metabolic Traits in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ngoc-Thuy; Gross, Josef Johann; van Dorland, Annette; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Schlather, Martin; Bruckmaier, Rupert; Simianer, Henner

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic adaptation of dairy cows during the transition period has been studied intensively in the last decades. However, until now, only few studies have paid attention to the genetic aspects of this process. Here, we present the results of a gene-based mapping and pathway analysis with the measurements of three key metabolites, (1) non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), (2) beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and (3) glucose, characterizing the metabolic adaptability of dairy cows before and after calving. In contrast to the conventional single-marker approach, we identify 99 significant and biologically sensible genes associated with at least one of the considered phenotypes and thus giving evidence for a genetic basis of the metabolic adaptability. Moreover, our results strongly suggest three pathways involved in the metabolism of steroids and lipids are potential candidates for the adaptive regulation of dairy cows in their early lactation. From our perspective, a closer investigation of our findings will lead to a step forward in understanding the variability in the metabolic adaptability of dairy cows in their early lactation. PMID:25789767

  7. Effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z Y; Yin, Z Y; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Wang, Z H

    2015-10-01

    Multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow. Treatments were as follows: (i) feeding low-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet A), (ii) feeding low-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium (Diet B), (iii) feeding high-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet C) and (iv) feeding high-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium. This experiment consisted 30 days. The milk and blood samples were collected in the last day of the trail. Intakes were recorded in the last 2 days of the trail. Supplementation of fatty acid calcium decreased significantly dry matter intake (DMI) (p < 0.01). Addition fatty acid calcium decreased milk protein percentage (p < 0.01) and milk SNF percentage (p < 0.01), but increased MUN (p < 0.05). Supplemented fatty acid decreased concentration of blood BHBA (p < 0.05), but increased TG, NEFA, glucagon, GLP-1, CCK, leptin, ApoA-IV, serotonin and MSH concentration in blood, the CCK concentration and feed intake showed a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Metabolic and productive response to ruminal protein degradability in early lactation cows fed untreated or xylose-treated soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Amanlou, H; Nikkhah, A

    2009-12-01

    Effects of different dietary rumen undegradable (RUP) to degradable (RDP) protein ratios on ruminal nutrient degradation, feed intake, blood metabolites and milk production were determined in early lactation cows. Four multiparous (43 ± 5 days in milk) and four primiparous (40 ± 6 days in milk) tie-stall-housed Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 21-day periods. Each period had 14-day of adaptation and 7-day of sampling. Diets contained on a dry matter (DM) basis, 23.3% alfalfa hay, 20% corn silage and 56.7% concentrate. Cows were first offered alfalfa hay at 7:00, 15:00 and 23:00 hours, and 30 min after each alfalfa hay delivery were offered a mixture of corn silage and concentrate. Treatments were diets with RUP:RDP ratios of (i) 5.2:11.6 (control), (ii) 6.1:10.6, (iii) 7.1:9.5 and (iv) 8.1:8.5, on a dietary DM% basis. Different RUP:RDP ratios were obtained by partial and total replacement of untreated soybean meal (SBM) with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM). In situ study using three rumen-cannulated non-lactating cows showed that DM and crude protein (CP) of SBM had greater rapidly degradable fractions. The potentially degradable fractions were degraded more slowly in XSBM. Treatment cows produced greater milk, protein, lactose, solids-non-fat and total solids than control cows. Increasing RUP:RDP reduced blood urea linearly. Feed costs dropped at RUP:RDP ratios of 6.1:10.6 and 7.1:9.5, but not at 8.1:8.5, compared with the 5.2:11.6 ratio. Intake of DM and CP, rumen pH, blood glucose, albumin and total protein, faecal and urine pH, changes in body weight and body condition score, and milk lactose and solids-non-fat percentages did not differ among treatments. Results provide evidence that increasing dietary RUP:RDP ratio from 5.2:11.6 to 7.1:9.5 optimizes nitrogen metabolism and milk production and reduces feed costs in early lactation cows. Reduced blood urea suggests reprodutive benefits.

  9. Effect of circulating glucagon and free fatty acids on hepatic FGF21 production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Caixeta, Luciano S; Giesy, Sarah L; Krumm, Christopher S; Perfield, James W; Butterfield, Anthony; Schoenberg, Katie M; Beitz, Donald C; Boisclair, Yves R

    2017-11-01

    Modern dairy cows meet the energy demand of early lactation by calling on hormonally driven mechanisms to increase the use of lipid reserves. In this context, we recently reported that fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), a hormone required for efficient use of lipid reserves in rodents, is upregulated in periparturient dairy cows. Increased plasma FGF21 in early lactation coincides with elevated circulating concentrations of glucagon (GCG) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). To assess the relative contribution of these factors in regulating FGF21, two experiments were performed in energy-sufficient, nonpregnant, nonlactating dairy cows. In the first study, cows were injected with saline or GCG every 8 h over a 72-h period. GCG increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA by an average of fivefold over matched controls but had no effect on plasma FGF21. In the second study, cows were infused and injected with saline, infused with Intralipid and injected with saline, or infused with Intralipid and injected with GCG. Infusions and injections were administered intravenously over 16 h and subcutaneously every 8 h, respectively. Intralipid infusion increased plasma NEFA from 92 to 550 µM within 3 h and increased plasma FGF21 from 1.3 to >11 ng/ml 6 h later; FGF21 mRNA increased by 34-fold in liver but remained invariant in adipose tissue. GCG injections during the Intralipid infusion had no additional effects on plasma NEFA, liver FGF21 mRNA, or plasma FGF21. These data implicate plasma NEFA as a key factor triggering hepatic production and increased circulating concentrations of FGF21 in early lactation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Short communication: Characterizing metabolic and oxidant status of pastured dairy cows postpartum in an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Elischer, M F; Sordillo, L M; Siegford, J M; Karcher, E L

    2015-10-01

    The periparturient period represents a stressful time for dairy cows as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Undesirable fluctuations in metabolites and impaired immune defense mechanisms near parturition can severely affect cow health and have residual effects on performance and longevity. Metabolic and oxidative stress profiles of multiparous and primiparous dairy cows in traditional parlor and feeding systems are well characterized, but status of these profiles in alternative management systems, such as grazing cows managed with an automatic milking system (AMS), are poorly characterized. Therefore, the objective of this case study was to characterize the metabolic and oxidant status of pastured cows milked with an AMS. It was hypothesized that primiparous and multiparous cows milked with an AMS would experience changes in oxidative and metabolic status after parturition; however, these changes would not impair cow health or production. Blood was collected from 14 multiparous and 8 primiparous Friesian-cross dairy cows at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to calving for concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and antioxidant potential. Milk production and milking frequency data were collected postpartum. Milk production differed on d 7 and 14 between primiparous and multiparous cows and frequency was not affected by parity. Primiparous cows had higher levels of glucose than multiparous cows. No differences in insulin, NEFA, or β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were noted between multiparous and primiparous cows postpartum, though days relative to calving significantly affected insulin and NEFA. Primiparous cows also had higher antioxidant potential than multiparous cows during the postpartum period. Results from this study show that, although responses were within expected ranges, periparturient multiparous cows responded differently than periparturient

  11. Effect of hormonal and energy-related factors on plasma adiponectin in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Krumm, C S; Giesy, S L; Caixeta, L S; Butler, W R; Sauerwein, H; Kim, J W; Boisclair, Y R

    2017-11-01

    In transition dairy cows, plasma levels of the insulin-sensitizing hormone adiponectin fall to a nadir at parturition and recover in early lactation. The transition period is also characterized by rapid changes in metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in other species as positive regulators of adiponectin production (i.e., negative energy balance, lipid mobilization) and others as negative regulators (i.e., reduced leptin and insulin and increased growth hormone and plasma fatty acids). To assess the role of onset of negative energy balance and lipid mobilization after parturition, dairy cows were either milked thrice daily (lactating) or never milked (nonlactating) for up to 4 wk after parturition. Plasma adiponectin was 21% higher across time in nonlactating than lactating cows. Moreover, nonlactating cows recovered plasma adiponectin at similar rates as lactating cows even though they failed to lose body condition. Next, we assessed the ability of individual hormones to alter plasma adiponectin in transition dairy cows. In the first experiment, dairy cows received a constant 96-h intravenous infusion of either saline or recombinant human leptin starting on d 8 of lactation. In the second experiment, dairy cows were studied in late pregnancy (LP, starting on prepartum d -31) and again in early lactation (EL, starting on d 7 postpartum) during a 66-h period of basal sampling followed by 48 h of hyperinsulinemic-euglycemia. In the third experiment, cows were studied either in LP (starting on d -40 prepartum) or EL (starting on d 7 postpartum) during a 3-h period of basal sampling followed by 5 d of bovine somatotropin treatment. Plasma adiponectin was reduced by an average of 21% in EL relative to LP in these experiments, but neither leptin, insulin, or growth hormone treatment affected adiponectin in LP or EL. Finally, the possibility that plasma fatty acids repress plasma adiponectin was evaluated by intravenous infusion of a lipid emulsion in nonpregnant

  12. Measurement of cardiac troponin I in healthy lactating dairy cows using a point of care analyzer (i-STAT-1).

    PubMed

    Labonté, Josiane; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Dubuc, Jocelyn; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) has been shown to be an accurate predictor of myocardial injury in cattle. The point-of-care i-STAT 1 immunoassay can be used to quantify blood cTnI in cattle. However, the cTnI reference interval in whole blood of healthy early lactating dairy cows remains unknown. To determine a blood cTnI reference interval in healthy early lactating Holstein dairy cows using the analyzer i-STAT 1. Forty healthy lactating dairy Holstein cows (0-60 days in milk) were conveniently selected from four commercial dairy farms. Each selected cow was examined by a veterinarian and transthoracic echocardiography was performed. A cow-side blood cTnI dosage was measured at the same time. A bootstrap statistical analysis method using unrestricted resampling was used to determine a reference interval for blood cTnI values. Forty healthy cows were recruited in the study. Median blood cTnI was 0.02 ng/mL (minimum: 0.00, maximum: 0.05). Based on the bootstrap analysis method with 40 cases, the 95th percentile of cTnI values in healthy cows was 0.036 ng/mL (90% CI: 0.02-0.05 ng/mL). A reference interval for blood cTnI values in healthy lactating cows was determined. Further research is needed to determine whether cTnI blood values could be used to diagnose and provide a prognosis for cardiac and noncardiac diseases in lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of feeding betaine-containing liquid supplement to transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, A P A; Bernard, J K; Guo, J-R; Weng, X-S; Emanuele, S; Davis, R; Dahl, G E; Tao, S

    2017-02-01

    Betaine is a natural compound found in sugar beets that serves as a methyl donor and organic osmolyte when fed to animals. The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding betaine-containing molasses on performance of transition dairy cows during late summer in 2 trials. In early September, cows were randomly assigned to betaine (BET) or control (CON) groups either shortly after dry off (trial 1; n = 10 per treatment) or 24 d before calving (trial 2; n = 8 per treatment) based on parity and previous mature equivalent milk yield. Cows were fed common diets supplemented either with a liquid supplement made of molasses from sugar cane and condensed beet solubles containing betaine [BET, 89.1 g/kg of dry matter (DM)] or a sugar cane molasses-based liquid supplement without betaine (CON) until 8 wk postpartum. The liquid supplements had similar nutrient contents and were fed at a rate of 1.1 and 1.4 kg DM/d for pre- and postpartum cows, respectively. Starting at their entry in the studies, cows were housed in the same freestall barn without a cooling system. After calving, all cows were housed in the same barn cooled by misters and fans and milked thrice daily. Intake was recorded daily and body weight and body condition score were assessed every 2 wk. Milk yield was recorded at each milking and composition was analyzed weekly. Blood samples were collected weekly from a subset of cows to assess concentrations of metabolites and AA. No treatment effects were apparent for DM intake and body weight in the prepartum and postpartum periods. For cows enrolled at dry off, BET supported higher milk yield (45.1 vs. 41.9 kg/d) and fat content (4.78 vs. 4.34%) and elevated plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in early lactation compared to CON. However, no differences were observed for milk yield, most milk component contents and yields, and blood metabolites between treatments for cows enrolled during the close-up period. Compared to cows

  14. Studies on hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems of high-producing dairy cows using the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". A review.

    PubMed

    Geelen, M J H; Wensing, T

    2006-09-01

    Fatty liver or hepatic lipidosis is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that occurs rather frequently in early lactation and is associated with decreased health, production and fertility. A background section of the review explores reasons why high-producing dairy cows are prone to develop fatty liver post partum. Hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems seriously endanger profitability and longevity of the dairy cow. Results from a great number of earlier epidemiological and clinical studies made it clear that a different approach was needed for elucidation of pathogenesis and etiology of this complex of health problems. There was a need for an adequate animal model in which hepatic lipidosis and production, health and fertility problems could be provoked under controlled conditions. It was hypothesized that overconditioning ante partum and feed restriction post partum might induce lipolysis in adipose tissue and triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver following calving. This consideration formed the basis for the experiments, which resulted in the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". In this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems are induced under well-controlled conditions. The experimental protocol based on this hypothesis produced in all cases (10 feeding trials with over 150 dairy cattle) the intended result, i.e. all experimental cows developed post partum higher hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations than did control cows. The model was evaluated in biochemical, clinical pathology, immunological, clinical and fertility terms. It turned out that in this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems were induced under well-controlled conditions.

  15. Effect of concentrate feeding method on the performance of dairy cows in early to mid lactation.

    PubMed

    Purcell, P J; Law, R A; Gordon, A W; McGettrick, S A; Ferris, C P

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of concentrate feeding method on milk yield and composition, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), body weight and body condition score, reproductive performance, energy balance, and blood metabolites of housed (i.e., accommodated indoors) dairy cows in early to mid lactation. Eighty-eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were managed on 1 of 4 concentrate feeding methods (CFM; 22 cows per CFM) for the first 21 wk postpartum. Cows on all 4 CFM were offered grass silage plus maize silage (in a 70:30 ratio on a DM basis) ad libitum throughout the study. In addition, cows had a target concentrate allocation of 11 kg/cow per day (from d 13 postpartum) via 1 of 4 CFM, consisting of (1) offered on a flat-rate basis via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (2) offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (3) offered as part of a partial mixed ration (target intake of 5 kg/cow per day) with additional concentrate offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, and (4) offered as part of a partial mixed ration containing a fixed quantity of concentrate for each cow in the group. In addition, all cows were offered 1 kg/cow per day of concentrate pellets via an in-parlor feeding system. We detected no effect of CFM on concentrate or total DMI, mean daily milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk fat and protein, or metabolizable energy intakes, requirements, or balances throughout the study. We also found no effects of CFM on mean or final body weight, mean or final body condition score, conception rates to first service, or any of the blood metabolites examined. The results of this study suggest that CFM has little effect on the overall performance of higher-yielding dairy cows in early to mid lactation when offered diets based on conserved forages. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association

  16. Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Humer, Elke; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Gruber, Leonhard; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous) cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10), medium (n = 8), and high (n = 12) lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows. PMID:27383746

  17. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  18. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on cow and preweaning calf performance.

    PubMed

    Muegge, C R; Brennan, K M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-08-01

    Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48; BW = 595 ± 17.4 kg, BCS = 5.26 ± 0.05, and age = 2.3 ± 0.07 yr), pregnant with male fetuses, were used to determine the effect of Se source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on cow and calf performance. At 203 d in gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, age, and calf sire and randomly allotted to organic Se, inorganic Se, or no Se treatments. Diets contained corn silage, corn stover, haylage, dried distillers' grains with solubles, and minerals and were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NEg during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NEg during lactation. Diets were fed daily as a total mixed ration and none, 3 mg/d Se as sodium selenite, or 3 mg/d Se as Sel-Plex were top-dressed daily. At 68 d postpartum (DPP), milk production was calculated using the weigh-suckle-weigh procedure and a milk sample was collected to determine composition. At 108 DPP, cow-calf pairs were commingled until weaning at 210 DPP. Cow BW and BCS ( ≥ 0.56) did not differ between treatments at any time point during the study. Milk production, milk fat, and total solids ( ≥ 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Milk protein tended to increase in cows fed inorganic Se compared with cows fed organic Se ( = 0.07) and milk lactose tended to be greatest in cows fed organic Se ( = 0.10). Conception to AI and overall pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments ( ≥ 0.39). Calf weights and ADG did not differ through 108 DPP ( ≥ 0.77) or for the preweaning period ( ≥ 0.33). Plasma Se concentration was adequate for all cows and did not differ among treatments for cows ( ≥ 0.37) or calves ( ≥ 0.90). Liver Se concentrations in cows fed inorganic or organic Se were greater than in control cows ( < 0.01). Longissimus muscles biopsies taken from progeny at 108 DPP also did not differ between treatments ( = 0.45). In conclusion, dietary Se source did not affect cow performance, milk production

  19. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D A; Thayne, W V; Dailey, R A

    1985-07-01

    We conducted two studies to determine how herd management practices and traits of individual cows affect performance of the herd and of the cow within a herd. Management practices, reproductive performance of the herd, and relationships between management and reproductive performance were characterized on 83 dairy farms with 7596 cows. Data included 21 management variables (e.g., facilities, herd health program, estrous detection program) and 8 performance variables obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement or unofficial records (e.g., size of herd, production, days open). Although varying among herds, annual average herd incidences of reproductive disorders and reproductive performance were similar to those reported. Managerial practices influenced incidences of retained placenta and uterine infection, days open of cows not bred and of all cows, services per conception, and percentages of herd open more than 100 days and culled for low production. Veterinarian was the most consistent variable influencing herd reproductive performance. Data also were collected from production and lifetime records of 2532 cows in 19 herds. Reproductive performance was affected by season of calving, production, maturity, and reproductive disorders. Several cows with extremely poor reproductive records were maintained.

  20. Coxiella burnetii shedding by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Guatteo, Raphaël; Beaudeau, François; Joly, Alain; Seegers, Henri

    2007-01-01

    While shedding routes of Coxiella burnetii are identified, the characteristics of Coxiella shedding are still widely unknown, especially in dairy cattle. However, this information is crucial to assess the natural course of Coxiella burnetii infection within a herd and then to elaborate strategies to limit the risks of transmission between animals and to humans. The present study aimed at (i) describing the characteristics of Coxiella burnetii shedding by dairy cows (in milk, vaginal mucus, faeces) in five infected dairy herds, and at (ii) investigating the possible relationships between shedding patterns and serological responses. A total of 145 cows were included in a follow-up consisting of seven concomitant samplings of milk, vaginal mucus, faeces and blood (Day 0, D7, D14, D21, D28, D63, D90). Detection and quantification of Coxiella burnetii titres were performed in milk, vaginal mucus and faeces samples using real-time PCR assay, while antibodies against Coxiella were detected using an ELISA technique. For a given shedding route, and a given periodicity (weekly or monthly), cows were gathered into different shedding kinetic patterns according to the sequence of PCR responses. Distribution of estimated titres in Coxiella burnetii was described according to shedding kinetic patterns. Coxiella burnetii shedding was found scarcely and sporadically in faeces. Vaginal mucus shedding concerned almost 50% of the cows studied and was found intermittently or sporadically, depending on the periodicity considered. Almost 40% of cows were detected as milk shedders, with two predominant shedding patterns: persistent and sporadic, regardless of the sampling periodicity. Significantly higher estimated titres in Coxiella burnetii were observed in cows with persistent shedding patterns suggesting the existence of heavy shedder cows. These latter cows were mostly, persistently highly-seropositive, suggesting that repeated serological testings could be a reliable tool to screen

  1. The impact of body condition after calving on metabolism and milk progesterone profiles in two breeds of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lisa A; Båge, Renée; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-10-20

    Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and Swedish Holstein (SH). Multiparous dairy cows (n = 73) of SR and SH breeds were selected and divided into three groups based on their body condition score (BCS) after parturition. Selected plasma metabolites were determined, milk progesterone profiles were identified and body condition was scored. Over-conditioned cows and atypical progesterone profiles were more common among SR cows. Insulin sensitivity was lower and IGF 1 higher among SR cows. Insulin was positively related to body condition, but not related to breed. Atypical progesterone profiles were more common and insulin sensitivity lower in SR than in SH cows, but the SR breed had a higher proportion of over-conditioned SR cows. It is reasonable to assume that breed differences in body condition contributed to these results.

  2. Effects of antibiotic dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant on milk somatic cell counts and clinical and subclinical mastitis in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Hodge, A; Lean, I J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of an internal teat sealant (TS; Teatseal; Zoetis Australia, Silverwater, NSW, Australia), when used in combination with antibiotic dry-cow therapy (ADCT) administered at dry-off, on milk individual somatic cell count (ISCC), milk production and components, and the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows up to 60 d after calving, when compared with ADCT only. Multiparous Holstein, Jersey, or Holstein cross cows (n=2,200) from 8 farms in southern and eastern Australia were randomly assigned to treatment of all 4 quarters with ADCT alone or with ADCT plus TS (ADCT + TS) at dry-off in this randomized, multisite clinical trial. Individual milk yield, fat and protein percentages, and ISCC were measured at intervals of 14±3 d after calving for the first 60 d of lactation. The first measurement occurred between 10 and 24 d after calving. Clinical mastitis and health events were recorded from dry-off to 60 d of lactation. Milk samples were collected from first cases of clinical mastitis and subjected to bacteriology. Treatment and the interaction of treatment by time did not affect milk yield, ISCC weighted by milk yield, or fat and protein percentages. Treatment with ADCT + TS decreased geometric mean ISCC compared with treatment with ADCT alone over the first 60 d of lactation. Geometric mean ISCC (×10(3) cells/mL) was 32.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 26.8 to 38.3] and 43.5 (95% CI: 36.2 to 52.1) for ADCT + TS and ADCT alone, respectively. The odds of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis (ISCC ≥250,000 cells/mL) were 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.4 to 2.6) with ADCT alone in the first 60 d of lactation compared with ADCT + TS. Use of ADCT + TS reduced the estimated incidence of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis on all 8 farms, compared with use of ADCT alone. Only 4 cows that calved 40 to 100 d after dry-off had a first case of clinical mastitis in the dry period. Five percent of

  3. Ultrasound image texture processing for evaluating fatty liver in peripartal dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Viren R.; Bobe, Gerd; Young, Jerry; Ametaj, Burim; Beitz, Donald

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize the liver ultrasound texture as it changes in diffuse disease of fatty liver. This technology could allow non-invasive diagnosis of fatty liver, a major metabolic disorder in early lactation dairy cows. More than 100 liver biopsies were taken from fourteen dairy cows, as a part of the USDA-funded study for effects of glucagon on prevention and treatment of fatty liver. Up to nine liver biopsies were taken from each cow during peripartal period of seven weeks and total lipid content was determined chemically. Just before each liver biopsy was taken, ultrasonic B-mode images were digitally captured using a 3.5 or 5 MHz transducer. Effort was made to capture images that were non-blurred, void of large blood vessels and multiple echoes, and of consistent texture. From each image, a region-of-interest of size 100-by-100 pixels was processed. Texture parameters were calculated using algorithms such as first and second order statistics, 2D Fourier transformation, co-occurrence matrix, and gradient analysis. Many cows had normal liver (3% to 6% total lipid) and a few had developed fatty liver with total lipid up to 15%. The selected texture parameters showed consistent change with changing lipid content and could potentially be used to diagnose early fatty liver non-invasively. The approach of texture analysis algorithms and initial results on their potential in evaluating total lipid percentage is presented here.

  4. Effect of cooling heat-stressed dairy cows during the dry period on insulin response.

    PubMed

    Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Monteiro, A P A; Hayen, M J; Young, L J; Dahl, G E

    2012-09-01

    affect the insulin responses to GTT and IC during the transition period and glucose responses to GTT and IC at -14 and 28 DRC were not affected by treatments. At 7 DRC, CL cows tended to have slower glucose clearance to GTT and weaker glucose response to IC relative to HT cows. Cows from the cooling treatment had stronger nonesterified fatty acid responses to IC postpartum but not prepartum compared with HT. In conclusion, cooling heat-stressed dairy cows in the dry period reduced insulin effects on peripheral tissues in early lactation but not in the dry period. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic and endocrine profiles and reproductive parameters in dairy cows under grazing conditions: effect of polymorphisms in somatotropic axis genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study hypothesized that GH-AluI and IGF-I-SnabI polymorphisms do change the metabolic/endocrine profiles in Holstein cows during the transition period, which in turn are associated with productive and reproductive parameters. Methods Holstein cows (Farm 1, primiparous cows, n = 110, and Farm 2, multiparous cows, n = 76) under grazing conditions were selected and GH and IGF-I genotypes were determined. Blood samples for metabolic/endocrine determinations were taken during the transition period and early lactation in both farms. Data was analyzed by farm using a repeated measures analyses including GH and IGF-I genotypes, days and interactions as fixed effects, sire and cow as random effects and calving date as covariate. Results and Discussion Frequencies of GH and IGF-I alleles were L:0.84, V:0.16 and A:0.60, B:0.40, respectively. The GH genotype was not associated with productive or reproductive variables, but interaction with days affected FCM yield in multiparous (farm 2) cows (LL yielded more than LV cows) in early lactation. The GH genotype affected NEFA and IGF-I concentrations in farm 1 (LV had higher NEFA and lower IGF-I than LL cows) suggesting a better energy status of LL cows. There was no effect of IGF-I genotype on productive variables, but a trend was found for FCM in farm 2 (AB cows yielded more than AA cows). IGF-I genotype affected calving first service interval in farm 1, and the interaction with days tended to affect FCM yield (AB cows had a shorter interval and yielded more FCM than BB cows). IGF-I genotype affected BHB, NEFA, and insulin concentrations in farm 1: primiparous BB cows had lower NEFA and BHB and higher insulin concentrations. In farm 2, there was no effect of IGF-I genotype, but there was an interaction with days on IGF-I concentration, suggesting a greater uncoupling somatropic axis in AB and BB than AA cows, being in accordance with greater FCM yield in AB cows. Conclusion The GH and IGF-I genotypes had no

  6. Polymorphisms within the APOBR gene are highly associated with milk levels of prognostic ketosis biomarkers in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tetens, Jens; Heuer, Claas; Heyer, Iris; Klein, Matthias S; Gronwald, Wolfram; Junge, Wolfgang; Oefner, Peter J; Thaller, Georg; Krattenmacher, Nina

    2015-04-01

    Essentially all high-yielding dairy cows experience a negative energy balance during early lactation leading to increased lipomobilization, which is a normal physiological response. However, a severe energy deficit may lead to high levels of ketone bodies and, subsequently, to subclinical or clinical ketosis. It has previously been reported that the ratio of glycerophosphocholine to phosphocholine in milk is a prognostic biomarker for the risk of ketosis in dairy cattle. It was hypothesized that this ratio reflects the ability to break down blood phosphatidylcholine as a fatty acid resource. In the current study, 248 animals from a previous study were genotyped with Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip, and genome-wide association studies were carried out for the milk levels of phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and the ratio of both metabolites. It was demonstrated that the latter two traits are heritable with h2 = 0.43 and h2 = 0.34, respectively. A major quantitative trait locus was identified on cattle chromosome 25. The APOBR gene, coding for the apolipoprotein B receptor, is located within this region and was analyzed as a candidate gene. The analysis revealed highly significant associations of polymorphisms within the gene with glycerophosphocholine as well as the metabolite ratio. These findings support the hypothesis that differences in the ability to take up blood phosphatidylcholine from low-density lipoproteins play an important role in early lactation metabolic stability of dairy cows and indicate APOBR to contain a causative variant. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Relationships between uterine health and metabolism in dairy cows with different dry period lengths.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Soede, N M; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-10-01

    The first objective of this study was to evaluate effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on ovarian activity, uterine health status, pregnancy rate, and days open in dairy cows in the second subsequent lactation after implementation of DP length and dietary treatments. The second objective was to determine relationships of uterine health status with ovarian activity, milk yield, energy balance (EB), and metabolic status in dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 167) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 DP lengths (0-, 30-, or 60-d) and 1 of 2 early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic diet) for 2 subsequent lactations. Milk samples were collected three times a week. At least two succeeding milk samples with concentration of progesterone ≥2 ng/mL were used to indicate the occurrence of luteal activity. Vaginal discharge was scored in wk 2 and 3 after calving to evaluate uterine health status and cows were classified as having a healthy uterine environment [HU, vaginal discharge score (VDS) = 0 or 1 in both wk 2 and 3], a recovering uterine environment (RU, VDS = 2 or 3 in wk 2 and VDS = 0 or 1 in wk 3), or a non-recovering uterine environment (NRU, VDS = 2 or 3 in wk 3). Cows were monitored for milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), and blood was sampled weekly to determine metabolic status from calving to wk 3 postcalving. Dry period length was not related with uterine health status in early lactation, pregnancy rate, or days open in dairy cows. Independent of DP length, feeding a glucogenic diet shortened the interval from calving to onset of luteal activity (25.3 vs. 31.0 d, P = 0.04), but decreased pregnancy rate compared with a more lipogenic diet (68.2 vs. 78.1 d, P = 0.03). In the first 3 wk after calving, cows with a NRU had lower milk yield (36.8 vs. 36.8 vs. 32.4 kg for cows with a HU, RU, or NRU, respectively; P < 0.01) and lower DMI than cows with a HU or RU. Cows with a RU had lower plasma glucose and

  8. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  9. Associations of elevated nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with early lactation reproductive performance and milk production in transition dairy cattle in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ospina, P A; Nydam, D V; Stokol, T; Overton, T R

    2010-04-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of elevated pre- and postpartum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations during the transition period on reproductive performance and milk production in dairy cattle. In a prospective cohort study of 91 freestall, total mixed ration-fed herds in the northeastern United States, blood samples were collected from approximately 15 prepartum and 15 different postpartum transition animals in each herd. All samples were stratified based on pre- or postpartum status at the time of sample collection, and 2,259 and 2,290 animals were used to evaluate reproductive and milk production performance, respectively. Reproductive performance was assessed by time to conception within 70 d post-voluntary waiting period (VWP) and milk production was assessed using mature-equivalent 305-d (ME305) milk yield estimated at 120 d in milk. While controlling for body condition score (BCS), calving season, median ME305 milk production, and parity, NEFA and BHBA concentrations were evaluated with time to event analysis to investigate reproductive performance. These same predictor variables were used to determine the effects of elevated NEFA and BHBA concentrations on ME305 milk yield with herd as a random effect. Heifers and cows were grouped in the final analyses if the results between groups were similar. In all animals sampled prepartum, the risk of pregnancy within 70 d post-VWP was reduced by 19% when NEFA concentrations were >or=0.27 mEq/L. In all animals sampled postpartum, those with NEFA concentrations >or=0.72 mEq/L had a 16% decrease in risk of pregnancy and those with BHBA concentrations >or=10mg/dL had a 13% decrease in risk. In cows and heifers, ME305 milk yield was decreased by 683 kg when prepartum NEFA concentrations were >or=0.33 mEq/L. In heifers sampled postpartum, ME305 milk yield was increased by 488 kg when NEFA concentrations were >or=0.57 mEq/L and increased by 403 kg when BHBA

  10. Direct and carryover effect of post-grazing sward height on total lactation dairy cow performance.

    PubMed

    Ganche, E; Delaby, L; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Kennedy, E

    2013-08-01

    Grazing pastures to low post-grazing sward heights (PGSH) is a strategy to maximise the quantity of grazed grass in the diet of dairy cows within temperate grass-based systems. Within Irish spring-calving systems, it was hypothesised that grazing swards to very low PGSH would increase herbage availability during early lactation but would reduce dairy cow performance, the effect of which would persist in subsequent lactation performance when compared with cows grazing to a higher PGSH. Seventy-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean calving date, 12 February) were randomly assigned post-calving across two PGSH treatments (n = 36): 2.7 cm (severe; S1) and 3.5 cm (moderate; M1), which were applied from 10 February to 18 April (period 1; P1). This was followed by a carryover period (period 2; P2) during which cows were randomly reassigned within their P1 treatment across two further PGSH (n = 18): 3.5 cm (severe, SS and MS) and 4.5 cm (moderate, SM and MM) until 30 October. Decreasing PGSH from 3.5 to 2.7 cm significantly decreased milk (-2.3 kg/cow per day), protein (-95 g/day), fat (-143 g/day) and lactose (-109 g/day) yields, milk protein (-1.2 g/kg) and fat (-2.2 g/kg) concentrations and grass dry matter intake (GDMI; -1.7 kg dry matter/cow per day). The severe PGSH was associated with a lower bodyweight (BW) at the end of P1. There was no carryover effect of P1 PGSH on subsequent milk or milk solids yields in P2, but PGSH had a significant carryover effect on milk fat and lactose concentrations. Animals severely restricted at pasture in early spring had a higher BW and slightly higher body condition score in later lactation when compared with M1 animals. During P2, increasing PGSH from 3.5 to 4.5 cm increased milk and milk solids yield as a result of greater GDMI and resulted in higher mean BW and end BW. This study indicates that following a 10-week period of feed restriction, subsequent dairy cow cumulative milk production is unaffected. However, the substantial

  11. Silymarin and lycopene administration in periparturient dairy cows: effects on milk production and oxidative status.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, L; Galletti, S; Tedesco, D

    2015-11-01

    To establish during late gestation and early lactation the effects of supplementing silymarin, a natural hepatoprotective substance, combined with a powerful antioxidant, lycopene, on milk production and on serum biomarkers of oxidative status. Italian Friesian dairy cows were given individually a supplement containing a mixture of silymarin (7.77 g/day/cow) and lycopene (1.27 g/day/cow) (n=10) or no supplement (control; n=10). Treatment was administered from 7 days before the expected calving date to the first 14 days in milk. At 7 days before the expected calving date, at calving, and 7 days postpartum, body condition score (BCS) and concentrations in serum of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), total antioxidant capacity (OXY) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated. Bodyweight, milk production, and somatic cell count (SCC) were determined at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum. The mean time of treatment prior to calving was 6.3 (min 4, max 11) days. Compared with control cows, treatment increased energy corrected milk yield (33.3 vs. 37.8 (SEM 1.10) kg/day; p=0.006) and milk fat yield (1.14 vs. 1.32 (SEM 0.06) kg/day; p=0.05) over the first 21 days of lactation. Treated cows had lower mean log10 SCC compared to control cows (4.9 vs. 5.24 (SEM 0.11) log10 cells/mL) and had lower overall concentration of TBARS (1.47 vs. 1.59 (SEM 0.016) nM/mL; p<0.001), but similar concentrations of ROM and OXY in serum. However there was a treatment by time interaction (p=0.09) for OXY, and at calving mean OXY was higher in treated cows compared with pre-calving values (p<0.001). Despite the acknowledged limitation of the study, i.e. the small number of animals, our results suggest that silymarin and lycopene, as health-beneficial feed supplements, may help dairy cows in metabolic adaptation during the first stages of lactation. During the peripartum period dairy cows suffer moderate-to-severe fatty liver and from an overproduction of free radicals. The

  12. Arsenic exposure to dairy cows in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Majumder, Shankar; Awal, Md Abdul; Rao, D Ramkishan

    2013-01-01

    Food-chain contamination by arsenic (As) is a newly uncovered disaster. Effects of As-contaminated drinking water and paddy straw on the excretion of As through milk, urine, and dung of dairy cows (n = 240) were studied in As-prone areas of Bangladesh. Mean (±SEM) total As (inorganic plus organic) concentration in drinking water, paddy straw [dry weight dw)], cow's urine (specific gravity adjusted to 1.035), dung (dw), and milk (wet weight) were 89.6 ± 6.5 μg/l, 1,114.4 ± 57.3 μg/kg, 123.6 ± 7.6 μg/l, 1,693.0 ± 65.1 μg/kg, and 26.2 ± 2.8 μg/l, respectively. Significantly (p < 0.01) greater As was in Boro straw (1,386.9 ± 71.8 μg/kg) than Aus (702.4 ± 67.1 μg/kg) and Aman (431.7 ± 28.8 μg/kg) straw and in straw irrigated with shallow (1,697.3 ± 81.9 μg/kg) than deep well water (583.6 ± 62.7 μg/kg) and surface water (511.8 ± 30.0 μg/kg). Significant (p < 0.01) positive correlations were found between As contents of cow's urine and drinking water (r = 0.92) as well as cow dung and straw (r = 0.82). Concentrations of As in cow urine, dung, and milk were increased with the relative increment of As in drinking water and/or straw. These results provide evidence that dairy cows excrete ingested As mainly through urine and dung; thus, As biotransformation through milk remains low. This low concentration of As in milk may be of concern when humans are exposed to multiple sources of As simultaneously. Moreover, As in cow dung could be an environmental issue in Bangladesh.

  13. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  14. Effect of multiple intravenous injections of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fürll, M; Deniz, A; Westphal, B; Illing, C; Constable, P D

    2010-09-01

    Numerous adjunct therapeutic agents have been investigated for the treatment or control of fat mobilization syndrome in periparturient dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of multiple i.v. injections of 10% butaphosphan and 0.005% cyanocobalamin combination (Catosal, Bayer Animal Health, Leverkusen, Germany) between 1 and 2 wk antepartum (a.p.) on the metabolism and health of dairy cows. Forty-five late-gestation Holstein-Friesian cows (second pregnancy) were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 groups with 15 cows/group: group C6 (6 daily i.v. injections of butaphosphan at 10 mg/kg of body weight (BW) and cyanocobalamin at 5 microg/kg of BW in the last 2 wk of gestation); group C3 (3 daily i.v. injections of butaphosphan at 10 mg/kg of BW and cyanocobalamin at 5 microg/kg of BW in the last week of gestation); and group C0 (equivolume daily i.v. injections of 0.9% NaCl solution). Serum biochemical analysis was performed on jugular venous blood samples that were periodically obtained a.p. and postpartum (p.p.). Health status and milk production were monitored p.p. Serum cyanocobalamin concentration increased in groups C6 and C3 p.p. Multiple daily i.v. injections of Catosal before parturition increased p.p. glucose availability, as evaluated by p.p. serum glucose concentration, and decreased peripheral fat mobilization and ketone body formation, as evaluated by p.p. serum nonesterified fatty acid and beta-OH butyrate concentrations. The number of puerperal infections in the first 5 d after calving was decreased in group C6, relative to group C0. We conclude that multiple injections of Catosal during the close-up period have a beneficial effect on the metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that high-producing dairy cows in early lactation may have a relative or actual deficiency of cyanocobalamin. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C. E. F.; Kwinten, N. B. P.; van Gastel, D. A. J. M.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Lyons, N. A.; Garcia, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  16. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  17. Short communication: Effect of a citrus extract in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ying, Y; Niu, M; Clarke, A R; Harvatine, K J

    2017-07-01

    Dry matter intake is a main driver of energy balance in lactating dairy cows, and some plant extracts have been commercially fed to dairy cows to stimulate feed intake. Citrus extracts contain several bioactive components and have been shown to modify metabolism in other animal models. Our hypothesis was that a citrus extract would increase dry matter intake. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a citrus extract on intake and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In experiment one, 11 early-lactation dairy cows (experiment 1; 77 ± 15 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a switchback design, and in experiment two, 15 mid-lactation Holstein cows (experiment 2; 157 ± 44 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a crossover design. In both experiments, treatments were control (no supplement) or a citrus extract (4 g/d in experiment 1 and 4.5 g/d in experiment 2). Treatment periods were 21 and 14 d in experiment 1 and experiment 2, respectively, with the final 7 d used for sample and data collection. No effect was observed for treatment on dry matter intake, feeding behavior, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, or milk composition in either experiment. Treatment also had no effect on milk trans fatty acid profile, but the extract increased total 16 carbon fatty acids 0.9 and 0.6 percentage points in experiment 1 and experiment 2, respectively. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids were decreased 6 h after feeding in both experiments (11.1 and 16.0 μEq/L in experiment 1 and experiment 2, respectively). Plasma insulin was increased 1 h before feeding compared with the control in experiment 1 (3.36 vs. 2.13 µIU/mL) and tended to increase 1.79 units 1 h before feeding in experiment 2. The citrus extract had no effect on feed intake or milk production at the dose investigated, but changed plasma insulin and nonesterified fatty acids, indicating some metabolic effects requiring further investigation. Copyright

  18. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin concentrations and liver fat percentage in lactating dairy cows with abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Guzelbektes, H; Sen, I; Ok, M; Constable, P D; Boydak, M; Coskun, A

    2010-01-01

    There has been increased interest in measuring the serum concentration of acute phase reactants such as serum amyloid A [SAA] and haptoglobin [haptoglobin] in periparturient cattle in order to provide a method for detecting the presence of inflammation or bacterial infection. To determine whether [SAA] and [haptoglobin] are increased in cows with displaced abomasum as compared with healthy dairy cows. Fifty-four adult dairy cows in early lactation that had left displaced abomasum (LDA, n = 34), right displaced abomasum or abomasal volvulus (RDA/AV, n = 11), or were healthy on physical examination (control, n = 9). Inflammatory diseases or bacterial infections such as mastitis, metritis, or pneumonia were not clinically apparent in any animal. Jugular venous blood was obtained from all cows and analyzed. Liver samples were obtained by biopsy in cattle with abomasal displacement. [SAA] and [haptoglobin] concentrations were increased in cows with LDA or RDA/AV as compared with healthy controls. Cows with displaced abomasum had mild to moderate hepatic lipidosis, based on liver fat percentages of 9.3 +/- 5.3% (mean +/- SD, LDA) and 10.8 +/- 7.7% (RDA/AV). [SAA] and [haptoglobin] were most strongly associated with liver fat percentage, r(s) = +0.55 (P < .0001) and r(s) = +0.42 (P = .0041), respectively. An increase in [SAA] or [haptoglobin] in postparturient dairy cows with LDA or RDA/AV is not specific for inflammation or bacterial infection. An increase in [SAA] or [haptoglobin] may indicate the presence of hepatic lipidosis in cattle with abomasal displacement.

  19. Efficacy of controlled-release capsules containing monensin for the prevention of subclinical ketosis in pasture-fed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of intra-rumenal controlled release capsules (CRC) containing 32 g of monensin administered pre-calving to reduce the cumulative incidence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in mainly pasture-fed dairy cows. Cows (n=837) due to calve in the first 6 weeks of the spring calving period were enrolled from four commercial herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand in a blinded, randomised, negative-controlled field trial. Three weeks before the start of the calving period cows were randomly allocated to receive either no treatment (control) or a single CRC containing monensin and then blood sampled on two occasions, 7 days apart within 12 days following calving for measurement of concentrations of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood. Cows were diagnosed with SCK if the concentration of BHBA in blood in either of these samples was ≥1.2 mmol/L. Fewer treated cows were diagnosed with SCK within 12 days post-calving than control cows (144/340 (42.4%) vs. 192/336 (57.1%); p<0.001). There was no interaction between treatment group and age, breed or herd of origin. From the final multivariable model it was estimated that treatment with CRC containing monensin reduced the absolute cumulative incidence of SCK by 17.9 (95% CI=9.2-25.8)% compared to no treatment. Treatment with a CRC containing monensin>10 days prior to calving reduced the cumulative incidence of SCK of pasture-based dairy cows in commercial dairy herds within 12 days post-calving. Administration pre-calving of an intra-rumenal bolus containing monensin can be considered as one of a range of management options for the control of SCK in early lactation.

