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Sample records for early-life nutritional status

  1. Influence of Weight Gain Rate on Early Life Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Children

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Taís Cristina Araújo; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the influence of the weight gain rate at 4–6 months on nutritional status and body composition in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Methods. Retrospective cohort study, sample of 257 children. Data collection was performed in two stages, with the first relating to retrospective data of weight gain from birth to the first 4–6 months of life in the patient records. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition in children between ages 4 and 7 years were obtained. Nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age. Control variables, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, lifestyle, and sociodemographics, were studied. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were performed. Results. In the nutritional status assessment, the prevalence of overweight observed was 24.9%. After adjusting for control variables, it was found that the increase of the WGR at 4–6 months of age explained the occurrence of higher BMI/age, percentage of total body fat, body fat percentage in the android region, and waist circumference in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Conclusion. The increase of the WGR in the first months of life can lead to the occurrence of higher values of parameters of nutritional status and body composition in later life. PMID:25538953

  2. Influence of weight gain rate on early life nutritional status and body composition of children.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Sarah Aparecida; Magalhães, Taís Cristina Araújo; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of the weight gain rate at 4-6 months on nutritional status and body composition in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Retrospective cohort study, sample of 257 children. Data collection was performed in two stages, with the first relating to retrospective data of weight gain from birth to the first 4-6 months of life in the patient records. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition in children between ages 4 and 7 years were obtained. Nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age. Control variables, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, lifestyle, and sociodemographics, were studied. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were performed. In the nutritional status assessment, the prevalence of overweight observed was 24.9%. After adjusting for control variables, it was found that the increase of the WGR at 4-6 months of age explained the occurrence of higher BMI/age, percentage of total body fat, body fat percentage in the android region, and waist circumference in children between 4 and 7 years of age. The increase of the WGR in the first months of life can lead to the occurrence of higher values of parameters of nutritional status and body composition in later life.

  3. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at age 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children. PMID:25388499

  4. Early-life nutritional effects on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Chan, K A; Tsoulis, M W; Sloboda, D M

    2015-02-01

    There is now considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating that early-life environmental conditions, including nutrition, affect subsequent development in later life. These conditions induce highly integrated responses in endocrine-related homeostasis, resulting in persistent changes in the developmental trajectory producing an altered adult phenotype. Early-life events trigger processes that prepare the individual for particular circumstances that are anticipated in the postnatal environment. However, where the intrauterine and postnatal environments differ markedly, such modifications to the developmental trajectory may prove maladaptive in later life. Reproductive maturation and function are similarly influenced by early-life events. This should not be surprising, because the primordial follicle pool is established early in life and is thus vulnerable to early-life events. Results of clinical and experimental studies have indicated that early-life adversity is associated with a decline in ovarian follicular reserve, changes in ovulation rates, and altered age at onset of puberty. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the relationship between the early-life developmental environment and postnatal reproductive development and function are unclear. This review examines the evidence linking early-life nutrition and effects on the female reproductive system, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. Epigenetic mechanisms elicited by nutrition in early life.

    PubMed

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Bedogni, Giorgio; Brambilla, Paolo; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agostoni, Carlo

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues.

  6. DNA methylation, ageing and the influence of early life nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lillycrop, Karen A; Hoile, Samuel P; Grenfell, Leonie; Burdge, Graham C

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that genotype plays an important role in the ageing process. However, recent studies have suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may also influence the onset of ageing-associated diseases and longevity. Epigenetics is defined as processes that induce heritable changes in gene expression without a change in the DNA nucleotide sequence. The major epigenetic mechanisms are DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNA. Such processes are involved in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression, cell differentiation and genomic imprinting. However, epigenetic dysregulation is frequently seen with ageing. Relatively little is known about the factors that initiate such changes. However, there is emerging evidence that the early life environment, in particular nutrition, in early life can induce long-term changes in DNA methylation resulting in an altered susceptibility to a range of ageing-associated diseases. In this review, we will focus on the changes in DNA methylation that occur during ageing; their role in the ageing process and how early life nutrition can modulate DNA methylation and influence longevity. Understanding the mechanisms by which diet in early life can influence the epigenome will be crucial for the development of preventative and intervention strategies to increase well-being in later life.

  7. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  8. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  9. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La nutrizione svolge un ruolo

  10. Nutrition in early life and the fulfillment of intellectual potential.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, E; Gorman, K S; Engle, P L; Rivera, J A; Martorell, R

    1995-04-01

    The effects of early supplementary feeding on cognition are investigated using data collected during two periods in four Guatemalan villages. The first was the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) longitudinal study from 1969 to 1977 and the second was a cross-sectional follow-up of former participants carried out in 1988-1989. The principal objective of these studies was to assess the differential effect of two dietary supplements, Atole containing 163 kcal/682 kJ and 11.5 g protein per cup or 180 mL and Fresco containing 59 kcal/247 kJ and 0 g protein per cup, that were given to mothers, infants and young children. Performance was assessed on a battery of psychoeducational and information processing tests that were administered during adolescence. Consistent differences between groups were observed on psychoeducational tests. Subjects receiving Atole scored significantly higher on tests of knowledge, numeracy, reading and vocabulary than those given Fresco. Atole ingestion also was associated with faster reaction time in information processing tasks. In addition, there were significant interactions between type of dietary supplement and socioeconomic status (SES) of subjects. In Atole villages, there were no differences in performance between subjects in the lowest and highest SES categories. On the other hand, performance in Fresco villages was best in the highest compared with the lowest SES group. After close scrutiny of alternative hypotheses, it is concluded that dietary changes produced by supplementation provide the strongest explanation for the test performance differences observed in the follow-up between subjects exposed to Atole and those exposed to Fresco supplementation.

  11. Nutrition in early life and age-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of age-associated disease is increasing at a striking rate globally. It is known that a strong association exists between a suboptimal maternal and/or early-life environment and increased propensity of developing age-associated disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), type-2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dissection of underlying molecular mechanisms to explain this phenomenon, which is known as 'developmental programming' is still emerging; however three common mechanisms have emerged in many models of developmental programming. These mechanisms are (a) changes in tissue structure, (b) epigenetic regulation and (c) accelerated cellular ageing. This review will examine the epidemiological evidence and the animal models of suboptimal maternal environments, focusing upon these molecular mechanisms and will discuss the progress being made in the development of safe and effective intervention strategies which ultimately could target those 'programmed' individuals who are known to be at-risk of age-associated disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Nutrition in early life: somatic growth and serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Boulton, T John; Garnett, Sarah P; Cowell, Chris T; Baur, Louise A; Magarey, Anthea M; Landers, Margot C G

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions of whether early nutritional experience affects later somatic growth, the growth of the adipose tissue, or the levels of scrum lipids among well-nourished children. The analyses are based on data from three prospective studies. Postnatal nutrition and growth: there were differences in growth between breast-fed and formula-fed children. There was no association between linear growth and differences in food energy or macronutrient intake. Birth size and postnatal growth: there was no association between ponderal index (PI) at birth and body mass index (BMI) in the second year. For boys, the PI at 3 and 6 months of age was significantly positively correlated with BMI at the ages of 8 and 15 years, but not for girls. Childhood growth and lipids: there was no association between lipids at the age of 8 years and either birth weight or length, but children who had had a low PI at birth had higher lipid levels at the age 8 years. A positive association was found between serum lipids and abdominal fat and BMI. We conclude that, although early diet may influence growth rate beyond infancy, the evidence for fat patterning resulting from differences in fetal or early postnatal nutrition is still open to question.

  13. Early-Life Nutrition and Neurodevelopment: Use of the Piglet as a Translational Model.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Austin T; Dilger, Ryan N

    2017-01-01

    Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes. The piglet has emerged as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young pigs and humans, the piglet is being used increasingly in developmental nutritional neuroscience studies. The piglet primarily has been used to assess the effects of dietary fatty acids and their accretion in the brain throughout neurodevelopment. However, recent research indicates that other dietary components, including choline, iron, cholesterol, gangliosides, and sialic acid, among other compounds, also affect neurodevelopment in the pig model. Moreover, novel analytical techniques, including but not limited to MRI, behavioral assessments, and molecular quantification, allow for a more holistic understanding of how nutrition affects neurodevelopmental patterns. By combining early-life nutritional interventions with innovative analytical approaches, opportunities abound to quantify factors affecting neurodevelopmental trajectories in the neonate. This review discusses research using the translational pig model with primary emphasis on early-life nutrition interventions assessing neurodevelopment outcomes, while also discussing nutritionally-sensitive methods to characterize brain maturation.

  14. A critical review: early life nutrition and prenatal programming for adult disease.

    PubMed

    Carolan-Olah, Mary; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Lechuga, Julia

    2015-12-01

    To present the evidence in relation to early life nutrition and foetal programming for adult disease. Epigenetics is a new and growing area of study investigating the impact of the intrauterine environment on the lifelong health of individuals. Discursive paper. Searches were conducted in a range of electronic health databases. Hand searches located additional articles for review. Maternal search terms included: pregnancy; nutrition; diet; obesity; over nutrition; under nutrition. Offspring related search terms included: macrosomia; intrauterine growth restriction; epigenetics; foetal programming; childhood obesity; adolescent obesity; adolescent type 2 diabetes. Results indicate that foetal programming for adult disease occurs in response to particular insults during vulnerable developmental periods. Four main areas of foetal exposure were identified in this review: (1) under nutrition; (2) over nutrition; (3) gestational diabetes mellitus; and (4) infant catch-up growth. Numerous studies also described the trans-generational nature of foetal programming. Overall, foetal exposure to excess or insufficient nutrition during vulnerable developmental periods appears to result in a lifelong predisposition to obesity and adult disease, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiac disease. For the infant who has been undernourished during early life, a predisposition to renal disease also occurs. Pregnancy is a time when women are engaged in health systems and are receptive to health messages. These factors suggest that pregnancy may be an optimal time for dietary education and intervention. There is a particular need for education on healthy diet and for interventions which aim to limit over consumption of calories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2015-02-01

    Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than

  16. Effects of early-life competition and maternal nutrition on telomere lengths in wild meerkats.

    PubMed

    Cram, Dominic L; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2017-08-30

    Early-life adversity can affect health, survival and fitness later in life, and recent evidence suggests that telomere attrition may link early conditions with their delayed consequences. Here, we investigate the link between early-life competition and telomere length in wild meerkats. Our results show that, when multiple females breed concurrently, increases in the number of pups in the group are associated with shorter telomeres in pups. Given that pups from different litters compete for access to milk, we tested whether this effect is due to nutritional constraints on maternal milk production, by experimentally supplementing females' diets during gestation and lactation. While control pups facing high competition had shorter telomeres, the negative effects of pup number on telomere lengths were absent when maternal nutrition was experimentally improved. Shortened pup telomeres were associated with reduced survival to adulthood, suggesting that early-life competition for nutrition has detrimental fitness consequences that are reflected in telomere lengths. Dominant females commonly kill pups born to subordinates, thereby reducing competition and increasing growth rates of their own pups. Our work suggests that an additional benefit of infanticide may be that it also reduces telomere shortening caused by competition for resources, with associated benefits for offspring ageing profiles and longevity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Vaiserman, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies (‘natural experiments’). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression as a possible major contributor to the link between the early-life famine exposure and T2D in adulthood. Findings from these studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the famine may result in induction of persistent epigenetic changes that have adaptive significance in postnatal development but can predispose to metabolic disorders including T2D at the late stages of life. In this review, quasi-experimental data on the developmental programming of T2D are summarized and recent research findings on changes in DNA methylation that mediate these effects are discussed. PMID:28273874

  18. Nutrition in early life, immune-programming and allergies: the role of epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Amarasekera, Manori; Prescott, Susan L; Palmer, Debra J

    2013-09-01

    Early life nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. The associated parallel rise in metabolic diseases including obesity, childhood type 2-diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease highlights the interplay between modern dietary patterns and increasing abnormalities of both immune and metabolic health. The low-grade inflammation that characterize these non-communicable diseases (NCDs) suggests a central role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programing is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect the fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients such as folic acid levels, which have clear epigenetic effects on programming. Here we examine the current knowledge of the nutritional-programming of immune health and how research into nutritional-epigenetics in the context of allergic disease as one of the earliest onset NCDs can expand our knowledge to discover the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures in early life to prevent later disease risk.

  19. Nutritional Deficiency in Early Life Facilitates Aging-Associated Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu; Zhang, Yun; Feng, Zijuan; Liu, Mingjing; Li, Yanhua; Yang, Huan; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Lingling; Lou, Dandan; Cheng, Liangping; Chen, Chunjiang; Zhou, Weitao; Feng, Yi; Li, Xiaoyong; Duan, Jianzhong; Yu, Mengjiao; Yang, Shou; Liu, Yuhang; Wang, Xin; Deng, Bo; Liu, Chenghui; Yao, Xiuqing; Zhu, Chi; Liang, Chunrong; Zeng, Xiaolong; Ren, Sisi; Li, Qunying; Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Yong; Kang, Jun; Yan, Yong; Meng, Huaqing; Zhong, Zhaohui; Zhou, Weihui; Wang, Yanjiang; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition is important for the fetal developmental programming. Nutritional deficiency in early life could increase the susceptibility to many aging-related disorders including cognitive decline. Our study aims to investigate the effect of early famine exposure on aging-associated cognitive function. We recruited 6790 subjects born between 1956 to 1964 during which the Great Chinese Famine occurred (1959-1961). Cognitive function of these subjects were evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Activities of Daily Living scale (ADL), the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale (IADL) and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Our study identified that early exposure to the famine significantly increased the risk of cognitive impairments in later life, leading to higher prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and dementia. We also found the sex and rural-urban differences in this malnutrition-induced effect. Illiteracy, history of stroke or diabetes mellitus are great risk factors to facilitate the cognitive decline. These findings demonstrate that exposure to famine during early life including prenatal period and early childhood facilitates aging-associated cognitive deficits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. The role of early life nutrition in programming of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Chadio, S; Kotsampasi, B

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that the concept of programming can also be applied to reproductive development and function, representing an ever expanding research area. Recently issues such as peri- or even preconceptional nutrition, transgenerational effects and underlying mechanisms have received considerable attention. The present chapter presents the existed evidence and reviews the available data from numerous animal and human studies on the effects of early life nutritional environment on adult reproductive function. Specific outcomes depend on the severity, duration and stage of development when nutritional perturbations are imposed, while sex-specific effects are also manifested. Apart from undernutrition, effects of relative overnutrition as well as the complex interactions between pre- and postnatal nutrition is of high importance, especially in the context of our days obesity epidemic. Mechanisms underlying reproductive programming are yet unclear, but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modulation of critical genes involved in the control of reproductive function and potential intergenerational effects represent an exciting area of interdisciplinary research toward the development of new nutritional approaches during pre- and postnatal periods to ensure reproductive health in later life.

  1. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  2. Predicting later life health status and mortality using state-level socioeconomic characteristics in early life.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H; Kuan, Kai Y; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Studies extending across multiple life stages promote an understanding of factors influencing health across the life span. Existing work has largely focused on individual-level rather than area-level early life determinants of health. In this study, we linked multiple data sets to examine whether early life state-level characteristics were predictive of health and mortality decades later. The sample included 143,755 U.S. employees, for whom work life claims and administrative data were linked with early life state-of-residence and mortality. We first created a "state health risk score" (SHRS) and "state mortality risk score" (SMRS) by modeling state-level contextual characteristics with health status and mortality in a randomly selected 30% of the sample (the "training set"). We then examined the association of these scores with objective health status and mortality in later life in the remaining 70% of the sample (the "test set") using multivariate linear and Cox regressions, respectively. The association between the SHRS and adult health status was β=0.14 (95%CI: 0.084, 0.20), while the hazard ratio for the SMRS was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.00). The association between the SHRS and health was not statistically significant in older age groups at a p-level of 0.05, and there was a statistically significantly different association for health status among movers compared to stayers. This study uses a life course perspective and supports the idea of "sensitive periods" in early life that have enduring impacts on health. It adds to the literature examining populations in the U.S. where large linked data sets are infrequently available.

  3. PPARs Link Early Life Nutritional Insults to Later Programmed Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Chan, Julie Y H

    2015-12-24

    Hypertension is an important component of metabolic syndrome. Adulthood hypertension and metabolic syndrome can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) serve as a nutrient-sensing signaling linking nutritional programming to hypertension and metabolic syndrome. All three members of PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are expressed in the kidney and involved in blood pressure control. This review provides an overview of potential clinical applications of targeting on the PPARs in the kidney to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome, with an emphasis on the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the link between the PPARs, nutritional insults, and programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome; the impact of PPAR signaling pathway in a maternal high-fructose model; and current experimental studies on early intervention by PPAR modulators to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Animal studies employing a reprogramming strategy via targeting PPARs to prevent hypertension have demonstrated interesting results. It is critical that the observed effects on developmental reprogramming in animal models are replicated in human studies, to halt the globally-growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome-related diseases.

  4. PPARs Link Early Life Nutritional Insults to Later Programmed Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Chan, Julie Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is an important component of metabolic syndrome. Adulthood hypertension and metabolic syndrome can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) serve as a nutrient-sensing signaling linking nutritional programming to hypertension and metabolic syndrome. All three members of PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are expressed in the kidney and involved in blood pressure control. This review provides an overview of potential clinical applications of targeting on the PPARs in the kidney to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome, with an emphasis on the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the link between the PPARs, nutritional insults, and programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome; the impact of PPAR signaling pathway in a maternal high-fructose model; and current experimental studies on early intervention by PPAR modulators to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Animal studies employing a reprogramming strategy via targeting PPARs to prevent hypertension have demonstrated interesting results. It is critical that the observed effects on developmental reprogramming in animal models are replicated in human studies, to halt the globally-growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome-related diseases. PMID:26712739

  5. Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Langley-Evans, S C

    2015-01-01

    Foetal development and infancy are life stages that are characterised by rapid growth, development and maturation of organs and systems. Variation in the quality or quantity of nutrients consumed by mothers during pregnancy, or infants during the first year of life, can exert permanent and powerful effects upon developing tissues. These effects are termed 'programming' and represent an important risk factor for noncommunicable diseases of adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease. This narrative review provides an overview of the evidence-base showing that indicators of nutritional deficit in pregnancy are associated with a greater risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality. There is also a limited evidence-base that suggests some relationship between breastfeeding and the timing and type of foods used in weaning, and disease in later life. Many of the associations reported between indicators of early growth and adult disease appear to interact with specific genotypes. This supports the idea that programming is one of several cumulative influences upon health and disease acting across the lifespan. Experimental studies have provided important clues to the mechanisms that link nutritional challenges in early life to disease in adulthood. It is suggested that nutritional programming is a product of the altered expression of genes that regulate the cell cycle, resulting in effective remodelling of tissue structure and functionality. The observation that traits programmed by nutritional exposures in foetal life can be transmitted to further generations adds weight the argument that heritable epigenetic modifications play a critical role in nutritional programming. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Cognition-The Fundamental Role of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Mediating the Relation between Early-Life Environment and Learning and Memory Process.

    PubMed

    Moody, Laura; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2017-03-01

    The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment. Diseases characterized by learning and memory impairments, such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer disease, are hypothesized to be attributed in part to environmental factors, and evidence suggests that the etiology of these conditions may date back to very early life. In this review, we discuss the role of the early-life diet in shaping cognitive outcomes in offspring. We explore the endocrine and immune mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes and discuss how these systemic factors converge to change the brain's epigenetic landscape and regulate learning and memory across the lifespan. Through understanding the maternal programming of cognition, critical steps may be taken toward preventing and treating diseases that compromise learning and memory.

  7. Maternal and early life nutrition and physical activity: setting the research and intervention agenda for addressing the double burden of malnutrition in South African children

    PubMed Central

    Prioreschi, A.; Wrottesley, S.; Draper, C. E.; Tomaz, S. A.; Cook, C. J.; Watson, E. D.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Said-Mohamed, R.; Norris, S. A.; Lambert, E. V.; Micklesfield, L. K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early life is important for later health outcomes, yet there are few studies which adequately address all of the potential early life insults that may affect later life health and growth trajectories. This is particularly evident in low- to middle-income countries such as South Africa, where women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to high levels of physical inactivity, malnutrition, and obesity. Pregnancy may therefore be an opportune time to change behaviours and improve maternal and offspring health outcomes, and decrease the inter-generational transfer of risk. We show clear evidence that physical activity and nutrition are important target areas for intervention during pregnancy and in the early years of life, yet that current literature in Africa, and specifically South Africa, is limited. We have outlined the available literature concerning the impact of maternal and early life nutrition and physical activity on the health status of South African children, and have provided some recommendations for future research and policy. PMID:28524803

  8. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  9. Neurogenic function in rats with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis that experienced early-life status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Dunleavy, Mark; Schindler, Clara K; Shinoda, Sachiko; Crilly, Shane; Henshall, David C

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus in the adult brain invariably causes an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis and the appearance of ectopic cells and this has been implicated as a causal factor in epileptogenesis. The effect of status epilepticus on neurogenesis in the developing brain is less well characterized and models of early-life seizures typically do not reproduce the hippocampal damage common to human mesial temporal sclerosis. We recently reported that evoking status epilepticus by intra-amygdala microinjection of kainic acid in post-natal (P) day 10 rats caused substantial acute neuronal death within the ipsilateral hippocampus and rats later developed unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and spontaneous recurrent seizures. Here, we examined the expression of a selection of genes associated with neurogenesis and assessed neurogenic function in this model. Protein levels of several markers of neurogenesis including polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule, neuroD and doublecortin were reduced in the hippocampus three days after status epilepticus in P10 rats. In contrast, protein levels of neurogenesis markers were similar to control in rats at P55. Pulse-chase experiments using thymidine analogues suggested there was a reduction in new neurons at 72 h after status epilepticus in P10 rats, whereas numbers of new neurons labelled in epileptic rats at P55 with hippocampal sclerosis were similar to controls. The present study suggests that status epilepticus in the immature brain suppresses neurogenesis but the neurogenic potential is retained in animals that later develop hippocampal sclerosis. PMID:25755841

  10. The Role of Early-Life Socioeconomic Status in Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Unraveling Life Course Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Anikputa, Benedicta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examine (1) how breast cancer onset and survival are affected by various dimensions of early-life socioeconomic status (SES), and (2) the extent to which women's characteristics in adulthood mediate the associations between early-life conditions and breast cancer. Methods We apply Cox regression models and a decomposition analysis to the data from the 4,275 women in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Results Higher levels of mothers’ education and early-life family income were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer incidence. The effect of mothers’ education was mediated by women's adult SES and reproductive behaviors. Fathers’ education was related negatively to breast cancer mortality, yet this effect was fully mediated by women's own education. Discussion This study identifies mechanisms linking early-life social environment to breast cancer onset and mortality. The findings emphasize the role of social factors in breast cancer incidence and survival. PMID:21956096

  11. The role of early-life socioeconomic status in breast cancer incidence and mortality: unraveling life course mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Anikputa, Benedicta

    2012-03-01

    We examine (a) how breast cancer onset and survival are affected by various dimensions of early-life socioeconomic status (SES) and (b) the extent to which women's characteristics in adulthood mediate the associations between early-life conditions and breast cancer. We apply Cox regression models and a decomposition analysis to the data from the 4,275 women in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Higher levels of mothers' education and early-life family income were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer incidence. The effect of mothers' education was mediated by women's adult SES and reproductive behaviors. Fathers' education was related negatively to breast cancer mortality, yet this effect was fully mediated by women's own education. This study identifies mechanisms linking early-life social environment to breast cancer onset and mortality. The findings emphasize the role of social factors in breast cancer incidence and survival.

  12. Baby Boomers and Birth Certificates: Early-Life Socioeconomic Status and Cancer Risk in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Stroup, Antoinette M; Herget, Kimberly A; Hanson, Heidi A; Reed, Diana Lane; Butler, Jared T; Henry, Kevin A; Harrell, C Janna; Sweeney, Carol; Smith, Ken R

    2017-01-01

    Early-life socioeconomic status (SES) may play a role in cancer risk in adulthood. However, measuring SES retrospectively presents challenges. Parental occupation on the birth certificate is a novel method of ascertaining early-life SES that has not been applied in cancer epidemiology. For a Baby-Boom cohort born from 1945-1959 in two Utah counties, individual-level Nam-Powers SES (Np-SES) was derived from parental industry/occupation reported on birth certificates. Neighborhood SES was estimated from average household income of census tract at birth. Cancer incidence was determined by linkage to Utah Cancer Registry records through the Utah Population Database. Hazard ratios (HR) for cancer risk by SES quartile were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Females with low Np-SES at birth had lower risk of breast cancer compared with those in the highest Np-SES group [HRQ1/Q4 = 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-0.97; HRQ2/Q4 = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.96]. Np-SES was inversely associated with melanoma (HRQ1/Q4 = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98) and prostate cancer (HRQ1/Q4 = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56-0.88). Women born into lower SES neighborhoods had significantly increased risk for invasive cervical cancer (HRQ1/Q4 = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.85; HRQ2/Q4 = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04-1.72). Neighborhood SES had similar effects for melanoma and prostate cancers, but was not associated with female breast cancer. We found no association with SES for pancreas, lung, and colon and rectal cancers. Individual SES derived from parental occupation at birth was associated with altered risk for several cancer sites. This novel methodology can contribute to improved understanding of the role of early-life SES on cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 75-84. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. The early life nutritional environment and early life stress as potential pathways towards the metabolic syndrome in mid-life? A lifecourse analysis using the 1958 British Birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Delpierre, C; Fantin, R; Barboza-Solis, C; Lepage, B; Darnaudéry, M; Kelly-Irving, M

    2016-08-18

    need to further explore other mechanisms in particular the role of genetics and early nutritional environment. ACE is not independently associated with MetS. However, other early life stressful events such as emergency caesarean deliveries and poor socioeconomic status during childhood may contribute as determinants of MetS.

  14. Early life nutritional programming of obesity: mother-child cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Mendez, Michelle A; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Koletzko, Berthold; Godfrey, Keith; Forsyth, Stewart; van der Beek, Eline M

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has resulted in more overweight/obese women before and during pregnancy. Their offspring tend to have higher birth weights and more body fat, and carry an increased risk of obesity later in life. These effects may partly be related to the heightened risk of gestational diabetes, occurring in at least 16% of all pregnancies irrespective of current body weight. An ILSI Europe workshop reviewed the key contributors leading to adverse outcomes in pregnancy and childhood, including gestational weight gain and nutrition. New research opportunities from prospective mother-child cohort studies were explored. Simple measures of gestational weight gain provide insufficient detail of the underlying physiological and metabolic adaptations occurring in pregnancy, and should be complemented by measures of body composition, metabolic and endocrine responses. Recordings of maternal dietary intake and nutrient status are often limited and potential correlations with gestational weight gain have been poorly studied. Many pregnancies in overweight/obese women are uncomplicated and result in offspring of normal weight, leaving the main determinants of later adverse outcomes to be clarified. The workshop provided insights of primary measurements for the characterization of sustainable nutritional intervention strategies in the mother, infant and child for preventing obesity in later life. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Early life socioeconomic status and metabolic outcomes in adolescents: The role of implicit affect about one's family.

    PubMed

    Chan, Meanne; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith

    2016-04-01

    Previous research suggests that the quality of early family relationships may moderate the association between lower socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular and other health outcomes. In this study, we investigated how implicit measures of early childhood environments (implicit anger, fear, or warmth about one's family) interacted with early life SES to predict metabolic outcomes in a sample of healthy adolescents. Adolescents (N = 259) age 13 to 16 participated with 1 parent. Implicit family affect was measured with a computer-based implicit affect assessment tool. Early life SES was indexed by home crowding (e.g., number of people per bedroom) during the first 5 years of life. Metabolic indicators included resting blood pressure, total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, and waist circumference. Early life SES significantly interacted with implicit negative family affect in resting systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure levels, such that among those participants with higher early life SES, as implicit negative family affect increased, resting blood pressure also increased. Similarly, early life SES interacted with implicit family warmth to predict total cholesterol levels, such that among those participants with higher early life SES, as implicit family warmth decreased, total cholesterol increased. These patterns were not observed with current SES or with explicit measures of family relationships. These findings provide evidence that implicit family affect moderates the association between early life SES and adolescent metabolic outcomes in a way that suggests that implicit family affect may be more relevant among higher SES adolescents. The utility of implicit psychosocial measures in cardiovascular health studies, particularly for higher SES samples, is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Bone mineral density and osteoporosis after preterm birth: the role of early life factors and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wood, Claire L; Wood, Alexander M; Harker, Caroline; Embleton, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  17. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Ward, Wendy E; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C

    2016-05-11

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that "nutritional programming" of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health.

  18. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Wendy E.; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that “nutritional programming” of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health. PMID:27187422

  19. Early-life nutrition modulates the epigenetic state of specific rDNA genetic variants in mice.

    PubMed

    Holland, Michelle L; Lowe, Robert; Caton, Paul W; Gemma, Carolina; Carbajosa, Guillermo; Danson, Amy F; Carpenter, Asha A M; Loche, Elena; Ozanne, Susan E; Rakyan, Vardhman K

    2016-07-29

    A suboptimal early-life environment, due to poor nutrition or stress during pregnancy, can influence lifelong phenotypes in the progeny. Epigenetic factors are thought to be key mediators of these effects. We show that protein restriction in mice from conception until weaning induces a linear correlation between growth restriction and DNA methylation at ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This epigenetic response remains into adulthood and is restricted to rDNA copies associated with a specific genetic variant within the promoter. Related effects are also found in models of maternal high-fat or obesogenic diets. Our work identifies environmentally induced epigenetic dynamics that are dependent on underlying genetic variation and establishes rDNA as a genomic target of nutritional insults.

  20. Role of Nutritional Factors at the Early Life Stages in the Pathogenesis and Clinical Course of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kagohashi, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition has been suggested as an important environmental factor other than viruses and chemicals in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Whereas various maternal dietary nutritional elements have been suggested and examined in T1D of both humans and experimental animals, the results largely remain controversial. In a series of studies using T1D model nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, maternal dietary n-6/n-3 essential fatty acid ratio during pregnancy and lactation period, that is, early life stages of the offspring, has been shown to affect pathogenesis of insulitis and strongly prevent overt T1D of the offspring, which is consistent with its preventive effects on other allergic diseases. PMID:25883958

  1. The role of early life nutrition in the establishment of gastrointestinal microbial composition and function.

    PubMed

    Davis, Erin C; Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon M

    2017-03-04

    The development of the human infant intestinal microbiota is a sequential process that begins in utero and continues during the first 2 to 3 years of life. Microbial composition and diversity are shaped by host genetics and multiple environmental factors, of which diet is a principal contributor. An understanding of this process is of clinical importance as the microbiota acquired in early life influence gastrointestinal, immune and neural development, and reduced microbial diversity or dysbiosis during infancy is associated with disorders in infancy and later childhood. The goal of this article was to review the published literature that used culture-independent methods to describe the development of the gastrointestinal microbiota in breast- and formula-fed human infants as well as the impact of prebiotic and probiotic addition to infant formula, and the addition of solid foods.

  2. Evaluation of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, H F

    1983-01-01

    The assessment of nutritional status has become very popular, especially for patients undergoing stress (surgery) or potential parenteral nutrition. Evaluation of cancer patients is essentially the same as for other patients. Body fat reserves are approximated by subcutaneous skinfold measurements. Somatic protein (skeletal muscle) mass is decreased in marasmus (protein-calorie malnutrition) and is evaluated by anthropometric determinations, based upon age and sex or both. Instead of using relatively inadequate standards such as the 1959 Metropolitan Life Insurance tables for ideal weight, it is advocated to use the population percentiles derived from the Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (HANES) published in 1979. The visceral protein mass is decreased in kwashiorkor and is approximated by study of the liver transport proteins. A mixed-type of protein-calorie malnutrition may exist, e.g., cancer cachexia, with marked decrease of immunocompetence. A prognostic nutritional index, based on biologic measurements rather than true nutritional assessment, can predict the probability of complications and survival in severely ill patients. All such studies should be used to substantiate good clinical judgement, based on adequate history and physical examination with emphasis on the nutritional aspects.

  3. Enhanced early-life nutrition of Holstein bulls increases sperm production potential without decreasing postpubertal semen quality.

    PubMed

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced early-life nutrition (∼130% of required energy and protein) increased testes size and weight (∼20-25%) and reduced age at puberty (∼1 month) in beef and dairy bulls, compared with those fed 70% of dietary requirements. The objective was to determine effects of early-life (2-31 weeks) nutritional modulation on feed costs, predicted number of harvestable sperm and doses of semen, and semen quality. Calves (∼1 week old) were randomly allocated into three groups that were fed 4, 6, or 8 L/day of milk (low [n = 8], medium [n = 9], and high groups [n = 9], respectively) from ages 2 to 8 weeks. Thereafter, they were weaned, transitioned onto barley silage-based diets, to receive ∼70, 100, or 130% of recommended amounts of energy and protein (feed costs were ∼CDN$280 more per bull to feed high versus low diets from 2 to 31 weeks). After 31 weeks, all bulls were fed a medium diet. Semen was collected, by electroejaculation, from 51 to 73 weeks, extended, chilled, and cryopreserved. Bulls fed high nutrition were numerically younger (P = 0.45) at sexual maturity (sperm with ≥30% progressive motility, ≥70% morphologically normal, and ≤20% abnormal heads), first acceptable post-chill sperm motility (>50%; P = 0.66) and first acceptable post-thaw motility (>25% progressive; P = 0.25) than bulls in the low-nutrition group. Semen from three bulls per group was used for in vitro fertilization (total of 1249 bovine oocytes); there were no significant differences among groups in fertilization percentage (mean ± SEM of 68.0 ± 8.7, 77.1 ± 3.5, and 68.7 ± 4.5% for low, medium, and high, respectively) or blastocyst yield (31.5 ± 5.6, 41.4 ± 4.9, and 33.7 ± 4.6%). On the basis of analysis of 2D gels of sperm proteins, 380 spots were identified on the fused master gel, but no spots were differentially expressed across groups. Overall, there were no significant differences in semen quality or sperm function among bulls fed

  4. [Assessing nutritional status before introducing enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida; Morete, Juliana Luisi; Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques de

    2009-01-01

    A proper diagnosis of the nutritional status is of the utmost importance for prescribing enteral nutrition therapy in the hospital environment. To assess nutritional status indicators of patients about to receive enteral nutrition therapy in a hospital unit. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional status of 100 adult patients before they were introduced to enteral nutrition therapy by calculating their body mass index . Their height and weight were estimated by prediction formulas and laboratory indicators of nutritional and metabolic statuses. Almost one-third (29%) of the patients were classified as malnourished according to their body mass index, while 80% of them had low albumin values (<3.2 g/dL). When patients were grouped according to body mass index, the distribution of the reasons for hospitalization did not differ between the groups. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases prevailed as the main reasons for hospitalization. When patients were grouped according to body mass index and diagnosis upon admission, the rates of low albumin concentration, i.e., concentration below the reference value, did not differ between the groups. The estimated body mass index was a specific indicator of nutritional status but lacked sensitivity. Meanwhile, albumin was more sensitive, demonstrating that it is necessary to use many indicators in combination to diagnose nutritional status properly.

  5. Early-life polysensorial stimulation and nutrition: topographic levels of susceptibility in the rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Fernández, V; Adaro, L; Sanhueza-Tsutsumi, M; Inzunza, O; Bravo, H

    1997-01-01

    The effects of environmental-nutritional interactions upon the development of the visual cortex were studied in Sprague-Dawley albino rats during lactation (5-22 postnatal days). Morphometric evaluations were assessed by measuring layer V pyramidal neurons, under camera lucida. The Golgi-Cox-Sholl technique permits quantitative studies of neurons by the precipitation of metallic mercury at random, without any selectivity. Length and frequency of dendritic segments showed significant differences due to rearing, nutrition, and topographic localization. Early environmental enrichment exerted its maximal benefits in undernourished pups, the influences being highly prominent in the lateroventral sector of the cortical plate that receives conspicuous inputs during development. These findings may provide bases for the design of clinical strategies to palliate the adverse effects of undernourishment and sensory deprivation on brain development, since their effects seem to follow pari passu the topographic sequences of cortical morphogenesis.

  6. Early-life and contemporaneous nutritional and environmental predictors of antibody response to vaccination in young Gambian adults.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Richards, Anna A; Goldblatt, David; Ashton, Lindsey; Szu, Shousun Chen; Prentice, Andrew M

    2012-07-06

    Recent research links nutritional exposures early in life with alterations in functional immunity that persist beyond childhood. Here we investigate predictors of antibody response to polysaccharide vaccines in a cohort of Gambian adults with detailed records from birth and early infancy available. 320 adults were given a single dose of a Vi polysaccharide vaccine for Salmonella typhi and a 23-valent capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine. Anti-Vi antibody levels and antibodies against 4 pneumococcal serotypes (1, 5, 14 and 23F) were measured in serum samples collected at baseline and then 14 days following vaccination and compared to data available from birth and early infancy. Post-vaccination antibody titres to serotype 14 of the pneumococcal vaccine were negatively associated with rate of growth from birth to three months of age, infant weight at 12 months of age and season of birth, but no other associations were observed with early-life exposures. The strongest predictor of antibody levels was pre-vaccination antibody titres, with adult height and serum neopterin levels at time of vaccination also implicated. The current study does not support the hypothesis that nutritional exposures early in life consistently compromise antibody response to polysaccharide vaccines administered in young adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early-life and contemporaneous nutritional and environmental predictors of antibody response to vaccination in young Gambian adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sophie E.; Richards, Anna A.; Goldblatt, David; Ashton, Lindsey; Szu, Shousun Chen; Prentice, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research links nutritional exposures early in life with alterations in functional immunity that persist beyond childhood. Here we investigate predictors of antibody response to polysaccharide vaccines in a cohort of Gambian adults with detailed records from birth and early infancy available. 320 adults were given a single dose of a Vi polysaccharide vaccine for Salmonella typhi and a 23-valent capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine. Anti-Vi antibody levels and antibodies against 4 pneumococcal serotypes (1, 5, 14 and 23F) were measured in serum samples collected at baseline and then 14 days following vaccination and compared to data available from birth and early infancy. Post-vaccination antibody titres to serotype 14 of the pneumococcal vaccine were negatively associated with rate of growth from birth to three months of age, infant weight at 12 months of age and season of birth, but no other associations were observed with early-life exposures. The strongest predictor of antibody levels was pre-vaccination antibody titres, with adult height and serum neopterin levels at time of vaccination also implicated. The current study does not support the hypothesis that nutritional exposures early in life consistently compromise antibody response to polysaccharide vaccines administered in young adulthood. PMID:22609011

  8. Early Life Nutrition and Energy Balance Disorders in Offspring in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Clare M.; Gray, Clint; Li, Minglan; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. The mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring remain poorly defined. However there is evidence from intervention studies which indicate altered wiring of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy balance and epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation of key adipokines including leptin. Studies that elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations will have a positive impact on the health of future populations and adopting a life course perspective will allow identification of phenotype and markers of risk earlier, with the possibility of nutritional and other lifestyle interventions that have obvious implications for prevention of non-communicable diseases. PMID:26402696

  9. Early Life Nutrition and Energy Balance Disorders in Offspring in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Clare M; Gray, Clint; Li, Minglan; Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-09-21

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. The mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring remain poorly defined. However there is evidence from intervention studies which indicate altered wiring of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy balance and epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation of key adipokines including leptin. Studies that elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations will have a positive impact on the health of future populations and adopting a life course perspective will allow identification of phenotype and markers of risk earlier, with the possibility of nutritional and other lifestyle interventions that have obvious implications for prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  10. Interplay of early-life nutritional programming on obesity, inflammation and epigenetic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, J Alfredo; Cordero, Paúl; Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermín I

    2012-05-01

    The huge health burden accompanying obesity is not only attributable to inadequate dietary and sedentary lifestyle habits, since a predisposing genetic make-up and other putative determinants concerning easier weight gain and fat deposition have been reported. Thus, several investigations aiming to understand energy metabolism and body composition maintenance have been performed considering the participation of perinatal nutritional programming and epigenetic processes as well as inflammation phenomena. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and inheritance-oriented investigations concerning gene-nutrient interactions on energy homoeostasis and metabolic functions have suggested that inflammation could be not only a comorbidity of obesity but also a cause. There are several examples about the role of nutritional interventions in pregnancy and lactation, such as energetic deprivation, protein restriction and excess fat, which determine a cluster of disorders affecting energy efficiency in the offspring as well as different metabolic pathways, which are mediated by epigenetics encompassing the chromatin information encrypted by DNA methylation patterns, histone covalent modifications and non-coding RNA or microRNA. Epigenetic mechanisms may be boosted or impaired by dietary and environmental factors in the mother, intergenerationally or transiently transmitted, and could be involved in the obesity and inflammation susceptibility in the offspring. The aims currently pursued are the early identification of epigenetic biomarkers concerned in individual's disease susceptibility and the description of protocols for tailored dietary treatments/advice to counterbalance adverse epigenomic events. These approaches will allow diagnosis and prognosis implementation and facilitate therapeutic strategies in a personalised 'epigenomically modelled' manner to combat obesity and inflammation.

  11. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  12. Nutrition in early life and the risk of asthma and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Wyness, Laura

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of reported cases of asthma and allergic disease has seen a marked increase throughout the world since the 1960s, particularly in more developed, westernised countries. A key focus of research in this area has been the possible adverse effects of foetal and infant exposure to food allergens. There is some evidence that foetal and infant exposure to a range of allergens via the mother and her breast milk is important in the development of normal immune tolerance. Current advice is that pregnant and breastfeeding women do not need to avoid potential food allergens unless they are allergic themselves, or are advised to modify their diet by a health professional. Delaying the introduction of common food allergies beyond 6 months is unlikely to reduce the likelihood of food allergy and allergic disease. The findings of current ongoing trials investigating the potential benefits of early introduction on allergenic foods into the diet of children-as well as the comprehensive review of complementary and young-child feeding advice currently being conducted by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition-will help inform guidance in this area.

  13. Maternal warmth buffers the effects of low early-life socioeconomic status on pro-inflammatory signaling in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chen, E; Miller, G E; Kobor, M S; Cole, S W

    2011-07-01

    The notion that family support may buffer individuals under adversity from poor outcomes has been theorized to have important implications for mental and physical health, but little is known about the biological mechanisms that explain these links. We hypothesized that adults who grew up in low socioeconomic status (SES) households but who experienced high levels of maternal warmth would be protected from the pro-inflammatory states typically associated with low SES. A total of 53 healthy adults (aged 25-40 years) low in SES early in life were assessed on markers of immune activation and systemic inflammation. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling also was conducted. Low early-life SES individuals who had mothers, who expressed high warmth toward them, exhibited less Toll-like receptor-stimulated production of interleukin 6, and reduced bioinformatic indications of pro-inflammatory transcription factor activity (NF-κB) and immune activating transcription factor activity (AP-1) compared to those who were low in SES early in life but experienced low maternal warmth. To the extent that such effects are causal, they suggest the possibility that the detrimental immunologic effects of low early-life SES environments may be partly diminished through supportive family climates.

  14. Dietary intake and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Abnet, Christian C; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Though dietary factors are implicated in chronic disease risk, assessment of dietary intake has limitations, including problems with recall of complex food intake patterns over a long period of time. Diet and nutrient biomarkers may provide objective measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, as well as an integrated measure of intake, absorption and metabolism. Thus, the search for an unbiased biomarker of dietary intake and nutritional status is an important aspect of nutritional epidemiology. This chapter reviews types of biomarkers related to dietary intake and nutritional status, such as exposure biomarkers of diet and nutritional status, intermediate endpoints, and susceptibility. Novel biomarkers, such as biomarkers of physical fitness, oxidative DNA damage and tissue concentrations are also discussed.

  15. Developmental Programming of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Effect of Early Life Nutrition on Susceptibility and Disease Severity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Li, Minglan; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is fast becoming the most common liver disease globally and parallels rising obesity rates. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis have linked alterations in the early life environment to an increased risk of metabolic disorders in later life. Altered early life nutrition, in addition to increasing risk for the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in offspring, is now associated with an increased risk for the development of NAFLD. This review summarizes emerging research on the developmental programming of NAFLD by both maternal obesity and undernutrition with a particular focus on the possible mechanisms underlying the development of hepatic dysfunction and potential strategies for intervention.

  16. Developmental Programming of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Effect of Early Life Nutrition on Susceptibility and Disease Severity in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minglan; Reynolds, Clare M.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is fast becoming the most common liver disease globally and parallels rising obesity rates. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis have linked alterations in the early life environment to an increased risk of metabolic disorders in later life. Altered early life nutrition, in addition to increasing risk for the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in offspring, is now associated with an increased risk for the development of NAFLD. This review summarizes emerging research on the developmental programming of NAFLD by both maternal obesity and undernutrition with a particular focus on the possible mechanisms underlying the development of hepatic dysfunction and potential strategies for intervention. PMID:26090409

  17. Nutritional status and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2011-12-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as 'metabolic syndrome', may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review

  18. Effects of early-life lead exposure on oxidative status and phagocytosis activity in great tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Rainio, Miia J; Eeva, Tapio; Lilley, Thomas; Stauffer, Janina; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a highly poisonous metal with a very long half-life, distributing throughout the body in blood and accumulating primarily in bones and kidney. We studied the short and long-term effects of early-life lead exposure on antioxidant defense and phagocytosis activity in a small passerine bird, the great tit (Parus major) by manipulating dietary lead levels of the nestlings. We had three experimental groups, exposed to environmentally relevant lead concentrations; high (4 μg/g body mass), low (1 μg/g body mass) and control (0 μg/g body mass) group. As a comparison, a great tit population breeding in the vicinity of a metal smelter was included to the experimental set-up. We measured glutathione, the ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione, and the antioxidant enzymes: glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase together with protein carbonylation and phagocytosis activity to study the effects of lead on the oxidative status and immune function of birds. We found differences in enzyme activities between the study groups, but in most cases the smelter group differed from the other groups. Despite the differences observed in antioxidant enzymes, our results indicate only minor short-term effects of lead exposure on oxidative status, since either glutathione ratio or protein carbonylation were not affected by lead. Phagocytosis activity was not linked to higher lead concentrations either. Interestingly, protein carbonylation was positively associated with enzyme activities and glutathione level. Our results did not show major long-term effects of lead on the oxidative status of great tits.

  19. Functional assessment of nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mary Krystofiak

    2015-04-01

    Functional status assessment has been recommended as a part of a complete nutrition assessment for decades, but the specific components of this assessment have eluded a consensus definition. The recent Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus criteria for identification of malnutrition include functional assessment determined by handgrip dynamometry, with the understanding that this technique is not practical for use in some patient populations. Other techniques for functional assessment include physical performance measures such as timed gait and chair stands, as well as activities of daily living tools such as the Katz Index, Lawton Scale, and Karnofsky Scale Index. Manual muscle testing and computed tomography scan assessment of lean tissue are other tools that show promise in correlating functional and nutrition assessments. Functional assessment parameters may be least well correlated with nutrition status in older individuals. Despite a number of scientific studies of a variety of tools for functional assessment, there is to date no definitive tool for use in all individuals in all settings. Nutrition scientists and clinicians must continue to collaborate with colleagues in physical and occupational therapy, geriatrics, and nursing to refine current functional assessment tools to more effectively correlate with nutrition and malnutrition assessment parameters.

  20. Effect of Maternal HIV-1 Status and Antiretroviral Drugs on Haematological Profiles of South African Infants in Early Life.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Diana B; Anthony, Fiona; Mathebula, Busani; Sherman, Gayle; Coovadia, Ashraf; Gray, Glenda E; Kuhn, Louise; Tiemessen, Caroline T

    2010-08-12

    Maternal HIV-1 status and antiretroviral drug exposure may influence the haematological profiles of infants. We recruited infants from 118 uninfected control women and from 483 HIV-1 infected women who received no antiretroviral drugs (n=28), or received single-dose Nevirapine (sdNVP) (n=424) or triple-drug combination therapy (n=31) to reduce HIV-1 transmission. Blood was drawn from infants within 24 hours of delivery or 6-12 weeks post-delivery and full blood counts performed using a fully automated AcT-5-diff haematology analyser and reference controls. Exposed uninfected (EU; no NVP) differed from control infants only in having lower basophil counts and percentages. In all infant groups, leukocyte profiles showed characteristic quantitative changes with age in the first 6 weeks of life. HIV-1 infected infants displayed by 6 weeks elevations in white blood cells, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil counts, and monocyte and basophil percentages, when compared to EU infants. At birth EU NVP-treated infants exhibited elevated monocyte percentages and counts and basophil counts that did not persist at 6 weeks. Interestingly, EU newborns of mothers with high CD4 counts (> 500 cells/μl) that had taken sdNVP had significantly elevated white blood cell, monocyte and basophil counts when compared to newborn infants of mothers with similar CD4 counts that had not taken sdNVP; this was not evident in infants of mothers with CD4 counts <200 cells/μl. These previously undescribed features may affect immune response capability in early life and clinical consequences of such changes need to be further investigated.

  1. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  2. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-07-30

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.

  3. Socioeconomic Status and Social Support: Social Support Reduces Inflammatory Reactivity for Individuals Whose Early-Life Socioeconomic Status Was Low.

    PubMed

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Stellar, Jennifer E; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Francis, Darlene D

    2015-10-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood confers risk for adverse health in adulthood. Accumulating evidence suggests that this may be due, in part, to the association between lower childhood SES and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Drawing from literature showing that low childhood SES predicts exaggerated physiological reactivity to stressors and that lower SES is associated with a more communal, socially attuned orientation, we hypothesized that inflammatory reactivity would be more greatly affected by cues of social support among individuals whose childhood SES was low than among those whose childhood SES was high. In two studies, we found that individuals with lower subjective childhood SES exhibited greater reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to a stressor in the presence of a supportive figure (relative to conditions with an unsupportive or neutral figure). These effects were independent of current SES. This work helps illuminate SES-based differences in inflammatory reactivity to stressors, particularly among individuals whose childhood SES was low. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Environment-physiology, diet quality and energy balance: the influence of early life nutrition on future energy balance.

    PubMed

    Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A

    2014-07-01

    Diseases caused by impaired regulation of energy balance, in particular obesity, represent a major global health burden. Although polymorphisms, lifestyle and dietary choices have been associated with differential risk of obesity and related conditions, a substantial proportion of the variation in disease risk remains unexplained. Evidence from epidemiological studies, natural experiments and from studies in animal models has shown that a poor intra-uterine environment is associated causally with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease in adulthood. Induction of phenotypes that increase disease risk involves the fetus receiving cues from the mother about the environment which, via developmental plasticity, modify the phenotype of the offspring to match her environment. However, inaccurate information may induce an offspring phenotype that is mismatched to the future environment. Such mismatch has been suggested to underlie increased risk of metabolic disease associated with a poor early life environment. Recent studies have shown that induction of modified phenotypes in the offspring involves altered epigenetic regulation of specific genes. Identification of a central role of epigenetics in the aetiology of obesity and metabolic disease may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic interventions and of biomarkers of disease risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Nutritional status in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Machado, Jacqueline; Caram, Carmen Lucia Barreto; Frank, Andrea Abdala; Soares, Eliane de Abreu; Laks, Jerson

    2009-01-01

    To describe the nutritional status of elderly subjects with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Subjects of both genders (n=40) diagnosed with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, participated in the study. Socioeconomic status, activities of daily life, anthropometric, clinical and dietary profiles were surveyed. Of the total, 65% were female. More than 70% were capable of accomplishing daily activities by themselves. Subjects were eutrophic with a statistically significant difference of the arm circumference between the mild and moderate groups. As for illnesses secondary to Alzheimer's, 52% of the elderly presented hypertension, followed by arthrosis type alterations (17%). The mean consumption of energy and macronutrients in the elderly classified as mild dementia was of 1645 kcal, distributed in 53.7% of carbohydrate, 17.5% of proteins or 0.9 g/kg and 28.8% of lipids. For those classified as moderate dementia it was of 1482 kcal, distributed in 59.3% of carbohydrate, 16.1% of proteins and 24.6% of lipids. In this descriptive study of elderly outpatients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease, most presented a nutritional status of eutrophy, with adequate dietary intake of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and vitamin C, but with low dietary intake of vitamin E.

  6. Early-life nutritional exposures and lifelong health: immediate and long-lasting impacts of probiotics, vitamin D, and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Berti, Cristiana; Agostoni, Carlo; Davanzo, Riccardo; Hyppönen, Elina; Isolauri, Erika; Meltzer, Helle M; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Cetin, Irene

    2017-02-01

    Pregnancy and infancy comprise the most critical stages for conditioning an individual's health, with a number of implications for subsequent risks of morbidity, mortality, and reproductive health. Nutrition may influence both the overall pregnancy outcome and the growth trajectory and immune system of the fetus and infant, with short- and long-term effects on the health of the offspring. Within this context, leading experts at Expo Milano 2015 in Milan, Italy, discussed up-to-date knowledge while providing suggestions and challenges before, during, and after pregnancy. This narrative review summarizes the key issues raised by the experts concerning the interplay between the nutritional environment from conception to early infancy and the offspring's immediate and lifelong health, with a particular focus on epigenetic mechanisms, probiotics, vitamin D, and breastfeeding. Taken together, the findings strengthen the awareness that nutritional exposures occurring from preconception to the postnatal period may be strong determinants of the offspring's health and may provide supportive evidence for current nutritional recommendations and guidelines for pregnant women and infants. Critical topics to be addressed in future research and translated into recommendations of public health relevance are also highlighted. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Nutritional status in patients with recurrent glioblastoma].

    PubMed

    Gokcek, D; Tran, J-D; Gonzalez-Aguilar, A; Alentorn, A; Liou, A; Delattre, J-Y; Idbaih, A

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional status is a major clinical parameter in multiple cancers. Indeed, nutritional status is a prognostic factor and a predictor of response and toxicity to treatments in breast and lung cancers for instance. To our knowledge, in patients suffering from malignant primary brain tumors, nutritional status has been poorly investigated. Nutritional status of 26 glioblastoma patients relapsing after a first line of treatment was studied. The body mass index (BMI), the prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index (PINI) and the instant nutritional score (INS) were assessed. The BMI was abnormal in 12 patients, two were malnourished while 10 were overweight. The BMI was not correlated to age of patients. Overweight status did not impact patient survival but it was associated with reduced performance status. The PINI was abnormal in three patients. Finally, the INS was abnormal in 24 patients, noted 2 (n=22) or 4 (n=4). Our results were not in favor of systematic nutritional support in patients with recurrent glioblastoma after a first line of treatment. Being overweight does not influence prognosis but may influence performance status. Steroid therapy and chemotherapy (inducing sodium and water retention and lymphopenia) weaken the relevance of BMI and INS for nutritional assessment in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Further studies using additional nutritional tests in larger, independent and prospective cohorts of patients are warranted to obtain more details. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Paternal BPA exposure in early life alters Igf2 epigenetic status in sperm and induces pancreatic impairment in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhenxing; Xia, Wei; Chang, Huailong; Huo, Wenqian; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-11-04

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors in utero appears to alter epigenetics in the male germ-line and subsequently promote adult-onset disease in subsequent generations. Fetal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a highly prevalent endocrine disruptor in environment, has been shown to alter epigenetic modification and result in glucose intolerance in adulthood. However, whether fetal exposure to BPA can induce epigenetic modification and phenotypic changes in their subsequent offspring are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to BPA in early life induced glucose intolerance in the offspring through male germ line, and the underlying epigenetic molecular basis. F0 pregnant SD rats were received corn oil or 40 μg/kg/day of BPA during gestation and lactation. F1 male rats were maintained to generate F2 offspring by mating with untreated female rats. Both the F1 rats after weaning and the F2 offspring were not received any other treatments. Our results showed that male F2 offspring in the BPA group exhibited glucose intolerance and β-cell dysfunction. Decreased expression of Igf2 and associated hypermethylation of Igf2 were observed in islets of male F2 offspring. In addition, similar effects were observed in female F2 animals, but the effects were more pronounced in males. Moreover, abnormal expression and methylation of Igf2 was observed in sperm of adult F1 male rats, indicating that epigenetic modification in germ cells can be partly progressed to the next generation. Overall, our study suggests that BPA exposure during early life can result in generational transmission of glucose intolerance and β-cell dysfunction in the offspring through male germ line, which is associated with hypermethylation of Igf2 in islets. The changes of epigenetics in germ cells may contribute to this generational transmission.