  20. Cellular composition and expression of potential stem cell markers in mammary tissue of cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and early lactation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the impact of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late pregnancy on parameters of mammary development in Holstein cows. Cows (N = 16) were fed 10% of their ration as tall fescue seed that was free from (CON) or infected with endophyte (INF) from 90d before expected calving until ...

  1. Fertility, survival, and conformation of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein crossbred cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-11-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds in Minnesota. All cows calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Fertility and survival traits were calculated from records of insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, calving, and disposal that were recorded via management software. Body condition score and conformation were subjectively scored once during early lactation by trained evaluators. The analysis of survival to 60 d in milk included 536 MO × HO, 560 VR × HO, and 1,033 HO cows during first lactation. Cows analyzed for other fertility, survival, and conformation traits had up to 13% fewer cows available for analysis. The first service conception rate of the crossbred cows (both types combined) increased 7%, as did the conception rate across the first 5 inseminations, compared with the HO cows during first lactation. Furthermore, the combined crossbred cows (2.11 ± 0.05) had fewer times bred than HO cows (2.30 ± 0.05) and 10 fewer d open compared with their HO herdmates. Across the 8 herds, breed groups did not differ for survival to 60 d in milk; however, the superior fertility of the crossbred cows allowed an increased proportion of the combined crossbreds (71 ± 1.5%) to calve a second time within 14 mo compared with the HO cows (63 ± 1.5%). For survival to second calving, the combined crossbred cows had 4% superior survival compared with the HO cows. The MO × HO and VR × HO crossbred cows both had increased body condition score (+0.50 ± 0.02 and +0.25 ± 0.02, respectively) but shorter stature and less body depth than HO cows. The MO × HO cows had less set to the hock and a steeper foot angle than the HO cows, and the VR × HO cows had more set to the hock with a similar foot angle to the HO cows. The combined crossbred cows had less udder clearance from the hock than HO cows, more width between both front and rear teats, and longer

  2. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  3. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic amino acid metabolism in periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Larsen, M; Kristensen, N B

    2009-07-01

    EAA and non-EAA available for peripheral tissues in early lactation, and the study did not indicate an AA-sparing effect of small intestinal glucose absorption. In periparturient dairy cows, hepatic catabolism of AA was not driven by the increased whole-body demand for glucose, and Ala was the only AA that contributed substantially to hepatic gluconeogenesis. In very early lactation, the supply of EAA might be of greater concern than the supply of glucogenic substrates.

  4. Effect of combined acetylmethionine, cyanocobalamin and α-lipoic acid on hepatic metabolism in high-yielding dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Enrico; Perillo, Laura; Piccione, Giuseppe; Gianesella, Matteo; Bedin, Silvia; Armato, Leonardo; Giudice, Elisabetta; Morgante, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study reported in this Research Communication was to investigate the effect of a combined acetylmethionine, cyanocobalamin and α-lipoic acid treatment, on some metabolic parameters of early lactating high-yielding dairy cows. Thirty cows were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (EG, n = 20) and control group (CG, n = 10). EG received 20 ml of treatment and CG received 20 ml of placebo. The treatments were administered for seven times every 2 d. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 3 time points: 10 ± 2, 30 ± 2 and 50 ± 2 d postpartum. Glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamiltransferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB), total proteins (TP), globulins, albumin and urea concentrations were determined. Two-way repeated measure analysis of variance was applied. Significant differences in the values of glucose, BHB, NEFA, triglycerides, TC, AST and urea were found between EG and CG. Moreover, the increased glucose, TC, ALT, GGT, TP and globulins, and the reduced BHB, NEFA, AST, triglycerides, TB, CB and urea concentrations were evident in both groups, but the changes were more pronounced in EG. Our findings indicate that our treatment positively influenced liver metabolism in high-yielding dairy cows.

  5. Influence of free-stall base on tarsal joint lesions and hygiene in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fulwider, W K; Grandin, T; Garrick, D J; Engle, T E; Lamm, W D; Dalsted, N L; Rollin, B E

    2007-07-01

    The objective was to quantify the incidence of tarsal lesions and level of hygiene by stall bed type. Cows were scored on 100 dairies from Wisconsin, Minnesota, Indiana, Iowa, and New York in the fall and winter. Thirty-eight dairies used rubber-filled mattresses (RFM), 27 had sand beds, 29 had waterbeds, and 6 used compost packs (CPk). Stocking density, stall dimensions, bedding amount, bedding frequency, and type of bedding were recorded. One pen of early-lactation multiparous cows on each dairy was scored based on injury of the tarsal joints at the lateral and medial surfaces and tuber calcis at the dorsal, lateral, and medial surfaces. A tarsal score of 1 represented hair loss, 2 was moderate, and 3 indicated severe swelling. Differences between bed types in the percentages of cows with lesions were tested with one-way ANOVA by lesion severity and incidence, with farm as the experimental unit. Cows on sand beds or waterbeds had fewer lesion scores of 1, 2, and 3 than those on RFM. The percentages of score 1 were 54.6 +/- 4.4 (RFM), 22.5 +/- 4.7 (sand), and 29.8 +/- 4.3 (waterbed), whereas the percentages of score 2 were 14.0 +/- 1.4, 2.3 +/- 1.5, and 5.0 +/- 1.4, and of score 3 were 3.0 +/- 0.4, 0.2 +/- 0.4, and 0.4 +/- 0.4. Cows on CPk had no lesions. Hygiene scores ranged from 1 to 5, with 1 being clean and 5 soiled. The percentages of hygiene score 1 were 0 (compost), 0.4 (RFM), 0.4 (sand), and 0.4 (waterbeds); those with score 2 were 79.0, 84.0 +/- 0.01, 73.2 +/- 0.01, and 80.4 +/- 0.01; with score 3 were 20.3, 15.2 +/- 0.01, 23.8 +/- 0.01, and 18.6 +/- 0.01; with score 4 were 0.8, 0.005 +/- 0.001, 0.006 +/- 0.001, and 0.025 +/- 0.003; and with score 5 was 0 for all bed types. Cows on RFM and waterbeds had improved hygiene compared with cows on sand beds. There was no difference in somatic cell count (SCC) by bed type. The percentage of cows in fourth lactation or greater on waterbeds (19.8 +/- 1.8) was greater than those on RFM (13.3 +/- 1.6) or on sand

  6. Ultrasonography of the rumen of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the ultrasonographic findings of the rumen in 45 healthy dairy cows. Results The cows were scanned on both sides using a 5.0 MHz transducer. The dorsal visible margin of the rumen ran parallel to the lung from cranioventral to caudodorsal. It was furthest from the dorsal midline at the 9th intercostal space (48.3 ± 9.24 cm) and closest at the 12th intercostal space (22.4 ± 3.27 cm). The longitudinal groove, which could be clearly identified at all examination sites because it appeared as a triangular notch, formed the ventral margin of the dorsal sac of the rumen. The dorsal sac of the rumen was largest at the caudal flank (40.3 ± 6.33 cm), where it was adjacent to the abdominal wall. The ventral sac of the rumen extended across the ventral midline into the right hemiabdomen and its ventral margin had a largely horizontal craniocaudal course. The height of the ventral sac of the rumen exceeded that of the dorsal sac at all examination sites; the maximum height was measured at the 12th intercostal space (62.6 ± 9.53 cm). The dorsal gas cap, characterised ultrasonographically by typical reverberation artifacts, was visible in all cows from the 12th intercostal space to the caudal flank. It was largest at the 12th intercostal space (20.5 ± 7.03 cm). The transition from the gas cap to the fibre mat was marked by the abrupt cessation of the reverberation artifacts. It was not possible to differentiate a fibre mat and a ventral fluid phase. The rumen could be imaged from the right side in 21 cows (47%). Conclusions Ultrasonography is well suited for the detailed examination of the rumen of cows. The reference values obtained from this study add to the diagnostic tools that are available for the assessment of bovine patients. PMID:23497545

  7. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on progeny feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Muegge, C R; Brennan, K M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2017-03-01

    Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48, BW = 594 kg, BCS = 5.26, age = 2.7) pregnant with male fetuses were used to determine the effect of selenium source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on progeny feedlot performance. At 203 d of gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, and calf sire and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments: no supplemental Se, 3 mg/d inorganic Se (sodium selenite), and 3 mg/d organic Se (Sel-plex). Maternal diets were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NE during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NE during lactation. Basal diets contained 0.07 and 0.11 mg/kg Se for gestation and lactation diets, respectively. Diets were fed daily as a total mixed ration, and no additional Se, 3 mg/d Se as sodium selenite, or 3 mg/d Se as Sel-Plex were top-dressed daily. Treatment diets were fed through 108 d postpartum (DPP). At 108 DPP cow-calf pairs were commingled until weaning at 210 DPP. At 28 d postweaning, steers ( = 47, BW = 301 kg) were placed in individual pens and fed a diet formulated to provide 13.9% CP and 1.24 Mcal/kg NE. No supplemental Se was fed; however, basal Se concentration was 0.10 mg/kg. The diet was delivered as a total mixed ration once daily. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of 625 kg. Steers from cows supplemented with organic Se tended to enter the feedlot heavier ( = 0.06) than steers from cows supplemented with inorganic Se. There was no difference in ADG among treatments ( ≥ 0.73), but steers from organic Se cows tended to spend fewer days on feed compared to steers from inorganic Se cows ( = 0.09). Steers from organic Se cows had a greater overall DMI compared to steers from inorganic Se cows ( = 0.04), but there was no difference in overall G:F ( = 0.49). Dressing percentage was greater for steers from cows fed no Se compared with steers from cows fed either inorganic or organic Se ( = 0.03). Maternal Se source had no effect on HCW, back fat, percentage KPH, LM

  8. Milk drop due to leptospirosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    2015-03-07

    Leptospiral milk drop in dairy cows. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in a cow. Systemic pasteurellosis in lambs. Encephalopathy due to water deprivation/salt poisoning suspected in weaned lambs. Biliary cystadenoma in a red deer hind. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2014 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  9. Rubber Flooring Impact on Health of Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate locomotion, health, production, and immunity over the first 180d of each of the 1st and 2nd lactations of cows assigned to free-stall housing with either r...

  10. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  11. The impact of controlled nutrition during the dry period on dairy cow health, fertility and performance.

    PubMed

    Beever, David E

    2006-12-01

    Average dairy herd fertility is declining, with more serves per successful conception, extended calving intervals and increased culling due to failure to rebreed, all adding significant costs to milk production. Genetics, management and nutrition have all contributed to this decline in fertility; the paper focuses primarily on nutritional issues. The extent of body condition loss after calving and its possible impact on fertility is considered, with evidence that this phenomenon is common in many herds irrespective of average milk yields. Body tissue mobilisation after calving increases the flux of non-esterified fatty acids to the liver and pathways of fatty acid metabolism are considered. Particular attention is given to the effects of high plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels on fat accumulation in liver cells and possible impacts on nitrogen and glucose metabolism. Current nutritional practices with early lactation cows which aim to stimulate milk yield and peak milk production but have been shown to exacerbate body condition loss, are reviewed. The paper also considers cow health issues during the peri-parturient period and how these may affect milk yield and fertility. It is concluded that current feeding practices for dry cows, with the provision of increasing amounts of the lactation ration during the Close-up period to accustom the rumen microbes and offset the expected reduction in feed intake as pregnancy reaches term, have largely failed to overcome peri-parturient health problems, excessive body condition loss after calving or declining fertility. From an examination of the energy and protein requirements of dry cows, it is suggested that current Close-up feeding practices can lead to luxury intakes of nutrients that can increase fat deposition in the viscera and the liver. Under such conditions, metabolism of nutrients by the cow may be compromised. In contrast, limited feeding throughout the whole dry period has been shown to prevent many of the

  12. Repeatability of metabolic responses to a nutrient deficiency in early and mid lactation and implications for robustness of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient partitioning toward the mammary gland during insufficient energy and nutrient supply is a strategy to ensure survival of the offspring in mammalian species. This homeorhetic priority of the mammary gland is also present in the modern dairy cow, in particular in early lactation. However, despite similar metabolic loads, the adaptive response to a given metabolic load varies considerably among animals. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual cows respond in a consistent manner to a negative energy balance (NEB) in early and mid lactation. Twenty-five dairy cows experienced the usual NEB after parturition and were subjected to a second 3-wk NEB induced by feed restriction in mid lactation. Animals were retrospectively ranked according to their highest plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in wk 1 to 4 postpartum. The animals with the 33% highest and 33% lowest values were selected and classified either as the high response (HR) or low response (LR) group. Before parturition, no differences in the studied parameters, dry matter intake, energy balance, concentrations of glucose, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, triglycerides, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, were detected between LR and HR. After parturition, milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield was higher for HR compared with LR in wk 2 to 14 and wk 1 to 6, respectively. During feed restriction in wk 15 to 17 postpartum, no differences in energy-corrected milk between LR and HR were found. Energy balance was more negative in HR during the NEB in early lactation, but not different from LR during feed restriction in mid lactation. Although plasma concentrations of glucose, growth hormone, triglycerides, and cholesterol showed group differences in early lactation, but not during feed restriction, the plasma concentrations of NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in HR changed repeatedly to a greater extent during the NEB at the 2

  13. Effects of supplementary folic acid and vitamin B(12) on hepatic metabolism of dairy cows according to methionine supply.

    PubMed

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Cardinault, N; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2010-05-01

    methylneogenesis, affected the methylation cycle but had a limited effect on dairy cow performance. The observed effects of the combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B(12) on lactational performance of dairy cows probably result from an improvement of energy metabolism during early lactation. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Udder health of dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels after a short or no dry period without use of dry cow antibiotics.

    PubMed

    van Hoeij, R J; Lam, T J G M; Bruckmaier, R M; Dijkstra, J; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2018-05-01

    SCC <200,000 cells/mL) was not different among treatments. The 0-d DP SEL cows but not the 0-d DP LEL cows tended to have a 2.17 times greater hazard of having a case of clinical mastitis at any time in lactation than 30-d DP SEL cows. In wk 1 to 44 of lactation, lower fat- and protein- corrected milk yield and energy intake, greater energy balance, and greater plasma insulin concentration were associated with greater SCC. In conclusion, DP length did not affect udder health in the DP and in early lactation but seemed to decrease udder health for 0-d DP SEL cows in later lactation compared with 30-d DP SEL or 0-d DP LEL cows. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of dexamethasone-21-isonicotinate on peripheral insulin action in dairy cows 5 days after surgical correction of abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Kusenda, M; Kaske, M; Piechotta, M; Locher, L; Starke, A; Huber, K; Rehage, J

    2013-01-01

    Dexamethasone frequently is used for treatment of ketosis in dairy cows, but its effects are not fully understood. Dexamethasone treatment affects whole body insulin sensitivity. Twelve German Holstein cows, 2-4 weeks postpartum, 5 days after omentopexy to correct left abomasal displacement. Randomized, blinded, case-control study. Treatment with dexamethasone-21-isonicotinate (DG; 40 μg/kg IM; n = 6) or saline (control group [CG], 15 mL IM, n = 6) on day 0 (d0). Blood samples were obtained before (d0) and after treatment (d1 and d2), and analyzed for glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. Hepatic triglycerides (TAG) were measured in liver samples taken on d0 and d2. Five consecutive hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (HEC-I-V; insulin dosages: 0.1, 0.5, 2, 5, 10 mU/kg/min, respectively) were performed on d1 and steady state glucose infusion rate (SSGIR), insulin concentration (SSIC), insulin sensitivity index (ISI = SSGIR/SSIC), and plasma NEFA concentration (SSNEFA) were assessed. Compared with CG-cows, DG-cows on d1 had higher plasma glucose (P = .004) and insulin (P < .001) concentrations, decreased SSGIR (HEC-II, P = .002; HEC-IV, P = .033), ISI (HEC-I, P < .015; HEC-II, P = .004), and insulin-stimulated decrease in SSNEFA (HEC-II, P = .006; HEC-III, P = .01; HEC-IV, P = .003; HEC-V, P = .011). Decrease in hepatic TAG content in DG-cows was higher compared with CG-cows (P < .001). Dexamethasone decreases whole body insulin sensitivity and affects glucose and lipid metabolism in early lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Microbial inoculation of alfalfa haylage: ensiling characteristics and milk production response when fed to early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kent, B A; Arambel, M J; Winsryg, M D; Walters, J L

    1989-09-01

    Third-cutting alfalfa hay harvested at bud stage and wilted to approximately 65% moisture was treated with a live bacterial inoculant at the rate of 300,000 cfu/g fresh alfalfa. Treated alfalfa was packed in polyethylene bags. Samples were taken at time of ensiling and d 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 28 postensiling. Mean pH was lower in the treated haylage (5.09 and 5.71 for treatment and control, respectively). Mean temperatures were higher in the treated haylage (30.0 and 28.0 degrees C for treatment and control, respectively). Mold count, water-soluble carbohydrate, alpha amino nitrogen, CP, and ADF were not affected by treatment. Regardless of treatment, pH, mold counts, and water-soluble carbohydrates declined with time. There was no significant difference between treatments for DM intake, milk production, and milk composition.

  17. Replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in the diet of lactating dairy cows: Feed intake, milk production and cow condition responses.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Ruairi P; Staines, Martin vH

    2017-08-01

    This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage. The second treatment diet (COMP) was identical except the 6 kg of crushed wheat was replaced by 6 kg of a more complex concentrate mix (27% crushed wheat, 34% maize grain and 37% canola meal). Lucerne haylage was provided independently in the paddock to all cows, and no pasture was available throughout the experiment. The COMP group had a greater mean overall daily intake (22·5 vs 20·4 kg DM/cow) and a higher energy corrected milk (ECM) yield (29·2 vs 27·1 kg/cow; P = 0·047) than the CON cows. The difference in overall intake was caused by a higher daily intake of lucerne haylage in COMP cows (4·5 vs 2·3 kg DM/cow). The CON group had a higher concentration of milk fat (42·1 vs 39·3 g/kg; P = 0·029) than COMP cows. Milk protein yield was greater in COMP cows (P < 0·021); however, milk fat yield was unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that partially replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in a grass silage-based diet increases voluntary DMI of conserved forage and consequently yields of ECM and milk protein.

  18. Plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids response to epinephrine challenges in dairy cows during a 670-d lactation.

    PubMed

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2018-04-01

    This experiment investigated the metabolic response to a 2-dose epinephrine challenge of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter in a seasonally calving pasture-based dairying system were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. In each of four 40-d experimental periods commencing at 73, 217, 422, and 520 (±9.1) d in milk (DIM), cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM), supplemented with 1 (CON; n = 6) or 6 kg of grain (GRN; n = 6) as a ration. Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for the CON and GRN treatments, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated daily total intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with a jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. Two doses of epinephrine (0.1 and 1.6 µg/kg of body weight) were infused via the catheter 2 h apart to each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Blood plasma concentrations of glucose and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were measured before and after infusions. Cows in the GRN treatment had greater milk yield, milk fat and protein yields, and body weight than cows in the CON treatment. The maximum plasma glucose concentration was observed at 100 DIM for both the low and high doses of epinephrine. Thus, sensitivity and responsiveness to exogenous epinephrine were greater during early lactation, coinciding with increased priority of milk synthesis. Both the sensitivity and responsiveness to epinephrine decreased with decreasing milk yield, as measured by the acute appearance of NEFA in the plasma. Increased plasma glucose and NEFA clearance rates before 300 DIM indicated greater uptake of these substrates by the mammary gland for milk synthesis in early and mid lactation. These

  19. Performance of Holstein and Swedish-Red × Jersey/Holstein crossbred dairy cows within low- and medium-concentrate grassland-based systems.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C P; Purcell, P J; Gordon, A W; Larsen, T; Vestergaard, M

    2018-05-09

    This 2 × 2 factorial design experiment was conducted to compare the performance of spring-calving Holstein dairy cows (HOL, n = 34) with Swedish Red × Jersey/Holstein crossbred (SR × J/HOL, n = 34) dairy cows within low and medium concentrate input grassland-based dairy systems. The experiment commenced when cows calved and encompassed 1 full lactation. Cows were offered diets containing grass silage and concentrates [70:30 dry matter (DM) ratio, and 40:60 DM ratio, for low and medium, respectively] until turnout, grazed grass plus either 1.0 or 4.0 kg of concentrate/d during the grazing period (low and medium, respectively), and grass silage and concentrates (85:15 DM ratio, and 70:30 DM ratio, for low and medium, respectively) from rehousing and until drying off. No significant genotype × system interactions were present for any of the feed intake or full-lactation milk production data examined. Full-lactation concentrate DM intakes were 769 and 1,902 kg/cow for the low and medium systems, respectively, whereas HOL cows had a higher total DM intake than SR × J/HOL cows in early lactation, but not in late lactation. Although HOL cows had a higher lactation milk yield than SR × J/HOL cows, the latter produced milk with a higher fat and protein content, and thus fat plus protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Milk produced by the SR × J/HOL cows had a higher degree of saturation of fatty acids than milk produced by the HOL cows, and the somatic cell score of milk produced by the former was also higher. Throughout the lactation, HOL cows were on average 30 kg heavier than SR × J/HOL cows, whereas the SR × J/HOL cows had a higher body condition score than the HOL cows. Holstein cows had a higher incidence of mastitis and ovarian dysfunction that SR × J/HOL cows. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity

    PubMed Central

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Huber, Korinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Several biological changes occur during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation which is associated with a high susceptibility of health disorders. Nicotinic acid, as feed additive, is suggested to balance catabolic metabolism of periparturient dairy cows by attenuating lipolysis and impact production performance. This study provides information of the biological changes occurring around parturition with special emphasis on differences between primiparous and multiparous cows. Present results showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in dairy cows which were similar in body condition score. Nicotinic acid supplementation did not reveal any effect. Abstract The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA) combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010) serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL), whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of

  1. Peripartal changes in reticuloruminal pH and temperature in dairy cows differing in the susceptibility to subacute rumen acidosis.

    PubMed

    Humer, E; Ghareeb, K; Harder, H; Mickdam, E; Khol-Parisini, A; Zebeli, Q

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate changes in the reticuloruminal pH and temperature dynamics in periparturient dairy cows. Reticuloruminal pH and temperature measurements were conducted from 7 d before until 8 d after parturition using indwelling sensors. Nine Simmental and 4 Brown Swiss dairy cows were fed a close-up total mixed ration (52.5% neutral detergent fiber, 5.68MJ of net energy for lactation per kg of dry matter) with additional 1kg/cow per d concentrate mixture (29.5% neutral detergent fiber and 6.25MJ of net energy for lactation per kg of dry matter), starting from 2 wk before the estimated calving date. Postpartum, all cows had free access to the same close-up diet and were gradually fed increasing amounts of a concentrate-rich total mixed ration for early-lactation cows (32.7% neutral detergent fiber, 7.22MJ of net energy for lactation per kg of dry matter). Data showed depressed reticuloruminal pH early postpartum, but only in the group of cows defined as subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) susceptible (n=8), which had a higher duration time of pH <5.8 (753±82min/d) compared with SARA-tolerant cows (n=5; 15±6min/d). Also, compared with SARA-tolerant cows (112±91min/d), the SARA-susceptible group showed longer (1,049±75min/d) duration time of pH <6.0. When compared by breed, mean reticuloruminal pH tended to be lower in Simmental (6.16±0.03) than in Brown Swiss cows (6.25±0.05), but no differences were observed in the duration of pH <5.8 between breeds. Simmental cows produced more milk (30.4±1.2kg/d) compared with Brown Swiss cows (27.9±1.3kg/d). Neither total dry matter intake nor milk yield were different between SARA-susceptible and SARA-tolerant groups. However, SARA-tolerant cows consumed greater amounts of the close-up total mixed ration than their SARA-susceptible counterparts, whereas no difference was observed in the intake of the early-lactating total mixed ration between the groups. Reticuloruminal temperature was not affected

  2. Induced hypoglycemia for 48 hours indicates differential glucose and insulin effects on liver metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kreipe, L; Vernay, M C M B; Oppliger, A; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M; van Dorland, H A

    2011-11-01

    Hypoglycemia is a characteristic condition of early lactation dairy cows and is subsequently dependent on, and may affect, metabolism in the liver. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of induced hypoglycemia, maintained for 48 h, on metabolic parameters in plasma and liver of mid-lactation dairy cows. The experiment involved 3 treatments, including a hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp (HypoG, n=6) to obtain a glucose concentration of 2.5 mmol/L, a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (EuG, n=6) in which the effect of insulin was studied, and a control treatment with a 0.9% saline solution (NaCl, n=6). Blood samples for measurements of insulin, metabolites, and enzymes were taken at least once per hour. Milk yield was recorded and milk samples were collected before and after treatment. Liver biopsies were obtained before and after treatment to measure mRNA abundance by real-time, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of 12 candidate genes involved in the main metabolic pathways. Milk yield decreased in HypoG and NaCl cows, whereas it remained unaffected in EuG cows. Energy-corrected milk yield (kg/d) was only decreased in HypoG cows. In plasma, concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate decreased in response to treatment in EuG cows and was lower (0.41±0.04 mmol/L) on d 2 of the treatment compared with that in HypoG and NaCl cows (on average 0.61±0.03 mmol/L, respectively). Nonesterified fatty acids remained unaffected in all treatments. In the liver, differences between treatments for their effects were only observed in case of mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCKm) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC). In HypoG, mRNA abundance of PEPCKm was upregulated, whereas in EuG and NaCl cows, it was downregulated. The EuG treatment downregulated mRNA expression of G6PC, a marked effect compared with the unchanged transcript expression in NaCl. The mRNA abundance of the insulin receptor remained unaffected in all treatments, and no

  3. Economic and environmental feasibility of a perennial cow dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Zartman, D L; Crandall, K L

    2005-08-01

    More efficient and economical production systems are needed to improve the sustainability of dairy farms. One concept to consider is using perennial cows. Perennial cows are those that maintain a relatively high milk production for >or=2 yr without going through the typical dry period followed by calving. Farm records show that some cows have produced over 20 kg/d after 4 yr of continuous lactation. A farm simulation model was used to evaluate the long-term performance, environmental impact, and economics of a conceptual perennial cow production system on a typical dairy farm in Pennsylvania. Compared with a traditional 100-cow farm with replacement heifers produced on the farm, a perennial herd of 100 cows and purchased replacements provided environmental benefit but sustained a substantial economic loss. However, increasing the perennial herd to 128 cows better utilized the feed produced on the farm. Compared with the traditional 100-cow farm, use of the perennial 128-cow herd reduced supplemental protein and mineral feed purchases by 38%, increased annual milk sales by 21%, reduced nitrogen losses by 17%, maintained a phosphorus balance, and increased annual net return to farm management by 3200 dollars. A traditional 120-cow dairy farm with purchased replacements also used a similar amount of farm-produced feed. Compared with this option, the farm with 128 perennial cows reduced protein and mineral feed purchases by 36%, maintained similar annual milk sales, increased manure production by 7%, reduced N losses by 10%, and increased annual net return by 12,700 dollars. The economic feasibility of the perennial-cow dairy farm was very sensitive to the milk production maintained by the perennial herd and market prices for milk and perennial replacement animals. The analysis was relatively insensitive to the assumed useful life of perennial cows as long as they could be maintained in the herd for at least 3 yr. Thus, a perennial cow production system can improve the

  4. Strategic supplementation of cassava top silage to enhance rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Viennasay, Bounnaxay; Phesatcha, Burarat; Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Kang, Sungchhang

    2018-04-19

    High-quality protein roughage is an important feed for productive ruminants. This study examined the effects of strategic feeding of lactating cows with cassava (Manihot esculenta) top silage (CTS) on rumen fermentation, feed intake, milk yield, and quality. Four early lactating crossbred dairy cows (75% Holstein-Friesian and 25% Thai) with body weight (BW) 410 ± 30 kg and milk yield 12 ± 2 kg/day were randomly allotted in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to four different supplementation levels of CTS namely, 0, 0.75, 1.50, and 2.25 kg/day of dry matter (DM). Strategic supplementation of CTS significantly affected ruminal fermentation end-products, especially increased propionate production, decreased protozoal population and suppressed methane production (P < 0.05). Increasing the CTS supplementation level substantially enhanced milk yield and the 3.5% FCM from 12.7 to 14.0 kg/day and from 14.6 to 17.2 kg/day (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented group and for the 2.25 kg/day supplemented group, respectively. We conclude that high-quality protein roughage significantly enhances rumen fermentation end-products, milk yield, and quality in dairy cows.

  5. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Survey of ketolactia, determining the main predisposing management factors and consequences in Hungarian dairy herds by using a cow-side milk test

    PubMed Central

    Zechner, Gerhard; Csorba, Csaba; Könyves, László

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the survey were to determine the prevalence of ketosis in dairy herds by measuring the concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in milk by Keto-Test (Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho, Nagoya, Japan); risk factors and the relationship with postpartum diseases were investigated. 1667 early lactating (days in milk 0–75) cows were tested in 52 dairy herds in 2013 and 2014 years. In total, 29.3 per cent of samples were positive (BHBAMILK ≥100 µmol/l), including 3.7 per cent high positives (BHBAMILK ≥500 µmol/l). The prevalence was similar in herds with less than or more than 9000 kg milk yield (0.34 and 0.38, respectively, P=0.4); however, it was higher in the herds with more than 1000 cows than in smaller herds (<500 and 500–1000 cows) (0.46, P=0.03). The BHBA level in milk was in a non-linear positive relationship with parity (P=0.01), associated with retained placenta (P=0.0006), mastitis (P=0.02) and clinical ketosis (P<0.001). The results confirm the high prevalence of ketolactia in Hungarian dairy herds and its links to herd-related and cow-related risk factors and diseases occurring commonly in fresh cows. PMID:29868171

  7. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk as a predictor of energy intake and efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Butler, S T; Pryce, J E; Berry, D P

    2014-09-01

    Interest is increasing in the feed intake complex of individual dairy cows, both for management and animal breeding. However, energy intake data on an individual-cow basis are not routinely available. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of routinely undertaken mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy analysis of individual cow milk samples to predict individual cow energy intake and efficiency. Feed efficiency in the present study was described by residual feed intake (RFI), which is the difference between actual energy intake and energy used (e.g., milk production, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism) or supplied from body tissue mobilization. A total of 1,535 records for energy intake, RFI, and milk MIR spectral data were available from an Irish research herd across 36 different test days from 535 lactations on 378 cows. Partial least squares regression analyses were used to relate the milk MIR spectral data to either energy intake or efficiency. The coefficient of correlation (REX) of models to predict RFI across lactation ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 in an external validation data set; the predictive ability was, however, strongest (REX=0.65) in early lactation (<60 d in milk). The inclusion of milk yield as a predictor variable improved the accuracy of predicting energy intake across lactation (REX=0.70). The correlation between measured RFI and measured energy balance across lactation was 0.85, whereas the correlation between RFI and energy balance, both predicted from the MIR spectrum, was 0.65. Milk MIR spectral data are routinely generated for individual cows throughout lactation and, therefore, the prediction equations developed in the present study can be immediately (and retrospectively where MIR spectral data have been stored) applied to predict energy intake and efficiency to aid in management and breeding decisions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Metabolic and immunological changes in transition dairy cows: A review

    PubMed Central

    Wankhade, Pratik Ramesh; Manimaran, A.; Kumaresan, A.; Jeyakumar, S.; Ramesha, K. P.; Sejian, V.; Rajendran, D.; Varghese, Minu Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Smooth transition from pregnancy to lactation is important for high productive and reproductive performance during later postpartum period in dairy animals. On the other hand, the poor transition often leads to huge economic loss to dairy farmers due to compromised production and reproduction. Therefore, understanding the causes and consequence of metabolic changes during the transition period is very important for postpartum health management. In this review, metabolic changes with reference to negative energy balance in transition cow and its effect on health and reproduction during the later postpartum period in dairy animals are discussed besides the role of metabolic inflammation in postpartum performance in dairy animals. PMID:29263601

  10. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R 2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  11. Effect of uterine size on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baez, Giovanni M; Barletta, Rafael V; Guenther, Jerry N; Gaska, Jerry M; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2016-05-01

    There are multiple reasons for reduced fertility in lactating dairy cows. We hypothesized that one cause of reduced fertility could be the overall size of the reproductive tract, particularly the uterus, given well-established uterine functions in many aspects of the reproductive process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the variability in uterine size in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows and to analyze whether there was an association between uterine size and fertility, particularly within a given parity. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 704) were synchronized to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 81 ± 3 of lactation by using the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF-3d-GnRH-7d-GnRH-7d-PGF-56h-GnRH-16h-TAI). At the time of the last injection of PGF, uterine diameter was determined at the greater curvature using ultrasound, uterine length was determined by rectal palpation, and uterine volume was calculated from these two measurements. Blood samples were also taken to measure progesterone to assure synchronization of all cows used in the final analysis (n = 616; primiparous, n = 289; multiparous, n = 327). Primiparous cows had greater percentage pregnant/AI (P/AI) compared to multiparous cows (49.8% vs. 39.1% at 67 days of pregnancy diagnosis, P = 0.009). Diameter, length, and volume of the uterus were larger in multiparous than in primiparous cows (P < 0.001). For multiparous cows, uterine diameter and volume were smaller in cows that became pregnant compared to cows that were not pregnant to the TAI with a similar tendency observed in primiparous cows. Logistic regression and quartile analysis also showed that as uterine volume increased, there was decreased P/AI in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Thus, there is a negative association between uterine size and fertility in lactating dairy cows with a larger uterus associated with reduced fertility, particularly for multiparous cows. Copyright

  12. Effect of yeast supplementation on performance, rumination time, and rumen pH of dairy cows in commercial farm environments.

    PubMed

    Ambriz-Vilchis, V; Jessop, N S; Fawcett, R H; Webster, M; Shaw, D J; Walker, N; Macrae, A I

    2017-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of live yeast supplementation (Vistacell MUCL 39855, AB Vista, Marlborough, UK) on performance, rumination time, and rumen pH on dairy cows in commercial farm environments. Three trials were carried out, the trials lasted 12 (trial 1), 15 (trial 2), and 19 wk (trial 3). In each trial, 14 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to 2 groups that received (trial 1) a standard diet plus yeast, (trial 2) an acidogenic diet plus yeast, and (trial 3) grazing pasture plus yeast. Milk production, milk chemical characteristics, body weight and body condition score, rumination time, and rumen pH were monitored for each group throughout the 3 trials. No statistically significant differences were observed in any of the 3 trials for any of the recorded variables. In contrast, an effect of time (period or days in milk) on rumen pH was observed in all 3 of the trials, as time spent under the acidotic thresholds increased across the experimental periods; however the differences were not associated with live yeast supplementation. No effect of live yeast supplementation was observed in any of the 3 trials reported. Further research should include studies on animals at different stages of lactation (with emphasis on transition period and early lactation), consuming more challenging diets (higher level of inclusion of concentrates or starch), or under different environments such as grazing of succulent forages. Such studies might be required to elucidate any possible effect of live yeast supplementation of dairy cows when the rumen environment is under challenge. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipomobilization in periparturient dairy cows influences the composition of plasma nonesterified fatty acids and leukocyte phospholipid fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G A; O'Boyle, N J; Herdt, T H; Sordillo, L M

    2010-06-01

    The periparturient period is characterized by sudden changes in metabolic and immune cell functions that predispose dairy cows to increased incidence of disease. Metabolic changes include alterations in the energy balance that lead to increased lipomobilization with consequent elevation of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations. The objective of this study was to establish the influence of lipomobilization on fatty acid profiles within plasma lipid fractions and leukocyte phospholipid composition. Blood samples from 10 dairy cows were collected at 14 and 7 d before due date, at calving, and at 7, 14, and 30 d after calving. Total lipids and lipid fractions were extracted from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The degree of lipomobilization was characterized by measurement of plasma NEFA concentrations. The fatty acid profile of plasma NEFA, plasma phospholipids, and leukocyte phospholipids differed from the composition of total lipids in plasma, where linoleic acid was the most common fatty acid. Around parturition and during early lactation, the proportion of palmitic acid significantly increased in the plasma NEFA and phospholipid fractions with a concomitant increase in the phospholipid fatty acid profile of leukocytes. In contrast, the phospholipid fraction of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in leukocytes was diminished during the periparturient period, especially during the first 2 wk following parturition. This study showed that the composition of total plasma lipids does not necessarily reflect the NEFA and phospholipid fractions in periparturient dairy cows. These findings are significant because it is the plasma phospholipid fraction that contributes to fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids. Increased availability of certain saturated fatty acids in the NEFA phospholipid fractions may contribute to altered leukocyte functions during the periparturient period. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published

  14. Hepatic lipidosis in pregnant cows on a dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Wentink, G H; van Dijk, S; Goedegebuure, S A; Vos, J; Wensing, T

    1992-12-01

    A syndrome very similar to hepatic lipidosis is described in dairy cows during the dry period. After being sent to pasture the animals did not eat well for undetermined reasons. The disease phenomena were mainly observed in animals carrying twins. At post mortem examination severe falty infiltration was found in the 3 animals made available for post mortem examination. Increase of the energy supply to the dry cows by addition of maize silage to the ration prevented new cases.

  15. Algaemia in a dairy cow by Prototheca blaschkeae.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gertrude; Silva, Eliane; Marques, Sara; Müller, Alexandra; Carvalheira, Júlio

    2009-01-01

    We describe the first known case of an algaemia by Prototheca blaschkeae in a dairy cow, which occurred after a chronic episode of mastitis caused by this pathogen. The organism was isolated from milk, joint fluid and blood samples, and microbiologic and molecular methods were performed to obtain a definitive identification of the algae. The affected cow was culled only after confirmation of a systemic infection by Prototheca.

  16. Oxidative stress in dairy cows seropositives for Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Glombowsky, Patrícia; Bottari, Nathieli B; Klauck, Vanderlei; Fávero, Juscivete F; Soldá, Natan M; Baldissera, Matheus D; Perin, Gessica; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2017-10-01

    Bovine neosporosis is caused by the protozoan Neospora caninum and is one of the major causes of abortion in cows. Cattle are intermediate hosts of this parasite and may have asymptomatic or symptomatic infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress marker reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARS) levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST), adenosine deaminase (ADA), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in dairy cows seropositives for N. caninum (asymptomatic or symptomatic). Dairy cows (n=90) were tested by immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) for N. caninum and divided accordingly into three groups: the group A (seronegatives, n=30), the group B (seropositives and asymptomatic, n=30), and the group C (seropositives and symptomatic, n=30). It was observed increased levels of TBARS and reduced (P<0.05) BChE activity in seropositives either asymptomatic or symptomatic animals. ROS levels and ADA activity increased, and GST activity decreased (P<0.05) only in seropositives symptomatic dairy cows (the group C) compared to seronegatives dairy cows (the group A). Based on these results, it was observed that seropositive animals showed cell damage associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, mainly in those with symptomatic infections. Increased seric ROS levels and BChE activity may have influenced N. caninum pathogenesis in symptomatic animals due to increased cell damage and exacerbated inflammatory response, leading to the development of clinical signs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and source of vitamin D in dairy cows: Health and reproductive responses.

    PubMed

    Martinez, N; Rodney, R M; Block, E; Hernandez, L L; Nelson, C D; Lean, I J; Santos, J E P

    2018-03-01

    cows postpartum (58.5 vs. 67.6%). Feeding calcidiol improved the proportion of neutrophils with oxidative burst activity (60.0 vs. 68.7%), reduced the incidences of retained placenta (30.8 vs. 2.5%) and metritis (46.2 vs. 23.1%), and reduced the proportion of cows with multiple diseases in early lactation. Combining the negative DCAD diet with calcidiol reduced morbidity by at least 60% compared with any of the other treatments. Cows with morbidity had lower blood ionized Ca and serum total Ca concentrations than healthy cows. Treatments did not affect the daily risk of hyperketonemia in the first 30 d of lactation. Despite the changes in cow health, manipulating the prepartum DCAD did not influence reproduction, but feeding calcidiol tended to increase the rate of pregnancy by 55%, which reduced the median days open by 19. In conclusion, feeding prepartum cows with a diet containing a negative DCAD combined with 3 mg of calcidiol benefited health in early lactation. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  19. Effects of parturition and feed restriction on concentrations and distribution of the insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laeger, T; Wirthgen, E; Piechotta, M; Metzger, F; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B; Hoeflich, A

    2014-05-01

    Hormones and metabolites act as satiety signals in the brain and play an important role in the control of feed intake (FI). These signals can reach the hypothalamus and brainstem, 2 major centers of FI regulation, via the blood stream or the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). During the early lactation period of high-yielding dairy cows, the increase of FI is often insufficient. Recently, it has been demonstrated that insulin-like growth factors (IGF) may control FI. Thus, we asked in the present study if IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) are regulated during the periparturient period and in response to feed restriction and therefore might affect FI as well. In addition, we specifically addressed conditional distribution of IGFBP in plasma and CSF. In one experiment, 10 multiparous German Holstein dairy cows were fed ad libitum and samples of CSF and plasma were obtained before morning feeding on d -20, -10, +1, +10, +20, and +40 relative to calving. In a second experiment, 7 cows in second mid-lactation were sampled for CSF and plasma after ad libitum feeding and again after feeding 50% of the previous ad libitum intake for 4 d. Intact IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-4 were detected in plasma by quantitative Western ligand blot analysis. In CSF, we were able to predominantly identify intact IGFBP-2 and a specific IGFBP-2 fragment containing detectable binding affinities for biotinylated IGF-II. Whereas plasma concentrations of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 increased during the periparturient period, IGFBP-3 was unaffected over time. In CSF, concentrations of IGFBP-2, both intact and fragmented, were not affected during the periparturient period. Plasma IGF-I continuously decreased until calving but remained at a lower concentration in early lactation than in late pregnancy. Food restriction did not affect concentrations of IGF components present in plasma or CSF. We could show that the IGFBP profiles in plasma and CSF are clearly distinct and that changes in IGFBP in plasma do not simply

  20. Examining the occurrence of residues of flunixin meglumine in cull dairy cows by use of the flunixin cull cow survey.

    PubMed

    Deyrup, Cynthia L; Southern, Kristal J; Cornett, Julie A; Shultz, Craig E; Cera, Deborah A

    2012-07-15

    To determine whether cull dairy cows with signs of certain clinical conditions, termed suspect, are more likely than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows to have violative concentrations of flunixin meglumine in their tissues at slaughter. Cross-sectional study. 961 cull dairy cows. Suspect cull dairy cows were selected from 21 beef slaughter establishments with a high production volume of dairy cows, and kidney and liver tissues were collected for screening. Kidney tissues were screened for antibiotics and sulfonamides with the fast antimicrobial screening test (FAST). Liver tissues were screened for flunixin meglumine with an ELISA, and quantitative analysis of ELISA-positive samples was performed with high-performance liquid chromatography. During the same time period, liver tissues from 251 healthy-appearing cull dairy cows were collected for the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plan, but were screened only for flunixin meglumine. Of 710 suspect cull dairy cows, 50 (7.04%) had liver tissue flunixin concentrations higher than the flunixin tolerance concentration (0.125 ppm). Thirty-one of 168 (18.45%) FAST-positive and 19 of 542 (3.51%) FAST-negative suspect cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Two of the 251 (0.80%) healthy-appearing cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Suspect cull dairy cows, especially those that were also FAST positive, had a significantly higher incidence of violative tissue flunixin concentrations than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows at slaughter. Targeted sampling plans for flunixin meglumine in suspect dairy cows can help to support more efficient use of resources and further safeguard the nation's food supply.

  1. Short Communication: Immunohistochemical localization of the immune cell marker CD68 in bovine adipose tissue: impact of tissue alterations and excessive fat accumulation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Häussler, S; Germeroth, D; Laubenthal, L; Ruda, L F; Rehage, J; Dänicke, S; Sauerwein, H

    2017-01-01

    With the onset of lactation energy from feed intake is mostly insufficient to meet the requirements of dairy cows. Lipid mobilization from adipose tissue (AT) could lead to a compromised inflammatory response enhancing the incidence for diseases. In addition, tissue alterations can occur, displaying areas of necrosis and inflammation. Furthermore, over-conditioned cows mobilizing more lipids from AT than thin cows are prone to develop metabolic disorders. This might lead to an increased infiltration of phagocytic immune cells into AT. In the present study, CD68 positive cells were localized in AT from 10 early lactating Holstein cows displaying different grades of AT alterations. Biopsies were sampled from visceral and subcutaneous AT and the number of CD68 positive cells was immunohistochemically determined. In addition, AT biopsies from over-conditioned, non-pregnant, non-lactating cows (n=8) were immunohistochemically analyzed for CD68 positive cells. The percentage of CD68 positive cells was less than 2% in AT biopsies with tissue alterations and in AT from over-conditioned cows. Therefore, immune cell infiltration demonstrated via the localization of CD68 positive cells seems to play only a minor role in AT from over-conditioned cows as well as in different bovine AT depots with tissue alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using an incomplete gamma function to quantify the effect of dystocia on the lactation performance of Holstein dairy cows in Iran.

    PubMed

    Atashi, H; Abdolmohammadi, A R; Asaadi, A; Akhlaghi, A; Dadpasand, M; Ahangari, Y Jafari

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the effect of dystocia on lactation performance, using an incomplete gamma function. Data from March 2000 to April 2009 comprising 100,628 lactations of 65,421 cows in 204 dairy herds collected by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran were used. Of 100,628 births, 91.8% required no assistance, whereas 8.2% required assistance of some sort. Factors associated with the presence of dystocia were calving season, calving year, herd, calf sex, parity, and age of dam. Peak yield for primiparous cows with dystocia at calving occurred on d 87.2 [standard error (SE) 0.47], and for primiparous cows with easy calving, the peak of lactation was on d 83.3 (0.25). Peak yield was lowered by 0.39 (SE 0.07), 2.20 (SE 0.15), 2.22 (SE 0.21), and 2.54 (SE 0.32) kg for cows with incidence of dystocia compared with normal cows in parity 1 to 4, respectively. Dystocia was associated with decreased 305-d lactation performance in all parities, mostly in early lactation. Although more difficult births occurred in heifer calvings, loss in lactation performance was greater in second or later lactations following a difficult birth. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of the type of silage on milk yield, intake and rumen metabolism of dairy cows grazing swards with low herbage mass.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Albarrán, Miguel; Balocchi, Oscar A; Noro, Mirela; Wittwer, Fernando; Pulido, Rubén G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbage allowance (HA) and type of silage supplemented (TS) on milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI) and metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation. Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to four treatments derived from an arrangement of two HA (LHA = 17 or HHA = 25 kg of DM/cow/day) and two TS (grass (GS) or maize (MS)). Herbage allowance had no effect on DMI or milk yield. Rumen pH and NH3 -N concentration were not affected by HA. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (microbial protein (MP)) was affected by HA with 21.5 and 23.9 g microbial nitrogen per kg ruminal digestible organic matter for LHA and HHA, respectively (P < 0.05). Supplementation with MS showed higher values of milk yield by 2.4 kg/cow/day (P < 0.001), milk protein content by 0.10 % (P < 0.023) and herbage DMI by 2.2 kg/cow/day, and showed lower values for milk urea compared to GS (P < 0.001). The former results suggest that TS had a greater effect on milk yield, total feed intake and energy intake than increase in herbage allowance; however, increase in HA had greater effects on MP than TS. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration.

  5. Omasal dilation and displacement in 4 Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Mayers, Heather M.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Rosa, Brielle V.; Guard, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Cases of omasal dilation and displacement in 4 dairy cows are described. The disease was initially diagnosed by a combination of history and clinical signs that included right-sided abdominal distension, rectal palpation, and decreased milk production. The condition was confirmed by laparotomy or necropsy. PMID:19436447

  6. Evaluation of the change of serum copper and zinc concentrations of dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Gao, Li; Guo, Changming; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Zhe

    2010-12-01

    Ketosis in dairy cows can lead to poor reproductive success and decreased milk production. Since the serum concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are closely associated with the health status of cows, we investigated whether serum concentrations of Cu and Zn differed in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis and healthy dairy cows. Blood samples of 19 healthy dairy cows and 15 subclinically ketotic dairy cows were collected from three farms, and the concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), Cu, and Zn were determined. Subclinically ketotic dairy cows had significantly higher BHBA and NEFA levels (p < 0.01) and lower glucose (p < 0.01) than healthy dairy cows. Likewise, serum concentrations of Zn were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis. There was no significant difference observed for serum Cu concentration between healthy and subclinically ketotic dairy cows. This study suggests that a decreased serum Zn concentration could be a cause of decreased reproductive performance in subclinically ketotic dairy cows.

  7. The effects of milking frequency on insulin-like growth factor I signaling within the mammary gland of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Murney, R; Stelwagen, K; Wheeler, T T; Margerison, J K; Singh, K

    2015-08-01

    In dairy cows, short-term changes in milking frequency (MF) in early lactation have been shown to produce both an immediate and a long-term effect on milk yield. The effect of MF on milk yield is controlled locally within mammary glands and could be a function of changes in either number or activity of secretory mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling is one candidate factor that could mediate these effects, as it can be controlled locally within mammary glands. Both MEC number and activity can be affected by IGF-I signaling by activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathways. To investigate the relationship between MF and IGF-I signaling, udder halves of 17 dairy cows were milked either 4 times a day (4×) or once a day (1×) for 14 d in early lactation. On d 14, between 3 and 5 h following milking, mammary biopsies were obtained from 10 cows from both udder halves, and changes in the expression of genes associated with IGF-I signaling and the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways were measured. The mRNA abundance of IGF type I receptor, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and IGFBP-5 were lower following 4× milking relative to 1× milking. However, the mRNA abundance of IGF-I was not affected by MF. Both IGFBP3 and IGFBP5 are thought to inhibit IGF-I; therefore, decreases in their mRNA abundance may serve to stimulate the IGF-I signal in the 4×-milked mammary gland. The activation of PI3K/Akt pathway was lower in response to 4× milking relative to 1×, and the activation of the ERK1/2 was unaffected by MF, suggesting that they do not mediate the effects of MF. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations between subclinical hypocalcemia and postparturient diseases in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, E M; Arís, A; Bach, A

    2017-09-01

    Dairy cows suffer blood Ca losses as lactation begins and might be affected by hypocalcemia in its clinical (total serum Ca concentration <1.50 mM) or subclinical form (total serum Ca concentration ≤2.14 mM). Several studies have suggested that hypocalcemia is associated with different health problems of the cow but results from different studies are not consistent. The objective of this study was to assess potential associations between subclinical hypocalcemia (SCHC) and displaced abomasum, intramammary infections, metritis, retained placenta, and ketosis. Also, the associations between SCHC and milk yield and reproductive function were evaluated. After discarding cows (32) with clinical hypocalcemia, a total of 764 cows from 6 different commercial farms were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected at 24 to 48 h postcalving and analyzed for total Ca concentration. Odds ratios of the different afflictions potentially associated with SCHC were calculated. Seventy-eight percent of the analyzed cows incurred SCHC. The occurrence of displaced abomasum, ketosis, retained placenta, and metritis was 3.7, 5.5, 3.4, and 4.3 times more likely, respectively, in cows that had SCHC than in cows with normocalcemia. Furthermore, the risk of incurring retained placenta or metritis increased in multiparous cows as serum Ca concentrations decreased compared with that in primiparous cows. Normocalcemic cows, independent of parity, were more likely to show their first estrus sooner after calving than SCHC cows, but no correlation was found between SCHC and other reproductive parameters. Different serum Ca concentration cutoffs were identified for several postpartum afflictions (≤1.93, ≤2.05, ≤2.05, and ≤2.10 mM for ketosis, retained placenta, metritis, and displaced abomasum, respectively). In conclusion, SCHC, defined as serum Ca ≤2.14 mM, is a frequent illness affecting the majority of the dairy cows with important repercussions on health. However, if SCHC

  9. Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Scalia, Daniela; Ronchi, Bruno; Kuzminsky, Giorgina; Nardone, Alessandro

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the effects of intense high environmental temperatures (HET) on lymphocyte functions in periparturient dairy cows. The study was undertaken from the beginning of March through the end of July 2003 in a commercial dairy unit located approximately 40 km north of Rome. Thirty-four Holstein cows were utilised in the study. Twenty-two of these cows gave birth in spring (SP cows), from 28 March to 30 April. The remaining 12 cows gave birth in summer (SU cows), between 15 June and 2 July. The two groups of cows were balanced for parity and were fed the same rations. Blood samples were taken 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before calving, and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after calving, in order to evaluate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) function in vitro, and to determine plasma cortisol concentrations. After isolation, the PBMC were stimulated with mitogens and their response in terms of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion was measured. During spring, either the day (9 20 h) or the night (21 8 h) temperature humidity index (THI) was below the upper critical THI (72) established for dairy cows. During summer, the mean daily THI values were 79.5±2.9 during the day and 70.1±4.7 during the night. Furthermore, during summer, three heat waves (a period of at least 3 consecutive days during which there were less than 10 recovery hours) occurred. Recovery hours were intended hours with a THI below 72. The first heat wave lasted 5 days, the second 6 days, and the third 15 days. Compared to the SP cows, over the entire periparturient period the extent of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion levels were lower (P ranging from <0.01 to 0.0001) and higher (P<0.01) respectively, in the SU cows. Before calving, the SU cows also presented higher (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma cortisol compared to the SP cows. This study indicates that the effects of HET on the immune response depend on the specific immune function under consideration, and that neuroendocrinal changes

  10. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissue of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Hillerton, J E; Pegram, D

    2016-11-01

    To determine the concentration of the anti-theilerial drug buparvaquone in the milk and tissue of dairy cattle following treatment with two different formulations, and to assess the effect of clinical theileriosis on the concentration of buparvaquone in milk. Healthy lactating dairy cows (n=25) were injected once (Day 0) I/M with 2.5 mg/kg of one of two formulations of buparvaquone (Butalex; n=12 or Bupaject; n=13). Milk samples were collected from all cows daily until Day 35. Five cows were slaughtered on each of Days 56, 119, 147, 203 and 328, and samples of liver, muscle and injection site tissue collected. Milk samples were also collected from cows (n=14) clinically affected with theileriosis for up to 21 days after treatment with buparvaquone. Milk and tissue samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; limits of detection (LOD) were 0.00018 mg/kg for muscle and 0.00023 mg/L for milk. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissues were log10-transformed for analysis using multivariate models. In healthy cows, concentrations of buparvaquone in milk declined with time post-treatment (p<0.001), but were above the LOD in 11 of 25 cows at Day 35. Concentration in milk was higher one day after treatment in cows treated with Butalex than in cows treated with Bupaject, but not different thereafter (p=0.007). Concentrations of buparvaquone in muscle were below the LOD for four of five animals at Day 119 and for all animals by Day 147, but were above the LOD at the injection site of one cow, and in the liver of three cows at Day 328. Tissue concentrations did not differ with formulation nor was there a formulation by time interaction (p>0.3). Concentrations of buparvaquone in the milk of clinically affected animals were not different from those of healthy animals at 1 and 21 days post-treatment (p=0.72). Between 21 and 25 days post-treatment concentrations were below the LOD in 9/14 milk samples from clinically affected cows. Detectable

  11. Bovine somatotropin supplementation of dairy cows. Is the milk safe?

    PubMed

    Daughaday, W H; Barbano, D M

    Complex, biologically active proteins (eg, enzymes and hormones) can be manufactured safely and cost-effectively through applications of biotechnology. Some of these proteins (eg, human insulin, human somatotropin, rennet for cheese manufacture) are currently approved for medical or food processing applications. Bovine somatotropin (bST) for lactating dairy cattle is another product that can be produced via biotechnology and may allow dairy farmers to produce milk at a lower cost. In 1985, based on an evaluation of toxicological data, the Food and Drug Administration concluded that milk and meat from bST-supplemented cows was safe and wholesome. The Food and Drug Administration has authorized the use of milk and meat from bST-supplemented cows in the commercial food supply. Its evaluation of the impact of bST supplementation on the long-term health of dairy cattle is near completion, and bST may be approved for commercial use in early 1991.

  12. Use of calcitriol to maintain postpartum blood calcium and improve immune function in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Neto, A; Lima, I R P; Lopes, F; Lopera, C; Zimpel, R; Sinedino, L D P; Jeong, K C; Galvão, K; Thatcher, W W; Nelson, C D; Santos, J E P

    2017-07-01

    -telopeptide of type I collagen in plasma did not differ between treatments. Cows treated with calcitriol excreted more urinary tCa (control = 0.5 vs. calcitriol = 2.1 g/d) and tMg (control = 4.5 vs. calcitriol = 5.0 g/d) in the first 7 and 2 DIM, respectively, than control cows. Compared with control, calcitriol improved the proportion of neutrophils with oxidative burst (control = 31.9 vs. calcitriol = 40.6%), mean fluorescence intensity for oxidative burst (control = 90,900 vs. calcitriol = 99,746), and mean fluorescence intensity for phagocytosis (control = 23,887 vs. calcitriol = 28,080). Dry matter intake, yields of milk, and milk components did not differ between treatments. Administration of 300 μg of calcitriol at calving was safe and effective in increasing blood concentration of iCa and plasma concentrations of calcitriol, tCa, and tP for the first 6 d after treatment, and improved measures of innate immune function in early-lactation Holstein cows. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. a Sensor Based Automatic Ovulation Prediction System for Dairy Cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Toby; Hart, John; Pemberton, Roy

    2000-12-01

    Sensor scientists have been successful in developing detectors for tiny concentrations of rare compounds, but the work is rarely applied in practice. Any but the most trivial application of sensors requires a specification that should include a sampling system, a sensor, a calibration system and a model of how the information is to be used to control the process of interest. The specification of the sensor system should ask the following questions. How will the material to be analysed be sampled? What decision can be made with the information available from a proposed sensor? This project provides a model of a systems approach to the implementation of automatic ovulation prediction in dairy cows. A healthy well managed dairy cow should calve every year to make the best use of forage. As most cows are inseminated artificially it is of vital importance mat cows are regularly monitored for signs of oestrus. The pressure on dairymen to manage more cows often leads to less time being available for observation of cows to detect oestrus. This, together with breeding and feeding for increased yields, has led to a reduction in reproductive performance. In the UK the typical dairy farmer could save € 12800 per year if ovulation could be predicted accurately. Research over a number of years has shown that regular analysis of milk samples with tests based on enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) can map the ovulation cycle. However, these tests require the farmer to implement a manually operated sampling and analysis procedure and the technique has not been widely taken up. The best potential method of achieving 98% specificity of prediction of ovulation is to adapt biosensor techniques to emulate the ELISA tests automatically in the milking system. An automated ovulation prediction system for dairy cows is specified. The system integrates a biosensor with automatic milk sampling and a herd management database. The biosensor is a screen printed carbon electrode system capable of

  14. Nutritional sub-fertility in the dairy cow: towards improved reproductive management through a better biological understanding.

    PubMed

    Friggens, N C; Disenhaus, C; Petit, H V

    2010-07-01

    There has been a significant decline in the reproductive performance of dairy cattle in recent decades. Cows, take longer time to return to the oestrus after calving, have poorer conception rates, and show fewer signs of oestrus. Achieving good reproductive performance is an increasing challenge for the dairy producer. In this study we focus on understanding the overall biological phenomena associated with nutritional sub-fertility rather than the underlying multiplicity of physiological interactions (already described in a number of recent studies). These phenomena are important because they represent the natural adaptations of the animal for dealing with variations in the nutritional environment. They can also be used to monitor and modulate reproductive performance on-farm. There is an underlying trade-off between two aspects of reproduction: investment in the viability of the current calf and investment in future offspring. As the investment in, and viability of, the current calf is related to maternal milk production, we can expect that level of milk production per se has effects on subsequent reproductive performance (investment in future offspring). Lactating cows have a lower proportion of viable embryos, which are of poorer quality, than do non-lactating cows. The same applies to high- compared to medium-genetic merit cows. Another important biological property is the adaptive use of body reserves in support of reproduction. Orchestrated endocrine changes in pregnancy and lactation facilitate the deposition of body lipid during pregnancy and mobilisation in early lactation. When the cow fails to accumulate the reserves she needs to safeguard reproduction she delays committing to further reproductive investment. But how does the cow 'know' that she is failing in energy terms? We argue that the cow does this by 'monitoring' both the body fat mobilisation and body fatness. Excessive body fat mobilisation indicates that current conditions are worse than

  15. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  16. Prediction of drinking water intake by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Judy, J V; Kebreab, E; Kononoff, P J

    2016-09-01

    Mathematical models that predict water intake by drinking, also known as free water intake (FWI), are useful in understanding water supply needed by animals on dairy farms. The majority of extant mathematical models for predicting FWI of dairy cows have been developed with data sets representing similar experimental conditions, not evaluated with modern cows, and often require dry matter intake (DMI) data, which may not be routinely available. The objectives of the study were to (1) develop a set of new empirical models for predicting FWI of lactating and dry cows with and without DMI using literature data, and (2) evaluate the new and the extant models using an independent set of FWI measurements made on modern cows. Random effect meta-regression analyses were conducted using 72 and 188 FWI treatment means with and without dietary electrolyte and daily mean ambient temperature (TMP) records, respectively, for lactating cows, and 19 FWI treatment means for dry cows. Milk yield, DMI, body weight, days in milk, dietary macro-nutrient contents, an aggregate milliequivalent concentration of dietary sodium and potassium (NaK), and TMP were used as potential covariates to the models. A model having positive relationships of DMI, dietary dry matter (DM%), and CP (CP%) contents, NaK, and TMP explained 76% of variability in FWI treatment means of lactating cows. When challenged on an independent data set (n=261), the model more accurately predicted FWI [root mean square prediction error as a percentage of average observed value (RMSPE%)=14.4%] compared with a model developed without NaK and TMP (RMSPE%=17.3%), and all extant models (RMSPE%≥15.7%). A model without DMI included positive relationships of milk yield, DM%, NaK, TMP, and days in milk, and explained 63% of variability in the FWI treatment means and performed well (RMSPE%=17.9%), when challenged on the independent data. New models for dry cows included positive relationships of DM% and TMP along with DMI or body

  17. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  18. Quercetin decrease somatic cells count in mastitis of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burmańczuk, Artur; Hola, Piotr; Milczak, Andrzej; Piech, Tomasz; Kowalski, Cezary; Wojciechowska, Beata; Grabowski, Tomasz

    2018-04-01

    Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which has an effect on inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation. In several other flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, astragalin, alpinetin, baicalein, indirubin), anti-inflammatory mechanism was proven by using mice mastitis model. The aim of the current study was pilot analysis of quercetin tolerability and its impact on somatic cells count (SCC) after multiple intramammary treatment on dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Based on SCC and clinical investigation, 9 dairy cows with clinical mastitis of one quarter were selected for the pilot study. Baseline analysis (hematology, TNFα, SCC) was performed every 24h among all cows three days before the first dose (B1-B3). After the baseline monitoring (B1-B3) eight days treatment (D1-D8) was performed with a high and low dose. Selected blood parameters were analyzed. Starting from D1 to D8, a decrease of SCC in relation to baseline was characterized by declining trend. The presented results allowed the confirmation of the significant influence of quercetin on the reduction of SCC in mastitis in dairy cows after 8days of therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P < 0.001) in cows suffering from ketosis. When the β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) level increased over 1.2 mmol/L, the FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  20. Dairy cow preference for different types of outdoor access.

    PubMed

    Smid, Anne-Marieke C; Weary, Daniel M; Costa, Joao H C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2018-02-01

    Dairy cows display a partial preference for being outside, but little is known about what aspects of the outdoor environment are important to cows. The primary aim of this study was to test the preference of lactating dairy cattle for pasture versus an outdoor sand pack during the night. A secondary aim was to determine whether feeding and perching behavior changed when cows were provided outdoor access. A third objective was to investigate how the lying behavior of cows changed when given access to different outdoor areas. Ninety-six lactating pregnant cows were assigned to 8 groups of 12 animals each. After a baseline phase of 2 d in which cows were kept inside the freestall barn, cows were habituated to the outdoor areas by providing them access to each of the 2 options for 24 h. Cows were then given access, in random order by group, to either the pasture (pasture phase) or the sand pack (sand phase). As we tested the 2 outdoor options using space allowances consistent with what would be practical on commercial dairy farms, the space provided on pasture was larger (21,000 m 2 ) than that provided on the sand pack (144 m 2 ). Cows were tested at night (for 2 nights in each condition), from 2000 h until morning milking at approximately 0800 h, as preference to be outdoors is strongest at this time. During the next 3 nights cows were given access to both outside options simultaneously (choice phase). Feeding and perching behaviors were recorded when cows were indoors during the day and night periods. Lying behavior was automatically recorded by HOBO data loggers (Onset, Bourne, MA). Cows spent more time outside in the pasture phase (90.0 ± 5.9%) compared with the sand phase (44.4 ± 6.3%). When provided simultaneous access to both options, cows spent more time on pasture than on the sand pack (90.5 ± 2.6% vs. 0.8 ± 0.5%, respectively). Time spent feeding indoors during the day did not change regardless of what type of outdoor access was provided, but there was a

  1. Relationship between daily rumination time and estrus of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Reith, S; Hoy, S

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether rumination time (RT) was related to estrus in dairy cattle. On 4 farms, cows were equipped with a microphone-based sensor system that allowed continuous recording (in blocks of 2 h) of RT. The analyzed data set consisted of 265 verified estrus cycles of 224 animals with artificial insemination leading to conception. The day of estrus (d 0) was defined as the day when estrus was identified either by measurement of physical activity or by visual observation. In estrous cows, RT was significantly reduced. With a duration of 355 min/d, the minimum RT was found on the day of estrus compared with the base level of 429 min/d during the reference period (the mean of 3 d before and 3 d after estrus). The average decrease in RT was 17% (74 min), ranging between -71 and +16% among animals. Herd and parity affected the RT decrease during estrus. Among the 4 analyzed herds, the RT decrease of cows in estrus ranged between 14% (60 min/d) and 24% (94 min/d). The decrease in RT was more pronounced in primiparous than in mature cows. In conclusion, RT is reduced on the day of estrus on average. The RT decrease during estrus was characterized by high variation among cows. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of heat waves on dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    Vitali, A; Felici, A; Esposito, S; Bernabucci, U; Bertocchi, L; Maresca, C; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the mortality of dairy cows during heat waves. Mortality data (46,610 cases) referred to dairy cows older than 24mo that died on a farm from all causes from May 1 to September 30 during a 6-yr period (2002-2007). Weather data were obtained from 12 weather stations located in different areas of Italy. Heat waves were defined for each weather station as a period of at least 3 consecutive days, from May 1 to September 30 (2002-2007), when the daily maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the reference distribution (1971-2000). Summer days were classified as days in heat wave (HW) or not in heat wave (nHW). Days in HW were numbered to evaluate the relationship between mortality and length of the wave. Finally, the first 3 nHW days after the end of a heat wave were also considered to account for potential prolonged effects. The mortality risk was evaluated using a case-crossover design. A conditional logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for mortality recorded in HW compared with that recorded in nHW days pooled and stratified by duration of exposure, age of cows, and month of occurrence. Dairy cows mortality was greater during HW compared with nHW days. Furthermore, compared with nHW days, the risk of mortality continued to be higher during the 3 d after the end of HW. Mortality increased with the length of the HW. Considering deaths stratified by age, cows up to 28mo were not affected by HW, whereas all the other age categories of older cows (29-60, 61-96, and >96mo) showed a greater mortality when exposed to HW. The risk of death during HW was higher in early summer months. In particular, the highest risk of mortality was observed during June HW. Present results strongly support the implementation of adaptation strategies which may limit heat stress-related impairment of animal welfare and economic losses in dairy cow farm during HW. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  3. Feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture improves lactation performance, energy status, and hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression of dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Ye, G; Liu, J; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Liao, S F; Huang, D; Huang, K

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture (GY) on feed intake, lactation performance, blood metabolites, and expression of some key hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy cows during the transition period. Forty-four multiparous transition Holstein cows were blocked by parity, previous 305-d mature equivalent milk yield, and expected calving date and randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments: Control (no additive), 2 L/d of GY (75.8 g/L glycerol and 15.3 g/L yeast), 150 g/d of glycerol (G; 0.998 g/g glycerol), and 1 L/d of yeast culture (Y; 31.1 g/L yeast). All additives were top-dressed and hand mixed into the upper one-third of the total mixed ration in the morning from -14 to +28 d relative to calving. Results indicated that the DMI, NE intake, change of BCS, and milk yields were not affected by the treatments ( > 0.05). Supplementation of GY or Y increased milk fat percentages, milk protein percentages, and milk protein yields relative to the Control or G group ( < 0.05). Cows fed GY or G had higher glucose levels and lower β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and NEFA levels in plasma than cows fed the Control ( < 0.05) and had lower NEFA levels than cows fed Y ( < 0.05). On 14 d postpartum, cows fed GY or G had higher enzyme activities, mRNA, and protein expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C; < 0.05); higher enzyme activities ( < 0.05) and a tendency toward higher mRNA expression ( < 0.10) of glycerol kinase (GK); and a tendency toward higher enzyme activities of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) in the liver ( < 0.10) when compared with cows fed Control or Y. The enzyme activities, mRNA, and protein expression of PEPCK-C, PC, and GK did not differ between cows fed GY and G ( > 0.10). In conclusion, dietary GY or Y supplementation increased the milk fat and protein content of the cows in early lactation and GY or G supplementation improved the energy status as indicated by greater plasma glucose and

  4. Elevated Apoptosis in the Liver of Dairy Cows with Ketosis.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiliang; Chen, Liang; Huang, Dan; Peng, Zhicheng; Zhao, Chenxu; Zhang, Yuming; Zhu, Yiwei; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2017-01-01

    Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway. The blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities and the haptoglobin (HP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and serum apoptotic cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope M30 (CK18 M30) concentrations were determined by commercially available kits and ELISA kits, respectively. Liver histology, TUNEL and Oil red O staining were performed in liver tissue samples. TG contents were measured using an enzymatic kit; Caspase 3 assays were carried out using the Caspase 3 activity assay kit; oxidation and antioxidant markers were measured using biochemical kits; apoptosis pathway were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot. Ketotic cows displayed hepatic fat accumulation. The hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased, but the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were markedly decreased in ketotic cows compared with control cows, indicating that ketotic cows displayed severe oxidative stress. Significantly higher serum levels of the hepatic damage markers AST, ALT, GGT and GLDH were observed in ketotic cows than in control cows. The blood concentration of the apoptotic marker CK18 M30 and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the liver of ketotic cows were 1.19- and 2.61-fold, respectively, higher than the values observed in control cows. Besides, Caspase 3 activity was significantly increased in the liver of ketosis cows. Importantly, the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) were significantly increased but the level of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) was markedly decreased, which

  5. Evaluation of alfalfa leaf meal for dairy cows. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Akayezu, J.M.; Jorgensen, M.A.; Linn, J.G.

    1997-10-30

    A series of laboratory tests and two feeding experiments were conducted to determine the quality and evaluate the feeding value of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) for dairy cows. An experiment was also conducted to enhance the protein value of ALM for ruminants. The fiber content of 6 different samples obtained from the processing plant from November 1996 to August 1997 were variable, ranging from 28.8 to 44.5% of DM for NDF, and from 16.0 to 28.6% of DM for ADF. Ash content ranged from 10.1 to 13.8% of the DM. The protein content of ALM was fairly constant and rangedmore » from 21.8 to 23.6% of DM. Amino acids comprise at least 70% of the total CP in ALM, but essential amino acids comprise only about 35% of the total CP. The amino acid profile of ALM is similar to that of alfalfa hay, but markedly different from that of soybean meal. Overall, ALM produced to date is similar in nutrient content to prime alfalfa hay. In one of the feeding trials, ALM pellets were used to replace part of the hay in diets for early lactation cows. The results indicate that ALM pellets can make up as much as 16% of the diet DM in replacement of an equivalent amount of high quality chopped alfalfa hay without adverse effects on production or rumen health. In an other study, ALM replaced soybean meal to supply up to 3 3 % of the total CP in the diet without any detrimental effect on production. However, in each study, dry matter intake was reduced when ALM was included in the diet at or above 15 to 16% of the DM. Although this reduction in feed intake did not influence milk production over the short duration of these studies, it is not known what would happen if ALM was fed over long periods of time. Also, these results should not be interpreted to suggest either that ALM may used to replace all the hay in the diets or that ALM in meal form may be used to replace hay in the diets. Moreover, feed consumption by cows used in these experiments was rather high and somewhat atypical of most cows.« less

  6. Prediction of Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Selenium and Zinc Status of Periparturient Dairy Cows Using Blood Sampling During the Mid Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Meglia, GE; Holtenius, K; Petersson, L; Öhagen, P; Waller, K Persson

    2004-01-01

    Vitamins A and E, and the trace elements selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are essential for the health and performance of dairy cows. Their concentrations often decrease around calving and extra supplementation is sometimes recommended at that time. However, the need for this varies, for example depending on quantity and quality of feedstuffs in the diet. The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of serum vitamin A (S-vit A) and vitamin E (S-vit E), plasma Se (P-Se) and serum Zn (S-Zn) in blood samples taken at several time points from one month before to one month after calving, and to evaluate if a blood sample taken during the mid dry period can accurately predict the blood concentration at calving and early lactation. Dairy cows on 3 different feeding regimens during the dry period were included in the study. A significant decrease in the concentrations of S-vit A and S-vit E, and S-Zn, was observed at calving, and P-Se was significantly lower during the dry period and at calving than in early lactation. The blood concentrations of S-vit E and P-Se in the mid dry period significantly predicted the occurrence of values considered marginal or deficient at the time of calving. The data indicate that a mid dry period concentration of ≥5.4 mg/l of S-vit E and ≥0.09 mg/l of P-Se will result in a 90% chance that the cow stays above marginal levels at calving given that a feed of the same quality is offered. PMID:15535092

  7. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  8. Effect of dietary protein content on animal production and blood metabolites of dairy cows during lactation.

    PubMed

    Law, R A; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Kilpatrick, D J; Wylie, A R G; Mayne, C S

    2009-03-01

    Ninety autumn-calving Holstein dairy cows [45 primiparous and 45 multiparous (mean parity, 3.1)] were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) concentrations: 173, 144, or 114 g of CP/kg of DM, from calving until d 150 of lactation. On d 151, half of the animals in each treatment were allocated an alternative dietary protein concentration. Half of the animals receiving 114 g of CP/kg of DM went onto 144 g of CP/kg of DM; half of the animals receiving 144 g of CP/kg of DM went onto 173 g of CP/kg of DM; and half of the animals receiving 173 g of CP/kg of DM went onto 144 g of CP/kg of DM, with the remaining animals staying on their original treatment. This resulted in 6 treatments in the mid to late lactation period: 114/114, 144/144, 173/173, 114/144, 144/173, and 173/144 g of CP/kg of DM. An increase in dietary CP concentration significantly increased milk, fat, and protein yield in early lactation (d 1 to 150). Dry matter intake was also increased with increased dietary protein concentration; however, this was not significant between 144 and 173 g of CP/kg of DM. Increased dietary CP significantly increased plasma urea, albumin, and total protein concentrations but had no significant effect on NEFA, leptin, or IGF-1 concentrations. Decreasing the dietary CP concentration in mid-late lactation (d 151 to 305) from 173 to 144 g/kg of DM had no significant effect on milk yield, dry matter intake, or milk fat and protein yield, compared with animals that remained on 173 g of CP/kg of DM throughout lactation. Increasing dietary CP concentration from 144 to 173 g/kg of DM significantly increased dry matter intake compared with animals that remained on the 144 g of CP/kg of DM throughout lactation. There were no significant dietary treatment effects on live weight or body condition score change throughout the experiment. Results of this study indicate that high protein diets (up to 173 g of CP/kg of DM) improved feed intake and animal performance in early lactation

  9. Negative energy balance in dairy cows is associated with specific changes in IGF-binding protein expression in the oviduct

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, M A; Llewellyn, S; Fitzpatrick, R; Kenny, D A; Murphy, J J; Patton, J; Wathes, D C

    2008-01-01

    Negative energy balance (NEB) during early lactation in dairy cows leads to an altered metabolic state that has major effects on the production of IGF family members. Low IGF-I concentrations are associated with poor fertility and therefore we aimed to determine whether NEB exerts a direct effect on IGF expression in the postpartum oviduct. Multiparous Holstein cows were allocated to two treatments (each n=6) designed using differential feeding and milking regimes to produce either mild NEB (MNEB) or severe NEB (SNEB). Animals were slaughtered in week 2 of lactation when divergent metabolic profiles were evident. Oviducts were collected for RNA analysis by real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridisation. Quantitative measures in oviduct gene expression were obtained for all members of the IGF family (IGF-I/II, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) 1–6 and receptors for IGF types 1 and 2), insulin A/B, GH, glucocorticoid and oestrogen α/β. Expression of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-6 (both of which have a high affinity for IGF-II) was decreased in SNEB relative to MNEB (P<0.05). No other gene was altered by NEB, but IGF-II, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-5 and IGFBP-6 all showed differential expression in different regions of the oviduct. These results indicate that, in addition to low circulating IGF-I after calving, NEB may also influence IGF availability in the oviduct indirectly through changes in specific IGFBP expression. It is possible that the predicted increased signalling by IGF-II may perturb embryo development, contributing to the high rates of embryonic mortality in dairy cows. PMID:18159084

  10. Nutrition and udder health in dairy cows: a review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Mastitis is still one of the three main diseases that affects the profitability of dairy farmers. Despite the implementation of the five-point mastitis control programme in the early 1970 s, the incidence in the UK has not reduced dramatically over the past 10 years. A review of the scientific literature indicates that there is a link between nutrition and mastitis in the dairy cow. The major impact of nutrition on udder health is via suppression of the immune system. Cows in negative energy balance are at a higher risk of ketosis and clinical ketosis is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of clinical mastitis. Trace minerals and vitamins that can affect udder health are selenium and vitamin E, copper, zinc, and vitamin A and β-carotene. PMID:22082340

  11. NMR metabolomic analysis of dairy cows reveals milk glycerophosphocholine to phosphocholine ratio as prognostic biomarker for risk of ketosis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthias S; Buttchereit, Nina; Miemczyk, Sebastian P; Immervoll, Ann-Kathrin; Louis, Caridad; Wiedemann, Steffi; Junge, Wolfgang; Thaller, Georg; Oefner, Peter J; Gronwald, Wolfram

    2012-02-03

    Ketosis is a common metabolic disease in dairy cows. Diagnostic markers for ketosis such as acetone and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) are known, but disease prediction remains an unsolved challenge. Milk is a steadily available biofluid and routinely collected on a daily basis. This high availability makes milk superior to blood or urine samples for diagnostic purposes. In this contribution, we show that high milk glycerophosphocholine (GPC) levels and high ratios of GPC to phosphocholine (PC) allow for the reliable selection of healthy and metabolically stable cows for breeding purposes. Throughout lactation, high GPC values are connected with a low ketosis incidence. During the first month of lactation, molar GPC/PC ratios equal or greater than 2.5 indicate a very low risk for developing ketosis. This threshold was validated for different breeds (Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Simmental Fleckvieh) and for animals in different lactations, with observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.38. In contrast to acetone and BHBA, these measures are independent of the acute disease status. A possible explanation for the predictive effect is that GPC and PC are measures for the ability to break down phospholipids as a fatty acid source to meet the enhanced energy requirements of early lactation.

  12. Crossbreeding: implications for dairy cow fertility and survival.

    PubMed

    Buckley, F; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Heins, B J

    2014-05-01

    In pasture-based seasonal calving systems, failure to become pregnant during the breeding season results in important economic losses as maximum profit is attained by minimising costs and increasing the proportion of grass in the diet of the lactating dairy cow. In the United States, dairy producers primarily strive to maximise production potential but are becoming increasingly aware of the economic consequences of sub-optimal cow fertility and survival. For this reason, interest in crossbreeding is emerging. The objective of this paper is to review the fertility and survival outcomes reported from recent research studies and data analyses in Ireland, New Zealand and the United States. Research conducted in Ireland during the early 2000s concluded that of three 'alternative' dairy breeds the Norwegian Red was most suited to seasonal grass-based production. A key finding was favourable fertility and survival. A follow-up study confirmed a fertility advantage with Norwegian Red×Holstein-Friesian compared with Holstein-Friesian: proportion pregnant to first service; +0.08 and in-calf after 6 weeks breeding; +0.11. Another study found higher fertility with Jersey crossbreds: pregnant to first service; +0.21, and in-calf after 6 weeks breeding; +0.19. Studies conducted in Northern Ireland also found superior fertility performance with Jersey crossbred cows offered low and moderate concentrate diets. In New Zealand, crossbred dairy cattle (primarily Jersey×Friesian) are achieving similar rates of genetic gain for farm profit as the purebred populations, but creating additional gain derived from economic heterosis. In the United States, analysis of commercial data from California showed higher first-service conception rates for Scandinavian Red×Holstein (+6 percentage units) and Montbeliarde×Holstein (+10 percentage units) compared with Holstein (23%). They also exhibited fewer days open and greater survival. At Penn State University, Brown Swiss×Holstein cows had 17

  13. Elevation of blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration affects glucose metabolism in dairy cows before and after parturition.