  9. Early-life social origins of later-life body weight: the role of socioeconomic status and health behaviors over the life course.

    PubMed

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-07-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage.

  10. Early life status epilepticus and stress have distinct and sex-specific effects on learning, subsequent seizure outcomes, including anticonvulsant response to phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2015-02-01

    Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event. 3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16. Rats were tested on Barnes maze (PN16-19), or lithium-pilocarpine SE (PN19) or flurothyl seizures (PN32). The anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg/rat, intraperitoneally) pretreatment were tested on flurothyl seizures. FluoroJadeB staining assessed hippocampal injury. 3KA-SE or separation on PN4-6 caused more transient learning delays in males and did not alter lithium-pilocarpine SE latencies, but aggravated its outcomes in females. Anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital were preserved and potentiated in specific groups depending on sex, type, and age at EL event. Early life 3KA-SE and maternal separation cause more but transient cognitive deficits in males but aggravate the consequences of subsequent lithium-pilocarpine SE in females. In contrast, on flurothyl seizures, EL events showed either beneficial or no effect, depending on gender, type, and age at EL events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Early-Life Social Origins of Later-Life Body Weight: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. PMID:24767590

  12. Does the association between early life growth and later obesity differ by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Andrea, Sarah B; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Messer, Lynne C; Tandy, Thomas; Boone-Heinonen, Janne

    2017-09-01

    Rapid growth during infancy predicts higher risk of obesity later in childhood. The association between patterns of early life growth and later obesity may differ by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status (SES), but prior evidence syntheses do not consider vulnerable subpopulations. We systemically reviewed published studies that explored patterns of early life growth (0-24 months of age) as predictors of later obesity (>24 months) that were either conducted in racial/ethnic minority or low-SES study populations or assessed effect modification of this association by race/ethnicity or SES. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed and SocINDEX. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Faster growth during the first 2 years of life was consistently associated with later obesity irrespective of definition and timing of exposure and outcome measures. Associations were strongest in populations composed of greater proportions of racial/ethnic minority and/or low-SES children. For example, ORs ranged from 1.17 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.24) in a heterogeneous population to 9.24 (95% CI: 3.73, 22.9) in an entirely low-SES nonwhite population. The impact of rapid growth in infancy on later obesity may differ by social stratification factors such as race/ethnicity and family income. More robust and inclusive studies examining these associations are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term effects of early-life malnutrition and status epilepticus: assessment by spatial navigation and CREB(Serine-133) phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Tung; Lai, Ming-Chi; Wang, Chih-Lu; Wang, Chien-An; Yang, Chin-Hwa; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Liou, Chia-Wei; Yang, San-Nan

    2003-11-12

    Malnutrition and/or seizure in the developing brain cause hippocampal damages. However, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The malnutrition group (MN) subjected with malnutrition alone was culled to 20-22 rats per dam on postnatal day 1 (P1). The rats subjected to lithium-pilocarpine (Li/PC)-induced status epilepticus at P21 were grouped as the SE group. The rats subjected to malnutrition and subsequent status epilepticus were grouped as the MS group. Visual-spatial memory test using the Morris water maze task was performed at P80. Following behavioral tests, the hippocampus was evaluated for histological lesions and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive, element-binding protein at serine-133 (pCREB(Ser-133)), an important transcription factor underlying learning and memory in the mammalian brain. Here, the MN group exhibited decreased body weight at P21. There was no significant difference in the seizure duration and mortality between the SE and MS groups. In adulthood (P80), both the SE and MS groups showed the spatial learning deficit, hippocampal cell loss and decreased pCREB(Ser133) level within hippocampal CA1 region. Although the MN group demonstrated a decreased level of pCREB(Ser133), no distinguishable changes in the cognitive deficit and hippocampal neuronal loss were detected. Collectively, the present results suggest that early-life malnutrition led to a reduced phosphorylation of CREB(Ser133) in hippocampal CA1 in the absence of the long-term spatial learning deficit. This decreased phosphorylation of CREB(Ser133) could suggest that cascades of signal transduction responsible for the phosphorylation of CREB(Ser133) might be disturbed by early-life malnutrition. In addition, malnutrition caused no discernible synergistic effects on Li/PC-induced status epilepticus.

  14. Assessment of protein nutritional status in children.

    PubMed

    Pencharz, Paul B

    2008-02-01

    When considering the effects of disease on nutritional status it is useful to think of the body consisting of lean mass and fat mass. The latter relates to energy status and the former to protein nutritional status. In addition, childhood growth in length/height is to a high degree dependent upon having an adequate protein intake. If insufficient non-protein energy is fed, then protein is used to help meet energy needs. Hence achieving an optimum protein nutritional status also requires receiving sufficient energy. Assessment of protein nutritional status starts with measurement of length/height and weight in relationship to growth standards. Next comes using mid-upper arm parameters in which the measurement of muscle area or circumference is a reflection of protein nutritional status while triceps skin-fold thickness is a measurement of energy status. Serum albumin remains the number one short term parameter reflecting protein nutritional status followed by serum transferrin. Plasma amino acid profiles can be measured but are mostly dependent on recent dietary intake and so are hard to interpret. Classically, nitrogen balance has been used as a reflection of dietary protein intake. While it has been used extensively on a research basis its clinical applicability is limited.

  15. Psychological Well-Being in the Early Life Course: Variations by Socioeconomic Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Owens, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    Our analysis focuses on the implications of social status characteristics for children's psychological well-being. Drawing on social evaluation theories and stress-based explanations, we hypothesized that disadvantage cumulates across statuses (the double jeopardy hypothesis) and over time as children move into the adolescent years. To test this…

  16. Dietary factors during early life program bone formation in female rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases; however, evidence for an association between early life dietary factors and bone health in adults is limited. Soy protein isolate (SPI) may be one such dietary factor that promotes bone accretion du...

  17. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO -16E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was an experiment initiated to expand nominal pre- and postflight clinical nutrition testing, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples 5 times during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests, including nutritional, physiological, general chemistry, and endocrinology indices. These data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions, and better understand human adaptation to microgravity. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.

  18. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  19. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  20. [ENTERAL NUTRITION ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CANCER].

    PubMed

    Escortell Sánchez, Raquel; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    to identify what effect causes enteral nutrition on nutritional status of cancer. a search was performed using the keywords "Cancer" AND "Enteral Nutrition" AND "Supplementation" in four document databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, ProQuest, and Web of Science. age of the sample, major than 18 years; submitted to surgery for cancer; that the intervention program was including diet and employment or not of nutritional Supplementation; clinical trials published between January 2004 and December 2014, in scientific journals indexed. we analyzed 660 articles, of which only 2% has been included. 58% of intervention programs are applied outside Spain; 84% of the interventions was carried out in a hospitable ambient; 58% of the sample is formed by adults older than 54 years; 33% of the interventions were multidisciplinary and its duration ranges between 1 and 4 years. we found just a few national interventions in cancer participants and there two types of interventions: by exclusive polymeric enteral formula or mixed with immunonutrition. enteral nutrition shows against the parenteral and its introduction at an early stage, it helps to improve nutritional status of the patient; polymeric formulas next immunonutrition, it helps to reduce the time of hospitalization; the analytical parameters are shown as a measurement pattern when assessing the improvement in nutritional status in cancer. It is recommended to increase the research in this field, especially in children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Polypharmacy and nutritional status in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Jyrkkä, Johanna; Mursu, Jaakko; Enlund, Hannes; Lönnroos, Eija

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of drugs among elderly people has raised concerns about possible negative health outcomes, including malnutrition, associated with polypharmacy. Evidence about the association of polypharmacy with nutritional status is scarce. This review summarizes the relevant evidence regarding polypharmacy and nutritional status in elderly people. The probability of nutritional problems as a consequence of drugs is highest in elderly people suffering from several diseases. Drug treatment may contribute to poor nutritional status by causing loss of appetite, gastrointestinal problems, and other alterations in body function. Some recently published studies add evidence on possible association between increasing number of drugs and malnutrition. Studies indicate also an association between polypharmacy and weight changes. In addition, there are available studies that have shown deficits in the intake of specific macronutrients and micronutrients (e.g. fiber, glucose, and specific vitamins) for those with a high number of drugs in use. On the basis of available evidence, the role of polypharmacy on nutritional status among elderly people is unclear. Some diseases promote malnutrition; thus, the independent role of drugs for nutritional status is challenging to determine. Longitudinal studies with careful adjustment for underlying diseases are needed to explore association between polypharmacy and malnutrition. Nutritional evaluation should be a routine part of comprehensive geriatric assessment that is conducted ideally in multiprofessional teams, including physician, pharmacist, and dietitian.

  2. Alzheimer's disease, oral function and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Nordenram, G; Ryd-Kjellen, E; Johansson, G; Nordstrom, G; Winblad, B

    1996-07-01

    To study differences in nutritional, dental status and oral function between institutionalised patients with Alzheimer's disease and cognitively healthy elderly people living in the community. Comparison was made between two groups. Alzheimer's disease sufferers and healthy controls, using established criteria for anthropometric, mental and dental state. An institution and residential area in Stockholm, Sweden. Forty patients with Alzheimer's disease living in a nursing home and 40 age- and gender-matched control subjects living independently. Dental status and anthropometric variables. Overnutrition was less frequent among the demented than the controls and more demented were undernourished. Dental status was similar in the two groups with few edentulous subjects but only 2 of 7 edentulous subjects with Alzheimer's disease wore dentures. Having natural teeth and many functional oral zones is important for food consistency choice, but not for nutritional status. In the Alzheimer group, the stage of dementia has a strong association to the ability to eat unaided and an association with dental status. There are differences in nutritional status between Alzheimer's patients in institutions and cognitively healthy elderly living at home. The choice of food consistency is correlated to dental status but nutritional status is not shown to be influenced by dental status. However, the ability to eat unaided is strongly correlated to cognitive status.

  3. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  4. Nutritional requirements and assessing nutritional status in camelids.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, Robert J

    2009-07-01

    It has been nearly 30 years since the first imported llamas and alpacas have been commercially raised in the United States. Nutritional requirements for these animals have not been well understood and most feeding practices were based on extrapolated and experiential information. Only recently has a National Research Council committee reviewed the available published information relative to nutrient requirements of llamas and alpacas. This article summarizes current nutrient requirement recommendations and provides some practical feeding recommendations and methods to assess nutritional status.

  5. Fatty acid status in early life in low-income countries--overview of the situation, policy and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Briend, André; Dewey, Kathryn G; Reinhart, Gregory A

    2011-04-01

    Fat intake may be low in low-income countries and little information is available on its composition in terms of (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids (FA). As a result, long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status is a concern, especially in settings where fish intake is low and/or common sources of fat have a low alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and high linoleic acid (LA) content. High LA levels, as found for instance in sunflower, safflower, corn, peanut and soy oils, may inhibit the conversion of ALA into its LC-PUFA derivatives. Other factors that affect LA and ALA conversion into LC-PUFA, including genetic factors, are little known and should also be investigated in different populations. Different interventions that could feasibly improve LC-PUFA status in low-income countries should be tested and their effects on functional outcomes assessed, preferably starting from pregnancy. Identifying affordable sources of ALA or LC-PUFA that could be made locally available and easily introduced in the diet early in life is also a priority.

  6. The Influence of Early-Life Events on Human Capital, Health Status, and Labor Market Outcomes Over the Life Course*

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rucker C.; Schoeni, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Using national data from the U.S., we find that poor health at birth and limited parental resources (including low income, lack of health insurance, and unwanted pregnancy) interfere with cognitive development and health capital in childhood, reduce educational attainment, and lead to worse labor market and health outcomes in adulthood. These effects are substantial and robust to the inclusion of sibling fixed effects and an extensive set of controls. The results reveal that low birth weight ages people in their 30s and 40s by 12 years, increases the probability of dropping out of high school by one-third, lowers labor force participation by 5 percentage points, and reduces labor market earnings by roughly 15 percent. While poor birth outcomes reduce human capital accumulation, they explain only 10 percent of the total effect of low birth weight on labor market earnings. Taken together, the evidence is consistent with a negative reinforcing intergenerational transmission of disadvantage within the family; parental economic status influences birth outcomes, birth outcomes have long reaching effects on health and economic status in adulthood, which in turn leads to poor birth outcomes for one’s own children. PMID:23412970

  7. The association between childhood emotional functioning and adulthood inflammation is modified by early-life socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Appleton, Allison A; Buka, Stephen L; McCormick, Marie C; Koenen, Karestan C; Loucks, Eric B; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2012-07-01

    Identifying interrelationships among childhood social disadvantage, emotional functioning and adult health may help illustrate how health disparities may become embedded early in life, yet few have considered how these factors are associated. We examined whether the association of child emotional functioning and adult health risk was modified by child socioeconomic status (CSES), or whether child emotional functioning mediated the association of CSES and adult health risk. We studied 430 adult offspring (mean age 42 years) of Collaborative Perinatal Project participants, a cohort of pregnant women enrolled in 1959-1966 (Broman, Nichols, & Kennedy, 1975; Niswander & Gordon, 1972). Child emotional functioning was assessed by psychologist ratings at age 7 and included inappropriate self regulation (ISR) and distress proneness. CSES measures included parental education, household income, and parental occupation. Adult health risk was measured by the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP). Hypotheses were tested with multiple linear regression. Effect modification was evaluated via interaction terms and stratification of fully adjusted models by CSES. Mediation by child emotional functioning was evaluated via coefficient changes. There was no evidence that child emotional functioning mediated the association of CSES and CRP. Significant interactions were observed for ISR and low income (b = 1.67, SE = 0.70, p < .05), and distress proneness and low (b = 3.14, SE = 1.47, p < .05) and middle (b = 3.52, SE = 1.46, p < .05) income. Stratified models indicated that associations of child emotion with CRP varied significantly by level of parental education, household income and occupation. The highest levels of adult inflammation were observed among those with childhood emotional problems who were also exposed to low socioeconomic status as children. This study suggests adulthood disparities in CRP may have developmental origins in childhood adversity.

  8. Assessment of nutritional status in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Yuste, Claudia; Abad, Soraya; Vega, Almudena; Barraca, Daniel; Bucalo, Laura; Pérez-de José, Ana; López-Gómez, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem and a risk factor of mortality in haemodialysis patients. However, there is no consensus for its assessment. To assess the relationship between nutritional status, measured by bioimpedance spectrometry (BIS), and laboratory markers of nutritional status, as well as nutritional evolution and its changes after 1 year. We performed an observational prospective study on 124 haemodialysis patients (aged 61.2 ±[15.8] years, 62.9% were males, 33.1% were diabetic. Laboratory markers of nutritional status and BIS were implemented at baseline and after one year. At baseline, lean mass index (LMI) (13.3 [3.6] Kg/m2) was inversely correlated with age (P=.006), and directly with male gender (P=.01). At baseline, the fat mass index (FMI) (mean 11.2 & 6.1kg/m2) correlates directly with the body mass index (P<.001) and the female gender (P=.004). We found no association with comorbidity or inflammatory markers. We did not observe any correlation between lean mass or fat mass modifications and nutritional marker modifications. Patients with LMI gain (>0kg/m2) have lower baseline serum albumin (P=.017), lower baseline LMI (P<.001) and higher baseline FMI (P=.027). Patients with FMI loss (<0kg/m2) have lower systolic blood pressure (P=.04). Assessment of nutritional status through laboratory parameters does not have a good correlation with body composition parameters or with their modifications.

  9. Nutritional status and cognitive impairment in elderly.

    PubMed

    Daradkeh, Ghazi; Essa, Musthafa M; Al-Adawi, S Samir; Koshy, Roopa P; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Waly, Mostafa I

    2014-10-01

    The elderly population is increasing worldwide and it has been suggested that senior citizens will continue to constitute the bulk of the population in many countries. Nutritional status of senior citizens are adversely affected by their frailty, chronic condition and declining cognitive functioning. Conversely, malnourished elderly further deteriorate their frailty, chronic disease and cognitive functioning. The aim of this review article is to recognize the importance of nutritional assessment of elderly population particularly those with cognitive impairment. First part is to highlight characteristic cognitive impairment among senior citizens and the second one highlight t he background in which malnutrition is a factor that leads to increased risk of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This review also highlight salgorithms for safeguarding nutritional status among senior citizen and focuses on importance of nutritional screening, assessment and early intervention for safeguarding further deterioration of elderly who are likely to prone to cognitive impairment.

  10. Nutritional Assessment and Status of Hospitalized Infants.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Misa; Bell, Kristie; White, Melinda; Lawson, Karen; David, Michael; Doolan, Annabel; Todd, Alwyn

    2017-09-01

    Malnutrition during infancy has long-term adverse consequences for both physical and psychological development. Early detection of malnutrition among hospitalized infants is essential to provide optimal nutrition support. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the nutritional status of hospitalized infants using 2 methods: the Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment (SGNA) and anthropometric measurement. We also investigated diagnostic category associated with nutritional status, the mean anthropometric z scores, and explored the association between malnutrition and nutrition focused variables. Nutritional status of 110 hospitalized infants ages 31 days to 12 months was investigated using the SGNA and anthropometric measurements converted to z scores. Utilizing the SGNA, 78 (70.9%) infants were classified as having normal nutritional status, 30 (27.3%) were moderately malnourished, and 2 (1.8%) were severely malnourished. The proportion of infants with acute malnutrition (weight-for-length z score <-2) was 16.4%, and chronic malnutrition (length-for-age z score <-2) was 3.6%. The mean anthropometric z scores of infants were significantly lower in infants identified as moderately and severely malnourished using the SGNA. Decrease in serial weight (odds ratio [OR] 44.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3-451.5), having prolonged gastrointestinal symptoms (OR 18.8; 95% CI: 1.5-234.7), and reduced nutrition-related functional capacity (OR 27.6; 95% CI 2.5-301.7) were associated with malnutrition after adjusting for sex, age, and length of hospital stay. Regardless of the method applied, cases of malnutrition amongst hospitalized infants were identified. The SGNA is a comprehensive approach to identifying malnutrition in hospitalized infants.

  11. The effects of denture status on nutrition.

    PubMed

    Papas, A S; Palmer, C A; Rounds, M C; Russell, R M

    1998-01-01

    In Part I of this study, the Human Nutrition Research Center of the United States Department of Agriculture's Nutritional Status Study (NSS) of 691 independently living elderly people aged 60-98 found that poor dietary quality was associated with low educational attainment, low median family income, and self-report of partial or full dentures. In Part II, further analysis was conducted on a random subsample of 181 subjects who were examined and divided into four groups according to dentate status: two dentures, one denture, partial dentures, and teeth. In this subgroup, significant correlations were found between the quality of nutrient intake and the degree of edentulousness. Analysis of 53 nutrients plus calories from three-day food records showed a significantly higher nutritional quality of the diet in dentate volunteers than in the other groups. This difference was approximately 20% for 19 nutrients, bringing some nutrients (such as calcium) below the RDA for this age group. Although direct correlations cannot be made with actual nutritional status, the introduction of dentures could further compromise the precarious nutritional intake of the elderly population. With this in mind, dentists need to consider carefully the importance of their elderly patients maintaining at least some natural dentition and should provide adequate information on nutritional adaptations to dentures.

  12. Nutritional status in Europe: methods and results.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Freisling, Heinz

    2009-05-01

    Presented here is an analysis and documentation of the nutritional situation in 14 European countries. Collection methods and available data about the most common nutritional status assessment indicators are described. Prevalence of adult obesity varied considerably in the 14 countries, ranging from 6% to 31%. The mean fat intake of adults exceeded the population goal of less than 30% of energy in virtually all of the 14 countries. Dietary fiber, folate, vitamin D, and (excessive) sodium intake did not meet recommended levels. Strategies addressing the inadequacies in European diets are needed to improve the nutritional situation in Europe.

  13. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2007-01-01

    It has not been possible to assess nutritional status of crew members on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in nutritional status for several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. SMO 016E is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment parameters will be expanded to include parameters that will allow us to better understand changes in folate and vitamin B6 status, and related cardiovascular risk factors during and after flight. Additionally, stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. This additional assessment will allow us to better monitor the health of crew members and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment parameters are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the current protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by space flight. Analyzing the data

  14. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2007-01-01

    It has not been possible to assess nutritional status of crew members on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in nutritional status for several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. SMO 016E is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment parameters will be expanded to include parameters that will allow us to better understand changes in folate and vitamin B6 status, and related cardiovascular risk factors during and after flight. Additionally, stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. This additional assessment will allow us to better monitor the health of crew members and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment parameters are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the current protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by space flight. Analyzing the data

  15. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Ericson, K.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Until 2006, it was not been possible to assess nutritional status of crewmembers on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in status of several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. Collecting samples during flight is one of the objectives of SMO 016E, and it is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment variables will be expanded to include ones that will allow us to better understand changes in folate, vitamin K, and vitamin B6 status, as well as risk factors for cardiovascular and oxidative damage during and after flight. Stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. Measuring these additional variables will allow us to better monitor the health of crewmembers and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment variables are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the original protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how

  16. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Ericson, K.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Until 2006, it was not been possible to assess nutritional status of crewmembers on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in status of several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. Collecting samples during flight is one of the objectives of SMO 016E, and it is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment variables will be expanded to include ones that will allow us to better understand changes in folate, vitamin K, and vitamin B6 status, as well as risk factors for cardiovascular and oxidative damage during and after flight. Stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. Measuring these additional variables will allow us to better monitor the health of crewmembers and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment variables are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the original protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how

  17. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report reviews the current state of knowledge regarding laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status during normal pregnancy in order to provide normative data with respect to such indices in healthy pregnant women. The report contains seven chapters: Physiologic Adjustments in General; Hematologic Indices; Electrolytes in Normal…

  18. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report reviews the current state of knowledge regarding laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status during normal pregnancy in order to provide normative data with respect to such indices in healthy pregnant women. The report contains seven chapters: Physiologic Adjustments in General; Hematologic Indices; Electrolytes in Normal…

  19. Nutritional status of adventure racers.

    PubMed

    Zalcman, Ioná; Guarita, Heloisa Vidigal; Juzwiak, Claudia Ridel; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Edwards, Ben; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2007-05-01

    We describe the usual food intake, body composition, and biochemical profile of adventure racers during their training season and evaluate their energy and nutrient intake in relation to current recommendations for ultraendurance athletes. Twenty-four adventure race athletes (18 men and 6 women), 24 to 42 y of age, participated in the study. Food intake was determined with a 3-d food record and body composition by plethysmography. Blood samples were obtained from all subjects for biochemical analyses. All assessments were made during the usual training phase. Female athletes had a higher body fat percentage than did male athletes (20.2 +/- 5.7% versus 12.5 +/- 3.5%). For men and women, food intake was high in protein (1.9 +/- 0.5 g/kg in men, 2.0 +/- 0.4 g/kg in women) and fat (1.6 +/- 0.3 g/kg in men, 1.5 +/- 1.3 g/kg in women). Carbohydrate intake of male athletes was at the lower limit of that recommended (5.9 +/- 1.8 g/kg). For most vitamins and minerals, athletes' intake was adequate, with the exception of magnesium, zinc, and potassium in men and women and vitamin E and calcium in women, which presented a high probability of being inadequate compared with reference values. High blood levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were found in female athletes (201.0 +/- 44.7 and 104.1 +/- 43.1 mg/dL, respectively) and all other biochemical analyses were within normal reference values. The adventure racers presented an inadequate nutritional profile when compared with recommendations for endurance exercise. These athletes need to be educated about consuming an adequate diet to meet the nutritional needs of their activity.

  20. Nutritional status of vegetarian children.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J T; Dietz, W H; Andrews, E M; Suskind, R M

    1982-02-01

    Thirty-nine preschool children consuming different types of vegetarian diets were studied. Type and amount of carbohydrate, fat, protein, and amount of sodium and cholesterol provided by their diets were more like intakes suggested in the proposed Dietary Goals for the United States than to levels in usual diets of nonvegetarian children. Macrobiotic vegetarian children consumed less animal food than did other vegetarian children. The mean intake of vitamin D of macrobiotics was an eighth of the Recommended Dietary Allowance and mean serum alkaline phosphatase values were elevated. The mean intake of vitamin B12 levels were normal. Vegan macrobiotic children had the lowest intakes of vitamins B12 and D. Other vegetarians' mean intakes of these vitamins met the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Mean iron intakes of the vegetarians approximated the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Hematological indices were suggestive of mild iron deficiency anemia in a quarter of subjects. Serum cholesterol values were low for the group. Physical measurements were within normal limits and macrobiotic vegetarians were not smaller or leaner than other vegetarian children. The nutritional difficulties discovered could be corrected by careful planning of vegetarian children's diets while preserving the beneficial qualities of the diet in other respects.

  1. Nutritional status of Brazilian elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Valéria Cristina Provenza; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the body composition, dietary intake, use of nutritional supplements, and biochemical status of 8 Brazilian male elite swimmers, aged 18-21 years, participants at a national swimming competition. Data from the athletes were obtained through a 4-day food record, a fasting blood sample, and anthropometric measurements. The anthropometric results showed that body composition was compatible with sport category. The dietary assessment showed an adequate ingestion of calories, vitamins, and mineral, with the exception of calcium, for which only half of the sample reached the recommendation. The results also indicated low carbohydrate and high protein and cholesterol intakes. Of the swimmers, 62.5% and 25% consumed synthetic aminoacids and antioxidants supplements, respectively. The biochemical indices of the nutritional status were within normal limits in all swimmers, with the exception of creatine-kinase, which was above the recommended level, indicating muscle degradation probably due to poor carbohydrate intake. In conclusion, the results suggest the importance of nutritional education to promote a balanced intake, provide all nutrients in optimal amounts, inhibit unnecessary ingestion of nutritional supplements, maintain ideal performance, and improve the swimmers' health status.

  2. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  3. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  4. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  5. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Joana Pedro; de Castro Cardoso Pereira, Paula Manuela; dos Reis Baltazar Vicente, Ana Filipa; Bernardo, Alexandra; de Mesquita, María Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery procedure. The sample was divided between convention and fast-track procedures. Most of the individuals were overweight or obese but had lost weight on the past six months. Despite mild, there were signs of malnutrition in this sample with high losses of fat free mass, weight and also fat mass during the hospitalization period. These results reinforce the importance of malnutrition assessment in colorectal patients as well as consider weight loss on the past months and body composition in order to complement nutritional status evaluation.

  6. Changes in nutritional status after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Giusto, Michela; Lattanzi, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Merli, Manuela

    2014-08-21

    Chronic liver disease has an important effect on nutritional status, and malnourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. During recent decades, a trend has been reported that shows an increase in number of patients with end-stage liver disease and obesity in developed countries. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognised. Cirrhotic patients with depleted lean body mass (sarcopenia) and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk; malnutrition may further impact morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. After transplantation and liver function is restored, many metabolic alterations are corrected, dietary intake is progressively normalised, and lifestyle changes may improve physical activity. Few studies have examined the modifications in body composition that occur in liver recipients. During the first 12 mo, the fat mass progressively increases in those patients who had previously depleted body mass, and the muscle mass recovery is subtle and non-significant by the end of the first year. In some patients, unregulated weight gain may lead to obesity and may promote metabolic disorders in the long term. Careful monitoring of nutritional changes will help identify the patients who are at risk for malnutrition or over-weight after liver transplantation. Physical and nutritional interventions must be investigated to evaluate their potential beneficial effect on body composition and muscle function after liver transplantation.

  7. Changes in nutritional status after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Giusto, Michela; Lattanzi, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Merli, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has an important effect on nutritional status, and malnourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. During recent decades, a trend has been reported that shows an increase in number of patients with end-stage liver disease and obesity in developed countries. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognised. Cirrhotic patients with depleted lean body mass (sarcopenia) and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk; malnutrition may further impact morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. After transplantation and liver function is restored, many metabolic alterations are corrected, dietary intake is progressively normalised, and lifestyle changes may improve physical activity. Few studies have examined the modifications in body composition that occur in liver recipients. During the first 12 mo, the fat mass progressively increases in those patients who had previously depleted body mass, and the muscle mass recovery is subtle and non-significant by the end of the first year. In some patients, unregulated weight gain may lead to obesity and may promote metabolic disorders in the long term. Careful monitoring of nutritional changes will help identify the patients who are at risk for malnutrition or over-weight after liver transplantation. Physical and nutritional interventions must be investigated to evaluate their potential beneficial effect on body composition and muscle function after liver transplantation. PMID:25152572

  8. Impaired nutritional status in geriatric trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Müller, F S; Meyer, O W; Chocano-Bedoya, P; Schietzel, S; Gagesch, M; Freystaetter, G; Neuhaus, V; Simmen, H-P; Langhans, W; Bischoff-Ferrari, H A

    2017-05-01

    Malnutrition is an established risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes. Our aim was to assess nutritional status among geriatric trauma patients. We enrolled 169 consecutive patients (⩾70 years) admitted to the Geriatric Traumatology Centre (University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland). On admission to acute care, nutritional status was assessed with the mini nutritional assessment (score<17=malnourished (M), ⩽23.5=at risk of malnutrition (ARM), >23.5=normal). At the same examination, we assessed mental (Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS) and cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination; MMSE), frailty status (Fried Scale), and number of comorbidities and medications. Further, discharge destination was documented. All analyses were adjusted for age and gender. A total of 7.1% of patients were malnourished and 49.1% were ARM. Patients with reduced mental health (GDS⩾5: 30.5 vs 11.5%; P=0.004), impaired cognitive function (MMSE⩽26: 23.6±0.5 vs 26.0±0.6; P=0.004), prevalent frailty (32.5 vs 8%; P<0.001), more comorbidities (2.3±0.1 vs 1.3±0.2; P<0.0001) and medications (5.6±0.3 vs 3.4±0.4; P<0.0001) were more likely to have an impaired nutritional status (M+ARM). Further, M+ARM patients were twice as likely to be discharged to destinations different to home (odds ratio=2.08; confidence interval 1.07-4.05). In this consecutive sample of geriatric trauma patients, 56.2% had an M+ARM upon admission to acute care, which was associated with indicators of worse physical, mental and cognitive health and predicted a more than twofold greater odds of being discharged to a destination other than home.

  9. Early postoperative enteral nutrition is useful for recovering gastrointestinal motility and maintaining the nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Hanyu, Nobuyoshi; Nakao, Masatoshi; Takeda, Akihiro; Furukawa, Yoshiyuki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of enteral nutrition in postoperative nutritional management is known, but the effects on gastrointestinal motility and nutrition have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition soon after open abdominal surgery on gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status. A partial resection of rectum models was prepared to compare two types of nutrient administration: enteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition. The differences between the effects of nutrition types in terms of gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status were investigated. Enteral nutrition contributed to recovery of gastrointestinal motility and maintenance of nutritional status. Enteral nutrition should therefore be initiated soon after surgery if the gastrointestinal tract is available.

  10. Nutritional status according to Mini Nutritional Assessment is related to functional status in geriatric patients--independent of health status.

    PubMed

    Schrader, E; Baumgärtel, C; Gueldenzoph, H; Stehle, P; Uter, W; Sieber, C C; Volkert, D

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutritional and functional status in acute geriatric patients including mobility and considering health status. Cross-sectional study. Hospital. 205 geriatric patients (median age 82.0 (IQR: 80-86) years, 69.3% women). Nutritional status was determined by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and patients were categorized as well-nourished (≥ 24 points), at risk of malnutrition (17-23.5 points) or as malnourished (< 17 points). Functional status was determined by Barthel Index (BI) and Timed 'Up and Go' Test (TUG) and related to MNA categories. Using binary multiple logistic regression the impact of nutritional status on functional status was examined, adjusted for health status. 60.3% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition and 29.8% were malnourished. Ability to perform basic activities of daily living (ADL) decreased with declining nutritional status. The proportion of patients unable to perform the TUG increased with worsening of nutritional status (45.0% vs. 50.4% vs. 77.0%, p<0.01). After adjusting for age, gender, number of diagnoses, disease severity and cognitive function, a higher MNA score significantly lowered the risk of being dependent in ADL (OR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.77-0.94) and inability to perform the TUG (OR 0.90, 95 % CI 0.82-0.99). Nutritional status according to MNA was related to ADL as well as to mobility in acute geriatric patients. This association remained after adjusting for health status.

  11. Influence of maternal nutritional status on vascular function in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Poston, Lucilla

    2011-05-01

    Suboptimal maternal nutritional status has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular risk in the child. Initially inferred from studies of low-birthweight children, investigations in cohorts of women subjected to famine provide direct evidence for an independent influence of the mother's diet on the cardiovascular health of her child. Animal studies from rodents and sheep have shown associations between maternal undernutrition and raised blood pressure, as well as abnormalities in resistance artery function, particularly in endothelium-dependent responses. Early life exposure to the influences of maternal over nutritional states, e.g. obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, has also been associated with markers of cardiovascular risk in man, and animal models have shown raised blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction in offspring of diet-induced obese dams. Increased sympathetic tone is commonly associated with hypertension in animal models of both under nutritional and over nutritional states. This and several other similarities may indicate commonality of mechanism and could reflect supranormal nutritional status in postnatal life in both conditions.

  12. Assessing nutritional status in chronically critically ill adult patients.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Patricia A; Daly, Barbara J; Lipson, Amy R; Guo, Su-Er

    2006-03-01

    Numerous methods are used to measure and assess nutritional status of chronically critically ill patients. To discuss the multiple methods used to assess nutritional status in chronically critically ill patients, describe the nutritional status of chronically critically ill patients, and assess the relationship between nutritional indicators and outcomes of mechanical ventilation. A descriptive, longitudinal design was used to collect weekly data on 360 adult patients who required more than 72 hours of mechanical ventilation and had a hospital stay of 7 days or more. Data on body mass index and biochemical markers of nutritional status were collected. Patients' nutritional intake compared with physicians' orders, dieticians' recommendations, and indirect calorimetry and physicians' orders compared with dieticians' recommendations were used to assess nutritional status. Relationships between nutritional indicators and variables of mechanical ventilation were determined. Inconsistencies among nurses' implementation, physicians' orders, and dieticians' recommendations resulted in wide variations in patients' calculated nutritional adequacy. Patients received a mean of 83% of the energy intake ordered by their physicians (SD 33%, range 0%-200%). Patients who required partial or total ventilator support upon discharge had a lower body mass index at admission than did patients with spontaneous respirations (Mann-Whitney U = 8441, P = .001). In this sample, the variability in weaning progression and outcomes most likely reflects illness severity and complexity rather than nutritional status or nutritional therapies. Further studies are needed to determine the best methods to define nutritional adequacy and to evaluate nutritional status.

  13. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was initiated to expand nominal clinical nutrition testing of ISS astronauts, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes in nutritional status during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests. The resulting data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analysis of these data has yielded many findings to date, including: Vision. Documented evidence that biochemical markers involved in one-carbon metabolism were altered in crewmembers who experienced vision-related issues during and after flight (1). Iron, Oxidative Stress, and Bone. In-flight data document a clear association of increased iron stores, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, and bone loss (2). Exercise. Documented that well-nourished crewmembers performing heavy resistance exercise returned from ISS with bone mineral densities unchanged from preflight (3). Furthermore, the response of bone to space flight and exercise countermeasures was the same in men and women (4). Body Mass. Crewmembers lose 2-5% of their body mass in the first month of flight, and maintain the lower body mass during flight (5). Additionally, the two devices to measure body mass on orbit, the SLAMMD and BMMD, provide similar results (5). Cytokines. Findings indicated that a pattern of persistent physiological adaptations occurs during space flight that includes shifts in immune and hormonal regulation (6). Fish/Bone. Documented a relationship between fish intake and bone loss in astronauts (that is, those who ate more fish lost less bone) (7). Vitamin K. Documented that in generally well-fed and otherwise healthy individuals, vitamin K status and bone vitamin K-dependent proteins are unaffected by space flight (and bed rest) (8

  14. Maternal nutritional knowledge and the nutritional status of preschool children in a Nairobi slum.

    PubMed

    Waihenya, E W; Kogi-Makau, W; Muita, J W

    1996-07-01

    Most nutrition education programmes in Kenya operate on the premise that nutritional knowledge can have an impact on children's nutritional status. It has, however, been argued that nutritional knowledge among low income groups is unlikely to have an impact, hence, the need to establish whether there is a relationship between nutritional status and maternal nutritional knowledge. In a cross-sectional survey carried out in a Nairobi slum (Kibera), nutritional status of 363 children aged six to 24 months was measured and nutritional knowledge of their mothers assessed. Makina village was randomly selected as the study site and all consenting households were involved in the study. The study established that most mothers (97.5%) have access to nutrition education. Prevalence of stunting (86.2%) and underweight (58.4%) was high but that of wasting (1.9%) was low. There was no significant relationship between the nutritional status of children and overall nutritional knowledge. Unexpectedly, a negative relationship was found between nutritional status and mothers' ability to recognise clinical signs of malnutrition, knowledge in the weaning process and dietary management during sickness. Knowledge on frequency of feeding was, however, positively related to nutritional states. In conclusion, nutritional knowledge alone is inadequate in ensuring young children's nutrition security and, hence, for nutrition education programmes to have a positive impact, facilitational strategies must be incorporated.

  15. LInking EDCs in maternal Nutrition to Child health (LINC study) - protocol for prospective cohort to study early life exposure to environmental chemicals and child health.

    PubMed

    de Cock, Marijke; Quaak, Ilona; Sugeng, Eva J; Legler, Juliette; van de Bor, Margot

    2016-02-13

    The presence of chemicals in the environment is ubiquitous. Human biomonitoring studies have shown that various chemicals can be detected in the majority of the population, including pregnant women. These compounds may pass the placenta, and reach the fetus. This early life exposure in particular may be detrimental as some chemicals may disrupt the endocrine system, which is involved in various processes during development. The LINC study is a prospective birth cohort designed to study associations between early life environmental exposures and child health, including growth and neurodevelopment. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of this cohort. Recruitment for this cohort has started in 2011 in three Dutch areas and is still ongoing. To date over 300 mother-child pairs have been included. Women are preferably included during the first trimester of pregnancy. Major congenital anomalies and twin births are reasons for exclusion. To assess exposure to environmental chemicals, cord blood, placenta, meconium and vernix are collected. Parents collect urine of the child shortly after birth and breast milk in the second month of life. Exposure to a broad range of environmental chemicals are determined in cord plasma and breast milk. Furthermore various hormones, including leptin and cortisone, are determined in cord plasma, and in heel prick blood spots (thyroxine). Data on anthropometry of the child is collected through midwives and youth health care centres on various time points until the child is 18 months of age. Furthermore cognitive development is monitored by means of the van Wiechen scheme, and information on behavioral development is collected by means of the infant behavior questionnaire and the child behavior checklist. When the child is 12 months of age, a house visit is scheduled to assess various housing characteristics, as well as hand-to-mouth behavior of the child. At this visit exposure of the child to flame retardants (with endocrine

  16. [Nutritional status of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Bober, Joanna; Mazur, Olech; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Bogacka, Anna; Sznabel, Karina; Stańkowska-Walczak, Dobrosława; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Stachowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The main causes of death in patients undergoing dialysis are cardiovascular diseases. Their presence is related to the nutritional status of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis, and has a predicted value in this kind of patient. Long-term therapy entails unfavourable changes, from which a clinically significant complication is protein-energy malnutrition and intensification of inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis based on anthropometric, biochemical parameters analysis, a survey, as well as the determination of changes in measured parameters occurring over time. The study involved 40 people undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 30 healthy people. For dialyzed patients testing material was collected twice, every 6 months. Proteins, albumins, prealbumins, C-reactive protein and glucose levels were measured. Anthropometric measurements included body height, body weight, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold thickness. Body mass index (BMI) value and exponent of tissue protein source were calculated. The examined patients completed the questionnaire, which included, among other factors, the daily intake of nutrients, and lifestyle information. During the 6 month observation of the PD group a stastically significant increase in the energy value of intake food and amount of calories intake from carbohydrates was found. Analysis of nutritional status dependent on the BMI showed that overweight and obese patients are characterized by higher concentrations of the C-reactive protein and glucose, as well as lower concentrations of prealbumin compared to patients with normal body weight. At the same time, the energy value of food and the amount of protein in the group with BMI > 25 were smaller than in the other groups. During the 6 month observation a decrease the concentration of prealbumin and an increase in C-reactive protein in BMI > 25 group

  17. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes.

  18. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes. PMID:26494949

  19. Zinc and selenium nutritional status in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    de Bortoli, Maritsa Carla; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato

    2009-03-01

    A vegetarian diet may have beneficial effects on human health, however when it is not well-balanced may be deficient in some nutrients, as minerals for example. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of zinc and selenium in vegetarians in the city of São Paulo. A cross-sectional study was performed, and the inclusion criteria were age > or = 18 years, both gender, no use of food or pharmaceutical supplements. Thirty vegetarian, of both genders, mean age of 27 years and 4.5 years of vegetarianism had performed the study, and their mean BMI was 21.5. Zinc plasma concentration was 71 and 62.5 microg/dL for men and women and erythrocyte concentration was 37 microg/gHb for both genders. Selenium concentration was 73.5 and 77.3 microg/L in plasma and 51.4 and 66.9 microg/L in erythrocytes for men and women, respectively. These biochemical values show that, according to the references, selenium blood levels are adequate and zinc concentration in erythrocytes is deficient in the studied population. For this reason, vegetarians should be constantly assessed and receive nutritional support to reduce the effects of inadequate zinc status.

  20. Disorders of nutritional status in sepsis - facts and myths.

    PubMed

    Kosałka, Katarzyna; Wachowska, Ewelina; Słotwiński, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The problem of diagnosing nutritional status disorders in septic patients remains unresolved. This is associated with the necessity of the introduction of newer and newer methods of assessing nutritional status, often requiring precise and expensive equipment as well as employment of professionals in this field in hospital wards, primarily including intensive care units (ICU). Methods that have been applied thus far for assessing nutritional status, also used in severely ill septic patients, have little impact on improving treatment results. This is due to the high dynamics of changes in nutritional status in these patients, healing process variability in individual patients, and the "mismatch" of methods for assessing nutritional status in relation to the patient's clinical status. The diagnostic value of the traditional methods of assessing nutritional status, i.e. anthropometric analysis and selected laboratory tests, as markers of nutritional status disorders in septic patients, is still debatable. There is still no precise method that could become the "gold standard" allowing for early identification of malnutrition in these group of patients. Phase angle, bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), and the "illness marker", obtained directly from the resistance, reactance, and impedance, can be used as prognostic or nutritional indices in severely ill septic patients, but the intensity of research on this subject needs to be increased. Detailed assessment of nutritional status should include tests of selected inflammation markers (including TLC, HMGB1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra, sTNFRI).

  1. Disorders of nutritional status in sepsis – facts and myths

    PubMed Central

    Wachowska, Ewelina; Słotwiński, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The problem of diagnosing nutritional status disorders in septic patients remains unresolved. This is associated with the necessity of the introduction of newer and newer methods of assessing nutritional status, often requiring precise and expensive equipment as well as employment of professionals in this field in hospital wards, primarily including intensive care units (ICU). Methods that have been applied thus far for assessing nutritional status, also used in severely ill septic patients, have little impact on improving treatment results. This is due to the high dynamics of changes in nutritional status in these patients, healing process variability in individual patients, and the “mismatch” of methods for assessing nutritional status in relation to the patient’s clinical status. The diagnostic value of the traditional methods of assessing nutritional status, i.e. anthropometric analysis and selected laboratory tests, as markers of nutritional status disorders in septic patients, is still debatable. There is still no precise method that could become the “gold standard” allowing for early identification of malnutrition in these group of patients. Phase angle, bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), and the “illness marker”, obtained directly from the resistance, reactance, and impedance, can be used as prognostic or nutritional indices in severely ill septic patients, but the intensity of research on this subject needs to be increased. Detailed assessment of nutritional status should include tests of selected inflammation markers (including TLC, HMGB1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra, sTNFRI). PMID:28702094

  2. Nutritional status of vegetarians on maintenance haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tai-Te; Chang, Chieh-Ying; Hsu, Wei-Min; Wang, I-Kwan; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Cheng, Shu-Hwa; Liang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2011-08-01

    Vegetarian diets have long been thought of as beneficial to health. However, vegetarian diets are often low in protein, which is contradictory to the high protein diet guideline for uraemia patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of a vegetarian diet on the nutritional status of haemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients on chronic HD for over 6 months were included in the study. The normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) was used to reflect daily protein intake. Biochemical markers of nutrition, anthropometric parameters, subjective global assessment (SGA) and functional activity of daily living were assessed to evaluate the nutritional status of vegetarians on chronic HD. Nineteen out of 318 HD patients were vegetarians. The nPCR was lower in the vegetarian group (1.20 ± 0.24 vs 1.10 ± 0.29 g/kg per day, non-Veg vs Veg, P < 0.05). The serum albumin and prealbumin were similar in vegetarian and non-vegetarian HD patients. The body mass index (BMI) and mid-arm muscular circumference (MAMC) were lower in vegetarian patients (P < 0.05). The haematocrit of vegetarians can be maintained at a level similar to that of non-vegetarian patients but erythropoietin doses needed were higher in vegetarian patients (P < 0.05). The muscle strength evaluated by the hand-grip test, SGA and activities of daily living were similar in vegetarians and non-vegetarians. The present study revealed that HD patients on vegetarian diets might have a smaller BMI, but SGA and function of daily activities were similar to those of the non-vegetarians. The haematocrit of vegetarians can be maintained with a higher erythropoietin dose. © 2011 The Authors. Nephrology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. Maternal nutritional knowledge and child nutritional status in the Volta region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Appoh, Lily Yaa; Krekling, Sturla

    2005-04-01

    The relationship between mother's nutritional knowledge, maternal education, and child nutritional status (weight-for-age) was the subject of investigation in this study. The data were collected in Ghana on 55 well nourished and 55 malnourished mother-child pairs. A questionnaire designed to collect data on mother's knowledge and practices related to child care and nutrition was administered to the mothers. Data on mother's demographic and socio-economic characteristics as well as child anthropometric data were also collected. A nutrition knowledge score was calculated based on mother's responses to the nutrition related items. Bivariate analysis gave significant associations between child nutritional status and the following variables: time of initiating of breastfeeding, mother's knowledge of importance of colostrum and whether colostrum was given to child, age of introduction of supplementary food, and mother's knowledge about causes of kwashiorkor. The two groups also showed significant differences in their nutrition knowledge scores. Maternal formal education, and marital status were also found to be associated with child nutritional status in bivariate analyses. Further analysis with logistic regression revealed that maternal nutrition knowledge was independently associated with nutritional status after the effects of other significant variables were controlled for. Maternal education on the other hand was not found to be independently associated with nutritional status. These results imply that mother's practical knowledge about nutrition may be more important than formal maternal education for child nutrition outcome.

  4. New trends in nutritional status assessment of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, A; De Lorenzo, A; Cadeddu, F; Iacopino, L; Grande, M

    2011-05-01

    Nutritional status assessment and support should be considered a valuable measure within the overall oncology strategy. Despite extensive research in the field of clinical nutrition, definite guidelines to base rational nutritional assessment and support in cancer patients are still debated. This review examines different approaches to nutritional status in cancer patients. The assessment of nutritional status is usually based on anthropometric measures, biochemical or laboratory tests, clinical indicators and dietary assessment. At present, body composition (BC) is rarely measured in the clinical setting because it is thought to be too unmanageable and time-consuming. However, using new technologies, the estimation of fat, lean and body fluids, that is significant in the management of nutrition therapies in oncology, has become easy. The present study evaluates the different methods of nutrition assessment today available, especially body composition (BC) measurements. Furthermore, nutrition assessment, relevance of nutritional support and choice of nutritional strategy, in surgical patients, are discussed. Given the clinical relevance of nutritional intervention in patients' quality of life, the nutritional status assessment has a key role in oncological and surgical practice and should include BC assessment in order to tailor nutritional treatment to patients' individual requirements. Furthermore, administration of the supplemented diet before and after surgery seemed to be the best strategy to reduce complications and length of hospital stay.

  5. Metabolomics for Assessment of Nutritional Status

    PubMed Central

    Zivkovic, Angela M.; German, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review The current rise in diet-related diseases continues to be one of the most significant health problems facing both the developed and the developing world. The use of metabolomics – the accurate and comprehensive measurement of a significant fraction of important metabolites in accessible biological fluids – for the assessment of nutritional status, is a promising way forward. The basic toolset, targets, and knowledge are all being developed in the emerging field of metabolomics, yet important knowledge and technology gaps will need to be addressed in order to bring such assessment to practice. Recent findings Dysregulation within the principal metabolic organs (e.g. intestine, adipose, skeletal muscle, liver) are at the center of a diet-disease paradigm that includes metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. The assessment of both essential nutrient status, and the more comprehensive systemic metabolic response to dietary, lifestyle, and environmental influences (e.g. metabolic phenotype) are necessary for the evaluation of status in individuals that can identify the multiple targets of intervention needed to address metabolic disease. Summary The first proofs of principle building the knowledge to bring actionable metabolic diagnostics to practice through metabolomics are now appearing. PMID:19584717

  6. Nutritional status of elderly Chinese vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Woo, J; Kwok, T; Ho, S C; Sham, A; Lau, E

    1998-07-01

    To study the nutritional status of elderly Chinese vegetarians. Dietary intake (using the 24-h recall method), anthropometric indices and some nutritional laboratory parameters were studied in 131 elderly Chinese vegetarian women with a mean age of 81 years. Data from age- and sex-matched omnivore subjects from previous elderly surveys were used for comparison. Total energy, fat and protein calorie, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin intakes were lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, while carbohydrate calorie, calcium, potassium, retinol equivalent and ascorbic acid intakes were higher. The 25th, 50th and 75th percentile for total body fat were lower and those for corrected arm muscle area were higher in vegetarians. Both urinary Na/Cr and K/Cr ratios were higher but the Na/K ratio was similar to that in non-vegetarians, as were mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Serum total cholesterol was lower, while serum triglyceride concentration was similar. The mean haemoglobin level was lower in vegetarians, the prevalence of anaemia being 30%, with deficiencies in B12 and/or iron accounting for 64% of the anaemia, compared with only 30% in non-vegetarians. Serum B12 concentration below the reference range occurred in 54% of the vegetarian subjects. Vegetarians also had a lower prevalence of a history of ischaemic heart disease; however, the prevalence of smoking was also lower. While the Chinese vegetarian diet may result in a favourable risk-factor profile for ischaemic heart disease, it is deficient in many B vitamins and gives rise to a high frequency of nutritional anaemias.

  7. Nutrition status of children in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Garmendia, M. L.; Jones‐Smith, J.; Lutter, C. K.; Miranda, J. J.; Pedraza, L. S.; Popkin, B. M.; Ramirez‐Zea, M.; Salvo, D.; Stein, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy‐dense, nutrient‐poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence‐based obesity prevention interventions. PMID:28741907

  8. Nutrition status of children in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Corvalán, C; Garmendia, M L; Jones-Smith, J; Lutter, C K; Miranda, J J; Pedraza, L S; Popkin, B M; Ramirez-Zea, M; Salvo, D; Stein, A D

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence-based obesity prevention interventions. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  9. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report, a condensation of a publication titled "Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy," summarizes the effects of normal gestation on certain laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status in an effort to provide the clinician with normative data applicable to healthy pregnant women. The report is divided into six…

  10. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report, a condensation of a publication titled "Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy," summarizes the effects of normal gestation on certain laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status in an effort to provide the clinician with normative data applicable to healthy pregnant women. The report is divided into six…

  11. [Estimation of the students nutritional status in Surgut Pedagogical University].

    PubMed

    Sorokun, I V; Korchina, T Ia

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of the students nutritional status in Surgut State Pedagogical University with the help of the special program "ASPON--nutrition", showed that most of the student' population consumes insufficient quantity of albumens, carbohydrates and vitamins A, E, C and calories. Recommendations for correction of macro- and micronutrients status for the students of the North higher educational institution were developed.

  12. Early-Life Intelligence Predicts Midlife Biological Age.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jonathan D; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2016-11-01

    Early-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deterioration (i.e., individual variation in "biological age"). We examined whether intelligence could predict measures of aging at midlife before the onset of most age-related disease. We tested whether intelligence assessed in early childhood, middle childhood, and midlife predicted midlife biological age in members of the Dunedin Study, a population-representative birth cohort. Lower intelligence predicted more advanced biological age at midlife as captured by perceived facial age, a 10-biomarker algorithm based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Framingham heart age (r = 0.1-0.2). Correlations between intelligence and telomere length were less consistent. The associations between intelligence and biological age were not explained by differences in childhood health or parental socioeconomic status, and intelligence remained a significant predictor of biological age even when intelligence was assessed before Study members began their formal schooling. These results suggest that accelerated aging may serve as one of the factors linking low early-life intelligence to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Immune responsiveness in adult blue tits: heritability and effects of nutritional status during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Råberg, Lars; Stjernman, Martin; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2003-08-01

    What is the relative contribution of genetic and various environmental factors to variation in the ability to mount an immune response? We measured antibody responsiveness to diphtheria-tetanus vaccine during the winter in free-ranging blue tits with a known nestling history to investigate (1) if nutritional status during the nestling stage has persistent effects on an individual's immune defence and (2) if immune responsiveness is heritable. There was no correlation between nutritional status during the nestling phase (measured as size-corrected body mass day 14 post-hatch) and antibody responsiveness as an adult. On the other hand, the heritability of responsiveness to diphtheria and tetanus, as estimated by parent-offspring regression, was 0.21+/-0.51 and 1.21+/-0.40 SE, respectively. Thus, while there was little evidence that natural variation in antibody responsiveness to these antigens reflected nutritional conditions during early life, responsiveness to at least one of the antigens (tetanus) had a strong genetic component.

  14. Evaluation methods on the nutritional status of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Luo, B; Xie, Y; Hu, H-Y; Feng, L; Li, Z-N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of particular tools on the nutritional status of patients with stroke risk factors; to analyze these risk factors; to construct an assessment table; and to enable nurses to conduct fast and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of patients with stroke. Various nutritional assessment tools were employed to assess the nutritional status of stroke patients [(Nutritional Risk Screening 2002, NRS2002); (mini nutritional assessment, MNA), (subjective global assessment SGA), (malnutrition universal screening, MUST); (body composition, BCA)]. The leading disease-related factors of cerebral apoplexy were observed in patients with malnutrition. And a statistical analysis was conducted. The significant risk factors of cerebral apoplexy in malnourished patients older than 70 years were swallowing dysfunctions, disturbance of consciousness and reliance or half-reliance on feeding practices. The significant risk factors of malnutrition in patients with cerebral apoplexy were the decline in upper limb muscle strength, decline in the performance of various activities, loss of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms. Disorders that affect the nutritional status of stroke patients can be used as evaluation tools, as described in the evaluation table. The clinical relevance of this study includes the following: to enable the clinical nursing staff to easily assess the patient's nutritional status in a timely manner; to improve compliance with nutritional evaluation; to provide clinical nutrition support to patients with stroke; and to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of the clinical outcomes of patients with cerebral apoplexy.