    PubMed

    Zarrin, M; Grossen-Rösti, L; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J

    2017-03-01

    show that effects of hyperketonemia on plasma glucose concentrations are similar before and after calving but that endocrine adaptation to hyperketonemia differs before and after parturition. We assume that BHB is a metabolic key regulator in early lactating dairy cows and may affect glucose concentration by further pathways such as gluconeogenesis and altered lipolysis. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling heat loss from the udder of a dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic model that predicts sensible and latent heat fluxes from the udder of a dairy cow was developed. The prediction of the model was spot validated against measured data from the literature, and the result agreed within 7% of the measured value for the same ambient temperature. A dairy cow can lose a significant amount of heat (388W/m(2)) from the udder. This suggests that the udder could be considered as a heat sink. The temperature profile through the udder tissue (core to skin) approached the core temperature for an air temperature ≥37°C whereas the profile decreased linearly from the core to skin surface for an air temperature less than 37°C. Sensible heat loss was dominant when ambient air temperature was less than 37.5°C but latent heat loss was greater than sensible heat loss when air temperature was ≥37.5°C. The udder could lose a total (sensible + latent) heat flux of 338W/m(2) at an ambient temperature of 35°C and blood-flow rate of 3.2×10(-3)m(3)/(sm(3) tissue). The results of this study suggests that, in time of heat stress, a dairy cow could be cooled by cooling the udder only (e.g., using an evaporative cooling jacket). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of visceral pain associated with metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stojkov, J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Marchant-Forde, J N; Weary, D M

    2015-08-01

    Metritis is a common disease in dairy cattle, but to our knowledge, no work has assessed pain associated with this disease. Tissue palpation is commonly used to assess pain in human and veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate visceral pain responses during rectal palpation, with and without uterine palpation, in healthy cows and in cows diagnosed with metritis. A total of 49 Holstein dairy cows (mean ± standard deviation parity of 2.8±1.8) were subjected to systematic health checks every 3 d after parturition for 21 d, scoring for vaginal discharge (0 to 4); 13 cows showed a discharge score ≥2 during at least 1 health check and were classified as metritic, whereas 29 cows were classified as healthy and showed no sign of this or any other disease (including mastitis and lameness). Back arch and heart rate variability before examination and during palpation were recorded using video and heart rate monitors. Back arch (cm(2)) on the day of diagnosis was greater in metritic versus healthy cows (1,034±72 vs. 612±48cm(2)), and greater during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (869±45 vs. 777±45cm(2)). Heart rate frequency domain analysis showed that the low-frequency portion was higher in cows with metritis versus healthy cows (16.5±1.2 vs. 12.9±1.0). Time domain analysis showed that the standard deviation between normal to normal interbeat intervals and the root mean square of successive differences both decreased during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (1.9±0.1 vs. 2.5±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1, respectively). Together, these results indicate that the inflammation associated with metritis is painful, and that the pain response can be detected during rectal palpation with and without uterine palpation. Rectal palpation with uterine palpation appears to be more aversive than rectal palpation without uterine palpation

  16. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell

  17. 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos': Transplacental transmission in dairy cows (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Girotto-Soares, Aline; Soares, João Fabio; Bogado, Alexey Leon Gomel; de Macedo, César Augusto Barbosa; Sandeski, Lígia Mara; Garcia, João Luis; Vidotto, Odilon

    2016-11-15

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' is a haemotropic mycoplasma that can produce various clinical signs in cattle, but abortive potential of the parasite is unknown, as well as the frequency of transplacental transmission in cattle. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency of detection of 'C. M. haemobos' in aborted fetuses and the blood of dairy cows. Blood samples of 22 dairy cows that aborted and pool tissues (brain, lung, heart and liver) of their respective aborted fetuses were tested by conventional PCR. The occurrence of 'C. M. haemobos' DNA in adult animals was 40.9% (9/22) and in the fetuses was 18.2% (4/22). Two fetuses that contained 'C. M. haemobos' DNA were derived from cows which were PCR negative. When stratifying by breed, it was observed that Jersey cows had a higher proportion of positive animals (8/11; 72.7%) as compared to Holstein (1/9; 11.1% P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that this parasite can be transferred via the placenta, but it is not certain if the abortions were due to 'C. M. haemobos'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Two-Stage Rumen Cannulation Technique in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Roger; Proulx, Julien G; Côrtes, Cristiano; Brito, Andre F; Duffield, Todd F

    2015-07-01

    To describe a 2-stage rumen cannulation technique for dairy cows. Case series. 172 dairy cows from 2 research institutions. The 2-stage rumen cannulation technique first exteriorized a rumen segment within a wooden clamp, fixing the clamp to the skin with 6 mattress sutures. After 1 week, the necrotic rumen segment was removed, leaving a rumen fistula in which a 7.5 cm cannula was inserted. This was replaced by a 10 cm cannula a further 1 week later. The surgery took an average of 30 minutes. At least 1 assistant is required for the technique. The overall complication frequency was 7/172 (4%). One cow and 1 heifer aborted less than 10 days after surgery. Two late-pregnant heifers died from peritonitis after insertion of the 7.5 cm cannula because of incomplete adhesion of the rumen to the abdominal wall. The exteriorized rumen segment slipped back in the abdomen in 3 cows but was successfully re-clamped prior to insertion of the 7.5 cm cannula. A high success rate was achieved with this 2-stage cannulation technique. Postoperative complications were attributed to delayed adhesion of the rumen, perhaps because of stress-related factors (e.g., transport, mixing with other animals, transition period). © 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Strategies to gain body condition score in pasture-based dairy cows during late lactation and the far-off nonlactating period and their interaction with close-up dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Kay, J K; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Meier, S

    2017-03-01

    reduced blood fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in early lactation, and increased blood albumin to globulin ratio compared with cows that were dried off close to recommended calving BCS and control-fed during the far-off dry period. Cows consuming 65% of their ME requirements during the close-up period had lower fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in early lactation, but produced less milk, particularly during the first 21 d of lactation, had more than 3-fold greater concentration of haptoglobin immediately postcalving, and had a lower blood cholesterol concentration and albumin to globulin ratio, when compared with cows offered 90 or 120% of their ME requirements. Collectively, these measurements indicate that a severe restriction (<70% of ME requirements) during the close-up nonlactating period increases the risk of disease in early lactation and reduces milk production. In summary, far-off over-feeding of ME to cows that needed to gain BCS did not influence peripartum metabolic health in grazing dairy cows, but restricting cows below 70% ME requirements during the close-up transition period resulted in a blood profile indicative of greater inflammation. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  20. Detection of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor in various adipose tissue depots of dairy cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Friedauer, K; Dänicke, S; Schulz, K; Sauerwein, H; Häussler, S

    2015-10-01

    Early lactating cows mobilize adipose tissue (AT) to provide energy for milk yield and maintenance and are susceptible to metabolic disorders and impaired immune response. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), mainly the trans-10, cis-12 isomer, reduce milk fat synthesis and may attenuate negative energy balance. Circulating glucocorticoids (GC) are increased during parturition in dairy cows and mediate differentiating and anti-inflammatory effects via glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the presence of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1). Activated GC are the main ligands for both receptors in AT; therefore, we hypothesized that tissue-specific GC metabolism is effected by varying amounts of GR, MR and 11βHSD1 and/or their localization within AT depots. Furthermore, the lipolytic and antilipogenic effects of CLA might influence the GC/GR/MR system in AT. Therefore, we aimed to localize GR and MR as well as the expression pattern and activity of 11βHSD1 in different AT depots during early lactation in dairy cows and to identify potential effects of CLA. Primiparous German Holstein cows were divided into a control (CON) and a CLA group. From day 1 post-partum (p.p.) until sample collection, the CLA group was fed with 100 g/d CLA (contains 10 g each of the cis-9, trans-11 and the trans-10, cis-12-CLA isomers). CON cows (n = 5 each) were slaughtered on day 1, 42 and 105 p.p., while CLA cows (n = 5 each) were slaughtered on day 42 and 105 p.p. Subcutaneous fat from tailhead, withers and sternum, and visceral fat from omental, mesenteric and retroperitoneal depots were sampled. The localization of GR and 11βHSD1 in mature adipocytes - being already differentiated - indicates that GC promote other effects via GR than differentiation. Moreover, MR were observed in the stromal vascular cell fraction and positively related to the pre-adipocyte marker Pref-1. However, only marginal CLA effects were observed in this study

  1. Metabolism of americium-241 in dairy animals. [Cows and goats

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.

    1978-10-01

    Groups of lactating cows and goats were used to examine americium-241 metabolism in dairy animals. Following either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 168-hr collection period and the americium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of americium by both cows and goats was estimated to be 0.014% of the respective oral doses. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.4 x 10/sup -4/ and 1.1 x 10/sup -3/ respectively for cows and 4.4 x 10/sup -3/ and 1.2 x 10/sup -3/ respectivelymore » for goats. The relatively high americium concentrations noted in caprine milk following the oral doses are discussed. Plasma concentrations of americium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected americium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 3, 6, and 2% respectively for cows and 2, 4, and 2% respectively for goats. In both intravenously dosed groups, approximately 30% of all americium released from the body was found in the urine during the first 24 hrs after injection. All animals were sacrificed 8 to 9 days after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose followed by the liver. However, liver retained the greatest amount of americium in the goats following both oral and intravenous doses. Comparisons are presented between americium-241 and plutonium-238 transport in dairy cows.« less

  2. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  3. Repeated ruminal acidosis challenges in lactating dairy cows at high and low risk for developing acidosis: feeding, ruminating, and lying behavior.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; Beauchemin, K A; Dohme, F; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2009-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether the susceptibility to ruminal acidosis, as defined through differences in days in milk (DIM), milk production level, and ration composition, influences cow feeding, ruminating, and lying behavior and whether these behaviors change during an acute bout of ruminal acidosis. Eight ruminally cannulated cows were assigned to 1 of 2 acidosis risk levels: low risk (LR, mid-lactation cows fed a 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio diet) or high risk (HR, early lactation cows fed a 45:55 forage:concentrate diet). As a result, diets were intentionally confounded with DIM and milk production to represent 2 different acidosis risk scenarios. Cows were exposed to an acidosis challenge in each of three 14-d periods. Each period consisted of 3 baseline days, a feed restriction day (restricting total mixed ration to 50% of ad libitum intake), an acidosis challenge day (1 h meal of 4 kg of ground barley/wheat before allocating the total mixed ration), and a recovery phase. Feeding, rumination, and standing/lying behavior were recorded for 2 baseline days, on the challenge day, and 1 and 4 d after the challenge day for each cow. Across the study, there were no differences in measures of standing, lying, or feeding behavior between the 2 groups of cows. The HR cows did, on average, spend less time ruminating (491 vs. 555 min/d) than the LR cows, resulting in a lesser percentage of observed cows ruminating across the day (44.6 vs. 48.1%). The acidosis challenge resulted in changes in behavior in all cows. Compared with the baseline, feeding time increased on the first day after the challenge (395 vs. 310 min/d), whereas lying time decreased (565 vs. 634 min/d). Rumination time decreased the first day following the challenge (436 min/d) relative to the baseline (533 min/d), but increased the following day (572 min/d). Fewer cows were observed to be ruminating at a given time on the first day following the challenge as compared with the

  4. Design and calibration of chambers for the measurement of housed dairy cow gaseous emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increased global demand for milk and other dairy products over the past decade has heightened concerns about potential for increased environmental impacts. Accurate measurement of gas emissions from dairy cows is essential to assess the effect of cow diets and other management practices on both ...

  5. Factors associated with early cyclicity in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vercouteren, M M A A; Bittar, J H J; Pinedo, P J; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Vieira-Neto, A; Galvão, K N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with resumption of ovarian cyclicity within 21 days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. Cows (n=768) from 2 herds in north Florida had their ovaries scanned at 17±3, 21±3, and 24±3 DIM. Cows that had a corpus luteum ≥20mm at 17±3 or at 21±3 DIM or that had a corpus luteum <20mm in 2 consecutive examinations were determined to be cyclic by 21±3 DIM. The following information was collected for up to 14 DIM: calving season, parity, calving problems, metabolic problems, metritis, mastitis, digestive problems, lameness, body weight loss, dry period length, and average daily milk yield. Body condition was scored at 17±3 DIM. Multivariable mixed logistic regression analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Variables with P≤0.2 were considered in each model. Herd was included as a random variable. Three models were constructed: model 1 included all cows, model 2 included only cows from dairy 1 that had daily body weights available, and model 3 included only multiparous cows with a previous dry period length recorded. In model 1, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall rather than in the winter or spring, being multiparous rather than primiparous, and not having metabolic or digestive problems. In model 2, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall, not having metritis or digestive problems and not losing >28 kg of BW within 14 DIM. In model 3, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were absence of metabolic problems and dry period ≤76 d. In summary, cyclicity by 21±3 DIM was negatively associated with calving in winter or spring, primiparity, metritis, metabolic or digestive problems, loss of >28 kg of body weight, and a dry period >76d. Strategies preventing extended dry period length and loss of BW, together with reductions in the incidence of metritis as well as

  6. Responses of plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous insulin tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    PubMed

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) was investigated. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter in a pasture-based system were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. Four 5-wk experimental periods commenced at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 d in milk (DIM). Cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1 kg dry matter (DM) of grain (control; CON) or 6 kg DM of grain (GRN). Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for CON and GRN, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated daily intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with a jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. An ITT using 0.12 IU of insulin/kg of body weight (BW) was conducted on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Cows in the GRN treatment had greater milk yield, milk solids yield, and BW than cows in the CON treatment. Within treatment, individual cow responses to the ITT were highly variable. Plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations declined at all stages of lactation. The clearance rate of plasma glucose was slower before 300 DIM than after 300 DIM, which indicates greater inhibition of hepatic glucose synthesis and uptake of glucose by insulin-dependent tissues later in the lactation. The clearance rate, area under the curve, and recovery of plasma NEFA were greatest at 100 DIM, indicating greater responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in early lactation, but also greater lipolytic responsiveness. The variation in response to the ITT was mostly a result of DIM rather than diet. However, the plasma NEFA response showed interactions between diet and DIM, indicating that energy intake

  7. Effects of grass silage quality and level of feed intake on enteric methane production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Warner, D; Bannink, A; Hatew, B; van Laar, H; Dijkstra, J

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of level of feed intake and quality of ryegrass silage as well as their interaction on enteric methane (CH) emission from dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 56 lactating dairy cows received a diet of grass silage, corn silage, and a compound feed meal (70:10:20 on DM basis). Treatments consisted of 4 grass silage qualities prepared from grass harvested from leafy through late heading stage, and offered to dairy cows at 96 ± 2.4 (mean ± SEM) days in milk (namely, high intake) and 217 ± 2.4 d in milk (namely, low intake). Grass silage CP content varied between 124 and 286 g/kg of DM, and NDF content between 365 and 546 g/kg of DM. After 12 d of adaptation, enteric CH production of cows was measured in open-circuit climate-controlled respiration chambers for 5 d. No interaction between DMI and grass quality on CH emission, or on milk production, diet digestibility, and energy, and N retention was found ( ≥ 0.17). Cows had a greater DMI (16.6 vs. 15.5 kg/d; SEM 0.46) and greater fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) yield (29.9 vs. 25.4 kg/d; SEM 1.24) at high than low intake (both ≤ 0.001). Apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility was not affected ( ≥ 0.08) by DMI level. Total enteric CH production (346 ± 10.9 g/d) was not affected ( = 0.15) by DMI level. A small, significant ( = 0.025) decrease at high compared with low intake occurred for CH yield (21.8 ± 0.59 g/kg of DMI; -4%). Methane emission intensity (12.8 ± 0.56 g/kg of FPCM; -12%) was considerably smaller ( ≤ 0.001) at high intake as a result of greater milk yields realized in early lactation. As grass quality decreased from leafy through late heading stage, FPCM yield and apparent total-tract OM digestibility declined (-12%; ≤ 0.015), whereas total CH production (+13%), CH yield (+21%), and CH emission intensity (+28%) increased ( ≤ 0.001). Our results suggest that improving grass silage quality by cutting grass at an

  8. [Automated detection of estrus and mastitis in dairy cows].

    PubMed

    de Mol, R M

    2001-02-15

    The development and test of detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows is described in a PhD thesis that was defended in Wageningen on June 5, 2000. These models were based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, and cow activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The models alert farmers to cows that need attention, because of possible oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables. A time series model describes the dependence between successive observations. The parameters of the time series models were fitted on-line for each cow after each milking by means of a Kalman filter, a mathematical method to estimate the state of a system on-line. The Kalman filter gives the best estimate of the current state of a system based on all preceding observations. This model was tested for 2 years on two experimental farms, and under field conditions on four farms over several years. A second detection model, for cow milked in an automatic milking system (AMS), was based on a generalization of the first model. Two data sets (one small, one large) were used for testing. The results for oestrus detection were good for both models. The results for mastitis detection were varying (in some cases good, in other cases moderate). Fuzzy logic was used to classify mastitis and oestrus alerts with both detection models, to reduce the number of false positive alerts. Fuzzy logic makes approximate reasoning possible, where statements can be partly true or false. Input for the fuzzy logic model were alerts from the detection models and additional information. The number of false positive alerts decreased considerably, while the number of detected cases remained at the same level. These models make automated detection possible in practice.

  9. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming

    PubMed Central

    Archer, S. C.; Newsome, R.; Dibble, H.; Sturrock, C. J.; Chagunda, M. G. G.; Mason, C. S.; Huxley, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  10. The Relationship of Cow Comfort and Flooring to Lameness Disorders in Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Endres, Marcia I

    2017-07-01

    Cow comfort and flooring contribute to lameness incidence in dairy herds. The trigger factors for lameness can all be exacerbated by poor cow comfort. Reduced cow comfort influences lameness incidence by increasing the risk for development of new cases and the time it takes for a cow to recover. Reduction in resting time will increase the cow's exposure to hard flooring surfaces. Many factors are associated with lameness prevalence. Housing and management factors should be optimized to reduce lameness incidence on dairy farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of floor surface on dairy cow immune function and locomotion score

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The study evaluated the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion, leukocyte activity and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed...

  12. Faecal bacterial composition in dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces in comparison with nonshedding cows.

    PubMed

    Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  13. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  14. Association between liver failure and hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in dairy cows with follicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Tanemura, Kouichi; Ohtaki, Tadatoshi; Kuwahara, Yasushi; Tsumagari, Shigehisa

    2017-01-20

    Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) liver activity was measured using estradiol-17β as a substrate in dairy cows with follicular cysts. The activity was significantly lower than that in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles (P<0.01). Liver disorders, such as fatty liver and hepatitis, were observed in half cows with follicular cysts, and liver UGT activity was lower than that in cows with normal estrus cycles. In addition, the liver UGT activity was significantly lower in dairy cows with follicular cysts without liver disorders than in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles. Therefore, the cows were divided into those with low, middle and high liver UGT activities, and liver disorder complication rates were investigated. The complication rate was significantly higher in the low- (78.1%) than in the middle- (22.2%) and high-level (8.3%) groups, suggesting that liver disorders are closely associated with the development of follicular cysts in dairy cows and that steroid hormone metabolism is delayed because of reduced liver UGT activity, resulting in follicular cyst formation. We conclude that reduced estradiol-17β glucuronidation in the liver and liver disorders are associated with follicular cyst occurrence in dairy cows.

  15. Association between liver failure and hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in dairy cows with follicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    TANEMURA, Kouichi; OHTAKI, Tadatoshi; KUWAHARA, Yasushi; TSUMAGARI, Shigehisa

    2016-01-01

    Uridine 5’-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) liver activity was measured using estradiol-17β as a substrate in dairy cows with follicular cysts. The activity was significantly lower than that in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles (P<0.01). Liver disorders, such as fatty liver and hepatitis, were observed in half cows with follicular cysts, and liver UGT activity was lower than that in cows with normal estrus cycles. In addition, the liver UGT activity was significantly lower in dairy cows with follicular cysts without liver disorders than in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles. Therefore, the cows were divided into those with low, middle and high liver UGT activities, and liver disorder complication rates were investigated. The complication rate was significantly higher in the low- (78.1%) than in the middle- (22.2%) and high-level (8.3%) groups, suggesting that liver disorders are closely associated with the development of follicular cysts in dairy cows and that steroid hormone metabolism is delayed because of reduced liver UGT activity, resulting in follicular cyst formation. We conclude that reduced estradiol-17β glucuronidation in the liver and liver disorders are associated with follicular cyst occurrence in dairy cows. PMID:27666462

  16. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    PubMed

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a

  17. Effect of different flooring systems on claw conformation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Nilsson, C

    2009-06-01

    The effect of different flooring surfaces in walking and standing areas on claw conformation, claw horn growth, and wear was studied in 2 experiments during 2 consecutive housing seasons in a research dairy herd of 170 cows. In experiment 1, the flooring systems tested were solid rubber mats, mastic asphalt with and without rubber-matted feed-stalls, and aged concrete slats. In experiment 2, slatted concrete flooring was compared with slatted rubber flooring. The cows were introduced to the respective flooring systems in early lactation and their claws were trimmed before the exposure period. Toe length, toe angle, sole concavity, and claw width, as well as claw growth and wear rates were recorded for lateral and medial claws of the left hind limb. Claw asymmetry calculations were based on these claw measurements and on differences in sole protrusion between lateral and medial soles. Asphalt floors caused shorter toe length and steeper toe angle. They also increased wear on rear claws (5.30 +/- 0.31 and 5.95 +/- 0.33 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively; LSM +/- SE) and horn growth rate (5.12 +/- 0.36 and 5.83 +/- 0.31 mm/mo of lateral and medial claws, respectively). Rubber mats instead of asphalt in walking areas reduced wear (1.36 +/- 0.19 and 2.02 +/- 0.20 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively) and claw growth (3.83 +/- 0.23 and 3.94 +/- 0.17 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). Rubber-matted feed-stalls together with asphalt walkways decreased claw wear (3.29 +/- 0.31 and 4.10 +/- 0.32 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). The concavity of claw soles was reduced on asphalt, especially in the lateral rear claws. Rubber matting in feed-stalls prevented loss of sole concavity compared with asphalt. Claw asymmetry did not differ between flooring systems. While different access to abrasive flooring affected claw conformation, there was no evidence that flooring system influenced the disproportion between lateral and

  18. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d

  19. Effects of oral calcium supplementation on mineral and acid-base status, energy metabolites, and health of postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martinez, N; Sinedino, L D P; Bisinotto, R S; Daetz, R; Lopera, C; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to characterize blood concentrations of minerals and acid-base status after oral dosing of Ca salts and to determine the effects of oral Ca on mineral and metabolic status and incidence diseases. The hypotheses were that administration of oral Ca as CaCl2 and CaSO4 maintains blood total Ca (tCa) concentrations ≥2.125 mM and reduces the incidence of diseases in early lactation. In experiment 1, 18 Holstein cows on the day of calving were assigned to receive a single dose of 0, 43, or 86g of Ca as an oral bolus. Blood was sampled before and after treatments to characterize acid-base status and concentrations of minerals. In experiment 2, 450 Holstein cows considered of low (LRM; normal calving) or high risk (HRM; dystocia, twins, stillbirth, retained placenta, vulvo-vaginal laceration, or a combination of these) of metritis (primiparous-LRM=84; primiparous-HRM=84; multiparous-LRM=138; multiparous-HRM=138) on the day of calving were blocked by parity and then randomly assigned to control, no Ca supplementation; 86g of Ca on d 0 and 1 postpartum (CaS1); or 86g of Ca on d 0 and 1 postpartum followed by 43g/d on d 2 to 4 postpartum (CaS4). Blood was sampled before and 30 min after treatment on d 0, and 30 min after treatments on d 1 to 4, and d 7 and 10 for determination of concentrations of minerals and metabolites and blood acid-base responses. Disease incidence was evaluated for the first 30 DIM. Concentrations of ionized Ca (iCa) increased for 2h in cows supplemented with 43g of Ca and fewer than 8h in cows supplemented with 86g of Ca. The changes in iCa concentrations from pretreatment to 30 min after 86g of Ca supplemented on d 0 were 0.11±0.03 mM in multiparous cows and 0.25±0.03 mM in primiparous cows. Oral Ca reduced the incidence of subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH; tCa <2.125mM) in the first 4 d in the experiment (control=69.3%; CaS1=57.5%; CaS4=34.2%). Calcium supplementation decreased the prevalence of SCH on d 0 and 1

  20. Effects of bedding quality on lying behavior of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fregonesi, J A; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2007-12-01

    Cows prefer to spend more time lying down in free stalls with more bedding, but no research to date has addressed the effects of bedding quality. Bedding in stalls often becomes wet either from exposure to the elements or from feces and urine. The aim of this study was to test the effect of wet bedding on stall preference and use. Four groups of 6 nonlactating Holstein cows were housed in free stalls bedded daily with approximately 0.1 m of fresh sawdust. Following a 5-d adaptation period, each group of cows was tested sequentially with access to stalls with either dry or wet sawdust bedding (86.4 +/- 2.1 vs. 26.5 +/- 2.1% dry matter), each for 2 d. These no-choice phases were followed by a 2-d free-choice phase during which cows had simultaneous access to stalls containing either wet or dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by using 24-h video recordings scanned at 10-min intervals, and responses were analyzed by using a mixed model, with group (n = 4) as the observational unit. The minimum and maximum environmental temperatures during the experiment were 3.4 +/- 2.2 and 6.8 +/- 2.5 degrees C, respectively. When cows had access only to stalls with wet bedding, they spent 8.8 +/- 0.8 h/d lying down, which increased to 13.8 +/- 0.8 h/d when stalls with dry bedding were provided. Cows spent more time standing with their front 2 hooves in the stall when provided with wet vs. dry bedding (92 +/- 10 vs. 32 +/- 10 min/d). During the free-choice phase, all cows spent more time lying down in the dry stalls, spending 12.5 +/- 0.3 h/d in the dry stalls vs. 0.9 +/- 0.3 h/ d in stalls with wet bedding. In conclusion, dairy cows show a clear preference for a dry lying surface, and they spend much more time standing outside the stall when only wet bedding is available.

  1. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Blavy, P; Derks, M; Martin, O; Höglund, J K; Friggens, N C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the variability in shape and features of all progesterone profiles during estrus cycles in cows and to create templates for cycle shapes and features as a base for further research. Milk progesterone data from 1418 estrus cycles, coming from 1009 lactations, was obtained from the Danish Cattle Research Centre in Foulum, Denmark. Milk samples were analyzed daily using a Ridgeway ELISA-kit. Estrus cycles with less than 10 data points or shorter than 4 days were discarded, after which 1006 cycles remained in the analysis. A median kernel of three data points was used to smooth the progesterone time series. The time between start of progesterone rise and end of progesterone decline was identified by fitting a simple model consisting of base length and a quadratic curve to progesterone data, and this luteal-like phase (LLP) was used for further analysis. The data set of 1006 LLP's was divided into five quantiles based on length. Within quantiles, a cluster analysis was performed on the basis of shape distance. Height, upward and downward slope, and progesterone level on Day 5 were compared between quantiles. Also, the ratio of typical versus atypical shapes was described, using a reference curve on the basis of data in Q1-Q4. The main results of this article were that (1) most of the progesterone profiles showed a typical profile, including the ones that exceeded the optimum cycle length of 24 days; (2) cycles in Q2 and Q3 had steeper slopes and higher peak progesterone levels than cycles in Q1 and Q4 but, when normalized, had a similar shape. Results were used to define differences between quantiles that can be used as templates. Compared to Q1, LLP's in Q2 had a shape that is 1.068 times steeper and 1.048 times higher. Luteal-like phases in Q3 were 1.053 times steeper and 1.018 times higher. Luteal-like phases in Q4 were 0.977 times steeper and 0.973 times higher than LLP's in Q1. This article adds to our

  2. Dairy cow breed interacts with stocking rate in temperate pasture-based dairy production systems.

    PubMed

    Spaans, O K; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Bryant, A M; Roche, J R

    2018-05-01

    Economic optimum stocking rates for grazing dairy systems have been defined by accounting for the pasture production potential of the farm [t of dry matter (DM)/ha], the amount of feed imported from outside the farm (t of DM/ha), and the size of the cow (kg). These variables were combined into the comparative stocking rate [CSR; kg of body weight (BW)/t of feed DM available] measure. However, CSR assumes no effect of cow genetics beyond BW, and there is increasing evidence of within-breed differences in residual feed intake and between-breed differences in the gross efficiency with which cows use metabolizable energy for milk production. A multiyear production system experiment was established to determine whether Jersey (J) and Holstein-Friesian (HF) breeds performed similarly at the same CSR. Fifty-nine J cows and 51 HF cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 CSR in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement; systems were designed to have a CSR of either 80 or 100 kg of BW/t of feed DM (J-CSR80, J-CSR100, HF-CSR80, and HF-CSR100 treatment groups). Data were analyzed for consistency of farmlet response over years using ANOVA procedures, with year and farmlet as fixed effects and the interaction of farmlet with year as a random effect. The collated biological data and financial data extracted from a national economic database were used to model the financial performance for the different breed and CSR treatments. On average, annual and individual season pasture DM production was greater for the J farmlets and was less in the CSR100 treatment; however, the effect of CSR was primarily driven by a large decline in pasture DM production in the HF-CSR100 treatment (breed × CSR interaction). This interaction in feed availability resulted in a breed × CSR interaction for the per-cow and per-hectare milk production variables, with HF cows producing more milk and milk components per cow in the CSR80 treatment but the same amount as the J cows in the CSR100 treatment. On a per

  3. Subclinical ketosis in post-partum dairy cows fed a predominantly pasture-based diet: defining cut-points for diagnosis using concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and determining prevalence.

    PubMed

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    Firstly, to define, in dairy cows in the first 5 weeks post-calving fed a predominantly pasture-based diet, cut-points of concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood, above which there were associations with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), reduced pregnancy rates (PR) and decreased milk production, in order to better define subclinical ketosis (SCK) in such cattle; and secondly, to determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for SCK. An observational field study was conducted in 565 cows from 15 spring-calving and predominantly pasture-fed dairy herds in two regions of New Zealand during the 2010- 2011 dairy season. Within each herd, a cohort of randomly selected cows (approximately 40 per herd) was blood sampled to determine concentrations of BHBA on six occasions at weekly intervals starting within 5 days of calving. The key outcome variables were the presence/absence of PVD at 5 weeks post-calving, PR after 6 weeks (6-week PR) and after the completion of the breeding season (final PR), and mean daily milk solids production. Two cut-points for defining SCK were identified: firstly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L within 5 days post-calving, which was associated with an increased diagnosis of PVD (24 vs. 8%); and secondly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L at any stage within 5 weeks post-calving, which was associated with decreased 6-week PR (78 vs. 85%). The mean herd-level incidence of SCK within 5 weeks post-calving was 68 (min 12; max 100)% and large variations existed between herds in peak prevalence of SCK and the interval post-calving at which such peaks occurred. Cows>8 years of age and cows losing body condition were at increased risk of SCK within 5 weeks of calving. Cows with concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L in early lactation had a higher risk of PVD and lower 6-week PR. Cow and herd-level prevalence of SCK varied widely in early lactation. Subclinical ketosis is common and is significantly

  4. Dairy cow culling strategies: making economical culling decisions.

    PubMed

    Lehenbauer, T W; Oltjen, J W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine important economic elements of culling decisions, to review progress in development of culling decision support systems, and to discern some of the potentially rewarding areas for future research on culling models. Culling decisions have an important influence on the economic performance of the dairy but are often made in a nonprogrammed fashion and based partly on the intuition of the decision maker. The computer technology that is available for dairy herd management has made feasible the use of economic models to support culling decisions. Financial components--including profit, cash flow, and risk--are major economic factors affecting culling decisions. Culling strategies are further influenced by short-term fluctuations in cow numbers as well as by planned herd expansion. Changes in herd size affect the opportunity cost for postponed replacement and may alter the relevance of optimization strategies that assume a fixed herd size. Improvements in model components related to biological factors affecting future cow performance, including milk production, reproductive status, and mastitis, appear to offer the greatest economic potential for enhancing culling decision support systems. The ultimate value of any culling decision support system for developing economic culling strategies will be determined by its results under field conditions.

  5. Associations between lipid metabolism and fertility in the dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Wathes, D Claire; Clempson, Andrew M; Pollott, Geoff E

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cows mobilise body tissues to support milk production and, because glucose supplies are limited, lipids are used preferentially for energy production. Lipogenic activity is switched off and lipolytic mechanisms in adipose tissue increase through changes in the expression of several key enzymes. This results in a loss of body condition, together with high circulating concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids. Changes in the synthesis, secretion and signalling pathways of somatotrophic hormones (insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1) and adipokines (e.g. leptin) are central to the regulation of these processes. A high reliance on fatty acids as an energy source in the peripartum period causes oxidative damage to mitochondria in metabolically active tissues, including the liver and reproductive tract. The expression of genes involved in insulin resistance (PDK4, AHSG) is increased, together with expression of TIEG1, a transcription factor that can induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Polymorphisms in TFAM and UCP2, two autosomal mitochondrial genes, have been associated with longevity in dairy cows. Polymorphisms in many other genes that affect lipid metabolism also show some associations with fertility traits. These include DGAT1, SCD1, DECR1, CRH, CBFA2T1, GH, LEP and NPY. Excess lipid accumulation in oocytes and the regenerating endometrium reduces fertility via reductions in embryo survival and increased inflammatory changes, respectively.

  6. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, David C.; Murrell, Joanna C.; Whay, Helen R.

    2017-01-01

    In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards) or hung centrally (a Kong™) within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness) was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that lateralized

  7. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kappel, Sarah; Mendl, Michael T; Barrett, David C; Murrell, Joanna C; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards) or hung centrally (a Kong™) within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness) was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that lateralized

  8. Longitudinal Profiling of the Tissue-Specific Expression of Genes Related with Insulin Sensitivity in Dairy Cows during Lactation Focusing on Different Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Saremi, Behnam; Winand, Sarah; Friedrichs, Paula; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Häussler, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS) is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT) is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c.) AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each) were biopsied covering week −3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPARγ, PPARγ2, IL-6, and TNF-α. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-α were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPARγ2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation. PMID:24465964

  9. Definitions and diagnosis of postpartum endometritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dubuc, J; Duffield, T F; Leslie, K E; Walton, J S; LeBlanc, S J

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of this observational study were to determine and compare diagnostic criteria for postpartum endometritis in dairy cows. Data generated from 1,044 Holstein cows (6 herds) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial were used. Cows were examined for endometritis at 35±3 d (exam 1) and 56±3 d (exam 2) after parturition, using endometrial cytology (cytobrush technique), vaginal discharge scoring (Metricheck device; Simcrotech, Hamilton, New Zealand), and cervical diameter measurement (transrectal palpation). Reproductive data were recorded until 200 d after parturition. Diagnostic criteria for cytological and clinical endometritis were determined based on detrimental effect on subsequent reproductive performance, using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models accounting for the effect of herd clustering. Comparison of diagnostic criteria was performed using endometrial cytology as reference test or by quantifying the agreement between diagnostic approaches. At exam 1, diagnostic criteria were ≥6% polymorphonuclear cells and mucopurulent or worse (purulent or foul) vaginal discharge for cytological and clinical endometritis, respectively. At exam 2, diagnostic criteria were ≥4% polymorphonuclear cells and mucopurulent or worse vaginal discharge for cytological and clinical endometritis, respectively. Cows were classified as having cytological endometritis only, clinical endometritis only, or both cytological and clinical endometritis. Prevalence at exam 1 was 13.5, 9.4, and 5.8% for cytological endometritis only, clinical endometritis only, and both cytological and clinical endometritis, respectively. The detrimental effects of cytological and clinical endometritis on reproductive performance were additive. Among cows with clinical endometritis, only 38 and 36% had cytological endometritis at exam 1 and exam 2, respectively. Combination of diagnostic criteria improved neither the accuracy for predicting cytological endometritis nor the

  10. Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

    . Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

  11. Tithonia diversifolia as a Supplementary Feed for Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Rafael Sandin; Terry, Stephanie Amelia; Sacramento, João Paulo; Silveira, Sylvia Rocha e; Bento, Cláudia Braga Pereira; da Silva, Elsa Fernandes; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; Tomich, Thierry Ribeiro; Maurício, Rogério Martins

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Tithonia diversifolia as a supplementary forage on dairy cow performance and methane production. Nine lactating Holstein × Zebu dairy cows (519 ± 53.3 kg of body weight and 66 ± 13.3 d in milk) were paired by milk yield (21.3 ± 2.34 kg/d) and body weight and randomly assigned to three dietary treatments in a Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for measurements and sample collection). The dietary treatments included the control diet consisting of fresh sugar cane plus concentrate (44:56, % of diet DM), and two treatment diets containing different levels of fresh T. diversifolia (6.5 and 15.4%, DM basis) which partially replaced both sugarcane and concentrates. Methane production was measured using the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) technique from d 16 to d 21 of each experimental period. Analysis of the gas samples was performed by gas chromatography. The inclusion of T. diversifolia at 15.4% DM had no effects on DM intake, milk production, nitrogen balance or methane production. There was no effect on the concentrations of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk fat (P ≥ 0.28), though individual milk fatty acids were affected. Serum concentrations of glucose, urea nitrogen (BUN), triglycerides, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and cholesterol were unaffected by the dietary treatments (P ≥ 0.13). There was a time (2 and 6 h post-feeding) and dietary treatment effect (P < 0.01) on the acetate to propionate ratio in the rumen. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the archaeal community showed distinct clustering of the archaea populations for control and treatment diets. Taken together, our results indicate the potential of T. diversifolia as a supplementary forage for dairy cattle in the tropics. PMID:27906983

  12. Mastitis treatment-Reduction in antibiotic usage in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Krömker, V; Leimbach, S

    2017-08-01

    Animal-friendly, economical, resource-saving milk production provides the basis for sustained consumer acceptance. Bovine mastitis plays a decisive role in the dairy industry-disturbing animal health and welfare and causing considerable economic losses on the other hand. Currently, antimicrobial treatment is indispensable to keep bovine udder health, animal welfare and economic aspects in balance. On the contrary, emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an urgent matter of particular public interest, and as a consequence, antimicrobial usage (AMU) in production livestock is a critically discussed subject. In urgent need of future reduction in AMU in the dairy industry, this review article describes and discusses possible approaches promising prompt implementation, including therapeutical alternatives as well as pro- and metaphylactic concepts such as the implementation of evidence-based mastitis therapy concepts and selective dry cow treatment (sDCT), in search of the most effective and contemporary methods for decreasing AMU and AMR in dairy production. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Short communication: Species group-specific predictors at the cow and quarter level for intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in dairy cattle throughout lactation.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2015-08-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are frequently isolated from quarters with subclinical mastitis, teat apices, and the cows' environment. Virulence, ecology, epidemiological behavior, and effect on udder health vary between different CNS species. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus are frequently present in milk and have a more substantial effect on quarter milk somatic cell count than other species. Therefore, these species are considered the "more relevant" CNS. As species-specific factors associated with CNS intramammary infection (IMI) have not yet been identified and susceptibility for IMI differs between cows and quarters, this study aimed to identify predictors for CNS IMI at the cow and quarter level (some of them changing over time) with a specific focus on the aforementioned more relevant CNS. Precise data were available from a longitudinal study (3,052 observations from 344 quarters from 86 dairy cows belonging to 3 commercial dairy herds). All CNS were molecularly identified to the species level, and multivariable, multilevel logistic regression models taking into account the longitudinal nature of the data, were fit to study the likelihood of infection. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species from CNS IMI in older cows, whereas Staph. chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. simulans were the main species found in IMI in heifers. Quarters from heifers (as opposed to multiparous cows), from heifers and multiparous cows in third or fourth month in lactation (as opposed to early lactation, <60 d in milk), and with an increasing quarter milk SCC were more likely to be infected with the more relevant CNS species. Quarter milk SCC was identified as the sole statistically significant predictor for IMI with other CNS species, although the size of the effect was lower [odds ratio of 1.6 (1.4-1.9) vs. 2.1 (1.8-2.5)] than the effect for IMI with the more relevant CNS

  14. Expression of key lipid metabolism genes in adipose tissue is not altered by once-daily milking during a feed restriction of grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Roche, J R; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Boyle, R H; Snell, R G; Kay, J K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of reduced milking frequency, at 2 feeding levels, on gene expression in adipose tissue of grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) were grazed on pasture and milked twice daily (2×) from calving to 34±6d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 milking frequencies (2× or once daily; 1×) and 2 feeding levels for 3 wk: adequately fed (AF), consuming 14.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day, or underfed (UF), consuming 8.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day. After the treatment period, all cows were fed to target grazing residuals ≥1,600 kg of DM/cow per day and milked 2× for 20 wk. Adipose tissue was collected from 12 cows per treatment by subcutaneous biopsy at -1, 3, and 5 wk relative to treatment start, RNA was extracted, and transcript abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism was quantified using a linear mixed model. At the end of the 3-wk treatment period, transcript abundance of genes involved in fatty acid (FA) uptake into adipose tissue (LPL), FA synthesis [FA synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD)], FA oxidation [acyl-coenzyme A synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2)], glyceroneogenesis [glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC)], and triacylglyceride synthesis [diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2)] were greater in AF1× cows compared with all other treatments. However, when cows were underfed, no effects of milking frequency were observed on transcript abundance of genes involved in adipose lipid metabolism. Despite increases in plasma NEFA concentrations in UF cows, no effects of underfeeding were observed on the transcription of lipolytic genes. At 5 wk, after cows were returned to 2× milking and standard feed

  15. Influence of feed intake, forage physical form, and forage fiber content on particle size of masticated forage, ruminal digesta, and feces of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shaver, R D; Nytes, A J; Satter, L D; Jorgensen, N A

    1988-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine particle size of masticates, ruminal digesta, and feces of dairy cows. In Trial 1, three Holstein cows with ruminal cannulae were fed prebloom alfalfa hay in long, chopped, or pelleted form in a Latin square design (21-d periods) conducted in early lactation (wk 3 to 11) and again during the dry period to attain high (3.75) and low (1.95% of BW) feed consumption. In trial 2, prebloom, midbloom, and full bloom alfalfa hay, mature bromegrass hay, and corn silage were fed to early lactation (wk 5 to 15) Holsteins in a 5 X 5 Latin square design (15-d periods). All diets (Trials 1 and 2) were formulated to 17% CP and contained forage:grain in a 60:40 ratio (DM basis). Similar particle distributions of digesta from long and chopped hay diets suggest little influence of chopping forage on particle size reduction when high quality forage is fed. The large proportion of DM in the small particle (less than .6 mm) pool in the rumen in both trials suggests that rate of escape of small particles from the rumen is an important factor influencing ruminal retention time. Increased proportion of coarse (greater than or equal to 2.36-mm screen) fecal particles at high intake and with fine grinding appears related to a reduction in chewing per unit feed consumed. Soluble DM and particulate matter passing a .063-mm screen made up a significant portion (30 to 50%) of the total DM sieved from all sampling sites in both trials.