  15. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  16. Changes in nutritional status in nursing home residents and associated factors in nutritional status decline: a secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Silvia; Halfens, Ruud J G; Lohrmann, Christa

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in the nutritional status of nursing home residents over a period of 1 year and identify factors associated with a decline in nutritional status. The maintenance of good nutritional status is important for nursing home residents. Therefore, it is essential to identify risk factors that indicate a decline in nutritional status to take early prevention steps. Secondary data analysis of repeated cross-sectional studies. Data collection was performed between 2009-2013 using the International Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems questionnaire. Data from three purposively selected nursing homes that included 157 residents were analysed. The comparison between baseline data and data collected 1 year later showed that the nutritional status declined in 22·8% of the residents and improved in 6·5% of the cases. The body mass index and changes in the body mass index were significantly different between residents with stable/improved and declined nutritional status. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that care dependency, length of stay, changes in body mass index and malnutrition risk at baseline were significantly associated with a decline in nutritional status. This study showed that the baseline risk of malnutrition is the most important risk factor indicating a decline in nutritional status. Therefore, healthcare professionals should identify the malnutrition risk and take action as early as possible. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Nutritional status of Khasi schoolgirls in Meghalaya.

    PubMed

    Agrahar-Murugkar, Dipika

    2005-04-01

    The nutritional status of 222 Khasi girls within age groups 4 to 6 y, 7 to 9 y, and 10 to 12 y was studied. Personal interviews using questionnaires and 24-h dietary recall were used. Weights and heights were recorded, body mass index was calculated, and children were classified as normal or malnourished using Z scores and growth charts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Based on weights and heights, children were classified as normal or undernourished according to classifications by Gomez, Waterlow, and the National Center for Health Statistics. Heights of girls ages 7 to 9 y and 10 to 12 y and weights of all girls were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the reference values for height (126.4 and 142.7 m) and weight (19, 26.9, and 31.5 kg), respectively. The lowest Z scores (-1.5 to -1.0) and percentiles (10th) for body mass index were seen in 12-y-old girls. Most girls ages 7 to 9 y had grade I malnutrition. Girls ages 10 to 12 y had the highest incidence of moderate malnutrition. Severe stunting was observed in all groups. Average energy consumption was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the recommended dietary allowance in all the age groups. Consumption of protein by children ages 7 to 9 y and 10 to 12 y was also significantly lower than the recommended dietary allowance. Consumption of calcium, iron, and carotene in children 10 to 12 y old was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the recommended dietary allowance. Sociologic community factors are required to facilitate implementation of a nutritional package and availability of key nutrients to ensure growth in children.

  18. Precision nutrition - review of methods for point-of-care assessment of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Lee, Seoho; Erickson, David; Mehta, Saurabh

    2017-04-01

    Precision nutrition encompasses prevention and treatment strategies for optimizing health that consider individual variability in diet, lifestyle, environment and genes by accurately determining an individual's nutritional status. This is particularly important as malnutrition now affects a third of the global population, with most of those affected or their care providers having limited means of determining their nutritional status. Similarly, program implementers often have no way of determining the impact or success of their interventions, thus hindering their scale-up. Exciting new developments in the area of point-of-care diagnostics promise to provide improved access to nutritional status assessment, as a first step towards enabling precision nutrition and tailored interventions at both the individual and community levels. In this review, we focus on the current advances in developing portable diagnostics for assessment of nutritional status at point-of-care, along with the numerous design challenges in this process and potential solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Tollman, Stephen M; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier F; Dunger, David B; Kahn, Kathleen

    2011-03-25

    Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritional status. Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival.

  20. Classification of toddler nutritional status using fuzzy inference system (FIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permatasari, Dian; Azizah, Isnaini Nur; Hadiat, Hanifah Latifah; Abadi, Agus Maman

    2017-08-01

    Nutrition is a major health problem and concern for parents when it is relating with their toddler. The nutritional status is an expression of the state caused by the status of the balance between the number of intake of nutrients and the amount needed by the body for a variety of biological functions. The indicators that often used to determine the nutritional status is the combination of Weight (W) and Height (H) symbolized by W/H, because it describe a sensitive and specific nutritional status. This study aims to apply the Fuzzy Inference System Mamdani method to classify the nutritional status of toddler. The inputs are weight and height of the toddler. There are nine rules that used and the output is nutritional status classification consisting of four criteria: stunting, wasting, normal, and overweight. Fuzzy Inference System that be used is Mamdani method and the defuzzification use Centroid Method. The result of this study is compared with Assessment Anthropometric Standard of Toddler Nutritional Status by Ministry of Health. The accuracy level of this fuzzy model is about 84%.

  1. Age at adiposity rebound: determinants and association with nutritional status and the metabolic syndrome at adulthood.

    PubMed

    Péneau, S; González-Carrascosa, R; Gusto, G; Goxe, D; Lantieri, O; Fezeu, L; Hercberg, S; Rolland-Cachera, M F

    2016-07-01

    Early-life growth characteristics and in particular age at adiposity rebound (AR), have been shown to impact nutritional status later in life but studies investigating the association with long-term health remain scarce. Our aims were to identify determinants of age at AR and its relationship with nutritional status and cardiometabolic risk factors at adulthood. A total of 1465 subjects aged 20-60 years participated in this retrospective cohort study. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure were measured at adulthood. Childhood weight, height, gestational age, birth weight and early nutrition were collected retrospectively from health booklets and age at AR was assessed. Participants self-reported parental silhouettes. Associations were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression. An earlier AR was associated with higher body mass index and waist circumference at adulthood in both men and women (P<0.0001). In addition, women with an earlier occurrence of AR had higher triglyceride (P=0.001), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P=0.001), systolic (P=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.04) at adulthood. Both men (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.82 (0.70-0.95)) and women (OR (95% CI): 0.84 (0.73-0.96) with an AR occurring earlier were more likely to develop a metabolic syndrome. Larger parental silhouette was associated with an earlier AR. This long-term study showed that age at AR was associated with nutritional status and metabolic syndrome at adulthood. These results highlight the importance of monitoring childhood growth so as to help identify children at risk of developing an adverse cardiometabolic profile in adulthood. AR determinants for use in overweight surveillance were identified.

  2. Nutritional status of schoolchildren in rural Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarraf, Zahra; Goldberg, Dena; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Arbuckle, Kristen; Salehi, Moosa

    2005-09-01

    The present study compared the nutritional status of schoolchildren from recently settled, ethnic minority tribespeople with those from a Persian village in southern Iran. Height and weight were measured and blood was collected from school children at three time points over 1.5 years. Supplemental Fe was provided to children with low Hb after the first screening. Twenty-one per cent of the children were wasted, 57 % were stunted and 23 % were anaemic. No statistically significant difference in the prevalence of wasting, stunting and anaemia was found between gender or ethnic groups. Children over the age of 12 years had a higher prevalence of wasting than children aged below 12 years. In a sub-sample of forty-one children the average BMI-for-age decreased. Fe supplementation increased Hb levels to normal in most children, but did not increase Fe level in a few children. Dietary deficiency of micronutrients, especially Zn and Fe, probably accounts for the high prevalence of stunting and anaemia in these children. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is another possible explanation for the Fe-deficiency anaemia. Further investigation is in progress to determine the cause(s) of the observed deficiencies.

  3. Influences of maternal nutritional status on vascular function in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Poston, Lucilla

    2007-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction leading to low birthweight is associated with increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and hypertension in later life. Increasingly, it is recognised that cardiovascular risk may also be initiated in early life when the fetus and neonate are exposed to maternal nutritional excess. This review summarises the studies in man and animals that have investigated the potential role of vascular disorders in the aetiology of atherosclerosis and hypertension arising from early life nutritional deprivation or excess. Malfunction of the arterial endothelial cell layer in the offspring has been frequently described in association with both maternal under and overnutritional states and may play a permissive role in the origin of these disorders. Also prevalent is evidence for increased stiffness of the large arteries which may contribute to systolic hypertension. Further investigation is required into the intriguing suggestion that early life nutritional imbalance may adversely influence vascular angiogenesis leading to rarefaction and increased peripheral vascular resistance.

  4. Nutritional status and functional capacity of hospitalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria R M; Fogaça, Kelly C P; Leandro-Merhi, Vânia A

    2009-11-17

    The nutritional status of the aging individual results from a complex interaction between personal and environmental factors. A disease influences and is influenced by the nutritional status and the functional capacity of the individual. We asses the relationship between nutritional status and indicators of functional capacity among recently hospitalized elderly in a general hospital. A cross-sectional study was done with 240 elderly (women, n = 127 and men, n = 113) hospitalized in a hospital that provides care for the public and private healthcare systems. The nutritional status was classified by the MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) into: malnourished, risk of malnutrition and without malnutrition (adequate). The functional autonomy indicators were obtained by the self-reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) and Activity of Daily Living (ADL) questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to compare the proportions and the level of significance was 5%. Among the assessed elderly, 33.8% were classified as adequate regarding nutritional status; 37.1% were classified as being at risk of malnutrition and 29.1% were classified as malnourished. All the IADL and ADL variables assessed were significantly more deteriorated among the malnourished individuals. Among the ADL variables, eating partial (42.9%) or complete (12.9%) dependence was found in more than half of the malnourished elderly, in 13.4% of those at risk of malnutrition and in 2.5% of those without malnutrition. There is an interrelationship between the nutritional status of the elderly and reduced functional capacity.

  5. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival. PMID:21439041

  6. Nutritional status, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Odencrants, Sigrid; Bjuström, Tomas; Wiklund, Nils; Blomberg, Karin

    2013-10-01

    To describe and compare nutritional status, pulmonary function, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a chronic illness that can lead to poor nutritional status due to an increased energy requirements related to laboured breathing. Inadequate nutritional intake has often been described in this patient group. Nutritional support for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who suffer from nutritional problems is essential, both for their sense of well-being and for their survival with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The study design was descriptive and comparative. Quantitative data collection was carried out among 81 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (47 women and 34 men) with an average age of 65 years (SD 3·5). The Mini Nutritional Assessment was used to assess nutritional status. Participants who lived alone had worse nutritional status than those who did not live alone, and female participants had worse nutritional status than their male counterparts. No significant correlation was found between pulmonary function and nutritional status. This study contributes knowledge of a potential correlation between nutritional status, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be at an increased risk of malnutrition. Despite the previous results showing malnutrition and underweight to be common, the present study found that many of the participants were overweight, which may reflect a global health trend regardless of disease. Early identification of patients at risk of malnutrition is important. Registered nurses should be aware that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are female or who live alone may be at an increased risk of nutritional problems. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must be offered information and support

  7. Oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status among inpatients admitted in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Lammel Ricardi, Juliana; Marcadenti, Aline; Perocchin de Souza, Simone; Siviero Ribeiro, Anelise

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is very common in hospitals and inpatients with prescription of oral nutritional supplementation have improvement of the nutritional status. To detect the total acceptance rate and a possible association between oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 398 inpatients. Fifteen types of supplements were analyzed and nutritional status was detected by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Rest-ingestion index (RI) was obtained and Modified Poisson's regression was used to detect associations between nutritional status and intake of nutritional supplements. The prevalence of malnutrition was 43.7% and overall acceptance of supplements was around 75%. Industrialized supplements have better acceptance among well-nourished inpatients and patients who ate less than 80% of the supplement offered (industrialized or homemade) had higher risk for malnutrition (48%). There was an association between oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status, despite the good acceptance rate. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. [Nutritional status and nutritional rehabilitation of elderly people living in long-term care institutions].

    PubMed

    Lelovics, Zsuzsanna

    2009-11-01

    We review our studies on the most important factors related to feeding and nutrition in long-term care institutions, as well as we present the nutritional status of elderly people living in social homes, and, based on our results, we make recommendations concerning nutritional rehabilitation. We aimed to assess the following: nutritional status of people older than sixty years (elderly) living in long-term care institutions; changes in the body mass index of elderly living in long-term care institutions; changes in the nutritional status of elderly living in long-term care institutions during the last half decade; relations and correlations between acute and chronic diseases and nutritional status; the sip feed provision for elderly living in long-term care institutions; relationship between the discovered potential influencing factors and nutritional status screened by Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). We screened the nutritional status of altogether 4774 (men: 28.9-30.9%, women: 69.1-71.19%; mean age: 77.8+/-8.9 years) elderly long-term care residents who volunteered to participate. In 2004 and 2006 the MUST and our questionnaire, in 2008 the nutritionDay questionnaire was used. Risk of malnutrition is high (26.8-77.0%) in elderly residents of social homes. Assessment of nutritional status is done four times a year or even more rarely in 29.5% of the residents. Nutritional status is multifactorial; it is influenced by immobility, fever, etc. Loss of appetite and swallowing difficulties are 2.5-fold, limited mobility, dementia and missing teeth are almost two-fold (1.6-1.7) more frequent in the group of high risk elderly than in the elderly living in social homes. Neurological diseases are in a significant correlation with nutritional status. Incidence of neurological diseases increased significantly in the last years. Nutritional rehabilitation does not end with screening the nutritional status, moreover, it begins with that. Individual diet has to

  9. Is dengue severity related to nutritional status?

    PubMed

    Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Nimmannitya, Suchitra

    2005-03-01

    A retrospective review of dengue patients admitted to Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (previously known as Children's Hospital) from 1995 to 1999 revealed 4,532 confirmed cases of dengue infection; 80.9% were dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 19.1% were dengue fever cases (DF). Among the DHF patients; 30.6% had shock. The majority of them, 66.6%, had a normal nutritional status, while 9.3% were malnourished and 24.2% had obesity as classified by weight for age. Compared with control patients with other diagnoses (excluding HIV/AIDS patients), malnourished children had a lower risk of contracting dengue infection (odds ratio = 0.48, 95% Cl = 0.39-0.60, p = 0.000) while obese children had a greater risk of infection with dengue viruses (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% Cl = 1.55-2.5, p = 0.000). The clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory findings of dengue were almost the same among the 3 groups of malnourished, normal, and obese patients. The minor differences observed were that in obese children liver enlargement was found less often; maculopapular/convalescence rash and elevations of alanine aminotransferase were found more often. Malnourished patients had a higher risk of developing shock (37.8%) than normal (29.9%) and obese patients (30.2%) (p = 0.000). Obese patients had more unusual presentations: encephalopathy (1.3%) and associated infections (4.8%), than normal (0.5% and 2.7%) and malnourished patients (1.2% and 3.1%). Complications of fluid overload were found more in obese patients (6.5%) compared to normal (3.2%) and malnourished patients (2.1%) (p = 0.000). The case-fatality rates (CFR) in malnourished patients and obese patients were 0.5% and 0.4%, respectively, while in normal patients the CFR was 0.07%. Under and over nutrition DHF patients had either a greater risk of shock or unusual presentations and complications, which can lead to severe disease or complications and probably a higher CFR.

  10. [Nutritional status of old patients on programmed hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Revkovskaia, N S; Denisov, A Iu; Borisov, I A

    2008-01-01

    To study nutritional status of old patients on programmed hemodialysis. A total of 82 patients aged 60-88 years were divided into two groups by age: group 1 (n = 41) consisted of 60-75 year-olds, group 2 (n = 41) included 76-year-olds and older. The nutritional status (NS) was assessed by anthropometric and laboratory data, a prognostic hypotrophy index. In group 1 NS was normal in 65.9% patients while in group 2--only in 29.2%. Older patients had obesity in 21.9% cases. It is shown that two thirds of presenile and senile patients have abnormal nutritional status. Taking into consideration the fact that protein-energy insufficiency is an unfavourable factor affecting the patients'survival, old patients need a special control of nutritional status and its early correction.

  11. The Status of Child Nutrition Programs in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Daniel C.; Vigil, Herminia J.

    This report provides descriptive and statistical data on the status of child nutrition programs in Colorado. The report contains descriptions of the National School Lunch Program, school breakfast programs, the Special Milk Program, the Summer Food Service Program, the Nutrition Education and Training Program, state dietary guidelines, Colorado…

  12. Nutritional status, psychological issues and survival in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Scott D; Kimmel, Paul L

    2007-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition in the end-stage renal disease population. There are a number of causes of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients, which can often be directly linked to the uremic state. Laboratory measures including albumin, prealbumin, and serum cholesterol, as well as anthropometric measures, have been used to assess malnutrition in this patient population. There is, however, no single accepted measure of malnutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease. Failure to achieve adequate nutritional goals may lead to protein-energy malnutrition, which has been linked to decreased survival. Several studies have also shown a direct association between psychosocial variables, including depression, and the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients, in particular the serum albumin concentration. Interventions such as oral nutritional supplements or intradialytic parenteral nutrition may be necessary to improve nutritional status if conservative measures such as nutritional counseling and regular dietician follow-up fail to produce the changes needed to sustain health. In addition, given the potential link between psychological conditions, such as depression, and overall nutritional status, interventions designed to screen for and treat psychiatric disorders may lead to improvements in nutritional status and therefore increased survival rates of patients with end-stage renal disease treated with hemodialysis. Further study is needed to evaluate the association between depression, malnutrition, and survival in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  13. [Organization of nutrition and nutritional status in major jobs workers engaged in gas-processing industry].

    PubMed

    Beĭlin, S M; Fateeva, T A

    2009-01-01

    The workers of gas-processing industry are exposed to a complex of industrial factors throughout their labor activity. Curative diet is in full measure unable to neutralize reactants and to optimize metabolic processes so there is a need for warranting, designing, and introducing a functional diet. The nutrition of major jobs workers engaged in gas-processing industry is inadequate, improper, and unbalanced, which leads to an excess nutritional status in the majority of workers. It is necessary to develop a functional nutrition concept that makes it possible to correct the intake of essential nutrients and to normalize the nutritional status of the workers, by including functional foods into their diet.

  14. Food intake and nutritional status of hospitalised older people.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques; Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida

    2011-09-01

    Disease is influenced by the nutritional status of the individual. We have assessed the relationship between nutritional status and food intake among recently hospitalised older people. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 240 older people in a hospital that provides care for the public and private healthcare systems. Nutritional status was classified by the MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) into: malnourished, risk of malnutrition and without malnutrition. Food intake was estimated by the reported food intake during a typical day. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the medians and the correlation coefficient of Spearman to verify the relationship between the consumption of energy, protein and vitamin C and MNA scores. 33.8% were classified as adequate regarding nutritional status; 37.1% were classified as being at risk of malnutrition and 29.1% were classified as malnourished. The malnourished individuals reported significantly less energy and nutrient intake than those at risk of malnutrition or those without malnutrition (P = 0.001). Not all nutrient intake, just some (iron, cholesterol and fibre), were lower in malnourished people. Deterioration of the nutritional status of older people is accompanied by a reduction in energy and some nutrient intake. The investigation of food intake in older people could provide important information about nutritional risk. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. [NUTRITIONAL STATUS ASSESSMENT IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS].

    PubMed

    Lambe, Cécile; Mallet, Pascale; Bailly, Céline; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    Prognosis of cystic fibrosis has been largely modified over the past 30 years. Optimization of nutrition is one of the most important contributing factors of this improvement. Nutritional defect result from the conjunction of loss of calories, maldigestion, hypercatabolism and insufficient intake. Pancreatic opotherapy and ADEK vitamin administration is mandatory in pancreatic insufficient patients. Nutritional status must be evaluated at each clinics to detect nutritional defect as early as possible. Nutritional intake must be hypercaloric, normalipidic and adapted to the tastes of the patient. The clinician must be aware of at risk nutritional period: first year of life, puberty, infectious exacerbation, respiratory worsening and diabetes, In neonatal screened babies, recovery of birth weight percentile must be targeted at 6 months, and for the height must be in accordance to genetic height at 2 years. In all cases it is mandatory to treat denutrition by oral supplementation and if necessay enteral nutrition.

  16. The influence of early-life conditions on cardiovascular disease later in life among ethnic minority populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bijker, Rimke; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The reasons for the high prevalence of CVD in ethnic minority groups are not fully understood. Recently, the importance of early-life developmental factors and their impact on CVDs in adulthood is increasingly being recognised, but little is known about this among ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the current paper aimed to fill this knowledge gap by reviewing the available literature to assess the influence of early-life conditions on CVDs and its risk factors in ethnic minority populations residing in Western countries. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE between 1989 and 2014. In total, 1418 studies were identified of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Six studies investigated the relationship between early-life anthropometrics and CVD risk factors of which all except one found significant associations between the assessed anthropometric measures and CVD risk factors. Seven studies evaluated the influence of childhood socio-economic status (SES) on CVD and risk factors of which five found significant associations between childhood SES measures and CVD risk factors. Five studies investigated the relationship between other early-life conditions including early-life nutrition, physical development, and childhood psychosocial conditions, and CVD risk factors. Four of these studies found significant associations between the assessed childhood conditions and CVD risk factors. This review reinforces the importance of early-life conditions on adult CVD in ethnic minority groups. Improvement of early-life conditions among ethnic minority groups may contribute to reducing CVD risk in these populations.

  17. Iodine nutritional status in Uttarakhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Neha; Kapil, Umesh; Nambiar, Vanisha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Khenduja, Preetika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Uttarakhand (UK) state is a known endemic region to iodine deficiency (ID). Objective: To assess the current status of iodine nutrition in a population of UK. Methodology: Three districts, namely Udham Singh Nagar (USN), Nainital (N), and Pauri Garhwal (PG) were selected. In each district, 30 clusters were identified by utilizing the population proportional to size cluster sampling methodology. Total of 6143 school age children (SAC) (USN; 1807, N; 2269, PG: 2067), 5430 adolescent girls (AGs) (USN; 1823, N; 1811, PG: 1796), 1727 pregnant mothers (PMs) (USN; 632, N; 614, PG: 481), and 2013 Neonates (USN; 649, N; 670, PG: 694), were included in the study. Clinical examination of thyroid of each child, AG and PM was conducted. Spot urine and salt samples were collected from children, AGs and PMs. Cord blood samples were collected from neonates for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Results: In SAC, total goiter rate (TGR) was 13.2% (USN), 15.9% (N), and 16.8% (PG). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level was 150 μg/l (USN), 125 μg/l (N), and 115 μg/l (PG). In AGs, TGR was 6.8% (USN), 8.2% (N) and 5.6% (PG). Median UIC level was 250 μg/l (USN), 200 μg/l (N), and 183 μg/l (PG). In PMs, TGR was 16.1% (USN), 20.2% (N), and 24.9% (PG). Median UIC level was 124 μg/l (USN), 117.5 μg/l (N) and 110 μg/l (PG), respectively. In Neonates, TSH levels of >5 mIU/L were found in 55.3 (USN), 76.4 (N) and 72.8 (PG) percent of neonates. Conclusion: UIC level in PMs and TSH levels among neonates indicate the prevalence of ID in three districts surveyed. PMID:27042411

  18. [Nutritional status of elderly surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Damuleviciene, Gyte; Lesauskaite, Vita; Macijauskiene, Jūrate

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status of aged surgical patients, to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and factors associated with it. A total of 156 patients aged 45 years and more, treated at the Departments of Surgery and Urology of Kaunas 2nd Clinical Hospital, were enrolled in the study. Elderly group (aged 65 years and more) consisted of 99 patients, and middle-aged group (45 to 64 years old) of 57 patients. The following anthropometric measurements were performed: weight, height, mid-arm circumference; hemoglobin, serum albumin level, and total lymphocyte count were determined. Standard assessment scales included Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Mini Mental State Exam. Statistical analysis was performed with the help of SPSS 12.0. Malnutrition was diagnosed in 53.5% of older patients and in 15.8% of middle-aged patients (P<0.05). Obesity was diagnosed in 32.3% of elderly patients and in 40.4% of middle-aged patients (P<0.05). Among men, obese patients made up 20%, among women - 54.4% (P<0.05). Malnutrition was more prevalent among elderly patients who underwent urgent operations than in patients who underwent planned operations (69.6% and 34.1%, respectively; P<0.05) and among elderly patients with impaired cognitive functions than among those without impaired cognitive functions (in 100% of patients with medium impaired cognitive function, in 59.3% of patients with mild impaired cognitive function, and in 44.4% of patients with unimpaired cognitive function, P<0.05). Malnourished elderly patients had lower functional level than the remaining (IADL score of 3.97 and 4.75 for men, 5.38 and 6.89 for women, respectively; P<0.05). The prevalence of malnutrition did not differ significantly in the groups of older patients with depression, probable depression and not depressed patients - 75.0%, 57.7%, and 46.7%, respectively (P>0.05). Malnutrition was diagnosed more frequently in elderly surgical

  19. Nutritional status and gastrointestinal symptoms in systemic sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Frech, Tracy M

    2013-02-01

    Gastrointestinal manifestations in systemic sclerosis (SSc) can influence the nutritional status of patients. Our objective was to examine whether nutritional status was associated with symptoms captured by the University of California Los Angeles Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract Questionnaire (GIT 2.0). A series of 24 University of Utah SSc Center patients were assessed using the MUST, SGA, and GIT 2.0. A single evaluator administered the nutrition assessment and gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire. Nine patients were assessed at moderate to high risk of malnutrition using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and 12 patients with moderate to severe malnutrition using Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Neither MUST nor SGA status was associated with duration of disease. Soilage, social function and emotional subscores were associated with SGA nutritional status. Clinically significant differences in Total GIT 2.0 score, reflux, distention/bloating, soilage, diarrhea, social function and emotional well-being were observed across levels of nutritional status. Clinically significant differences in gastrointestinal tract symptoms were observed across levels of nutritional status in patients with varying severity of SSc. These two clinically utilized tools, the SGA and the GIT 2.0, appear to be complementary in the evaluation of SSc patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Nutritional status in the healthy longeval population from Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Buffa, R; Floris, G; Lodde, M; Cotza, M; Marini, E

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sex- and age-related variations of the nutritional status in the aged population of central Sardinia, a geographical area with a high frequency of long-lived people, particularly men. The sample consisted of 200 subjects over 70 years of age (men: N= 100, age= 81.0 +/- 7.0 years; women: N= 100, age= 81.5 +/- 7.3 years). Orroli (central Sardinia, Italy). Mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) were used to evaluate nutritional status and body composition. The indicators revealed a generally good nutritional status. The MNA results (men: 24.6 +/- 2.2; women: 23.4 +/- 2.5) showed that 64.1% of the subjects had a normal nutritional status and only a small proportion (1.2%) could be classified as malnourished. BIVA showed that most subjects (74.2%) were normal, while the prevalence of low body cell mass was 10.7% and that of dehydration 11.2%. According to the MNA, the nutritional status was significantly better in the men. Almost three-quarters of the men (73.1%) were well nourished vs. half of the women (50.6%). A worsening of the nutritional status with age was observed. The proportion of malnourished individuals, as assessed by MNA, increased from 0% to 9.1% from 70-79 to > 90 years. With respect to their contemporaries from other regions, the elderly of Orroli presented a better nutritional status, a similar worsening with age and generally higher sexual dimorphism.

  1. Nutritional status of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks.

    PubMed

    Harland, B F; Peterson, M

    1978-03-01

    The nutritional status of members of a lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist community was studied. Body weights and heights were normal. An analysis of four weeks' menus showed that, for the most part, sufficient nutrients were provided. A 24-hr. dietary recall revealed that a number of the subjects had low intakes of some nutrients, particularly the B-vitamins and calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. Improvement in the nutritional intakes and resulting nutritional status of the men must rely on an availability of accurate educational materials and each individual's determination to gain the knowledge needed to make a wiser selection of food.

  2. [Quality of life questionnaire related to nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, C; Martín-Rodero, H; Guardiola-Wanden-Berghe, R; Sanz-Valero, J; Galindo-Villardón, P

    2012-01-01

    To build and validate an instrument to measure the perceived quality of life in the nutritional status. By focal groups and interviews with nutrition experts, the dimensions with greater affectation were identified. After the judge test, the CaVEN questionnaire was defined. For its valuation a multicentric study was performed, participating 7 Spanish hospitals. The internal structure of the questionnaire was evaluated by explanatory factorial analysis. Reliability was tested using the Cronbach α coefficient and the validity of the criteria with the nutritional Gold Standards. A questionnaire of 26 items with 6 health dimensions was built. It was applied to 68 patients that were valued in the Nutrition Units. The test KMO was 0.756, showing a good accuracy in the Factorial Analysis. The existence of principal dimension of inertia was found (Bartlett p < 0.01). The 6 dimensions showed an accumulative variance of 77.670. It was observed a direct relationship in the Subjective Global Valuation and CaVEN (p < 0.01) and with the "Mini Nutritional Assessment Short" (p = 0.02), which was interpreted as the greater affectation of the nutritional status, the lower the quality of life detected by the CaVEN. The CaVEN questionnaire has proved a useful tool for assessing the quality of life related to nutritional status, even in groups with little nutritional alterations.

  3. Nutritional status, brain network organization, and general intelligence.

    PubMed

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K; Talukdar, M Tanveer; Zwilling, Chris E; Barbey, Aron K

    2017-08-15

    The high energy demands of the brain underscore the importance of nutrition in maintaining brain health and further indicate that aspects of nutrition may optimize brain health, in turn enhancing cognitive performance. General intelligence represents a critical cognitive ability that has been well characterized by cognitive neuroscientists and psychologists alike, but the extent to which a driver of brain health, namely nutritional status, impacts the neural mechanisms that underlie general intelligence is not understood. This study therefore examined the relationship between the intrinsic connectivity networks supporting general intelligence and nutritional status, focusing on nutrients known to impact the metabolic processes that drive brain function. We measured general intelligence, favorable connective architecture of seven intrinsic connectivity networks, and seventeen plasma phospholipid monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids in a sample of 99 healthy, older adults. A mediation analysis was implemented to investigate the relationship between empirically derived patterns of fatty acids, general intelligence, and underlying intrinsic connectivity networks. The mediation analysis revealed that small world propensity within one intrinsic connectivity network supporting general intelligence, the dorsal attention network, was promoted by a pattern of monounsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that the efficiency of functional organization within a core network underlying general intelligence is influenced by nutritional status. This report provides a novel connection between nutritional status and functional network efficiency, and further supports the promise and utility of functional connectivity metrics in studying the impact of nutrition on cognitive and brain health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Nutritional status and physical condition of adolescent football players after consuming fishmeal as a nutritional complement].

    PubMed

    Accinelli-Tanaka, Roberto; López-Oropeza, Lidia

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study is to identify the changes in the nutritional parameters and the physical condition of teenage players after eating fishmeal as a nutritional complement. For this purpose, a quasi-experimental study, blinded for investigators, was conducted, involving 100 teenage football players, divided in two groups, homogeneous in terms of all study parameters, one of which received fishmeal for four months. After evaluating the nutritional status and physical condition, before and after the intervention, no change was found in the nutritional and anthropometric status or laboratory results, or in the physical condition. However, those who received fishmeal did report a change in their hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in comparison to the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of fishmeal did not lead to changes in the nutritional status or the physical condition of teenage football players.

  5. The effect of a nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa; Rodriguez, Claudia; Lumbi, Laura; Ailinger, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-based nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls and the nutritional knowledge of their mothers. Self-care deficit nursing theory was used in this study. This longitudinal study used a mixed quantitative/qualitative design to study the effect of the nutrition education program. The nonprobability sample consisted of 182 adolescent girls and 67 of their mothers. The setting for the study was a community (barrio) in Managua, Nicaragua. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENT: A team of nurse and nutrition researchers created the nutrition education program designed to improve girls' and mother's nutrition-related self-care operations. Data collection was carried out for 4 years for girls and 2 years for mothers in Managua, Nicaragua, using questionnaires, a HemoCue, and anthropometric measures. The findings of this study were that girls' and mothers' nutritional knowledge scores significantly improved in most cases after participation in the nutrition intervention program. Girls' hemoglobin levels did not significantly improve and their nutritional status findings were mixed. Girls and mothers described what dietary changes girls made and why.

  6. Nutritional Status and Diet in Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Bail, Jennifer; Meneses, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    To discuss the relationship between weight management and diet and cancer prevention, current nutritional guidelines, and evidence-based strategies to reduce cancer risk. Current nutritional guidelines, journal articles published between 2012 and 2015, and internet resources. Evidence indicates that attaining and/or maintaining a healthy weight and adopting a diet that is primarily plant-based, low in red and processed meats, simple sugars, and refined carbohydrates, limits alcohol, and relies on food for nutrients can aid in preventing cancer. Nurses can take the lead to educate patients and families about weight management and diet and to promote adherence to nutritional guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between neonatal developmental status and post-natal nutritional status in Hungarian children.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Kalman; Molnar, Denes; Gyenis, Gyula; Zsakai, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal development may have an influence on post-natal nutritional status. Age at adiposity rebound is critical for later development of nutritional status. The objective was to analyse the relationship between neonatal development and post-natal changes in nutritional status. Subjects were studied in a longitudinal national survey (1980-2001) from birth (n = 6219) to 18.0 years (n = 1448). Subjects were divided into small (SGA), appropriate (AGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) sub-groups. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI. The Reed-Asefa model was fitted to the subject's serial data of BMI. The body parameters of the neonatal developmental sub-groups differed significantly in all studied neonatal body dimensions: the higher the intra-uterine growth rate (the slowest growth rate was assumed in the SGA, the fastest in the LGA children), the heavier the body weight, the longer the length and the bigger the BMI values found. The nutritional status of the neonatal developmental sub-groups differed significantly during the studied post-natal interval: the higher the pre-natal growth rate, the better nutritional status (the larger BMI) was found after birth. Neonatal development influenced strongly the post-natal nutritional status of children. The results indicate that not only age at adiposity rebound but also neonatal developmental status can be used as an indicator of later obesity.

  8. Nutritional status and nutritional management in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Edward P T; Sullivan, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Malnutrition is often seen at the point of diagnosis in childhood malignancy or may develop during the course of treatment. Strategies for optimal diagnosis and management of nutritional problems in children with cancer are limited in the published literature. Identification of children who may be malnourished or at nutritional risk can be achieved through improved approaches for risk stratification and classification. Once recognised, various strategies have been demonstrated to reduce malnutrition, minimise side effects of treatment and improve survival. Novel approaches in vivo and adult oncology populations provide future avenues for investigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Verbal memory and search speed in early midlife are associated with mortality over 25 years' follow-up, independently of health status and early life factors: a British birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel; Cooper, Rachel; Terrera, Graciela Muniz; Hardy, Rebecca; Richards, Marcus; Kuh, Diana

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive capabilities in childhood and in late life are inversely associated with mortality rates. However, it is unclear if adult cognition, at a time still relatively free from comorbidity, is associated with subsequent mortality, and whether this explains the associations of early life factors with adult mortality. We used data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a birth cohort study prospectively assessing 5362 participants born in 1946. The present analysis includes participants followed up from age 43 and undergoing cognitive assessment (verbal memory and search speed). Mortality outcomes were notified through linkage with a national register. Cox regression was used to estimate mortality hazards in relation to cognitive performance at age 43, adjusting for early life factors, socioeconomic position and health status. Data were available on 3192 individuals. Univariable analyses indicated that adult verbal memory and search speed, parental factors, childhood cognition and educational attainment were associated with mortality. However, multivariable models showed that the mortality associations with earlier life factors were explained by adult cognitive capability. A standard deviation increase in verbal memory and search speed scores was associated with lower mortality rates [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.97, P = 0.02; HR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00, P = 0.05, respectively), after adjustment for adult health. Cognitive capability in early midlife was inversely associated with mortality rates over 25 years and accounted for the associations of family background, childhood cognitive ability and educational attainment with mortality. These findings, in a nationally representative cohort with long-term follow-up, suggest that building cognitive reserve may improve later life health and survival chances. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological

  10. Nutritional status of endurance athletes: what is the available information?

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Júlia A D; Da Costa, Teresa H M

    2005-03-01

    Nutritional status is a critical determinant of athletic performance. We question whether currently available studies can give adequate information on nutritional status of endurance athletes. This paper is a critical review of articles published from 1989 to 2003 that investigate nutritional status of endurance athletes. The terms, "nutrition", "diet", or "nutrient", were combined with "endurance athletes" to perform Medline and Pubmed electronic database searches. Two inclusion criteria were considered: (a) study subjects should be adults and (b) articles should report gender-specific values for total energy expenditure and intake of energy, macro and micronutrient from food. Only seven studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. In general, the conclusions of these studies are that endurance athletes have negative energy balance, low intake of carbohydrate, adequate to high intake of protein, and high intake of fat. A critical discussion of the articles' data on vitamins, minerals and trace elements adequacy is conducted using insights and methodology proposed by the newly published assessment and interpretation of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). The studies evaluated give an inappropriate evaluation of the prevalence of adequacy/inadequacy of micronutrient intake among endurance athletes. In this work we indicate potential limitations of existing nutritional data, which reflects the misconceptions found in published literature on nutritional group evaluation. This review stresses the need for a comprehensive and well-conducted nutrition assessment planning to fulfill the existing gap in reliable information about micronutrient adequacy of endurance athletes.

  11. Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environments.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2009-12-01

    A major question in the biology of stress and environmental adaptation concerns the neurobiological basis of how neuroendocrine systems governing physiological regulatory mechanisms essential for life (metabolism, immune response, organ function) become harmful. The current view is that a switch from protection to damage occurs when vulnerable phenotypes are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In accordance with this theory, sequelae of early life social and environmental stressors, such as childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and poor nutrition, have been associated with the emergence of mental and physical illness (i.e., anxiety, mood disorders, poor impulse control, psychosis, and drug abuse) and an increased risk of common metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Evidence from animal and human studies investigating the associations between early life experiences (including parent-infant bonding), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, brain development, and health outcome provide important clues into the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of stressful experiences to personality development and the manifestation of illness. This review summarizes our current molecular understanding of how early environment influences brain development in a manner that persists through life and highlights recent evidence from rodent studies suggesting that maternal care in the first week of postnatal life establishes diverse and stable phenotypes in the offspring through epigenetic modification of genes expressed in the brain that shape neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responsivity throughout life.

  12. [Assessment of sociodemographic and nutritional status of lung cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Zabłocka, Katarzyna; Krawczyszyn, Monika; Pieczyńska, Joanna; Prescha, Anna; Ilow, Rafał; Porebska, Irena; Gołecki, Marcin; Kosacka, Monika; Jankowska, Renata; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2011-01-01

    Low sociodemographic status positively correlates with the risk of lung cancer. Nutritional status assessed during diagnosis of cancer may be a useful predictive factor for response to therapy and influences the quality of life and life expectancy after oncological therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and nutritional status of patients. Lower Silesian Centre of Lung Diseases, diagnosed with lung cancer. 81 cases and 125 subjects formed the control group were included in this study. The questionnaire about sociodemographic status was performed among all respondents as well as MNA questionnaire and anthropometric measurements for evaluating nutritional status. Lower level of education, lower employment status and more frequent tobacco addiction was found in patient group then in control individuals. Nutritional status of patients was worse than the control group, which has been demonstrated mainly through a MNA questionnaire and arm circumference measurements. The risk of malnutrition or diagnosed malnutrition found in most patients assessed by MNA test may increase the likelihood of complications during treatment.

  13. Effect of nutritional status on Tuberculin skin testing.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Roi; Cilleruelo, María José; García-Hortelano, Milagros; García-Ascaso, Marta; Medina-Claros, Antonio; Mellado, María José

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate Tuberculin skin test (TST) results in a population of immigrants and internationally adopted children from several geographical areas; to analyze whether nutritional status can modify TST results. This cross-sectional observational study included adopted children and immigrants evaluated in the authors' unit between January 2003 and December 2008. Children diagnosed with tuberculosis, or vaccinated with live attenuated virus 2 mo earlier, HIV-infected, chronically ill or under treatment with immunosuppressive agents were excluded. TST was considered as dependent variable. Independent variables were gender, age, geographical origin, BCG scar, nutritional status, immune status and intestinal parasitism. One thousand seventy four children were included; 69.6 % were girls. There was a BCG scar in 79 % of children. Mantoux = 0 mm was found in 84.4 %, <10 mm in 4.1 %, and ≥10 mm in 11.4 % of children. Nutrition (McLaren's classification) was normal (≥90 %) in 26.7 % of the subjects, with mild malnutrition (80-89 %) in 36 %, moderate (70-79 %) in 23.2 % and severe (≤69 %) in 14.1 %. There was no difference in TST results among different nutritional status children. The nutritional status, measured by McLaren's classification, does not changes the results of TST. McLaren's classification only grades protein-caloric malnutrition, so in authors' experience this type of malnutrition does not interfere with TST results. Implementing other nutritional parameters could help to determine whether nutritional status should be taken into account when interpreting TST results.

  14. [Self perception of nutritional status among adults in Santiago].

    PubMed

    Atalah, Eduardo; Urteaga, Carmen; Rebolledo, Annabella

    2004-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing in Chile. The personal perception about the own nutritional status is associated to the risk of obesity. To analyze the personal perception about their nutritional status among adults living in Santiago and to compare it to the objective diagnosis obtained according to Chilean Health Ministry norms. The body image was explored in 735 people between the ages of 20 and 90. The weight and height were obtained under standard conditions, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated (kg/m2) and classified according to the criteria of the Health Ministry. The concordance and Kappa index between both criteria in function of age, gender, nutritional status and height were analyzed. The model that best explained the weight subestimation was determined with multivariate logistic regressions. Fifty two percent of subjects classified correctly their nutritional status, 30% subestimated, and 18% overstimated the nutritional status (Kappa 0.27). The multivariate analysis showed greater subestimation in obese (OR 5.8 95% IC 4.2- 7.9), in men (OR 4.5 95% IC 2.7-7.3), people younger than 60 years old (OR 2.0 95% IC 1.3-3.1) and people of small stature (OR 3.1 95% IC 1.9-4.9). Half of the studied subjects had an inadequate perception of the body image. Educative campaigns are needed to reinforce the concept of adequate weight. This may contribute to promote health and reduce the risk of obesity.

  15. Nutritional status and intrarenal resistive indices after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kolonko, A; Chudek, J; Kujawa-Szewieczek, A; Wiȩcek, A

    2013-05-01

    Obesity predicts vascular stiffness, which is prevalent among kidney transplant patients. However, the influence of obesity has not been established on parameters of renal vascular resistance variation. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of nutritional status on intrarenal resistive parameters as measured in the early period after successful kidney transplantation by Doppler ultrasound. Both pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) in the kidney graft were measured by Doppler sonography twice: at 2 to 4 days and before hospital discharge (mean 22 days; 95% confidence interval 21-23) after transplantation. Nutritional status was scored according to World Health Organization criteria. Among 513 patients, 29 were underweight; 280, normal; 166, overweight; and 38, obese. Both PI and RI values were significantly increased consistent with recipient nutritional status (analysis of variance: P < .001). Post hoc analysis showed significant differences in PI and RI measurements for obese versus underweight or normal weight groups. Multivariate analysis revealed an influence of body mass index on PI and RI measurements before hospital discharge to be independent of other variables, including recipient age, prior delayed graft function and cold ischemia time. Excessive nutritional status was associated with increased renal vascular resistance among kidney transplant patients. Nutritional status should be considered for the proper interpretation of intrarenal Doppler measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of quality of life related to nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Castelló-Botia, Isabel; Guardiola-Wanden-Berghe, Rocio

    2009-04-01

    The way in which the quality of life related to health (HRQoL) is affected by the nutritional status of the patient is a subject of constant interest and permanent debate. The purpose of the present paper is to review those studies that relate HRQoL to nutritional status and examine the tools (questionnaires) that they use to investigate this relationship. A critical review of published studies was carried out via an investigation of the following databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed); EMBASE; The Cochrane Library; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science; Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS); Spanish Health Sciences Bibliographic Index (IBECS). The search was carried out from the earliest date possible until July 2007.The medical subject heading terms used were 'quality of life', 'nutritional status' and 'questionnaires'. The articles had to contain at least one questionnaire that evaluated quality of life. Twenty-eight documents fulfilling the inclusion criteria were accepted, although none of them used a specific questionnaire to evaluate HRQoL related to nutritional status. However, some of them used a combination of generic questionnaires with the intention of evaluating the same. Only three studies selectively addressed the relationship between nutritional status and quality of life, this evaluation being performed not by means of specific questionnaires but by statistical analysis of data obtained via validated questionnaires.

  17. [Frailty in the elderly and nutritional status according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-García, Nadia Belén; Gómez-Lomelí, Zoila Margarita; Leal-Mora, David; Loreto-Garibay, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    The aging process involves psychosocial and physiological changes, which modify the nutritional status in the elderly. The objective was to assess the nutritional status of a group of elderly patients using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and the Fried frailty index, as well as the relation between both. From June to July, 2013, we carried out a cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling of 146 patients of both sexes, from the Hospital Civil "Fray Antonio Alcalde", in Guadalajara, México. We applied the MNA and the Fried frailty index. The mean age was 81.7 years (±7.65). One hundred and six patients (72.6%) were females, and 40 were males (27.4%). Basic anthropometric data showed that the mean weight was 57.67 kg (±13.7), with a mean of 1.52 (±0.09) meters in size; body mass index was 24.85 (±5.32) kg/m2. The results showed that 14.1% of patients with a normal nutritional status suffered from frailty, while 42.1% had risk of malnutrition and frailty. Frailty in the elderly is still present even if they have a normal nutritional status; when the nutritional status decreases, there is a higher prevalence of frailty in this age group.

  18. Neurological complications post-liver transplantation: impact of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Bemeur, Chantal

    2013-06-01

    Nutritional status is significantly altered in patients with end-stage liver disease (cirrhosis). Malnutrition is a common complication of cirrhosis and is known to be associated with a greater risk of post-operative complications and mortality, especially following liver transplantation. Neurological complications occur frequently after transplant and the nature and extent of these complications may relate to nutritional deficits such as protein-calorie malnutrition as well as vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies. A consensus document from the International Society on Hepatic Encephalopathy and Nitrogen metabolism (ISHEN) has been established in order to address these concerns. Careful assessment of nutritional status followed by prompt treatment of nutritional deficits has the potential to impact on transplant outcome and, in particular, on post-transplant neurological disorders in patients with cirrhosis.

  19. Nutrition education for care staff and possible effects on nutritional status in residents of sheltered accommodation.

    PubMed

    Faxén-Irving, G; Andrén-Olsson, B; Geijerstam, A; Basun, H; Cederholm, T

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the nutritional, cognitive and functional status in residents of two service-flat (SF) complexes and the effects of a nutrition education programme for care staff. Controlled nonrandomised study. Two SF complexes, that is community-assisted accommodation. Of 115 eligible SF residents, 80 subjects participated (age 83+/-7 y, 70% women). The nutritional status was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), subjective global assessment (SGA), serum concentrations of albumin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and vitamin B(12). Cognitive and functional status were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, 0-30 points, <24 points indicates impaired cognition) and the Katz activities of daily living (ADL) index, respectively. Two assessments were made with a 5-month interval. At the start, a 12-h education programme was given to the staff at one of the SF complexes. At baseline, the means of BMI and the biochemical nutritional indices were normal, whereas one-third had BMI <22 kg/m(2) and one-fourth had lost > or =10% of previous weight. According to SGA, 30% demonstrated possible or serious malnutrition. The median MMSE was 23 points (19.5-26.5, 25-75th percentile). Nearly 70% were ADL-independent. At the 5-month follow-up there were no differences in the nutritional and cognitive status of the residents. The nutritional knowledge of the staff improved slightly (P<0.05) at both SF complexes (NS between groups). Around one-third of SF residents appeared to be at nutritional risk. Five months after a 12-h staff nutrition education programme, no objective changes were seen in the nutritional status of the SF residents.

  20. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke.

    PubMed

    Brynningsen, P K; Damsgaard, E M S; Husted, S E

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have focused on the late rehabilitation phase after stroke in the patients own home, where the attention on nutrition may be reduced. To determine the prevalence of malnutrition during 6 months of stroke rehabilitation, and to investigate the association between nutritional status, functional recovery, length of stay in hospital and infectious complications. 89 patients with ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit had their nutritional status evaluated in the hospital at 1 week and 5 weeks after stroke, and in their own home at 3 months and 6 months. Nutritional status was evaluated by body weight, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and serum concentrations of albumin and transferrin. Malnutrition was defined if the patients had 2 or more abnormal nutritional variables. We found a significant increase in albumin from 1 week to 6 months (P < 0.0001), and a significant increase in transferrin form 5 weeks to 6 months (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in weight or BMI from 1 week to 6 months. The number of patients with 2 or more abnormal nutritional variables was 31 (35 %) at 1 week and was reduced to 20 (22 %) at 6 months. 35 % of elderly patients with ischemic stroke admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit were malnourished 1 week after stroke. Particularly serum proteins and body fat were affected. Follow-up of nutritional variables showed improvement for serum proteins, and 22 % of the patients were malnourished 6 months after stroke.

  1. Standardized phase angle indicates nutritional status in hospitalized preoperative patients.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Thiane R; Wazlawik, Elisabeth; Bastos, João Luiz; Nakazora, Lívia M; Scheunemann, Lisiane

    2010-09-01

    There is currently no criterion standard to assess nutritional status, and different methods have been used in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement and the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis derived by standardized phase angle (SPA) and other methods used for the nutritional assessment of body composition, metabolic status, and functional status in surgical patients. The hypothesis was that the SPA is effective for evaluating nutritional status in surgical patients; therefore, it could be used when the application of other assessment methods is not possible. The sample consisted of 125 patients (20-94 years of age) before elective gastrointestinal or hernia repair. The participants were from the Surgical Clinic 1 at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Nutritional status was evaluated during the preoperative period based on the triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, body mass index, percent weight loss, nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS 2002), subjective global assessment (SGA), and SPA. The agreement between the SPA and the other methods was assessed with the k coefficient. The agreement between the SPA and the methods of nutritional assessment that were investigated for diagnosing malnutrition was moderate for NRS 2002 and SGA, weak for percent weight loss, and poor for triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, and body mass index. There was a significant association between SPA and both NRS 2002 and SGA (P < .001). Our results suggest that SPA is able to indicate the risk of nutritional deficiency in the patients assessed. However, good agreement between SPA and the methods investigated was not observed. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Patient with CKD and Poor Nutritional Status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique aspects of CKD also confound reliable assessment of nutritional status, further complicating management of this comorbid condition. In patients in whom preventive measures and oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot help them maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. The advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic steroids and exercise, with nutritional supplementation or alone, improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. There are several emerging novel therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and anabolic agents. PMID:23970134

  3. A patient with CKD and poor nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ikizler, T Alp

    2013-12-01

    Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique aspects of CKD also confound reliable assessment of nutritional status, further complicating management of this comorbid condition. In patients in whom preventive measures and oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot help them maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. The advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic steroids and exercise, with nutritional supplementation or alone, improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. There are several emerging novel therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and anabolic agents.

  4. Nutritional status, nutritional self-perception, and use of licit drugs in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Denise Máximo; Mekitarian, Eduardo; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Lotufo, João Paulo Becker; Lo, Denise Swei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To associate the nutritional status and the self-perception of nutritional status with the use of licit drugs among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 210 adolescents answered a questionnaire on alcohol and tobacco experimentation and self-perceptions about their nutritional status. The correspondence between the adolescents' perception of their own nutritional status and actual nutritional status was analyzed, as well as associations between nutritional status, self-perception of nutritional status, gender, age, and presence of smokers at home with alcohol and tobacco use. The variables were analyzed separately in a bivariate analysis and, subsequently, a multivariate analysis determined the factors associated with drug use. Results: The study included 210 adolescents with a median age of 148 months; 56.6% were females. Of the total sample, 6.6% have tried cigarettes, and 20% have tried alcohol; 32.3% had BMI Z-Score ≥1, 12.85% had BMI Z-Score ≥2, and 50.7% had a correct perception of his/her weight. After a multivariate analysis, only the self-perception about weight statistically influenced experimentation of tobacco, and patients who identified themselves as having very high weight were more likely to experiment tobacco (odds ratio (OR) 13.57; confidence interval (95% CI) 2.05-89.8; p=0.007); regarding alcohol use, adolescents who identified themselves as having high weight were 2.4 times more likely to experiment with alcohol than adolescents that identified themselves as having normal weight (95% CI 1.08-5.32, p=0.031). Conclusions: Adolescents with self-perception of excess weight may constitute a risk group for alcohol and tobacco use. PMID:25765447

  5. Effects of early life exposure to methylmercury in Daphnia pulex on standard and reduced food ration

    PubMed Central

    Doke, Dzigbodi A.; Hudson, Sherri L.; Dawson, John A.; Gohlke, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    As a well-known eco-toxicological model organism, Daphnia pulex may also offer advantages in human health research for assessing long-term effects of early life exposures to coupled stressors. Here, we examine consequences of early life exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) under standard and reduced food ration. We exposed Daphnia for 24 h in early life to varying concentrations of methylmercury(II) chloride (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 ng/L) and thereafter kept Daphnia on either a standard or a reduced food ration. The data suggests an additive effect of MeHg concentration and food ration on decreasing lifespan, although MeHg concentration does not affect survival linearly. Food ration and MeHg concentration were predictive of reduced reproduction, and there is some evidence of an interaction (p = 0.048). Multi-stressor work in alternative model systems may be useful for prioritizing research, taking into account potential antagonistic, additive or synergistic effects that nutritional status may have on chemical toxicity. PMID:25263226

  6. Chewing ability, nutritional status and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-C; Yang, Y-H; Ho, P-S; Lee, I-C

    2014-02-01

    In the literature, most researchers evaluate individuals' nutritional status and chewing ability by types of foods chosen or blood test. However, most of previous researches enrolled small sample size and the results might be influenced by personal preference of foods as well as the individuals' response to invasive examination. In this study, researchers assessed individuals' nutritional status and chewing ability with non-invasive test and excluded the personal preference of foods. This study had two aims: first, to explore associations between chewing ability, edentulous or dentulous, self-perceived oral health and individuals' nutritional status and quality of life; second, to assess whether the association proposed by Locker's model is valid. This study used the database of Phase I 'Publicly-funded Denture Installation Plan for the Elderly' of Kaohsiung City Government. Nine hundred and fifty-four subjects aged 65 years and older completed the questionnaires for data analysis. The research results supported and verified the theoretical model proposed by Locker. Individual's chewing ability associated significantly with his/her nutritional status and quality of life. The results demonstrated that better chewing ability of the elderly leads to better nutritional status and quality of life. The appropriateness of the indicators and measurements of individual's chewing ability and nutritional status used in this study has been evaluated and presented. These indicators and measurements are suggested to be generally used for clinical or research application on future-related issues. Consequently, the maintenance or improvement in the chewing ability of the elderly is extremely beneficial to healthy ageing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The role of gut microbiota in nutritional status.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Eibhlís M

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this review is to outline the contribution of the gut microbiota to nutritional status and to highlight the mechanisms by which this can occur. Historically, research linking intestinal bacteria with nutritional status focused on the degradation of indigestible food components by bacterial enzymes and metabolites. Of late, emerging evidence suggests an independent role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis via complex interactions between microbially derived metabolites and specific target tissue cells. In addition, novel findings highlight specific microbial species involved in the production of a number of micronutrient components, which could potentially improve nutritional status in certain population groups, if available to the host at sufficiently abundant levels. New insights into the role of the gut microbiota and its holistic effects on the host are now emerging. High-throughput technologies allow for a greater insight into the role of the intestinal microbiota and the mechanisms by which it can contribute to overall nutritional status. Further, exploration of this evolving field of research will advance our understanding of how this complex ecosystem could advance the area of personalized nutrition in the future.

  8. [Assessment of nutritional status in pediatric ambulatory research].

    PubMed

    Vanhelst, J; Béghin, L

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional status, an important measure in health promotion and certain childhood and adolescent pathologies, includes anthropometric, diet and physical activity evaluation. Choosing the best assessment of nutritional status for your research must consider objectives of clinician, study design, number of subjects, frequency of measurement, and cost. The purpose of this paper is to present reliable and valid field techniques available for pediatric ambulatory clinical research. These techniques do not interfere with free living conditions and represent a good alternative compared to reference assessment. The techniques are compatible with the quality assurance and ethics in clinical and epidemiological research requirements.

  9. A modified Mini Nutritional Assessment without BMI can effectively assess the nutritional status of neuropsychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Chou, Yuan-Ti; Chang, Tsui-Lan; Chang-Lee, Shu-Nu; Tsay, Shwu-Feng

    2009-07-01

    To determine whether a modified version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) without body mass index (BMI) can effectively identify individuals at risk of malnutrition among patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuropsychiatric patients have an additional risk of nutritional disorder due to functional impairments and drug effects. However, their nutritional status is generally neglected. It is important to find a tool that is simple, easy to use and non-invasive. The study involved 105 patients in the acute phase of confirmed neuropsychiatric disorders in an area hospital. All subjects were cognitively able to have effective verbal communication. The study included serum biochemical and anthropometric measurements and an on-site, in-person interview using a structured questionnaire to elicit personal data, health condition and answers to questions in the MNA. Subjects' nutritional statuses were graded with a MNA that adopted population-specific anthropometric cut-off points or one further with the BMI question removed and its assigned score redistributed to other anthropometric questions. Both versions of the modified MNA effectively graded the nutritional status of neuropsychiatric patients and showed good correlations with the major nutritional indicators such as BMI, calf circumference and the length of hospital stay. The MNA can effectively assess the nutritional status of neuropsychiatric patients and enhance timely detection and intervention of their nutritional disorders. A modified MNA without the BMI question can maintain the full functionality of the tool. The version does not require weight and height measurements and thus will enhance the usefulness of the instrument. Neuropsychiatric patients are a high-risk group of nutritional disorders. The MNA, especially the one without BMI, has the potential to improve professional efficiency of the primary care workers.

  10. Nutritional status and nutritional support before and after pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Karagianni, Vasiliki Th; Papalois, Apostolos E; Triantafillidis, John K

    2012-12-01

    Cachexia, malnutrition, significant weight loss, and reduction in food intake due to anorexia represent the most important pathophysiological consequences of pancreatic cancer. Pathophysiological consequences result also from pancreatectomy, the type and severity of which differ significantly and depend on the type of the operation performed. Nutritional intervention, either parenteral or enteral, needs to be seen as a method of support in pancreatic cancer patients aiming at the maintenance of the nutritional and functional status and the prevention or attenuation of cachexia. Oral nutrition could reduce complications while restoring quality of life. Enteral nutrition in the post-operative period could also reduce infective complications. The evidence for immune-enhanced feed in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer is supported by the available clinical data. Nutritional support during the post-operative period on a cyclical basis is preferred because it is associated with low incidence of gastric stasis. Postoperative total parenteral nutrition is indicated only to those patients who are unable to be fed orally or enterally. Thus nutritional deficiency is a relatively widesoread and constant finding suggesting that we must optimise the nutritional status both before and after surgery.

  11. Effects of integrated child development and nutrition interventions on child development and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Fernald, Lia C H; Kagawa, Rose M C; Walker, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that examined the effect of interventions combining a child development component with a nutrition one; in some cases the nutrition interventions also included health-promotion components. Only papers with both child development and nutrition outcomes and rated as moderate-to-good quality were included. Eleven efficacy and two nonrandomized trials, and eight program evaluations were identified. Only six trials examined interventions separately and combined. The trials showed nutritional interventions usually benefited nutritional status and sometimes benefited child development. Stimulation consistently benefited child development. There was no significant loss of any effect when interventions were combined, but there was little evidence of synergistic interaction between nutrition and stimulation on child development. Only three trials followed up the children after intervention. All at-scale program evaluations were combined interventions. Five benefited child development, but one did not, and two showed deficits. There was generally little benefit of at-scale programs to nutritional status. We found no rigorous evaluations of adding stimulation to health and nutrition services at scale and there is an urgent need for them. There is also a need to establish quality-control mechanisms for existing scaled-up programs and to determine their long-term effects. There is also a need to determine if there are any sustained benefits for the children after programs finish. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Nutritional status and blood pressure in adolescent students.

    PubMed

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Cossio-Bolaños, Wilbert; Menacho, Adriana Araya; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Silva, Yuri Muniz da; Abella, Carlos Pablos; de Arruda, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is the main risk factor for arterial hypertension andis associatedwitha higher morbidity, both in the short and long term. To compare anthropometric and blood pressure indicators in terms of the nutritional status, to verify the relationship between nutritional status and blood pressure, and to establish the prevalence of hypertension in terms of the nutritional status in both male and female adolescents. Cross-sectional, descriptive study on 499 adolescent students aged 11-15 years old. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), fat percentage, and blood pressure were measured and assessed. The BMI was used to classify participants (normal weight, overweight, obese), and the prevalence of hypertension was determined using values above the 95th percentile. As per the BMI classification, 81% of girls and 76.5% ofboys had normal weight, 15.7% of girls and 15.5% of boys were overweight, and 3.3% of girls and 8% of boys were obese. As per the blood pressure classification, hypertension was observed in 6.4% of boys and in 9% of girls. A relationship was found between nutritional status and blood pressure (boys: c2= 53.48; girls: c2= 85.21). Overweight and obese adolescents had more body fat and a higher blood pressure than normal weight adolescents. Also, a relationship was determined betweennutritional status and blood pressure in both male and female students. The higher the BMI, the higher the prevalence of hypertension.

  13. Nutritional Status DNA Damage and Tumor Pathology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    deficiencies of folic acid/vitamin B12 and niacin . The study population will consist of 200 women (self-report as African-American or European-American) newly...diagnosed with breast cancer in South Carolina. Dietary deficiencies of folic acid and niacin have been reported in populations of low socioeconomic...status, such as reside in South Carolina. The specific objectives of the research are 1) to analyze the status of folic acid/vitamin B12 and niacin and

  14. Influence of early life status epilepticus on the developmental expression profile of the GluA2 subunit of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Szczurowska, E; Ergang, P; Kubová, H; Druga, R; Salaj, M; Mareš, P

    2016-09-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are responsible for fast excitatory neurotransmission, and their prolonged activation can result in the generation and spread of epileptic seizures. At early stages of postnatal development, the majority of AMPARs are permeable to both Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions. This permeability, which increases neuronal excitability, is due to the lack of the GluA2 subunit, encoded by the GRIA2A gene, and/or the presence of an unedited GluA2 subunit Q/R site (glutamine instead of arginine). Lithium chloride- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (LiCl/Pilo-SE) in rodents represents a model of severe seizures that result in development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The aim of this study was to determine how LiCl/Pilo-SE induced early in life (at postnatal day 12; P12) alters normal expression of the GRIA2A gene and GluA2 protein. SE was interrupted by an injection of paraldehyde (Para). Control groups were 1) naïve animals, and 2) siblings of SE rats receiving only LiCl and paraldehyde (LiCl/Para). The expression profile of GRIA2A mRNA was determined via qPCR, and GluA2 protein levels were measured by western blotting. The analysis was performed at 3h (protein levels), and then 3-, 6-, 13-, and 60days, following LiCl/Pilo-SE or LiCl/Para injection (i.e. at P12, P15, P18, P25, P72 respectively). Six different brain regions were analyzed: frontal (CXFR), parietal (CXPAR), and occipital (CXOC) cortex, dorsal (HD) and ventral (HV) hippocampus, and thalamus (TH). There was a significant increase in GRIA2A mRNA expression in the CXFR, CXPAR, and CXOC of P18 SE animals. In CXFR and HD, increased expression of GluA2 AMPAR subunit protein was detected, as well as a surge in GRIA2A mRNA and GluA2 protein expression especially at P18. In HD the surge was detected not only during development (P18), but also later in life (P72). Since high levels of GluA2 can be neuroprotective (by decreasing Ca(2+) permeability), our data suggest that the neocortex and dorsal

  15. Early life origins of obesity.

    PubMed

    Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Rampono, Jonathan; Challis, John R G

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity has its origins in early life. Predisposition is based on interactions between the genome and environmental influences acting through epigenetic modifications. Individuals most at risk are those whose ancestral line has made a rapid transition from a traditional to a Westernized style of life. The process involves not only metabolism, but also behavior. As a result, those people who are most at risk of obesity may be those least likely to respond to educational programs based on lifestyle modification. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that underpin the early origins of obesity is vital if we are to make progress in addressing this major problem of modern life.

  16. Nutritional status and evolution of pressure sores in geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Donini, L M; De Felice, M R; Tagliaccica, A; De Bernardini, L; Cannella, C

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of pressure sores (PS) ranges from 1 to 18% of in-patients and from 3 to 28% of those admitted to long-term settings. The aim of our study was to verify, a posteriori, how nutritional status influenced the evolution of PS in a population of elderly subjects hospitalised in a long-term care setting. The charts of 125 patients with ulcerative or necrotic pressure ulcers were evaluated retrospectively. For each subject we took note of: PS characteristics (stage, ulcer surface, evolution), clinical characteristics (comorbidity, adverse clinical events, cognitive, functional and nutritional status). In 58 patients (46.4%) there was overall healing of the lesions while in 39 patients (31.2%) we had however an "improvement" of PS. The course of PS was not significantly influenced by the patient's physiological characteristics, by cognitive status or by initial characteristics of PS. Instead, we noticed a significant difference in the course of PS as a function of the level of autonomy and clinical status. The course of PS, and in particular the Healing Index, were influenced by the Nutritional Status and, above all, by its course during the treatment period. The development of PS is multifactorial. Whereas, it is clear that factors other than nutrition influence the risk of developing PS, an important role for nutrition in the development and resolution of PS is suggested. Our data certainly confirm the "Quality indicators for prevention and management of pressure ulcers in vulnerable elders", especially were they say "if a vulnerable elder is identified as at risk for pressure ulcer development and has malnutrition, then nutritional intervention or dietary consultation should be instituted because poor diet, particularly low dietary protein intake, is an independent predictor of pressure ulcer development".

  17. Anemia, nutritional status, and inflammation in hospitalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Bjornsson, Sigurbjorn; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2008-01-01

    Anemia (hemoglobin <120 g/L) in elderly patients is a health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anemia and associations of anemia with nutritional status and inflammation in hospitalized elderly. Sixty patients from the Department of Geriatrics were randomly assigned to participate. Blood samples were drawn and analyzed at the laboratory of the University Hospital in Reykjavik. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric and hematologic parameters. The prevalence of anemia was 36.7%. Female participants were more frequently anemic than male participants (47.4% versus 18.2%, P = 0.024). Anemic patients had a lower albumin level (31.3 versus 33.4 g/L, P = 0.019) and a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (29.6 versus 16.0 mm/h, P = 0.005) and were more often malnourished (81.8% versus 44.7%, P = 0.005) than non-anemic patients. Hemoglobin correlated with prealbumin (rho = 0.338, P = 0.008) and albumin (rho = 0.250, P = 0.054) levels, but negatively with age (rho = -0.310, P = 0.016) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (rho = -0.412, P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and nutritional status were significant predictors of hemoglobin (R(2) = 34.0%). This cross-sectional analysis provides evidence of anemia in 36.7% of patients hospitalized at the Landspitali-University Hospital in Reykjavik and shows an association among anemia, deteriorated nutritional status, and inflammation. Future prospective studies are needed to assess the efficacy of adjuvant nutritional support to stabilize or improve nutritional status including anemia in hospitalized elderly.

  18. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey 2014. I. Nutritional status of the Hungarian adult population].

    PubMed

    Erdei, Gergő; Kovács, Viktória Anna; Bakacs, Márta; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey examines the obesity prevalence, dietary habits and, since 2014, physical activity in Hungarian adults in every 5 years. The survey provides national data representative by age and gender, based on anthropometric measurements and international standards. In 2014, nearly two-thirds of adults were overweight or obese. 28.2% of men and 31.5% of women were obese. Prevalence of morbid obesity were 2.6% and 3.3% in men and women, respectively. Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among women than men (55% vs. 38%), and the rate was increasing with age in both genders. In elderly, 55% of men and almost 80% of women were abdominally obese. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity is high in Hungarian adults. In order to tackle obesity, we need to obtain representative and measured data, which form the basis of targeted interventions and the assessment of their impact. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(14), 533-540.

  19. [Assessment of nutritional status in patients with primary lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Chermiti Ben Abdallah, Fatma; Ben Saïd, Hanène; Chamkhi, Najiba; Ferchichi, Marwa; Chtourou, Amel; Taktak, Sofia; Ben Kheder, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Malnutrition is a common problem among patients with cancer, affecting up to 85% of patients with certain cancers and represents a risk factor for poor prognosis. aim: evaluate nutritional status in patients with lung cancer before and during treatment using nutritional risk index. it's a prospective study conducted in pneumology IV department in Abderahman Mami hospital, from January to May 2011. 30 male patients with a lung cancer were included. Nutritional status was assessed before and during treatment based on anthropometric measures, biological markers and nutritional risk index (NRI). Mean age of patients was 58 ± 12 years, ranging from 19 to 82 years. 29 patients had non small cell lung cancer and one patient had small cell cancer. Malnutrition was noted in 14 patients (47%) before treatment according to the NRI. It was noted in 23 patients (77%) after three cycles of chemotherapy with severe malnutrition in 8 patients. Relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the NRI was linear, but NRI tends to evaluate more objectively risk of malnutrition in patients with lung cancer. Nutritional assessment in patient with lung cancer should be performed systematically, early and repeatedly. Several markers can be used such as BMI and NRI. Nutritional support will reduce morbidity and improve quality of life in patients with lung cancer.

  20. Foetal nutritional status and cardiovascular risk profile among children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Sempos, Christopher

    2007-10-01

    To estimate the impact of foetal nutritional status on cardiovascular risk among children with the Foetal Nutritional Status Index (FNSI), calculated by dividing the child's birth weight (BW, kg) by the mother's height (m2). Cross-sectional survey analysis. A sample of children from the US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 3109 children who were 5-11 years of age and had data on BW and mother's height. Non-fasting blood samples were included. Overall, the FNSI was positively associated with BW and negatively associated with mother's height (P<0.0001). Within sex-specific quintiles of FNSI (third quintile as reference) adjusted for potential confounding variables, cardiovascular risk factors tended to be 'higher' in the lower quintiles for males while the opposite was true for females. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that the odds for males in quintile 1 was 2.4 for having a low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.01) and 2.1 for having a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.01); for females, the odds of having a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors was approximately two times higher for those in the first and fifth quintiles, who also had a significantly higher prevalence of central obesity. The FNSI may be a potential proxy indicator of foetal nutritional status and it may be used to test specific hypotheses of whether foetal nutrition restriction or overnutrition programmes future cardiovascular risk.

  1. The nutritional status of Dutch elderly patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    van Steijn, J; van Harten, B; Flapper, E; Droogsma, E; van Walderveen, P; Blaauw, M; van Asselt, D

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of (risk of) undernutrition in Dutch elder Parkinson's disease patients as well as it's risk factors. Observational cross-sectional study. An outpatient clinic at the department Neurology of Medical Centre Leeuwarden, a large teaching hospital. 102 outpatients with Parkinson's disease aged 65 years and older were recruited. Data regarding various aspects of undernutrition including socio-demographic aspect, disease characterisitics, nutritional status, appetite and overall-physical and psychological functioning were collected. Undernutrition was diagnosed in 2.0% and 20.5% of the patients were categorized as being at risk of undernutrition. Care dependency and appetite were the two risk factors with the highest predictive value for an unfavorable nutritional status. Of Dutch elderly patients with Parkinson's Disease 22.5% had an unfavourable nutritional status. Dependency and appetite were the two risk factors with the highest predictive value fort his outcome. Because undernutrition can be regarded as a geriatric syndrome a comprehensive nutritional assessment should be done followed by nutritional interventions next to interventions focused on the risk factors. Further studies are needed to evaluate these interventions.

  2. Environmental factors and nutritional status of rural children.

    PubMed

    Watts, P; Allison, M; Vick, K H; Watts, D

    1996-01-01

    The nutritional status of school-aged children is a growing concern of health care professionals today. In collaboration with a Kellogg Project in the deep south, students from a large university school of nursing participated in a project to improve the nutritional status of rural school-aged children. The project goals focused on educating thd children about the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide Pyramid, reading nutritional labels and recognizing foods with high fat content, and the importance of exercise along with diet. The nursing students created a nutritional assessment tool to use with each child to determine their educational needs. The project involved lecture, interactive class discussion, and hands-on activities. Information from the assessment tool revealed that fast food and foods high in fat were the most popular with the children. After project completion, the posttest revealed an increase in cognitive knowledge of nutrition among all the children. In addition to this positive learning experience for the children, improving the health status of children in the community was an excellent educational opportunity for the nursing students.

  3. [Nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Brunori, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The population of patients with chronic kidney disease is aging, and approximately 50% of those starting renal replacement therapy are older than 65 years. Aging poses challenges to maintaining the nutritional status of these patients. As patients get older, purchasing and preparing food may become difficult if the patient is not supported by relatives or social workers. In addition, appetite may decrease as a result of depression. Furthermore, intercurrent illnesses may become more frequent, leading to changes in nutrient requirements. Mobility and cognitive function often decline in elderly patients and the combination of these factors may result in malnutrition. Since malnutrition has been demonstrated to impact on survival in dialysis patients of all ages, appropriate attention to nutritional status and its management is essential in the elderly patient, both in the predialysis phase and on dialysis. This article reviews the issues associated with the maintenance of good nutrition in elderly patients and describes the potential causes of malnutrition. It also reviews the nutrient requirements of older dialysis patients (which differ somewhat from those of younger patients) as well as the assessment of their nutritional status. Finally, recommendations for the management of nutrition in the elderly patient are discussed.

  4. Nutritional Status and Mortality in the Critically Ill.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Kris M; Robinson, Malcolm K; Casey, Jonathan D; Gunasekera, Nicole S; Moromizato, Takuhiro; Rawn, James D; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    The association between nutritional status and mortality in critically ill patients is unclear based on the current literature. To clarify this relation, we analyzed the association between nutrition and mortality in a large population of critically ill patients and hypothesized that mortality would be impacted by nutritional status. Retrospective observational study. Single academic medical center. Six thousand five hundred eighteen adults treated in medical and surgical ICUs between 2004 and 2011. None. All cohort patients received a formal, in-person, standardized evaluation by a registered dietitian. The exposure of interest, malnutrition, was categorized as nonspecific malnutrition, protein-energy malnutrition, or well nourished and determined by data related to anthropometric measurements, biochemical indicators, clinical signs of malnutrition, malnutrition risk factors, and metabolic stress. The primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality determined by the Social Security Death Master File. Associations between nutrition groups and mortality were estimated by bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated with inclusion of covariate terms thought to plausibly interact with both nutrition status and mortality. We used propensity score matching on baseline characteristics to reduce residual confounding of the nutrition status category assignment. In the cohort, nonspecific malnutrition was present in 56%, protein-energy malnutrition was present in 12%, and 32% were well nourished. The 30-day and 90-day mortality rates for the cohort were 19.1% and 26.6%, respectively. Nutritional status is a significant predictor of 30-day mortality following adjustment for age, gender, race, medical versus surgical patient type, Deyo-Charlson index, acute organ failure, vasopressor use, and sepsis: nonspecific malnutrition 30-day mortality odds ratio, 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01-1.37); protein-energy malnutrition 30-day mortality odds

  5. Growth and nutritional status of Tibetan children at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Argnani, Lisa; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2008-09-01

    Growth and development are clearly affected by high-altitude exposure to hypoxia, nutritional stress, cold or a combination of these factors. Very little research has been conducted on the growth and nutritional status of children living on the Tibetan Plateau. The present study evaluated the environmental impact on human growth by analyzing anthropometric characteristics of Tibetan children aged 8-14, born and raised above 4000 m altitude on the Himalayan massif in the prefecture of Shegar in Tibet Autonomous Region. Data on anthropometric traits, never measured in this population, were collected and the nutritional status was assessed. A reference data set is provided for this population. There was no evidence of wasting but stunting was detected (28.3%). Children permanently exposed to the high-altitude environment above 4000 m present a phenotypic form of adaptation and a moderate reduction in linear growth. However, it is also necessary to consider the effects of socioeconomic deprivation.

  6. Which parameters of nutritional status should we choose for nutritional assessment during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

    PubMed

    Rzepecki, P; Barzal, J; Sarosiek, T; Oborska, S; Szczylik, C

    2007-11-01

    Since changes in nutritional indices after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have not been well studied, there is no definition of risk factors for the development of malnutrition, and the inception of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). We sought to analyze changes in nutritional status parameters and acute phase protein levels as qualifications for TPN. Nutritional status was assessed in 54 patients during autologous (n = 30) on allogeneic (n = 24) transplantations. Eight of 15 patients who had to be treated with TPN, needed prolonged hospitalization (>5 weeks). We assessed biochemical and anthropometric indices of nutritional status, body fat and resting energy expenditure, and acute phase protein levels on the day before starting a conditioning regimen, after chemotherapy completion, and every 7 days until engraftment, which was at least three times after stem cell infusion. Wilcoxon test and canonical analysis were used for statistical analyses. The measurement of body weight and retinol binding protein or transferrin may be useful for nutritional assessment during autologous or allogeneic HSCT, respectively. Prealbumin level, measured 8 days after the end of the conditioning regimen was helpful to make a decision about starting TPN.

  7. High participation in the Posyandu nutrition program improved children nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Faisal; Khomsan, Ali; Sukandar, Dadang; Riyadi, Hadi; Mudjajanto, Eddy S

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze nutritional status and food consumption of children participating in the Posyandu nutrition program. A total sample of 300 children under five years had been drawn. Sample was divided into two categories namely high participation and low participation in the Posyandu nutrition program. The sample was selected from two sub districts of Cianjur District, West Java. The districts were areas with a high proportion of poor people and many of them take the benefits of Posyandu nutrition program conducted by the government. The participation of children (under five years old) in visiting Posyandus was relatively good, namely, 92.4% (for the high participation group). However, for the low participation group, the number of participating children was relatively low (28.3%). The average consumption of energy for children under five years old was still below the recommended dietary allowance < 80% of RDA, whereas the protein consumption was already above the RDA. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting among children were respectively 30.0%, 43.7%, and 12.3%. The activities at Posyandus had a positive impact on the nutritional status of children under five years olds, measured in terms of weight for age (W/A) and weight for height (W/H). The more frequent the visit to Posyandus, the better the nutritional statuses would be.

  8. Black and White Adolescent Females' Pre-Pregnancy Nutrition Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Roger C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Results indicated that black females ingested more energy, protein, calcium, and iron than did white females. Significant percentages of both black and white females' intakes of energy, calcium, and iron fell below recommended allowances, suggesting that most of those surveyed possessed poor prepregnancy nutritional status. (RJM)

  9. The nutritional status of children in resettlement villages in Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, A; Khairul Anuar, A; Atiya, A S

    1999-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the nutritional status of children aged 1-10 years old from the Kuala Betis resettlement villages was carried out. A total of 620 children were examined, of which 329 were preschool children and 291 were schoolchildren. The age was determined and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height and MUAC were taken. The nutritional status was assessed by looking at the distributions of the z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) in relation to the growth charts of the National Center for Health Statistics reference population. It was found that the nutritional status of the Orang Asli children was poor, with a prevalence of 33.7-65.3% underweight, 55.3-74.4% stunting and 4.4-29.7% wasting based on the NCHS reference values. The prevalence of malnutrition among the Malay children was lower, underweight--7.3-34.1%, stunting--9.8-34.1% and wasting--1.7-17.1%. The nutritional status of the Orang Asli children were poorer compared to the Malay children. More preschool Orang Asli children were stunted compared to the Orang Asli schoolchildren. This may be due to the poor economic base of the Orang Asli community during the transformation period after resettlement. A comprehensive primary health care program is essential, especially targeting the preschool Orang Asli children in these resettlement villages.

  10. Socioenvironmental conditions and nutritional status in urban and rural schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Oyhenart, Evelia E; Castro, Luis E; Forte, Luis M; Sicre, Maria L; Quintero, Fabian A; Luis, Maria A; Torres, Maria F; Luna, Maria E; Cesani, Maria F; Orden, Alicia B

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the nutritional status of urban and rural schoolchildren from Mendoza (Argentina), but avoided rural and urban categorization by generating subpopulations as a function of their socioenvironmental characteristics. We transformed weight and height data into z-scores using the CDC/NCHS growth charts; defined underweight, stunting, and wasting by z-scores of less than -2 SD; and calculated overweight and obesity, according to the cutoff proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioenvironmental characteristics included housing, public services, parental resources, and farming practices; we processed these variables by categorical principal-component analysis. The two first axes defined four subgroups of schoolchildren: three of these were associated with urban characteristics, while the remaining subgroup was considered rural. Nutritional status differed across groups, whereas overweight was similar among the groups and obesity higher in urban middle-income children. Urban differences were manifested mainly as underweight, but rural children exhibited the greatest stunting and wasting. Thus, the negative effects of environment on nutritional status in children are not restricted to poor periurban and rural areas, though these are indeed unfavorable environments for growth: some urban families provide children with sufficient quantity and diversity of foods to expose them to obesity. By contrast, the more affluent urban families would appear to have greater possibilities for allowing their children to adopt a healthy life-style. Although the causes of differences in nutritional status between middle- and high-income urban groups are not clear, these determinants probably involve economic as well as educational influences.

  11. Black and White Adolescent Females' Pre-Pregnancy Nutrition Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Roger C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Results indicated that black females ingested more energy, protein, calcium, and iron than did white females. Significant percentages of both black and white females' intakes of energy, calcium, and iron fell below recommended allowances, suggesting that most of those surveyed possessed poor prepregnancy nutritional status. (RJM)

  12. [Nutritional status and related factors among elderly Brazilians].

    PubMed

    Campos, Marta Alice Gomes; Pedroso, Enio Roberto Pietra; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Abrantes, Marcelo Militão

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the nutritional status and associated factors among elderly Brazilians. Data from "Pesquisa sobre Padrões de Vida" (PPV- Life Pattern Research), conducted by the "Brazilian Geographic and Statistics Institute" in 1996/1997 were used. Body Mass Index (BMI) was applied to classify nutritional status and is the response variable of this study. Multivariate analysis with polytomous logistic regression was used. Prevalence of underweight was 5.7%, eutrophy 50.4%, overweight 32.3% and obesity 11.6%. Women have a 1.32 greater chance of overweight (CI 95% 0.99-1.74; p=0.05) and 4.11 of obesity (CI 95% 2.57-6.57; p<0.01). Higher age increased risk of underweight and diminished that of overweight and obesity. Elderly with a lower income have a higher risk of underweight and those with a greater income have higher risk of overweight and obesity. Elderly with a chronic disease have a higher risk of changes in the nutritional status. Results show a higher prevalence of overweight and eutrophy and a lower prevalence of obesity and underweight. Characteristics associated with nutritional status other than eutrophy are: gender, schooling, income, chronic health problem and age.

  13. Nutritional status of toddlers and preschoolers according to household income level: overweight tendency and micronutrient deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kirang; Shin, Sam Cheol

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES The effects of malnutrition on growth of toddlers and preschoolers by socioeconomic status are not well known. This study aimed to examine the effects of dietary intake on growth outcomes in toddlers and preschoolers by household income level. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study population was a total of 1,687 children aged 1 to 5 years that participated in the KNHANES from 2009 to 2011. Growth of children was assessed by height for age (HFA) and weight for height (WFH). Children were classified into three groups according to children's HFA and WFH compared to the 10th and 90th percentiles of the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescent Growth Standard. Average monthly household income was divided into quartile groups. Dietary intake data were obtained by using the one day 24-hr recall method. Risks of inadequate intake of nutrients and unfavorable growth were estimated by using a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age, region, and energy intake. RESULTS The low HFA group (< 10th percentile) had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, and thiamin as compared with the high group (≥ 90th percentile). For WFH status, vitamin C intake was lower in the low group than in the high group. Household income level was related to WFH status but not HFA. Children from lower income households were more likely to have high WFH than those from higher income households (P for trend = 0.038). Household income status was also significantly related with risk of inadequate intake of micronutrients such as thiamin (P for trend = 0.032) and vitamin C (P for trend = 0.002), showing higher odds of inadequate intakes in children from lower income households. CONCLUSIONS Children from lower income households were prone to be overweight and to have inadequate intakes of micronutrients such as thiamin and vitamin C. To reduce nutritional and health disparities, collective action in the public sector is required from early life. PMID:26425286

  14. National survey of the Portuguese elderly nutritional status: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Teresa; Peixoto-Plácido, Catarina; Goulão, Beatriz; Mendonça, Nuno; Alarcão, Violeta; Santos, Nuno; de Oliveira, Rita Machado; Yngve, Agneta; Bye, Asta; Bergland, Astrid; Lopes, Carla; Nicola, Paulo; Santos, Osvaldo; Clara, João Gorjão

    2016-07-16

    Worldwide we are facing a serious demographic challenge due to the dramatic growth of the population over 60 years. It is expected that the proportion of this population will nearly double from 12 to 22 %, between 2015 and 2050. This demographic shift comes with major health and socio-economic concerns. Nutrition is a fundamental determinant of both health and disease and its role in extending a healthy lifespan is the object of considerable research. Notably, malnutrition is one of the main threats to health and quality of life among the elderly. Therefore, knowledge about nutritional status among the elderly is essential for the promotion and maintenance of healthy ageing and to support the development of health protection policies and equity in elderly health care. This is a nationwide nutrition survey of the Portuguese population over 65 years old, with data collection through face-to-face interviews. A representative and random sample of community dwelling elderly and nursing homes residents will be obtained by multistage sampling stratified per main Portuguese regions, sex and age groups. Minimum sample size was estimated to be 2077 elderly (979 in the community and 1098 in nursing homes). Data will be collected on food habits and eating patterns, nutritional status, food insecurity, lifestyle, self-rated general health status and self-reported diseases, functionality, loneliness, cognitive function, emotional status and demographic and socio-economic characterization. This is the first national survey to evaluate the prevalence of nutritional risk and malnutrition of the Portuguese population above 65 years old, including those living in nursing homes. It will allow the identification of population subgroups of elderly with increased odds of malnutrition and nutritional risk. In addition, this survey will contribute to the identification of psychosocial and clinical predictors of malnutrition among elderly, which is an important risk factor for other

  15. Nutritional status and carnitine level in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Dębska-Slizień, A; Małgorzewicz, S; Czajka, B; Rutkowski, B

    2014-10-01

    Overweight/obesity, malnutrition, and abnormalities in carnitine metabolism are recognized in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of nutritional abnormalities and carnitine status in KTRs. The study was performed in 80 stable KTRs aged 52.4 ± 14.0 years, without carnitine supplementation. Nutritional status was determined using a 7-point Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometric measurements, and s-albumin level. Urinary excretion and serum concentration of total (TC), free (FC) carnitine were measured using enzymatic methods according to Cederblad. Mean transplantation vintage and estimated glomerular filtration rate (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; 4 points) were 82.5 ± 56.5 months and 42.0 ± 15.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Overweight and obesity were noticed in 41% and 14% of patients, respectively. Signs of malnutrition were present in 64% (21/33) of the overweight patients, and in 91% (10/11) of the obese patients. KTRs with malnutrition (Subjective Global Assessment ≤5) were significantly older, with longer transplantation vintage, lower eGFR, higher body mass index (BMI), higher body fat, and decreased hand grip strength in comparison to KTR with good nutritional status (Subjective Global Assessment >5). In 8.6% of KTRs, deficiency of FC (in serum and urine) was observed. Carnitine (TC and FC) and FC/TC ratio were not correlated with anthropometric and laboratory parameters of nutritional status. Serum of TC and FC concentrations negatively correlated with graft function. Plasma carnitine deficiency (limited availability) can appear in the KTR group and does not correspond with signs of both malnutrition and obesity. In spite of overweight/obesity, KTRs showed features of malnutrition and they need thorough nutritional evaluation and appropriate nutritional interventions.

  16. Subjective global assessment of nutritional status in children.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Aida Malek; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Safaiyan, Abdolrasool

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to compare the subjective and objective nutritional assessments and to analyse the performance of subjective global assessment (SGA) of nutritional status in diagnosing undernutrition in paediatric patients. One hundred and forty children (aged 2-12 years) hospitalized consecutively in Tabriz Paediatric Hospital from June 2008 to August 2008 underwent subjective assessment using the SGA questionnaire and objective assessment, including anthropometric and biochemical measurements. Agreement between two assessment methods was analysed by the kappa (κ) statistic. Statistical indicators including (sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, error rates, accuracy, powers, likelihood ratios and odds ratio) between SGA and objective assessment method were determined. The overall prevalence of undernutrition according to the SGA (70.7%) was higher than that by objective assessment of nutritional status (48.5%). Agreement between the two evaluation methods was only fair to moderate (κ = 0.336, P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the SGA method for screening undernutrition in this population were 88.235%, 45.833%, 60.606% and 80.487%, respectively. Accuracy, positive and negative power of the SGA method were 66.428%, 56.074% and 41.25%, respectively. Likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio negative and odds ratio of the SGA method were 1.628, 0.256 and 6.359, respectively. Our findings indicated that in assessing nutritional status of children, there is not a good level of agreement between SGA and objective nutritional assessment. In addition, SGA is a highly sensitive tool for assessing nutritional status and could identify children at risk of developing undernutrition. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Nutritional status of institutionalized elderly Brazilians: a study with the Mini Nutritional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Amorim Sena Pereira, Maria Luiza; de Almeida Moreira, Pricilla; Cunha de Oliveira, Carolina; Carneiro Roriz, Anna Karla; Teresópolis Reis Amaral, Magali; Lima Mello, Adriana; Barbosa Ramos, Lílian

    2014-10-04

    To assess the nutritional status of elderly living in nursing homes in the city of Salvador, Brazil and associated factors. Cross-sectional study performed with 359 individuals of both sexes, ages equal or over 60 years old, located in Nursing Homes in the urban area of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Regarding nutritional status according to Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), 66.3% of the evaluated elderly were malnourished and at risk of malnutrition. When comparing sexes, it has been observed that among men the prevalence of this condition (76.6%) was higher than in women (62.4%). It has been observed, as a result of the multivariate analysis, that only the variable functional capacity for Activities of Daily Living (ADL) was statistically significant. There was moderate correlation between MNA and Mini-Mental State Examination (r=0.454; p<0.0001), as well as between MNA and the ADL scale (r=0.569; p<0.0001). There was weak negative correlation between MNA total score and age (r=0.159; p=0.002). Malnutrition and malnutrition risk were conditions of remarkable importance, with almost two-thirds of the elderly in this situation. ADL functional capacity must be monitored given their close relationship with the nutritional status of the elderly. An interdisciplinary approach in the context of institutionalization is needed due to the association between nutritional status and variables of different dimensions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of nutritional status in the healthcare setting in Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos del Portillo, Rocío; Palma MiIla, Samara; García Váquez, Natalia; Plaza López, Bricia; Bermejo López, Laura; Riobó Serván, Pilar; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-02-26

    Early identification of undernourished patients in the healthcare setting, and their nutritional treatment, are essential if the harmful effects of poor nourishment are to be avoided and care costs kept down. The aim of assessing nutritional status is to determine the general health of a patient from a nutritional viewpoint. All hospitalised patients should undergo nutritional screening within 24-48 h of admission, as should any patient who shows signs of being malnourished when visiting any healthcare centre. The infrastructure and resources available, the possibilities of automisation, and the healthcare setting in which such assessment must be performed, etc., determine which method can be used. The European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) recommends the use of the Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) method for hospitalised patients, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) in the community healthcare setting, and the first part of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for elderly patients. In centres where screening can be computerised, the CONUT® or INFORNUT® methods can be used. A nutritional diagnosis is arrived at using the patient's medical history, a physical examination (including anthropometric assessment), biochemical analysis, and functional tests. No single variable allows a diagnosis to be made. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and MNA tests are useful in nutritional assessment, but they are not universally regarded as the gold standard. At our hospital, and at many other centres in the Spanish health system, the Nutritional Status Assessment (NSA) method (in Spanish Valoración del Estado Nutricional) is used, which involves the SGA method, the taking of anthropometric measurements, and biochemical analysis. After making a nutritional diagnosis, which should be included in the patient's medical history adhering to International Classification of Diseases code 9 (ICD- 9), and prescribing a nutritional

  19. Gut Microbiomes of Indian Children of Varying Nutritional Status

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Tanudeep; Yadav, Deepak; Barik, Anamitra; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Bhabatosh; Mande, Sharmila S.; Nair, G. Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is a global health problem affecting more than 300 million pre-school children worldwide. It is one of the major health concerns in India since around 50% of children below the age of two suffer from various forms of malnutrition. The gut microbiome plays an important role in nutrient pre-processing, assimilation and energy harvest from food. Consequently, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in malnutrition. Methodology/Principal Findings Metagenomics approach was adopted to investigate the gut microbiome sampled from 20 rural Indian children with varying nutritional status. The changes in the abundances of various taxonomic and functional groups were investigated across these gut microbiomes. A core set of 23 genera were observed across samples, with some showing differential abundances with varying nutritional status. One of the findings of the current study is the positive/negative associations of specific taxonomic and functional groups with the nutritional status of the children. Notable alterations in the architecture of the inter-microbial co-occurrence networks were also observed with changes in nutritional status. A key example is the clustering of potentially pathogenic groups into a distinct hub in severely malnourished gut. Our data does not demonstrate causality with the microbiome patterns that we observed, rather a description of some interesting patterns, whose underlying mechanism remains to be uncovered. Conclusions The present study envisioned interrelationships between the pattern of gut microbiome and the nutritional status of children. The cause of this pattern needs to be explored. However, insights obtained from the present study form the basis for further metagenomic investigations on larger population of children. Results of such studies will be useful in identifying the key microbial groups that can be utilized for targeted therapeutic interventions for managing severe acute malnutrition. PMID

  20. Gut microbiomes of Indian children of varying nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Gupta, Sourav Sen; Bhattacharya, Tanudeep; Yadav, Deepak; Barik, Anamitra; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Bhabatosh; Mande, Sharmila S; Nair, G Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is a global health problem affecting more than 300 million pre-school children worldwide. It is one of the major health concerns in India since around 50% of children below the age of two suffer from various forms of malnutrition. The gut microbiome plays an important role in nutrient pre-processing, assimilation and energy harvest from food. Consequently, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in malnutrition. Metagenomics approach was adopted to investigate the gut microbiome sampled from 20 rural Indian children with varying nutritional status. The changes in the abundances of various taxonomic and functional groups were investigated across these gut microbiomes. A core set of 23 genera were observed across samples, with some showing differential abundances with varying nutritional status. One of the findings of the current study is the positive/negative associations of specific taxonomic and functional groups with the nutritional status of the children. Notable alterations in the architecture of the inter-microbial co-occurrence networks were also observed with changes in nutritional status. A key example is the clustering of potentially pathogenic groups into a distinct hub in severely malnourished gut. Our data does not demonstrate causality with the microbiome patterns that we observed, rather a description of some interesting patterns, whose underlying mechanism remains to be uncovered. The present study envisioned interrelationships between the pattern of gut microbiome and the nutritional status of children. The cause of this pattern needs to be explored. However, insights obtained from the present study form the basis for further metagenomic investigations on larger population of children. Results of such studies will be useful in identifying the key microbial groups that can be utilized for targeted therapeutic interventions for managing severe acute malnutrition.

  1. Evaluation of nutritional status and energy expenditure in athletes.

    PubMed

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Luzardo-Socorro, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, Nieves; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Continuous physical exercise leads the athlete to maintain an unstable balance between dietary intake, energy expenditure and the additional demands of a high amount of physical activity. Thus, an accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential to optimize the performance, since it affects health, body composition, and the recovery of the athlete. Specific aspects like the type of sport, specialty or playing position, training schedule and competition calendar, category, specific objectives, which differ from the general population, must be considered. A biochemical assessment can give us a general idea of the nutritional status, lipid profile, liver or kidney function, if diet is too high in proteins or fats, as well as possible nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation. Sport kinanthropometry has great utility that enables the assessment of body mass, height, length, diameter, perimeter and skinfolds, where information is processed by applying different equations, obtaining information on somatotype, body composition, and the proportionality of different parts of the body. To give proper nutritional counselling, energy needs of the athlete must be known. If objective measurement is not possible, there are tables including theoretically established energy requirements of different sports. Dietary assessment should include information about food consumption and nutrient intake to establish the relationship between diet, health status and athlete's performance. On the other hand, an adequate hydration status in athletes is essential to maintain adequate performance. Hence, the knowledge of fluid intake by the athlete is a matter of the utmost importance. Dehydration can cause harmful effects on athletes' health. As there is no gold standard, urine gravidity and urine colour are the most extended methods for analyzing hydration status. There is consensus that due to complexity, the combination of different methods assures an effective data

  2. Seasonality, household food security, and nutritional status in Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hillbruner, Chris; Egan, Rebecca

    2008-09-01

    The influence of seasonality on food security and nutritional status is widely accepted. However, research has typically focused on rural households and has not explored the specific mechanisms underlying seasonal effects. To investigate the role of seasonality in determining the food security and nutritional status of low-income urban households and to isolate specific pathways through which seasonality has its impact. Secondary panel data from CARE/IFPRI were utilized. Three rounds of data were collected from approximately 600 households in low-income areas of Dinajpur, Bangladesh, from 2002 through 2003, twice during the monsoon season and once in the dry season. Household-level surveys collected data on income and expenditure, employment, urban agriculture, health, and assets. Height and weight measurements were taken from children between the ages of 6 and 72 months. Paired t-tests and logistic fixed-effects modeling were then used to explore the role of seasonality. The prevalence rates of food insecurity, wasting, and inadequate growth were all significantly higher during the monsoon season as compared with the dry season. Dietary diversity and lost work due to the weather were identified as specific pathways through which season affected household food security. However, mechanisms hypothesized to contribute to seasonal declines in nutritional status, such as child illness, were not found to be significant. Season had a significant effect on both food security and nutritional status in Dinajpur, with households consistently worse off during the monsoon season. Initiatives to promote food market development, support employment during the hunger season, and prevent seasonal declines in nutritional status should be implemented.

  3. Relationships among nutritional self-efficacy, health locus of control and nutritional status in older Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Hui; Acton, Gayle; Shao, Jung-Hua

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among selected demographic characteristics, nutrition self-efficacy, health locus of control and nutritional status in older Taiwanese adults. The number of older adults in Taiwan is increasing, and they have been shown to have poor nutritional status. However, little is known about the factors that lead to poor nutritional status in this population. Correlational, cross-sectional study. Participants were randomly selected from two district public health centres in Yilan County, Taiwan. Of 162 individuals who met the study criteria, 156 agreed to participate and provided data on demographic information, nutrition self-efficacy (Cardiac Diet Self-Efficacy scale), health locus of control (Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale) and nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment and serum albumin levels). The majority of this sample was healthy men (60.9%) with a mean age of 72.29 years. The results indicated that age, educational level, current chronic diseases and chance health locus of control all affected nutritional status in terms of Mini-Nutritional Assessment scores, but only current chronic diseases explained significant variance in nutritional status in terms of albumin levels. The current study integrated self-efficacy theory and Health Locus of Control theory to better understand how background characteristics, nutrition self-efficacy and Health Locus of Control relate to nutritional status in older Taiwanese adults. However, the overall predicted variance accounted for by predictors was small, further research is therefore necessary to gain a deeper understanding of nutritional status and its factors among older Taiwanese adults. Nurses can help older persons identify factors that relate to their nutritional status and plan effective interventions to maintain healthy nutrition behaviours with the following risk characteristics: (1) lower level of education, (2) more chronic diseases and

  4. Impact of nutritional status on peritonitis in CAPD patients.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Narayan; Gupta, Amit; Sharma, Raj K; Sinha, Archna; Kumar, Ramesh

    2007-01-01

    To determine the impact of nutritional status on peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in a developing country. 56 patients with end-stage renal disease on CAPD were randomly selected for this study. These patients were assessed for nutritional status and peritonitis episodes. Nutritional parameters were assessed by anthropometry, diet, body mass index (BMI), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), serum albumin level, and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Based on SGA, patients were categorized into either group 1 (malnutrition, n = 31) or group 2 (normal nutritional status, n = 25). Peritonitis was considered the primary outcome and was compared between the two groups. Demographic profiles, Kt/V, creatinine clearance, and mean follow-up of the two groups were similar. Number of peritonitis episodes was significantly higher in patients with malnutrition (25/31) compared to patients with normal nutritional status (4/25) (p = 0.001). Mean peritonitis rate per patient per year was also significantly higher in patients with malnutrition (0.99 +/- 1.07) compared to patients with normal nutritional status (0.18 +/- 0.42) (p = 0.007). On univariate analysis, malnutrition based on SGA (p = 0.009), NRI (p = 0.02), serum albumin level (p = 0.005), and calorie intake (p = 0.006) was a significant predictor of peritonitis. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, only SGA (p = 0.001, odds ratio 0.08, 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.36) was found to be a significant predictor of peritonitis. On general linear model, the observed power of prediction of peritonitis was 0.96 based on SGA. On Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, peritonitis-free survival in patients with normal nutrition (42 months) was significantly higher compared to patients with malnutrition (21 months) based on SGA (log rank p = 0.003). We conclude that peritonitis rate is high in patients with malnutrition and that malnutrition indices, especially SGA, can predict the peritonitis rate

  5. Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional risk in hospitalized Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Moeeni, Vesal; Walls, Tony; Day, Andrew S

    2012-10-01

      This study aimed to define the nutritional state of children admitted to a tertiary Iranian hospital and to evaluate nutritional risk score tools in these children.   The anthropometry of hospitalized and healthy children from the same community was determined. Three nutritional risk score tools were applied to all inpatients.   One hundred and nineteen inpatients were recruited along with a comparison group of 100 children. The prevalence of under-nutrition in the inpatient group was 25.2% and 3% in the community group (p < 0.0001). Obesity/overweight was more prevalent in the community group than the inpatients (22% versus 2.5%: p = 0.04). Severely malnourished children had a longer hospital stay than those with normal nutrition (p < 0.0001). The nutritional risk score tools identified between 83% and 90% of the malnourished patients in the moderate and high-risk groups. The STRONG(kids) tool correlated more strongly with anthropometric measurements than the other tools. The length of hospital stay was associated with risk status (p = 0.004).   Hospitalized Iranian children have higher rates of under-nutrition than healthy children from the same community. NRS tools were able to identify children at nutritional risk; however, variable utility was observed. Further assessment of NRS tools in the developing setting is required. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  6. Nutritional risk, nutritional status and incident disability in older adults. The FRADEA study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Reig, M; Gómez-Arnedo, L; Alfonso-Silguero, S A; Juncos-Martínez, G; Romero, L; Abizanda, P

    2014-03-01

    To analyze if body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as measures of nutritional status, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) as a nutritional risk measure are associated with increased risk of incident disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL) in a population based cohort of Spanish older adults. Concurrent cohort study. Albacete City, Spain. 678 subjects over age 70 from the FRADEA Study (Frailty and Dependence in Albacete). BMI, WC and MNA-SF were recorded at the basal visit of the FRADEA Study. Incident disability in BADL was defined as loss of the ability to perform bathing, grooming, dressing, toilet use, or feeding from basal to follow-up visit, using the Barthel index. The association between nutritional status and nutritional risk with incident BADL disability was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, basal function, comorbidity, cognitive decline, depression risk and frailty status. Each point less of MNA-SF (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.04-1.31) and MNA-SF<14 (OR 2.33, 95%CI 1.39-3.89), but not MNA-SF<12 (OR 1.47, 95%CI 0.89-2.42) had a greater adjusted risk of incident disability in BADL. Neither BMI (OR 1.02, 95%CI 0.97-1.06) nor WC (OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.99-1.03) were associated. Weight loss (OR 1.75, 95%CI 1.08-2.83) and mobility impairment (OR 3.35, 95%CI 1.67-6.73) remained as adjusted predictors of incident BADL disability, while anorexia almost reached the significance (OR 1.65, 95%CI 0.94-2.87). Nutritional risk measured with the MNA-SF is associated with incident disability in BADL in older adults, while nutritional status measured with BMI or WC is not.

  7. Clinical assessment of nutritional status and feeding programs in horses.

    PubMed

    Becvarova, Iveta; Pleasant, R Scott; Thatcher, Craig D

    2009-04-01

    Veterinarians are a primary source of nutritional information and advice for horse owners. This article reviews methods for clinical assessment of nutritional status and feeding programs that can be applied to an individual horse or group of horses. Physical examination, including measurement of body weight and evaluation of body condition score, estimation of nutrient requirements and the nutrient content of the horse's diet, and evaluation of the feeding method are important components of the assessment. Ongoing clinical assessment of health and body condition will gauge the need for reassessment of the feeding plan. Obvious indications for prompt reevaluation of diet and feeding include changes in health status (eg, body condition), life stage or physiologic state (eg, pregnancy), or performance status.

  8. Effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and nutritional status of older adults living alone.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, JeeWon; Kim, Chun-Ja

    2017-09-07

    The effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and nutritional status of 71 older adults living alone were examined. Although a regular dietary meal plan is recommended for improving nutritional status of older adults living alone, little research is done in this field in Korea. A pre- and post-test controlled quasi-experimental design was used at public health centres. The intervention group participated in an intensive nutritional education and support programme once a week for 8 weeks with dietary menus provided by home visiting nurses/dieticians; control group received usual care. Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were assessed using structured questionnaires; nutritional intake status was analysed using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program 5.0. The mean age of participants was 77.6 years, and 81.7% of the participants were women. At 8 weeks, there were significant interactions of group by time for dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and selected nutritional status of protein, iron, and vitamins of B2 and C. Changes over time in the mean score of dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. The percentages of normal nutrition intake of protein, iron, and vitamins A and C in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at 8 weeks. Nutritional education and support programme positively impacted dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and selected nutritional status in older adults living alone, and we highlight the need for community-based nutritional education and counselling programmes. Older adults living alone in a community have relatively poor nutritional status and thus require tailored nutritional intervention according to objective nutritional analysis. It is necessary to link visiting nurses with dieticians in the community to manage effective nutritional

  9. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life (“The first 1000 days”). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases. PMID:27275827

  10. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-06-06

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life ("The first 1000 days"). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  11. Nutritional status and physical fitness of elderly sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Chatard, J C; Boutet, C; Tourny, C; Garcia, S; Berthouze, S; Guézennec, C Y

    1998-01-01

    The nutritional status of elderly sportsmen has not been reported on, neither has the nutritional balance nor the precise relationship between nutritional status and physical fitness been detailed for this population. Thus, group of 18 sportsmen [age 63 (SD 4.5) years] was monitored by weighing their food during a 6-day period. Macro nutrient, mineral and vitamin content was derived from tables. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) and sport activity (DSA) were quantified over a 7-day period using a questionnaire. Physical fitness was assessed by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurements. The DEE was 11429 (SD 1890) kJ x day(-1). The DSA corresponded to 38% of DEE and VO2max to 35.9 (SD 6.1) ml x min(-1) x kg(-1). When compared with French recommended dietary allowances (RDA) intakes were higher for energy (+ 24%), macro nutrients, and most minerals and vitamins. Despite high energy intakes, some subjects had mineral and vitamin deficits. Energy intakes were significantly related to intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, iron, vitamins B2, B6, C and to VO2max, but not to age. Stepwise regressions indicated that vitamin C intake was the only determinant to have a relationship with VO2max. Thus, most elderly sportsmen had higher nutritional status than RDA, although some had mineral and vitamin deficits. It is therefore suggested that elderly sportsmen should be encouraged to consume food with higher mineral and vitamin contents.

  12. Nutritional status of patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Yasushi; Ikeda, Naoki; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Kadota, Yoshihisa; Okumura, Meinoshin; Ohno, Yuko; Ohta, Mitsunori

    2012-04-01

    Impaired nutrition is an important predictor of perioperative complications in lung cancer patients, and preoperative chemoradiotherapy increases the risk of such complications. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of an immune-enhancing diet on nutritional status in patients undergoing lung resection after chemoradiotherapy. We compared the preoperative nutritional status in 15 patients with lung cancer undergoing lung resection without chemoradiotherapy and 15 who had chemoradiotherapy. Body mass index and lymphocyte counts were lower in patients who had chemoradiotherapy. Although there was no difference in the rate of postoperative morbidity between groups, the chemoradiotherapy patients were more likely to have severe complications postoperatively. After chemoradiotherapy in 12 patients, 6 received oral Impact for 5 days, and 6 had a conventional diet before surgery. Oral intake of Impact for 5 days before surgery modified the decrease in transferrin and lymphocytes after the operation. Preoperative immunonutrition may improve the perioperative nutritional status after induction chemoradiotherapy in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery, and reduce the severity of postoperative complications. These potential benefits need to be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial.

  13. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru. PMID:27563920

  14. Nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Emine Handan; Güven, Duygu Korkem; Eker, Levent; Elbasan, Bülent; Bülbül, Selda Fatma

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status, and provide information regarding anthropometric measurements of cerebral-palsied children living in the city of Ankara, Turkey. A total of 447 children with cerebral palsy (CP) were participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were assessed for functional motor impairment by the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS). Assesment of nutritional status was based on the triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm fat area (AFA) estimates derived from TSF and mid-upper arm circumference measurements. TSF and AFA Z-scores were computed using reference data. Cerebral-palsied children had lower TSF and AFA Z-scores compared to reference data from healthy children. The prevalence of underweight and overweight among boys was 8.3 and 9.5%, respectively, whereas it was 19.0 and 0.5% for girls. Underweight was more prevalent in the low functioning children than in moderate functioning children. The findings of this study indicate that cerebral-palsied children face nutritional challenges. Underweight is more prevalent than overweight among cerebral-palsied children. To optimize the outcomes of rehabilitation and prevention efforts, an understanding of the heterogeneity of nutritional status among children with CP is required.

  15. Results of nutritional status surveillance in El Salvador, 1975 - 77*

    PubMed Central

    Trowbridge, Frederick L.; Stetler, Harrison C.

    1982-01-01

    Nutritional status surveillance data based on the clinical diagnosis of malnutrition and on weight-for-age, as well as diarrhoeal disease data for preschool age children attending government health clinics in El Salvador are presented for a 3-year period (1975 - 77). Surveillance results indicated consistently higher rates of clinical malnutrition and weight-for-age deficit in rural children as compared with urban children, and higher malnutrition rates in children 1 - 4 years of age as compared with infants less than 1 year old. Consistent seasonal increases in malnutrition were observed that were most pronounced in older preschool children (1 - 4 years) in rural areas. Seasonal peaks in malnutrition consistently followed 1 - 2 months after the major seasonal peak in diarrhoea at the onset of the rainy season, suggesting that diarrhoea may play a role in the etiology of malnutrition. A secondary seasonal peak in diarrhoea in the cooler, dry season was most prominent in infants but was not related to increased malnutrition. These results indicate that nutritional and health status indicators formed from data collected regularly at health centres can demonstrate consistent age group, urban/rural, and seasonal differences in nutritional status that may be useful in identifying risk groups and in monitoring nutritional changes for planning and evaluation purposes. PMID:6982777

  16. Physical methods for evaluating the nutrition status of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Daniele; Wabel, Peter; Wieskotten, Sebastian; Ciotola, Annalisa; Grassmann, Aileen; Di Benedetto, Attilio; Canaud, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the different nutritional markers and the available methodologies for the physical assessment of nutrition status in hemodialysis patients, with special emphasis on early detection of protein energy wasting (PEW). Nutrition status assessment is made on the basis of anamnesis, physical examination, evaluation of nutrient intake, and on a selection of various screening/diagnostic methodologies. These methodologies can be subjective, e.g. the Subjective Global Assessment score (SGA), or objective in nature (e.g. bioimpedance analysis). In addition, certain biochemical tests may be employed (e.g. albumin, pre-albumin). The various subjective-based and objective methodologies provide different insights for the assessment of PEW, particularly regarding their propensity to differentiate between the important body composition compartments-fluid overload, fat mass and muscle mass. This review of currently available methods showed that no single approach and no single marker is able to detect alterations in nutrition status in a timely fashion and to follow such changes over time. The most clinically relevant approach presently appears to be the combination of the SGA method with the bioimpedance spectroscopy technique with physiological model and, additionally, laboratory tests for the detection of micro-nutrient deficiency.