  16. Characteristics of feed efficiency within and across lactation in dairy cows and the effect of genetic selection.

    PubMed

    Hurley, A M; Lopez-Villalobos, N; McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; O'Donovan, M; Burke, J L; Berry, D P

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the phenotypic inter- and intra-relationships within and among alternative feed efficiency metrics across different stages of lactation and parities; the expected effect of genetic selection for feed efficiency on the resulting phenotypic lactation profiles was also quantified. A total of 8,199 net energy intake (NE I ) test-day records from 2,505 lactations on 1,290 cows were used. Derived efficiency traits were either ratio based or residual based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models. Residual energy intake (REI) was defined as NE I minus predicted energy requirements based on lactation performance; residual energy production (REP) was defined as net energy for lactation minus predicted energy requirements based on lactation performance. Energy conversion efficiency was defined as net energy for lactation divided by NE I . Pearson phenotypic correlations among traits were computed across lactation stages and parities, and the significance of the differences was determined using the Fisher r-to-z transformation. Sources of variation in the feed efficiency metrics were investigated using linear mixed models, which included the fixed effects of contemporary group, breed, parity, stage of lactation, and the 2-way interaction of parity by stage of lactation. With the exception of REI, parity was associated with all efficiency and production traits. Stage of lactation, as well as the 2-way interaction of parity by stage of lactation, were associated with all efficiency and production traits. Phenotypic correlations among the efficiency and production traits differed not only by stage of lactation but also by parity. For example, the strong phenotypic correlation between REI and energy balance (EB; 0.89) for cows in parity 3 or greater and early lactation was weaker for parity 1 cows at the same lactation stage (0.81), suggesting primiparous cows use the ingested energy for both milk

  17. Milk fatty acids as possible biomarkers to early diagnose elevated concentrations of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jorjong, S; van Knegsel, A T M; Verwaeren, J; Lahoz, M Val; Bruckmaier, R M; De Baets, B; Kemp, B; Fievez, V

    2014-11-01

    Most cows encounter a state of negative energy balance during the periparturient period, which may lead to metabolic disorders and impaired fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of milk fatty acids as diagnostic tools of detrimental levels of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), defined as NEFA concentrations beyond 0.6 mmol/L, in a data set of 92 early lactating cows fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet and subjected to 0-, 30-, or 60-d dry period before parturition. Milk was collected in wk 2, 3, 4, and 8 (n = 368) and blood was sampled weekly from wk 2 to 8 after parturition. Milk was analyzed for milk fatty acids and blood plasma for NEFA. Data were classified as "at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA" (NEFA ≥ 0.6 mmol/L) and "not at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA" (NEFA <0.6 mmol/L). Concentrations of 45 milk fatty acids and milk fat C18:1 cis-9-to-C15:0 ratio were subjected to a discriminant analysis. Milk fat C18:1 cis-9 revealed the most discriminating variable to identify detrimental blood plasma NEFA. A false positive rate of 10% allowed us to diagnose 46% of the detrimental blood plasma NEFA cases based on a milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentration of at least 230 g/kg of milk fatty acids. Additionally, it was assessed whether the milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentrations of wk 2 could be used as an early warning for detrimental blood plasma NEFA risk during the first 8 wk in lactation. Cows with at least 240 g/kg of C18:1 cis-9 in milk fat had about 50% chance to encounter blood plasma NEFA values of 0.6 mmol/L or more during the first 8 wk of lactation, with a false positive rate of 11.4%. Profit simulations were based on costs for cows suffering from detrimental blood plasma NEFA, and costs for preventive treatment based on daily dosing of propylene glycol for 3 wk. Given the relatively low incidence rate (8% of all observations), continuous monitoring of milk fatty acids during the first 8 wk of lactation to diagnose

  18. Dairy cow handling facilities and the perception of Beef Quality Assurance on Colorado dairies.

    PubMed

    Adams, A E; Olea-Popelka, F J; Grandin, T; Woerner, D R; Roman-Muniz, I N

    2014-02-01

    A survey was conducted on Colorado dairies to assess attitudes and practices regarding Dairy Beef Quality Assurance (DBQA). The objectives were to (1) assess the need for a new handling facility that would allow all injections to be administered via DBQA standards; (2) establish if Colorado dairy producers are concerned with DBQA; and (3) assess differences in responses between dairy owners and herdsmen. Of the 95 dairies contacted, 20 (21%) agreed to participate, with a median herd size of 1,178. When asked to rank the following 7 traits--efficiency, animal safety, human safety, ease of animal handling, ease of operation, inject per Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) procedures, and cost--in order of priority when designing a new handling facility, human and animal safety were ranked highest in priority (first or second) by the majority of participants, with ease of animal handling and efficiency ranked next. Interestingly, the administration of injections per BQA standards was ranked sixth or seventh by most participants. Respondents estimated the average annual income from the sale of cull cows to be 4.6% of all dairy income, with 50% receiving at least one carcass discount or condemnation in the past 12 mo. Although almost all of the participating dairy farmers stated that the preferred injection site for medications was the neck region, a significant number admitted to using alternate injection sites. In contrast, no difference was found between responses regarding the preferred and actual location for intravenous injections. Although most participating producers are aware of BQA injection guidelines, they perceive efficiency as more important, which could result in injections being administered in locations not promoted by BQA. Dairy owners and herdsmen disagreed in whether or not workers had been injured in the animal handling area in the last 12 mo. Handling facilities that allow for an efficient and safe way to administer drugs according to BQA guidelines and

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  20. Increased serum serotonin improves parturient calcium homeostasis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Hernandez, Laura L; Weaver, Samantha; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2017-02-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is caused by the sudden increase in calcium demand by the mammary gland for milk production at the onset of lactation. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key factor for calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. Therefore, it is hypothesized that administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, can increase 5-HT concentrations in blood and, in turn, induce an increase in blood calcium concentration. In this study, 20 Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups. Both groups received a daily i.v. infusion of 1 L of either 0.9% NaCl (C group; n = 10) or 0.9% NaCl containing 1 mg of 5-HTP/kg of BW (5-HTP group, n = 10). Infusions started d 10 before the estimated parturition and ceased the day of parturition, resulting in at least 4 d of infusion (8.37 ± 0.74 d of infusion). Until parturition, blood samples were collected every morning before the infusions, after parturition samples were taken daily until d 7, and a final sample was collected on d 30. Milk yield was recorded during this period. No differences between groups were observed for blood glucose, magnesium, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows receiving the 5-HTP infusion showed an increase in fatty acid concentrations from d -3 to -1 before parturition. Serum 5-HT concentrations were increased at d -4 related to parturition until d 5 postpartum in the 5-HTP group compared with the C group. In addition, cows from the 5-HTP group had increased 5-HT concentrations in colostrum, but not in mature milk, on d 7 postpartum. Serum calcium concentrations decreased in both groups around parturition; however, calcium remained higher in the 5-HTP group than in controls, with a significant difference between groups on d 1 (1.62 ± 0.08 vs. 1.93 ± 0.09 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively) and d 2 (1.83 ± 0.06 vs. 2.07 ± 0.07 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively). Additionally, colostrum yield (first milking) was lower in the

  1. Immune response and milk production of dairy cows fed graded levels of rumen-protected glutamine.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, M; Albenzio, M; Marino, R; Santillo, A; Sevi, A

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with glutamine on the immune function and milk production of dairy cows. The experiment involved 24 Friesian cows, divided into three groups of eight each, according to the level of rumen-protected glutamine supplementation: a diet with no supplementation (Control), a diet supplemented with 160 g/day/cow (G160) and a diet supplemented with 320 g/day/cow (G320). At 0, 30, and 60 days of the experiment, lymphocyte response to phytohemoagglutinin (PHA) was determined in vivo for each animal. Humoral response to chicken egg albumin (OVA) and interleukin - (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. Results demonstrate that supplementing 160 g/day/cow of glutamine can modulate immune responses of dairy cows and enhance the amino acid profile of cow milk. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  2. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Hugues; Detilleux, Johann; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine; Bonvoisin, Marie; Rollin, Frederic; Sandersen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows. Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium), thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS) was assessed. Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices ("Homeostasis Model Assessment" HOMA, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB) were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation. Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin.

  3. Comparison of the Effects of Goat Dairy and Cow Dairy Based Breakfasts on Satiety, Appetite Hormones, and Metabolic Profile.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Martín, Elehazara; García-Escobar, Eva; Ruiz de Adana, Maria-Soledad; Lima-Rubio, Fuensanta; Peláez, Laura; Caracuel, Angel-María; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Olveira, Gabriel

    2017-08-15

    The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with appetite related hormones and metabolic profile. Healthy adults consumed two breakfasts based on goat (G-Breakfast) or cow (C-Breakfast) dairy products. Blood samples were taken and VAS tests were performed at different time points. Blood metabolites were measured and Combined Satiety Index (CSI) and areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Desire to eat rating was significantly lower (breakfast & time interaction p < 0.01) and hunger rating tended to be lower (breakfast & time interaction p = 0.06) after the G-breakfast. None of the blood parameters studied were different between breakfasts; however, AUC GLP-1 was inversely associated with the AUC hunger and AUC desire-to-eat after the G-Breakfast, whereas triglyceride levels were directly associated with AUC CSI after the C-Breakfast. Our results suggest a slightly higher satiating effect of goat dairy when compared to cow dairy products, and pointed to a potential association of GLP-1 and triglyceride levels with the mechanisms by which dairy products might affect satiety after the G-Breakfast and C-Breakfast, respectively.

  4. The effects of time of disease occurrence, milk yield, and body condition on fertility of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, S H; de Vries, M J; Schukken, Y H

    1999-12-01

    The associations between occurrence of diseases, milk yield, and body condition score on conception risk after first artificial insemination (AI) were analyzed in an observational study on a convenience sample of 43 farms participating in a herd health program. Data were taken from 9369 lactations, from 4382 cows inseminated between 20 and 180 d in milk from 1990 to 1996. Two logistic regression models, one containing data from all lactations and a subset containing data from 1762 lactations with body condition scoring, were used to determine pregnancy risk at first AI. The effects of herd deviation in test-day milk yield, body condition score loss, and milk fat to protein ratio changes in early lactation were significant predictors of pregnancy risk, independent of disease; days in milk; farm; and seasonal factors. Three different methods of disease parameterization (incidence rates, binomial classes dependent on the interval in days since last occurrence with respect to AI, and a linear variable weighted for this interval) produced similar results. Metritis, cystic ovarian disease, lameness, and mastitis gave odds ratios for pregnancy risk ranging from 0.35 to 1.15, largely dependent on the interval in days from final disease occurrence to first AI. Displaced abomasum, milk fever, and retained fetal membranes resulted in odds ratios for pregnancy risk of 0.25, 0.85, and 0.55, respectively. These diseases showed little relationship between fertility and the number of days since last occurrence. Results of this study confirm the negative effects of milk yield, body score condition loss, and disease on dairy cow fertility. The effects of some diseases on first service conception were strongly dependent on the interval since last disease occurrence. This was especially valid for clinical mastitis, which has an extremely weak effect on conception if occurring prior to AI and is associated with > 50% reduction in pregnancy risk if occurring in the 3 wk directly after

  5. Review: welfare of dairy cows in continuously housed and pasture-based production systems.

    PubMed

    Arnott, G; Ferris, C P; O'Connell, N E

    2017-02-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of continuous housing systems for dairy cows, with various reasons put forward to advocate such systems. However, the welfare of dairy cows is typically perceived to be better within pasture-based systems, although such judgements are often not scientifically based. The aim of this review was to interrogate the existing scientific literature to compare the welfare, including health, of dairy cows in continuously housed and pasture-based systems. Although summarising existing work, knowledge gaps and directions for future research are also identified. The scope of the review is broad, examining relevant topics under three main headings; health, behaviour and physiology. Regarding health, cows on pasture-based systems had lower levels of lameness, hoof pathologies, hock lesions, mastitis, uterine disease and mortality compared with cows on continuously housed systems. Pasture access also had benefits for dairy cow behaviour, in terms of grazing, improved lying/resting times and lower levels of aggression. Moreover, when given the choice between pasture and indoor housing, cows showed an overall preference for pasture, particularly at night. However, the review highlighted the need for a deeper understanding of cow preference and behaviour. Potential areas for concern within pasture-based systems included physiological indicators of more severe negative energy balance, and in some situations, the potential for compromised welfare with exposure to unpredictable weather conditions. In summary, the results from this review highlight that there remain considerable animal welfare benefits from incorporating pasture access into dairy production systems.

  6. The relationship between dairy cow hygiene and somatic cell count in milk.

    PubMed

    Sant'anna, A C; Paranhos da Costa, M J R

    2011-08-01

    Corporal hygiene is an important indicator of welfare for dairy cows and is dependent on facilities, climate conditions, and the behavior of the animals. The objectives of this study were to describe how the hygiene conditions of dairy cows vary over time and to assess whether a relationship exists between hygiene and somatic cell count (SCC) in milk. Monthly hygiene evaluations were conducted on lactating cows in 2 dairy farms for 9 consecutive months, totaling 3,554 evaluations from 545 animals. Hygiene was measured using a 4-point scoring system (very clean, clean, dirty, and very dirty) for 4 areas of the animal's body (leg, flank, abdomen, and udder) and combining these scores to generate a composite cleanliness score. A total of 2,218 milk samples was analyzed from 404 cows to determine SCC and somatic cell linear scores (SCLS). Individual variation was observed in the hygiene of cows throughout the year, with the highest proportion of clean cows being observed in August and the lowest in January. In spite of this seasonal variation, approximately half (55.62%) of the cows displayed consistent cleanliness scores, with 45.86% of them remaining consistently clean (very clean or clean) and 9.76% remaining dirty (very dirty or dirty) over the course of the study. The very clean cows had the lowest SCLS, followed by the clean, dirty, and very dirty cows (no statistically significant differences were found between the latter 2 groups). The most critical months for cow hygiene were those with the greatest rainfall, when a reduction in the welfare of cows and higher SCC values were observed. The evaluation and control of dairy cow hygiene are useful in defining management strategies to reduce problems with milk and improve the welfare of the animals. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a Bilingual Training Tool to Train Dairy Workers on the Prevention and Management of Non-Ambulatory Cows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman-Muniz, Ivette N.; Van Metre, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cows at risk of becoming non-ambulatory or downers represent economic losses and animal well-being issues for the dairy industry. Colorado State University researchers and Extension faculty collaborated with Colorado's dairy industry to create a training tool for the early identification and management of cows at risk of becoming downers on…

  8. Identification of nonlipophilic corynebacteria isolated from dairy cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Hommez, J; Devriese, L A; Vaneechoutte, M; Riegel, P; Butaye, P; Haesebrouck, F

    1999-04-01

    Nonlipophilic corynebacteria associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows were found to belong to four species: Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. These species may easily be confused. However, clear-cut differences between C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were found in their acid production from maltotriose and ethylene glycol, susceptibility to vibriostatic agent O129, and alkaline phosphatase. Absence of growth at 20 degrees C and lack of alpha-glucosidase and 4MU-alpha-D-glycoside hydrolysis activity differentiated C. amycolatum from C. pseudotuberculosis and C. ulcerans. The mastitis C. pseudotuberculosis strains differed from the biovar equi and ovis reference strains and from caprine field strains in their colony morphologies and in their reduced inhibitory activity on staphylococcal beta-hemolysin. C. amycolatum was the most frequently isolated nonlipophilic corynebacterium.

  9. Identification of Nonlipophilic Corynebacteria Isolated from Dairy Cows with Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Hommez, Jozef; Devriese, Luc A.; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Riegel, Philippe; Butaye, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    1999-01-01

    Nonlipophilic corynebacteria associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows were found to belong to four species: Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. These species may easily be confused. However, clear-cut differences between C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were found in their acid production from maltotriose and ethylene glycol, susceptibility to vibriostatic agent O129, and alkaline phosphatase. Absence of growth at 20°C and lack of α-glucosidase and 4MU-α-d-glycoside hydrolysis activity differentiated C. amycolatum from C. pseudotuberculosis and C. ulcerans. The mastitis C. pseudotuberculosis strains differed from the biovar equi and ovis reference strains and from caprine field strains in their colony morphologies and in their reduced inhibitory activity on staphylococcal β-hemolysin. C. amycolatum was the most frequently isolated nonlipophilic corynebacterium. PMID:10074508

  10. Ultrasonographic ovarian dynamic, plasma progesterone, and non-esterified fatty acids in lame postpartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Veronica; Bothe, Hans; Rodriguez, Francisco; Velez, Juan; Lopez, Hernando; Bartolome, Julian; Archbald, Louis

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare ovulation rate, number of large ovarian follicles, and concentrations of plasma progesterone (P4) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) between lame (n = 10) and non-lame (n = 10) lactating Holstein cows. The study was conducted in an organic dairy farm, and cows were evaluated by undertaking ultrasonography and blood sampling every 3 days from 30 days postpartum for a period of 34 days. Cows which became lame during the first 30 days postpartum experienced a lower ovulation rate determined by the presence of a corpus luteum (50% presence for lame cows and 100% for non-lame cows, p ≤ 0.05). The number of large ovarian follicles in the ovaries was 5 for lame cows and 7 for non-lame cows (p = 0.09). Compared to non-lame cows, lame cows had significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) concentrations of plasma P4. Furthermore, NEFA concentrations were lower (p ≤ 0.05) in lame cows than in non-lame cows. It is concluded that lameness in postpartum dairy cows is associated with ovulation failure and lower concentrations of P4 and NEFA. PMID:29486532

  11. Metabolic responses and "omics" technologies for elucidating the effects of heat stress in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Zhao, Shengguo; Tian, He; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Yang, Hongjian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-06-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects various industries that rely on animal husbandry, particularly the dairy industry. A better understanding of metabolic responses in HS dairy cows is necessary to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of HS and offer a new perspective for future research. In this paper, we review the current knowledge of responses of body metabolism (lipid, carbohydrate, and protein), endocrine profiles, and bovine mammary epithelial cells during HS. Furthermore, we summarize the metabolomics and proteomics data that have revealed the metabolite profiles and differentially expressed proteins that are a feature of HS in dairy cows. Analysis of metabolic changes and "omics" data demonstrated that HS is characterized by reduced lipolysis, increased glycolysis, and catabolism of amino acids in dairy cows. Here, analysis of the impairment of immune function during HS and of the inflammation that arises after long-term HS might suggest new strategies to ameliorate the effects of HS in dairy production.

  12. Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

    1980-06-01

    Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

  13. Effect of Dietary Forage to Concentrate Ratio on Lactation Performance and Methane Emission from Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to determine the effect of feeding diets with different forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) on performance and methane (CH4) emission from lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (means ± standard deviation: 620 ± 38 kg of body weight (BW); 41 ± 34 days in milk (DIM)) ...

  14. Cow genotyping strategies for genomic selection in small dairy cattle population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study compares how different cow genotyping strategies increase the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (EBV) in dairy cattle breeds with low numbers. In these breeds there are few sires with progeny records and genotyping cows can improve the accuracy of genomic EBV. The Guernsey bre...

  15. Sweating rates of dairy cows and beef heifers in hot conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a “Portable Calorimeter” and a “Bovine Evaporation Meter” designed and fabricated for the studies reported herein. Measurements were taken when cows were in their natural habitat. The focus of the study was to compare swea...

  16. Sweating Rates of Dairy and Feedlot Cows in Stressful Thermal Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  17. Sweating rates of dairy and feedlot cows under stressful thermal environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  18. Effect of altering the type of dietary carbohydrate early postpartum on reproductive performance and milk production in pasture-grazed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Leane, S; Butler, S T; Roche, J R; Burke, C R

    2018-04-01

    effect on reproduction from increasing dietary starch in seasonally bred grazing dairy cows. However, the interactions indicate variability in the herd response to dietary starch early postpartum and imply that pregnancy rate could potentially be compromised through the provision of starch to grazing dairy cows in early lactation (i.e., prebreeding). The experiment was not designed to define the reasons for these interactions, but differences should be considered in future research on the subject. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating locomotion of dairy cows by use of high speed cinematography.

    PubMed

    Herlin, A H; Drevemo, S

    1997-05-01

    The longterm influence of management systems on the locomotion of 17 dairy cows was investigated by high speed cinematography (100 frames/s) and kinematic analysis. Angular patterns and hoof trajectories of the left fore- and hindlimbs are presented and statistics made of occurring minimum and maximum angles. At the recording, 3 cows had been kept in tie-stalls (TI) and 6 cows in cubicles (CI) for a consecutive time of about 2.5 years while 8 cows had been kept on grass for about 3 months. Four of the grazing cows had earlier been kept in cubicles (CG) and 4 in tie-stalls (TG) during earlier off grazing seasons together with TI and CI cows. The CI cows had a smaller maximum angle of the elbow joint compared to TI, TG and CG cows. The hock joint angle of the CI cows was less flexed during the stance phase than in TI and CG cows while the minimum angle during the swing phase was greater in the TI and CI cows compared to TG and CG cows. Pastured cows (TG and CG) had a less pronounced flexion of the fetlock joint angle during the stance compared to cows kept indoors (TI and CI). The results suggest that slatted floor and lack of exercise during summer grazing may affect locomotion. This is indicated by restrictions in the movements of the elbow and hock joints and in less fetlock joint flexion at full support.

  20. Concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron in the serum of dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Xiaobing; Wang, Hongbin; Guo, Changming; Gao, Li; Liu, Lei; Gao, Ruifeng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yanfei; Liu, Guowen

    2011-12-01

    Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron were measured in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis. Compared with healthy cows, the subclinically ketotic cows had significantly higher levels of non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutirate in serum and significantly lower levels of blood glucose (p < 0.01). No significant differences were observed, suggesting that the mineral elements measured are not involved in the pathogenesis of subclinical ketosis.

  1. Dairy Cows Productivity and Socio-Economic Profile of Dairy Smallholder’s Communities in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyobroto, B. P.; Rochijan; Noviandi, C. T.; Astuti, A.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this field questionnaire survey was to describe the dairy cow productivity and socio-economic profile of dairy cattle farmers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta smallholder farming communities which have been targeted dairy development policy. The study was conducted on 190 Friesian Holstein (FH) cows maintained under smallholder’s management system in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 83 farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire to assess the socio-economic dairy farmer and productivity performance of dairy cows. The number of dairy productivity performance within the normal. Shortages as well as high cost of feed, occurrence of disease, scarce information about feeding and high medicament cost were the main constraints which might have contributed considerably to delayed age at first service, late age at first calving, long calving interval, short lactation length and low milk production. Therefore, strategies designed to solve the existing problem should be important by involving all stakeholders in the formulation and implementation of improvement strategiesor dairy development policy was being implemented and necessary respect to environmental factors affecting agricultural activities such as a constraint on land use and access to water resources.

  2. Assessing circumstances and causes of dairy cow death in Italian dairy farms through a veterinary practice survey (2013-2014).

    PubMed

    Fusi, Francesca; Angelucci, Alessandra; Lorenzi, Valentina; Bolzoni, Luca; Bertocchi, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    A questionnaire survey about on farm dairy cow mortality was carried out among veterinary practitioners in Italy between January 2013 and May 2014. The study aimed at investigating the main circumstances of death in dairy cows (euthanasia, emergency slaughter or unassisted death), the primary causes and the risk factors of death. Out of 251 dead cows involved (across 137 farms), 54.6% died assisted and 45.4% were found dead. The main causes of death were metabolic/digestive disorders (22.3%) and mastitis/udder problems (17.1%), while in 14.7% of all cases, reasons of death were unknown. From the univariable generalised linear mixed models, dry cows showed a significantly higher odds to die unassisted compared to lactating cows (OR=3.2); dry cows also had higher odds of dying from unknown reasons (OR=11.7). Season was not significantly related to the risk of dying unassisted and for unknown reasons, but during the summer (characterised by hot and muggy weather in Northern Italy) cows died mostly for problems at calving. 54.2% of cows died during the first 30days in milk (DIM). Half of the multiparous cows that died, died in the first 29.5 DIM, while half of the primiparous cows that died, died in the first 50 DIM. Results pointed out that, especially in dry cows, around calving and during the summer, some failure in management practices and daily inspections may occur. Improvements should be done in monitoring activities and in recognising early symptoms of diseases among stockperson. In addition, in case of diagnosed diseases with poor prognosis, euthanasia procedures should be implemented to prevent cows from dying unassisted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., <3 yr of age) and the differential in price and value between younger and older cows was greater in dual-purpose than in dairy breeds. Large differences in cull cow whole carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. Copyright

  4. Influence of methionine supply on the response of lactational performance of dairy cows to supplementary folic acid and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2009-04-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine if the effects of supplementary folic acid on lactational performance were caused by improved methylneogenesis and if the supply in vitamin B(12) could affect this metabolic pathway. In this eventuality, supplementary Met, a major source of preformed methyl groups, should reduce the requirements for these vitamins. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 10 blocks of 6 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 3 cows were fed a diet estimated to supply Met as 1.83% metabolizable protein and 3 cows were fed the same diet supplemented with 18 g of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) to supply Met as 2.23% of metabolizable protein. Within each level of Met, cows received no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160 mg of folic acid alone or combined with 10 mg of vitamin B(12) from 3 wk before to 16 wk after calving. There was no treatment effect on dry matter intake during pre- and postcalving periods: 13.4 +/- 0.4 and 21.8 +/- 0.4 kg/d, respectively. Milk production was not affected by RPM supplementation. Folic acid and vitamin B(12) given together tended to increase milk production during the 16 wk of lactation. This effect was more pronounced during the first 4 wk of lactation: 37.5, 37.7, and 40.3 +/- 0.9 kg/d for cows receiving no vitamin supplement, folic acid alone, or folic acid combined with vitamin B(12), respectively. Milk fat yield was not affected by treatments. Lactose, crude protein, and total solid yields were greater, in early lactation, in cows injected with folic acid and vitamin B(12) together but this effect diminished as lactation progressed. Intramuscular injections of folic acid alone or combined with vitamin B(12) tended to decrease plasma concentrations of homocysteine from 5.51 microM with no vitamin supplement to 4.54 and 4.77 +/- 0.37 microM, respectively. Results of the present experiment suggest that the effects of the combined

  5. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  6. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    PubMed

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  7. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A.; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Lameness is prevalent in dairy cows and early diagnosis and timely treatment of the disease can lower animal suffering, improve recovery rate, increase longevity, and minimize cow loss. However, there are no indications of disease until it appears clinically, and presently the only approach to deal with the sick cow is intensive treatment or culling. The results suggest that lameness affected serum concentrations of the several parameters related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that might be used to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future. Abstract The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and

  8. Parturition to resumption of ovarian cyclicity: comparative aspects of beef and dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Crowe, M A; Diskin, M G; Williams, E J

    2014-05-01

    There is a variable anoestrous period following parturition in the cow. Follicular growth generally resumes within 7 to 10 days in the majority of cows associated with a transient FSH rise that occurs within 3 to 5 days of parturition. Dairy cows that are not nutritionally stressed generally ovulate their first postpartum dominant follicle (~15 days), whereas beef suckler cows in good body condition normally have a mean of 3.2±0.2 dominant follicles (~30 days) to first ovulation; moreover, beef cows in poor body condition have a mean of 10.6±1.2 dominant follicles (~70 to 100 days) to first ovulation. The lack of ovulation of dominant follicles during the postpartum period is associated with infrequent LH pulses, with both maternal-offspring bonding and low body condition score (BCS) at calving being implicated as the predominant causes of delayed resumption of cyclicity in nursed beef cows. In dairy cows, the normal pattern of early resumption of ovulation may be delayed in high-yielding Holstein type cows generally owing to the effects of severe negative energy balance, dystocia, retained placental membranes and uterine infections. First ovulation, in both dairy and beef cows, is generally silent (i.e., no behavioural oestrus) and followed by a short inter-ovulatory interval (>70%). The key to optimizing the resumption of ovulation in both beef and dairy cows is appropriate pre-calving nutrition and management so that cows calve down in optimal body condition (BCS; 2.75 to 3.0) with postpartum body condition loss restricted to <0.5 BCS units.

  9. Study on Intelligent Multi-concentrates Feeding System for Dairy Cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yinfa; Wang, Ranran; Song, Zhanhua; Yan, Shitao; Li, Fa-De

    To implement precision feeding for dairy cow, an intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system was developed. The system consists of two parts, one is precision ingredients control subsystem, the other is multi-concentrates discharge subsystem. The former controls the latter with 4 stepper motors. The precision ingredients control subsystem was designed based on Samsung S3C2440 ARM9 microprocessor and WinCE5.0 embedded operating system. The feeding system identifies the dairy cow with passive transponder using RFID (Radio frequency identification) reader. According to the differences of based diet intake and individual dairy cow milk yield, the system can automatically and quantificationally discharge 4 kinds of different concentrates on the basis of the cow identification ID. The intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system for dairy cow has been designed and implemented. According to the experiment results, the concentrate feeding error is less than 5%, the cow inditification delay time is less than 0.5s and the cow inditification error rate is less than 0.01%.

  10. In situ provision of drinking water to grazing dairy cows improves milk production.

    PubMed

    Miglierina, M M; Bonadeo, N; Ornstein, A M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of providing water within the area grazed by dairy cows on milk yield and quality, compared to requiring cows to walk to a distant water trough, on a dairy farm in the Pampa region of Argentina during summer. Holstein dairy cows were allocated to two herds with similar parity, days in milk and milk production. They were grazed in one paddock that was divided in two, with a fixed water trough at one end. Cows were moved twice daily to grazing plots within the paddock. Control cows (n=66) could only access water from the fixed trough, whereas supplemented cows (n=67) also received water from a mobile trough within the grazing plot. Milk production of each cow, and water consumption of the two herds were measured daily over 62 days. Milk composition for each herd was determined weekly from Days 18 to 60 of the study, and grazing behaviour was observed between 08:00 and 16:00 hours on Days 11-15, 19-22 and 39-43. Over the 62 days of the study, supplemented cows produced 1.39 (SE 0.11) L/cow/day more milk than Control cows (p=0.027). Estimated mean daily water intake was 50.4 (SE 2.1) L/cow/day for supplemented cows and 58.2 (SE 2.7) L/cow/day for Control cows (p=0.004). Percentage total solids in milk was higher for supplemented (12.5 (SE 0.06)%) than Control (12.4 (SE 0.04)%) cows (p=0.047). During the periods of behavioural observation, a higher percentage of cows in the water supplemented than the Control herd were observed in the grazing area (p=0.012). This preliminary study demonstrated that provision of water to dairy cows within the grazing plot was beneficial for milk production and composition, and may be associated with longer periods spent within the grazing area, during hot weather in the Pampa region of Argentina.

  11. Short communication: Association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A total of 339 dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) on 4 commercial dairy farms were monitored for lying behavior and SCK from 14d before calving until 28 d after calving. Lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and average lying bout length were measured using automated data loggers 24h/d. Cows were tested for SCK 1×/wk by taking a blood sample and analyzing for β-hydroxybutyrate; cows with β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2mmol/L postpartum were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were recorded and cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy (HLT) cows had no SCK or any other health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least 1 health issue other than SCK (n=50); SCK (HYK) cows with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or subclinically ketotic plus (HYK+) cows that had SCK and 1 or more other health problems (n=53). Daily lying time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT, HYK, and HYK+, respectively. We found no difference among health categories in lying time, bout frequency, or bout length fromwk -2 towk +4 relative to calving for first-lactation cows. Differences in lying time for multiparous cows were seen inwk +1, when HYK+ cows spent 92±24.0 min/d more time lying down than HLT cows, and duringwk +3 and +4 when HYK cows spent 44±16.7 and 41±18.9 min/d, respectively, more time lying down than HLT cows. Increased odds of HYK+ were found to be associated with higher parity, longer dry period, and greater stall stocking density inwk -1 and longer lying time duringwk +1. When comparing HYK to HLT cows, the same variables were associated with odds of SCK; however, lying time was not retained in the final model. These results suggest that monitoring lying time may contribute to identifying multiparous cows

  12. Relationship of plasma nonesterified fatty acids and walking activity in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Adewuyi, A A; Roelofs, J B; Gruys, E; Toussaint, M J M; van Eerdenburg, F J C M

    2006-08-01

    To survive and produce milk, postpartum dairy cows use their reserves through lipolysis. If the negative energy balance is severe, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) are formed that can impair several physiological processes. A pilot study suggested that increased walking activity after calving may be related to a reduced serum concentration of NEFA. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma concentrations of NEFA and walking activity in dairy cattle during the postpartum period. Data were collected from 33 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Walking activities were quantified using pedometry, and blood samples were collected for determination of NEFA. Results of this study indicated that a negative relationship existed between walking activity and plasma NEFA concentrations in postpartum dairy cows.

  13. Relationship between dairy cow genetic merit and profit on commercial spring calving dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, G; Cromie, A R; Horan, B; Berry, D P

    2012-07-01

    Because not all animal factors influencing profitability can be included in total merit breeding indices for profitability, the association between animal total merit index and true profitability, taking cognisance of all factors associated with costs and revenues, is generally not known. One method to estimate such associations is at the herd level, associating herd average genetic merit with herd profitability. The objective of this study was to primarily relate herd average genetic merit for a range of traits, including the Irish total merit index, with indicators of performance, including profitability, using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Physical, genetic and financial performance data from 1131 Irish seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farms were available following edits; data on some herds were available for more than 1 year of the 3-year study period (2007 to 2009). Herd average economic breeding index (EBI) was associated with reduced herd average phenotypic milk yield but with greater milk composition, resulting in higher milk prices. Moderate positive correlations (0.26 to 0.61) existed between genetic merit for an individual trait and average herd performance for that trait (e.g. genetic merit for milk yield and average per cow milk yield). Following adjustment for year, stocking rate, herd size and quantity of purchased feed in the multiple regression analysis, average herd EBI was positively and linearly associated with net margin per cow and per litre as well as gross revenue output per cow and per litre. The change in net margin per cow per unit change in the total merit index was €1.94 (s.e. = 0.42), which was not different from the expectation of €2. This study, based on a large data set of commercial herds with accurate information on profitability and genetic merit, confirms that, after accounting for confounding factors, the change in herd profitability per unit change in herd genetic merit for the total merit index is

  14. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Invited review: Current perspectives on eating and rumination activity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A

    2018-06-01

    Many early studies laid the foundation for our understanding of the mechanics of chewing, the physiological role of chewing for the cow, and how chewing behavior is affected by dietary characteristics. However, the dairy cow has changed significantly over the past decades, as have the types of diets fed and the production systems used. The plethora of literature published in recent years provides new insights on eating and ruminating activity of dairy cows. Lactating dairy cows spend about 4.5 h/d eating (range: 2.4-8.5 h/d) and 7 h/d ruminating (range: 2.5-10.5 h/d), with a maximum total chewing time of 16 h/d. Chewing time is affected by many factors, most importantly whether access to feed is restricted, intake of neutral detergent fiber from forages, and mean particle size of the diet. Feed restriction and long particles (≥19 mm) have a greater effect on eating time, whereas intake of forage neutral detergent fiber and medium particles (4-19 mm) affects rumination time. It is well entrenched in the literature that promoting chewing increases salivary secretion of dairy cows, which helps reduce the risk of acidosis. However, the net effect of a change in chewing time on rumen buffing is likely rather small; therefore, acidosis prevention strategies need to be broad. Damage to plant tissues during mastication creates sites that provide access to fungi, adhesion of bacteria, and formation of biofilms that progressively degrade carbohydrates. Rumination and eating are the main ways in which feed is reduced in particle size. Contractions of the rumen increase during eating and ruminating activity and help move small particles to the escapable pool and into the omasum. Use of recently developed low-cost sensors that monitor chewing activity of dairy cows in commercial facilities can provide information that is helpful in management decisions, especially when combined with other criteria. Although accuracy and precision can be somewhat variable depending on sensor

  16. Inositol and hepatic lipidosis. II. Effect of inositol supplementation and time from parturition on serum insulin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine and their relationship to serum and liver lipids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gerloff, B J; Herdt, T H; Wells, W W; Nachreiner, R F; Emery, R S

    1986-06-01

    Percutaneous liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 80 dairy cows in nine Michigan herds over the peripartum period. Thirty-nine cows were fed 17 g of supplemental inositol and 41 were fed a placebo. Liver biopsies were assayed for total myoinositol and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Blood samples were assayed for serum dextran precipitable cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, thyroxine (T4), free (FT4), triiodothyronine (T3) and free T3 (FT3) concentrations. Serum concentrations of insulin and the thyroid hormones decreased near parturition, with lowest concentrations occurring in the immediate postpartum period. Concentrations of T3 correlated well with T4, and the concentrations of free thyroid hormones reflected concentrations of total thyroid hormones. The percentage of hormone in the free fraction remained constant over time. Serum insulin, T3 and T4 were negatively correlated with serum NEFA and liver TG concentrations. Thyroid hormone concentrations were positively correlated with serum dextran precipitable cholesterol concentrations. Inositol supplementation was associated with reduced circulating T3 and FT3 concentrations, but not T4 and FT4 concentrations. Changes in hormone concentrations at parturition and their relationship to liver TG and serum NEFA concentrations were consistent with a metabolic adaptation by the dairy cow to the negative energy balance of early lactation.

  17. Winter feeding systems and dairy cow breed have an impact on milk composition and flavour of two Protected Designation of Origin French cheeses.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L; Michel, G; Berthelot, D; Delaby, L

    2009-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of two feeding systems and two dairy cow breeds on milk yield and composition, physical and sensorial properties of Camembert and Pont-l'Evêque cheeses. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A low energy grass diet with only 15% of concentrate (LowGS) was compared with a high-energy maize silage diet with 30% concentrate (HighMS). Thirty-four Holstein (Ho) and 34 Normande (No) cows in early lactation were assigned to one of two feeding systems for a 6-week period. Cows on the LowGS feeding system had lower milk yield, fat and protein content. In both feeding systems, No cows had lower milk yields but higher milk protein contents than Ho cows. The LowGS feeding system altered milk fatty acid (FA) composition by reducing saturated FA. Breed had only a small impact on milk FA. Concerning milk coagulating properties, only the firmness was reduced by the LowGS feeding and the Ho breed. The effects of breed and feeding system on the protein content of cheeses were more marked in Camembert cheese than in Pont-l'Evêque cheese. However, the Camembert cheese from Ho-LowGS was, in fact, characterized especially by lower protein content. LowGS feeding system and No breed produced more yellow cheeses. Feeding systems had limited effects on the firmness of Camembert and Pont-l'Evêque cheeses measured by penetrometry. In sensory analysis, Ho breed and LowGS feeding produced a Camembert cheese with a more melting texture in the mouth due to the increase of spreadability index and of proteolysis. The type of cheese also had an influence: the effects were more important on Camembert cheese than on Pont-l'Evêque cheese. Only the Ho-LowGS treatment produced a very specific Camembert cheese different from the others. The feeding systems and breed of dairy cow have no determinant effect on PDO (protected designation of origin) Camembert and Pont-l'Evêque cheeses, especially regarding taste. In this kind of

  18. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Asako; Locher, Lena; Tienken, Reka; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP) by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively). Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON) or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA) g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC) or low (LC) concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation) relative to expected calving date (d-42) to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1) and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1) were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at P<0.05. No dietary effect was observed either on feed intake, energy balance, or on the concentration of blood metabolites. Neither time nor diet affected the expression of FoxO1 total protein and mRNA. A NA × concentrate interaction was found in pFoxO1. However, no corresponding dietary effect was found in the mRNA expression of investigated genes. Different patterns of correlations between FoxO1-related variables and investigated indicators for HGP were found at d21 and 100. The results indicated that the regulation of HGP did not take place on the levels of mRNA and protein expression and the phosphorylation of FoxO1 in dairy cows in early lactation.

  19. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Asako; Locher, Lena; Tienken, Reka; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP) by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively). Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON) or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA) g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC) or low (LC) concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation) relative to expected calving date (d-42) to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1) and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1) were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson’s correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at P<0.05. No dietary effect was observed either on feed intake, energy balance, or on the concentration of blood metabolites. Neither time nor diet affected the expression of FoxO1 total protein and mRNA. A NA × concentrate interaction was found in pFoxO1. However, no corresponding dietary effect was found in the mRNA expression of investigated genes. Different patterns of correlations between FoxO1-related variables and investigated indicators for HGP were found at d21 and 100. The results indicated that the regulation of HGP did not take place on the levels of mRNA and protein expression and the phosphorylation of FoxO1 in dairy cows in early lactation. PMID:26800252

  20. Invited review: Learning from the future-A vision for dairy farms and cows in 2067.

    PubMed

    Britt, J H; Cushman, R A; Dechow, C D; Dobson, H; Humblot, P; Hutjens, M F; Jones, G A; Ruegg, P S; Sheldon, I M; Stevenson, J S

    2018-05-01

    The world's population will reach 10.4 billion in 2067, with 81% residing in Africa or Asia. Arable land available for food production will decrease to 0.15 ha per person. Temperature will increase in tropical and temperate zones, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and this will push growing seasons and dairy farming away from arid areas and into more northern latitudes. Dairy consumption will increase because it provides essential nutrients more efficiently than many other agricultural systems. Dairy farming will become modernized in developing countries and milk production per cow will increase, doubling in countries with advanced dairying systems. Profitability of dairy farms will be the key to their sustainability. Genetic improvements will include emphasis on the coding genome and associated noncoding epigenome of cattle, and on microbiomes of dairy cattle and farmsteads. Farm sizes will increase and there will be greater lateral integration of housing and management of dairy cattle of different ages and production stages. Integrated sensors, robotics, and automation will replace much of the manual labor on farms. Managing the epigenome and microbiome will become part of routine herd management. Innovations in dairy facilities will improve the health of cows and permit expression of natural behaviors. Herds will be viewed as superorganisms, and studies of herds as observational units will lead to improvements in productivity, health, and well-being of dairy cattle, and improve the agroecology and sustainability of dairy farms. Dairy farmers in 2067 will meet the world's needs for essential nutrients by adopting technologies and practices that provide improved cow health and longevity, profitable dairy farms, and sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of residual feed intake in Holsteins during early lactation shows potential to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Norman, H D; Olson, K M; Van Tassell, C P; Leith, J M; Baldwin, R L

    2013-08-01

    Improved feed efficiency is a primary goal in dairy production to reduce feed costs and negative impacts of production on the environment. Estimates for efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle are limited, primarily due to a lack of individual feed intake measurements for lactating cows. Feed intake was measured in Holstein cows during the first 90 d of lactation to estimate the heritability and repeatability of RFI, minimum test duration for evaluating RFI in early lactation, and its association with other production traits. Data were obtained from 453 lactations (214 heifers and 239 multiparous cows) from 292 individual cows from September 2007 to December 2011. Cows were housed in a free-stall barn and monitored for individual daily feed consumption using the GrowSafe 4000 System (GrowSafe Systems, Ltd., Airdrie, AB, Canada). Animals were fed a total mixed ration 3 times daily, milked twice daily, and weighed every 10 to 14 d. Milk yield was measured at each milking. Feed DM percentage was measured daily, and nutrient composition was analyzed from a weekly composite. Milk composition was analyzed weekly, alternating between morning and evening milking periods. Estimates of RFI were determined as the difference between actual energy intake and predicted intake based on a linear model with fixed effects of parity (1, 2, ≥ 3) and regressions on metabolic BW, ADG, and energy-corrected milk yield. Heritability was estimated to be moderate (0.36 ± 0.06), and repeatability was estimated at 0.56 across lactations. A test period through 53 d in milk (DIM) explained 81% of the variation provided by a test through 90 DIM. Multiple regression analysis indicated that high efficiency was associated with less time feeding per day and slower feeding rate, which may contribute to differences in RFI among cows. The heritability and repeatability of RFI suggest an opportunity to improve feed efficiency through genetic

  2. Potential risk indicators of retained placenta and other diseases in multiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Fadden, A N; Traber, M G; Bobe, G

    2014-07-01

    Retained placenta (RP), defined as fetal membranes not being expelled within 24 h after calving, is a costly disease in multiparous dairy cows that has been linked to immune suppression, infections, elevated lipid mobilization, and depleted status of antioxidants including α-tocopherol, and that increases the risk of other diseases (OD) in early lactation. Early detection of cows at increased risk of developing RP, OD, or both in early lactation could improve treatment success and result in improved milk production and reproductive performance. To identify risk indicators of RP, OD, or both, we used a nested case-control design and compared multiparous dairy cows that developed RP (n=32) with cows that remained healthy (H; n=32) or cows that developed OD (n=32) in early lactation. We compared peripartal body condition score (BCS) as well as serum concentrations of α-tocopherol, metabolites [β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), cholesterol, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and urea N], haptoglobin, and macrominerals (i.e., calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) on d -21, -14, -7, -3, -1, 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 postpartum. In addition, average serum concentrations were calculated for each cow for the last 3 wk prepartum, for 3 and 2 wk prepartum combined, for the last week prepartum, and for the morning after calving and compared between groups. The RP cows had lower BCS than the H or OD cows until 2 wk postpartum. During the prepartal periods, RP and OD cows had lower α-tocopherol concentrations (corrected or not for cholesterol concentration) and higher NEFA and BHBA concentrations than H cows. Thus, lower prepartal BCS could be an early predictor for RP risk, and lower α-tocopherol concentrations and higher NEFA and BHBA concentrations could be early predictors for disease. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gait of dairy cows on floors with different slipperiness.