  17. Parenteral nutrition improves nutritional status, autonomic symptoms and quality of life in transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Russo, Massimo; Vita, Gian Luca; Stancanelli, Claudia; Mazzeo, Anna; Vita, Giuseppe; Messina, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is an inherited amyloidosis, leading to death in about ten years in most cases due to cardiac failure or wasting syndrome. Previous studies showed that modified body mass index was related to time before death, duration of gastrointestinal disturbances, malabsorption and functional capacity. We report two patients in whom nutritional status worsened despite diet modification, hypercaloric supplement and two relevant therapeutic approaches such as liver transplant and tafamidis meglumine, respectively. The first patient, a 52-year-old lady carrying Thr49Ala mutation, had a disease duration of twelve years and had lost weight up to 35 kg because of daily diarrhea. The second patient, a 63-year-old man with Glu89Gln mutation and a disease duration of fifteen years, was in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification class III and his weight was 39 kg. In both cases, a peripherally inserted central catheter was placed for parenteral nutrition. It allowed to improve their nutritional status and clinical conditions, with body weight gains of 11 and 8 kg in a one year follow-up, respectively. Moreover, reduction of autonomic symptoms including postural hypotension, nausea and diarrhoea was recorded with ameliorated quality of life. Our experience suggests that parenteral nutrition may be useful in reducing complications and disabilities in TTR-FAP patients, even when all dietary adjustments have been ineffective. Reasonably, the improvement in nutritional status may prolong survival in TTR-FAP patients.

  18. Factors associated with nutritional status of 7-10 year-old schoolchildren: sociodemographic variables, dietary and parental nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Carla de O; Pudla, Kátia J; Longo, Giana Z; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de A G

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight / obesity in schoolchildren, and to investigate its association with parents' nutritional status, socioeconomic factors and food consumption. Cross-sectional study with 1,223 schoolchildren, 7 to 10 years old from Florianópolis, SC. We collected anthropometric measures directly and dietary intake of previous day; parents' data were collected from a socioeconomic and self-reported anthropometric questionnaire. Schoolchildren's nutritional status was defined using the Body Mass Index (BMI) for age and sex according to the reference data of the World Health Organization (2007), and parents' nutritional status was defined according to the World Health Organization BMI cutoff points (1995). We performed bivariate and multivariate analysis using Poisson regression. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 36.2% in boys and 32.7% among girls. The prevalence was 56.3% and 27.5% in fathers and mothers, respectively. In the final model, mother's (p = 0.001) and father's nutritional status (p = 0.050) remained directly associated with schoolchildren's overweight/obesity. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 1.58 times higher in schoolchildren with overweight/obese mothers, and 1.41 times higher in schoolchildren with overweight/obese fathers, compared to mothers and fathers without the condition. There was a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among schoolchildren, which was associated with the nutritional status of mothers and fathers. These results confirm the need to prevent overweight/obesity in schoolchildren with actions that also involve the family environment in order to reduce obesity in this population.

  19. The development of android - based children's nutritional status monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanto, Agus; Paramita, Octavianti; Pribadi, Feddy Setio

    2017-03-01

    The calculation of BMI (Body Mass Index) is one of the methods to calculate the nutritional status of a person. The BMI calculation has not yet widely understood and known by the public. In addition, people should know the importance of progress in the development of child nutrition each month. Therefore, an application to determine the nutritional status of children based on Android was developed in this study. This study restricted the calculation for children with the age of 0-60 months. The application can run on a smartphone or tablet PC with android operating system due to the rapid development of a smartphone or tablet PC with android operating system and many people own and use it. The aim of this study was to produce a android app to calculate of nutritional status of children. This study was Research and Development (R & D), with a design approach using experimental studies. The steps in this study included analyzing the formula of the Body Mass Index (BMI) and developing the initial application with the help of a computer that includes the design and manufacture of display using Eclipse software. This study resulted in android application that can be used to calculate the nutritional status of children with the age 0-60 months. The results of MES or the error calculation analysis using body mass index formula was 0. In addition, the results of MAPE percentage was 0%. It shows that there is no error in the calculation of the application based on the BMI formula. The smaller value of MSE and MAPE leads to higher level of accuracy.

  20. [Nutritional status and mortality in community acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pecci, María Soledad; Carlson, Damián; Montero-Tinnirello, Javier; Parodi, Roberto L; Montero, Antonio; Greca, Alcides A

    2010-01-01

    Pneumonias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and their prognosis depends on many factors including nutritional status. This study analyzed the relationship between malnutrition and the risk of death in Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) patients. This is a prospective observational study. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) was used as a screening tool to appraise the nutritional status. Ninety-eight patients with CAP requiring hospitalization were included consecutively from October 2004 to September 2006. The clinical, bacteriological and laboratory features were recorded. Patient's nutritional condition was assessed using the SGA. The monitoring was performed until discharge, death or shunt. Persistent cough or fever, the presence of pleural effusion, malignancies or long hospitalization were associated with worse prognosis. Mortality increased in proportion to the degree of malnutrition. Thirty two CAP patients (32.65%) were classified as SGA-category A; 44 (44.90%) as SGA-B, and 22 (22.45%) as SGA-C. Pneumonia resulted in death in 3/32 SGA-A (9.37%), 8/44 SGA-B (18.18%) and 10/22 SGA-C patients. SGA-C patients showed significantly higher odds ratios for death in comparison to SGA-A patients (OR = 6.085, CI95%: 1.071-34.591; p = 0.042). Considering death as the outcome variable, SGA-A class had the highest negative predictive value (0.906), while SGA-C class showed the highest positive predictive value (0.455). These results link the nutritional status to the NAC evolution prognostic. SGA provides a simple estimation of the nutritional status and it is a good predictor of the risk of death in CAP patients.

  1. Seasonal Variations of Nutritional Status in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ilić Begović, Tanja; Radić, Josipa; Radić, Mislav; Kovačić, Vedran; Šain, Milenka; Ljutić, Dragan

    2016-10-01

    Nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD) patients is influenced by a multitude of factors and it strongly correlates with morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of seasonal changes on nutritional status in maintenance HD patients. A selected population of 84 adult (40 females and 44 males, aged 68.98 ± 13.45 years) HD (5.94 ± 6.44 years) patients were investigated. Clinical, biochemical and nutritional parameters (BMI, creatinine, urea, serum albumin, total cholesterol and Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) were measured in cold (January and December) and mild (June and September) months, altogether in 336 HD sessions. Statistically significant differences between cold and mild months were found in BMI (P = 0.046), creatinine before HD (P = 0.011), urea before HD (P ≤ 0.001), urea after HD (P ≤ 0.001) and glucose (P =  0.001). Differences between male and female patients in DMS, serum albumin and creatinine level in cold and mild months were found; where females altogether had higher DMS score and lower serum albumin and creatinine levels. These results suggest that seasonal variations of clinical and laboratory variables that reflect nutritional status occur commonly among maintenance HD patients and might lead to biases in the interpretation of results in clinical studies in which measurement schedules vary during the year. Also, results suggested that female HD patients may constitute an especially vulnerable population for seasonal oscillations of nutritional status. The reasons for most of these variations are not apparent and require further investigation. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  2. Altered taste perception and nutritional status among hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Katherine E; Lynch, Rebecca; Curhan, Gary C; Brunelli, Steven M

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between altered taste perception and nutritional status among hemodialysis patients. We performed a post hoc analysis of data from the Hemodialysis study (n = 1,745). Taste perception was assessed at baseline and then updated annually using an item from a quality of life survey that asked "During the past 4 weeks, to what extent were you bothered by loss of taste?" Responses were categorized as normal taste perception if subjects answered "not at all" or altered taste perception if they reported any degree of bother. Time-updated logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of altered taste perception. Time-updated linear regression models were used to examine the association between altered taste perception and indices of nutritional status. Multivariable proportional hazards and Poisson models were used to assess association between altered taste perception and mortality and hospitalization, respectively. At baseline, 34.6% reported altered taste perception, which was associated with poorer baseline nutritional status. On time-updated analysis, altered taste perception was associated with a persistently higher proportion of subjects requiring enteral nutritional supplements and lower serum albumin, serum creatinine, normalized protein catabolic rate, protein intake, sodium intake, and mid-arm muscle circumference. Altered taste perception at baseline was independently associated with increased all-cause mortality: adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.17 (1.01-1.37), although not with increased rate of hospitalization. Altered taste perception was common among prevalent hemodialysis patients and was independently associated with poorer indices of nutritional status and increased all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional status according to the stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Marino, Larissa Vieira; Ramos, Liliana Figueiredo Andrade de Oliveira; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2015-08-01

    To assess the nutritional status of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with no other associated dementia, according to disease stage. Cross-sectional observational study. Neurobehavioral Diseases Outpatient Clinic, Clinical Hospital, Ribeirao Preto Medical School (University of São Paulo). The sample consisted of 36 individuals of both genders with AD diagnosis, and no other associated type of dementia, in various stages of the disease, according to the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR 0.5-3). Nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and anthropometric measurements such as weight, body mass index (BMI) and arm, waist, abdomen and hip circumferences. In addition, body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The mean age of the group was 74.2 ± 10.1 years, 72.2 % of them were women. The MNA showed that most of these individuals were at risk for malnutrition (55.5 %) and many of them (43.7 %) were underweight according to BMI. Data from BIA analysis revealed that 41.7 % of these individuals had a quantity of body fat classified as malnutrition and 11.1 % had a phase angle (PA) below recommended values for age group. There was a negative and significant correlation of lean mass and PA with age, and of global MNA evaluation with CDR, as well as a positive correlation of MNA total score with fat mass and BMI. Worse classifications of nutritional status obtained by MNA scores were also observed in the more severe stages of the disease, according to the CDR. Patients with AD are mostly elderly with changes in body composition that are typical of aging, with signs of peripheral malnutrition and preservation of abdominal fat. However, greater impairment of general nutritional status was observed in the more advanced stages of AD, creating a situation of greater vulnerability for these patients.

  4. [Relation between nutritional status of adolescent mothers and neonatal development].

    PubMed

    Arcos Griffiths, E; Olivo Mardones, A; Romero Zambrano, J; Saldivia Sánchez, J; Cortez Quintana, J; Carretta Muñoz, L

    1995-06-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation and low birthweight--factors that strongly influence the physical and mental development of a child--are in turn affected by the nutritional status of the mother during pregnancy and, to a certain extent, by her pregestational nutritional status. Pregnant adolescents constitute a high-risk group for nutritional problems because their own bodies are still growing. In order to examine the correlation between several variables related to body composition and nutritional status in a group of pregnant adolescents and certain indicators of neonatal development, a prospective longitudinal study was carried out in Valdivia, Chile, from September 1988 to May 1992. The study cohort was made up of 184 pairs consisting of mothers under 17 years of age who had attended a prenatal monitoring program and their newborns. The following groups of variables were tested for correlation: indicators of maternal body composition before pregnancy (pregestational weight recorded by the mother, height measured during the first visit to the program, and body mass index [pregestational weight/(height upon entering the program)]; indicators of maternal body composition during pregnancy (weight and body mass index upon entering the program and before giving birth, weekly weight gain, and total weight gain); and indicators of neonatal development (weight and length at birth, gestational age, and cranial perimeter). The weight of the mother before giving birth was statistically significantly correlated with the gestational age, length, weight, and cranial perimeter of the newborn. The body mass index prior to giving birth was weakly correlated with the weight and length of the newborn, and a significant direct correlation was also observed between the weight of the pregnant adolescent upon entering the program and the weight of her child at birth. No correlation was found between the indicators of fetal development and those of maternal pregestational body

  5. [The nutritional status of children in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Uglitskikh, A K; Kon', I Ia; Ostreĭkov, I F; Shilina, N M; Smirnov, V F

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the nutritional status of infants in intensive care units (ICU). It shows nutritional trends in 269 children aged 1 month to 15 years, treated in the ICU of a Tushino children's city hospital, Moscow, for brain injury, abdominal surgical diseases, and severe pneumonia. The paper evaluates the physical development of children in the ICU, shows the trends in weight-height, somatometric, laboratory parameters, and balance study data. The values of protein losses and nitrogen balance in children in the postaggression period and their relationship to age and feeding mode (enteral, parenteral-enteral) are shown.

  6. Association between oral health status and nutritional status in south Brazilian independent-living older people.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Renato José; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Evidence suggests that older people with partial tooth loss and edentulism change their diet and lack specific nutrients, but few studies have assessed whether poor oral status is associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in independent-living older people. We evaluated if poor oral status was associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in this population. A random sample of 471 south Brazilians > or =60 y of age was evaluated. Measurements included a questionnaire to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, general, and oral health data; nutritional status assessment, according to the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and oral status assessment, by means of oral examinations assessing the number of teeth and use of dental prostheses. Correlates of risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the MNA were assessed by means of multivariate logistic regression. Participants who reported dissatisfaction with their gingival health and edentulous persons wearing only one denture were more likely to be at risk of malnutrition, according to the screening MNA. Dissatisfaction with gingival health was a risk indicator, whereas having one to eight natural teeth was protective against the risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the full MNA. In the present study, older people with a compromised oral status had higher odds for risk of malnutrition. The maintenance of a few teeth had a crucial role in increasing the chance of maintaining an adequate nutritional status in the studied population. In cases where edentulism was present, complete dental prosthetic use was associated with better nutritional status.

  7. [Nutrition and nutritional status in infants and children of early years of life in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Tutel'ian, V A; Baturin, A K; Kon', I Ia; Safronova, A M; Keshabiants, E E; Starovoĭtov, M L; Gmoshinskaia, M V

    2010-01-01

    The study of the nutrition and the nutritional status children of the first year age and children earliest age were conducted on nationally representative surveys (2500 children, 2-24 months) the Institute of Nutrition, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences with the Institute of Sociology Russian of Academy of Sciences, Gerber Product Company and Nestle Company in 2006. The level the frequency of breast feeding had among children 1 m.--80%, 2-4 m.--70%, 4-6 m.--60%. The lowest body mass Z-scores were registered 0.5-5.0% among of children, the tendency of obesity increase in the age were registered from 1.6 to 13% of children. Calculations of chemical composition and energy value of actual nutrition have show according to the values requirements.

  8. Vision impairment and nutritional status among older assisted living residents.

    PubMed

    Muurinen, Seija M; Soini, Helena H; Suominen, Merja H; Saarela, Riitta K T; Savikko, Niina M; Pitkälä, Kaisu H

    2014-01-01

    Vision impairment is common among older persons. It is a risk factor for disability, and it may be associated with nutritional status via decline in functional status. However, only few studies have examined the relationship between vision impairment and nutritional status, which was investigated in this cross-sectional study. The study included all residents living in the assisted living facilities in Helsinki and Espoo in 2007. Residents in temporary respite care were excluded (5%). Of permanent residents (N=2214), 70% (N=1475) consented. Trained nurses performed a personal interview and assessment of each resident including the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), functional and health status. Patient records were used to confirm demographic data and medical history. Mortality in 2010 was retrieved from central registers. Of the residents, 17.5% (N=245) had vision impairment and they were not able to read regular print. Those with vision impairment were older, more often females, and malnourished according to MNA. They had lower BMI, and suffered more often from dementia and chewing problems than those without vision impairment. In logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, chewing problems and dementia, vision impairment was independently associated with resident's malnutrition (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.80-3.51). According to our results older residents in assisted living with vision impairment are at high risk for malnutrition. Therefore it is important to assess nutritional status of persons with vision impairment. It would be beneficial to repeat this kind of a study also in elderly community population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Levels and correlates of maternal nutritional status in urban Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Baqui, A H; Arifeen, S E; Amin, S; Black, R E

    1994-05-01

    Researchers analyzed anthropometric data from 2417 nonpregnant mothers, socioeconomic data from 2048 mothers, reproductive history data from 1314 mothers, and socioeconomic and reproductive history data from 1185 mothers to determine the levels and correlates of maternal nutritional status of nonpregnant mothers in the slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Mean weight, height, middle-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC), and body mass index (BMI) of the 2417 mothers stood at 41.8 kg, 148.8 cm, 232.5 mm, and 18.8, respectively. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that mothers' schooling and household economic status had a significant positive effect on weight, MUAC, and BMI (p .05 and .01, respectively). Schooling had a significant positive association with mothers' height (p .05), but household economic status did not. Maternal height and weight had a significant negative association with child death (p .001 and .05, respectively). Mothers equal to or less than 155 cm had an increased risk of child death (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4-2.64), with those less than 140 cm in height having the greatest risk of child death (OR = 2.64). Short stature linked to child loss indicates a possible intergenerational influence of poor childhood nutrition, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status for girls would improve child health in the next generation. Sophisticated and long-term planning is needed, however, to achieve improved nutritional status of girls due to various obstacles (e.g., son preference, poverty, food scarcity, and high prevalence of infectious diseases). In the meantime, maternal and child health workers should target shorter mothers (i.e., 145 cm) for appropriate prenatal and obstetric care, since they face the greatest risk of child death.

  10. Parental perception and child's nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Yalçın, S Songül; Serdaroğlu, Esra; İnce, O Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a health hazard increasing worldwide. Preschool period which is under supervision of parents is a critical period to detect overweight and take precautions. We studied the factors affecting parental estimation of their preschool child's weight. Three hundred sixty seven mothers completed questionnaires consisting of child's and parents' anthropometric measurements, parents' assessment of their child's and their own weight status, and general information about their lifestyle. Mothers also chose their wish for current and future body image of their child from child drawings representing percentiles. Child body mass index-for-age z score (BAZ) was related to birth weight and child's appetite. BAZ was not related to child's gender, presence of chronic disease, family pattern, parental age, education or income. 43.1 % of mothers correctly assessed child's BAZ verbally. Maternal verbal estimation was correlated with maternal visual estimation, paternal verbal estimation and child's BAZ. Mothers' wish for future figure of the child was not related to child's BAZ, but showed correlation with mothers' wish for current figure of the child. Mother's correct perception of her child's weight was found to be high, consistent with her spouse and related to child's BAZ.

  11. Nutritional status and nutritional habits of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer - preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Rygielska, Magda; Nowacka, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The ageing in men, the most frequent pathologic lesions affecting the prostatic gland in this period are benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PC), the course of which may be influenced by the improper nutritional status of patients and their nutritional habits. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the nutritional status and eating habits of men diagnosed and treated for one of the above diseases. MATERIAL AND METODS: The nutritional status of 30 male patients with clinically confirmed and treated disease of the prostatic gland, including 15 men (aged 51-75 years) with BPH and 15 men (aged 51-73 years) with PC, was evaluated based on their BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR parameters. In turn, the energy and nutritive value of 90 daily food rations (DFRs) was evaluated. Finally, calculations were made for the Key's index of diet atherogenicity, resultant Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL). Higher values of the BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR parameters were noted in the men with PC, they were also characterized by a higher incidence of peripheral subcutaneous obesity and visceral obesity. The DFRs of the men were characterized by a low energy value and by a low intake of available carbohydrates, dietary fi ber, K, Ca, Mg, vitamins D and C, and fl uids at a simultaneously high intake of total and animal protein, cholesterol, Na, P, Fe, Cu as well as vitamins B2 and PP. The contribution of energy derived from the basic nutrients diverged from the recommended values. In addition, the DFRs were characterized by high values of Key's index and 24-h GL. Differences in meeting the RDA for selected nutrients between the analysed groups of men were statistically significant. The improper nutritional status of the men may result from their incorrect nutritional habits which fail to improve their health status, and even predispose them to the development of some diet-dependent diseases. In view of that, both correction of diets of the surveyed men, as well as

  12. Nutrition status of primary school children in Townsville.

    PubMed

    Heath, Deanne L; Panaretto, Kathryn S

    2005-10-01

    Much of the ill health of Australian Indigenous populations can be attributed to diet-related diseases. Many of these diseases and the deleterious dietary choices are thought to begin in early childhood. This project therefore aimed to assess the nutritional health status of children in Townsville. It enabled the Townsville Aboriginal and Islander community to identify and redress nutrition-related issues considered important in improving the overall health status of their community. Baseline urinalysis, anthropometrics, general overall health assessment, dietary and exercise histories were collected. This screening was repeated annually. Diet and exercise histories were recorded biannually. Based in three Northern Queensland health region (pre)primary schools with a high proportion of Indigenous children. Baseline results demonstrated that more children are overweight to obese than underweight. There was no significant difference in body mass index between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous children. Indigenous children were shown to consume less vegetable and dairy products and were significantly more likely to suffer from anaemia, iron depletion and eosinophilia than non-Indigenous children. Indigenous children were also twice as likely to have runny noses and are more than three times more likely to have skin sores. These results support that the health status of the Indigenous children is poorer than that of non-Indigenous children. They demonstrate an immediate need to implement culturally appropriate nutritional and exercise programs within the school environment to improve dietary habits and overall health. Implementation of nutritional, drinking and exercise programs may significantly improve these children's overall awareness and behaviour concerning nutrition and health.

  13. Early-life factors and endometriosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Holt, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study early-life factors in relation to endometriosis risk in adulthood. Design Population-based case-control study. Setting Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study was conducted among female enrollees ages 18-49 years of a large, integrated healthcare system in western Washington State. Patients Cases (n=310) were women diagnosed for the first time with endometriosis between years 1996-2001 and controls (n=727) were women without a diagnosis of endometriosis randomly selected from the healthcare system population. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between intrauterine diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, maternal smoking, mother’s age at delivery, firstborn status, birth weight, fetal number, prematurity, and regular soy formula feeding during infancy and endometriosis were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for frequency matching and confounding variables. Information on early-life factors was ascertained retrospectively by in-person interview, with information on maternal DES use and regular soy formula feeding directly gathered from the participant’s mother or other family member. Results We observed that women who were regularly fed soy formula as infants had over twice the risk of endometriosis compared to unexposed women (aOR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-4.9). Our data also suggested increased endometriosis risk with prematurity (aOR 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) and maternal use of DES (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 0.8-4.9, adjusting only for frequency matching variables), although these confidence intervals included the null. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that disruption of development during fetal and infant periods may increase the risk of endometriosis in adulthood. PMID:26211883

  14. Apelin and nutritional status in children on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Sevgi; Cetinkaya, Senay; Anarat, Ali; Bayazıt, Aysun Karabay

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether serum apelin could reflect the nutritional status of children on dialysis. Twelve patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 20 patients on hemodialysis (HD) were enrolled. Patients received individualized diet for six months. Anthropometric and laboratory indices were measured at onset and the end of the study. The anthropometric indices were all significantly lower in patients than in controls whereas similar in PD and HD patients. The protein catabolic rate (nPCR), height, mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) z scores were significantly increased in dialysis patients after nutritional intervention. Weight z scores statistically increased in HD group whereas did not statistically change in PD group. Serum albumin levels were significantly improved in PD and HD patients. Apelin levels were similar in PD, HD and control groups. Post nutritional apelin values did not differ in each dialysis groups. On multivariate analysis, apelin was independently associated with age, weight, ESR and TG. Apelin seems to be not a useful indicator for monitoring the nutritional status in children on dialysis. However, the close link of apelin with inflammatory and lipid parameters suggested that apelin might be a novel target for slowing the atherogenic process in pediatric dialysis patients.

  15. Early-life conditions and older adult health in low- and middle-income countries: a review.

    PubMed

    McEniry, M

    2013-02-01

    Population aging and subsequent projected large increases in chronic conditions will be important health concerns in low- and middle-income countries. Although evidence is accumulating, little is known regarding the impact of poor early-life conditions on older adult (50 years and older) health in these settings. A systematic review of 1141 empirical studies was conducted to identify population-based and community studies in low- and middle-income countries, which examined associations between early-life conditions and older adult health. The resulting review of 20 studies revealed strong associations between (1) in utero/early infancy exposures (independent of other early life and adult conditions) and adult heart disease and diabetes; (2) poor nutrition during childhood and difficulties in adult cognition and diabetes; (3) specific childhood illnesses such as rheumatic fever and malaria and adult heart disease and mortality; (4) poor childhood health and adult functionality/disability and chronic diseases; (5) poor childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult mortality, functionality/disability and cognition; and (6) parental survival during childhood and adult functionality/disability and cognition. In several instances, associations remained strong even after controlling for adult SES and lifestyle. Although exact mechanisms cannot be identified, these studies reinforce to some extent the importance of early-life environment on health at older ages. Given the paucity of cohort data from the developing world to examine hypotheses of early-life conditions and older adult health, population-based studies are relevant in providing a broad perspective on the origins of adult health.

  16. [Physical fitness, age and nutritional status of military personnel].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Clarissa Stefani; Pereira, Erico Felden

    2010-04-01

    Although there is a trend toward the decrease in levels of physical fitness, the intensity of this decrease due to the aging process and the nutritional status in adult male individuals is not well-known, especially in the Brazilian population. To analyze the levels of physical fitness according to age and the nutritional status in adult male individuals. Aerobic and muscular endurance tests as well as flexibility tests and nutritional status assessment were carried out in 1,011 male individuals. Analyses of correlation, covariance and prevalence ratio were performed through Poisson regression. The individuals presented a moderate performance at the physical fitness tests. A decrease in the levels of physical performance according to the aging process was verified, considering all age ranges analyzed. The analysis of covariance corrected by age showed differences (p<0.001) for all tests comparing normal individuals and those with overweight/obesity. The prevalence ratios showed a strong trend toward the decrease in the physical fitness from 18 to 54 years. Individuals aged 41 to 54 years presented prevalences of low VO(2max) index that were 3.22-fold higher when compared to those aged 18 to 20 and 1.40-fold higher when compared to individuals aged 21 to 25 years. There was a decrease in the VO(2max) scores in the 18 to 20 age range, when compared to the 41 to 54 age range, of 11.45% in the normal group and 20.91% in the group with overweight and obesity. Age and the nutritional status have a strong influence on the decreased physical performance scores, mainly after 30 years of age.

  17. Maternal stress and distress and child nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Rondó, P H C; Rezende, G; Lemos, J O; Pereira, J A

    2013-04-01

    To assess the relationship between maternal stress and distress in pregnancy and 5-8 years postpartum and child nutritional status. Longitudinal cohort study carried out in Jundiai city, Southeast Brazil, involving 409 women followed throughout pregnancy to 5-8 years postpartum, and respective children. Measures of stress and distress were obtained three times in pregnancy (at gestational ages lower than 16 weeks, from 20 to 26 weeks and from 30 to 36 weeks) and 5-8 years postpartum by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI). The nutritional status of the children was assessed by the World Health Organization body mass index (BMI) z-score for age. The relationship between child BMI z-score for age and scores of the PSS, GHQ and STAI was evaluated by multivariate linear regression, controlling for confounding variables. BMI z-score for age of the children was negatively associated with maternal scores of the PSS 5-8 years postpartum and scores of the GHQ in the second trimester of pregnancy. BMI of the children was positively associated with maternal BMI and birthweight (R(2)=0.13). There was -0.04 (confidence interval -0.07 to -0.9 × 10(-2)) decrease in child BMI per score unit of the PSS increase, and -0.09 (confidence interval -0.18 to -0.6 × 10(-3)) decrease in child BMI per score unit of the GHQ increase. This study detected a relationship between maternal mental and nutritional status and child nutritional status, implying that if the mother is not physically or mentally well, her capacity for caring for her child may be impaired.

  18. Nutritional status influences socially regulated foraging ontogeny in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Toth, Amy L; Kantarovich, Sara; Meisel, Adam F; Robinson, Gene E

    2005-12-01

    In many social insects, including honey bees, worker energy reserve levels are correlated with task performance in the colony. Honey bee nest workers have abundant stored lipid and protein while foragers are depleted of these reserves; this depletion precedes the shift from nest work to foraging. The first objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lipid depletion has a causal effect on the age at onset of foraging in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). We found that bees treated with a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor (TOFA) were more likely to forage precociously. The second objective of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between social interactions, nutritional state and behavioral maturation. Since older bees are known to inhibit the development of young bees into foragers, we asked whether this effect is mediated nutritionally via the passage of food from old to young bees. We found that bees reared in social isolation have low lipid stores, but social inhibition occurs in colonies in the field, whether young bees are starved or fed. These results indicate that although social interactions affect the nutritional status of young bees, social and nutritional factors act independently to influence age at onset of foraging. Our findings suggest that mechanisms linking internal nutritional physiology to foraging in solitary insects have been co-opted to regulate altruistic foraging in a social context.

  19. Micronutrient status of children receiving prolonged enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gottrand, M; Muyshont, L; Couttenier, F; Beghin, L; Martigne, L; Coopman, S; Turck, D; Michaud, L; Guimber, D; Gottrand, F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the micronutrient status of children receiving prolonged enteral nutrition. This cross-sectional single-center study included all 64 children (median age 6.8 years) receiving enteral nutrition providing >50% of daily energy intake for more than 6 months (median duration of enteral nutrition 43 months). The characteristics of the patients and mode of enteral nutrition were recorded. The concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, selenium and vitamins A, D, E and C were measured in plasma. Twelve children (19%) had iron deficiency. A high 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was recorded in 20% of the children, but none had associated hypercalcemia. Fifty-two children (81%) had low zinc concentrations in both plasma and erythrocytes. Plasma zinc, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D concentrations were significantly lower in children receiving fiber supplementation. Abnormal micronutrient concentrations were found more frequently in the children receiving fiber supplementation. No other predisposing factors were associated with micronutrient deficiencies. Long-term enteral nutrition can lead to micronutrient deficiencies in children, whose micronutrient concentrations may require regular checking. Fiber supplementation might reduce the bioavailability of zinc, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners and nutritional status in 10-16 year old students.

    PubMed

    Duran Agüero, Samuel; Oñate, Gloria; Haro Rivera, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    The impact of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) on energy intake and body weight is not clear although they provide no energy compared to sucrose. To establish if there are differences in the consumption of NNS as per the nutritional status and its association with overweight. Cross-sectional study including 571 male and female students aged 10-16 years old from the cities of Viña del Mar and Santiago de Chile who were administered an adapted food survey using pictures of NNS-containing products; nutritional status was assessed and students with overweight and obesity were categorized as a the overweight group. Of all surveyed students, 96.6% consume NNS on a daily basis. The comparison between the total NNS intake by nutritional status showed that male students in the overweight group consume more sucralose (p < 0.05) and saccharin (p < 0.01), while the comparison of NNS intake per kilogram of body weight showed that NNS consumption was higher in the overweight group (p < 0.05). Among female students, the normal weight group showed a higher consumption of acesulfame K per kilogram of body weight than the overweight group (p < 0.05). No association was observed in the studied sample between the overall NNS intake and obesity. Of all surveyed students, 96.6% consume NNS on a daily basis, and no association was found between NNS consumption and overweight.

  1. [Nutritional status of elderly Brazilians: a multilevel approach].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ingrid Freitas da Silva; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Andrade, Lára de Melo Barbosa

    2016-06-03

    The objectives of this study were to diagnose the nutritional status of the elderly Brazilian population and to identify associated factors. The study used data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (2008/2009) for 20,114 elderly, whose nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Associated factors were tested with the Pearson chi-square test and multilevel linear models. The hierarchical analysis showed a significant effect of state of Brazil on BMI variance (p-value = 0.001). The individual level showed a negative association (p-value < 0.001) with Asian-descendant race, male gender, living alone, and older age and a positive association with per capita income. Underweight was more prevalent among elderly in rural areas (26.3%) and in the Northeast (23.7%) and Central regions (20.9%), and obesity was more prevalent in the South (45.1%) and Southeast (38.3%) and in cities (39%). The study suggests the importance of further in-depth research on nutritional status of elderly based on contextual variables.

  2. Nutritional status and spousal empowerment among native Amazonians.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Ricardo A; Patel, Ankur; Reyes-García, Victoria; Seyfried, Craig F; Leonard, William R; McDade, Thomas; Tanner, Susan; Vadez, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Researchers and development organizations have shown interest in individual empowerment because it presumably improves well-being. Estimates of empowerment's effects on well-being contain biases from the potential endogeneity of empowerment. Using data from a sexually egalitarian and highly autarkic society of foragers and horticulturalists in the Bolivian Amazon, the Tsimane', we overcome the problems that this poses by: (1) matching spouses' responses to the same questions about who makes decisions or who breaks ties in 10 domains to improve accuracy in measures of empowerment; and (2) using parental attributes of spouses as instrumental variables for spousal empowerment. Outcomes include two anthropometric indices of short-run nutritional status: body-mass index and age and sex-standardized z scores of mid-arm muscle area. The amount of empowerment of household heads did not affect their nutritional status or other indicators of their well-being, such as income, wealth, expenditures, happiness, social capital, or self-perceived health. It also did not affect the nutritional status of their offspring. Nor did it affect the difference in income, wealth, or monetary expenditures between spouses. The insubstantial effects persisted with other definitions of empowerment or types of regressions. We end with a discussion of why empowerment, despite its popularity in development discourse, has such tenuous links with objective indicators of well-being, and the implication of this finding for future studies of empowerment's effects.

  3. Food pattern and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patrícia Ayrosa C; Amancio, Olga Maria S; Araújo, Roberta Faria C; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de S; Braga, Josefina Aparecida P

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the food intake pattern and the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 90 children from two to 12.8 years with cerebral palsy in the following forms: hemiplegia, diplegia, and tetraplegia. Nutritional status was assessed by weight, height, and age data. Food intake was verified by the 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. The ability to chew and/or swallowing, intestinal habits, and physical activity were also evaluated. RESULTS For 2-3 year-old age group, the mean energy intake followed the recommended range; in 4-6 year-old age group with hemiplegia and tetraplegia, energy intake was below the recommended limits. All children presented low intake of carbohydrates, adequate intake of proteins and high intake of lipids. The tetraplegia group had a higher prevalence of chewing (41%) and swallowing (12.8%) difficulties compared to 14.5 and 6.6% of children with hemiplegia, respectively. Most children of all groups had a daily intestinal habit. All children presented mild physical activity, while moderate activity was not practiced by any child of the tetraplegia group, which had a significantly lower height/age Z score than those with hemiplegia (-2.14 versus -1.05; p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS The children with cerebral palsy presented inadequate dietary pattern and impaired nutritional status, with special compromise of height. Tetraplegia imposes difficulties regarding chewing/swallowing and moderate physical activity practice.

  4. [Nutritional status and postoperative complications in patients with digestive cancer].

    PubMed

    Pañella, Loreto; Jara, Marlene; Cornejo, Morelia; Lastra, Ximena; Contreras, María Gladys; Alfaro, Kattia; De La Maza, María Pía

    2014-11-01

    Risk of malnutrition is elevated among oncologic patients, and this increases postoperative morbidity and mortality. To study the association between nutritional status and postoperative outcomes in a group of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. We studied 129 patients with diagnosis of digestive cancer, previous to potentially curative surgery. Nutritional status was evaluated through anthropometric measures, Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), dietary intake recalls and routine biochemical parameters. Functional performance was assessed by the Karnofsky index (KI). Cancer stage was classified according to TNM4. During the postoperative period, complications, length of stay at the critical care ward and duration of hospitalization were registered. Thirty days after discharge, patients were contacted, and the appearance of new complications was listed. According to SGA 14.7% of patients were classified as well nourished (A), 57.3% as moderately undernourished or at risk of malnutrition (B) and 27.9% as severely malnourished (C). The incidence of total complications was 25.5%. Nutritional status was not associated with cancer stage. The frequency of complications among patients classified as A, B and C were 5.5, 25.3 and 37.1% respectively (p = 0.03). We detected a high frequency of malnutrition in this group of patients. Overall the frequency of postoperative complications was low, however malnourished patients exhibited a higher rate of surgical complications.

  5. Food pattern and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Patrícia Ayrosa C.; Amancio, Olga Maria S.; Araújo, Roberta Faria C.; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de S.; Braga, Josefina Aparecida P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the food intake pattern and the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 90 children from two to 12.8 years with cerebral palsy in the following forms: hemiplegia, diplegia, and tetraplegia. Nutritional status was assessed by weight, height, and age data. Food intake was verified by the 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. The ability to chew and/or swallowing, intestinal habits, and physical activity were also evaluated. RESULTS For 2-3 year-old age group, the mean energy intake followed the recommended range; in 4-6 year-old age group with hemiplegia and tetraplegia, energy intake was below the recommended limits. All children presented low intake of carbohydrates, adequate intake of proteins and high intake of lipids. The tetraplegia group had a higher prevalence of chewing (41%) and swallowing (12.8%) difficulties compared to 14.5 and 6.6% of children with hemiplegia, respectively. Most children of all groups had a daily intestinal habit. All children presented mild physical activity, while moderate activity was not practiced by any child of the tetraplegia group, which had a significantly lower height/age Z score than those with hemiplegia (-2.14 versus -1.05; p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS The children with cerebral palsy presented inadequate dietary pattern and impaired nutritional status, with special compromise of height. Tetraplegia imposes difficulties regarding chewing/swallowing and moderate physical activity practice. PMID:24142317

  6. Early life influences on cognitive impairment among oldest old Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenmei; Gu, Danan; Hayward, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the effects of early life socioeconomic conditions on the risk of cognitive impairment among oldest old persons in China. We also examine whether adult socioeconomic status mediates the association between early life socioeconomic status and cognitive impairment in old age. Data derived from two waves (1998-2000) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. We estimated logistic and multinomial regression models of cognitive impairment for a nationwide sample of people aged 80 to 105 (N = 8,444). Among both men and women, urban residence in early life as well as education was associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment at baseline. We found modest support for a protective effect of advantaged childhood background on the odds of cognitive impairment onset during the 2-year follow-up, especially among women. Our findings suggest that socioeconomic environment throughout the life course, early life in particular, can influence the risk of cognitive impairment in old age. Not only can public policy that targets illiteracy, hunger, and poverty improve the lives of tens of thousands of children, but ultimately such investments will pay significant dividends many decades later in enhancing the cognitive well-being of older persons.

  7. Nutritional Intake and Nutritional Status by the Type of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Jee Yeon

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of nutritional intake and nutritional status and analyze the association between them during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This was a retrospective cross sectional study on 36 patients (9 Autologous transplantation group and 27 Allogeneic transplantation group) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital from May to August 2010. To assess oral intake and parenteral nutrition intake, 24-hour recall method and patient's charts review was performed. Nutritional status was measured with the scored patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA). The subjects consisted of 6 (66.7%) males and 3 (33.3%) females in the autologous transplantation group (auto), 12 (44.4%) males and 15 (55.6%) females in the allogeneic transplantation group (allo). The mean age was 40.9 ± 13.6 years (auto) and 37.8 ± 11.0 years (allo). The average hospitalized period was 25.2 ± 3.5 days (auto) and 31.6 ± 6.6 days (allo), which were significant different (p < 0.05). Nutritional intake was lowest at Post+1wk in two groups. In addition, calorie intake by oral diet to recommended intake at Post+2wk was low (20.8% auto and 20.5% allo) but there were no significant differences in change of nutritional intake over time (Admission, Pre-1day, Post+1wk, Post+2wk) between auto group and allo group by repeated measures ANOVA test. The result of nutritional assessment through PG-SGA was significantly different at Pre-1day only (p < 0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between the nutritional status during Post+2wk and the oral calorie/protein intake to recommended amount measured during Post+1wk and Post+2wk (p < 0.01). These results could be used to establish evidence-based nutritional care guidelines for patients during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:23430590

  8. Nutritional status and nutrition risk screening in hospitalized children in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Moeeni, Vesal; Walls, Tony; Day, Andrew S

    2013-09-01

    Children requiring hospitalization are at risk of malnutrition. This study aimed to define the nutritional status of paediatric inpatients in comparison with healthy children and to compare and contrast the feasibility and validity of three nutritional risk screening (NRS) tools in the hospitalized children. A total of 162 children admitted to Christchurch Hospital were assessed along with a similar group of healthy children. Their nutritional state was assessed and classified using standard criteria. The NRS tools were applied, and patients were classified into low-, medium- and high-risk groups. The feasibility and validity of the tools were assessed. Under-nutrition was more frequent in the inpatient group (9.9% vs. 3.7%; p = 0.04), whereas both groups had similar rates of overweight/obesity. NRS tools were able to identify between 81% and 100% of the malnourished patients in the medium- to high-risk groups. Undernourished patients had longer hospital stay than well-nourished patients. Hospitalized children have higher rates of under-nutrition than healthy children in NZ. The three NRS tools were able to identify children at nutritional risk with differing utility. In this setting, STRONGkids was the most reliable tool. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Nutritional status in dialysis patients: a European consensus.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Francesco; Fouque, Denis; Heimburger, Olof; Drüeke, Tilman B; Cannata-Andía, Jorge B; Hörl, Walter H; Ritz, Eberhard

    2002-04-01

    Malnutrition is common in dialysis patients and closely related to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, assessment of nutritional status and nutritional management of dialysis patients play a central role in everyday nephrological practice. Achieving a consensus on key points relating to pathogenesis, clinical assessment, and nutritional management of dialysis patients. The assessment of nutritional status should be based on clinical assessment and biochemical parameters, including history of weight loss, per cent standard weight, body mass index, muscle mass, subcutaneous fat mass, and plasma albumin, creatinine, bicarbonate and cholesterol. Co-morbid conditions should be assessed and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured--as a marker of inflammation--as there is a close relation between malnutrition, on one side, and co-morbid conditions and inflammation on the other. For a more detailed assessment, subjective global assessment of nutritional status is a well-validated tool, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a useful method for routine assessment of lean body mass. Anthropometric methods are also useful. They are cheap and easy to apply, although less precise than DEXA. The recommended daily protein intake is at least 1.2 g/kg standard body weight and the energy intake 35 kcal/kg standard body weight (BW), in patients <60 years, and 30 kcal/kg standard BW in patients >60 years. The standard bicarbonate level should be at least 22 mmol/l. If CRP is >10 mg/l, it is important to seek and treat the underlying cause. Adequate dialysis (for haemodialysis: Kt/V >1.2) should be ensured and, although no definite evidence of the importance of dialysis water quality is available, the opinion of the authors is that the water quality should be high. The role of the biocompatibility of the dialysis membrane is still not clear. The dietitian plays a pivotal role in the nutritional care of dialysis patients, and patients should be provided with dietary counselling from

  10. [Effect of nutritional status in childhood on health status in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhaoyang; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing; Yu, Wentao; Zhai, Fengying

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of nutritional status in childhood on health status in adulthood. Data were collected from the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2004 and 2006, and the subjects were older than 2 and no more than 18 year-old at the Survey in 1991 and remained in the same cohort with completed records through all six surveys. Mixed effect linear model was used to study the trajectory of BMI. Proportional hazards model was used to study the hazard risk of hypertension in adulthood. Generally, the thinness or overweight-obesity status in childhood followed a same trend till adulthood. Nutritional status in childhood and the educational level of their parents appeared to be related to risk factors of hypertension in adulthood. The hazard ratio of not developing hypertension for additional 1 gram of protein intake per day in male subjects was 0.991, and which for additional 1 kcal of energy intake per day in female subjects was 0.9997. The nutritional health status in childhood keeps the same trajectory till adulthood.

  11. Nutritional status and oral status of the elderly with dementia: a 2-year study.

    PubMed

    Sadamori, Shinsuke; Hayashi, Syouji; Fujihara, Isao; Abekura, Hitoshi; Hamada, Taizo; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2012-06-01

    To determine the relationship between denture wearing and nutritional status in the elderly with dementia. There could be a correlation between nutrition, oral health, dietary habits, patients' satisfaction, and their socio-economic status in the elderly, and the relationship between compromised oral status and nutritional status in the elderly with dementia. A 2-year follow-up study of 63 elderly Japanese women with and without dentures from a nursing home was undertaken to investigate their oral, physical and mental, and nutritional status. Each item for 2006 and 2008 in this study showed no significant difference between 2006 and 2008, except the calories/day. The elderly with dementia without complete dentures during the 2 years of the study only significantly decreased the mean of the calories/day. The calories/day of the elderly with dementia without dentures decreased after 2 years. Denture wearing for the elderly with dementia could be necessary to maintain a satisfactory intake of calories. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. The Diversity of Nutritional Status in Cancer: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Chaves, Mariana; Boléo-Tomé, Carolina; Monteiro-Grillo, Isabel; Camilo, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Nutritional status in cancer has been mostly biased toward undernutrition, an issue now in dispute. We aimed to characterize nutrition status, to analyze associations between nutritional and clinical/cancer-related variables, and to quantify the relative weights of nutritional and cancer-related features. Methods. The cross-sectional study included 450 nonselected cancer patients (ages 18–95 years) at referral for radiotherapy. Nutritional status assessment included recent weight changes, body mass index (BMI) categorized by World Health Organization's age/sex criteria, and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA; validated/specific for oncology). Results. BMI identified 63% as ≥25 kg/m2 (43% overweight, 20% obese) and 4% as undernourished. PG-SGA identified 29% as undernourished and 71% as well nourished. Crossing both methods, among the 319 (71%) well-nourished patients according to PG-SGA, 75% were overweight/obese and only 25% were well nourished according to BMI. Concordance between BMI and PG-SGA was evaluated and consistency was confirmed. More aggressive/advanced stage cancers were more prevalent in deficient and excessive nutritional status: in 83% (n = 235/282) of overweight/obese patients by BMI and in 85% (n = 111/131) of undernourished patients by PG-SGA. Results required adjustment for diagnoses: greater histological aggressiveness was found in overweight/obese prostate and breast cancer; undernutrition was associated with aggressive lung, colorectal, head-neck, stomach, and esophageal cancers (p < .005). Estimates of effect size revealed that overweight/obesity was associated with advanced stage (24%), aggressive breast (10%), and prostate (9%) cancers, whereas undernutrition was associated with more aggressive lung (6%), colorectal (6%), and head-neck (6%) cancers; in both instances, age and longer disease duration were of significance. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overweight/obesity have distinct implications and

  13. Nutritional status, nutrition practices and post-operative complications in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Garth, A K; Newsome, C M; Simmance, N; Crowe, T C

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition and its associated complications are a considerable issue for surgical patients with upper gastrointestinal and colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether specific perioperative nutritional practices and protocols are associated with improved patient outcomes in this group. Patients admitted for elective upper gastrointestinal or colorectal cancer surgery (n = 95) over a 19-month period underwent a medical history audit assessing weight changes, nutritional intake, biochemistry, post-operative complications and length of stay. A subset of patients (n = 25) underwent nutritional assessment by subjective global assessment prior to surgery in addition to assessment of post-operative medical outcomes, nutritional intake and timing of dietetic intervention. Mean (SD) length of stay for patients was 14.0 (12.2) days, with complication rates at 35%. Length of stay was significantly longer in patients who experienced significant preoperative weight loss compared to those who did not [17.0 (15.8) days versus 10.0 (6.8) days, respectively; P < 0.05]. Low albumin and post-operative weight loss were also predictive of increased length of stay. Of patients who underwent nutritional assessment, 32% were classified as mild-moderately malnourished and 16% severely malnourished. Malnourished patients were hospitalised twice as long as well-nourished patients [15.8 (12.8) days versus 7.6 (3.5) days; P < 0.05]. Time taken [6.9 (3.6) days] to achieve adequate nutrition post surgery was a factor in post-operative outcomes, with a positive correlation with length of stay (r = 0.493; P < 0.01), a negative correlation with post-operative weight change (r = -0.417; P < 0.05) and a greater risk of complications (52% versus 13%; P < 0.01). Malnutrition is prevalent among surgical patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Poor nutritional status coupled with delayed and inadequate post-operative nutrition practices are associated with worse clinical outcomes.

  14. Nutritional status of adults participating in ambulatory rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Supreet; Miller, Michelle D; Halbert, Julie; Giles, Lynne C; Crotty, Maria

    2008-01-01

    To assess the overall nutritional status of older adults participating in ambulatory rehabilitation and determine its association with relevant outcomes including physical function and quality of life. Cross-sectional. Ambulatory rehabilitation service in the Southern region of Adelaide, Australia. A total of 229 participants recruited as part of a RCT between June 2005 and June 2006, stroke (n=83), elective orthopedic procedure (n=44) and other medical condition (n=102). Nutritional status was measured using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Simplified Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Body Mass Index. Functional performance was assessed using the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and quality of life was measured using the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Sixty-three percent of participants were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition according to the MNA and a third had a risk of >or= 5% weight loss in the subsequent six months, according to the SNAQ. Participants with a diagnosis other than stroke or elective orthopedic procedure were the most vulnerable, with 53% (n=74/140) classified as at risk of malnutrition or malnourished and a longer length of stay in hospital. Functional performance was no different for participants assessed as at risk of malnutrition or malnourished compared to the well nourished, but the SF-36 mental component score was significantly higher for those who were well nourished (p=0.003). Findings emphasise the magnitude of the malnutrition problem in ambulatory rehabilitation settings. Further research is required to evaluate the resource implications against expected benefits of providing nutrition interventions at this point.

  15. Early Life Bereavement and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hong; Olsen, Jørn; Yuan, Wei; Cnattingus, Sven; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten; Gissler, Mika; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to examine whether early life bereavement, as indicator of severe stress, was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia later in life. Based on population registers, we established a cohort of all children born in Denmark (N = 1 686 416) and Sweden (N = 2 563 659) from 1973 to 1997. Children were categorized as exposed if they lost a first-degree relative during the first 18 years of life. Outcome is the first diagnosis of schizophrenia as either inpatient or outpatient. Log-linear Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs). A total of 188,850 children (4.6%) experienced death of a first-degree relative from birth to 18 years of age. Compared with unexposed children, those exposed had overall a 39% higher risk of schizophrenia (= 1.39, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.32–1.47). The IRR was particularly high if the family member committed suicide (aIRR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.90–2.34) or died due to an injury or accident (aIRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.27–1.63). The IRR of schizophrenia decreased with increasing child's age at bereavement (P < 0.0001). Children who experienced >1 death during the first 18 years of life (aIRR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.46–2.19) had a higher risk than those with a single death (aIRR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.30–1.45). The study suggested that exposure to death of a first-degree relative before 18 years was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in later life. The complex mechanisms behind these associations remain to be elucidated. PMID:26817875

  16. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  17. Perioperative Nutritional Status Changes in Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Hongjin; Cheong, Jae Ho; Lee, Kang Young; Lee, Hosun; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The presence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and its treatment might aggravate patient nutritional status. Malnutrition is one of the major factors affecting the postoperative course. We evaluated changes in perioperative nutritional status and risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition in the GI cancer patients. Materials and Methods Nutritional status was prospectively evaluated using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) perioperatively between May and September 2011. Results A total of 435 patients were enrolled. Among them, 279 patients had been diagnosed with gastric cancer and 156 with colorectal cancer. Minimal invasive surgery was performed in 225 patients. PG-SGA score increased from 4.5 preoperatively to 10.6 postoperatively (p<0.001). Ten patients (2.3%) were severely malnourished preoperatively, increasing to 115 patients (26.3%) postoperatively. In gastric cancer patients, postoperative severe malnourishment increased significantly (p<0.006). In univariate analysis, old age (>60, p<0.001), male sex (p=0.020), preoperative weight loss (p=0.008), gastric cancer (p<0.001), and open surgery (p<0.001) were indicated as risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition. In multivariate analysis, old age, preoperative weight loss, gastric cancer, and open surgery remained significant as risk factors of severe malnutrition. Conclusion The prevalence of severe malnutrition among GI cancer patients in this study increased from 2.3% preoperatively to 26.3% after an operation. Old age, preoperative weight loss, gastric cancer, and open surgery were shown to be risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition. In patients at high risk of postoperative severe malnutrition, adequate nutritional support should be considered. PMID:24142640

  18. Perioperative nutritional status changes in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hongjin; Cheong, Jae Ho; Lee, Kang Young; Lee, Hosun; Lee, Jae Gil; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    The presence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and its treatment might aggravate patient nutritional status. Malnutrition is one of the major factors affecting the postoperative course. We evaluated changes in perioperative nutritional status and risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition in the GI cancer patients. Nutritional status was prospectively evaluated using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) perioperatively between May and September 2011. A total of 435 patients were enrolled. Among them, 279 patients had been diagnosed with gastric cancer and 156 with colorectal cancer. Minimal invasive surgery was performed in 225 patients. PG-SGA score increased from 4.5 preoperatively to 10.6 postoperatively (p<0.001). Ten patients (2.3%) were severely malnourished preoperatively, increasing to 115 patients (26.3%) postoperatively. In gastric cancer patients, postoperative severe malnourishment increased significantly (p<0.006). In univariate analysis, old age (>60, p<0.001), male sex (p=0.020), preoperative weight loss (p=0.008), gastric cancer (p<0.001), and open surgery (p<0.001) were indicated as risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition. In multivariate analysis, old age, preoperative weight loss, gastric cancer, and open surgery remained significant as risk factors of severe malnutrition. The prevalence of severe malnutrition among GI cancer patients in this study increased from 2.3% preoperatively to 26.3% after an operation. Old age, preoperative weight loss, gastric cancer, and open surgery were shown to be risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition. In patients at high risk of postoperative severe malnutrition, adequate nutritional support should be considered.

  19. Redox, iron, and nutritional status of children during swimming training.

    PubMed

    Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Kalitsis, Konstantinos; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Tsalis, George; Kouretas, Dimitris; Loupos, Dimitris; Mougios, Vassilis

    2009-11-01

    Effects of exercise training on important determinants of children's long-term health, such as redox and iron status, have not been adequately investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine changes in markers of the redox, iron and nutritional status of boy and girl swimmers during a prolonged period of training. 11 boys and 13 girls, aged 10-11 years, were members of a swimming club. They were assessed at the beginning of the training season, at 13 weeks and at 23 weeks through blood sampling and recording of the diet. Reduced glutathione increased at 13 and 23 weeks, whereas oxidised glutathione decreased at 13 weeks, resulting in an increase of the reduced/oxidised glutathione ratio at 13 and 23 weeks. Total antioxidant capacity, catalase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation and ferritin did not change significantly. Carbohydrate intake was below 50% of energy and fat intake was above 40% of energy. Intakes of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol were excessive. Iron intake was adequate but intakes of folate, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium did not meet the recommended daily allowances. No significant differences were found between sexes in any of the parameters measured. In conclusion, child swimmers improved the redox status of glutathione during training, although the intake of antioxidant nutrients did not change. The iron status was not impaired by training. Suboptimal intake of several nutrients suggests the need for nutritional monitoring and education of children athletes.

  20. Development of immunity in early life.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Anu; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2015-06-01

    The immune system in early life goes through rapid and radical changes. Early life is also the period with the highest risk of infections. The foetal immune system is programmed to coexist with foreign antigenic influences in utero, and postnatally to rapidly develop a functional system capable of distinguishing helpful microbes from harmful pathogens. Both host genetics and environmental influences shape this dramatic transition and direct the trajectory of the developing immune system into early childhood and beyond. Given the malleability of the immune system in early life, interventions aimed at modulating this trajectory thus have the potential to translate into considerable reductions in infectious disease burden with immediate as well as long-lasting benefit. However, an improved understanding of the underlying molecular drivers of early life immunity is prerequisite to optimise such interventions and transform the window of early life vulnerability into one of opportunity. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of Nutritional Status in Children With Cancer and Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplements.

    PubMed

    Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Emir, Suna; Bayhan, Turan; Demir, Hacı Ahmet; Gunduz, Mehmet; Tunc, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common consequence of cancer in children, but the most effective methods of nutrition intervention are under debate. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of children diagnosed with cancer, and to investigate the effect of oral nutritional supplements on anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, and outcome. A randomized clinical study of 45 newly diagnosed cancer patients was performed. Anthropometric and biochemical data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months after diagnosis. On initial anthropometric assessment, prevalence of malnutrition by weight or height was found to be lower as compared with body mass index (BMI), or weight for height (WFH), or arm anthropometry. Twenty-six of the patients (55%) received oral nutritional supplement. During the second 3 months after diagnosis, there was a statistically significant decrease in number of the patients with WFH <90th percentile and BMI <5th percentile (P = .003 and P = .04, respectively). Infectious complications occurred more frequently in malnourished patients during first 3 months, and survival of children who were malnourished at the 6th month was significantly lower than that of well-nourished children (P = .003). On laboratory assessment, serum prealbumin levels of the all subjects were below normal ranges, but no relation was found for serum prealbumin or albumin levels in patients who were malnourished or not at diagnosis. Nutritional intervention is necessary to promote normal development and increase functional status as a child receives intensive treatment. Protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplements are effective for preventing weight loss in malnourished children.

  2. Influence of care practices on nutritional status of Ghanaian children.

    PubMed

    Nti, Christina Antwiwaa; Lartey, Anna

    2008-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was conducted in the Manya Krobo District of the Eastern Region of Ghana with the objective of assessing how caregiving practices influence nutritional status of young children in Ghana. The study subjects were one hundred mothers with infants between the ages of 6 and 12 months. Each child was visited at home monthly for a period of six months. On each visit, information was collected on caregiver household and personal hygiene, child's immunization status, child's dietary diversity, caregiver responsiveness during feeding, caregiver hygienic practices related to feeding and child's weight and length. At the end of the study, summary scores were generated for each variable and quality of care practice determined based on their distribution. Classification of child nutritional status was based on z-scores for both weight-for-age and length-for-age. The results revealed that caregivers who exhibited better quality of care practice had well-nourished children. Such caregivers were more likely to practice good household and personal hygiene than those of poorly nourished children (97.1% vs 31.8%, p<0.001). They were also more likely to complete their children's immunization schedules (88.2% vs 62.2%, p< 0.001), provide good quality diets from highly diversified sources (79% vs 23%, p<0.001), exhibit high responsiveness during feeding (100% vs 22.7%, p<0.001) and feed under hygienic conditions (100% vs 22.7%, p<0.001). Based on the findings it was concluded that good caregiving practices are associated with improved child nutritional status.

  3. Nutritional risk and status of surgical patients; the relevance of nutrition training of medical students.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C; Lavinhas, C; Fernandes, L; Camilo, Ma; Ravasco, P

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among surgical patients is thought to be high, and negatively influencing outcomes. However, recent evidence shows the increase of overweight/obesity in hospitalised patients. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 patients of a Surgical Department of the University Hospital of Santa Maria (CHLN) that aimed: 1) to assess nutritional risk and status through validated methods; 2) to explore the presence of overweight/obesity; 3) to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic risk associated with obesity. Nutritional risk was assessed by Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), nutritional status by Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), & Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Statistical significance was set for p < 0.05. 58% of patients were overweight/obese and 54% had high cardio-metabolic risk, according to waist circumference; 30% of patients had significantly lost weight (≥ 5%), whereas 28% gained weight. By MUST, 46% of patients were at low risk and 34% at high risk. By SGA, 58% patients were well nourished and 40% had moderate/severe undernutrition. A longer length of stay was associated with moderate/high risk by MUST, and undernutrition by SGA (p = 0.01). Undernutrition or obesity pose surgical risks. The lack of nutrition discipline in the medical curricula, limits the multiprofessional management and a better understanding of the more adequate approaches to these patients. Further, the change in the clinical scenario argues for more studies to clarify the prevalence and consequences of sarcopenic obesity in surgical patients.

  4. [Evaluation of nutritional Status in lung cancer using bio electrical impedance analysis and mini nutritional assessment].

    PubMed

    Daghfous, Hafaoua; El Ayeb, Wejdène; Alouane, Leila; Tritar, Fatma

    2014-12-01

    Malnutrition and cachexia were a frequent problem in lung cancer and increases the risks of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is easy, non-invasive and reproducible method that can be performed. Evaluate nutritional status in patients with primary lung cancer by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), BIA and anthropometric values (weight, arm and calf circumferences) and correlate the nutritional parameters to severity of cancer and histopathology. The nutritional status of 73 cases of primary lung cancer was evaluated by anthropometric parameters, MNA test and impedencemetrie Results: According to body mass index (BMI), malnutrition, overweight and obesity were noted in 34,2%, 13,7% and 5,5%. According to BMI, free-fat mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI), the investigations occurred malnutrition and depletion of muscle in respectively 19,2% and 23,3% of cases. Fat depletion was noted in 21,9%. Overweight and obesity were detected in 6,8% and 5,5% of cases. Assessment by MNA, revealed that 28,7% of patients were already malnourished and 49,3% of patients were at risk of malnutrition. A significant correlation existed between the score of MNA and arm and calf circumferences, FFMI and FMI. FMI was significantly lower in group of patients with small lung carcinoma. Only FFMI allows early detection of malnutrition in cancer patients overestimated by measuring BMI and arm circumference was the better indicator of depletion of muscle.

  5. Home enteral nutrition's effects on nutritional status and quality of life after esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jian; Hu, Jian; Chen, Qixun; Feng, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the effect of home enteral nutrition (HEN) on the nutritional status and the quality of life (QOL) of esophageal cancer patients who underwent Ivor Lewis esophagectomy for cancer. Sixty patients with esophageal cancer were assigned to receive either HEN (n=30) or standard care only (n=30) from 1 week to 24 weeks following surgery. Nutritional status was evaluated using The Mini Nutritional Assessment at 1 week preoperatively and at 12 and 24 weeks postoperatively. QOL-related parameters were analyzed in all patients using the QOL-core 30 questionnaire and the supplemental QOL-esophageal module 18 questionnaire for patients with esophageal cancer from 1-24 weeks after surgery. At 12 weeks after surgery, the incidence of malnutrition or latent malnutrition in the HEN group was lower than that in the control group despite the absence of a significant difference between the two groups before surgery. Compared to the control group, the HEN group achieved higher Global QOL scores, and most of their functional index scores were better. Most of the symptomatic index scores were more reduced at 4 weeks and 12 weeks postoperatively in the HEN group. However, at 24 weeks after surgery, the incidence of malnutrition or latent malnutrition and most of the QOL indexes did not differ significantly between the two groups. HEN can reduce the incidence of malnutrition or latent malnutrition and help restore the QOL in the patients with esophageal cancer in the early period (24 weeks) after surgery.

  6. Enteral nutrition via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nutritional status of patients: five-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Erdil, Ahmet; Saka, Mendane; Ates, Yuksel; Tuzun, Ahmet; Bagci, Sait; Uygun, Ahmet; Yesilova, Zeki; Gulsen, Mustafa; Karaeren, Necmettin; Dagalp, Kemal

    2005-07-01

    Since it was described in 1980, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has been a widely used method for insertion of a gastrostomy tube in patients who are unable to swallow or maintain adequate nutrition. The aim of the present paper was to determine the complications of PEG insertion and to study pre- and post-procedural nutritional status. During the period of March 1999-September 2004, placement of PEG tube was performed in 85 patients (22 women and 63 men). Patient nutritional status was assessed before and after PEG insertion via anthropometric measurements. The most frequent indication for PEG insertion was neurological disorders (65.9%). Thirty patients died due to primary disease and two patients due to PEG-related complications within 5 years. There were 14 early complications in 10 patients (15.2%; <30 days), and 18 late complications in 12 patients (19.6%). Total mortality was 37.6%. All complications other than four were minor. Before PEG insertion, patients were assessed with subjective global assessment and it was determined that 43.2% of them had severe, and 41.9% of them had mild malnutrition. After PEG insertion, significant improvements on patient nutrition levels was observed. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a minimally invasive gastrostomy method with low morbidity and mortality rates, is easy to follow up and easy to replace when clogged. (c) 2005 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Nutritional status of older people in long term care settings: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David T; Roberts, Julia D; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M; While, Alison E; Baldwin, Julie

    2004-03-01

    Despite being preventable and treatable, in the 21st Century, malnutrition remains a problem in the developed world and the nutritional needs of many older people in long-term care settings are not met. The UK government has pledged to provide high-quality care for this sector of the population, including minimum standards to ensure adequate nutrition. However, research is still needed into the detection, prevalence, cause and effects of malnutrition and maintenance of optimum nutrition; and to address the lack of training and education among those caring for older peoples. In the interim, simple measures such as monitoring older people's weight regularly need to be implemented as a surveillance measure of nutritional status.

  8. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (p<0.001). The mean of total weight gain in the pregnant women who began the pregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (p<0.05). The study highlights the importance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  9. [Nutritional status in children victims of physical and sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Martín-Martín, Verónica; Loredo-Abdalá, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    To assess and relate the nutritional status by type of abuse in a pediatric population diagnosed with physical abuse (PA) and sexual abuse (SA). It's a retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 178 clinical records of children aged less than 12 years, attended at the Clinic for the Integral Care of the Abused Child of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (CAINM-INP-UNAM), during the period 1994 to 2005. The relationship of nutritional status with the type of abuse was analyzed in two age ranges (3 months to less than five years, and five to 11 years) and gender with Student t and chi-square tests. We identified that, in girls PA was associated with stunting (PA: 48% vs. SA: 12%, p < 0.005 and PA: 21% vs. SA: 0%, p < 0.002) and wasting (PA: 21% vs. SA: 0%, p < 0.01 and PA: 21% vs. SA: 0%, p < 0.002). Whereas in girls SA was associated with overweight and obesity in age range five to 11 years (PA: 0% vs. SA: 31%; p < 0.01). This study identified acute and chronic under nutrition in girls with PA, and overweight and obesity in girls with SA. These findings enrich the knowledge for the suspicion of maltreatment child syndrome during the search of the aetiology of the clinical expression studied.

  10. Diet and nutritional status of children with food allergies.

    PubMed

    Flammarion, Sophie; Santos, Clarisse; Guimber, Dominique; Jouannic, Lyne; Thumerelle, Caroline; Gottrand, Frédéric; Deschildre, Antoine

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the food intakes and nutritional status of children with food allergies following an elimination diet. We conducted a cross sectional study including 96 children (mean age 4.7 ± 2.5 years) with food allergies and 95 paired controls (mean age 4.7 ± 2.7 years) without food allergies. Nutritional status was assessed using measurements of weight and height and Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height. Nutrient intakes assessment was based on a 3-day diet record. Children with food allergies had weight-for-age and height-for-age Z scores lower than controls (0.1 versus 0.6 and 0.2 versus 0.8 respectively). Children with 3 or more food allergies were smaller than those with 2 or less food allergies (p = 0.04). A total of 62 children with food allergies and 52 controls completed usable diet records. Energy, protein and calcium intakes were similar in the two groups. Children with food allergies were smaller for their age than controls even when they received similar nutrient intakes. Nutritional evaluation is essential for the follow up of children with food allergies.

  11. Evaluation of nutritional status in children with refractory epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bertoli, S; Cardinali, S; Veggiotti, P; Trentani, C; Testolin, G; Tagliabue, A

    2006-01-01

    Background children affected by refractory epilepsy could be at risk of malnutrition because of feeding difficulties (anorexia, chewing, swallowing difficulties or vomiting) and chronic use of anticonvulsants, which may affect food intake and energy metabolism. Moreover, their energy requirement may be changed as their disabilities would impede normal daily activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status, energy metabolism and food intake in children with refractory epilepsy. Methods 17 children with refractory epilepsy (13 boys and 4 girls; mean age 9 ± 3,2 years; Body Mass Index 15,7 ± 3,6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, body composition evaluation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, detailed dietetic survey and measurement of resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. Weight-for-age, height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-height (wasting) were estimated compared to those of a reference population of the same age. Results 40% of children were malnourished and 24% were wasted. The nutritional status was worse in the more disabled children. Dietary intake resulted unbalanced (18%, 39%, 43% of total daily energy intake derived respectively from protein, lipid and carbohydrate). Adequacy index [nutrient daily intake/recommended allowance (RDA) × 100] was < 60% for calcium iron and zinc. Conclusion many children with refractory epilepsy would benefit from individual nutritional assessment and management as part of their overall care. PMID:16640779

  12. Assessment of nutritional status in children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Paglialonga, F; Felice Civitillo, C; Groppali, E; Edefonti, A

    2010-06-01

    The achievement of a normal nutritional status, that is a normal body composition and a normal pattern of growth, is a cornerstone in the management of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Protein-energy wasting (PEW) which indicates the state of decreased body protein mass and fuel reserves (body protein and fat mass), is a common condition in this population, and a source of morbidity and mortality. For the diagnosis of this condition, a lot of methods have been proposed, but due to the clinical characteristics of children with CKD, the intrinsic limits of the available indices and some methodological issues concerning published pediatric studies, none of these parameters could be considered as the gold standard. Given these limitations, a general consensus exists according to which only the combination of more indices integrated in a multidisciplinary approach can give the idea of the individual nutritional status. Among these indices, recent guidelines recommend dietary intake (by means of 3-day diary or 24-hour recall), anthropometric parameters (weight, height, height velocity, body mass index, head circumference) and, only for adolescent on hemodialysis, normalized protein catabolic rate as the most accurate ones. Other methods, such as mid-arm anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis, biochemical indices, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry could certainly help in the nutritional evaluation, taking into account the advantages and drawbacks of each method.

  13. Food Choices and Consequences for the Nutritional Status: Insights into Nutrition Transition in an Hospital Community.

    PubMed

    Piple, Jitendra; Gora, Ranjeet; Purbiya, Pragati; Puliyel, Ashish; Chugh, Parul; Bahl, Pinky; Puliyel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Although economic development is generally accompanied by improvements in the overall nutritional status of the country's population the 'nutritional transition' often involves a shift to high energy diets and less exercise with negative consequences. This pilot study was done to examine if education of parents operates at the household level to influence dietary choices and the nutritional status of children in a small community of hospital workers. 3 groups of persons with varying skill and education levels participated. Weighed food logs were used in all households to calculate 'adult equivalent' per-capita-consumption. Nutrients were calculated using nutrients calculator software. BMI was used to classify children as underweight, normal weight and overweight. 128 individuals participated from 30 families included 47 children. 10 children (21%) were underweight, 29 (62%) were normal and 8 (17%) were overweight. Energy consumption was highest in families with overweight children 2692 +/-502 compared to 2259 +/-359 in families with normal weight and 2031+/-354 in the family of underweight children. These differences were statistically significant. 42% underweight children belonged to Class 1 at the lowest skill level and there were no overweight children in this group. Most of the overweight children belonged to Class 2. In Class 3 there were no underweight children and the majority was normal weight children. Underweight children came from the poorer households. Per capita intake of the family as a whole correlated well with BMI in the children. There was increased obesity in middle income families belonging to Class 2-probably in families who move up the scale from deprivation. Nutritional status in children correlated mostly with maternal education status.

  14. Children with atopic dermatitis in Daejeon, Korea: individualized nutrition intervention for disease severity and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Hee; Lee, Jae Ho; Ly, Sun Yung

    2016-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common pediatric chronic inflammatory skin diseases, and certain food allergens and nutrients are closely related to the development and severity of atopic dermatitis. While avoidance of the causative foods is considered the mainstay of treatment, unverified excessive restriction might induce unnecessary limitations in the food intake, consequently leading to nutritional deficiencies and poor growth. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and nutrient intake status in children with atopic dermatitis and to investigate the effects of individualized nutrition intervention. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of 77 pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis who received 4 months of individualized nutrition intervention combined with an elimination diet. The patient characteristics, nutrient intake status, and clinical status were examined before and after the intervention. Before the intervention, 5 children had a weight for height z-score below -2.0, and 48.1% had experienced food restriction; these children showed a significantly higher SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis index than those without experiences, with the number of restricted foods before the intervention positively correlating with the disease severity. The intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, calcium, folate, and vitamin D were lower than the recommended nutrient intakes for Koreans. After the intervention, the weight for height z-score of 35 children was significantly increased and their SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis index was significantly reduced (p<0.05). Individualized nutrition intervention appears useful for alleviating the severity of atopic dermatitis and improving the growth status by improving the nutrient intake.

  15. An evaluation of wheelchair basketball players' nutritional status and nutritional knowledge levels.

    PubMed

    Eskici, Günay; Ersoy, Gülgün

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of women paralympic athletes and their nutritional knowledge. Twenty two players of National Wheelchair Women Basketball Team (15-38 years) participated in this study and answered a questionnaire (76 questions) Players were at sport camp during the assessment where their body weight is measured regularly by the team coach. The waist, hip size and the height of the players who are able to stand have been used for the assessment, while the knee height of the players who are not able to stand have been measured for the study. SPSS 15.0 and BEBIS (Nutritional Data System) have been used for statistical assessment. The average age and sport years as a player of the participants are; respectively; 25.5±7.2 years and 3.9±2.8 years. The average daily energy consumption is 2867.8±523.6 kcal/day. The average proportion of energy, converted from carbohydrate, protein, fat are been calculated as, respectively; 42.7% (5.3±1.5 g/kg/day), 13.3% (1.6±0.3 g/kg/day), 44% (2.5±0.8 g/kg/day). It is also found that Vitamin B1, folic acid, magnesium, iron and fiber have not been consumed enough. The questions about sport nutrition have been mostly answered incorrectly. Athletes have inadequate food consumption and nutrition information. The athletes have to be educated more about nutrition and they should have nutritional counseling support.

  16. Early life stress as an influence on limbic epilepsy: an hypothesis whose time has come?

    PubMed

    Koe, Amelia S; Jones, Nigel C; Salzberg, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc.), stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative - or complementary - perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research.

  17. [Socioeconomic differences in nutrition and nutritional status in 10-11-year-old boys].

    PubMed

    van Poppel, G; Schneijder, P; Maas, I A; Schrijver, J; Sluiter-van Nies, A A; Kok, F J

    1989-06-17

    The relation between socio-economic status and food consumption and nutritional status was investigated in boys aged 10-11 yr (n = 125) who participated in a survey in 1987. Based on the parents' education and profession, boys were categorized in three levels of socio-economic status. In the lower socio-economic category (n = 59) body mass index and skinfold thickness are higher (p less than 0.05) than in the highest category (n = 41) and caries is more prevalent (83% vs 51%). In comparison with both higher groups, dairy products, vegetables and fruit are less frequently used in the lower category, and consumption of protein, calcium and riboflavin is lower (p less than 0.05). These results indicate an increased risk of caries and obesity in the lower socio-economic group. The other differences clearly have an unfavourable tendency, but do not indicate directly increased risk of nutritional deficiencies or nutrition-related diseases in the lower socio-economic group.

  18. Maternal perception of children's nutritional status in the Federal District, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Maternal perception of child's nutritional status has a potential impact on the identification, prevention, and treatment of childhood overweight. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of misperception and factors associated with maternal perception of the nutritional status of first- to third-grade elementary school students from private schools in the Federal District, Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 554 mother-child pairs. Children's nutritional status was assessed by measuring their weight and height. The mothers completed an online questionnaire about sociodemographic data, maternal nutritional status, maternal perception of her own nutritional status (silhouette scale for female adults), and maternal perception of child's nutritional status (silhouette scale for children). Only 30.0% of the mothers were successful in choosing the most appropriate silhouette to represent child's nutritional status. Highly educated mothers (Adjusted OR = 1.51) and mothers of male children (Adjusted OR = 2.53) or of non-overweight children (Adjusted OR = 1.65) were more likely to underestimate child's nutritional status. Conversely, mothers below 35 years of age (Adjusted OR = 1.85) and mothers of female children (Adjusted OR = 2.24) or of overweight children (Adjusted OR = 1.94) were more likely to overestimate child's nutritional status. There was a high prevalence of misperception, which shows the need for interventions for children that take into account the relevance of mother's role and the adequate recognition of child's nutritional status. PMID:28445494

  19. Maternal perception of children's nutritional status in the Federal District, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Jéssica; Toral, Natacha; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann

    2017-01-01

    Maternal perception of child's nutritional status has a potential impact on the identification, prevention, and treatment of childhood overweight. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of misperception and factors associated with maternal perception of the nutritional status of first- to third-grade elementary school students from private schools in the Federal District, Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 554 mother-child pairs. Children's nutritional status was assessed by measuring their weight and height. The mothers completed an online questionnaire about sociodemographic data, maternal nutritional status, maternal perception of her own nutritional status (silhouette scale for female adults), and maternal perception of child's nutritional status (silhouette scale for children). Only 30.0% of the mothers were successful in choosing the most appropriate silhouette to represent child's nutritional status. Highly educated mothers (Adjusted OR = 1.51) and mothers of male children (Adjusted OR = 2.53) or of non-overweight children (Adjusted OR = 1.65) were more likely to underestimate child's nutritional status. Conversely, mothers below 35 years of age (Adjusted OR = 1.85) and mothers of female children (Adjusted OR = 2.24) or of overweight children (Adjusted OR = 1.94) were more likely to overestimate child's nutritional status. There was a high prevalence of misperception, which shows the need for interventions for children that take into account the relevance of mother's role and the adequate recognition of child's nutritional status.

  20. Comprehensive nutritional status in sarco-osteoporotic older fallers.

    PubMed

    Huo, Y R; Suriyaarachchi, P; Gomez, F; Curcio, C L; Boersma, D; Gunawardene, P; Demontiero, O; Duque, G

    2015-04-01

    In older persons, the combination of osteoporosis and sarcopenia has been proposed as a subset of frailer individuals at higher risk of falls and fractures. However, the particular nutritional status of the sarco-osteoporotic (SOP) patients remains unknown. The goal of this study was to obtain a comprehensive picture of nutritional status in SOP patients. Cross-sectional study. Falls and Fractures Clinic, Nepean Hospital (Penrith, Australia). 680 subjects (mean age=79, 65% female) assessed between 2008-2013. Assessment included medical history, mini-nutritional assessment, physical examination, bone densitometry and body composition by DXA, and blood tests for nutritional status (albumin, creatinine, hemoglobin, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, calcium, phosphate and folate). Patients were divided in 4 groups: 1) osteopenia/osteoporosis (BMD<-1.0 SD); 2) sarcopenia; 3) SOP; and 4) normal (no sarcopenia/no osteoporosis). Difference between groups was assessed with one-way ANOVA and chi square analysis. Multivariable linear regression evaluated the association between the groups and measures of nutritional parameters. Sarcopenia was present in 47.4% of those with osteopenia (167/352) and 62.7% in those with osteoporosis (91/145). Mean age of the SOP was 80.4±7 years. SOP patients showed significantly higher prevalence of falls and fractures. Univariate analyses showed that SOP were more likely than normal to have a BMI< 25 (OR 2.42 95%CI 1.45-4.041, p<0.001), a MNA score <12 (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.15-3.49, p<0.05), serum folate <20 nmol/L (OR 4.0 95%CI 1.35-11.87, p<0.01) and hemoglobin <120g/L (OR 2.0 95%CI 1.28-3.30, p<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that a MNA score <12 was independently associated with SOP compared to normal when adjusted for age and gender. Hemoglobin <120g/L, BMI <25, and GDS >6 remained independently associated with SOP after adjustment for all variables including inflammatory conditions. Hypoalbuminemia (<35 g/L) was associated with just osteopenia

  1. Nutritional status of Yemeni schoolchildren in Al-Mahweet Governorate.

    PubMed

    Raja'a, Y A; Sulaiman, S M; Elkarib, S A; Mubarak, J S

    2001-01-01

    The nutritional status of 948 children selected randomly from Al-Mahweet Governorate schools was investigated. Age range was 5-18 years with a mean of 10.6 +/- 2.8 years. Among the children, 3.4% had depleted iron and 43.4% had below average skin-fold thickness. Approximately half of the children were either stunted or chronically underweight and 1 child in 20 was underfed. Depleted fat stores affected two-fifths of the children and approximately one-fifth were anaemic. Urban residents scored significantly higher on nutritional parameters than rural children. Serum ferritin levels were significantly greater among males than females whereas mean height-for-age, weight-for-age and skin-fold thickness were lower.

  2. Three-week nutritional supplementation effect on long-term nutritional status of patients with mild Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Odete Luísa Vicente; Amaral, Teresa F

    2012-01-01

    Short-term nutritional supplements enable an improvement in Alzheimer patients' nutritional status, but it remains to be seen whether they will be sufficient to improve long-term nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of a 3-week nutritional supplementation on the nutritional status of undernourished patients with probable mild Alzheimer disease. A 21-day prospective randomized nonblinded controlled trial was conducted. Patients were followed-up for an additional period until the 90th day after the beginning of the intervention. Intervention resulted in significant improvements in Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score [Mean=1.4, standard deviation (SD)=0.8 vs. 0.0 (0.1) in the control group, P<0.001] and also in anthropometrical and serum biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients' nutritional status. Further improvements in the AD patients' MNA mean score=1.4 (SD=2.3) versus -0.5 (SD=0.6) in the control group (P=0.003) were seen at 90 days follow-up. Data show that a 3-week nutritional supplementation has a positive long-term impact on the nutritional status of undernourished patients with mild probable AD.

  3. PARAOXONASE-1 AND EARLY LIFE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    PubMed Central

    Marsillach, Judit; Costa, Lucio G.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute and chronic exposures to widely used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are common. Children’s detoxification mechanisms are not well developed until several years after birth. The increased cases of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, together with their increased susceptibility to OP neurotoxicity cannot be explained by genetic factors alone but could be related to gene-environment interactions. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an enzyme that can detoxify OPs but its catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis to certain OPs is modulated by the Q192R polymorphism. Findings Studies in animals have provided important information on the role of PON1 in protecting against gestational and postnatal toxicity to OPs. The PON1Q192 allele is less efficient hydrolyzing certain OPs than the PON1R192 allele. Maternal PON1 status (PON1 activity levels, the most important measurement, and functional Q192R phenotype) modulates the detrimental effects of exposure to the OP chlorpyrifos oxon on fetal brain gene expression and biomarkers of exposure. Epidemiological studies suggest that children from mothers with lower PON1 status that were in contact with OPs during pregnancy tend to show smaller head circumference at birth and adverse effects in cognitive function during childhood. Conclusion Infants and children are vulnerable to OP toxicity. The detrimental consequences of OPs on neurodevelopment can lead to future generations with permanent cognitive problems and susceptibility to develop neurodegenerative diseases. Improved methods using mass spectrometry to monitor OP-adducted biomarker proteins are needed and will be extremely helpful in early life biomonitoring, while measurement of PON1 status as a biomarker of susceptibility will help identify mothers and children highly sensitive to OPs. The use of adductomics instead of enzymatic activity assays for biomonitoring OP exposures have proved to provide several advantages, including the use of dried blood spots

  4. The Intestinal Microbiome in Early Life: Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Stiemsma, Leah T.; Amenyogbe, Nelly; Brown, Eric M.; Finlay, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Human microbial colonization begins at birth and continues to develop and modulate in species abundance for about 3 years, until the microbiota becomes adult-like. During the same time period, children experience significant developmental changes that influence their health status as well as their immune system. An ever-expanding number of articles associate several diseases with early-life imbalances of the gut microbiota, also referred to as gut microbial dysbiosis. Whether early-life dysbiosis precedes and plays a role in disease pathogenesis, or simply originates from the disease process itself is a question that is beginning to be answered in a few diseases, including IBD, obesity, and asthma. This review describes the gut microbiome structure and function during the formative first years of life, as well as the environmental factors that determine its composition. It also aims to discuss the recent advances in understanding the role of the early-life gut microbiota in the development of immune-mediated, metabolic, and neurological diseases. A greater understanding of how the early-life gut microbiota impacts our immune development could potentially lead to novel microbial-derived therapies that target disease prevention at an early age. PMID:25250028

  5. Nutritional status in type 2 diabetic patients requiring haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Biesenbach, G; Debska-Slizien, A; Zazgornik, J

    1999-03-01

    Type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease are often overweight (BMI > 24) at the start of dialysis therapy. However, there are very few reports in the literature concerning the nutritional status of these patients after prolonged haemodialysis treatment. Therefore, we compared nutritional parameters in type 2 diabetic patients and age-matched non-diabetic patients after at least 18 months of renal replacement therapy with haemodialysis. In a cross-sectional study, we measured BMI, serum albumin, total protein, serum cholesterol and interdialytic weight gain (IWG), and performed a subjective global assessment (SGA) in 14 patients with type 2 diabetes and 16 non-diabetic patients (aged > or = 50 years, haemodialysis therapy > or = 18 months). Protein intake was estimated using the protein catabolic rate (PCR) and Kt/V was calculated to compare the dose of dialysis. BMI was significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (30+/-7 vs 24+/-3, P<0.01). In contrast, the concentration of serum albumin was significantly lower (3180+/-499 mg/dl vs 3576+/-431 mg/dl, P<0.05), but six of the diabetic patients had signs of chronic inflammation. All other nutritional parameters did not differ between the two groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the intake of protein (PCR 0.93+/-0.19 vs 0.92+/-0.22) and the dose of dialysis (Kt/V 1.13+/-0.19 vs 1.2+/-0.2). After > or = 18 months of haemodialysis therapy, the majority of type 2 diabetic patients (9/14) were still overweight (BMI > 24). The nutritional status of diabetic patients was similar to that of age-matched non-diabetic patients on prolonged haemodialysis, but serum albumin levels were significantly lower in diabetics. The lower albumin levels in the diabetic patients may be explained by a state of subclinical chronic inflammation.

  6. Oxidative stress and nutritional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Niraj; Lamsal, Madhab; Baral, Nirmal; Shrestha, Shrijana; Dhakal, Subodh Sagar; Bhatta, Narendra; Dubey, Raju Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Oxidative stress and malnutrition are shown to have pathogenic effect in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). This study was done to assess the burden of oxidative stress in COPD and to determine its relation to their nutritional status. In this cross-sectional study, 100 COPD cases from emergency and medical ward and meeting inclusion criteria, along with age, sex and occupation (mainly farmers, housewives and drivers) matched 100 controls without COPD and meeting inclusion criteria were enrolled. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation product, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidants, like Vitamin C, E and Red Blood Cell Catalase (RBCC). Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool and Body Mass Index (BMI) were used to assess nutritional status. Chi-square test was applied for categorical variable. Student t-test was applied for comparison of means. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied for comparison between groups followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis. Pearson correlation method was used for quantitative variables. Statistical significance was defined as p< 0.05 (two tailed). COPD cases had significantly high MDA level with low level of Vitamin E and catalase as compared to controls (p < 0.001). Most of the COPD cases were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 Kg/m(2)) and malnourished (MNA score less than 7). Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, showed significantly high burden of oxidative stress in underweight and malnourished cases as compared to normal weight (p < 0.05) among COPD cases. Highly significant correlation was seen between BMI and plasma MDA level (r = -0.27, p = 0.008) in COPD cases. This study shows impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance along with malnutrition and underweight in COPD, which signals for considering antioxidant therapy along with nutritional management.

  7. Usefulness of the mini nutritional assessment in predicting the nutritional status of patients with liver cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Hsu, Wei-Chung; Chan, Shu-Ching; Chang, Tusi-Lan

    2011-01-01

    Liver cancer patients are confronted with the additional risk of malnutrition because the disease is often associated with hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and metabolic disturbances. Nutritional intervention can improve treatment outcome, but early detection is important. This study aimed to determine whether the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) could effectively rate the nutritional status of patients with liver cancer in Taiwan. A total of 300 patients were evaluated for nutritional status with two modified versions of the MNA in short and long forms. MNA-Taiwan Version 1 adopted population-specific anthropometric cutpoints, whereas Version 2 replaced mid-arm and calf circumferences in place of body mass index. Predicted statuses were compared to results predicted by the Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and analyzed for correlations with biochemical or cancer status parameters. Results showed that both versions of the MNA were effective in predicting nutritional status, and predictions by the short forms agreed well with those by the long forms. The nutritional scores correlated well with hemoglobin, serum albumin, C-reactive protein, r-glutamyl transpeptidase, TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) staging, and severity of cirrhosis. These results suggest that the MNA can be an effective tool for assessing the nutritional status of patients with liver cancer.

  8. Usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in predicting the nutritional status of people with mental disorders in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Chou, Yuan-Ti; Chang, Tsui-Lan

    2011-02-01

    The study was to evaluate the ability of the Mini Nutritional Assessment in predicting malnutrition in people with three subtypes of mental disorder (schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder) in Taiwan. The study involved a convenience sample of 120 residents of psychiatric wards managed by a hospital in central Taiwan (52 with schizophrenia, 36 with major depression and 32 with bipolar disorder) classified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. A structured questionnaire elicited subjects' personal data, disease history and answers to questions in the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Serum and anthropometrical parameters were measured. Nutritional status was evaluated with a content-equivalent version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (Taiwan version-1, T1). The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 was effective in assessing the nutritional status of people of all three subtypes of disorder. Nutritional statuses predicted with the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 agreed well with other nutritional indicators such as BMI, waist circumference and appetite status. According to the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1, people with major depression were more likely to be at risk of undernutrition, whereas people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were more likely to be at risk of overnutrition. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 can effectively grade both undernutrition and overnutrition of people with schizophrenia, major depression or bipolar disorder. The Mini Nutritional Assessment enables nurses to monitor emerging nutritional problems in people with psychiatric disorder without relying on subjective judgement. With proper intervention, it can help reduce nutrition-related chronic conditions in these individuals and save on healthcare cost. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Nutritional status, adiposity and asthma severity and control in children.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Denise Halpern; Zhang, Linjie; Prietsch, Silvio O M; Vecchi, Amilcare Angelo; Susin, Lulie Rosane Odeh

    2015-10-01

    To investigate association between nutritional status, adiposity and asthma severity and control in children. We conducted a case control study at two teaching hospitals in Brazil. Cases were children (3-12 years) with persistent asthma and age-matched controls were those with intermittent asthma. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Adiposity was assessed by sum of skinfolds and waist circumference (WC). Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression or multinomial logistic regression as appropriate. Two hundred sixty-eight cases and 126 controls were included. Obesity (>2 BMI z-score for age) was significantly associated with persistent asthma (adjusted OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.39-4.95). There was a significant linear relationship between BMI z-scores (≤1, >1 to ≤2, >2) and risk of having persistent asthma (P = 0.003 for linear trend). Children with WC >90th percentile had a higher risk of persistent asthma when compared with those with WC ≤90th percentile (adjusted OR 3.38; 95% CI 1.26-9.06). No significant difference was found in terms of nutritional status and adiposity between children whose asthma was controlled by inhaled corticosteroids and those requiring inhaled corticosteroids plus other medications for asthma control. Obesity measured by BMI and increased abdominal adiposity are significantly associated with risk of persistent asthma but not type of controller medications. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Iodine nutrition status in pregnant women in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gaytán, Ana Cristina; Reyes-Mendoza, Vanessa Amaranta; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis; Leo-Amador, Guillermo Enrique

    2011-12-01

    Iodine nutrition during pregnancy has become an important public health concern because of the deleterious impact of iodine deficiency on brain development during fetal and early postnatal life. Iodine nutrition status can be assessed in a population by the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC). World Health Organization, the United Nations Children's Fund, and the International Council for Iodine Deficiency Disorders have established that a median of UIC between 150 and 249 μg/L in pregnant women indicates an adequate iodine intake. The aim of this study was to assess iodine nutrition status in Mexican pregnant women. Two hundred ninety-four pregnant women receiving prenatal care in the Public Medical Units of the State Ministry of Health for each pregnancy trimester (first, n=60; second, n=103; and third, n=131) in Queretaro, Mexico, were enrolled to assess UIC by the Sandell-Kholtoff method. The median of UIC was 273, 285, and 231 μg/L in the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation, respectively. Globally, the median (range) of UIC was 260 (5-1320) μg/L, and the percentage of samples with UIC below 150 μg/L was 28%. There was no significant difference between the UIC of women using iodine-containing multivitamins compared with those who reported the consumption of noniodized multivitamins (p>0.05). In addition, we found no difference between the UIC of women using iodized table salt compared with those who employed noniodized table salt, with those who did not know whether their table salt was iodized (p>0.05). Based on the median UIC, iodine intake in Queretaro, Mexico, is slightly above requirements during the first two trimesters, and adequate in the third trimester. The wide Mexican universal iodized salt program seems to supply adequate dietary iodine to pregnant women without health insurance in this region. However, regular monitoring of iodine status is recommended during pregnancy throughout Mexico.

  11. Comparison of methods for assessing nutritional status in HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Niyongabo, T; Melchior, J C; Henzel, D; Bouchaud, O; Larouzé, B

    1999-10-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and is associated with a poor prognosis. To compare different measures of nutritional status in HIV-infected patients, we prospectively studied 88 outpatients seen at a Paris AIDS outpatient clinic for routine follow-up examinations. Nutritional status was assessed according to body weight loss (BWL, 4 classes), anthropometry, bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), and subjective global assessment of nutritional status (SGA). Malnutrition was diagnosed in 22.4% of subjects using SGA, and 37.1% by BWL. SGA rapidly detected a worsening of nutritional status, while BWL detected malnutrition at an earlier stage. A good correlation was found between SGA class and body composition assessed by anthropometry and BIA. Deteriorating nutritional status diagnosed by SGA correlated with the CDC HIV disease class. SGA, a simple nutritional assessment, can serve as a basis for prescribing artificial nutrition, while BWL detects malnutrition at an earlier stage.

  12. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  13. Life-Course Body Mass Index Trajectories Are Predicted by Childhood Socioeconomic Status but Not Exposure to Improved Nutrition during the First 1000 Days after Conception in Guatemalan Adults.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nicole D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mehta, Neil K; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-11-01

    Latin America has experienced increases in obesity. Little is known about the role of early life factors on body mass index (BMI) gain over the life course. The objective of this research was to examine the role of early life factors [specifically, nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d (from conception to 2 y of age) and childhood household socioeconomic status (SES)] on the pattern of BMI gain from birth or early childhood through midadulthood by using latent class growth analysis. Study participants (711 women, 742 men) who were born in 4 villages in Guatemala (1962-1977) were followed prospectively since participating in a randomized nutrition supplementation trial as children. Sex-specific BMI latent class trajectories were derived from 22 possible measures of height and weight from 1969 to 2004. To characterize early life determinants of BMI latent class membership, we used logistic regression modeling and estimated the difference-in-difference (DD) effect of nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d. We identified 2 BMI latent classes in women [low (57%) and high (43%)] and 3 classes in men [low (38%), medium (47%), and high (15%)]. Nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d after conception was not associated with BMI latent class membership (DD test: P > 0.15 for men and women), whereas higher SES was associated with increased odds of high BMI latent class membership in both men (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.61) and women (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.45) for the highest relative to the lowest tertile. In a cohort of Guatemalan men and women, nutrition supplementation provided during the first 1000 d was not significantly associated with higher BMI trajectory. Higher childhood household SES was associated with increased odds of high BMI latent class membership relative to the poorest households. The pathways through which this operates still need to be explored. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Importance of nutritional status in recovery from acute cholecystitis: benefit from enteral nutrition supplementation including medium chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yukinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Wakabayashi, Takao; Okushima, Kazumu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hironao; Nakamura, Yuta

    2007-09-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the importance of nutritional status in patients with acute cholecystitis, and also evaluate whether they benefited from enteral nutrition supplementation, including medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), during the convalescent stage. Patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to our hospital between April 1994 and March 2002 were classified into a poor nutrition group (n=40; total serum protein<5.0 g/dl) or a fair nutrition group (n=71; >5.0 g/dl). Patients with poor nutrition were significantly more elderly than those with fair nutrition, and had significantly higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to other laboratory data, gender distribution, or medical treatment. We supplemented ordinary meals with enteral nutrition including MCT in 16 patients during the convalescent stage (MCT group). We compared their length of hospital stay and days required to recovery to pre-admission functional status for activities of daily living (ADL) with the same intervals in 16 patients without supplementation (non-MCT group) selected to match for age, gender, and fair or poor nutritional status from among 111 patients. Hospitalizations were significantly longer in the poor nutrition group (43.0+/-2.2 days) than in the fair nutrition group (27.0+/-8.2 days). Significantly more days were required to recover ADL status in the poor nutrition group (12.0+/-7.2 days) than in the fair group (9.4+/-5.2 days). Hospitalizations were significantly shorter in the MCT group (20.1+/-15 days) than in the non-MCT group (35.4+/-12.8 days). Significantly fewer days were required to recover ADL status in the MCT group (10.9+/-7 days) than in the non-MCT group (13.1+/-6.8 days). Administration of enteral nutrition including MCT during convalescence from acute cholecystitis thus appears to promote functional recovery shorten hospital stay.

  15. [Nutritional status as a factor and a result of nutritional and food security and their representations in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

    2004-01-01

    We approach the determining factors and results of food and nutritional security in Brazil. The following aspects are considered: i. The concept to be studied; ii, The form of measuring a particular factor; iii. A Brazilian characterization on the subject, and iv. conclusions. Nutritional status is primarily a result of the balance between the needs and the spending of food energy and other essential nutrients and, secondarily, of multiple determinants in a given space, represented by physical, genetic, biological, cultural, psychosocio-economic and environmental factors. According to this, there are 3 basic causes of nutritional disorders: food, health and care. Because the repercussions of the economic changes on the nutritional status are not immediate, food security is only one factor of nutritional status and because subjects adapt differently to low food intake, the most adequate nutritional indicators in studies of food and nutritional security are the childhood indicators and the indicators of historical trends. The interpretation of nutritional indicators poses 3 main problems: to determine if the problem is really one of food security; to establish the degree of importance of the problem, and to determine which could be the appropriate normative intervention. The studies of nutritional status in Brazil show considerable improvement in the anthropometric indicators, emphasizing that the worst conditions prevail in the North East region and in the rural areas. Regarding micronutrient deficiencies, the absence of nationwide studies and the great advances in the programs to tackle this deficiencies, mainly vitamin A and iodine deficiencies are highlighted.

  16. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition.

  17. [Effect of an intensive nutritional treatment in nutritional status of head and neck cancer patients in stages III and IV].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, V; Barbosa, V; Mendoza, J; Vargas, A; Amancio, O; Hernández-Cuéllar, A; Arana-Rivera, E

    2008-01-01

    Malnutrition and accelerated weight loss are frequent secondary diagnosis in patients with cancer. Head and neck cancer (H & N Cancer) affects nutritional status because of the tumor type and localization. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of an intensive nutritional treatment (INT) on nutritional status of H & N cancer patients, stages III and IV and to compare that with a historical control whose nutritional treatment was conventional (CT). All patients were nutritionally assessed before oncological treatment started (anthropometrical, biochemical, and dietetically). A nutritional feeding plan according to their nutritional personal need was calculated. In case it was impossible to cover all the nutritional requirements orally, a feeding tube was placed. Nutritional follow up was performed each 21 days, during their oncological treatment in four occasions. The results obtained were compared with those obtained from the patients who received the CT that consisted only in nutritional counseling by the attending physician; the statistical test used was Mann Whitney U test. The INT was associated with maintenance of the nutritional status along their oncological treatment. The statistical significant parameters were: weight 55 to 47 kg in the CT group vs 59 a 58 kg in the INT group (p < 0.0001), and hemoglobin: from 13 to 11 g/dl in the CT group vs 14 to 13 g/dl in the INT group (p < 0.002) as the most important ones. In the rest of the data we can observe a clear tendency of increasing the nutrition parameters in patients the INT group, while in the CT group, they showed a persistent decrease. We concluded that patients who received the INT as part of their oncological treatment deteriorated less their nutritional status than those who received a CT.

  18. [Birth weight and later nutritional status, cognitive development and job status: a critical revision].

    PubMed

    Villegas, S; Ivanovic, R; Pérez, H; Almagià, A; Urrutia, M S; Rodríguez, M del P; Larrain, C; Ivanovic, D

    2009-12-01

    The impact of prenatal nutritional status, assessed through birth weight (BW) and their effects in the short, medium and long-term on nutritional status, cognitive development and job status in the adult life, has been a problem of interest for several researchers; as regards, some of these report a positive and significant association between these variables and others do not find any relation. Children with insufficient, low or very low BW despite the early more deteriorate nutritional status should present higher risk for brain maturation, failure cognitive development and lowered head circumference which implies both lowered brain volume and intellectual development. In the short and medium-term, this situation damages the learning process at school-age, while in the long-term this might condition the quality of jobs. At present, the body of knowledge pinpoints that findings related to these associations is not conclusive verifying a great controversy in these matters. This review article has the purpose of analyzing the current evidence, in order to stimulate research about to these aspects which are relevant for child development and their future life.

  19. Using a nutritional screening tool to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tu, Mei-Yu; Chien, Tsair-Wei; Chou, Ming-Ting

    2012-01-01

    We assessed which nutrition evaluation method [subjective global assessment (SGA); malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST); nutritional risk index (NRI)] provided the most efficacious combination of high validity, low cost, and ease of use to examine and improve the status of malnutrition for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The SGA, MUST, and NRI scales were used to analyze the preoperative status of malnutrition for 45 CRC patients in a medical center in Taiwan. Differences in the reliability of the 3 methods were compared using the kappa (κ) coefficient of agreement. Lengths of hospital stays were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test to examine the effect of malnutrition in CRC patients. The SGA κ coefficient was higher with the MUST than with the NRI. Preoperative and postoperative weight losses were significantly different on the NRI, and the longer the length of the hospital stay, the greater was the weight loss. Although the SGA had a higher validity and lower cost than the NRI, we recommend using the MUST method for a routine nutrition evaluation because it is easier to use and is less expensive than the SGA and the NRI.

  20. Is transthyretin a good marker of nutritional status?

    PubMed

    Dellière, S; Cynober, L

    2017-04-01

    The assay of plasma transthyretin (TTR), also known as prealbumin, is a key step in the assessment of nutritional status. However, it remains unclear whether it really is a useful nutrition marker, and when and how to use it and interpret TTR levels and variations. Risk of malnutrition, malnutrition severity, prognosis associated with malnutrition and effectiveness of refeeding are four parameters in nutritional assessment, and need clear separation to understand the associated utility of TTR. TTR does not have the same impact and potential on each of these parameters: it can be helpful but not essential for evaluating the risk of malnutrition, and it can diagnose malnutrition and its severity in patients with no inflammation syndrome. TTR is a good marker for prognosis associated with malnutrition, and is even better for monitoring refeeding efficacy despite inflammation. Thresholds depend on the purpose for which it is used. We propose a simple algorithm to guide the interpretation of TTR levels as a helpful tool for day-to-day practice.

  1. Systemic inflammation, nutritional status and survival in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Donald C

    2009-05-01

    There is now good evidence in humans that a chronic systemic inflammatory response results in the cardinal features of cancer cachexia, principally the progressive loss of weight (in particular lean tissue). This review examines the role of recent simple objective systemic inflammation-based scores in predicting reduction of nutritional status and survival. The most common measure of the systemic inflammatory response in cancer patients has been an elevated C-reactive protein concentration. This has now been included in recent definitions of cancer cachexia. There are also recent systemic inflammation-based scores, the Glasgow Prognostic Score, Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio and the Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio that have been shown to have prognostic value in cancer patients. These scores, in particular the Glasgow Prognostic Score, enable identification of patients who are, or likely, to develop cachexia, have a poor response to treatment and who are likely to have poor survival. A chronic systemic inflammatory response is clearly implicated in the progressive nutritional and functional decline in the cancer patients and their subsequent poor outcome. Systemic inflammation-based prognostic scores not only identify patients at risk but also provide well defined therapeutic targets for future clinical trials targeting nutritional decline.

  2. Coffee, nutritional status, and renal artery resistive index.

    PubMed

    Trovato, Guglielmo M; Pirri, Clara; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Trovato, Francesca; Catalano, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between nutrition and atherosclerosis is known, even dissociated from protein malnutrition. Cardiovascular impact of several nutrients is known; among them the action of coffee is still debated and cardiovascular effect of caffeine has been investigated without definite results. The aim of this study is to investigate whether coffee habits, and/or quantity of coffee consumption, have any relationship with renal resistive index (RRI), a hallmark of arterial stiffness (AS). The relationship of AS with nutritional status assessed by body composition and serum albumin, insulin resistance (assessed by HOMA), and renal function assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is concurrently investigated. This study was done with 221 consecutive patients, without diabetes, cancer, liver, renal, and heart disease, referred for clinical noninvasive assessment and nutritional counseling: 124 essential hypertensive and 97 nonhypertensive patients were eligible. Personalized Mediterranean diet, physical activity increase, and smoking withdrawal counseling were provided. By multiple linear regression, fat-free mass (FFM), HOMA (positive relationship), and number of cups of coffee/day (negative relationship) account for 17.2% of the variance to RRI. By odds ratios lower risk to increased RRI is associated with higher serum albumin, higher hemoglobin, and FFM; greater risk is associated with hypertension, insulin resistance (HOMA ≥ 3.0), and renal insufficiency (GFR ≤ 90); coffee, assessed by number of cups/day, reduces risk. Coffee use is inversely associated with RRI. Habitual coffee users have risk protection to higher RRI; lower serum albumin, insulin resistance, and renal insufficiency are associated with greater RRI.

  3. [Increase of physical activity by improvement of the nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Torún, B

    1989-09-01

    Physical activity is affected by nutritional modifications and, in turn, influences growth, cognition, social behavior, work performance and other functions. Studies in preschool children showed that: 1. A decrease in energy intake during four to seven days reduced the time allocated to energy-demanding activities and increased sedentary activities. 2. Children with mild weight deficit were more sedentary than well-nourished counterparts. 3. Children became more active when nutritional status improved. 4. A 10% reduction in energy intake reduced total energy expenditure by 15% without affecting weight gain nor basal metabolism. Studies of men working in non-mechanized agriculture showed that: 1. Dietary improvements led to faster salaried work, reduction of napping time and greater physical activity after work. 2. An increase in energy intake increased total daily energy expenditure, tending to maintain energy balance and relatively stable body weight within the cyclic variations of the agricultural year. 3. Food supplementation did not necessarily improve productivity. Other labor incentives without dietary improvements increased energy expenditure during working hours, which resulted in weight loss. In conclusion, good health and nutrition provide the biological basis for adequate physical activity that may improve cognitive development, social interactions, economic productivity and the quality of life of an individual or a population, but other incentives are required for the optimal expression of that biologic potential.

  4. Assessment of nutritional status of HIV-infected patients at a tertiary centre in North India.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sunita; Wanchu, Ajay; Khurana, Sudha

    2007-07-01

    Infection with HIV has an adverse effect on nutritional status, and can result in progressive involuntary weight loss. We assessed the nutritional status of our patients with HIV infection and found that HIV-infected patients had significantly low nutrient intake and body mass index as compared with controls. Involuntary weight loss, altered body composition and reduced nutritional status were present throughout the stages of HIV infection.

  5. Nutritional profile and inflammatory status of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Faintuch, Joel; Morais, Alvaro A C; Silva, Maria A T; Vidigal, Erica J; Costa, Rozilene A; Lyrio, Daniele C; Trindade, Celia R; Karoline, K Pitanga

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition and abnormal inflammatory markers are prominent features of the uremic syndrome, but associations and repercussions are somewhat controversial. To determine nutritional and clinical profile of hemodialysis patients, aiming at potential diagnostic recommendations for stable subjects with elevated C-reactive protein. Prospective observational cross-sectional clinical study in a stable chronic hemodialysis population; Renal and Nutritional Service of a mid-size charity academic hospital; Subjects (n=44) were analyzed concerning nutritional status and C-reactive protein. Some displayed acute infections (Group I, n=9) and others did not (Group II, n=35). Age was 47.0 +/- 16.9 years with 63.6% males. Body mass index (BMI) was 22.2 +/- 3.9 kg/m2, calorie intake was 1262 +/- 601 kcal/day (20.7 +/- 6.7 kcal/kg/day), and protein ingestion was 74.3 +/- 16.6 g protein/day (1.2 g/kg/day); No nutritional supplement or artificial modality of alimentation was employed in this series; Subjective global assessment and C-reactive protein. Malnutrition estimated by subjective global assessment (SGA) was very common (>90%), despite acceptable BMI and serum albumin. C-reactive protein was moderately elevated in 40.9% and was positively associated with SGA and negatively with plasma proteins. Comorbidities were associated positively with extracellular water and negatively with reactance (bioimpedance). When infected versus non-infected cases were analyzed, 100% of the former displayed high CRP concentrations in contrast with 22.9% of remaining patients. (1) Malnutrition profile was rather unique, with relatively favorable objective findings (body mass index, serum albumin) and more deranged SGA; (2) Bioimpedance analysis suggested that phase angle could be used as an indicator of nutritional status; (3) Creactive protein was negatively associated with plasma proteins; (4) Infected subjects, although few and displaying moderate clinical troubles, were responsible for most C

  6. Diet and nutritional status of rural adolescents in India.

    PubMed

    Venkaiah, K; Damayanti, K; Nayak, M U; Vijayaraghavan, K

    2002-11-01

    To study the current diet and nutritional status of rural adolescents in India. Cross-sectional study with household as the unit of randomization. National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau collected information in the rural areas of the nine States. In each State, 120 villages were selected from eight districts. From each of the selected villages, 20 households (HHs) were selected from five clusters. The information on socio-demographic profile was collected in all the 20 HHs, while anthropometric data such as weight, height and clinical signs of nutritional deficiency was collected on all the available adolescents in the selected households. In every fourth sampled household, ie five HHs, dietary information on all the members was collected using 24 h dietary recall. The outcome measures for nutritional status were proportion of underweight (

  7. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression.

    PubMed

    Kaner, Gülşah; Soylu, Meltem; Yüksel, Nimet; Inanç, Neriman; Ongan, Dilek; Başmısırlı, Eda

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to determine nutritional status, body composition, and biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with depression based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. A total of 59 individuals, aged 18-60 years admitted to Mental Health Centre of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups; depression group (n = 29) and control group (n = 30). Anthropometric measurements, some biochemical parameters, demographic data, and 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. 65.5% of depression and 60.0% of control group were female. Intake of vitamins A, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folate, C, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and fibre (p < 0.05) were lower in depression group. Median levels of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in depression group. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum vitamins B12, and folic acid (p < 0.05) in depression group were lower than controls. Serum insulin and HOMA levels of two groups were similar. Some vitamin B consumption and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were low while signs of abdominal obesity were high among patients with depression. Future research exploring nutritional status of individuals with depression is warranted.

  8. Nutritional status and lipid profile of young children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joilane Alves; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Lemos, Jesuana Oliveira; de Oliveira, Ellaine; Rocha, Cinthya; Hipólito, Thiago

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status and lipid profile of young children from an urban Brazilian region. Cross-sectional study involving a representative sample of 472 children aged 5-8 years from Jundiai city. The nutritional status was assessed by the body mass index for age. Total cholesterol and fractions (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and triglycerides concentrations were determined by automated enzymatic methods. The results were analyzed by the student t-test and Fisher exact test. Overweight/obesity was observed in 22% of the children and thinness in 3.2%. Girls presented a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (24.0%) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (22.8%) compared with boys (19.7% and 10.6%), respectively (p < 0.001). The prevalence of children with elevated and borderline total cholesterol was 32.8% and 26.7%, respectively, although 82.8% had desirable levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and dyslipidaemia observed in these children is a matter of concern considering the age group evaluated.