    PubMed

    Telezhenko, E; Magnusson, M; Bergsten, C

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the slip resistance of different types of solid flooring in cattle housing using a range of technical tests and gait analysis. Dynamic and static coefficient of friction, skid resistance, and abrasiveness were tested on concrete flooring with a smooth finish, a grooved pattern, or a tamped pattern, acid-resistant mastic asphalt, soft rubber mats, and a worn slatted concrete floor. Coefficients of friction and skid resistance were tested under clean and slurry-soiled conditions. Linear kinematic variables were assessed in 40 cows with trackway measurements after the cows passed over the floors in a straight walk. All gait variables were assessed as deviations from those obtained on the slatted concrete floor, which was used as a baseline. The coefficient of friction tests divided the floors into 3 categories: concrete flooring, which had a low coefficient of friction (0.29-0.41); mastic asphalt flooring, which had medium values (0.38-0.45); and rubber mats, which had high values (0.49-0.57). The highest abrasion (g/10 m) was on the asphalt flooring (4.48), and the concrete flooring with a tamped pattern had significantly higher abrasiveness (2.77) than the other concrete floors (1.26-1.60). Lowest values on the skid-resistance tests (dry/wet) were for smooth concrete (79/35) and mastic asphalt (65/47), especially with a slurry layer on the surface. Gait analysis mainly differentiated floors with higher friction and abrasion by longer strides and better tracking. Step asymmetry was lower on floors with high skid-resistance values. The most secure cow gait, in almost every aspect, was observed on soft rubber mats. Relationships between gait variables and physical floor characteristics ranged from average to weak (partial correlations 0.54-0.16). Thus, none of the physical characteristics alone was informative enough to characterize slip resistance. With reference to gait analysis, the abrasiveness of the hard surfaces was more informative than the

  4. Comparison of innate immune responses and somatotropic axis components of Holstein and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, L G D; Litherland, N B; Lucy, M C; Keisler, D H; Ballou, M A; Hansen, L B; Chebel, R C

    2013-06-01

    Objectives were to compare parameters related to innate immune responses and somatotropic axis of Holstein (HO) and Montbéliarde (MO)-sired crossbred cows during the transition from late gestation to early lactation. Cows (40 HO and 47 MO-sired crossbred) were enrolled in the study 45d before expected calving date (study d 0=calving). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) isolated from blood samples collected weekly from study d -7 to 21 and on study d 42 were used for determination of percentage of PMNL positive for phagocytosis (PA+) and oxidative burst (OB+), intensity of PA and OB, percentage of PMNL expressing CD18 (CD18+) and L-selectin (LS+), and intensity of CD18 and LS expression. Blood was sampled weekly from study d -7 to 14 and on study d 28, 42, and 56 for determination of insulin, growth hormone (GH), leptin, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 concentrations. Blood sampled weekly from study d -14 to 21 and on study d 42 was used to determine cortisol concentration. Liver biopsies were performed on study d -14, 7, 14, and 28 for determination of mRNA expression for insulin receptor B (IRB), total GH receptor (GHRtot), GHR variant 1A (GHR1A), and IGF-1. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures or by ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intensity of CD18 expression was greater in PMNL from crossbred cows compared with PMNL from HO cows [1,482.1 ± 82.3 vs. 1,286.6 ± 69.8 geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI)]. Furthermore, among HO cows, the percentage of PA+ PMNL on study d -7 (64.4 ± 5.2%) tended to be greater than on study d 0 (57.1 ± 5.1%), but no differences in percentage of PA+ PMNL between study d -7 and 0 were observed in crossbred cows. Similarly, intensity of PA in PA+ PMNL from HO cows decreased from study d -7 to 0 (4,750.6 ± 1,217.0 vs. 1,964.7 ± 1,227.9 GMFI), but no changes in intensity of PA in PA+ PMNL from crossbred cows were observed. On study d 0, intensity of PA tended to be

  5. Prepartum Lying Behavior of Holstein Dairy Cows Housed on Pasture through Parturition

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Christa A.; Eberhart, Nicole L.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Dairy cows experience meaningful biological changes during gestation that impact cow comfort and alter behavior, particularly during late gestation and leading up to calving. The housing environment can also have a positive or negative effect on cow comfort. Pasture access allows cows the freedom of movement and an ability to express natural grazing and resting behaviors. After observing cows housed on pasture during the late gestation and calving periods, this study found that lying behaviors only differed on the day of calving and the day prior to calving. Additionally, the proportion of time spent lying per hour decreased in the hour prior to calving compared to 6 h prior to parturition. The altered lying behaviors and activity observed in the hours before calving may indicate a decrease in cow comfort experienced by the cow during parturition. However, discomfort is typical of parturition. These data suggest that cows were able to express natural behaviors associated with calving and pasture when provided an adequate environment for cows during the prepartum period. Abstract Utilizing pasture-based systems may increase cow comfort during late gestation and calving as it lacks the constraints of confinement housing. The objective of this study was to quantify lying behavior and activity of Holstein dairy cows housed on pasture during the 6 d before calving. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows were moved to pasture 3 weeks before their projected calving date. Data loggers were attached 14 d prior to projected calving date. Behavior was evaluated 6 d before calving for all cows (n = 16) and 6 h prior to calving for a subset of cows (n = 6) with known calving times. Data loggers recorded at 1-min intervals to determine lying time (h/d and %/h), lying bouts (n/d and n/h), lying bout duration (min/bout), and steps (n/d and n/h). A repeated measures analysis of variance with contrasts was performed to determine if lying behaviors and activity differed between

  6. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    compared with cows fed no oilseeds, and a disproportionate increase in the birth weight of female calves was evident in cows fed oilseed. Total reproductive disorders tended to be greater in cows fed supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseed (42 vs. 23%). Furthermore, cows fed sunflower seed had greater incidences of dystocia (35 vs. 18%) and total health disorders (52 vs. 32%) than those fed canola seed. Added oilseed and type of oilseed did not affect uterine inflammation at 25±1 d postpartum. Oilseed supplementation did not alter the intervals from calving to establishment of the first dominant follicle, preovulatory-size follicle, and ovulation, nor did it affect fertility (conception rate to first artificial insemination and proportion of pregnant cows by 150 d after calving). In summary, prepartum oilseed supplementation (6.2 to 7.4% ether extract, % of dietary dry matter) decreased DMI during the entire experimental period (pre- and postpartum), decreased milk yield during early lactation in multiparous cows, and increased calf birth weight with no significant improvement in ovarian function and reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on milk yield, energy balance, and metabolic status of dairy cows over 2 consecutive years: Effects in the second year.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Remmelink, G J; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, energy balance (EB), and metabolic status in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in the second year after implementation of DP and dietary treatments. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 DP lengths (0, 30, or 60d) and 1 of 2 early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic) for 2 consecutive years. Results of the first year were reported previously. In the second year, 19 cows in the 0-d DP group were attributed to a new group (0→67d DP) because these cows had a milk yield of <4kg/d at least 30d before expected calving date and were dried off. Milk yield was recorded and EB was calculated from wk -8 to 9 relative to calving. Blood samples were taken weekly from wk -3 to 8 relative to calving. Liver samples were taken in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. At the onset of lactation, cows with a 0-d or 0→67-d DP had greater body condition score (BCS) than cows with a 60-d DP. During the first 9wk, cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced 5.0 and 4.3kg less milk per day, respectively, but had similar EB compared with cows with a 60-d DP. Cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced additional milk precalving, which could compensate milk yield losses in the first 9wk postcalving. Cows with a 0-d DP did not have milk yield losses or improve EB in the second year as much as in the first year. Cows with a 0-d DP had greater plasma insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and lower liver triacylglycerol concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Cows with a 0→67-d DP had lower EB, and greater plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Feeding a glucogenic diet increased plasma glucose, IGF-I, and insulin concentrations, and decreased plasma FFA, BHB, and urea concentrations compared with a lipogenic diet, independent of DP length. In conclusion, omitting the DP or

  8. Diverse Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Dairy Cow Manure

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Andrew, Sheila; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Application of manure from antibiotic-treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However, our knowledge of the identity, diversity, and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure, a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to beta-lactams, phenicols, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. Functional screening of fosmid and small-insert libraries identified 80 different antibiotic resistance genes whose deduced protein sequences were on average 50 to 60% identical to sequences deposited in GenBank. The resistance genes were frequently found in clusters and originated from a taxonomically diverse set of species, suggesting that some microorganisms in manure harbor multiple resistance genes. Furthermore, amid the great genetic diversity in manure, we discovered a novel clade of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. Our study combined functional metagenomics with third-generation PacBio sequencing to significantly extend the roster of functional antibiotic resistance genes found in animal gut bacteria, providing a particularly broad resource for understanding the origins and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes in agriculture and clinical settings. PMID:24757214

  9. Heat stress effects on Holstein dairy cows' rumination.

    PubMed

    Moretti, R; Biffani, S; Chessa, S; Bozzi, R

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between temperature-humidity index (THI) and rumination time (RT) in order to possibly exploit it as a useful tool for animal welfare improvement. During summer 2015 (1 June to 31 August), data from an Italian Holstein dairy farm located in the North of Italy were collected along with environmental data (i.e. ambient temperature and relative humidity) recorded with a weather station installed inside the barn. Rumination data were collected through the Heatime® HR system (SCR Engineers Ltd., Hadarim, Netanya, Israel), an automatic system composed of a neck collar with a Tag that records the RT and activity of each cow. A significant negative correlation was observed between RT and THI. Mixed linear models were fitted, including animal and test day as random effects, and parity, milk production level and date of last calving as fixed effects. A statistically significant effect of THI on RT was identified, with RT decreasing as THI increased.

  10. Identification of diagnostic biomarkers and metabolic pathway shifts of heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Wang, Weiyu; Zheng, Nan; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-07-01

    Controlling heat stress (HS) is a global challenge for the dairy industry. However, simple and reliable biomarkers that aid the diagnoses of HS-induced metabolic disorders have not yet been identified. In this work, an integrated metabolomic and lipidomic approach using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and ultra-fast LC-MS was employed to investigate the discrimination of plasma metabolic profiles between HS-free and HS lactating dairy cows. Targeted detection using LC-MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode was used to verify the reliability of the metabolites as biomarker candidates. Overall, 41 metabolites were identified as candidates for lactating dairy cows exposed to HS, among which 13 metabolites, including trimethylamine, glucose, lactate, betaine, creatine, pyruvate, acetoacetate, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, C16 sphinganine, lysophosphatidylcholine (18:0), phosphatidylcholine (16:0/14:0), and arachidonic acid, had high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing HS status, and are likely to be the potential biomarkers of HS dairy cows. All of these potentially diagnostic biomarkers were involved in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, or gut microbiome-derived metabolism, indicating that HS affected the metabolic pathways in lactating dairy cows. Further research is warranted to evaluate these biomarkers in practical applications and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of HS-induced metabolic disorders. Heat stress (HS) annually causes huge losses to global dairy industry, including animal performance decrease, metabolic disorder and health problem. So far, physiological mechanisms underlying HS of dairy cows still remain elusive. To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt to elucidate the HS-induced metabolic disorders of dairy cows using integrated (1)H NMR and LC-MS-based metabolic study. The results not only provided potential diagnostic biomarkers for HS lactating dairy cows, but also significantly explored the related physiological mechanisms

  11. Association between Prepartum Feeding Behavior and Periparturient Health Disorders in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Luchterhand, Karen M.; Silva, Paula R. B.; Chebel, Ricardo C.; Endres, Marcia I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behavior, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group 4 weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score <2 or >4 or a locomotion score >3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-h periods of 2–4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at the time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf), primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf), and multiparous (lactation ≥2). Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behavior monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available, which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behavior or that of specific cohorts. PMID:27597948

  12. Fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin in plasma and milk from dairy cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, A Davasaz; Batavani, R A; Rezaei, S Asri; Ahmadi, M

    2008-02-15

    The potential using of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs) in the assessment of mammary gland health was studied by examining the levels of Fibrinogen (Fb) and Ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma and milk from dairy cows with different grades of mastitis. Plasma samples were taken from jugular vein and milk samples were collected from quarters of cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, as well as healthy controls. California Mastitis Test (CMT) were performed on each udder quarter of cows for detection of CMT2+ and CMT3+ quarters. CMT (0) and culture negative cases were considered healthy cows. Clinical mastitis, was graded as mild (clots in milk) or moderate (clots in milk and visible signs of inflammation in the mammary gland/s). The concentrations of Fb in the plasma of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the plasma of the healthy cows (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in plasma concentration of Cp between healthy and subclinical groups (p>0.05), but differences between clinical and healthy groups were significant (p<0.05). The concentrations of Fb and Cp in the milk of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the milk of the healthy cows (p<0.01). The results indicated that measurement of Fb in plasma and milk and Cp only in milk might be suitable for early diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows.

  13. Effect of Heat Stress on Concentrations of Faecal Cortisol Metabolites in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Rees, A; Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Heuwieser, W

    2016-06-01

    The negative impact of heat stress on health and productivity of dairy cows is well known. Heat stress can be quantified with the temperature-humidity index (THI) and is defined as a THI ≥ 72. Additionally, animal welfare is affected in cows living under heat stress conditions. Finding a way to quantify heat stress in dairy cows has been of increasing interest over the past decades. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites [i.e. 11,17-dioxoandrostanes (11,17-DOA)] as an indirect stress parameter in dairy cows without heat stress (DOA 0), with heat stress on a single day (acute heat stress, DOA 1) or with more than a single day of heat stress (chronic heat stress, DOA 2). Cows were housed in five farms under moderate European climates. Two statistical approaches (approach 1 and approach 2) were assessed. Using approach 1, concentrations of faecal 11,17-DOA were compared among DOA 0, DOA 1 and DOA 2 samples regardless of their origin (i.e. cow, unpaired comparison with a one-way anova). Using approach 2, a cow was considered as its own control; that is 11,17-DOA was treated as a cow-specific factor and only paired samples were included in the analysis for this approach (paired comparison with t-tests). In approach 1 (p = 0.006) and approach 2 (p = 0.038), 11,17-DOA values of cows under acute heat stress were higher compared to those of cows without heat stress. Our results also indicate that acute heat stress has to be considered as a confounder in studies measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in cows to evaluate other stressful situations. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, Hugues; Detilleux, Johann; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine; Bonvoisin, Marie; Rollin, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Background Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. Hypothesis/Objectives The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. Animals A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows. Methods Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium), thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS) was assessed. Results Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices (“Homeostasis Model Assessment” HOMA, “Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index” RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB) were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation. Conclusion and clinical importance Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin. PMID:28107442

  15. Does ownership of improved dairy cow breeds improve child nutrition? A pathway analysis for Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kabunga, Nassul S; Ghosh, Shibani; Webb, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The promotion of livestock production is widely believed to support enhanced diet quality and child nutrition, but the empirical evidence for this causal linkage remains narrow and ambiguous. This study examines whether adoption of improved dairy cow breeds is linked to farm-level outcomes that translate into household-level benefits including improved child nutrition outcomes in Uganda. Using nationwide data from Uganda's National Panel Survey, propensity score matching is used to create an unbiased counterfactual, based on observed characteristics, to assess the net impacts of improved dairy cow adoption. All estimates were tested for robustness and sensitivity to variations in observable and unobservable confounders. Results based on the matched samples showed that households adopting improved dairy cows significantly increased milk yield-by over 200% on average. This resulted in higher milk sales and milk intakes, demonstrating the potential of this agricultural technology to both integrate households into modern value chains and increase households' access to animal source foods. Use of improved dairy cows increased household food expenditures by about 16%. Although undernutrition was widely prevalent in the study sample and in matched households, the adoption of improved dairy cows was associated with lower child stunting in adopter household. In scale terms, results also showed that holding larger farms tends to support adoption, but that this also stimulates the household's ability to achieve gains from adoption, which can translate into enhanced nutrition.

  16. Effects of glucose on lactose synthesis in mammary epithelial cells from dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ye; Sun, Xiaoxu; Hou, Xiaoming; Qu, Bo; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2016-05-26

    Lactose, as the primary osmotic component in milk, is the major determinant of milk volume. Glucose is the primary precursor of lactose. However, the effect of glucose on lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary glands and the mechanism governing this process are poorly understood. Here we showed that glucose has the ability to induce lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells, as well as increase cell viability and proliferation. A concentration of 12 mM glucose was the optimum concentration to induce cell growth and lactose synthesis in cultured dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. In vitro, 12 mM glucose enhanced lactose content, along with the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the lactose biosynthesis pathway, including GLUT1, SLC35A2, SLC35B1, HK2, β4GalT-I, and AKT1. In addition, we found that AKT1 knockdown inhibited cell growth and lactose synthesis as well as expression of GLUT1, SLC35A2, SLC35B1, HK2, and β4GalT-I. Glucose induces cell growth and lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. Protein kinase B alpha acts as a regulator of metabolism in dairy cow mammary gland to mediate the effects of glucose on lactose synthesis.

  17. Associations among milk production and rectal temperature on pregnancy maintenance in lactating recipient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, J L M; Cooke, R F; Jardina, D T G; Aragon, F L; Veras, M B; Soriano, S; Sobreira, N; Scarpa, A B

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations among milk production, rectal temperature, and pregnancy maintenance in lactating recipient dairy cows. Data were collected during an 11-mo period from 463 Holstein cows (203 primiparous and 260 multiparous) assigned to a fixed-time embryo transfer (ET) protocol. Only cows detected with a visible corpus luteum immediately prior to ET were used. Rectal temperatures were collected from all cows on the same day of ET. Milk production at ET was calculated by averaging individual daily milk production during the 7d preceding ET. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal ultrasonography 21d after ET. Cows were ranked and assigned to groups according to median milk production (median=35kg/d; HPROD=above median; LPROD=below median) and rectal temperature (≤39.0°C=LTEMP; >39.0°C=HTEMP). A milk production×temperature group interaction was detected (P=0.04) for pregnancy analysis because HTEMP cows ranked as LPROD were 3.1 time more likely to maintain pregnancy compared with HTEMP cows ranked as HPROD (P=0.03). Milk production did not affect (P=0.55) odds of pregnancy maintenance within LTEMP cows, however, and no differences in odds of pregnancy maintenance were detected between HTEMP and LTEMP within milk production groups (P>0.11). Within HTEMP cows, increased milk production decreased the probability of pregnancy maintenance linearly, whereas within LTEMP cows, increased milk production increased the probability of pregnancy maintenance linearly. Within HPROD, increased rectal temperature decreased the probability of pregnancy maintenance linearly, whereas within LPROD cows, no associations between rectal temperatures and probability of cows to maintain pregnancy were detected. In summary, high-producing dairy cows with rectal temperatures below 39.0°C did not experience reduced pregnancy maintenance to ET compared to cohorts with reduced milk production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. On-farm feeding interventions to increase milk production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Foiklang, Suban; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Paoinn, Chainarong; Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Norrapoke, Thitima; Kang, Sungchhang

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tropical legume (Phaseolus calcaratus) mixed with ruzi grass feeding on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Eighty-eight lactating dairy cows from 22 smallholder dairy farms northeast of Thailand were assigned to respective dietary treatments according to a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD). Four cows were selected from each farm and were allocated into two different feeding groups as follows: ruzi grass and P. calcaratus mixed with ruzi grass (1:1 ratio), respectively. All cows were fed with roughage ad libitum with 1:2 ratio of concentrate diet to milk yield. The results revealed that total dry matter intake, ruminal volatile fatty acids, and ammonia nitrogen concentration were enhanced when cows were fed with P. calcaratus mixed with ruzi grass (P < 0.05). Moreover, feeding tropical legume mixed with ruzi grass could increase milk production and milk protein in this study. Importantly, an economical assessment showed that milk income and the profit from milk sale were significantly greater in cows fed the mixture of roughage than those from the non-mixed group. This study concluded that high-quality roughage as tropical legume mixed with ruzi grass at the ratio of 1:1 brought out the remarkable and practical implementation for smallholder dairy farms, and the intervention was practical and deserving of more on-farm intervention.

  19. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finnish dairy cows: changes during recent decades and impact of cow and herd factors.

    PubMed

    Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-04-20

    The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free-stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also

  20. Lifetime effects of infection with bovine leukemia virus on longevity and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Stryhn, Henrik; Kelton, David; Keefe, Greg

    2016-10-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The economic impacts of the infection have been debated in the literature. The present study was conducted to determine the lifetime effects of BLV infection on longevity and milk production of dairy cows in Canada. The data were aggregated from a combination of two data sets: 1) BLV serum-ELISA test results from Canada-wide surveys of production limiting diseases, which took place between 1998 and 2003 in 8 provinces, and 2) longitudinal production data for all cows in the former study, extracted from the Canadian dairy herd improvement database. All participant cows had been culled or died by the onset of this study. A historical cohort study was designed, including cows which tested positive to BLV-antibodies in their first lactation (positive cohort, n=1858) and cows which tested negative in their second or later lactations (negative cohort, n=2194). To assess the impacts of infection with BLV on longevity (the number of lifetime lactations), a discrete-time survival analysis was carried out. The effect of BLV on the lifetime milk production (the sum of all life 305-day milk production) was evaluated using a multilevel linear regression model. Overall, 4052 cows from 348 herds met the eligibility criteria and were enrolled in the study. In the longevity model, the interaction term between time (lactation number) and BLV-status was highly significant. Cows which were positive to BLV had consistently greater probabilities of being culled (or dying) than the test-negative cows. In the milk production model, the interaction term between BLV-status and longevity of the cows was highly significant; indicating that lifetime BLV effects on the total milk production was dependent on the lactation in which the study cows were culled/died. Infected cows with 2 and 3 lactations showed significantly lower life milk productions [-2554kg (-3609 to -1500

  1. Seasonal and parity effects on ghrelin levels throughout the estrous cycle in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Honig, Hen; Ofer, Lior; Elbaz, Michal; Kaim, Moshe; Shinder, Dima; Gershon, Eran

    2016-09-01

    In dairy cows, heat stress depresses appetite, leading to decreased food intake, a negative energy balance, and modifies ghrelin levels. Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide with two major forms: acylated, with an O-n-octanoylated serine in position 3, and nonacylated. To date, the effect of heat stress and estrous cycle on ghrelin secretion in dairy cows has not been studied. We characterized ghrelin secretion during the estrous cycle in each, the winter and the summer seasons. We further examined the effects of parity on ghrelin secretion. Blood was collected from 10 primiparous or multiparous Israeli-Holstein dairy cows throughout the estrous cycle, in both, the hot and cold seasons. The levels of acylated and total ghrelin were measured in the blood samples. We found that both acylated and total ghrelin levels during heat stress were lower than their respective levels in the winter in both, primiparous and multiparous cows. No differences in acylated and total ghrelin levels were found between primiparous and multiparous cows in both seasons. We further found that in multiparous but not primiparous cows acylated ghrelin secretion oscillated during the estrous cycle in both seasons. Its levels peaked on the last days of the first follicular wave and on the days before and during ovulation. Interestingly, we found that elevated acylated ghrelin levels correlated with conception success and increased total ghrelin levels were associated with successful conception from first insemination. Our data is the first to demonstrate seasonal variation in ghrelin secretion. This study provides evidence for the yet unfamiliar link between heat stress, ghrelin and fertility. Increased circulating acylated ghrelin may contribute to improved fertility in dairy cows. It further raises the possibility of a link between ghrelin levels and successful inseminations. Further research is required to determine the effects of ghrelin on dairy cow performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  2. Central genomic regulation of the expression of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows: a review.

    PubMed

    Woelders, H; van der Lende, T; Kommadath, A; te Pas, M F W; Smits, M A; Kaal, L M T E

    2014-05-01

    The expression of oestrous behaviour in Holstein Friesian dairy cows has progressively decreased over the past 50 years. Reduced oestrus expression is one of the factors contributing to the current suboptimal reproductive efficiency in dairy farming. Variation between and within cows in the expression of oestrous behaviour is associated with variation in peripheral blood oestradiol concentrations during oestrus. In addition, there is evidence for a priming role of progesterone for the full display of oestrous behaviour. A higher rate of metabolic clearance of ovarian steroids could be one of the factors leading to lower peripheral blood concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone in high-producing dairy cows. Oestradiol acts on the brain by genomic, non-genomic and growth factor-dependent mechanisms. A firm base of understanding of the ovarian steroid-driven central genomic regulation of female sexual behaviour has been obtained from studies on rodents. These studies have resulted in the definition of five modules of oestradiol-activated genes in the brain, referred to as the GAPPS modules. In a recent series of studies, gene expression in the anterior pituitary and four brain areas (amygdala, hippocampus, dorsal hypothalamus and ventral hypothalamus) in oestrous and luteal phase cows, respectively, has been measured, and the relation with oestrous behaviour of these cows was analysed. These studies identified a number of genes of which the expression was associated with the intensity of oestrous behaviour. These genes could be grouped according to the GAPPS modules, suggesting close similarity of the regulation of oestrous behaviour in cows and female sexual behaviour in rodents. A better understanding of the central genomic regulation of the expression of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows may in due time contribute to improved (genomic) selection strategies for appropriate oestrus expression in high-producing dairy cows.

  3. Efficacy and clinical safety of pegbovigrastim for preventing naturally occurring clinical mastitis in periparturient primiparous and multiparous cows on US commercial dairies.

    PubMed

    Canning, Peter; Hassfurther, Renee; TerHune, Terry; Rogers, Karen; Abbott, Scott; Kolb, David

    2017-08-01

    suppression, resulting in reduced susceptibility to clinical mastitis during early lactation. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  4. Effects of body weight loss on serum progesterone concentrations of non-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, R O; Trevisanuto, C; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), cortisol, insulin, and progesterone (P4) of dairy cows maintaining or mobilizing body weight (BW). Eleven non-lactating, non-pregnant, and ovariectomized Gir × Holstein cows were stratified by BW and body condition score (BCS), and randomly assigned to: 1) BW loss (six cows; LOSS) and 2) BW maintenance (five cows; MAINT). Treatments were achieved through a grazing schedule using three pastures. From Days -7 to 1 of the study, all cows were maintained in Pasture A (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). From Days 2 to 30, LOSS cows were maintained in Pasture B (less than 1.0 kg of dry matter/cow daily), whereas MAINT cows were maintained in Pasture C (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). However, from Days 3 to 30 of the study, cows from both treatments were regrouped daily into Pasture A from 0600 to 1200 h to allow LOSS cows to consume, on average, 4.5 kg/d of forage dry matter. On Day -66 of the study, all cows received an intravaginal drug releasing device containing 1.9 g of P4 (replaced every 14 d and removed on Day 3). Cow BW and BCS were assessed on Day 0 and 30 and blood samples were collected daily from Days 0 to 30 at 0600 and 1200 h. Changes in BW and BCS were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in LOSS cows compared to MAINT cows. Within samples collected at 0600 h, serum NEFA concentrations were often greater (P < 0.05) in LOSS cows compared to MAINT after Day 14. Serum P4 concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) on Days 21 and 22, and tended (P < 0.10) to be greater on Days 16, 23, and 24 of the study in LOSS cows compared to MAINT. In conclusion, BW loss was associated with increased circulating concentrations of P4 in non-lactating ovariectomized dairy cows; this was mainly attributed to fat mobilization and consequent release of P4 stored in adipose tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma metabolic profiling of dairy cows affected with clinical ketosis using LC/MS technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Xu, C; Xia, C; Zhang, Hy; Sun, Lw; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Ketosis in dairy cattle is an important metabolic disorder. Currently, the plasma metabolic profile of ketosis as determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has not been reported. To investigate plasma metabolic profiles from cows with clinical ketosis in comparison to control cows. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were divided into two groups based on clinical signs and plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid and glucose concentrations 7-21 days postpartum: clinical ketosis and control cows. Plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed using LC/MS. Data were processed using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Compared to control cows, the levels of valine, glycine, glycocholic, tetradecenoic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased significantly in clinical ketosis. On the other hand, the levels of arginine, aminobutyric acid, leucine/isoleucine, tryptophan, creatinine, lysine, norcotinine, and undecanoic acid decreased markedly. Our results showed that the metabolic changes in cows with clinical ketosis involve complex metabolic networks and signal transduction. These results are important for future studies elucidating the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of clinical ketosis in dairy cows.

  6. Effects of feed delivery frequency in different environmental conditions on time budget of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mattachini, Gabriele; Bava, Luciana; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Riva, Elisabetta; Provolo, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of feed delivery frequency and environmental conditions on daily time budget of lactating dairy cows. The study was carried out in two commercial dairy farms with Holstein herds. Fifty lactating dairy cows milked in automatic milking units (AMS farm) and 96 primiparous lactating dairy cows milked in a conventional milking parlour (conventional farm) were exposed to different frequencies of feed delivery replicated in different periods of the year (warm and mild) that were characterized by different temperature-humidity indices (THI). On each farm, feeding treatments consisted of two different feed delivery frequencies (1× and 2× on the AMS farm; 2× and 3× on the conventional farm). All behaviours of the cows were monitored for the last 8 d of each treatment period using continuous video recording. The two data sets from different farm systems were considered separately for analysis. On both farms, environmental conditions expressed as THI affected time budgets and the pattern of the behavioural indices throughout the day. The variation in the frequency of feed delivery seems to affect the cow's time budget only in a limited way. Standing time of cows on the conventional farm and the time spent by cows in the milking waiting area on the AMS farm both increased in response to increased feeding frequency. Although feed delivery frequency showed limited influence on cow's time budget, the effect on standing time could be carefully considered, especially on farms equipped with AMS where the type of cow traffic system (e.g., milking first) might amplify the negative consequences of more frequent feed delivery. Further investigations are required to evaluate the effect of THI and feed delivery frequency on other aspects of behavioural activity.

  7. Relationship between proteolysis in the silo and efficiency of utilization of dietary protein by lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ensiling is used widely to conserve forages for feeding to dairy cows. However, the protein in hay-crop silages is particularly susceptible to microbial breakdown in the rumen, and utilization of protein in alfalfa and grass silages by dairy cows is particularly poor. Dependent on maturity, hay-crop...

  8. Effects of prepartum fat supplementation on plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, adropin, insulin, and leptin in periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Rizaldy C; Salehi, Reza; Ambrose, Divakar J; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fat supplementation during the periparturient period is one strategy to increase energy intake and attenuate the degree of negative energy balance during early lactation; however, little is known of the underlying hormonal and metabolic adaptations. We evaluated the effects of prepartum fat supplementation on energy-balance parameters and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), adropin, insulin, leptin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid in dairy cows. Twenty-four pregnant dairy cows were randomized to diets containing either rolled canola or sunflower seed at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed supplementation, during the last 5 wk of gestation and then assigned to a common lactation diet postpartum. Blood samples were collected at -2, +2, and +14 h relative to feeding, at 2 wk after the initiation of the diets, and at 2 wk postpartum. Dietary canola and sunflower supplementation alone did not affect energy balance, body weight, and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, insulin, leptin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid; however, canola decreased and sunflower tended to decrease dry matter intake. We also observed that the physiological stage had a significant, but divergent, effect on circulating hormones and metabolite concentrations. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations were greater postpartum than prepartum, whereas glucose, insulin, leptin, body weight, and energy balance were greater prepartum than postpartum. Furthermore, the interaction of treatment and stage was significant for leptin and adropin, and tended toward significance for PYY and insulin; only insulin exhibited an apparent postprandial increase. Postpartum PYY concentrations exhibited a strong negative correlation with body weight, suggesting that PYY may be associated with body weight regulation during

  9. A meta-analysis of the effects of feeding yeast culture produced by anaerobic fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Poppy, G D; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J; Sanchez, W K; Dorton, K L; Morley, P S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to use meta-analytic methods to estimate the effect of a commercially available yeast culture product on milk production and other production measures in lactating dairy cows using a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sixty-one research publications (published journal articles, published abstracts, and technical reports) were identified through a review of literature provided by the manufacturer and a search of published literature using 6 search engines. Thirty-six separate studies with 69 comparisons met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The fixed-effect meta-analysis showed substantial heterogeneity for milk yield, energy-corrected milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, milk fat yield, and milk protein yield. Sub-group analysis of the data showed much less heterogeneity in peer-reviewed studies versus non-peer-reviewed abstracts and technical reports, and tended to show higher, but not significantly different, treatment effects. A random-effects meta-analysis showed estimated raw mean differences between treated and untreated cattle reported in peer-reviewed publications of 1.18 kg/d [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55 to 1.81], 1.61 kg/d (95% CI: 0.92 to 2.29), and 1.65 kg/d (95% CI: 0.97 to 2.34) for milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk, respectively. Milk fat yield and milk protein yield for peer-reviewed studies showed an increase in the raw mean difference of 0.06 kg/d (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) and 0.03 kg/d (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.05), respectively. Estimated raw mean dry matter intake of the peer-reviewed studies during early lactation (<70 d in milk) and not-early lactation were 0.62 kg/d (95% CI: 0.21 to 1.02) and a decrease of 0.78 kg/d (95% CI: -1.36 to -0.21), respectively. These findings provide strong evidence that this commercially available yeast culture product provides significant improvement in several important milk production outcomes as evaluated in production settings

  10. Identification of predictive biomarkers of disease state in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, D; Mandal, R; Saleem, F; Dunn, S M; Wishart, D S; Ametaj, B N

    2014-05-01

    In dairy cows, periparturient disease states, such as metritis, mastitis, and laminitis, are leading to increasingly significant economic losses for the dairy industry. Treatments for these pathologies are often expensive, ineffective, or not cost-efficient, leading to production losses, high veterinary bills, or early culling of the cows. Early diagnosis or detection of these conditions before they manifest themselves could lower their incidence, level of morbidity, and the associated economic losses. In an effort to identify predictive biomarkers for postpartum or periparturient disease states in dairy cows, we undertook a cross-sectional and longitudinal metabolomics study to look at plasma metabolite levels of dairy cows during the transition period, before and after becoming ill with postpartum diseases. Specifically we employed a targeted quantitative metabolomics approach that uses direct flow injection mass spectrometry to track the metabolite changes in 120 different plasma metabolites. Blood plasma samples were collected from 12 dairy cows at 4 time points during the transition period (-4 and -1 wk before and 1 and 4 wk after parturition). Out of the 12 cows studied, 6 developed multiple periparturient disorders in the postcalving period, whereas the other 6 remained healthy during the entire experimental period. Multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis) revealed a clear separation between healthy controls and diseased cows at all 4 time points. This analysis allowed us to identify several metabolites most responsible for separating the 2 groups, especially before parturition and the start of any postpartum disease. Three metabolites, carnitine, propionyl carnitine, and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C14:0, were significantly elevated in diseased cows as compared with healthy controls as early as 4 wk before parturition, whereas 2 metabolites, phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C42:4 and

  11. Hepatic global DNA and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha promoter methylation are altered in peripartal dairy cows fed rumen-protected methionine.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J S; Jacometo, C B; Zhou, Z; Luchini, D; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2016-01-01

    The availability of Met in metabolizable protein (MP) of a wide range of diets for dairy cows is low. During late pregnancy and early lactation, in particular, suboptimal Met in MP limits its use for mammary and liver metabolism and also for the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, which is essential for many biological processes, including DNA methylation. The latter is an epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of gene expression, hence, tissue function. Thirty-nine Holstein cows were fed throughout the peripartal period (-21 d to 30 d in milk) a basal control (CON) diet (n=14) with no Met supplementation, CON plus MetaSmart (MS; Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA; n=12), or CON plus Smartamine M (SM; Adisseo NA; n=13). The total mixed ration dry matter for the close-up and lactation diets was measured weekly, then the Met supplements were adjusted daily and top-dressed over the total mixed ration at a rate of 0.19 (MS) or 0.07% (SM) on a dry matter basis. Liver tissue was collected on -10, 7, and 21 d for global DNA and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) promoter region-specific methylation. Several PPARα target and putative target genes associated with carnitine synthesis and uptake, fatty acid metabolism, hepatokines, and carbohydrate metabolism were also studied. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with the preplanned contrast CON versus SM + MS. Global hepatic DNA methylation on d 21 postpartum was lower in Met-supplemented cows than CON. However, of 2 primers used encompassing 4 to 12 CpG sites in the promoter region of bovine PPARA, greater methylation occurred in the region encompassing -1,538 to -1,418 from the transcription start site in cows supplemented with Met. Overall expression of PPARA was greater in Met-supplemented cows than CON. Concomitantly, PPARA-target genes, such as ANGPTL4, FGF21, and PCK1, were also upregulated overall by Met supplementation. The upregulation of PPAR

  12. Isolating the cow-specific part of residual energy intake in lactating dairy cows using random regressions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A; Friggens, N C; Berry, D P; Faverdin, P

    2018-07-01

    The ability to properly assess and accurately phenotype true differences in feed efficiency among dairy cows is key to the development of breeding programs for improving feed efficiency. The variability among individuals in feed efficiency is commonly characterised by the residual intake approach. Residual feed intake is represented by the residuals of a linear regression of intake on the corresponding quantities of the biological functions that consume (or release) energy. However, the residuals include both, model fitting and measurement errors as well as any variability in cow efficiency. The objective of this study was to isolate the individual animal variability in feed efficiency from the residual component. Two separate models were fitted, in one the standard residual energy intake (REI) was calculated as the residual of a multiple linear regression of lactation average net energy intake (NEI) on lactation average milk energy output, average metabolic BW, as well as lactation loss and gain of body condition score. In the other, a linear mixed model was used to simultaneously fit fixed linear regressions and random cow levels on the biological traits and intercept using fortnight repeated measures for the variables. This method split the predicted NEI in two parts: one quantifying the population mean intercept and coefficients, and one quantifying cow-specific deviations in the intercept and coefficients. The cow-specific part of predicted NEI was assumed to isolate true differences in feed efficiency among cows. NEI and associated energy expenditure phenotypes were available for the first 17 fortnights of lactation from 119 Holstein cows; all fed a constant energy-rich diet. Mixed models fitting cow-specific intercept and coefficients to different combinations of the aforementioned energy expenditure traits, calculated on a fortnightly basis, were compared. The variance of REI estimated with the lactation average model represented only 8% of the variance of

  13. Dairy cows welfare quality in tie-stall housing system with or without access to exercise.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Silvana; Borda, Cristin; Diugan, Eva Andrea; Spinu, Marina; Groza, Ioan Stefan; Sandru, Carmen Dana

    2013-06-01

    Tie-stall housing of dairy cows is used extensively worldwide, despite of the welfare concerns regarding the restriction of voluntary movement and limitation of expression of the cows' natural behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the welfare quality of dairy cows kept in two types of tie-stall housing systems: with regular outdoor exercise and without access to exercise. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between different welfare measures of dairy cows kept in tie-stalls. 3,192 lactating cows were assessed using the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle in 80 commercial dairy farms, half of the farms providing outdoor access for the animals to exercise. The descriptive statistical indicators were determined for the assessed measures and for the welfare criteria and principle scores. The data obtained in the two housing types were compared and the correlation coefficients were calculated between the different welfare measures. The significant differences found between the two housing systems for the majority of the animal based measures indicate the positive effect of exercise on the welfare of tethered cows. Many of the animal welfare parameters correlated with each other. For the farms allowing the cows' turnout in a paddock, pasture or both, the mean scores for the welfare criteria and principles were higher than for the farms with permanent tethering of the cows, except the criteria absence of prolonged hunger and expression of social behaviours. The lowest scores were obtained for the criterion positive emotional state, in both housing systems. With regard to the overall classification, none of the farms were considered excellent. In the not classified category were only farms with all-year-round tethering of the animals and in the enhanced category only farms where the cows had outdoor access. The welfare quality of the investigated dairy cows was significantly better in the tie-stall farms which allow exercise for cows

  14. Exploring relationships between Dairy Herd Improvement monitors of performance and the Transition Cow Index in Wisconsin dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Schultz, K K; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B

    2016-09-01

    Transition cow management has been tracked via the Transition Cow Index (TCI; AgSource Cooperative Services, Verona, WI) since 2006. Transition Cow Index was developed to measure the difference between actual and predicted milk yield at first test day to evaluate the relative success of the transition period program. This project aimed to assess TCI in relation to all commonly used Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) metrics available through AgSource Cooperative Services. Regression analysis was used to isolate variables that were relevant to TCI, and then principal components analysis and network analysis were used to determine the relative strength and relatedness among variables. Finally, cluster analysis was used to segregate herds based on similarity of relevant variables. The DHI data were obtained from 2,131 Wisconsin dairy herds with test-day mean ≥30 cows, which were tested ≥10 times throughout the 2014 calendar year. The original list of 940 DHI variables was reduced through expert-driven selection and regression analysis to 23 variables. The K-means cluster analysis produced 5 distinct clusters. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the 23 variables per cluster grouping. Using principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis, 4 parameters were isolated as most relevant to TCI; these were energy-corrected milk, 3 measures of intramammary infection (dry cow cure rate, linear somatic cell count score in primiparous cows, and new infection rate), peak ratio, and days in milk at peak milk production. These variables together with cow and newborn calf survival measures form a group of metrics that can be used to assist in the evaluation of overall transition period performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional evaluation of transgenic cottonseed in the ration of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Ranjan K; Singhal, Kamal K; Tyagi, Amrish K; Rajput, Y S; Prasad, Shiv

    2010-03-01

    The effects of feeding transgenic (Bt) whole cottonseed (WCS) were studied in lactating cows. Twenty multiparous crossbred cows (Karan Swiss x Karan Fries) in early lactation were given a concentrate mixture containing 40% crushed delinted non-transgenic (non-Bt) WCS, 2 kg wheat straw and green fodder ad lib for a 15-day adaptation period. Thereafter, the cows were divided in two similar groups of 10 each on the basis of milk yield, body weight (BW) and date of calving. The non-Bt control group continued on same ration, while for the Bt group the non-Bt WCS was replaced by transgenic WCS, in a feeding trial of four weeks. The diets provided a minimum of 2 kg cottonseed/cow/d. Mean DMI/100 kg BW and milk yield of non-Bt and Bt groups was 3.48 and 3.45 kg and 11.4 and 12.0 kg/d, respectively. Intake of nutrients, digestibility, milk production and body condition score (BCS) did not differ between the groups (P > 0.05), but BW gain was higher (P < 0.05) in the Bt group than the non-Bt group, probably as a result of hoof problem in two cows of non-Bt group, which when compared excluding two animals from each group did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Transgenic protein (Cry1C) was not detected in the weekly milk samples or in blood plasma at the end of the experiment, showing that delinted WCS containing Cry1C protein can safely be fed to lactating cows.