  9. Caregiver perceptions of child nutritional status in Magallanes, Chile.

    PubMed

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Parra, Sonia G; Barbosa, Clarita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to identify risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity and the accuracy of caregivers'€™ perceptions of their child's nutritional status in the Magallanes region, Patagonia, Chile. Heights and weights of children attending day care centers and elementary schools were collected and caregivers completed questionnaires regarding their child's health and behavior. The child's nutritional status was diagnosed using the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (for children under age 6) and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts (for children age 6 and older). Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors related to childhood overweight/obesity and weight underestimation by caregivers of overweight or obese children. Of the 795 children included in the study, 247 (31.1%) were overweight and 223 (28.1%) were obese. Risk factors for overweight/obesity included younger age and being perceived to eat more than normal by the caregiver. Caregivers were less likely to underestimate their child's weight if the child was older or if the caregiver believed the child ate more than a normal amount. There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Magallanes and the majority of caregivers underestimate the extent of the problem in their children. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional status in patients with HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stambullian, Marcela; Feliu, Susana; Slobodianik, Nora H

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of adults with HIV infection or with AIDS through the use of biochemical parameters. The study was performed on 43 patients (19 HIV+ and 24 AIDS patients), between 26 and 44 years of age, from low and medium socioeconomic status, with access to health care services; 35 patients were under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) treatment. Body weight and height were determined, and the Body Mass Index calculated (kg/m2). Blood samples were collected from fasting patients. Plasma cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL), triacylglycerol, total protein, apolipoproteins A-I and B, albumin, transthyretin, retinol binding protein, and ceruloplasmin concentrations were determined. Plasma levels of zinc, copper, and selenium were determined in a haemolysis-free sample by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistical analyses were performed with the Student's t-test. AIDS patients showed changes in biochemical parameters, particularly an increase in fibrinogen and a trend to decreased transthyretin levels. These findings stress the importance of the inclusion of functional biochemical parameters in the periodic evaluation of these patients. This would allow an early assessment of the need for appropriate nutritional support, implemented along with the specific retroviral treatment. This would aim at delaying the progression of the disease, and might improve the prospects of survival and quality of life.

  11. Dietary intake and nutritional status in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, A C; Akesson, A; Akesson, B

    1992-10-01

    Oesophageal dysmotility and abnormalities of intestinal function are important manifestations in systemic sclerosis and may have a significant effect on nutrient absorption and nutritional status. In this study 30 patients with systemic sclerosis with symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract were compared with matched healthy control subjects with respect to nutrient intake (four day record), anthropometric measurements, and biochemical nutritional status. The intake of energy (8.1 and 8.4 MJ/day) and its distribution among nutrients did not differ between patients and control subjects, but the lower intake of dietary fibre among patients with systemic sclerosis suggests that they avoided food with a coarse structure, such as coarse bread. The intake of vegetables and fruit also tended to be lower among patients with systemic sclerosis. Half of the patients had a subnormal arm muscle circumference, and two patients also had a subnormal triceps skinfold thickness, indicating severe malnutrition. The concentration of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, carotene, selenium, and also the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2) in serum phosphatidylcholine was lower in patients than in control subjects.

  12. Dietary intake and nutritional status in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, A C; Akesson, A; Akesson, B

    1992-01-01

    Oesophageal dysmotility and abnormalities of intestinal function are important manifestations in systemic sclerosis and may have a significant effect on nutrient absorption and nutritional status. In this study 30 patients with systemic sclerosis with symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract were compared with matched healthy control subjects with respect to nutrient intake (four day record), anthropometric measurements, and biochemical nutritional status. The intake of energy (8.1 and 8.4 MJ/day) and its distribution among nutrients did not differ between patients and control subjects, but the lower intake of dietary fibre among patients with systemic sclerosis suggests that they avoided food with a coarse structure, such as coarse bread. The intake of vegetables and fruit also tended to be lower among patients with systemic sclerosis. Half of the patients had a subnormal arm muscle circumference, and two patients also had a subnormal triceps skinfold thickness, indicating severe malnutrition. The concentration of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, carotene, selenium, and also the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2) in serum phosphatidylcholine was lower in patients than in control subjects. PMID:1332633

  13. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Gülşah; Soylu, Meltem; Yüksel, Nimet; Inanç, Neriman; Ongan, Dilek; Başmısırlı, Eda

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. Our goal was to determine nutritional status, body composition, and biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with depression based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Methods. A total of 59 individuals, aged 18–60 years admitted to Mental Health Centre of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups; depression group (n = 29) and control group (n = 30). Anthropometric measurements, some biochemical parameters, demographic data, and 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. Results. 65.5% of depression and 60.0% of control group were female. Intake of vitamins A, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folate, C, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and fibre (p < 0.05) were lower in depression group. Median levels of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in depression group. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum vitamins B12, and folic acid (p < 0.05) in depression group were lower than controls. Serum insulin and HOMA levels of two groups were similar. Conclusion. Some vitamin B consumption and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were low while signs of abdominal obesity were high among patients with depression. Future research exploring nutritional status of individuals with depression is warranted. PMID:26413529

  14. Home-Delivered Meals and Nutrition Status Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Sahyoun, Nadine R; Vaudin, Anna

    2014-08-01

    The trend among older adults in the United States is to "age in place" instead of opting for institutionalization. To maintain older adults with chronic conditions in their homes and to improve health after hospitalization, comprehensive social, health, and nutrition services are essential. Quality of dietary intake is crucial and yet often underestimated. Calorie needs decrease with age while nutrient needs remain the same, even increasing for some nutrients. This poses difficulties for individuals with functional disabilities who are unable to shop and cook due to physical or mental limitations or on a limited budget. The Older American Act home-delivered meal (HDM) program offers at least 1 healthy meal per day, 5 or more days per week, and targets individuals homebound due to illness, disability, or social isolation and those with greatest economic or social need. This review summarizes the available literature on the relationship between HDM and health outcomes. The HDM program is difficult to evaluate because of the multifactorial effect on health status. However, national surveys and smaller studies show that it is well targeted, efficient, and well liked; provides quality food to needy individuals; and helps individuals remain living independently. Studies show that HDMs improve dietary intake, with greater health benefits when more meals reach the neediest individuals. HDMs also decrease institutionalization of older adults and resulting healthcare expenditures. However, funding has not kept up with increased demand for this program. More studies with improved designs may provide more information supporting the program's impact on nutrition status and decreased health expenditures.

  15. Tongue thickness relates to nutritional status in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Fumiyo; Kikutani, Takeshi; Tohara, Takashi; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Yaegaki, Ken

    2012-12-01

    Many elderly people under long-term care suffer from malnutrition caused by dysphagia, frequently leading to sarcopenia. Our hypothesis is that sarcopenia may compromise oral function, resulting in dysphagia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sarcopenia of the lingual muscles by measuring the tongue thickness, and elucidate its relationship with nutritional status. We examined 104 elderly subjects (mean age = 80.3 ± 7.9 years). Anthropometric data, such as triceps skinfold thickness and midarm muscle area (AMA), were obtained. The tongue thickness of the central part was determined using ultrasonography. Measurement was performed twice and the mean value was obtained. The relationship between tongue thickness and nutritional status was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. AMA and age were identified by multiple-regression analysis as factors influencing tongue thickness. The results of this study suggest that malnutrition may induce sarcopenia not only in the skeletal muscles but also in the tongue.

  16. Characteristics and determinants of child nutritional status in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Martorell, R; Leslie, J; Moock, P R

    1984-01-01

    Herein, we examine characteristics and determinants of child malnutrition in the districts of Bara and Rautahat of the Terai region of Nepal. The sample studied consists of 510 rural children ranging in age from 3 to 10 yr. The Nepali children were found to have one of the highest reported prevalences of stunting (65% were less than 90% National study for Health Statistics median height for age). The study children were also 1 to 1.5 kg lighter when compared to US children of the same height. Fat deposits, as measured by anthropometric variables and Hb levels were also very low. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, district of residence, household income, breast-feeding, and several specific food items were significant predictors of nutritional status. Association with other factors such as caste and parental schooling, were not evident in multiple regressions. Boys were as likely to be malnourished as girls. Prolonged breast-feeding was associated with greater fat stores, but with reduced stature and low Hb values. Both landholdings and household income were found to be positively and significantly associated with almost all measures of nutritional status.

  17. Nutritional status and interdialytic weight gain of chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Sanzia Francisca; Freitas, Ana Tereza Vaz de Souza; Vaz, Inaiana Marques Filizola; Campos, Marta Isabel Valente Andrade Morais; Peixoto, Maria do Rosário Gondim; Pereira, Edna Regina Silva

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional status (NS) of patients on hemodialysis (HD) is a major concern and challenge. Malnutrition is common in these patients and is related to poorer clinical outcomes. To assess the association between the NS and the interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on HD. Cross-sectional study with 322 patients older than 18 years. The NS was assessed by body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat estimated by the sum of four skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular and supra iliac), lean body mass (LBM), serum creatinine and albumin and rate of nitrogen appearance (PNA). The IDWG was evaluated from the sum of the weight difference of 12 hemodialysis sessions (IDWGm). Considering the sample into quartiles IDWGm, it was found that BMI, LBM, serum creatinine ( p < 0.001) and PNA ( p = 0.011) were directly correlated. There was no association between IDWGm and serum albumin. Using multivariate analysis, it was found that the prevalence of patients with BMI suitability and serum creatinine were significantly higher for patients in the bottom quartile with respect to the first IDWGm. The NS is positively associated with IDWG. The results point to the need for individualized assessment of IDWG and cautious in order not to generalize a recommendation that does not meet the expectations of maintaining and promoting the nutritional status of these patients.

  18. Caregiver perceptions of child nutritional status in Magallanes, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Parra, Sonia G.; Barbosa, Clarita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity and the accuracy of caregivers’ perceptions of their child’s nutritional status in the Magallanes region, Patagonia, Chile. Methods Heights and weights of children attending day care centers and elementary schools were collected and caregivers completed questionnaires regarding their child’s health and behavior. The child’s nutritional status was diagnosed using the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (for children under age 6) and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts (for children age 6 and older). Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors related to childhood overweight/obesity and weight underestimation by caregivers of overweight or obese children. Results Of the 795 children included in the study, 247 (31.1%) were overweight and 223 (28.1%) were obese. Risk factors for overweight/obesity included younger age and being perceived to eat more than normal by the caregiver. Caregivers were less likely to underestimate their child’s weight if the child was older or if the caregiver believed the child ate more than a normal amount. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Magallanes and the majority of caregivers underestimate the extent of the problem in their children. PMID:24548582

  19. Association between oxidative stress and nutritional status in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Priscila Lucelia; Villas Boas, Paulo Jose Fortes; Ferreira, Ana Lucia Anjos

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is a dynamic and progressive process that is characterized by the occurrence of morphological, biochemical, functional and psychological changes in the organism. The aim of the present article is to provide updated concepts on oxidative stress, covering its importance in aging, as well as nutritional status and supplementation with antioxidants (substances that prevent or attenuate oxidation of oxidizable substrates, such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and deoxyribonucleic acid) in the geriatric population. Evidence suggests that there is an inverse relationship between oxidative stress and nutritional status in elderly individuals. Although an increase in oxidative stress in chronic diseases associated with aging has been proven, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, up to now there has been no consistent clinical evidence proving the efficiency of supplementation with antioxidants against oxidative stress. In this context, supplementation is not recommended. On the other hand, the elderly should be encouraged to eat antioxidant foods, such as fruits and vegetables. Maintaining a normal weight (body mass index between 23 and 28 Kg/m(2)) should also be stimulated.

  20. Nutritional status, metabolic changes and white blood cells in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Franceschini, Sylvia C.C.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the peripheral blood white cells, metabolic changes, and nutritional status of adolescents with and without excess weight and body fat. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) in 362 adolescents from 15 to 19 years of age, of both sexes. White blood cell count, platelet count, uric acid, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. The inclusion criteria were agreement to participate in the study and signature of the informed consent. Exclusion criteria were: presence of chronic or infectious disease; use of medications that could cause changes in biochemical tests; pregnancy; participation in weight reduction and weight control programs; use of diuretics and laxatives; or the presence of a pacemaker. The following statistical tests were applied: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t or Mann-Whitney test, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests, and chi-squared test, considering p<0.05. RESULTS: Overweight was observed in 20.7% of adolescents. The total cholesterol (TC) had a higher percentage of inadequacy (52.2%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (38.4%). There was a positive correlation between white cells and serum lipids, insulin, body fat, and BMI. Monocytes were negatively correlated with BMI, and rods with BMI, body fat, and insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional status is related to an inflammatory process, and adolescents with excess weight or body fat presented higher amounts of white blood cells. PMID:25510999

  1. Diet diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S.; Wan, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Background With rapid urbanization in the past decades, diet diversity continues to increase in China. The present cross-sectional study aims to explore the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China. Methods This study used data from 2011–2012 National Nutritional Survey in Yunnan Province, southwest China (N = 1105).Data of three consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were used to calculate dietary diversity scores (DDS) and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR). Body mass index and waist circumference were used to determine nutritional status. Surveylogistic procedure of SAS 9.2 software was used to examine the association between DDS and obesity by estimating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The mean DDS was 5.2 (SD 1.1) out of nine points. Being female, younger age, belonging to Han ethnicity, having higher educational level and household income were positively associated with DDS (all P<0.05). As DDS increased, consumption also increased in most food groups except grains and vegetables. People with medium and high DDS (DDS = 5 and DDS ≥6, respectively) ingested more energy than the recommended quantity(NAR = 1.1 and 1.2, respectively). However, the intakes of Calcium and Vitamin A were seriously inadequate even for people with high DDS (NAR≤0.5). With potential confounders adjusted, people with medium and high DDS were at higher risk of general and central obesity than people with DDS ≤4 (OR = 1.4–1.9, P<0.01). Conclusions Our data indicated that high DDS was associated with excessive energy intake and obesity among adults in southwest China. Although dietary diversity is widely recommended, public health messages should give less emphasis on dietary diversity. PMID:28231308

  2. Diet diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S; Wan, Rong; Zhao, Shiwen

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization in the past decades, diet diversity continues to increase in China. The present cross-sectional study aims to explore the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China. This study used data from 2011-2012 National Nutritional Survey in Yunnan Province, southwest China (N = 1105).Data of three consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were used to calculate dietary diversity scores (DDS) and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR). Body mass index and waist circumference were used to determine nutritional status. Surveylogistic procedure of SAS 9.2 software was used to examine the association between DDS and obesity by estimating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The mean DDS was 5.2 (SD 1.1) out of nine points. Being female, younger age, belonging to Han ethnicity, having higher educational level and household income were positively associated with DDS (all P<0.05). As DDS increased, consumption also increased in most food groups except grains and vegetables. People with medium and high DDS (DDS = 5 and DDS ≥6, respectively) ingested more energy than the recommended quantity(NAR = 1.1 and 1.2, respectively). However, the intakes of Calcium and Vitamin A were seriously inadequate even for people with high DDS (NAR≤0.5). With potential confounders adjusted, people with medium and high DDS were at higher risk of general and central obesity than people with DDS ≤4 (OR = 1.4-1.9, P<0.01). Our data indicated that high DDS was associated with excessive energy intake and obesity among adults in southwest China. Although dietary diversity is widely recommended, public health messages should give less emphasis on dietary diversity.

  3. Nutrition Status of Young Elite Female German Football Players.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hans; von Andrian-Werburg, Judith; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2017-08-08

    To investigate energy intake, energy expenditure and the nutritional status of young female elite football players using a 7-day food and activity record and blood parameters. A total of 56 female elite football players (14.8±0.7 yrs) completed the requested food and activity protocols. Misreporting was assessed by the ratio of energy intake to energy expenditure. The food records were analyzed concerning energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake and energy expenditure was calculated using predictive equations. Hematological data and 25-hydrodxy-vitamin-D (25(OH)D) serum concentrations were determined. Mean energy intake was 2226±368 kcal/d (40.5±7.0 kcal/kg/d) and estimated energy expenditure averaged 2403±195 kcal/d. 53% of the players exhibited an energy availability <30 kcal/kg lean body mass. 31% of the athletes consumed <5g/kg carbohydrates and 34% consumed less than 1.2 g/kg protein. A large proportion of players (%) had intakes below the RDA of folate (75%), vitamin D (100%), iron (69%) and calcium (59%). Ferritin and 25(OH)D serum levels were below recommendations of 59% and 38%, respectively. A remarkable number of players failed to meet energy balance and suggested recommended carbohydrate and protein intakes. Low iron and 25(OH)D serum levels were observed elucidating a suboptimal nutrition status of some young female football players. As a consequence, strategies have to be developed for a better information and application of sport nutrition practice among young female football players.

  4. [Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    2015-01-02

    In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic

  5. [Nutrition status on pediatric admissions in Spanish hospitals; DHOSPE study].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Varea Calderón, Vicente; Bousoño García, Carlos; Lama Moré, Rosa; Redecillas Ferreiro, Susana; Peña Quintana, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition among hospitalized patients has clinical implications and is associated with adverse outcomes: depression of the immune system, impaired wound healing, muscle wasting, longer length of stay, higher costs and increased mortality. Although the rate of malnutrition in hospitalized children varies in different studies, it seems to be lower than in adult population. Nevertheless, this is a population that has a higher risk of developing malnutrition during hospital stay. There is a need to find the most suitable nutrition screening tool for pediatric patients. As a first step, we have performed a nationwide study on the prevalence of malnutrition on admission, in order to further evaluate the results of employing a screening tool (STAMP). The study is a multicenter, transversal study performed in 32 Spanish hospital between June and September 2011 in patients under 17 admitted to a the hospital longer than 48 hours. Weight, height and STAMP questionnaire were done on admission and repeated at day 7, 14 or at discharge. Nutritional status was classified according to Waterlow index for height and for weight. The study was approved by the Ethics Research Committee in each hospital and informed consent obtained prior to be included in the study. 991 patients were finally included. Mean age was 5.0 years (SD: 4.6), distributed uniformly among ages. Moderate to severe malnutrition was present in 7.8%, and overweight-obesity in 37.9%. We found a significant correlation between nutritional status and type of disease. There were no correlationship with age, or with plasmatic albumin levels. comments: This is the first nationwide study on the prevalence of malnutrition on admission in pediatric patients. Malnutrition in pediatric patients was present in around 8% of admissions, slightly inferior to other series. The most likely explanation is that the study included patients from different types of hospitals, mimicking real life conditions. Copyright © AULA MEDICA

  6. Parameters to assess nutritional status in a Moroccan hemodialysis cohort.

    PubMed

    Aatif, Taoufiq; Hassani, Kawtar; Alayoud, Ahmed; Maoujoud, Omar; Ahid, Samir; Benyahia, Mohamed; Oualim, Zouhair

    2013-05-01

    Malnutrition is common in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in affected patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and correlate the methods of nutritional assessment. We evaluated the nutritional status of 40 prevalent HD patients by subjective global assessment (SGA) score, anthropometrics [body mass index (BMI), arm circumference (AC), triceps skin-fold thicknesses (TSF), arm muscle circumference (AMC)], biochemical tests [normalized protein equivalent to total nitrogen appearance (nPNA), and pre-dialysis serum albumin and serum prealbumin levels] and bio-electrical impedance (BEI) analysis to estimate body composition [lean tissue index (LTI) and fat tissue index (FTI)]. The study assessed 40 patients (20 males and 20 females) with a mean age of 50.7±16.5 years. The prevalence of malnutrition according to the different methods ranged from 5 % to 65%. There were highly significant gender-specific differences in AMC (p<0.001) and TSF (p<0.001). The BEI revealed a highly significant difference in LTI (p<0.001) but no difference in FTI (p=0.14) according to gender. There was a positive correlation between LTI and both serum albumin (r=0.37; p=0.018) and serum prealbumin (r=0.53; p<0.001). Also, there was a significant positive correlation between FTI and BMI (r=0.59; p<0.001), AC (r=0.44; p=0.004) and TSF (r=0.61; p<0.001). Our data suggest that BEI analysis provides a useful means of assessing nutritional status and was correlated with anthropometrics and biochemical findings.

  7. Nutritional status in the HEMO Study cohort at baseline. Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Michael V; Paranandi, Lata; Burrowes, Jerrilynn D; Cockram, David B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Kusek, John W; Leung, June; Makoff, Rhoda; Maroni, Bradley; Poole, Diane

    2002-02-01

    The nutritional status of the first 1,000 patients randomized into the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study was analyzed at baseline when they received their typical dialysis dose (equilibrated Kt/V = 1.30 +/- 0.22) and dialysis membrane. This is the largest study to date of the nutritional status of chronic hemodialysis patients. The mean (+/- SD) values for these parameters included a serum albumin level of 3.65 +/- 0.38 g/dL, a dietary energy intake of 22.9 +/- 8.4 kcal/kg/day, a dietary protein intake of 0.93 +/- 0.36 g/kg/day, and a double pool normalized protein catabolic rate (enPCR) of 1.00 +/- 0.25 g/kg/day. The percentage of patients below HEMO Study nutritional standards of care included 29% of patients with a serum albumin level less than 3.5 g/dL, 76% of patients with a dietary energy intake less than 28 kcal/kg/day, 61% of patients with a dietary protein intake less than 1.0 g/kg/day, and 52% of patients with an enPCR of less than 1.0 g/kg/day. There was a strong correlation between dietary protein intake and dietary energy intake (r = 0.74, P < 0.0001). Significant correlations were also evident between serum albumin and double pool PCR and between dietary protein intake and double-pool PCR. Kt/V and membrane flux were not predictive of baseline dietary protein intake, dietary energy intake, or serum albumin level. Thus, a majority of patients in the HEMO Study had protein and energy intake levels and enPCR levels that were below National Kidney Foundation Kidney Dialysis Outcome Quality Improvement (NKF-K/DOQI) guidelines.

  8. Nutritional Status of Children Hospitalized for Parapneumonic Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Huysentruyt, Koen; Alliet, Philippe; Raes, Marc; Willekens, Julie; De Schutter, Iris; De Wachter, Elke; Malfroot, Anne; Devreker, Thierry; Goyens, Philippe; Vandenplas, Yvan; De Schepper, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Among children hospitalized for pneumonia, those with parapneumonic effusion (PPE) are at particular risk for nutritional deterioration. This study aimed to 1) investigate the evolution of the nutritional status during hospitalization and at outpatient follow-up; 2) determine clinical risk factors for weight loss during hospitalization; 3) describe the nutritional interventions for these children. Methods Retrospective chart review (January ‘07 - September ‘12) of 56 children with pneumonia, complicated by PPE in two Belgian hospitals for data on body weight and height at admission (t0) and discharge (t1), and two weeks (t2) and one month (t3) after discharge. Length of hospitalization (LoS), length of stay in paediatric intensive care (LoSPICU) and maximal in-hospital weight loss (tmax) were calculated and nutritional interventions were recorded. Results The median (range) age was 3.5 (1.0–14.8) years. Weight or height was lacking in five (8.9%) children at t0 and in 28 (50%) at t1; 21.4% was weighed only once during hospitalization. At tmax, respectively 17/44 and 5/44 children lost ≥5% and ≥10% of their weight. Median (range) LoS and LoSPICU were 18.0 (10–41) and 4.0 (0–23) days. One-fourth received a nutritional intervention. Weight for height at admission (WFH(t0)) significantly predicted maximal weight loss (β (95% CI) = −0.34 (−2.0–−0.1); p = 0.03). At t2 and t3, 13/32 and 5/22 of the children with available follow-up data did not reach WFH(t0), whilst in 4/35 and 5/26 body weight remained ≥5% under the weight(t0). Conclusions One-third of children with pneumonia complicated by PPE and monitored for weight and height, lost ≥5% of their body weight during hospitalization. One-fourth did not reach initial WFH one month after discharge. Those with a higher WFH at admission were at higher risk of weight loss. More attention for monitoring of weight loss and the nutritional policy during and after

  9. Genetic modifiers of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R

    2012-12-01

    Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype. We investigated the extent to which modifier genes influence nutrition in children with CF. BMI data were longitudinally collected from the CF Twin-Sibling Study and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry for twins and siblings from 2000 to 2010. A nutritional phenotype was derived for 1124 subjects by calculating the average BMI z score from 5-10 y of age (BMI-z(5to10)). The genetic contribution to the variation in BMI-z(5to10) (ie, heritability) was estimated by comparing the similarity of the phenotype in monozygous twins to that in dizygous twins and siblings. Linkage analysis identified potential modifier-gene loci. The median BMI-z(5to10) was -0.07 (range: -3.89 to 2.30), which corresponded to the 47th CDC percentile. BMI-z(5to10) was negatively correlated with pancreatic insufficiency, history of meconium ileus, and female sex but positively correlated with later birth cohorts and lung function. Monozygous twins showed greater concordance for BMI-z(5to10) than did dizygous twins and siblings; heritability estimates from same-sex twin-only analyses ranged from 0.54 to 0.82. For 1010 subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosomes 1p36.1 [log of odds (LOD): 5.3] and 5q14 (LOD: 5.1). These loci explained ≥16% and ≥15%, respectively, of the BMI variance. The analysis of twins and siblings with CF indicates a prominent role for genes other than CFTR to BMI variation. Specifically, regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 appear to harbor genetic modifiers of substantial effect.

  10. A population-specific Mini-Nutritional Assessment can effectively grade the nutritional status of stroke rehabilitation patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Shih, Chi-Ling

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether a modified version of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment without body mass index could effectively assess the nutritional risk status of stroke rehabilitation patients in Taiwan. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment was developed on the basis of clinical data of Western populations. Although widely used, its application to assess stroke rehabilitation patients has been limited. Further, to get best results, population-specific modifications to address anthropometric and lifestyle differences have been suggested, especially for non-Caucasian populations. The study assessed the nutritional status of stroke rehabilitation patients who enrolled in the Long-Term Care Service of Taipei. Strokes who were >40 years old, in the program for >1 month and cognitively able to answer the questions were recruited to participate in the study. An on-site in-person interview with structured questionnaire elicited information on personal data, disease history and healthcare use and answers to the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Activities of Daily Living and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment. Patient's nutritional status was assessed with the Mini-Nutritional Assessment in three versions: the original, population-specific (MNA-TI) and population-specific, without body mass index (MNA-TII). The original Mini-Nutritional Assessment rated 24% of patients malnourished and 57% at risk of malnutrition. Similar results, 14 and 64%, respectively, for MNA-TI; and 19 and 57%, respectively, for MNA-TII were observed. Both the original and the modified versions of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment can effectively rate the nutritional risk status of stroke rehabilitation patients in Taiwan. Version MNA-TII that adopted population-specific anthropometric cut-values but without body mass index can effectively predict the nutritional status of stroke patients. The modified scale (MNA-TII) can enhance the application of the tool and timely detection and intervention of undernutrition

  11. Head size and intelligence, learning, nutritional status and brain development. Head, IQ, learning, nutrition and brain.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Daniza M; Leiva, Boris P; Pérez, Hernán T; Olivares, Manuel G; Díaz, Nora S; Urrutia, María Soledad C; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Miller, Patricio T; Bosch, Enrique O; Larraín, Cristián G

    2004-01-01

    This multifactorial study investigates the interrelationships between head circumference (HC) and intellectual quotient (IQ), learning, nutritional status and brain development in Chilean school-age children graduating from high school, of both sexes and with high and low IQ and socio-economic strata (SES). The sample consisted of 96 right-handed healthy students (mean age 18.0 +/- 0.9 years) born at term. HC was measured both in the children and their parents and was expressed as Z-score (Z-HC). In children, IQ was determined by means of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised (WAIS-R), scholastic achievement (SA) through the standard Spanish language and mathematics tests and the academic aptitude test (AAT) score, nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric indicators, brain development was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and SES applying the Graffar modified method. Results showed that microcephalic children (Z-HC < or = 2 S.D.) had significantly lower values mainly for brain volume (BV), parental Z-HC, IQ, SA, AAT, birth length (BL) and a significantly higher incidence of undernutrition in the first year of life compared with their macrocephalic peers (Z-HC > 2S.D.). Multiple regression analysis revealed that BV, parental Z-HC and BL were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for child's Z-HC variance (r(2) = 0.727). These findings confirm the hypothesis formulated in this study: (1) independently of age, sex and SES, brain parameters, parental HC and prenatal nutritional indicators are the most important independent variables that determine HC and (2) microcephalic children present multiple disorders not only related to BV but also to IQ, SA and nutritional background.

  12. Nutritional status and food security: winter nutrition monitoring in Sarajevo 1993-1994.

    PubMed

    Watson, F; Kulenovic, I; Vespa, J

    1995-10-01

    To monitor nutritional status and food security throughout the winter of 1993-1994 in order to provide early warning of any deterioration, identify the nutritionally vulnerable and so enable humanitarian agencies to respond appropriately. Four different household groups were prospectively followed: residents, refugees in collective centres, refugees in private accommodation and elderly living alone (either residents or refugees). Four local communities were purposively selected and two collective centres were randomly selected. Households were randomly selected within each community and collective centre. An additional sample of all elderly inhabitants of the old people's home were nutritionally assessed only. Monitoring was implemented in the besieged city of Sarajevo. 143 households with 90 children (< 18 years), 230 adults (18-59 years), and 94 elderly (60 + years) members, and 40 elderly inhabitants of the old people's home were monitored. Every month from December 1993 to March 1994, information on household food security was collected through structured questionnaires. All subjects were weighed and their heights measured. Weight for age Z scores in children (six months to 12 years) and body mass index (BMI) in adults and the elderly were calculated. While the nutritional status of adults and children consistently remained normal, high levels of undernutrition were detected among the elderly ranging from 16% to 21% (BMI < 18.5). Between December 1993 and February 1994, adults lost an average of 260 grams in weight (paired t test p = 0.005). Indicators of household food security (food stocks per person, market food prices and access to food aid) showed negative trends during the same time period. Whilst there was no nutritional disaster in Sarajevo over the winter 1993-1994, there were signs that capacity to cope was weakening in some groups. The elderly were identified as the most nutritionally vulnerable due to sickness, cold, stress and problems related to

  13. [Evaluation of occupational risk factors, nutritional habits and nutritional status in industrial workers].

    PubMed

    Domagała-Dobrzycka, M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between selected risk factors at the workplace and health indices in relation to nutritional habits and nutritional status in industrial workers. Exposure to physical and chemical risk factors and their impact on health in the province of Szczecin and in Poland was evaluated basing on data published in the Yearbooks of the Province of Szczecin, the Central Statistics Bureau (GUS) and Regional Inspectorate of Labor (OIP) in Szczecin. A random selection of plants in Szczecin was done and workplaces with chemical and physical risk levels exceeding the highest acceptable values were identified. Measurements of concentrations of chemicals and intensity of physical factors were performed by Work Environment Research Laboratories of the plants and by the laboratory of the Sanitary and Epidemiological Center in Szczecin. Eighty-eight men exposed to occupational risk factors were randomly selected. The mean period of exposure in that group was approximately ten years. The control group was composed of male workers (n = 83) not exposed to any of the risk factors in question (Tab. 3). Nutritional habits and nutritional status were studied during summer/autumn and winter/spring periods. Dietary survey consisted of the last 24-hour nutrient intake questionnaire. Nutritional status evaluation was based on body mass index (BMI) values and results of the following laboratory tests: blood cell count, levels of total protein, prealbumin, retinol binding protein (RBP), magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, and ascorbic acid. The following results were obtained: 1. Physical factors constituted the most frequent source of occupational risk in the province of Szczecin and in Poland in 1990-1994 (Tab. 1); 2. The incidence of occupational risk and occupational disease morbidity rates in 1990-1994 were lower for the province of Szczecin than the average for Poland; 3. The rate of fatal accidents at work in 1982-1994 was higher for the

  14. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants (< 1000 g birth weight). Data were collected at birth and at discharged. Infants' weights were recorded and growth velocity was calculated. Some biochemical tests and mineral levels were measured. Body mass index values of VLBW and ELBW groups were lower (p < 0.05) than LBW group. The growth velocity of infants in all groups ranged between 8.7 to 10.2 g/kg/d with no differences (p > 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05) than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05) in ELBW group. Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved nutrition delivery and nutrition status in critically ill children with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Jon; Vichayavilas, Piyagarnt; Rannie, Michael; Peyton, Christine; Carpenter, Esther; Hull, Danielle; Alpern, Jennifer; Barrett, Cindy; da Cruz, Eduardo M; Roosevelt, Genie

    2015-03-01

    This initiative sought to improve nutrition delivery in critically ill children with heart disease admitted to the cardiac ICU (CICU) and neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation (S1P) for single-ventricle physiology through interdisciplinary team interventions. Specific goals were increased caloric and protein delivery for all patients and a more nourished state for infants with single ventricles at the time of discharge. We developed a nutrition flow sheet in the electronic health record to track whether daily nutrition goals were met. Interventions included nurses reporting daily whether caloric and protein goals were met, mandatory involvement of feeding specialists, and introduction of an enteral nutrition guideline. For infants undergoing S1P, weight-for-age z score (as an indicator for assessing malnutrition) was calculated at admission and discharge. The percentage of patient days per month when daily caloric goals were met increased from 50.1% to 60.7%, and protein goals met increased from 51.6% to 72.7%. Hospital length of stay, need for ventilation, and mortality did not differ. Patients undergoing S1P demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in weight-for-age z score compared with the preintervention group (P = .003). Thirteen S1P patients were discharged undernourished in the preintervention group; 5 were severely undernourished. In the intervention group, 4 patients were discharged undernourished, and none were severely undernourished. This initiative resulted in improved nutrition delivery for a heterogeneous population of cardiac patients in the CICU as well as significant improvements in weight gain and nourishment status at discharge in infants undergoing S1P. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Comparison analysis of nutritional scores for serial monitoring of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Beberashvili, Ilia; Azar, Ada; Sinuani, Inna; Kadoshi, Hadas; Shapiro, Gregory; Feldman, Leonid; Averbukh, Zhan; Weissgarten, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the longitudinal performance of the malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) and the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), two nutritional scores for patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Nutritional scores, dietary intake, biochemical markers, and body composition analysis were performed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months after enrollment (which took place from January through December 2006) on 75 prevalent hemodialysis patients (43% women, mean age 64.8 ± 11.9 years). The patients underwent simultaneous MIS and GNRI assessments calculated by two independent examiners from baseline. The study period was 46.8 ± 16.4 months. GNRI had higher interobserver agreement (weighted κ-score 0.98) than MIS (weighted κ-score 0.62). Longitudinally, a 1-unit increase in MIS was associated with a 0.41 kcal/kg per day reduction in daily energy intake (P<0.001) and with a 0.014 g/kg per day reduction in nPNA (P=0.02). GNRI did not correlate with the change over time of dietary intake. Longitudinal changes of both scores were associated with appropriate changes over time in levels of nutritional biomarkers, inflammation (IL-6), and body composition parameters. Both scores expressed significant associations with prospective hospitalization, whereas only MIS was associated with mortality in this cohort. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard ratio was 1.15 for death for each 1-unit increase in the MIS (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.3; P=0.02). Both MIS and GNRI are valid tools for longitudinal assessment of hemodialysis patients' nutritional status. MIS has lower interobserver reproducibility than GNRI; however, MIS is more comprehensive than GNRI.

  17. The timing of nutritional status determination: implications for interventions and growth monitoring.

    PubMed

    Huttly, S R; Victora, C G; Barros, F C; Teixeira, A M; Vaughan, J P

    1991-02-01

    A population-based birth cohort of 1226 urban Brazilian children underwent anthropometric examinations at, on average, ages 11, 23 and 47 months. Multiple regression analyses showed that while birth weight was the single most important factor in predicting nutritional status at age 11 months, a wide range of other social, biological and morbidity factors also appeared to play a significant role. Environmental and dietary factors, however, showed no significant association. Nutritional status at age 11 months was a very strong predictor of nutritional status at ages 23 and 47 months and the other explanatory factors made a minimal additional contribution to the regression models. These results suggest that, in this population, childhood nutritional status is primarily determined before the end of the first year of life. These findings have implications for the timing and nature of nutritional interventions and for mechanisms for identifying those children who will suffer from poor nutritional status later in childhood.

  18. Effects of intensive nutrition education on nutritional status and quality of life among postgastrectomy patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ok; Han, So Ra; Choi, Sung Il; Lee, Jung Joo; Kim, Sang Hyun; Ahn, Hong Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the effects of 3 months of intensive education (IE) after hospital discharge compared to conventional education (CE) on nutritional status and quality of diet and life among South Korean gastrectomy patients. Methods The study was conducted among 53 hospitalized gastrectomy in-patients (IE group, n = 28; CE group, n = 25) at Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong. Baseline data were collected from electronic medical records and additional information was gathered via anthropometric measurements, assessment of nutritional status through a patient-generated, subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), diet assessment, and measures of self-efficacy and satisfaction with meals for 3 months following hospital discharge. Results Total PG-SGA scores were significantly higher in the CE group than in the IE group at 3-week post-discharge (5.2 in the IE group vs. 10.4 in the CE group, P < 0.001), with higher scores indicating a greater severity of malnutrition. Energy intake over the 3 months increased in both the IE group (from 1,390 to 1,726 kcal/day) and the CE group (from 1,227 to 1,540 kcal/day). At 3-week post-discharge, the IE group had significantly higher daily protein and fat intake (P < 0.05). Self-efficacy improved in each category (P < 0.001), except for 'difficulty eating adequate food'. When assessing satisfaction with meals, there was a difference in the 'satisfaction with the current meal size' (P < 0.001) and 'satisfaction with the menu content' (P < 0.001). Conclusion Nutritional status among gastrectomy patients in the IE group improved. Relative to the CE control, the IE group demonstrated improved self-efficacy and meal satisfaction 3-week post-discharge. PMID:26878015

  19. Health status of hostel dwellers. Part III. Nutritional status of children 0--5 years.

    PubMed

    Ramphele, M A; Heap, M; Trollip, D K

    1991-06-15

    The standards laid down by the National Center for Health Statistics in the USA were used to assess the nutritional status of children (0--5 years) in the Zones, an urban migrant council-built hostel complex in Langa, outside Cape Town. Of the children, 5.7% were below the 3rd percentile of weight-for-age (acute undernutrition). There was a significant difference between age categories and an increase in age was associated with an increase in proportion of children below the 3rd percentile. Acute undernutrition was significantly higher for children born outside Cape Town. There was a significant difference between age groups and percentage of children below the 3rd percentile of height-for-age (chronic undernutrition). Chronic nutritional levels were also significantly higher for children not born in Cape Town. Yet there were no significant differences between proportions of children under the 3rd percentile of height-for-weight (current nutritional status) for age category or place of birth. These results suggested that while in town children were adequately nourished, this was not the case at their home-base. Chronic undernutrition findings indicated an incremental negative effect of the poverty of the home-base on the long-term health status of hostel migrant children.

  20. [Nutritional status, pulmonary functions, and exercise performance in COPD cases].

    PubMed

    Deveci, Figen; Tuğ, Tuncer; Turgut, Teyfik; Ogetürk, Murat; Kirkil, Gamze; Kaçar, Canan; Muz, M Hamdi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of nutritional status in attack and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases, and investigating the relation between nutrition parameters and pulmonary functions, exercise performance and general healthy status. Anthropometric measures of 10 cases with attack (group 1), 14 stabilized COPD cases (group 2) and 10 control cases (group 3) were evaluated by measuring serum albumin, transferrin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels, and fat-free mass (FFM) levels. Six minutes walking test (mwt) and SGRQ questionnaire were performed. Body mass index (BMI) of group 1 and 2 were significantly lower than group 3 (p= 0.023, p= 0.008, respectively). Albumin levels were significantly lower in group 1 than group 2 (p< 0.001) and 3 (p= 0.001). Levels of transferrin were significantly lower in group 1 compared with group 3 (p= 0.015). TNF-alpha levels were significantly high in group 1 compared with group 2 (p= 0.002), and high in group 2 compared with group 3 (p= 0.001). FFM was significantly low in group 1 compared with group 2 (p= 0.003), and low in group 2 compared with group 3 (p< 0.001). Mean distance of 6 mwt was 225.80 +/- 40.35 m in group 1, it was 405.16 +/- 95.51 m in group 2 (p< 0.001). A positive relation was seen between FFM and BMI, 6 mwt (p= 0.006, r= 0.481 ve p< 0.001, r= 0.830, respectively), between albumin levels and 6 mwt (p< 0.001, r= 0.850). A negative correlation was observed between TNF-alpha and 6 mwt (p< 0.001, r= -0.745). There was no statistical difference in antropometric measures between groups. Total score and daily life were statistically high in group 1 than group 2 (p= 0.009, p= 0.013). Although no changes was seen in antropometric measures of COPD cases, a nutritional defect was seen and a significant relation was observed between nutrition parameters and effort capacity.

  1. [Effects of arginine enriched enteral nutrition on nutritional status and cellular immunity in burn patients].

    PubMed

    Guo, Guang-Hua; Xu, Cheng; Bai, Xiang-Jun; Zhan, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-An; Wang, Yan-Xia; Fang, Fang; Li, Guo-Hui

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the effects of arginine enriched enteral nutrition (EN) on nutritional status and cellular immunity of severely burned patients. Randomized, single blind, parallel and positive control investigation was employed in the study. Thirty severely burned patients were divided into enteral immune nutrition (EIN) group and EN group. Sixteen patients in EIN group received enteral nutrition enriched with arginine, while the other 14 patients in EN group received standard enteral nutrition. Nutritional support was continued for 14 days. Gastrointestinal reaction of patients in 2 groups was observed. Fasting venous blood was drawn from patients of both groups before receiving nutrition treatment and on the morning of 7th, 14th day of treatment. Level of serum protein, hepatic function parameters, renal function parameters, fasting-blood glucose, and subpopulations of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood were determined. (1) Incidence of gastrointestinal side effect in EIN group (25.0%) was close to that of EN group (21.4% , P > 0.05). (2) Compared with pre-treatment days, levels of prealbumin and transferrin in serum of patients in 2 groups on 7th and 14th post-treatment days were significantly increased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference between 2 groups. The level of total serum protein on 14th day of treatment of patients was significantly increased in both groups, and that of EIN group (66 +/- 7 g/L) was significantly higher compared with that in EN group (64 +/- 11 g/L, P < 0.05). The level of serum albumin (29 +/- 5, 32 +/- 5 g/L, respectively) of patients in EIN group on 7th and 14th day of treatment were significantly higher than that (26 +/- 4 g/L, P < 0.05) in pre-treatment days, however there was no significant difference in EN group. (3) There was no significant difference in respect of hepatic function, renal function, and fasting-blood glucose between pre-treatment and post-treatment periods in both groups (P > 0.05). (4

  2. Maternal education and child nutritional status in Bolivia: finding the links.

    PubMed

    Frost, Michelle Bellessa; Forste, Renata; Haas, David W

    2005-01-01

    This study models various pathways linking maternal education and child nutritional status in Bolivia, using a national sample of children. Pathways examined include socioeconomic status, health knowledge, modern attitudes towards health care, female autonomy, and reproductive behavior. The data come from the 1998 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression results suggest that socioeconomic factors are the most important pathways linking maternal education and child nutritional status, and that modern attitudes about health care also explain the impact of education. Health care knowledge accounts for less of the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status, with autonomy being the weakest pathway. Other pathways, such as reproductive behaviors, appear to influence nutritional status independent of maternal education. Overall, the pathways examined accounted for 60 percent of the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status.

  3. Intestinal amoebiasis in children and its effect on nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Memon, Iqbal Ahmed; Jamal, Ammarah; Memon, Hamida; Parveen, Naila

    2009-07-01

    To determine the frequency and clinical presentation of amoebic diarrhea in children and its effect on the nutritional status of the affected children. Descriptive. Department of Diarrhea Treatment Unit (DTU), Dow Medical College and Civil Hospital, Karachi, from November 1998 to April 2001. Paediatric patients between the ages of > 1 month to 15 years were included, who visited the DTU of the department with diarrhea. Stool samples of all these patients were checked under microscope for the vegetative forms of Entamoeba Histolytica (E.H.). Patients who were positive for E.H. were evaluated for the symtomatology including the type of diarrhea {acute watery diarrhea (AWD) or dysentery}, abdominal pain, tenesmus and nausea/vomiting. Examination carried out was assessed for state of hydration, fever and anaemia and nutritional status of those less than 5 years of age. The patients were divided into three age groups to assess the association of the age with severity and type of clinical presentation. Chi- square test was applied to calculate the p-values. P-values of 0.05 or less were considered statistically significant. The stool samples of 3870 patients with diarrhea were examined under microscope. Three hundred and twenty eight (8.47%) of these samples were positive for E.H. The difference between the number of patients presenting with acute watery diarrhea n=157, 47.86% and with dysentery n=171, 52.13% was found to be statistically non-significant (p=0.364). Two hundred and seventy seven (84.45%) patients had tenesmus, while abdominal pain was present in 287 (87.5%). Fever and malnutrition were present in 169 (51.52%) patients each. Malnutrition was significantly most frequent in 1-5 years of age groups (n=98, 57.98%, p=0.026). The nutritional evaluation of the 272 under-5 children with amoebic diarrhea showed a significantly normal status in 123 (45.55%, p-value < 0.001). All the signs and symptoms followed a similar trend with 1-5 years age group being the most

  4. [Nutritional status associated with demographic characteristics in older Peruvian adults].

    PubMed

    Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina; Alvarez-Dongo, Doris; Espinoza-Oriundo, Paula; Gomez-Guizado, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    To describe the nutritional status in older adults and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Sampling was probabilistic, stratifi and multistage. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI) according to the classifi of nutritional status for the elderly from the Ministry of Health of Peru. The statistical analysis considered the necessary weight for complex samples. The study included 7,267 older adults. 26.8% of participants were underweight, 21.7% overweight, 10.6% obese and 40.8% normal. The average age in the sample was 70.1 ± 8.3 years. Illiteracy (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2-3.0), primary education (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.9), extreme poverty (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6-2.5), living in rural areas (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.5-2.1), living in the mountains (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.2) or jungle (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) were found associated with underweight. Females (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.4-2.1), living in urban areas (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6-2.5), living in the coastal region (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2- 1.8); and not classifi as poor (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.9) were associated with overweight. Female sex (OR 3.1; 95% CI 2.3-4.1), primary education (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5-4.0) and secondary (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.4); live in urban areas (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.6-2.9), inhabiting the coast (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.4), Metro (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) and jungle (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.2), and not classifi as poor (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.8-7.0) were associated with obesity. The data suggest that both underweight and overweight are common in the elderly population studied.

  5. Effect of chemoradiotherapy on nutrition status of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin-Sheng; Wu, Li-Hong; Su, Li; Zhang, Hai-Rong; Lv, Wen-Long; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Tian, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of chemoradiotherapy on the nutritional status of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and to detect the risk factors for poor nutrition status in NPC patients after radiotherapy. A total of 104 NPC patients participated in this clinical observational study. Psychological distress and nutritional indicators were measured prior to chemoradiotherapy. During the course of radiation therapy, side effect symptoms were assessed weekly. At the end of radiotherapy, nutritional indicators were measured again. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for poor nutritional status after radiotherapy. The values of the 9 nutritional indicators were significantly lower after radiotherapy (P < 0.001) than the initial values before treatment. After radiotherapy, 20.19% of patients had more than 10% weight loss. At a significance level of α = 0.05, the risk factors for poor nutritional status were old age (P = 0.042), female gender (P < 0.001), late stage of the disease (P = 0.013), depression (P = 0.024), high side effect score (P = 0.007), and moderate nutritional status before radiotherapy (P = 0.015). Radiotherapy affects the nutritional status of NPC patients. To prevent malnutrition during radiotherapy, nutritional assessment and intervention should be an integral part of treatment.

  6. Intradialytic oral nutrition improves protein homeostasis in chronic hemodialysis patients with deranged nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Pupim, Lara B; Majchrzak, Karen M; Flakoll, Paul J; Ikizler, T Alp

    2006-11-01

    Decreased dietary protein intake and hemodialysis (HD)-associated protein catabolism predispose chronic HD (CHD) patients to deranged nutritional status, which is associated with poor clinical outcome in this population. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) reverses the net negative whole-body and skeletal muscle protein balance during HD. IDPN is costly and restricted by Medicare and other payers. Oral supplementation (PO) is a more promising, physiologic, and affordable intervention in CHD patients. Protein turnover studies were performed by primed-constant infusion of L-(1-(13)C) leucine and L-(ring-(2)H(5)) phenylalanine in eight CHD patients with deranged nutritional status before, during, and after HD on three separate occasions: (1) with IDPN infusion, (2) with PO administration, and (3) with no intervention (control). Results showed highly positive whole-body net balance during HD for both IDPN and PO (4.43 +/- 0.7 and 5.71 +/- 1.2 mg/kg fat-free mass per min, respectively), compared with a neutral balance with control (0.25 +/- 0.5 mg/kg fat-free mass per min; P = 0.002 and <0.001 for IDPN versus control and PO versus control, respectively). Skeletal muscle protein homeostasis during HD also improved with both IDPN and PO (50 +/- 19 and 42 +/- 17 microg/100 ml per min) versus control (-27 +/- 13 microg/100 ml per min; P = 0.005 and 0.009 for IDPN versus control and PO versus control, respectively). PO resulted in persistent anabolic benefits in the post-HD phase for muscle protein metabolism, when anabolic benefits of IDPN dissipated (-53 +/- 25 microg/100 ml per min for control, 47 +/- 41 microg/100 ml per min for PO [P = 0.039 versus control], and -53 +/- 24 microg/100 ml per min for IDPN [P = 1.000 versus control and 0.039 versus PO]). Long-term studies using intradialytic oral supplementation are needed for CHD patients with deranged nutritional status.

  7. Nutritional control of reproductive status in honeybees via DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, R; Maleszka, J; Foret, S; Maleszka, R

    2008-03-28

    Fertile queens and sterile workers are alternative forms of the adult female honeybee that develop from genetically identical larvae following differential feeding with royal jelly. We show that silencing the expression of DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3, a key driver of epigenetic global reprogramming, in newly hatched larvae led to a royal jelly-like effect on the larval developmental trajectory; the majority of Dnmt3 small interfering RNA-treated individuals emerged as queens with fully developed ovaries. Our results suggest that DNA methylation in Apis is used for storing epigenetic information, that the use of that information can be differentially altered by nutritional input, and that the flexibility of epigenetic modifications underpins, profound shifts in developmental fates, with massive implications for reproductive and behavioral status.

  8. How nutritional status signalling coordinates metabolism and lignocellulolytic enzyme secretion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Neil Andrew; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2014-11-01

    The utilisation of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an abundant, renewable feedstock for green chemistries and biofuel production is inhibited by its recalcitrant nature. In the environment, lignocellulolytic fungi are naturally capable of breaking down plant biomass into utilisable saccharides. Nonetheless, within the industrial context, inefficiencies in the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes impede the implementation of green technologies. One of the primary causes of such inefficiencies is the tight transcriptional control of lignocellulolytic enzymes via carbon catabolite repression. Fungi coordinate metabolism, protein biosynthesis and secretion with cellular energetic status through the detection of intra- and extra-cellular nutritional signals. An enhanced understanding of the signals and signalling pathways involved in regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of lignocellulolytic enzymes is therefore of great biotechnological interest. This comparative review describes how nutrient sensing pathways regulate carbon catabolite repression, metabolism and the utilisation of alternative carbon sources in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ascomycete fungi.

  9. Biotin nutritional status of vegans, lactoovovegetarians, and nonvegetarians.

    PubMed

    Lombard, K A; Mock, D M

    1989-09-01

    Urinary excretion of biotin (total avidin-binding substances) was measured in adults and children who were adhering to one of the following self-selected diets: strict vegetarian (vegan), lactoovovegetarian, or mixed (containing meat and dairy products as well as plant-derived foods). In a subset of subjects, plasma biotin concentrations were also measured. In adults the biotin excretion rate was significantly greater in the vegan group than in either the lactoovovegetarian or the mixed-diet groups; the latter were not significantly different from one another. In children the biotin excretion rates in both the vegan group and the lactoovovegetarin group were significantly greater than in the mixed-diet group. A similar trend (vegan greater than lactoovovegetarian greater than mixed) was detected in the plasma concentrations of biotin of adults and children but differences were not generally statistically significant. These observations provide evidence that the biotin nutritional status of vegans is not impaired.

  10. Nutritional status of white college students in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Driskell, J A; Keith, R E; Tangney, C C

    1979-01-01

    The nutritional status of the fifty men, fifty-three women, and forty-seven women taking oral contraceptives--all white--between the ages of seventeen and twenty-two years--as reflected by height-weight measurements, hemoglobin-hematocrit values, and dietary records, was similar or slightly better than reported by other investigators. Low hemoglobin values were observed in 2 to 4 per cent of these students, and low hematocrits, in 8 to 17 per cent. Similar hemoglobin and hematocrit values were observed in all women, regardless of whether they were taking oral contraceptives. Exercise patterns; use of vitamin-mineral supplements, "pot," alcoholic beverages, special diets; whether subjects ate alone; where subjects ate; snacking; number of meals consumed daily; whether subjects had ever been diagnosed as being anemic; and what subjects thought of their food habits did not affect hemoglobin or hematocrit. Iron intakes of many of the women students were below the allowance.

  11. Intestinal permeability and nutritional status in developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Souza, Nilian Carla Silva; Mendonca, Jacqueline Nakau; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Jordao Junior, Alceu Afonso; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder with a possible connection between dietary components and triggering or worsening of symptoms. An altered intestinal permeability might allow absorption of incompletely digested peptides (gluten and casein) that could produce opioid-like activity on the brain, causing significant changes in behavior. To assess the intestinal permeability and nutritional status of participants with developmental disorders to determine if changes in the intestinal mucosal barrier and/or injury to the intercellular junctions have occurred that might justify application of further dietary modifications. To assess intestinal permeability, the research team analyzed participants urine under fasting conditions, using gas chromatography to determine chromatographic peaks. To assess nutritional status, the team determined participants heights and weights and performed a bioelectric bioimpedance examination at least 4 hours after their most recent meal. In addition, the team determined food intake using three diet diaries. They asked participants and caregivers to register each food consumed during 2 nonconsecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. The study occurred at the Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, Sao Paulo University. Seven participants aged 9 to 23 years with developmental disorders (the developmental group, DG) completed the study. The research team recruited them through the Association of Friends of the Autistic Persons of Ribeirao Preto in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. The control group (CG) consisted of nonsmoking healthy volunteers in the general population who were similar in age to the experimental group and did not suffer from diseases that potentially could influence nutritional status and intestinal function. To assess intestinal permeability, participants ingested 150 mL of an isosmolar solution of the sugars mannitol (2 g) and lactulose (7.5 g) under fasting conditions and the researchers collected all voided urine over a period of 5 hours

  12. Effects of Pregnancy and Nutritional Status on Alcohol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Kartik; Ronis, Martin J.J.; Badger, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolism of alcohol (i.e., ethanol) is regulated by genetic and environmental factors as well as physiologic state. For a given alcohol intake, the rate of alcohol clearance, which ultimately determines tissue ethanol concentrations, may be the most significant risk factor for many of the detrimental effects of alcohol. Faster ethanol clearance would help minimize target tissue concentrations, and in pregnant women, mitigate fetal alcohol exposure. Much remains to be known about the effects of the altered endocrine milieu of pregnancy on alcohol metabolism and clearance in the mother. Research has shown that among pregnant rats allowed unrestricted access to alcohol and those fed alcohol containing liquid diets under experimental conditions via a feeding tube (total enteral nutrition [TEN]), urine ethanol concentrations (and thus blood and tissue ethanol concentrations) are lower in pregnant rats compared with non-pregnant females given the same dose of ethanol. Maternal nutritional status also is an important determinant of fetal alcohol toxicity. Research using the TEN system has demonstrated that alcohol-induced fetal growth retardation is potentiated by undernutrition in part via impaired alcohol metabolism and clearance. PMID:17718402

  13. Food intake and the nutritional status of women undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabela Borges; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-06-01

    The objective behind this study was the analysis of food intake and the nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT). The quantitative dietary evaluation was performed in accordance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), whereas the qualitative evaluation was performed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R).From among the total number of patients (n = 20), 60% (n = 12) presented waist circumference, equal to or higher than 88cm. It was noted that 75% (n = 15) individuals were overweight. The average intake for calcium, copper, iron, dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin B6 and zinc, were found to be below adequate intake levels, while the intake of vitamin C, phosphorus, manganese, sodium and thiamine were all found to be above DRIs recommendations. As for the analysis of the BHEI-R, 80% (n = 16) of the patients presented a "diet that needs modifications", while 20% (n = 4) presented a "healthy diet". Noted from these observations was the presence of a high overweight rate, a discrepancy in the intake of micronutrients and a diet that needed improvements. In this manner, the establishment and use of a nutritional intervention protocol are very important when it comes to the improvement of the diet in patients with BC and who are undergoing CT.