  16. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota between German Holstein Dairy Cows with and without Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasum

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun-Sik; Jung, Sang Il; Park, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Kyoung-Won; Son, Jeong-Hoon; Hong, Sanghyun; Shim, Minkyung

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common diseases in high-performance German Holstein dairy cows is left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Hypomotility of the abomasum is detrimental during the pathogenesis of LDA. It is known that improper interactions between the gut microbiota and the enteric nervous system contribute to dysfunctions of gastrointestinal motility. Therefore, we hypothesized that the gut microbial composition will be different between German Holstein dairy cows with and without LDA. We used 16S rRNA gene analysis to evaluate whether there are any differences in bacterial composition between German Holstein dairy cows with and without LDA. Even though our data are limited to being used to correlate compositional changes with corresponding functional aspects in the pathogenesis of LDA, results from this study show that the fecal microbial compositions of German Holstein dairy cows with LDA shifted and were less diverse than those in normal cows. In particular, Spirochaetes were absent in cows with LDA. PMID:26842700

  17. Progesterone supplementation postinsemination improves fertility of cooled dairy cows during the summer.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E; Roth, Z; Voet, H; Lavon, Y; Wolfenson, D

    2012-06-01

    Reduced fertility of dairy cows during periods of elevated temperature, humidity, or both might be associated with low plasma progesterone concentration. Alleviation of thermal stress by efficient cooling is a prerequisite for improving fertility by hormonal treatment. We examined whether insertion of a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing (CIDR) insert containing progesterone following artificial insemination (AI) would improve summer conception rate. Control (n = 195) and treated (CIDR; n=165) cows, yielding on average 42.3 kg milk/d, were inseminated following estrus detection during the summer (July to October) in 2 commercial dairy herds in Israel. Mean maximal air temperature and relative humidity during the study were 30.2°C and 86%, respectively. All experimental cows were efficiently cooled throughout the study, as confirmed by measuring the body temperature of random cows. Treated cows received a CIDR insert on d 5 ± 1 post-AI for 13 d and pregnancy was confirmed by palpation 45 d post-AI. Plasma progesterone concentration in treated cows was elevated by approximately 1.5 ng/mL. Multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze conception rate. Treatment did not alter the overall conception rate; however, probability of conception increased in CIDR-treated cows with low body condition score (BCS) compared with their control counterparts (53 vs. 27%, respectively). A pronounced increase in probability of conception was recorded in CIDR-treated cows exhibiting both low BCS and postpartum reproductive disorders, compared with their control counterparts (58 vs. 14%, respectively). Exogenous progesterone supplementation on d 5 post-AI for 13 d improves summer fertility of subpopulations of cows exhibiting low BCS and postpartum reproductive disorders. Reproductive management based on specific hormonal treatment of designated subgroups of cows known to derive beneficial effects from it might improve treatment efficiency and reduce expenses. Copyright

  18. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (p<0.01), milk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  19. Treatments of clinical mastitis occurring in cows on 51 large dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L; Ruegg, P L

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobials are frequently used for treatment of bovine mastitis and few studies have examined modern treatment strategies on large US dairy farms. The objective of this study was to describe treatment practices for clinical mastitis occurring in cows on large dairy herds in Wisconsin. Treatments performed on 747 cows experiencing cases of mild, moderate, or severe symptoms of clinical mastitis were recorded on 51 Wisconsin dairy farms. Duplicate milk samples were collected from the affected quarter for microbiological analysis at the onset of clinical mastitis and 14 to 21 d after treatment ended. Cows were treated according to individual farm protocol. Drugs and doses used for treatments were recorded for each case. Among all herds, 5 intramammary (IMM) antimicrobials (amoxicillin, hetacillin, pirlimycin, ceftiofur, and cephapirin) were used to treat cows for clinical mastitis. Of 712 cows with complete treatment data, 71.6% were treated with IMM ceftiofur either solely or combined with other antimicrobials (administered either IMM or systemically). Of cows experiencing severe symptoms of clinical mastitis, 43.8% received IMM treatment concurrent with systemic antimicrobials. Of all cows treated, 23.1% received an additional secondary treatment (either IMM, systemic, or both) because of perceived lack of response to the initial treatment. The majority of IMM treatments were administered to cows with a microbiological diagnosis of no growth (34.9%) or Escherichia coli (27.2%). Half of the cows experiencing cases caused by E. coli were treated using systemic antimicrobials in contrast to only 6.8% of cows experiencing cases caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. In conflict with FDA regulations, which do not allow extra-label treatments using sulfonamides, a total of 22 cows from 8 farms were treated with systemic sulfadimethoxine either solely or in combination with oxytetracycline. Antimicrobial drugs were used on all herds and many cows received extra

  20. Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (<200 d) and SCC (<100,000 cells/mL). Farms were followed for 4, 5-week periods. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC <100,000 cells/mL but whose next SCC exceeded 200,000 cells/mL. Lying behavior was recorded 5d after each milk sampling using data loggers. For these 5d, individual milking times and feeding times were also recorded. On d1 of each recording period 2 trained observers scored focal cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate

  1. Digestion, milk production, milk composition, and blood composition of dairy cows fed whole flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Petit, Helene V

    2002-06-01

    A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows averaging 628 kg (SE = 8) of body weight (BW) were allotted at calving to 30 groups of three cows blocked for similar calving dates to determine the effects of feeding whole untreated flaxseed on milk production and composition, fatty acid composition of blood and milk, and digestibility, and to determine whether flaxseed could substitute for other sources of fat such as Megalac and micronized soybeans. Cows were fed a total mixed diet based on grass and corn silage and fat supplements for ad libitum intake. The experiment was carried out from calving up to wk 16 of lactation. Cows within each block were assigned to one of the three isonitrogenous, isoenergetic, and isolipidic supplements based on either whole flaxseed (FLA), Megalac (MEG), or micronized soybeans (SOY). Intake of dry matter and change in BW were similar among diets. Cows fed FLA had greater milk yield than those fed MEG (35.7 vs. 33.5 kg/d) and there was no difference between cows fed FLA and those fed SOY (34.4 kg/d). Fat percentage was higher in the milk of cows fed MEG (4.14%) than in the milk of those fed FLA (3.81%) or SOY (3.70%), but milk protein percentage was higher for cows fed FLA (2.98%) than for those fed MEG (2.86%) and SOY (2.87%). Digestibilities of acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and ether extract were lower for cows fed FLA than for those fed SOY and MEG. Retention of N was similar among diets. Feeding FLA resulted in the lowest omega-6-to-omega-3-fatty-acids ratio, which would improve the nutritive value of milk from a human health point of view. The data suggest that micronized soybeans and Megalac can be completely substituted by whole untreated flaxseed as the fat source in the diet of early lactating cows without any adverse effect on production and that flaxseed increased milk protein percentage and its omega-6-to-omega-3-fatty-acids ratio.

  2. Impact of dietary starch concentration formulated with two types of corn silage on methane and ammonia emissions in dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions of lactating dairy cows fed different starch level and corn silage type. After the completion of an 8-wk production study, 48 Holstein cows were allocated to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers (2 cows/chamber) for...

  3. Vitamin D(3) synthesis in the entire skin surface of dairy cows despite hair coverage.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, L; Jensen, S K

    2010-05-01

    How hair-coated animals such as dairy cows synthesize endogenous vitamin D(3) during exposure to summer sunlight has been unclear since vitamin D(3) and its relation to sunlight was discovered. The fur of fur-bearing animals is thought to be comparable to clothing in humans, which prevents vitamin D(3) synthesis in the skin during exposure to sunlight. Different scenarios have been suggested but never tested in cows; for example, that vitamin D(3) is synthesized from sebum on the hair and ingested by cows during grooming or that body areas such as the udder and muzzle that have scant hair exclusively produce the vitamin. To test different scenarios, 16 Danish Holstein dairy cows were subjected to 4 degrees of coverage of their bodies with fabric that prevented vitamin D(3) synthesis in the covered skin areas. The treatments were horse blanket (cows fitted with horse blankets), udder cover (cows fitted with udder covers, horse blanket+udder cover (cows fitted with both horse blankets and udder covers), and natural (cows without any coverage fitted). The cows were let out to pasture daily between 1000 and 1500h for 4 wk in July and August 2009. Blood samples were collected 15 times during the study and analyzed for content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] indicative of the animals' vitamin D(3) status. Results showed that uncovered cows had a higher 25(OH)D(3) concentration in plasma after 28 d of access to sunlight compared with covered cows and that the plasma concentration of 25(OH)D(3) was strongly inversely correlated to the body surface area covered. These results are consistent with findings in humans, wherein the vitamin D(3) status of different individuals was inversely proportional to the amount of clothing worn during exposure to artificial sunlight. Hence, it appears that human clothing and cow hair are not comparable with respect to prevention of vitamin D(3) synthesis and that cows, like humans, synthesize vitamin D(3) evenly over their body

  4. Serum paraoxonase-1 as biomarker for improved diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Farid, Ayman Samir; Honkawa, Kazuyuki; Fath, Eman Mohamed; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro

    2013-04-11

    Fatty liver is a major metabolic disorder in dairy cows and is believed to result in major economic losses in dairy farming due to decreased health status, reproductive performance and fertility. Currently, the definitive means for diagnosing fatty liver is determining the fat content of hepatic tissue by liver biopsy, which is an invasive and costly procedure, making it poorly suited to dairy farms. Therefore, the key aim of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an enzyme exclusively synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive noninvasive biomarker for diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. A comparative cohort study using serum specimens from Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 healthy and 46 fatty liver cases) was conducted. Serum PON1 (paraoxonase, lactonase and arylesterase) activity and other biochemical and hematological parameters were measured. We found that serum PON1 activity was lower (P<0.001) in cows suffering from fatty liver. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of PON1 activity for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.973-0.989 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.941, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). We found that adding serum PON1 measurement to different batteries of serum diagnostic panels showed a combination of high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR), diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) and overall diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing fatty liver. The present results indicate that addition of serum PON1 activity measurement to the biochemical profile could improve the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows, which would

  5. Nutrient Restriction Increases Circulating and Hepatic Ceramide in Dairy Cows Displaying Impaired Insulin Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Davis, Amanda N; Clegg, J L; Perry, C A; McFadden, J W

    2017-09-01

    The progression of insulin resistance in dairy cows represents a maternal adaptation to support milk production during heightened energy demand; however, excessive adipose tissue lipolysis can develop. In diabetic non-ruminants, the mechanisms that mediate insulin resistance involve the sphingolipid ceramide. We tested the hypothesis that ceramide accumulates in dairy cows experiencing lipolysis and insulin resistance. Nine dairy cows were utilized in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cows were ad libitum fed, nutrient-restricted (NR), or NR with nicotinic acid (NA; 5 mg of NA/h per kg BW; delivered i.v.) for 34 h. When provided access, cows were ad libitum fed a mixed ration of grass hay and ground corn to meet requirements. Intake for NR cows was limited to vitamins and minerals. Nicotinic acid was administered to suppress lipolysis. Saline was infused in cows not provided NA. At 32 and 33 h of treatment, a liver biopsy and insulin tolerance test were performed, respectively. Samples were analyzed using colorimetry, immunoassay, and mass spectrometry. Nutrient restriction increased serum fatty acids and ceramide levels, and impaired insulin sensitivity; however, NA infusion was unable to prevent these responses. We also show that NR increases hepatic ceramide accumulation, a response that was positively associated with serum ceramide supply. Our data demonstrate that circulating and hepatic 24:0-Cer are inversely associated with systemic insulin tolerance, an effect not observed for the 16:0 moiety. In conclusion, our results suggest that ceramide accrual represents a metabolic adaptation to nutrient restriction and impaired insulin action in dairy cows.

  6. Comparison of claw health and milk yield in dairy cows on elastic or concrete flooring.

    PubMed

    Kremer, P V; Nueske, S; Scholz, A M; Foerster, M

    2007-10-01

    This article reports on the effects of elastic (rubber) flooring compared with concrete flooring on claw health and milk yield in dairy cows. Milk yield and activity data of 53 complete lactations from 49 cows were recorded by an automatic milking system in the University of Munich Livestock Center dairy herd. Cows were kept in a loose housing system on concrete-slatted or rubber-matted slatted flooring. Claws were trimmed and measured linearly in combination with claw lesion diagnosis 3 times during one lactation period (including the transition phase). An automatic milking system recorded milk yield and activity. The net horn growth of the claws increased on elastic flooring. Therefore, correct and frequent claw trimming is at least as important for claw health in dairy herds kept on rubber flooring as for those on concrete-slatted flooring. Cows housed on rubber had an increased incidence of sole ulcers. Sole hemorrhages (except for hemorrhages associated with sole ulcers) occurred less frequently on rubber than on concrete. Results concerning digital dermatitis were difficult to assess, because manual manure scraping on rubber required sprinkling the flooring twice daily, which additionally moistened the digital skin of the cows. This might explain the greater incidence of digital dermatitis on elastic flooring. The incidence of clinically lame cows did not differ between flooring types. Cows showed greater activity on rubber, most likely caused by the more comfortable walking surface compared with the concrete-slatted flooring. The greater activity may indicate better overall health of high-yielding dairy cows on rubber flooring. Milk yield, however, did not differ between flooring types.

  7. Altered plasma lipidome profile of dairy cows with fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gerspach, C; Imhasly, S; Gubler, M; Naegeli, H; Ruetten, M; Laczko, E

    2017-02-01

    Fatty liver disease is a common health problem of dairy cows occurring during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. It is a direct response to fat mobilization due to negative energy balance. Accumulation of lipids in the liver occurs if the uptake of non-esterified fatty acids by the liver exceeds the capacity of lipid oxidation or secretion by the liver. Currently, the diagnosis of fatty liver disease requires confirmation through biopsies to determine the hepatic lipid content. In view of this lack of a practical diagnostic tool, we compared the plasma lipidome of diseased dairy cows using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Multivariate data analysis yielded 20 m/z values that were able to distinguish between dairy cows with no hepatic lipidosis and those exhibiting different stages of the disease. Based on the chromatography retention time and m/z ratios, we identified phosphatidylcholines with reduced plasma abundances in cows with fatty liver disease. The abundances of different bile acids tended to be increased. In addition, we detected two metabolites related to inflammation, resolvin E1 and palmitoyl-ethanolamine (PEA), which need to be further investigated in cattle. These results indicate that the measurement of specific representatives of phosphatidylcholines in plasma may provide a novel diagnostic biomarker of fatty liver disease in dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  9. Proteomic analysis of physiological function response to hot summer in liver from lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangjun; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zijun; Zhao, Huiling; Huang, Dongwei; Cheng, Guanglong; Yang, Yongxin

    2017-04-01

    Lactation performance of dairy cattle is susceptible to heat stress. The liver is one of the most crucial organs affected by high temperature in dairy cows. However, the physiological adaption by the liver to hot summer conditions has not been well elucidated in lactating dairy cows. In the present study, proteomic analysis of the liver in dairy cows in spring and hot summer was performed using a label-free method. In total, 127 differentially expressed proteins were identified; most of the upregulated proteins were involved in protein metabolic processes and responses to stimuli, whereas most of the downregulated proteins were related to oxidation-reduction. Pathway analysis indicated that 3 upregulated heat stress proteins (HSP90α, HSP90β, and endoplasmin) were enriched in the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, whereas several downregulated NADH dehydrogenase proteins were involved in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. The protein-protein interaction network indicated that several upregulated HSPs (HSP90α, HSP90β, and GRP78) were involved in more interactions than other proteins and were thus considered as central hub nodes. Our findings provide novel insights into the physiological adaption of liver function in lactating dairy cows to natural high temperature. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Designing Better Water Troughs: Does Trough Color Influence Dairy Cows' Preference?

    PubMed

    Lemos Teixeira, Dayane; Hötzel, Maria José; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; Cazale, José Daniel; Enríquez-Hidalgo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Eighteen lactating dairy cows were used to elucidate their preference for green, grey, or red troughs. The herd was managed under a rotational grazing system with ad-libitum access to water until 11:30 h. For 9 days, all cows were tested individually following the afternoon milking. Cows drank similar quantities, spent a similar amount of time drinking, and took a similar number of sips from the 3 trough colors (p > .05). In 75% of the tests, cows drank more than 95% of the test period from the same trough. Within this time, the percentage of choices did not differ among colors (33.3% green, 39.0% grey, and 27.7% red). When they chose the red trough, cows spent less time drinking (p ≤ .05) and tended to take fewer sips (p = .07), which could suggest a partial aversion to this color. Suboptimal water trough design may have long-term negative effects on both the production and welfare of dairy cattle; however, the results suggest that color does not play a major role in the drinking behavior of dairy cows.

  11. Effects of a plant product consisting of green tea and curcuma extract on milk production and the expression of hepatic genes involved in endoplasmic stress response and inflammation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Anne; Gessner, Denise K; Koch, Christian; Romberg, Franz-Josef; Dusel, Georg; Herzog, Eva; Most, Erika; Eder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    During the periparturient phase, cows are typically in an inflammation-like condition, and it has been proposed that inflammation associated with the induction of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the liver contributes to the development of fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. In the present study, the hypothesis that supplementation of dairy cows with a plant product consisting of green tea (95%) and curcuma extract (5%) rich in polyphenols attenuates inflammation and ER stress in the liver during early lactation was investigated. Twenty-seven cows were assigned to two groups, either a control group (n=14) or a treatment group (n=13). Both groups of cows received a total mixed ration, and the ration of the treatment group was supplemented with 0.175 g of the plant product per kg dry matter from week 3 prepartum to week 9 postpartum. Dry matter intake and energy balance during week 2 to week 9 postpartum were not different between the two groups. However, cows supplemented with the plant product had a greater amount of energy-corrected milk during week 2 to week 9 postpartum and lower concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol in the liver in week 1 and week 3 postpartum than cows of the control group (p<0.05). Cows supplemented with the plant product showed a trend towards a reduced mRNA concentration of haptoglobin (p<0.10), while relative mRNA concentrations of eight genes of the unfolded protein response considered in the liver were not different between the two groups of cows. Relative hepatic mRNA concentration of fibroblast growth factor, a stress hormone induced by various stress conditions, was reduced at week 1 and week 3 postpartum in cows supplemented with the plant product (p<0.05). Overall, the data of this study suggest that--although there were only minor effects on the occurrence of ER stress and inflammation--a supplementation of polyphenols might be useful to improve milk yield and prevent fatty liver syndrome in dairy cows.

  12. Fresh-cow handling practices and methods for identification of health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California.

    PubMed

    Espadamala, A; Pallarés, P; Lago, A; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe fresh-cow handling practices and techniques used during fresh cow evaluations to identify postpartum health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California ranging from 450 to 9,500 cows. Fresh cow practices were surveyed regarding (a) grouping and housing, (b) scheduling and work organization, (c) screening for health disorders, and (d) physical examination methods. Information was collected based on cow-side observations and responses from fresh cow evaluators. Cows were housed in the fresh cow pen for 3 to 14 (20%), 15 to 30 (49%), or >31 (31%) d in milk. Fresh cow evaluations were performed daily (78%), 6 times a week (11%), 2 to 5 times a week (9%), or were not routinely performed (2%). There was significant correlation between the duration of fresh cow evaluations and the number of cows housed in the fresh pen. Across all farms, the duration of evaluations ranged from 5 to 240 min, with an average of 16 s spent per cow. During fresh cow checks, evaluators always looked for abnormal vaginal discharge, retained fetal membranes, and down cows. Dairies evaluated appetite based on rumen fill (11%), reduction of feed in the feed bunk (20%), rumination sensors (2%), or a combination of these (29%). Milk yield was evaluated based on udder fill at fresh cow checks (40%), milk flow during milking (11%), milk yield records collected by milk meters (2%), or a combination of udder fill and milk meters (5%). Depressed attitude was evaluated on 64% of the dairies. Health-monitoring exams for early detection of metritis were implemented on 42% of the dairies based on rectal examination (13%), rectal temperature (22%), or both (7%). Dairies implementing health-monitoring exams took longer to perform fresh cow evaluations. Physical examination methods such as rectal examination, auscultation, rectal temperature evaluation, and cow-side ketosis tests were used on 76, 67, 38, and 9% of dairies, respectively. Across dairies, we found large

  13. Relationship between Escherichia coli virulence factors and postpartum metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kassé, F N; Fairbrother, J M; Dubuc, J

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows before the onset of postpartum metritis (PPM) and to quantify their association with subsequent occurrence of PPM, to quantify the association between the presence of genes encoding E. coli virulence factors (VF) and PPM, and to determine the accuracy of using early postpartum uterine bacteriology results (bacteria and VF) to identify cows at risk of PPM. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 3 commercial dairy farms. Uterine swabs were collected from 371 Holstein dairy cows (3 commercial herds) at 1 to 7d in milk and submitted to the laboratory for identification of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and E. coli VF. A total of 40 VF were tested using the radioactive probe hybridization method. Postpartum metritis was defined as the presence of a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with fever (rectal temperature >39.5°C), and systemic signs of illness (dullness, reduced appetite, and milk production). Surveillance of PPM was done by trained farmers blinded to laboratory results and cows were followed until 21d in milk. Statistical analyses were conducted using 2×2 tables and mixed logistical regression models. Prevalences of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and PPM were 42, 34, and 15%, respectively. A total of 32 VF were found in E. coli isolates. Most prevalent VF were extraintestinal pathogenic genes such as fimH (89%), hlyE (87%), and iss (70%). Cows positive for intrauterine E. coli were 3.2 times more likely to have subsequent PPM compared with bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF hra1 in their uterus were 2.7 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for hra1 and 5.9 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF kpsMTII in their uterus were 3.2 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for kpsMTII and 6.2 times more likely

  14. The effect of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on uterine involution in dairy cows evaluated by sonomicrometry

    PubMed Central

    HEPPELMANN, Maike; KRACH, Karoline; KRUEGER, Lars; BENZ, Philipp; HERZOG, Kathrin; PIECHOTTA, Marion; HOEDEMAKER, Martina; BOLLWEIN, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on reduction of uterine size in dairy cows using ultrasonography and sonomicrometry. Four piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy into the myometrium of the pregnant uterine horn of 12 pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows 3 weeks before the calculated calving date. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 days before parturition (= Day 0) until Day 14 after calving and then every other day until Day 28. Distances between adjacent crystals were expressed in relation to reference values obtained before calving. The diameter of the formerly pregnant uterine horn was measured using transrectal B-Mode sonography starting on Day 10. Cows were retrospectively divided into the following groups: cows without metritis (M–; n = 7), cows with metritis (M+; n = 5), cows with normocalcemia (SH–; Ca > 2.0 mmol/l on Days 1 to 3; n = 5) and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia (SH+; Ca < 2.0 mmol/l in at least one sample between Days 1 and 3; n = 7). Metritis did not affect (P > 0.05) sonometric measurements, but the diameter of the formerly pregnant horn was larger (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 15 and 21 in M+ cows than in M‒ cows. Reduction in uterine length in hypocalcemic cows was delayed (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 8 and 21 compared with normocalcemic cows, but the uterine horn diameter was not related to calcium status. In conclusion, both diseases affected reduction of uterine size until Day 28. Cows with metritis had a larger uterine diameter, possibly attributable to accumulation of lochia, and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia had delayed reduction of uterine length, presumably related to reduction of myometrial contractility. PMID:26400127

  15. A survey of antimicrobial use in dairy cows from farms in four regions of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bryan, M; Hea, S Y

    2017-03-01

    To assess the use of antimicrobials in dairy cows over three seasons in a group of dairy farms within the Southland and South Otago region, and to assess antimicrobial use in one season in a group of monitored dairy farms in four regions of New Zealand. Sales data were collated for all antimicrobials purchased by 399, 406 and 436 dairy farms in the Southland and South Otago regions for the 2012-13, 2013-14 and 2014-15 seasons, respectively, and from 108 dairy farms in the Manawatu, Taranaki, North Canterbury, and Southland and South Otago regions of New Zealand for 2014-15. Antimicrobials were categorised by class and product type (injectable, or dry cow or lactating cow intramammary). Antimicrobial usage was calculated as the mass of active ingredient (ai) per kg biomass, or population correction unit (PCU), with biomass estimated from the number of cows and heifers in the milking herd on 1 June multiplied by 458 kg. Estimated annual use of antimicrobials in the Southland and South Otago herds was 8.47, 9.58 and 9.54 mg ai/PCU for the three seasons, and for herds in the four regions was 8.65 mg ai/PCU for 2014-15. Penicillins were the most commonly used antimicrobials. Between 2012 and 2015, penicillin use increased from 5.75 to 7.44 mg ai/PCU, whereas there was a decrease in use of macrolides (1.19 to 1.04 mg ai/PCU) and cephalosporins (0.82 to 0.45 mg ai/PCU). Estimated annual use in 2014-15 by herds in Manawatu, Taranaki, North Canterbury, and Southland and South Otago was 8.93, 5.28, 6.44 and 9.97 mg ai/PCU, respectively, and also varied with size of herd. In these herds, injectable products were most commonly used (4.89 mg ai/PCU), followed by dry cow intramammary (3.04 mg ai/PCU), then lactating cow intramammary treatments (0.71 mg ai/PCU). The use of antimicrobials in dairy cows in New Zealand appears low by international standards, but varied across years and across regions. The vast majority of antimicrobials used by class were

  16. Fluctuation of neutrophil counts around parturition in Holstein dairy cows with and without retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Pierangelo; Probo, Monica; Cantoni, Andrea; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    Retained placenta (RP) is often diagnosed in high-yielding dairy cows and can negatively affect reproductive performances. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hematological and biochemical profile of cows with RP before and immediately after parturition, with particular emphasis on neutrophil counts, since a previous study demonstrated the presence of peripheral neutropenia in dairy cows with RP sampled a few days after parturition. Results from 12 Holstein cows affected by RP and from 17 clinically healthy controls sampled one week pre-partum, within 12h after calving and between 48 and 72h after parturition were compared between groups and over time. Compared with controls, cows with RP had lower lymphocyte counts before parturition, lower leukocyte and neutrophil counts at parturition, lower monocyte counts at all times, and higher β-hydroxybutyrate before and after parturition. Erythroid and biochemical parameters were similar over time in both groups, whereas RP cows did not show the increase of neutrophil counts that occurs in controls at parturition. Hence, the finding of a lower neutrophil count in a routinely hemogram performed at parturition could be used as an alarm signal suggesting to monitor the affected animals. Moreover, although the underlying pathogenetic mechanism should be better investigated, the present study describes for the first time the association between altered blood leukocyte concentrations at parturition in RP compared to control cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Healing process of claw lesions in dairy cows in alpine mountain pastures].

    PubMed

    Lischer, C J; Wehrle, M; Geyer, H; Lutz, B; Ossent, P

    2000-07-01

    The field study investigated severity, localisation and incidence of claw lesions of dairy cows and their healing process during a period of three months on selected mountain pastures in the central part of Switzerland. In 60 cows, which were at least 120 days in their lactation, the healing process was compared with the biochemical profiles. In 141 cows 197 claw lesions were recorded. Diagnosed were only sole ulcers (38%) and white line lesions (62%). In the first and second half of the summer term, the number of claw lesions was equal, although more severe lesions occurred mainly during the second half (89%). The lesions were treated surgically and the affected claw was elevated on a wood block or a plastic shoe. Average time for formation of a close layer of horn was 14 days. A delayed healing process was observed in dairy cows with an milk yield over 5500 kg per lactation, as well as in the second half of the summer term. Cows with a delayed healing process had significantly higher concentrations of free fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate, and higher plasma enzyme activities for AST than cows with adequate healing process. This indicates that cows with a relatively high milk production touch upon the limits of their physical capacity under harder conditions on alpine pastures, which may affect also the healing process of claw lesions.

  18. Considering choline as methionine precursor, lipoproteins transporter, hepatic promoter and antioxidant agent in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Imtiaz Hussain Raja; Abbasi, Farzana; Soomro, Rab N; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; Abdel-Latif, Mervat A; Li, Wen; Hao, Ren; Sun, Feifei; Bodinga, Bello M; Hayat, Khawar; Yao, Junhu; Cao, Yangchun

    2017-11-25

    During the transition period, fatty liver syndrome may be caused in cows undergo negative energy balance, ketosis or hypocalcemia, retained placenta or mastitis problems. During the transition stage, movement of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) increases into blood which declines the hepatic metabolism or reproduction and consequently, lactation performance of dairy cows deteriorates. Most of studies documented that, choline is an essential nutrient which plays a key role to decrease fatty liver, NEFA proportion, improve synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, maintain lactation or physiological function and work as anti-oxidant in the transition period of dairy cows. Also, it has a role in the regulation of homocysteine absorption through betaine metabolite which significantly improves plasma α-tocopherol and interaction among choline, methionine and vitamin E. Many studies reported that, supplementation of rumen protected form of choline during transition time is a sustainable method as rumen protected choline (RPC) perform diverse functions like, increase glucose level or energy balance, fertility or milk production, methyl group metabolism, or signaling of cell methionine expansion or methylation reactions, neurotransmitter synthesis or betaine methylation, increase transport of lipids or lipoproteins efficiency and reduce NEFA or triacylglycerol, clinical or sub clinical mastitis and general morbidity in the transition dairy cows. The purpose of this review is that to elucidate the choline importance and functions in the transition period of dairy cows and deal all morbidity during transition or lactation period. Furthermore, further work is needed to conduct more studies on RPC requirements in dairy cows ration under different feeding conditions and also to elucidate the genetic and molecular mechanisms of choline in ruminants industry.

  19. Association of rumination time with subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between rumination and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A study was conducted on 4 commercial dairy farms in eastern Ontario, Canada. A total of 339 Holstein dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) were monitored for rumination activity and SCK from 14 d before calving until 28 d after calving. Rumination was recorded daily using an automated monitoring system. A blood sample was taken from the coccygeal vein of each cow for measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) once weekly throughout the 6-wk observation period. Cows with BHB ≥1.2mmol/L in any of the 4 postpartum samples were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were also recorded. Cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy cows (HLT) that had no SCK or any other recorded health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least one health issue other than SCK (HLT+; n=50); cows with SCK (hyperketonemia; HYK) with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or cows (HYK+) that had SCK and one or more other health problems (n=53). Daily rumination time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT and HYK and HYK+. From 2 wk before calving (wk -2) to 4 wk after calving (wk +4), there was no difference in rumination time (409±9.8min/d) among HLT, HYK, and HYK+ cows in their first lactation. Multiparous cows in HLT spent an average of 459±11.3min/d ruminating from wk -2 to wk +4. Multiparous HYK cows ruminated 25±12.8min/d less than HLT cows, whereas HYK+ cows ruminated 44±15.6min/d less than HLT cows. The largest differences in rumination time between HLT and HYK+ cows were seen during wk -1, +1, and +2, when HYK+ cows ruminated 48±17.2, 73±16.0, and 65±19.4min/d less than HLT cows, respectively. In multiparous cows, increased odds of HYK were associated with greater milk yield in the previous lactation, greater loss of

  20. Dairy cows welfare quality in tie-stall housing system with or without access to exercise

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tie-stall housing of dairy cows is used extensively worldwide, despite of the welfare concerns regarding the restriction of voluntary movement and limitation of expression of the cows’ natural behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the welfare quality of dairy cows kept in two types of tie-stall housing systems: with regular outdoor exercise and without access to exercise. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between different welfare measures of dairy cows kept in tie-stalls. Methods 3,192 lactating cows were assessed using the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle in 80 commercial dairy farms, half of the farms providing outdoor access for the animals to exercise. The descriptive statistical indicators were determined for the assessed measures and for the welfare criteria and principle scores. The data obtained in the two housing types were compared and the correlation coefficients were calculated between the different welfare measures. Results The significant differences found between the two housing systems for the majority of the animal based measures indicate the positive effect of exercise on the welfare of tethered cows. Many of the animal welfare parameters correlated with each other. For the farms allowing the cows’ turnout in a paddock, pasture or both, the mean scores for the welfare criteria and principles were higher than for the farms with permanent tethering of the cows, except the criteria absence of prolonged hunger and expression of social behaviours. The lowest scores were obtained for the criterion positive emotional state, in both housing systems. With regard to the overall classification, none of the farms were considered excellent. In the not classified category were only farms with all-year-round tethering of the animals and in the enhanced category only farms where the cows had outdoor access. Conclusions The welfare quality of the investigated dairy cows was significantly better in the

  1. Risk factors associated with detailed reproductive phenotypes in dairy and beef cows.

    PubMed

    Carthy, T R; Berry, D P; Fitzgerald, A; McParland, S; Williams, E J; Butler, S T; Cromie, A R; Ryan, D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify detailed fertility traits in dairy and beef cattle from transrectal ultrasonography records and quantify the associated risk factors. Data were available on 148 947 ultrasound observations of the reproductive tract from 75 949 cows in 843 Irish dairy and beef herds between March 2008 and October 2012. Traits generated included (1) cycling at time of examination, (2) cystic structures, (3) early ovulation, (4) embryo death and (5) uterine score; the latter was measured on a scale of 1 (good) to 4 (poor) characterising the tone of the uterine wall and fluid present in the uterus. After editing, 72,773 records from 44,415 dairy and beef cows in 643 herds remained. Factors associated with the logit of the probability of a positive outcome for each of the binary fertility traits were determined using generalised estimating equations; linear mixed model analysis was used for the analysis of uterine score. The prevalence of cycling, cystic structures, early ovulation and embryo death was 84.75%, 3.87%, 7.47% and 3.84%, respectively. The occurrence of the uterine heath score of 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 70.63%, 19.75%, 8.36% and 1.26%, respectively. Cows in beef herds had a 0.51 odds (95% CI=0.41 to 0.63, P<0.001) of cycling at the time of examination compared with cows in dairy herds; stage of lactation at the time of examination was the same in both herd types. Furthermore, cows in dairy herds had an inferior uterine score (indicating poorer tone and a greater quantity of uterine fluid present) compared with cows in beef herds. The likelihood of cycling at the time of examination increased with parity and stage of lactation, but was reduced in cows that had experienced dystocia in the previous calving. The presence of cystic structures on the ovaries increased with parity and stage of lactation. The likelihood of embryo/foetal death increased with parity and stage of lactation. Dystocia was not associated with the presence of cystic

  2. Barium selenate supplementation and its effect on intramammary infection in pasture-based dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, A; Kruze, J; Barkema, H W; Dohoo, I R; Sanchez, J; Uribe, D; Wichtel, J J; Wittwer, F

    2010-04-01

    A significant proportion of cattle receive inadequate dietary Se because of its low content in soils and pastures of various regions of the world. Several economically important diseases in dairy cows, such as mastitis, have been associated with Se deficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single injection of a long-acting form of Se at drying off on the risk and incidence rate of new intramammary infections and on milk somatic cell count in the subsequent lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. Forty-nine Chilean Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a diet containing <0.05 mg of Se/kg of ration dry matter. During the dry period, cows were allocated to 1 of 2 groups, a supplemented (n=24) group treated with a single subcutaneous injection of barium selenate 2 mo before calving and a control group (n=25) that remained unsupplemented. Duplicate foremilk samples were aseptically collected within 6 d after calving and every 2 wk until drying-off for bacteriological culture. Milk samples were also collected monthly for somatic cell count evaluation. Blood samples were collected before treatment and at 30, 90, 180, and 270 d after treatment for analysis of blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The activity of glutathione peroxidase was higher in supplemented cows 30 d after the injection until the end of the study. The risk and incidence rate of new intramammary infections was not affected by supplementation. A progressive increase in somatic cell count was observed throughout lactation, but there was no effect of supplementation. In conclusion, a one-time injection of barium selenate 2 mo before calving in these pasture-based dairy cows did not affect udder health in the subsequent lactation, indicating that Se basal intake was adequate for preventing subclinical mastitis in pasture-based cows in southern Chile. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Variability, stability, and resilience of fecal microbiota in dairy cows fed whole crop corn silage.

    PubMed

    Tang, Minh Thuy; Han, Hongyan; Yu, Zhu; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishino, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    The microbiota of whole crop corn silage and feces of silage-fed dairy cows were examined. A total of 18 dairy cow feces were collected from six farms in Japan and China, and high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes was performed. Lactobacillaceae were dominant in all silages, followed by Acetobacteraceae, Bacillaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. In feces, the predominant families were Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rikenellaceae, and Paraprevotellaceae. Therefore, Lactobacillaceae of corn silage appeared to be eliminated in the gastrointestinal tract. Although fecal microbiota composition was similar in most samples, relative abundances of several families, such as Ruminococcaceae, Christensenellaceae, Turicibacteraceae, and Succinivibrionaceae, varied between farms and countries. In addition to the geographical location, differences in feeding management between total mixed ration feeding and separate feeding appeared to be involved in the variations. Moreover, a cow-to-cow variation for concentrate-associated families was demonstrated at the same farm; two cows showed high abundance of Succinivibrionaceae and Prevotellaceae, whereas another had a high abundance of Porphyromonadaceae. There was a negative correlation between forage-associated Ruminococcaceae and concentrate-associated Succinivibrionaceae and Prevotellaceae in 18 feces samples. Succinivibrionaceae, Prevotellaceae, p-2534-18B5, and Spirochaetaceae were regarded as highly variable taxa in this study. These findings help to improve our understanding of variation and similarity of the fecal microbiota of dairy cows with regard to individuals, farms, and countries. Microbiota of naturally fermented corn silage had no influence on the fecal microbiota of dairy cows.

  4. Maintenance of plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations during glucose infusion directs essential amino acids to extra-mammary tissues in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Richelle V; Kim, Julie J M; Doelman, John; Cant, John P

    2018-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of branched-chain AA (BCAA) supplementation when glucose is infused postruminally into lactating dairy cows consuming a diet low in crude protein (CP) and to test the hypothesis that low BCAA concentrations are responsible for the poor stimulation of milk protein yield by glucose. Twelve early-lactation Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 15% and 12% CP diets in a switchback design of 6-wk periods. Cows consuming the 12% CP diet received 96-h continuous jugular infusions of saline and 1 kg/d of glucose with 0, 75, or 150 g/d of BCAA in a Latin square sequence of treatments. Compared with saline, glucose infusion did not affect dry matter intake but increased milk yield by 2.2 kg/d and milk protein and lactose yields by 63 and 151 g/d, respectively. Mammary plasma flow increased 36% during glucose infusion compared with saline infusion, possibly because of a 31% decrease in total acetate plus β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Circulating concentrations of total essential AA and BCAA decreased 19 and 31%, respectively, during infusion of glucose, yet net mammary uptakes of AA remained unchanged compared with saline infusion. The addition of 75 and 150 g/d of BCAA to glucose infusions increased arterial concentrations of BCAA to 106 and 149%, respectively, of the concentrations in saline-infused cows, but caused a decrease in concentrations of non-branched-chain essential AA in plasma, as well as their mammary uptakes and milk protein yields. Plasma urea concentration was not affected by BCAA infusion, indicating no change in catabolism of AA. The lack of mammary and catabolic effects leads us to suggest that BCAA exerted their effects on plasma concentrations of the other essential AA by stimulating utilization in skeletal muscle for protein accretion. Results indicate that the glucose effect on milk protein yield was not limited by low BCAA concentrations, and that a stimulation of extra-mammary use

  5. Nitrogen partitioning and milk production of dairy cows grazing simple and diverse pastures.

    PubMed

    Totty, V K; Greenwood, S L; Bryant, R H; Edwards, G R

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted to examine the effects of a diverse pasture mix on dry matter intake, milk yield, and N partitioning of lactating dairy cows. A pasture containing only ryegrass and white clover (RG), or high-sugar ryegrass and white clover (HS), was compared with a diverse pasture mix (HSD) including chicory, plantain, lotus, high-sugar ryegrass, and white clover. The experiment was conducted over a 10-d period using 3 groups of 12 cows in late lactation. No difference was observed in dry matter (14.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day) or N (583 g of N/cow per day) intake between treatments. The cows grazing the HSD pasture had an increased milk yield (16.9 kg/d) compared with those grazing the simple RG and HS pastures (15.2 and 14.7 kg/d, respectively). However, no differences were observed in milk solids yield for the 3 treatments. A tendency toward greater milk protein yields in the HSD group resulted in improved N use efficiency for milk of 20.4% from the cows fed HSD, compared with 17.8 and 16.7% from cows in the RG and HS treatments, respectively. Urinary N excretion was lower from the cows fed HSD, at 353.8 g/d, compared with 438.3 and 426.6 g/d for cows fed RG and HS, respectively. These results suggest that the use of pastures containing chicory, lotus, and plantain can contribute to the goal of reducing N losses from cows in late lactation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Plasma Metabolic Profiling of Dairy Cows with Fatty Liver

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chuang; Sun, Ling-wei; Xia, Cheng; Zhang, Hong-you; Zheng, Jia-san; Wang, Jun-song

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver is a common metabolic disorder of dairy cows during the transition period. Historically, the diagnosis of fatty liver has involved liver biopsy, biochemical or histological examination of liver specimens, and ultrasonographic imaging of the liver. However, more convenient and noninvasive methods would be beneficial for the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. The plasma metabolic profiles of dairy cows with fatty liver and normal (control) cows were investigated to identify new biomarkers using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. Compared with the control group, the primary differences in the fatty liver group included increases in β-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, glycine, valine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, citrulline, and isobutyrate, and decreases in alanine, asparagine, glucose, γ-aminobutyric acid glycerol, and creatinine. This analysis revealed a global profile of endogenous metabolites, which may present potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. PMID:26732447

  7. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion (“HC” with 60:40% or “LC” with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear. PMID:26766039

  8. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear.

  9. Using plant wax markers to estimate the diet composition of grazing Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Heublein, C; Südekum, K-H; Gill, F L; Dohme-Meier, F; Schori, F

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether diet selection of dairy cows under grazing conditions could be estimated using plant wax markers. Furthermore, differences between 2 cow strains and the effect of concentrate supplementation on plant species selection were investigated. The experiment was a study with a crossover design performed on an organic farm with 12 Swiss Holstein cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein cows. Both experimental periods consisted of a 21-d adaptation and a 7-d measurement period. All cows grazed full time in a rotational stocking system and received either no concentrate or 6 kg/d of a commercial cereal-grain mix. Representative herbage samples of each grazed paddock were taken and botanical composition of subsamples was manually determined. The average proportions of the plant species were 27.8% Lolium perenne, 6.1% Dactylis glomerata, 10.4% Trifolium repens, and 9.0% Taraxacum officinale. Other grass species were merged as "other grass" (38.2%) and other forb species as "other forbs" (8.5%). n-Alkanes, long-chain fatty acids, and long-chain alcohols (LCOH) were analyzed in the samples of plant species, concentrate, and feces from each cow. A linear discriminant analysis indicated that diet components were differentiated best with LCOH (96%) and worst with the combination of all marker groups together (12%). For each marker, the fecal marker recovery (FR) relative to dosed ytterbium was determined in 2 ways. Estimation of diet composition was performed with the software "EatWhat," and results were compared with botanical composition with the Aitchison distance. The results indicate that the diet composition of grazing dairy cows can be estimated using plant wax markers. Additionally, the calculation of FR led to mostly reliable results, yet this approach needs further validation. The most accurate estimation was achieved with the marker combination of n-alkanes and LCOH with a correction for FR. Less accurate estimations were achieved

  10. Dairy cow preferences for soft or hard flooring when standing or walking.

    PubMed

    Telezhenko, E; Lidfors, L; Bergsten, C

    2007-08-01

    Concrete is the most commonly used alley flooring in confined dairy herds because of its qualities of construction and ease of cleaning. Nevertheless, the hardness, abrasiveness, and slipperiness of concrete floors have adverse effects on animal well-being and health, and yielding rubber flooring is becoming popular as a way of improving the flooring conditions on walkways. The aim of this study was to investigate preferences of dairy cows for rubber compared with concrete flooring under the conditions of a commercial dairy farm. The study was conducted in an organic dairy herd with free-stall housing. Floor preference was tested on groups of standing cows in a 120-m2 holding pen before milking, and 1 yr later on a 12- x 3-m walkway. The holding pen and the walkway were divided lengthwise into 2 identical sections. Two types of solid rubber mats (soft and extra soft) were tested against solid concrete in the holding pen. Slatted and solid rubber mats were tested against slatted concrete in the walkway. Each floor type was tested over 4 d on the left side and 4 d on the right side of the holding pen and the walkway, respectively. Concrete flooring on both sides of the sections was tested as a control before the testing of different section materials. All observations of the distribution of cows in the sections were made from video recordings captured in association with the afternoon milking. The number of cows on each section was recorded approximately every 7 min in the holding pen, and continuously on the walkway. A significantly higher proportion of cows stood on the side with the soft and extra soft rubber mats (65.1 +/- 2.7 and 69.3 +/- 2.6%, respectively, mean +/- SEM) compared with the control distribution when only the solid concrete was available (50.9 +/- 3.9%). A significantly higher proportion of nonlame cows walked exclusively on the side with the slatted (64.5 +/- 5.4%, d 4) or solid rubber mats (68.2 +/- 5.1%, d 4) compared with controls (28.9 +/- 4

  11. Effects of Increased Vigilance for Locomotion Disorders on Lameness and Production in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Gundelach, Yasmin; Schulz, Timo; Feldmann, Maren; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary For animal welfare reasons, reducing the prevalence of lameness should be one of the most important goals in dairy farming. In this study, the influence of early detection and treatment of lame cows on lameness prevalence, incidence and duration of lameness in comparison with routine lameness management practiced on a dairy farm was determined. The results suggest that early detection and treatment of lame cows significantly reduced the duration of lameness, and, therefore, the prevalence of lameness. Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the influence of weekly locomotion scoring and, thus, early detection and treatment of lame cows by a veterinarian on lameness prevalence, incidence, duration of lameness, fertility and milk yield on one dairy farm in Northern Germany. Cows were distributed to two groups. Cows in Group A (n = 99) with a locomotion score (LS) > 1 were examined and treated. In Group B (n = 99), it was solely in the hands of the farmer to detect lame cows and to decide which cows received treatment. Four weeks after the beginning of the experimental period, the prevalence of cows with LS = 1 was higher in Group A compared with Group B. Prevalence of lame cows (LS > 1) increased in Group B (47.6% in Week 2 to 84.0% in Week 40) and decreased in Group A from Week 2 to Week 40 (50% to 14.4%; P < 0.05). Within groups, the monthly lameness incidence did not differ. The average duration of lameness for newly lame cows was 3.7 weeks in Group A and 10.4 weeks in Group B (P < 0.001). There was no effect on fertility and incidence of puerperal disorders. The 100-day milk yield was calculated from cows having their first four Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) test day results during the experimental period. The mean 100-day milk yield tended to be higher in Group A compared with Group B (3,386 kg vs. 3,359 kg; P = 0.084). PMID:26479543

  12. Effect of a transition diet on production performance and metabolism in periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Peters, R R; Kohn, R A

    2007-11-01

    cows. Feeding a transition diet both before and after parturition was associated with greater mobilization of adipose tissue and greater exposure to ketone bodies in early lactation compared with abruptly changing to a lactation diet after parturition.

  13. Atypical hypocalcemia in 2 dairy cows, after having been fed discarded vegetable cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Allan J; Abuelo, Angel

    2017-12-01

    Two mid-lactation dairy cows were presented sternally recumbent 4 days after the herd had been fed discarded vegetable cooking oil ad libitum. In both affected animals hypocalcemia was confirmed by clinical chemistry and response to treatment. This atypical presentation of hypocalcemia associated with feeding discarded cooking oil is previously unreported.

  14. Atypical hypocalcemia in 2 dairy cows, after having been fed discarded vegetable cooking oil

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Allan J.; Abuelo, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Two mid-lactation dairy cows were presented sternally recumbent 4 days after the herd had been fed discarded vegetable cooking oil ad libitum. In both affected animals hypocalcemia was confirmed by clinical chemistry and response to treatment. This atypical presentation of hypocalcemia associated with feeding discarded cooking oil is previously unreported. PMID:29203941

  15. Metagenomic analysis of the bovine hindgut from Salmonella Kentucky and Cerro-shedding dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from dairy cows that appear asymptomatic. Although they are not major contributors to the salmonellosis burden, these serovars have been implicated in human clinical cases in recent years. To...

  16. Effect of molasses or cornmeal on milk production and nitrogen utilization of grazing organic dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pasture is rich in soluble nitrogen (N) which is rapidly converted to ammonia in the rumen reducing N utilization in lactating dairy cows. Sucrose is more quickly degraded in the rumen than starch, suggesting that feeding molasses (MOL) to balance the supplies of energy and rumen degradable protein...

  17. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) is used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating H...

  18. Effect of replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal on production of lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently that CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We wished to test whether CM was more effective than SBM on low CP (14.9% CP) than high CP (16.8% CP) diets and to see if it was advant...

  19. Host-rumen microbe interactions may be leveraged to improve the productivity of dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cattle rumen serves as a digestive bioreactor for the dairy cow, yet our knowledge of the microbial contents, ecology, and host selection within the rumen is only precursory. This is despite the knowledge that the volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial crude protein (MCP) produced by rumen mic...

  20. Flunixin urine residues in culled dairy cows and its relevance to food safety and environmental concerns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flunixin is a US-FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent; it is prominent due to violative meat residues detected by the US-FSIS in dairy cows. The effects of route of administration (2.2 mg/kg) and endotoxin challenge on flunixin elimination and residues were investigated. High urinary ...

  1. Distribution of Penicillin G Residues in Culled Dairy Cow Muscles: Implications for Residue Monitoring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which type of muscle should be analyzed. In order to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type, 7 culled dairy cows were dosed with Penicillin G (Pen G) from ...

  2. What dairy cows are fed impacts manure chemistry and the environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past 20 years or so there has been increasing evidence and concern that nutrients contained in animal manures can adversely impact water and air quality. Research has demonstrated that the diets fed to dairy cows can be modified to reduce nutrient excretions in manure and environmental impa...

  3. Herbage intake of dairy cows in mixed sequential grazing with breeding ewes as followers.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rosales, Juan Daniel; Améndola-Massiotti, Ricardo Daniel; Burgueño-Ferreira, Juan Andrés; Ramírez-Valverde, Rodolfo; Topete-Pelayo, Pedro; Huerta-Bravo, Maximino

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that mixed sequential grazing of dairy cows and breeding ewes is beneficial. During the seasons of spring-summer 2013 and autumn-winter 2013-2014, 12 (spring-summer) and 16 (autumn-winter) Holstein Friesian cows and 24 gestating (spring-summer) and lactating (autumn-winter) Pelibuey ewes grazed on six (spring-summer) and nine (autumn-winter) paddocks of alfalfa and orchard grass mixed pastures. The treatments "single species cow grazing" (CowG) and "mixed sequential grazing with ewes as followers of cows" (MixG) were evaluated, under a completely randomized design with two replicates per paddock. Herbage mass on offer (HO) and residual herbage mass (RH) were estimated by cutting samples. The estimate of herbage intake (HI) of cows was based on the use of internal and external markers; the apparent HI of ewes was calculated as the difference between HO (RH of cows) and RH. Even though HO was higher in CowG, the HI of cows was higher in MixG during spring-summer and similar in both treatments during autumn-winter, implying that in MixG the effects on the cows HI of higher alfalfa proportion and herbage accumulation rate evolving from lower residual herbage mass in the previous cycle counteracted that of a higher HO in CowG. The HI of ewes was sufficient to enable satisfactory performance as breeding ewes. Thus, the benefits of mixed sequential grazing arose from higher herbage accumulation, positive changes in botanical composition, and the achievement of sheep production without negative effects on the herbage intake of cows.

  4. Practices for Alleviating Heat Stress of Dairy Cows in Humid Continental Climates: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Fournel, Sébastien; Ouellet, Véronique; Charbonneau, Édith

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The severity of heat stress issues on dairy cows will increase as global warming progresses. Fortunately, major advances in environmental management, including fans, misters, sprinklers, and cooled waterbeds, can attenuate the effects of thermal stress on cow health, production, and reproduction. These cooling systems were, however, tested in subtropical areas and their efficiency in northern regions is uncertain. This article assesses the potential of existing technologies to cool cows in humid continental climates through calculation of heat stress indices. Abstract Heat stress negatively affects the health and performance of dairy cows, resulting in considerable economic losses for the industry. In future years, climate change will exacerbate these losses by making the climate warmer. Physical modification of the environment is considered to be the primary means of reducing adverse effects of hot weather conditions. At present, to reduce stressful heat exposure and to cool cows, dairy farms rely on shade screens and various forms of forced convection and evaporative cooling that may include fans and misters, feed-line sprinklers, and tunnel- or cross-ventilated buildings. However, these systems have been mainly tested in subtropical areas and thus their efficiency in humid continental climates, such as in the province of Québec, Canada, is unclear. Therefore, this study reviewed the available cooling applications and assessed their potential for northern regions. Thermal stress indices such as the temperature-humidity index (THI) were used to evaluate the different cooling strategies. PMID:28468329

  5. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Giulia; Irons, Pete C; Webb, Edward C; Chapwanya, Aspinas

    2014-01-30

    The biological cycles of milk production and reproduction determine dairying profitability thus making management decisions dynamic and time-dependent. Diseases also negatively impact on net earnings of a dairy enterprise. Transition cows in particular face the challenge of negative energy balance (NEB) and/or disproportional energy metabolism (fatty liver, ketosis, subacute, acute ruminal acidosis); disturbed mineral utilization (milk fever, sub-clinical hypocalcemia); and perturbed immune function (retained placenta, metritis, mastitis). Consequently NEB and reduced dry matter intake are aggravated. The combined effects of all these challenges are reduced fertility and milk production resulting in diminishing profits. Risk factors such as NEB, inflammation and impairment of the immune response are highly cause-and-effect related. Thus, managing cows during the transition period should be geared toward reducing NEB or feeding specially formulated diets to improve immunity. Given that all cows experience a reduced feed intake and body condition, infection and inflammation of the uterus after calving, there is a need for further research on the immunology of transition dairy cows. Integrative approaches at the molecular, cellular and animal level may unravel the complex interactions between disturbed metabolism and immune function that predispose cows to periparturient diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms

  7. Technical note: Validation of a commercial system for the continuous and automated monitoring of dairy cow activity.

    PubMed

    Tullo, E; Fontana, I; Gottardo, D; Sloth, K H; Guarino, M

    2016-09-01

    Current farm sizes do not allow the precise identification and tracking of individual cows and their health and behavioral records. Currently, the application of information technology within intensive dairy farming takes a key role in proper routine management to improve animal welfare and to enhance the comfort of dairy cows. An existing application based on information technology is represented by the GEA CowView system (GEA Farm Technologies, Bönen, Germany). This system is able to detect and monitor animal behavioral activities based on positioning, through the creation of a virtual map of the barn that outlines all the areas where cows have access. The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of data provided by the CowView system. The validation was performed by comparing data automatically obtained from the CowView system with those obtained by a manual labeling procedure performed on video recordings. Data used for the comparisons were represented by the zone-related activities performed by the selected dairy cows and were classified into 2 categories: activity and localization. The duration in seconds of each of the activities/localizations detected both with the manual labeling and with the automated system were used to evaluate the correlation coefficients among data; and subsequently the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the automated monitoring system were calculated. The results of this validation study showed that the CowView automated monitoring system is able to identify the cow localization/position (alley, trough, cubicles) with high reliability in relation to the zone-related activities performed by dairy cows (accuracy higher than 95%). The results obtained support the CowView system as an innovative potential solution for the easier management of dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Short- and longer-term effects of feeding increased metabolizable protein with or without an altered amino acid profile to dairy cows immediately postpartum.

    PubMed

    Carder, E G; Weiss, W P

    2017-06-01

    fed MPAA had the greatest plasma concentrations of Met and the lowest concentrations of isoleucine, but lysine was not affected by treatment. Feeding additional MP (HMP or MPAA) reduced the concentrations of 3-methylhistidine in plasma, indicating reduced muscle breakdown. Diet effects on milk composition continued after cows were changed to a common diet in that cows fed MPAA the first 3 wk of lactation had greater concentration of milk protein for the entire experiment than cows fed HMP, and cows fed additional MP (HMP and MPAA) during phase 1 had greater concentrations of milk fat for the entire experiment. Increasing dietary protein and AA supply in early lactation had short-term effects on yield of energy-corrected milk and long-term effects on milk composition. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  10. Cow genotyping strategies for genomic selection in a small dairy cattle population.

    PubMed

    Jenko, J; Wiggans, G R; Cooper, T A; Eaglen, S A E; Luff, W G de L; Bichard, M; Pong-Wong, R; Woolliams, J A

    2017-01-01

    This study compares how different cow genotyping strategies increase the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (EBV) in dairy cattle breeds with low numbers. In these breeds, few sires have progeny records, and genotyping cows can improve the accuracy of genomic EBV. The Guernsey breed is a small dairy cattle breed with approximately 14,000 recorded individuals worldwide. Predictions of phenotypes of milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and calving interval were made for Guernsey cows from England and Guernsey Island using genomic EBV, with training sets including 197 de-regressed proofs of genotyped bulls, with cows selected from among 1,440 genotyped cows using different genotyping strategies. Accuracies of predictions were tested using 10-fold cross-validation among the cows. Genomic EBV were predicted using 4 different methods: (1) pedigree BLUP, (2) genomic BLUP using only bulls, (3) univariate genomic BLUP using bulls and cows, and (4) bivariate genomic BLUP. Genotyping cows with phenotypes and using their data for the prediction of single nucleotide polymorphism effects increased the correlation between genomic EBV and phenotypes compared with using only bulls by 0.163±0.022 for milk yield, 0.111±0.021 for fat yield, and 0.113±0.018 for protein yield; a decrease of 0.014±0.010 for calving interval from a low base was the only exception. Genetic correlation between phenotypes from bulls and cows were approximately 0.6 for all yield traits and significantly different from 1. Only a very small change occurred in correlation between genomic EBV and phenotypes when using the bivariate model. It was always better to genotype all the cows, but when only half of the cows were genotyped, a divergent selection strategy was better compared with the random or directional selection approach. Divergent selection of 30% of the cows remained superior for the yield traits in 8 of 10 folds. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  11. Smallholder farmers' attitudes toward the provision of drinking water for dairy cows in Kagera, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Barbara; Kepe, Thembela

    2015-02-01

    Agriculture's large share of Tanzanian GDP and the large percentage of rural poor engaged in the sector make it a focus for many development projects that see it as an area of attention for reducing rural poverty. This paper uses a case of the Kamachumu community, where a dairy cow loan project was implemented using the heifer-in-trust (HIT) model. This study finds that productivity is limited by how the cows are being managed, particularly with many animals not having ad lib access to drinking water. The paper explores reasons why farmers do or do not provide their cows with unlimited access to drinking water. The study concludes that there are many barriers farmers face, including water accessibility, education and training, infrastructure, simple negligence, and security. These results suggest an increase in extension services and national and local livestock policies that consider the specific realities of small-scale dairy farmers.

  12. Effect of an immunomodulatory feed additive on markers of immunity in pasture-fed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Playford, M C; Dawson, K; Playford, S E; Smith, A N; Page, S W; Collins, K; Forsberg, N

    2014-12-01

    Infectious diseases in dairy cows often follow a time of nutritional or physiological stress and the subsequent altered immune system function. This study aimed to determine if the immunomodulatory effects of a feed additive previously observed in experimental animals and housed cattle fed total mixed rations could be reproduced in pasture-fed dairy cattle under Australian conditions. The study included 34 pasture-fed dairy cattle given the treatment (n = 17) or placebo (bentonite, n = 17) for an acclimation period of 15 days followed by 60 days of supplementation. Blood tests were taken pre-trial and then 30, 60 and 90 days after acclimation. Blood samples were extracted and preserved in Trizol and analysed for immune markers. Pasture-fed dairy cows in the treatment group had significantly higher levels of the immune markers interleukin-8R and L-selectin in comparison with placebo-fed cows at 60 days after the start of supplementation. The immunomodulatory effects of the additive observed in the current study and the associated enhanced neutrophil function demonstrated by other studies suggest a role in decreasing the rates of mastitis and other infectious diseases of dairy cattle, particularly during times of nutritional or physiological stress. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Macrophage infiltration in the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of dairy cows with displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G Andres; Kabara, Ed; Brester, Jill; Neuder, Louis; Kiupel, Matti

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), a direct measure of lipolysis, are considered a risk factor for displaced abomasum (DA) and other clinical diseases. In nonruminants, uncontrolled lipolysis is commonly associated with adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration. In dairy cows, recent studies report ATM infiltration in specific adipose depots during the first week of lactation. Depending on their phenotype, ATM can be broadly classified as classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2). The M1 ATM are considered pro-inflammatory, whereas M2 ATM enhance inflammation resolution. Currently, it is not known whether multiparous transition cows with DA have increased ATM infiltration, and the predominant phenotype of these mononuclear cells remains unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize ATM infiltration into different adipose tissue depots in transition cows with DA (days in milk=7.8±4.6 d; body condition score=2.95±0.10; n=6). Serum samples and biopsies from omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat depots were obtained during corrective surgery for DA. In an effort to compare ATM infiltration in DA cows with that of healthy cows in anabolic state (AS), adipose biopsies and blood samples were collected from nonlactating, nongestating dairy cows at the time of slaughter (body condition score=3.75±0.12; n=6). Adipose tissues were digested and cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were analyzed using flow cytometry to establish cell surface expression of specific macrophage markers including CD14, CD11c, CD163, and CD172a. Tissue sections were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to assess ATM localization. Cows with DA were ketotic and had plasma NEFA above 1.0 mEq/L. The same group of cows had significant infiltration of ATM in OM characterized by increased numbers of SVF cells expressing CD14 and CD172a. At the same time, expression of CD11c, and CD163 was significantly higher in SVF from OM and SC of DA

  14. The effects of providing portable shade at pasture on dairy cow behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Palacio, S; Bergeron, R; Lachance, S; Vasseur, E

    2015-09-01

    Access to pasture has advantages for cows such as reduced lameness and improved udder health, but also may expose cows to stressors such as extreme heat. The objective of this study was to understand how portable shade affected physiological and behavioral responses of pastured dairy cows in a Canadian summer. Over 8wk, a total of 24 lactating Holstein cows were separated into 2 treatments, one with access to shade and a control without access to shade. The cows were pastured in groups of 4, with 3 field sections per treatment. Instantaneous scan sampling of behaviors (drinking, lying, grazing, other) performed in the shade or not were recorded every 5min for 3h/d during the hottest part of the day (peak hours: 1130-1530h) 3d/wk. Ambient temperature, humidity, and vaginal temperature were recorded at 10-min intervals. Daily milk production was also recorded. Differences between treatments by week were analyzed using the generalized linear mixed model with group as random effect and treatment as fixed effect. Cows with shade access were observed at the water trough up to 6.42 times less and lying down up to 1.75 times more. Cows with shade access grazed up to 1.5 times more but only when the temperature-humidity index was above their comfort threshold (≥72) during the hottest part of the day (wk 2). Cows sought shade when it was made available, but spent less than half of their time observed (%) in the shade (40.8±4.67) with the exception of wk 2 when most of the time was spent under the shade (74.3±4.77). Daily lying time was highest during peak hours for cows with shade access. However, no overall difference in total lying time between the 2 treatments was observed. No differences were found in vaginal temperature or milk production between treatments with the exception of wk 1 for daily milk production, which was higher for cows in the control treatment. In conclusion, cows sought shade when it was provided at pasture, whereas cows without access to shade

  15. Using activity-based monitoring systems to detect dairy cows in oestrus: a field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dela Rue, B T; Kamphuis, C; Burke, C R; Jago, J G

    2014-03-01

    To assess the use and performance of activity-based oestrus detection systems (ODS) on two commercial dairy farms using a gold standard based on profiles of concentrations of progesterone in milk, artificial insemination (AI) records and pregnancy diagnosis results. Two activity-based ODS were evaluated in mature cows on two large pasture-grazed dairy farms (>500 cows) over the first 3 weeks of AI. Farm 1 (n=286 cows) used a leg-mounted device and cows were drafted automatically based on activity alerts. Decisions regarding AI were then made based on tail-paint and cow history for these cows. Farm 2 (n=345 cows) used a collar-mounted device and activity alerts were used in conjunction with other information, before the farmer manually selected cows for AI. The gold standard to define the timing of oestrus was based on profiles of concentrations of progesterone in milk measured twice-weekly, used in conjunction with AI records and pregnancy diagnosis results. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated for the activity-based ODS data only, and then for AI decisions, against the gold standard. Farm 1 had 195 confirmed oestrus events and 209 activity alerts were generated. The sensitivity of the activity-based ODS was 89.2% with a PPV of 83.3%. Using tail-paint and cow history to confirm activity-based alerts 175 cows were inseminated, resulting in a sensitivity of 89.2% and an improved PPV of 99.4%. Farm 2 had 343 confirmed oestrus events, and 726 alerts were generated by the activity-based ODS, giving a sensitivity of 69.7% with a PPV of 32.9%. A total of 386 cows had AI records, giving a sensitivity of 81.3% and PPV of 72.3%. The two activity-based ODS were used differently on-farm; one automatically selecting cows and the other supporting the manual selection of cows in oestrus. Only one achieved a performance level suggested to be acceptable as a stand-alone ODS. Use of additional tools, such as observation of tail paint to confirm activity

  16. Survey of quality defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls sold through livestock auction markets in the Western United States: I. Incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Ahola, J K; Foster, H A; Vanoverbeke, D L; Jensen, K S; Wilson, R L; Glaze, J B; Fife, T E; Gray, C W; Nash, S A; Panting, R R; Rimbey, N R

    2011-05-01

    A survey was conducted to quantify incidence of Beef Quality Assurance (BQA)-related defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls selling at auction during 2 seasons in 2008. Twenty-three BQA-related traits were evaluated by 9 trained personnel during sales at 10 livestock auction markets in Idaho (n = 5; beef and dairy), California, (n = 4; dairy only), and Utah (n = 1; beef and dairy). Overall, 18,949 unique lots (8,213 beef cows, 1,036 beef bulls, 9,177 dairy cows, and 523 dairy bulls,) consisting of 23,479 animals (9,299 beef cows, 1,091 beef bulls, 12,429 dairy cows, and 660 dairy bulls) were evaluated during 125 sales (64 spring, 61 fall) for dairy and 79 sales (40 spring, 39 fall) for beef. The majority of market beef cows and bulls (60.9 and 71.3%, respectively) were predominantly black-hided, and the Holstein hide pattern was observed in 95.4 and 93.6% of market dairy cows and bulls, respectively. Market cattle weighed 548 ± 103.6 kg (beef cows), 751 ± 176.1 kg (beef bulls), 658 ± 129.7 kg (dairy cows), and 731 ± 150.8 kg (dairy bulls). Most beef cows (79.6%) weighed 455 to 726 kg, and most beef bulls (73.8%) weighed 545 to 954 kg, respectively. Among market beef cattle, 16.0% of cows and 14.5% of bulls weighed less than 455 and 545 kg, respectively, and 63.7% of dairy cows and 81.5% of dairy bulls weighed 545 to 817 kg or 545 to 954 kg, respectively. However, 19.5% of dairy cows and 13.1% of dairy bulls weighed less than 545 kg. Mean BCS for beef cattle (9-point scale) was 4.7 ± 1.2 (cows) and 5.3 ± 0.9 (bulls), and for dairy cattle (5-point scale) was 2.6 ± 0.8 (cows) and 2.9 ± 0.6 (bulls). Some 16.5% of beef cows and 4.1% of beef bulls had a BCS of 1 to 3, whereas 34.8% of dairy cows and 10.4% of dairy bulls had a BCS of 2 or less. Emaciation (beef BCS = 1, dairy BCS = 1.0) or near-emaciation (beef BCS = 2, dairy BCS = 1.5) was observed in 13.3% of dairy cows and 3.9% of beef cows. Among beef cattle, 15.1% of cows and 15.4% of bulls were

  17. The effect of marine algae in the ration of high-yielding dairy cows during transition on metabolic parameters in serum and follicular fluid around parturition.

    PubMed

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Vlaeminck, B; Buyse, J; Leroy, J; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S; Opsomer, G

    2011-09-01

    .71 mol in the udder when milk fat is depressed. Concurrent increased BHBA concentrations in FF in the ALG group cannot be attributed to a worsened energy status of the animals because all other indicators contradict any change in energy balance, indicating that BHBA might not be an appropriate metabolic parameter to estimate the energy balance in early lactating dairy cows during MFD. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Moderate summer heat stress does not modify immunological parameters of Holstein dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Ronchi, Bruno; Scalia, Daniela; Nardone, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    The study was undertaken during spring and summer months in a territory representative of the Mediterranean climate to assess the effects of season on some immunological parameters of dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows were used. Eleven of those cows gave birth during spring; the remaining nine cows gave birth in summer. The two groups of cows were homogeneous for parity. Values of air temperatures and relative humidity were recorded both during spring and summer, and were utilized to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). One week before the expected calving, rectal temperatures and respiratory rates of the cows were recorded (1500 hours), and cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Within 3 h of calving, one colostrum sample was taken from each cow and analysed to determine content of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgM and IgA. At 48 h after birth, passive immunization of the calves was assessed by measuring total serum IgG. During summer, daytime (0900-2000 hours) THI values were above the upper critical value of 72 [75.2, (SD 2.6)] indicating conditions that could represent moderate heat stress. That THI values were able to predict heat stress was confirmed by the values of rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, which were higher ( P < 0.05 and P < 0.001 respectively) during summer. Proliferation of PBMC, the colostral concentration of Ig fractions and serum levels of IgG in their respective offspring did not differ between spring and summer cows. Results indicated that moderate heat stress due to the hot Mediterranean summer does not modify cell-mediated immunity, the protective value of colostrum and passive immunization of the offspring in dairy cows.

  19. Effects of Increased Vigilance for Locomotion Disorders on Lameness and Production in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Gundelach, Yasmin; Schulz, Timo; Feldmann, Maren; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2013-09-13

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of weekly locomotion scoring and, thus, early detection and treatment of lame cows by a veterinarian on lameness prevalence, incidence, duration of lameness, fertility and milk yield on one dairy farm in Northern Germany. Cows were distributed to two groups. Cows in Group A (n = 99) with a locomotion score (LS) > 1 were examined and treated. In Group B (n = 99), it was solely in the hands of the farmer to detect lame cows and to decide which cows received treatment. Four weeks after the beginning of the experimental period, the prevalence of cows with LS = 1 was higher in Group A compared with Group B. Prevalence of lame cows (LS > 1) increased in Group B (47.6% in Week 2 to 84.0% in Week 40) and decreased in Group A from Week 2 to Week 40 (50% to 14.4%; P < 0.05). Within groups, the monthly lameness incidence did not differ. The average duration of lameness for newly lame cows was 3.7 weeks in Group A and 10.4 weeks in Group B (P < 0.001). There was no effect on fertility and incidence of puerperal disorders. The 100-day milk yield was calculated from cows having their first four Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) test day results during the experimental period. The mean 100-day milk yield tended to be higher in Group A compared with Group B (3,386 kg vs. 3,359 kg; P = 0.084).

  20. Effects of supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid on reproduction of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sinedino, Letícia D P; Honda, Paula M; Souza, Letícia R L; Lock, Adam L; Boland, Maurice P; Staples, Charles R; Thatcher, William W; Santos, José E P

    2017-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplementing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae on reproduction of dairy cows. Holstein cows were assigned randomly to either a control ( n  = 373) or the same diet supplemented daily with 100 g/cow of an algae product containing 10% DHA (algae, n  = 366) from 27 to 147 days postpartum. Measurements included yields of milk and milk components, fatty acids (FA) profiles in milk fat and plasma phospholipids, resumption of ovulation by 57 days postpartum, pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) and expression of interferon-stimulated genes in leukocytes. Feeding algae increased resumption of estrous cyclicity (77.6 vs 65.9%) and pregnancy at first AI (47.6 vs 32.8%) in primiparous cows. Algae increased pregnancy per AI in all AI in both primiparous and multiparous cows (41.6 vs 30.7%), which reduced days to pregnancy by 22 days (102 vs 124 days) compared with control cows. Pregnant cows fed algae had greater expression of RTP4 in blood leukocytes compared with those in pregnant control cows. Feeding algae increased the incorporation of DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis -9 trans -11, trans -10 cis -12 and total n-3 FA in phospholipids in plasma and milk fat. Yields of milk and true protein increased by 1.1 kg/day and 30 g/day respectively, whereas fat yield decreased 40 g/day in algae compared with that in control. Supplementing DHA-rich algae altered the FA composition of lipid fractions and improved reproduction in dairy cows. The benefits on reproduction might be mediated by enhanced embryo development based on changes in interferon-stimulated gene expression. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Katsande, Simbarashe; Matope, Gift; Ndengu, Masimba; Pfukenyi, Davies M

    2013-03-28

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 103 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal- and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1%(123/584) had mastitis, 16.3%(95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%),  Escherichia coli (25.2%),  Staphylococcus aureus(16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

  2. Reproductive performances of dairy cows in smallholder production system in Selalle, Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lobago, F; Bekana, M; Gustafsson, H; Kindahl, H

    2006-05-01

    A study was conducted to assess the reproductive performance and factors that influence reproductive efficiency of cows in smallholder dairy farms in Selalle, Central Ethiopia. Three hundred dairy farms (average herd size = 8) were visited and data on reproductive, breeding and management histories were collected and analysed. The overall geometric means for calving to conception interval (n=382) and duration after last calving (n=422) were 187 and 201 days in pregnant and non-pregnant cows, respectively. The least-squares mean calving to conception interval was higher (p < 0.05) in mixed crop-livestock production (MCLP) than in small urban dairy production (SUDP) systems and was lower (p < 0.01) in non-suckling than in suckling cows. District significantly influenced (p < 0.01) the least-squares mean duration after last calving and, among the districts, non-pregnant cows in Wuchale-Jida had the highest values, whereas cows in Sululta and Mulo had the lowest values. The overall average number of services per conception (+/-SD) and the first service conception rate were 1.6 +/- 1.0 (n=382) and 56% (n=456), respectively. The prevalences of abortion, dystocia (assisted parturition), retained fetal membrane, vulval discharge/endometritis and pre-weaning calf mortality were 1.4%, 1.3%, 5.4%, 2.8% and 17.4%, respectively. The present estimates of extended calving to conception interval and duration after last calving indicate poor reproductive performances of cows in Selalle smallholder dairy farms. The pre-weaning calf mortality rate is highly significant. Accordingly, a further detailed investigation is necessary to identify and quantify the specific reproductive disorders and associated interacting factors attributing to such poor performance and to determine the causes and predisposing factors behind such high calf mortality.

  3. Effect of vitamin D treatments on plasma metabolism and immune parameters of healthy dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yuan; Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effect of vitamin D repletion on certain immune parameters of vitamin D insufficient dairy cows. Twenty dairy cows in late lactation were treated daily with vitamin D in five different ways: sunlight exposure (SUN), D 2 supplementation combined with sunlight exposure (D2SUN), D 2 supplementation (D2), D 3 supplementation (D3), and D 2 and D 3 supplementation combined (D2D3). The cows had very low vitamin D levels at d 0 because of the vitamin D deprivation before the study. After 1 month of vitamin D repletion, all cows had plasma 25(OH)D levels within the normal range. Total 25(OH)D concentration was significantly higher in SUN, D2SUN and D2D3 than D2 or D3 at the end of the study. However, milk yield, as well as protein and fat content of the milk, was not influenced by vitamin D treatments. There was no difference obtained in the measured immune parameters: Leucocyte populations, somatic cell count, immunoglobulin concentrations in plasma and milk, and antigen-stimulated cytokine productions did not change in response to vitamin D repletion or difference in vitamin D sources, and no relations to plasma 25(OH)D levels were identified. Despite the fact that plasma 25(OH)D increased from a very low level to normal range, the present study did not show any effect of vitamin D repletion on the tested immune parameters of healthy dairy cows. Therefore, in this study, it was concluded that repletion to physiologically normal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of vitamin D-depleted healthy dairy cows had no influence on immune parameters.

  4. Effect of milking frequency and diet on milk production, energy balance, and reproduction in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Patton, J; Kenny, D A; Mee, J F; O'Mara, F P; Wathes, D C; Cook, M; Murphy, J J

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reduced milking frequency and increased dietary energy density in early lactation on milk production, energy balance, and subsequent fertility. Sixty-six spring-calving, multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: once-daily milking on a standard diet (1xST); 3-times daily milking on a standard diet (3xST); and 3-times daily milking on a high-energy diet. Treatments were imposed for the first 28 d of lactation, after which all groups were milked twice daily and fed the standard diet. During the treatment period, the 1xST cows had 19.6% lower milk yield and higher milk fat and milk protein concentrations (15.7 and 10.2%, respectively) compared with 3xST. Dry matter (DM) intake was similar between 1xST and 3xST during the treatment period (12.64 vs. 13.25 kg/ d; SED = 0.82). Daily energy balance was less negative for 1xST compared with 3xST during wk 1 to 3 of lactation [-3.92 vs. -5.30 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d; SED = 0.65; 1 UFL is equal to the net energy for lactation of 1 kg of standard air-dry barley]. During the treatment period, the cows on the high-energy diet had 17% higher milk yield, higher DM intake (15.5 vs. 13.9 kg/d; SED = 0.71), and similar energy balance (-4.45 vs. -4.35 UFL/d; SED = 0.65) compared to 3xST. Diet had no significant effect on any of the fertility variables measured. The interval to first ovulation was shorter for 1xST than 3xST (18.3d vs. 28.6d; SED = 1.76). In conclusion, once-daily milking in early lactation may promote earlier resumption of ovarian cyclicity, mediated through improved nutritional status.

  5. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P < 0.05). In multiparous cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P < 0.01). The double ovulators experienced more anovulatory repeated waves of follicles before their first ovulations than the single ovulators, which resulted in an extension of the period from parturition to third ovulation (81.5 days vs. 64.2 days, P < 0.05). In the multiparous cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P < 0.01) with lower milk lactose concentration (P < 0.05), indicating the prevalence of a more severe negative energy balance during the postpartum 3-month compared to the multiparous single ovulators. Our results showed that, regardless of their parity, double ovulation had no impact on the reproductive performance of the cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early

  6. Effects of an injectable trace mineral supplement on first-service conception rate of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, J A; Reynolds, J; Atwill, E R

    2004-11-01

    A total of 825 dairy cows from a commercial dairy farm in central California were used to evaluate effects of one or 2 doses of an injectable trace mineral supplement containing 20 mg/mL of zinc, 20 mg/mL of manganese, 5 mg/mL of selenium, and 10 mg/mL of copper on first-service conception rate. Cows were randomly allocated into treatment or control group to either a single dose (experiment 1) or a double dose (experiment 2) of injected supplement. Allocation was based on days in lactation for experiment 1 and the length of gestation periods for experiment 2. In experiment 1, cows 38 to 45 d in lactation (n = 190) received a single dose of 5 mL of injected supplement. Similar cows were used as controls (n = 227). In experiment 2, cows and pregnant heifers received an initial injection of 5 mL of the mineral supplement from 2 to 3 wk precalving (n = 186). An equal dose was repeated 38 to 45 d in lactation. A similar group of cows and pregnant heifers served as controls for experiment 2 (n = 222). Health and reproductive events postcalving were recorded. In experiment 1, the odds of first-service conception were not significantly different for cows receiving a one-dose regimen of minerals compared with untreated control cows; conception rates were 26.8 and 27.5% for experiment 1 treatment and control groups, respectively. In experiment 1, the odds of first-service conception were significantly lower (odds ratio = 0.66) for cows and heifers given the 2-dose regimen of minerals compared with untreated controls; overall conception rates were 21.5 and 31.5% for experiment 2 treatment and control groups, respectively. In this intensively managed dairy herd, a single dose of injected trace minerals before breeding had no beneficial effects on first-service conception rate. However, dairy cows receiving a dose of trace minerals before calving and another dose before breeding had lower conception at first service.

  7. Factors of a noninfectious nature affecting fertility after artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. A review.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F

    2012-04-01

    After 80 years of the commercial application of artificial insemination (AI) in the cow, the method still has numerous benefits over natural insemination including worldwide gene improvement. The efficiency of insemination depends, among many other factors, on the delivery of an appropriate number of normal spermatozoa to the appropriate reproductive tract site at the appropriate time of estrus. The metabolic clearance of steroid hormones and pregnancy associated glycoproteins and the negative effects of different types of stress related to high milk production makes the high-producing dairy cow a good animal model for addressing factors affecting fertility. Nevertheless, extensive studies have shown a positive link between high milk production in an individual cow and high fertility. When a cow becomes pregnant, the effect of pregnancy loss on its reproductive cycle is also a topic of interest. This paper reviews the factors of a noninfectious nature that affect the fertility of lactating dairy cows following AI. Special attention is paid to factors related to the cow and its environment and to estrus confirmation at insemination. Pregnancy maintenance during the late embryonic/early fetal period is discussed as a critical step. Finally, the use of Doppler ultrasonography is described as an available research tool for improving our current understanding of the health of the genital structures and conceptus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mass spectral analysis of urine proteomic profiles of dairy cows suffering from clinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuang; Shu, Shi; Xia, Cheng; Wang, Pengxian; Sun, Yuhang; Xu, Chuchu; Li, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Ketosis is an important metabolic disorder in dairy cows during the transition period. The urine proteomics of ketosis has not been investigated using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). The aim is to determine differences between urine proteomic profiles of healthy cows and those with clinical ketosis, and facilitate studies of the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms that lead to liver pathology in ketosis. We analyzed the urine samples of 20 cows with clinical ketosis (group 1) and 20 control cows (group 2) using SELDI-TOF-MS. Thirty-nine peptide peaks differed between both groups. Polypeptides corresponding to 26 of these differential peptide peaks were identified using the SWISS-PROT protein database. We found that the peaks of 11 distinct polypeptides from the urine samples of the ketosis group were significantly reduced, compared with those of the control group as based on the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Among these were VGF (non-acronymic) protein, amyloid precursor protein, serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, C1INH, apolipoprotein C-III, cystatin C, transthyretin, hepcidin, human neutrophil peptides, and osteopontin. These proteins may represent novel biomarkers of the metabolic changes that occur in dairy cows with ketosis. Our results will help to better understand the physiological changes and pathogenesis observed in cows with ketosis. The SELDI-TOF-MS can be used to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of ketosis and identify biomarkers of the disease.

  9. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  10. Silage review: Silage feeding management: Silage characteristics and dairy cow feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Grant, R J; Ferraretto, L F

    2018-05-01

    Feeding environment and feed accessibility influence the dairy cow's response to the ration and forage composition. Fiber content, physical form, and fermentability influence feeding behavior, feed intake, and overall cow metabolic and lactational responses to forage. It is possible to vary eating time of lactating dairy cattle by over 1 h/d by changing dietary silage fiber content, digestibility, and particle size. Optimizing silage particle size is important because excessively long particles increase the necessary chewing to swallow a bolus of feed, thereby increasing eating time. Under competitive feeding situations, excessively coarse or lower fiber digestibility silages may limit DMI of lactating dairy cows due to eating time requirements that exceed available time at the feed bunk. Additionally, greater silage particle size, especially the particles retained on the 19-mm sieve using the Penn State Particle Separator, are most likely to be sorted. Silage starch content and fermentability may influence ruminal propionate production and thereby exert substantial control over meal patterns and feed consumption. Compared with silage fiber characteristics, relatively little research has assessed how silage starch content and fermentability interact with the feeding environment to influence dairy cow feeding behavior. Finally, voluminous literature exists on the potential effects that silage fermentation end products have on feeding behavior and feed intake. However, the specific mechanisms of how these end products influence behavior and intake are poorly understood in some cases. The compounds shown to have the greatest effect on feeding behavior are lactate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, ammonia-N, and amines. Any limitation in the feeding environment will likely accentuate the negative response to poor silage fermentation. In the future, to optimize feeding behavior and dry matter intake of silage-based diets fed to dairy cattle, we will need to consider the

  11. Intraperitoneal insemination and retrograde sperm transport in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F; Yániz, J

    2000-03-01

    To examine the efficiency of retrograde sperm transport following intraperitoneal insemination, live and dead spermatozoa were used at different concentrations, and sperm recovery from cervical mucus (0.5 ml) 2, 6, 12 and 24 h following insemination was evaluated. Forty lactating Friesian cows, in their second to fourth lactation period, were used in this experiment. Thirty-six cows received intraperitoneally either live or dead spermatozoa. Each group of six cows received one of three total sperm numbers of 30, 45 and 90 million. Four cows were inseminated with 90 million spermatozoa into the uterus and served as a control group. All cows were inseminated towards the end of oestrus. After intrauterine insemination sperm recovery declined, but motile and/or immotile spermatozoa were recovered from all cows at any time. In cows inseminated intraperitoneally, sperm was recovered from the cervix at 6-24 h when 90 million were inseminated. A greater number of spermatozoa was recovered after dead rather than after live sperm inseminations. Only immotile, intact or broken spermatozoa and tail-less heads were recovered after intraperitioneal insemination using either live or dead spermatozoa. No sperm was recovered for 30 and 45 million inseminations. Our results show that, following intraperitoneal insemination, there is passive sperm transport from the peritoneal cavity to the genital tract close to the time of ovulation, and suggest a higher sperm retention in the genital tract when live as opposed to dead spermatozoa are used.

  12. Herbage intake and ruminal digestion of dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture either in the morning or evening.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify diurnal fluctuations of herbage intake, ruminal fermentation of herbage carbohydr