  14. Cecal infusion of nutrients improves nutritional status of rats.

    PubMed

    Aghdassi, E; Raina, N; Allard, J P

    1995-11-01

    The role of colonic fermentation in providing energy was investigated in rats with small bowel transection (T) or 80% resection (SBR). Rats were randomized to receive for 12 d either saline (S) or the enteral solution (E) through a cecostomy to meet 30% of energy requirement; the rest (70%) was provided by parenteral nutrition. Although SBR-S rats lost weight significantly compared with d 1 of the study, SBR-E rats gained. Significantly greater carcass wet weight and fat were found in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. SBR-E and T-E rats had significantly greater colonic mucosal dry weight and protein compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents were also significantly higher in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. There was no significant effect of surgery (T vs. SBR) on any of the variables studied. These results suggest that the products of fermentation of an enteral solution infused through a cecostomy contribute substantially to energy requirement, maintenance of body composition and nutritional status of rats.

  15. Impact of enteral nutrition on postoperative immune function and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Hou, M X; Wu, X L; Bao, L D; Dong, P D

    2015-06-10

    We studied the effects of enteral nutrition (EN) support initiated 1 week before surgery on postoperative nutritional status, immune function, and inflammatory response in gastric cancer patients. A total of 200 gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into two groups: EN starting 1 week before surgery (study group) and EN starting early after surgery (control group). The two groups received EN support, following different therapeutic schedules, until the 9th day after operation. In the patients, body weight, skinfold thickness, upper-arm circumference, white blood cell count, albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, peripheral immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM), T lymphocyte subsets, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 10 days before and after surgery and on the first day after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of recovery time of passage of gas by anus, abdominal distension, stomachache, blood glucose, hepatic and renal functions, and electrolytes between the two groups of patients (P > 0. 05). Adverse reactions occurred to both groups at 1 and 2 days after operation. Such conditions was improved after the intravenous drip rate was adjusted. The albumin and prealbumin levels of the patients in both groups decreased at 1 day after operation (P < 0. 05). The levels rose when the research was finished (P < 0. 05). The prealbumin level of the study group was higher than that of the control group at 10 days after operation (P < 0. 05). The IgG level of the study group was higher than that of the control group at 10 days after operation (P < 0. 05). The two groups of inflammatory reaction indicators of the study group were lower than those of the control group at 10 days after operation (P < 0. 05). This study indicates that appropriate preoperative EN support for gastric cancer patients can improve their postoperative nutritional status and immune function, can reduce inflammatory response, and is

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren: 30-year evolution.

    PubMed

    Moraes Ferrari, Gerson Luis de; Bracco, Mario Maia; Matsudo, Victor K Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    To compare the changes in cardiorespiratory fitness in evaluations performed every ten years since 1978/1980, according to the nutritional status and gender of students in the city of Ilhabela, Brazil. The study is part of the Mixed Longitudinal Project on Growth, Development and Physical Fitness of Ilhabela. The study included 1,291 students of both genders, aged 10 to 11 years old. The study periods were: 1978/1980, 1988/1990, 1998/2000, and 2008/2010. The variables analyzed were: body weight, height, and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max - L.min-1 and mL.kg-1.min-1) performed using a submaximal progressive protocol on a cycle ergometer. Individuals were classified as normal weight and overweight according to curves proposed by the World Health Organization of body mass index for age and gender. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with three factors followed by the Bonferroni method were used to compare the periods. The number of normal weight individuals (61%) was higher than that of overweight. There was a significant decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness in both genders. Among the schoolchildren with normal weight, there was a decrease of 22% in males and 26% in females. In overweight schoolchildren, males showed a decrease of 12.7% and females, of 18%. During a 30-year analysis with reviews every ten years from 1978/1980, there was a significant decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness in schoolchildren of both genders, which cannot be explained by the nutritional status. The decline in cardiorespiratory fitness was greater in individuals with normal weight than in overweight individuals. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Cooperative breeding and Aka children's nutritional status: is flexibility key?

    PubMed

    Meehan, Courtney L; Helfrecht, Courtney; Quinlan, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Research suggests that nonmaternal caregivers (allomothers) offer essential assistance through caregiving and provisioning, helping to support lengthy child development. Here, we examine the role of allomothers and the broader social and sharing network on Aka forager children's anthropometrics. We hypothesize that nonmaternal investors strategically target their assistance when it is most needed and when it will have the greatest effect. We evaluate children's nutritional status using WHO standards [weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ)] during four periods of child development [early infancy (birth to <9 months), mobility to weaning (9 to <36 months), early childhood (36 to <72 months), and middle childhood (72 to <120 months); N = 127]. We explore the effects of allomothers and the social network across these different risk periods and examine whether the broader social network buffers the loss of a primary allomother. ANOVA results suggest that girls may be experiencing some growth faltering, while boys start smaller and remain small across these stages. We used OLS multiple regression models to evaluate the effects of sex, camp composition, risk periods, and allomothers' presence on WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ. Grandmothers are the most influential allomother, with their effect most evident during the 9 to <36 month period. Camp size was also associated with greater WAZ, suggesting that children residing in small camps may be disadvantaged. Our findings also indicate that, under specific residence patterns, cooperative child rearing networks buffer the loss of a grandmother. Overall, our results suggest the importance of social networks to children's nutritional status and that individuals target investment to critical phases.

  18. Nutritional status of intellectual disabled persons with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soler Marín, A; Xandri Graupera, J Ma

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status in young adults with Down syndrome (DS). 38 persons, 15 (39.5%) women and 23 (60.5%) men (age range 16-38 years) with DS. Body composition was analyzed from anthropometric parameters according to standard protocols, levels of physical activity and nutrient intake was determined using validated questionnaires: a 72 h recall and consumption food frequency questionnaire (recorded by the tutors of the participants). The following biochemical parameters were estimated: blood lipids profile (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose, uric acid, proteins (ferritin and transferrin), minerals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg and Se) and vitamins (B12, B9, E, C and β-carotene). The data were statistically analysed with Student t tests. From the 38 participants, 36.8% were overweight (BMI: 25-29.9 kg/m²) and 36.8% were obese (BMI≥30 kg/m²). The BMI differed from women to men (P<0.001) (29.1±4.3 and 27.9±4.6 kg/m², respectively). The average values of the biochemical parameters, except for uric acid, both in women and men were within normal ranges. The average energy intake was 1,909±337 and 2,260±284 kcal/day for women and men, respectively. The contribution of proteins to total caloric intake was 18.8 and 16.3% for women and men, respectively, while carbohydrates contributed 43.3 and 45.6%, and lipids 37.9 and 38.1%. All participants were sedentary. In this group presented a high prevalence of overweight and obesity. Further research is required in the development and evaluation of appropriate intervention programs to improve their nutritional status and quality of life.

  19. [Nutritional status, metabolic changes and white blood cells in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-12-01

    To analyze the relationship between the peripheral blood white cells, metabolic changes, and nutritional status of adolescents with and without excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) in 362 adolescents from 15 to 19 years of age, of both sexes. White blood cell count, platelet count, uric acid, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. The inclusion criteria were agreement to participate in the study and signature of the informed consent. Exclusion criteria were: presence of chronic or infectious disease; use of medications that could cause changes in biochemical tests; pregnancy; participation in weight reduction and weight control programs; use of diuretics and laxatives; or the presence of a pacemaker. The following statistical tests were applied: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t or Mann-Whitney test, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests, and chi-squared test, considering p<0.05. Overweight was observed in 20.7% of adolescents. The total cholesterol (TC) had a higher percentage of inadequacy (52.2%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (38.4%). There was a positive correlation between white cells and serum lipids, insulin, body fat, and BMI. Monocytes were negatively correlated with BMI, and rods with BMI, body fat, and insulin. Nutritional status is related to an inflammatory process, and adolescents with excess weight or body fat presented higher amounts of white blood cells. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional status in patients with ulcerative colitis in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Hamid; Barekat, Sayyed Majid; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Azadbakht, Leila; Shahshahan, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is common among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The present study aimed to investigate the nutritional status of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical cross-sectional study, between Dec 2011 and Jun 2012, 99 patients with UC were randomly selected and evaluated. Age, sex, duration of disease, body mass index (BMI) and laboratory parameters recorded for all patients. Nutritional risk index (NRI) was calculated and its association with patients’ variables was assessed with regard to UC disease severity. Results: Twelve patients out of 99 patients had mild UC and 87 patients had moderate to severe UC. Based on the NRI, 90.9% were not malnourished and 9.1% were at moderate to severe risk for malnutrition. Among laboratory parameters only, serum potassium level in patients with moderate to severe UC was significantly higher than those with mild UC (P = 0.017). Other laboratory parameters were similar between patients stratified by US status. Patients age s significantly correlate with serum vitamin D, immunoglobulin a (IgA) and potassium level (P > 0.05), also duration of disease was significantly correlate with Phosphorus (P = 0.024) among laboratory parameters. Conclusion: In studied UC patients, malnutrition risk was based on degree of disease severity. Patients with moderate to severe UC were more at risk for malnutrition compared to the patients with mild UC. Furthermore, among laboratory parameters only serum potassium level was higher among patients with moderate to severe UC compared to others. PMID:24627866

  1. Vitamin D status and nutrition in Europe and Asia.

    PubMed

    Lips, P

    2007-03-01

    Vitamin D status is highly different in various countries of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. For this review, vitamin D deficiency is defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <25 nmol/l. Within European countries, serum 25(OH)D is <25 nmol/l in 2-30% of adults, increasing in the elderly and institutionalized to more than 80% in some studies. A north-south gradient was observed for serum 25(OH)D in the Euronut and MORE studies with higher levels in Scandinavia and lower levels in Italy and Spain and some Eastern European countries. This points to other determinants than sunshine, e.g. nutrition, food fortification and supplement use. Mean vitamin D intake in Scandinavia is 200-400IU/d, twice that in other European countries. Very low serum 25(OH)D levels have been reported in the Middle East, e.g. Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iran. In these countries serum 25(OH)D was lower in women than in men and associated with clothing habits. In a Lebanese survey, vitamin D deficiency was observed in the majority and occurred mainly in veiled women. In India, vitamin D deficiency was observed in more than 30%, vitamin D status being poor in school children, pregnant women and large cities. Vitamin D status was much better in Malaysia and Singapore, but lower serum 25(OH)D was observed in Japan and China. Rickets and osteomalacia appear quite common in India, but precise data are lacking. Immigrants in Europe from the Middle East and Asia carry a high risk for vitamin D deficiency, pregnant women being especially at risk. Comparison of vitamin D status between countries is hampered by interlaboratory variation of serum 25(OH)D measurement. In addition, there is a need of population-based data. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is common in Southern Europe, the Middle East, India, China and Japan. It is less common in Northern Europe and Southeast Asia. Risk groups are young children, the elderly, pregnant women and non-western immigrants in Europe. Important

  2. Nutritional Status: The Interpretation of Indicators. Children in the Tropics: Review of the International Children's Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1989-01-01

    The assessment of individual or community nutritional status involves the use of indicators; when properly analyzed and interpreted, these may be used to decide what strategies to implement, or how to orient activities aimed at improving nutritional status. In primary health care programs, one approach which remains underused involves obtaining…

  3. Effects of a food supplementation program on the nutritional status of pregnant women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Mahmud; Ahmed, Shakil; Protik, Ali Ehsan; Dhar, Badal Chandra; Roy, S K

    2005-12-01

    The Government of Bangladesh implemented a comprehensive nutrition intervention in 1997 to reduce the rates of malnutrition among women and children. The pilot program, the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Program (BINP), adopted a multisectoral approach targeting women and children through food supplementation, home gardening, and health and nutrition education. This paper estimates the effectiveness of BINP's food supplementation and nutrition education on the nutritional status of pregnant women. Methods. Three effectiveness measures were considered: target efficiency, improvements in the nutritional status of beneficiaries, and the persistence of nutritional effects. To isolate the effects of the intervention, the nutritional status of participants and nonparticipants was compared after controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data were collected in 2000 from a random sample of 3262 households in a BINP intervention area. Thirty-nine percent of pregnant women were correctly targeted by the program's food supplementation activities. The nutrition program reduced the prevalence of thinness among participant pregnant women by about 3 percentage points per month of enrollment. The prevalence of thinness among program graduates was 62%, which was much higher than that of the matched (nonparticipant) group (35%). This finding is perplexing but it may simply imply that those who enrolled at the initial phase of the project were severely underweight and they fell back to their original status within a short period of time. The nutrition program was intended to improve the nutritional status of women in the longer run through the provision of nutrition education during the food supplementation phase. The prevalence of thinness or severe underweight in women who exited the program after completion of the enrollment period was found to be much higher than in women of similar age and socioeconomic status in the community. This apparent lack of

  4. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (<-2 SDS for weight for height (WFH)) and chronic malnutrition (<-2 SDS for height for age). The malnutrition risk was assessed with the nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.

  5. Sex differences in child nutritional and immunological status 5-9 years post contact in fringe highland Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Jason A; Decaro, Erin; Worthman, Carol M

    2010-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in vulnerability among children experiencing rapid culture change that may reflect distinct microecologies driven by differential parental investment and/or sex-specific life history strategies. Apparent female growth canalization may be a life history strategy favoring growth over maintenance but also may reflect sex-differentiated selection for resilience based on unequal treatment during early life. Stature, weight, and serum measures of C-reactive protein (CRP, an inflammation marker) and Epstein-Barr Virus antibodies (EBV, a humoral immune response marker) were collected longitudinally among children/adolescents ages 5-20 years (N = 65), 5-9 years after sustained contact in a fringe highland hunter-horticulturalist group from the Schrader Range in Papua New Guinea exhibiting male preference and sex-biased survival. It was hypothesized that girls would exhibit canalization, with better nutritional status than boys; lower maintenance investment would yield lower female immune activation; and because of differential survivorship, females would appear increasingly canalized as early conditions for girls worsened relative to boys. Girls had greater arm circumference z-scores than boys, less frequent stunting, and lower CRP despite high pathogen load. Average nutritional status for girls improved over time as the sex ratio became increasingly male biased and the condition of female infants reportedly worsened. Both canalization and survivorship effects were found. Although a life history perspective on female canalization can help explain developmental outcomes in populations undergoing rapid culture change amid adversity, possible sex differences in the strength of survivorship effects that select for resiliency should not be ignored. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Relationship between prosthodontic status and nutritional intake in the elderly in Korea: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES IV).

    PubMed

    Choi, Y K; Park, D Y; Kim, Y

    2014-11-01

    Many health issues have been reported to be associated with poor nutritional status. We sought to examine the association between nutritional intake and oral health status in elderly people. The association between perceived disability in mastication and prosthodontic status was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the association between prosthodontic status and nutritional intake. The elderly subjects with partial or full dentures reported chewing difficulties 1.62-fold more frequently (95% CI: 1.06-2.49) than those with natural teeth or a fixed prosthesis after adjusting for gender, TMD (temporomandibular disorder), household income and education level. Additionally, daily nutritional intakes of energy, protein, fat, ash, calcium, phosphorus and thiamine were decreased significantly in elderly with partial or full dentures compared with those with no prosthesis or with a fixed prosthesis (P < 0.05). Our findings underline oral health status and perceived disability in mastication are associated with dietary imbalances in the elderly. We suggest that the evaluation of patients' nutritional status should be considered as a part of an overall plan for dental hygiene care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Nutritional Status in Humans during Long-Duration Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; MatthewsOliver, Susan A.; Dillon, E. Lichar; Fesperman, Vernell

    2006-01-01

    Bed rest is a valuable ground-based model for many of the physiological changes associated with space flight. A series of studies was undertaken to evaluate nutritional changes during and after 60 or 90 days of -6 head-down-tilt bed rest. A total of 11 subjects (8 M, 3 F; age 26-55 y) participated in the studies. Blood and urine were collected twice before bed rest and once per month during bed rest. Samples were analyzed in batch at the end of each study. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Markers of bone resorption (such as n-telopeptide excretion, p less than 0.05) increased during bed rest, and 25-OH vitamin D status tended to decline (p=0.06). During bed rest oxidative damage markers, such as superoxide dismutase increased (p less than 0.01) and 8-(OH)-2'-deoxyguanosine tended to increase (p=0.07); whereas total antioxidant capacity decreased (p less than 0.02). Iron status indices showed patterns of increased iron stores, with decreased transferrin receptors (p less than 0.001). Biochemical markers revealed a tendency toward a loss of muscle mass, by lower excretion of creatinine and 3-methyl-histidine during bed rest. All of these changes are very similar to those observed during space flight, and further document the utility of bed rest as a model of space flight.

  8. Nutritional Status in Humans during Long-Duration Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; MatthewsOliver, Susan A.; Dillon, E. Lichar; Fesperman, Vernell

    2006-01-01

    Bed rest is a valuable ground-based model for many of the physiological changes associated with space flight. A series of studies was undertaken to evaluate nutritional changes during and after 60 or 90 days of -6 head-down-tilt bed rest. A total of 11 subjects (8 M, 3 F; age 26-55 y) participated in the studies. Blood and urine were collected twice before bed rest and once per month during bed rest. Samples were analyzed in batch at the end of each study. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Markers of bone resorption (such as n-telopeptide excretion, p less than 0.05) increased during bed rest, and 25-OH vitamin D status tended to decline (p=0.06). During bed rest oxidative damage markers, such as superoxide dismutase increased (p less than 0.01) and 8-(OH)-2'-deoxyguanosine tended to increase (p=0.07); whereas total antioxidant capacity decreased (p less than 0.02). Iron status indices showed patterns of increased iron stores, with decreased transferrin receptors (p less than 0.001). Biochemical markers revealed a tendency toward a loss of muscle mass, by lower excretion of creatinine and 3-methyl-histidine during bed rest. All of these changes are very similar to those observed during space flight, and further document the utility of bed rest as a model of space flight.

  9. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND LIFE QUALITY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; de SOUZA, Marcela Ramos; da SILVA, Evane Moises; da SILVA, Silvia Alves

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity has achieved an alarming increase in recent years, which led this disease to global epidemic condition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status as well as the quality of life of obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods A transversal study was conducted with obese adults of both genders who underwent bariatric surgery by Fobi-Capella technique for at least 30 days. It was evaluated: age, gender, marital status, occupation, weight before surgery, current weight, height, preoperative and current BMI, weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages, presence of clinical manifestations and food intolerances. Results The sample consisted of 70 patients, being 81.4% female, 37.1% aged 30 to 39 years, 58.6% were married, 41.4% have undergone the bariatric surgery in the last 12 months. It was observed a reduction in BMI from 37.2 kg/m2 (one to three months) to 28.9 kg/m2 (>12 months) and consequent increase in weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages. The most frequent clinical manifestation was alopecia (62.9%). The most reported food intolerance was on the red meat (24%). According to the Baros questionnaire, 50% of patients were classified as having good quality of life. Conclusion The operation of Fobi-Capella proved to be effective in promoting gradual and lasting weight loss. Quality of life was considered good in most patients, indicating that the operation had a positive impact on their lives. PMID:25409963

  10. Anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in Babile District, Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teji, Kedir; Dessie, Yadeta; Assebe, Tesfaye; Abdo, Meyrema

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional status during adolescence plays an important role in the human lifecycle that influences growth and development and during this period nutrient needs are the greatest. The objective of this study is to assess anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in the Babile district, Eastern Ethiopia. Data were collected from 547 adolescent aged 10-19 years by cross sectional study design. WHO Anthro-plus software was used to analyse Nutritional statuses of adolescents and magnitudes were determined using WHO 2007 references point. Haemoglobin was measured on site by hem cue machine. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried out depending on the nature of variables. The result of the study show that 21.6% thin, 4.8% were over weighted and 1.1% was obese, 32% were anaemic and 15% of adolescents were stunted/ short stature than normal. Nutritional status of adolescent were low both in urban and rural adolescents, but severe thinness were higher among of rural (39.3%) compared to urban (37.5%) adolescents. Factors independently associated with stunting were place of residence, father occupation source of drinking water and age of the adolescents. Nutritional status of adolescent girls contributes to the nutritional status of the community. There is a need to initiate intervention measures to improve the nutritional status of adolescent girls who are the future 'mothers-to-be'. Hence, there is a need to create awareness among adolescents and their family about nutrition and health.

  11. Ordinal logistic regression analysis on the nutritional status of children in KarangKitri village

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyver, Margaretha; Yongharto, Kimmy Octavian

    2015-09-01

    Ordinal logistic regression is a statistical technique that can be used to describe the relationship between ordinal response variable with one or more independent variables. This method has been used in various fields including in the health field. In this research, ordinal logistic regression is used to describe the relationship between nutritional status of children with age, gender, height, and family status. Nutritional status of children in this research is divided into over nutrition, well nutrition, less nutrition, and malnutrition. The purpose for this research is to describe the characteristics of children in the KarangKitri Village and to determine the factors that influence the nutritional status of children in the KarangKitri village. There are three things that obtained from this research. First, there are still children who are not categorized as well nutritional status. Second, there are children who come from sufficient economic level which include in not normal status. Third, the factors that affect the nutritional level of children are age, family status, and height.

  12. Anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in Babile District, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teji, Kedir; Dessie, Yadeta; Assebe, Tesfaye; Abdo, Meyrema

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional status during adolescence plays an important role in the human lifecycle that influences growth and development and during this period nutrient needs are the greatest. The objective of this study is to assess anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in the Babile district, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods Data were collected from 547 adolescent aged 10-19 years by cross sectional study design. WHO Anthro-plus software was used to analyse Nutritional statuses of adolescents and magnitudes were determined using WHO 2007 references point. Haemoglobin was measured on site by hem cue machine. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried out depending on the nature of variables. Results The result of the study show that 21.6% thin, 4.8% were over weighted and 1.1% was obese, 32% were anaemic and 15% of adolescents were stunted/ short stature than normal. Nutritional status of adolescent were low both in urban and rural adolescents, but severe thinness were higher among of rural (39.3%) compared to urban (37.5%) adolescents. Factors independently associated with stunting were place of residence, father occupation source of drinking water and age of the adolescents. Conclusion Nutritional status of adolescent girls contributes to the nutritional status of the community. There is a need to initiate intervention measures to improve the nutritional status of adolescent girls who are the future ‘mothers-to-be’. Hence, there is a need to create awareness among adolescents and their family about nutrition and health. PMID:27642403

  13. [Cognitive impairment, nutritional status and clinical profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    López Torres, Isabel; Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Martín Salvador, Adelina; Ortiz Rubio, Araceli; Rodríguez Alzueta, Elisabeth; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease with a prevalence that increases with the aging of the subject. It presents a high prevalence of comorbidities, such as cognitive decline, which is gaining great clinical relevance in recent years. Factors such as pulmonary function, hypoxemia, hypercapnia or exacerbations contribute to the decline of cognitive functions. The nutritional status has been added to these factors as contributing to cognitive function decline when presenting in COPD. To evidence the relationship between cognitive decline, nutritional status and the clinical profile of patients admitted because of an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). 110 subjects hospitalized because of COPD, divided in two groups according to their nutritional status and assessment of cognitive decline at admittance, nutritional status and clinical profile. Significant differences between groups concerning nutritional status in anthropometric variables (sex and IMC), functional ability (Barthel index and Daily Life Activities Scale), quality of life (Euroqol- 5D y SGRQ), sleep quality (Pittsburgh), mood (HAD) and cognitive decline (MoCa attention, MoCa abstraction). (p<0.05). Cognitive function is affected in COPD patients with an altered nutritional status when compared to those with a normal nutritional status. The nutritional decline is a factor contributing to the impairment of cognitive functions in this kind of patients, particularly a decline in attention and abstraction ability. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional status and its health-related factors among older adults in rural and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Hui; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Shao, Jung-Hua

    2015-01-01

    To compare health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban counties of Taiwan. The older adult population of Taiwan is increasing. Furthermore, older people living in rural areas have shorter life expectancy and more chronic diseases than their urban counterparts. However, little is known about the health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban areas of Taiwan, limiting nurses' ability to identify and care for older adults at risk of poor nutritional health. Cross-sectional, comparative. Older adults were randomly selected from names of residents of an adjacent rural and urban area of northern Taiwan and having completing the 2009 health evaluation. From March-July 2010, older adult participants (N = 366) provided data on demographic and health-related information, nutritional self-efficacy, health locus of control and nutritional status. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and compared using chi-square and t-test. Older rural participants had significantly lower educational level, less adequate income, higher medication use, lower scores on self-rated health status and researcher-rated health status and lower self-rated healthy eating status than their urban counterparts. Moreover, rural participants had significantly lower nutritional self-efficacy, higher chance health locus of control and poorer nutritional status than their urban counterparts. Our results suggest that nurses should assess older adults living in rural areas for nutritional health and nutrition knowledge. Based on this assessment, nurses should develop easy, practical and accessible nutritional programmes for this population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Changes in nutritional status in ICU patients receiving enteral tube feeding: a prospective descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjung; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the changes in nutritional status in Korean ICU patients receiving enteral feeding, and to understand the contribution of baseline nutritional status and energy intake to nutritional changes during the ICU stay. This was a prospective study of nutritional changes in 48 ICU patients receiving enteral feeding for 7 days. The Subjective Global Assessment scale was used upon admission. In addition, anthropometric measures (triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, body mass index and percent ideal body weight) and biochemical measures (albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin and total lymphocyte count) were evaluated twice, upon admission and 7 days after admission. Seventy-five percent of ICU patients were severely malnourished at admission. Although the nutritional status worsened in both the patients with suspected malnourishment and the patients with severe malnutrition at admission, the nutritional status worsened significantly more in the patients with severe malnutrition than in the patients with suspected malnourishment. Moreover, a number of nutritional measures significantly decreased more in underfed patients than in adequately fed patients. The most significant predicting factor for underfeeding was under-prescription. The ICU patients in our study were severely malnourished at admission, and their nutritional status worsened during their ICU stay even though enteral nutritional support was provided. The changes in nutritional status during the ICU stay were related to the patients' baseline nutritional status and underfeeding during their ICU stay. This study highlights an urgent need to provide adequate nutritional support for ICU patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional status in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease: prevalence of malnutrition and methods for routine nutritional assessment.

    PubMed

    Mijac, Dragana D; Janković, Goran L J; Jorga, Jagoda; Krstić, Miodrag N

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition is a common feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are numerous methods for the assessment of nutritional status, but the gold standard has not yet been established. The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition and to evaluate methods for routine nutritional assessment of active IBD patients. Twenty-three patients with active Crohn disease, 53 patients with active ulcerative colitis and 30 controls were included in the study. The nutritional status was assessed by extensive anthropometric measurements, percentage of weight loss in the past 1-6 months and biochemical markers of nutrition. All investigated nutritional parameters were significantly different in IBD patients compared to control subjects, except MCV, tryglicerides and serum total protein level. Serum albumin level and body mass index (BMI) were the most predictive parameters of malnutrition. According to different assessment methods the prevalence of undernutrition and severe undernutrition in patients with active IBD were 25.0%-69.7% and 1.3%-31.6%, respectively, while in the control subjects no abnormalities have been detected. There was no statistically significant difference of nutritional parameters between UC and CD patients except lower mid-arm muscle circumference in UC group. Malnutrition is common in IBD patients. BMI and serum albumin are simple and convenient methods for the assessment of the nutritional status in IBD patients. Further studies with larger group of patients are necessary to elucidate the prevalence of malnutrition and the most accurate assessment methods in IBD patients.

  17. Nutritional status of pregnant women in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Andert, Christoph U; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Schelp, Frank P; Schweigert, Florian J

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study on the nutritional status of primiparous and multiparous women in the first trimester of pregnancy was conducted in the northeastern province of Thailand, Khon Kaen, to investigate differences in protein-energy-malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia, vitamin A deficiency and carotenoid status between both parity groups. 94 subjects were recruited at first attendance of antenatal clinic. Data about weight, height, haemoglobin and haematocrit were obtained from hospital records. Anthropometric measurements of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skinfold were done on a sub sample. Retinol, carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol were analysed using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. Ferritin, transthyretin and retinol-binding protein were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primiparous women showed lower body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, corrected arm muscle area (P<0.001) as well as lower retinol, cholesterol and triceps skinfold (P<0.05). After adjusting for age and socio-economical status the significant difference persisted for all parameters but triceps skinfold. No significant differences of alpha-tocopherol, serum proteins, carotenoids and iron indices could be observed, even though a tendency to higher values for ferritin, haemoglobin and haematocrit was shown in multiparous women. Prevalence of protein-energy-malnutrition (body mass index <18.5 kg/m2) in the primiparous group was significantly higher compared to the multiparous group (P<0.05). Prevalence of protein-energy-malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency were 15.1%,6.3% and 3.3%, respectively, in the total study population. No differences between parity groups could be observed for prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency.

  18. Prefrailty in community-dwelling older adults is associated with nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Fang; Lin, Pei-Ling

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the differences of demographic characteristics and nutrition status between prefrail and nonfrail older adults. Meanwhile, the factors related to the nutrition status of community-dwelling older adults were also studied. The World Health Organisation has actively developed prevention programmes to address geriatric frailty. However, few previous studies have focused on the relationship between prefrailty and nutrition status. This study adopted a cross-sectional and correlational research design. Community-dwelling older adults were recruited for this study. The participants' nutrition status was assessed using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment tool, and their frailty status was evaluated based on the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures indicators. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures criteria comprise the following three items: >5% loss in total body weight within one year; inability to rise five times from a chair without assistance and a self-reported lack of energy. Inclusion criteria were age ≥65 years, living independently at home and exhibiting neither mental impairment nor acute disease. Data were gathered from 152 participants; most were men, lived alone and had a level of education lower than elementary school. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate the association between variables and nutritional status, the results of which revealed that prefrailty and body mass index were independently related to the participants' nutrition status. The results showed that nutritional assessment can be employed with community-dwelling older adults. In particular, prefrailty and body mass index were key factors that affected nutritional status in older adults. Community nurses must understand the risk factors related to nutritional status in community-dwelling older people. If nurses use this approach, prefrail older adults are likely to experience improved confidence in maintaining their health and a decreased incidence of frailty and

  19. Early Life Stress, Mood, and Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Syed, Shariful A; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2017-02-01

    Early life stress has been shown to exert profound short- and long-term effects on human physiology both in the central nervous system and peripherally. Early life stress has demonstrated clear association with many psychiatric disorders including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistics Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic categorical system has served as a necessary framework for clinical service, delivery, and research, however has not been completely matching the neurobiological research perspective. Early life stress presents a complex dynamic featuring a wide spectrum of physiologic alterations: from epigenetic alterations, inflammatory changes, to dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis and has further added to the challenge of identifying biomarkers associated with psychiatric disorders. The National Institute of Mental Health's proposed Research Domain Criteria initiative incorporates a dimensional approach to assess discrete domains and constructs of behavioral function that are subserved by identifiable neural circuits. The current neurobiology of early life stress is reviewed in accordance with dimensional organization of Research Domain Criteria matrix and how the findings as a whole fit within the Research Domain Criteria frameworks.

  20. Early life events in asthma--diet.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Graham

    2007-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that the recent increase in the prevalence of asthma may, in part, be a consequence of changing diet. There is now increasing interest in the possibility that childhood asthma may be influenced by maternal diet during pregnancy and/or diet during early childhood. A number of observational studies and a childhood fish oil supplementation study provide little support for the notion that early childhood intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) influence the development of childhood asthma. Recent work however, suggests that supplementation of maternal diet with fish oil is associated with altered neonatal immune responses to allergens. Further work is required to establish whether this immunological observation is translated into clinical outcomes. Two birth cohorts have now reported reduced maternal intake of vitamin E, zinc and vitamin D during pregnancy to be associated with increased asthma and wheezing outcomes in children up to the age of 5 years. Early life diet could modulate the likelihood of childhood asthma by affecting fetal airway development and/or influencing the initial early life interactions between allergens and the immune system. In animal models, vitamin E, zinc and vitamin D have been shown to modify fetal lung development and vitamin E, zinc, vitamin D and PUFA can modulate T-cell responses. Further research, particularly, early life intervention studies need to be carried out to establish whether early life dietary intervention can be used as a public health measure to reduce the prevalence of childhood asthma.

  1. Nutritional status of community-dwelling elderly with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease: prevalence of malnutrition and the relation of various factors to nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Droogsma, E; van Asselt, D Z B; Schölzel-Dorenbos, C J M; van Steijn, J H M; van Walderveen, P E; van der Hooft, C S

    2013-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of malnutrition and its relation to various factors in community-dwelling elderly with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD). Retrospective cross-sectional study. Memory clinic in a rural part of the Netherlands. 312 Community-dwelling AD patients, aged 65 years or older, were included. At the time the diagnosis AD was made, socio-demographic characteristics and data on nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)), cognitive function (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Cambridge Cognitive Examination (Camcog)), functional status (Interview for Deterioration in Daily Living Activities in Dementia (IDDD), Barthel Index (BI)) and behaviour (Revised Memory and Behaviour Problems Checklist (RMBPC)) were assessed. Characteristics of well-nourished patients (MNA score >23.5) were compared to characteristics of patients at risk of malnutrition (MNA score 17-23.5). Linear regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of various factors on nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was 0% and 14.1% was at risk of malnutrition. AD patients at risk of malnutrition were more impaired in basic and complex daily functioning than well-nourished AD patients (median IDDD score 41.5 [25th -75th percentile 38.8-48.0] versus median IDDD score 40.0 [25th -75th percentile 37.0-43.0], p = 0.028). The degree of impairment in basic and complex daily functioning (IDDD) was independently related to nutritional status (MNA) (p = 0.001, B = -0.062). One in seven community-dwelling elderly with newly diagnosed AD is at risk of malnutrition. The degree of impairment in daily functioning is independently related to nutritional status. Therefore, assessment of the nutritional status should be included in the comprehensive assessment of AD patients. The relation between daily functioning, nutritional status and AD warrants further investigation.

  2. Preoperative Nutritional Status of the Surgical Patients in Jeju

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Myung-Sang; Lee, Sang-Yup; Jeon, Dal-Jae; Yoon, Min-Geun; Kim, Sung-Sim; Moon, Hanlim

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the preoperative nutritional status of patients with various disorders and to provide data for pre- and postoperative patient management plans, particularly in the elderly. There is no published information on age-matched and disease-matched preoperative nutritional/immunologic status for orthopedic patients, especially in the elderly, in Jeju. Methods In total, 331 patients with four categories of orthopedic conditions were assessed: 92 elective surgery patients, 59 arthroplasty patients, 145 patients with fractures, and 35 infection patients. Malnutrition was defined as body mass index (BMI) below 18 kg/m2 of expected body weight (below 20% of normal), serum albumin/globulin ratio below 1.5 (normal range, 1.5 to 2.3), albumin level below 3.5 g/dL, total lymphocyte count below 1,500 cells/mm3, and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio below 5 versus 1. Results In 92 elective surgery patients, the average BMI was 23 kg/m2, hemoglobin was 15 g/dL, lymphocytes (2,486 cells)/monocytes (465 cells) ratio was 6.1, and the albumin (4.4 g/dL)/globulin (2.5 g/dL) ratio as a protein quotient was 1.7. Among the 59 hip and knee arthroplasty patients, the average BMI was 25 kg/m2, hemoglobin was 12 g/dL, lymphocytes (2,038 cells)/monocytes (391 cells) ratio was 6.6, and albumin (4.1 g/dL)/globulin (2.4 g/dL) ratio was 1.6. No subject showed malnutrition. Among the 145 fracture patients, the average BMI was 23 kg/m2. The hemoglobin level was 13 g/dL, monocytes (495 cells)/lymphocytes (1,905 cells) ratio was 1 versus 4.6, and albumin (4.1 d/gL)/globulin (2.5 d/gL) ratio was 1.6. However, both ratios decreased after 70 years of age. Among the 17 of 35 infection patients, albumin levels were below 3.5 g/dL, the average BMI was 22 kg/m2, lymphocytes (1,532 cells)/monocytes (545 cells) ratio was 2.4 versus 1, and albumin (3.0 g/dL)/globulin (3.3 g/dL) ratio was 0.9, while in 18 patients albumin levels were over 3.5 g/dL, the average BMI was 22 kg/m2, hemoglobin was 12 g

  3. Comprehensive care improves physical recovery of hip-fractured elderly Taiwanese patients with poor nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsin-Yun; Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Li, Hsiao-Juan; Wu, Chi-Chuan; Cheng, Huey-Shinn; Yang, Ching-Tzu; Chou, Shih-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yen; Shyu, Yea-Ing L

    2014-06-01

    The effects of nutritional management among other intervention components have not been examined for hip-fractured elderly persons with poor nutritional status. Accordingly, this study explored the intervention effects of an in-home program using a comprehensive care model that included a nutrition-management component on recovery of hip-fractured older persons with poor nutritional status at hospital discharge. A secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up. A 3000-bed medical center in northern Taiwan. Subjects were included only if they had "poor nutritional status" at hospital discharge, including those at risk for malnutrition or malnourished. The subsample included 80 subjects with poor nutritional status in the comprehensive care group, 87 in the interdisciplinary care group, and 85 in the usual care group. The 3 care models were usual care, interdisciplinary care, and comprehensive care. Usual care provided no in-home care, interdisciplinary care provided 4 months of in-home rehabilitation, and comprehensive care included management of depressive symptoms, falls, and nutrition as well as 1 year of in-home rehabilitation. Data were collected on nutritional status and physical functions, including range of motion, muscle power, proprioception, balance and functional independence, and analyzed using a generalized estimating equation approach. We also compared patients' baseline characteristics: demographic characteristics, type of surgery, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, cognitive function, and depression. Patients with poor nutritional status who received comprehensive care were 1.67 times (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.61) more likely to recover their nutritional status than those who received interdisciplinary and usual care. Furthermore, the comprehensive care model improved the functional independence and balance of patients who recovered their nutritional status over the first year following discharge

  4. Nutritional status in short-term overtraining boxers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrova, Albena; Petrov, Lubomir; Zaekov, Nikolay; Bozhkov, Borislav; Zsheliaskova-Koynova, Zshivka

    2017-03-01

    The diet is essential to the recovery process in athletes, especially those undergoing intensive training. The continuous imbalance between loading and recovery leads to development of overtraining syndrome. The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in the nutritional status of short-term overtrained athletes. Twelve boxers from the team of National Spoils Academy Sofia, Bulgaria during their preparation for the National Championship 2016 were studied. The measurements were conducted three times.in the beginning of preparation (T1), 22 days later (2) and 10 days after (32 days after first measurement), in the beginning of the recovery period, one week prior the competition (T3).The measurements included basic anthropometric data, overtraining questionnaire RESTO-Sport and nutrition questionnaire, plasma concentration of testosterone and cortisol.On the data of dietary survey the percent proportion and the amount of daily consumed proteins, fats and carbohydrates were defined and the energy intake of the tested athletes was calculated. According to the RESTO-Sport a significant decrease in the ratio stress/recovery was observed in the period with the heaviest training load T2, and an increase was estimated in the pre­competition recovery period T3. It was found a typical for the overtraining syndrome decrease in the concentration of testosterone and the ratio of testosterone/cortisol in T3. In some respondents a reduction in carbohydrates and proteins intake was observed in T2 and especially in T3, which correlates with the hormonal changes. In this work the diet changes was discussed as a possible consequence and/or a cause of the overtraining syndrome.

  5. Assessing copper status in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Mark; Mulroy, Cecilia W; Street, Jennifer; Stewart, Charisse; Johnsen, Jake; Jackson, Daniel; Paul, Irasema

    2015-02-01

    Copper is a trace mineral essential for numerous physiological processes. The purpose of this article is to provide data on copper levels in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) that are useful to guide supplementation in PN formulation. This is a retrospective review of hospitalized pediatric patients receiving PN supplemented and not supplemented with copper. In total, 751 supplemented pediatric patients and 90 pediatric patients not supplemented had serum copper levels measured. We assessed patient demographics, days on PN before copper level was drawn, serum copper levels, conjugated bilirubin levels, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The mean serum copper level was 80 mcg/dL at 20 days for supplemented patients and 64 mcg/dL at 14 days for the 90 nonsupplemented patients (P = .0002). In the supplemented patients, 50% of the levels were low and 45% were within the normal range. The remaining 5% of patients had high levels. In nonsupplemented patients, 71% were low and 29% within the normal range. There was no correlation between copper levels and conjugated bilirubin <2 mg/dL and >2 mg/dL (P = .3421). Copper levels correlated with CRP for CRP >4 mg/dL (P = .03). Pediatric patients receiving PN should be supplemented with copper to prevent deficiency. Serum copper levels should be assessed at 14 days. Assessment of copper status should not be determined by conjugated bilirubin levels. Serum copper levels may be elevated in patients with acute inflammation and may be falsely elevated when CRP is >4 mg/dL. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. [Assessment of nutritional status in children with atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    López-Campos, Xiomara; Castro-Almarales, Raúl Lázaro; Massip Nicot, Juliette

    2011-01-01

    There has been described some exacerbating factors for atopic dermatitis, including foods. Several investigations have reported controversial results about the influence of foods on atopic dermatitis. But there is scarce information about the nutritional status of patients with atopic dermatitis. To characterize the nutritional condition in a sample of children with atopic dermatitis in Old Havana, Cuba. In this descriptive study, were included 60 children, aged between 2 and 14 years, with the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis from the Allergy Department in the municipality Havana, from January to April of 2008. For every patient we evaluated anthropometrics, biochemical and immunologic measurements, as well the frequency of meals ingestion and the types of foods. We found that 83.3% of the patients were younger than 6 years, with a slight prevalence of females (53.3%). Ninety-seven percent of the children had a normal height for its age and 48.3% had a normal weight for their height, and 20% of the patients had malnutrition. It was detected mild and moderate anemia in 63.3%. The daily frequency of taking breakfast was carried out in 55%, the lunch in 100% and dinner in 95%. The products of regular consumption are carbohydrates, candies nd sodas in 76.6%. Fish and shellfish are consumed only for 16% of the patients. In the studied sample of children with atopic dermatitis we found a high prevalence of malnutrition associated with poor dietary habits. Breast milk feeding was related to a less malnutrition percentage in children with atopic dermatitis.

  7. Nutritional and antioxidant status by skin types among female adults

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyun Sook; Choi, Sung Im

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to analyze the relationship among sebum · hydration content of the skin and nutritional intake, serum antioxidant minerals and antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxide concentration in 50 female subjects in their 20s. The skin type was divided into Dry Skin, Mixed Skin, and Oily Skin, and the dry skin group was 14%, the mixed skin group was 56%, and the oily skin group was 30% of all subjects. The average age of the subjects was 20.54 ± 1.43 years and BMI was 20.66. The average sebum content in each group was in the order of T-zone>forehead>chin>cheek. In case of the T-zone, a significant difference between the dry skin group and the oily skin group was observed, suggesting that the area is most sensitive to sebum content by skin type. Significant differences were not observed in energy and nutrient intakes by skin type. Serum concentrations of antioxidant minerals such as copper, manganese, zinc and selenium were not significantly different among the groups, but the dry skin group tended to be higher than the oily skin group. Serum catalase was significantly higher in the oily skin group (P < 0.05), and MDA was significantly higher in the mixed skin group (P < 0.05). The hydration of the cheek and serum zinc showed a negative correlation, and the sebum content of the cheek and GPx showed a significant negative correlation. The hydration of the forehead and serum copper showed a significant negative correlation, and the hydration of the forehead and GPx showed a significant positive correlation. The hydration of the chin and serum SOD showed a significant positive correlation. With these results, it is considered that the basic condition of nutritional status can affect the skin health. PMID:20607067

  8. Socioeconomic profile and nutritional status of children in rubber smallholdings.

    PubMed

    Marjan, Zamaliah Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Lin, Khor Geok; Siong, Tee E

    2002-01-01

    This paper will present the socioeconomic profile and nutritional status of children aged 1-6 years in the rubber smallholdings of Peninsula Malaysia. A total of 323 households were involved in this study. The sociodemographic data were obtained through interviews with heads of households using a set of questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were taken from 506 children aged 1-6 years from these households. The weight and height of the children were compared with the reference values of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the nutritional status was classified based on the recommendations of WHO. The average age of the fathers was 39.9+/-8.6 years and 34.4+/-7.0 years for the mothers. The mean household size was 6.67+/-2.27. The majority (49.7%) of the heads of households received 4-6 years of formal education and 7.9% received no formal education. Based on the monthly per capita income, 24.0% were found to be in the hardcore poor category, 38.3% fall into the poor category and 37.7% in the above poverty income group. The prevalence of stunting and underweight among children between the ages of 1-6 years were highest among children from the hardcore poor, followed by the poor category and above the poverty line income group. Wasting was present in all income groups, with a prevalence of 4.2% found among the hardcore poor, 9.4% among the poor group and 8.4% in the above poverty income group. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation showed significant relationships between household total income and height-for-age (r = 0.131, P = 0.05) and weight-for-age (r = 0.127, P = 0.05). There were also significant correlations between monthly per capita income with height-for-age (r = 0.16, P < 0.01) and weight-for-age (r = 0.13, P < 0.05). The acreage of land utilised was correlated with height-for-age (r = 0.11, P < 0.05), weight-for-age (r = 0.17, P < 0.05) and weight-for-height (r = 0.16, P < 0.05). However, stepwise multiple regression analysis

  9. Nutritional status and growth of indigenous Xavante children, Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of Xavante Indian children less than 10 years of age in Central Brazil and to evaluate the hypothesis of an association between child nutrition and socioeconomic differentiation in this population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2006 that included all children under the age of 10 from the Xavante village Pimentel Barbosa in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The data collected included weight, height, and sociodemographic information. Sociodemographic data were used to generate two indices ("income" and "wealth") and to determine the proportion of adults in each household. Descriptive analyses were performed for weight-for-age (W/A), height-for-age (H/A), and weight-for-height (W/H) using the NCHS and the WHO growth references. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using H/A and W/A as a response variables. Results Of a total of 246 children under the age of ten residing in the village, 232 (94.3%) were evaluated. Following the NCHS reference, 5.6% of children under the age of ten presented low W/A and 14.7% presented low H/A. Among children under the age of five, deficit percentages for weight and height were 4.5% and 29.9%, respectively, following the WHO curves. Among children < 2 years of age, H/A index variability was found to be directly related to child's age and inversely related to the proportion of adults in the household. Maternal BMI was positively associated with growth for children from 2 to 4 years of age, explaining 11.5% of the z-score variability for the H/A index. For children 5 years of age and older, the wealth index and maternal height were positively associated with H/A. No significant associations were found using W/A as the dependent variable. Conclusion This study demonstrated that undernutrition, in particular linear growth deficit, is a notable health issue for Xavante children. These findings contrast with the nutritional profile observed

  10. Trading nutrition for education: nutritional status and the sale of snack foods in an eastern Kentucky school.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Deborah L

    2003-06-01

    Overweight and poor nutrition of children in the United States are becoming issues of increasing concern for public health. Dietary patterns of U.S. children indicate they are consuming too few fruits and vegetables and too many foods high in fat and sugar. Contributing to this pattern of food consumption is snacking, which is reported to be on the increase among adults and children alike. One place where snacking is under increased scrutiny, and where it is being increasingly criticized, is in U.S. schools, where snack foods are often sold to supplement inadequate budgets. This article takes a biocultural approach to understanding the nutritional status of elementary school children in a rural community in eastern Kentucky. It pays particular attention to the ways in which the school's nutrition environment shapes overweight and nutritional status for many of the children, focusing on the sale of snack foods and the reasons behind the principal's decision to sell snack foods in the school.

  11. Adipokines and nutritional status in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Małgorzewicz, S; Dębska-Slizień, A; Czajka, B; Rutkowski, B

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and disturbances of adipokine concentrations are often recognized in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Leptin plays a key role in regulating energy intake and expenditure, including appetite and hunger, metabolism, and behavior. Adiponectin modulates certain metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid oxidation, and exerts some weight-reduction effects. Visfatin has various functions, including the promotion of vascular smooth muscle cell maturation and inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis. It also activates insulin receptors and has insulin-mimetic effects, lowering blood glucose and improving insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of leptin, adiponectin, and visfatin and nutritional status abnormalities in stable KTRs. Eighty KTRs aged 52.4 ± 14.0 years participated in the study. Nutritional status was determined with the use of the 7-point Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements (bioimpedance analysis), and serum concentration. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and visfatin were measured with the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mean time after transplantation and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula) were 82.5 ± 56.5 months and 42.0 ± 15.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively; 29 (36.2%) of the KTRs, despite high body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)), presented mild malnutrition (SGA ≤5). BMI, content of body fat, and leptin concentration correlated positively with time from transplantation and negatively with eGFR. Additionally, patients with BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) presented significantly higher leptin-to-adiponectin ratios compared with lean patients (3.5 vs 1.1, respectively; P < .05). KTRs with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) presented significantly lower leptin concentration and BMI. Despite high BMI, mild malnutrition was present in one-third of KTRs. Increased BMI, abdominal obesity, and high leptin concentration

  12. Zinc nutritional status in adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marques, Raynério Costa; de Sousa, Artemizia Francisca; do Monte, Semiramis Jamil Hadad; Oliveira, Francisco Erasmo; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; Marreiro, Dilina do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Studies have evidenced that zinc metabolism is altered in presence of Down syndrome, and zinc seems to have a relationship with the metabolic alterations usually present in this syndrome. In this work, the Zn-related nutritional status of adolescents with Down syndrome was evaluated by means of biochemical parameters and diet. A case-control study was performed in a group of adolescents with Down syndrome (n = 30) and a control group (n = 32), of both sexes, aged 10 to 19 years. Diet evaluation was accomplished by using a 3-day dietary record, and the analysis was performed by the NutWin program, version 1.5. Antropometric measurements were performed for evaluation of body composition. The Zn-related nutritional status of the groups was evaluated by means of zinc concentration determinations in plasma and erythrocytes, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion, by using the method of atomic absorption spectroscopy. The diet of both groups presented adequate concentrations of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and zinc. The mean values found for zinc concentration in erythrocytes were 49.2 +/- 8.5 microg Zn/g Hb for the Down syndrome group and 35.9 +/- 6.1 microg Zn/g Hb for the control group (p = 0.001). The average values found for zinc concentration in plasma were 67.6 +/- 25.6 microg/dL for the Down syndrome group and 68.9 +/- 22.3 microg/dL for the control group. The mean values found for zinc concentration in urine were 244.3 +/- 194.9 microg Zn/24 h for the Down syndrome group and 200.3 +/- 236.4 microg Zn/24 h for the control group. Assessment of body composition revealed overweight (26.7%) and obesity (6.6%) in the Down syndrome group. In this study, patients with Down syndrome presented altered zinc levels for some cellular compartments, and the average zinc concentrations were low in plasma and urine and elevated in erythrocytes.

  13. [Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Silva, Janiara David; Silva, Amanda Bertolini de Jesus; de Oliveira, Aihancreson Vaz Kirchoff; Nemer, Aline Silva de Aguiar

    2012-12-01

    The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP). The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF) and waist circumference (WC) had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet.

  14. Nutritional status and adequacy of enteral nutrition in pediatric cancer patients at a reference center in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maciel Barbosa, J; Pedrosa, F; Coelho Cabral, P

    2012-01-01

    Individualized nutritional support is important to pediatric cancer patients and should be integrated to the overall treatment of these patients. Analyze the nutritional status of cancer patients submitted to enteral nutrition (EN) and assess the adequacy of this form of nutrition. A case series study was carried out at the Pediatric Oncology Unit of the Institute of Integrative Medicine Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP, Brazil, Recife-PE) between January and December 2009. Clinical and anthropometric data were obtained from medical charts and nutritional follow-up charts. Z scores for height for age, weight for age and body mass index for age indicators (H/A, W/A and BMI/A, respectively) were calculated using the AnthroPlus program. Caloric and protein requirements were calculated based on the recommendations of the Brazilian National Council of Oncologic Nutrition. At the beginning of EN, 32.4% of the sample had short stature and 23.9% were underweight based on the BMI/A indicator. The assessment of EN adequacy demonstrated that 49.3% reached the caloric requirements and 76.1% reached the protein requirements, with maximal intakes of 65.6 Kcal/Kg/day and 1.95 g of protein/kg/day. Malnourished patients had greater mean Z scores for W/A and BMI/A at the end of EN, whereas no significant changes were found among patients with adequate nutritional status and significant reductions in these indicators were found among those with overweight or obesity. The patients either maintained or achieved a significant improvement in nutritional status, which demonstrates the importance of nutritional support and follow up during hospitalization.

  15. African stakeholders' views of research options to improve nutritional status in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Michelle; Kruger, Annamarie; Nago, Eunice; Lachat, Carl; Mamiro, Peter; Smit, Karlien; Garimoi-Orach, Chris; Kameli, Yves; Roberfroid, Dominique; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Setting research priorities for improving nutrition in Africa is currently ad hoc and there is a need to shift the status quo in the light of slow progress in reducing malnutrition. This study explored African stakeholders' views on research priorities in the context of environmental and socio-demographic changes that will impact on nutritional status in Africa in the coming years. Using Multi-Criteria Mapping, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from 91 stakeholders representing 6 stakeholder groups (health professionals, food Industry, government, civil society, academics and research funders) in Benin, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda. Stakeholders appraised six research options (ecological nutrition, nutritional epidemiology, community nutrition interventions, behavioural nutrition, clinical nutrition and molecular nutrition) for how well they could address malnutrition in Africa. Impact (28.3%), research efficacy (23.6%) and social acceptability (22.4%) were the criteria chosen the most to evaluate the performance of research options. Research on the effectiveness of community interventions was seen as a priority by stakeholders because they were perceived as likely to have an impact relatively quickly, were inexpensive and cost-effective, involved communities and provided direct evidence of what works. Behavioural nutrition research was also highly appraised. Many stakeholders, particularly academics and government were optimistic about the value of ecological nutrition research (the impact of environmental change on nutritional status). Research funders did not share this enthusiasm. Molecular nutrition was least preferred, considered expensive, slow to have an impact and requiring infrastructure. South Africa ranked clinical and molecular nutrition the highest of all countries. Research funders should redirect research funds in Africa towards the priorities identified by giving precedence to develop the evidence for effective

  16. Patterns of Risk: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, Jeffrey; Loonin, Deanne

    Nutrition and health are underlying influences to education performance. This report is a collection and analysis of data on nutrition and the rural poor in the United States. It presents an empirical assessment of critical nutritional and social-service problems experienced by the rural poor population. The first section of the report uses data…

  17. Disparities in the Context of Opportunities for Cancer Prevention in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Massetti, Greta M.; Thomas, Cheryll C.; Ragan, Kathleen R.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent health disparities are a major contributor to disproportionate burden of cancer for some populations. Health disparities in cancer incidence and mortality may reflect differences in exposures to risk factors early in life. Understanding the distribution of exposures to early life risk and protective factors for cancer across different populations can shed light on opportunities to promote health equity at earlier developmental stages. Disparities may differentially influence risk for cancer during early life and create opportunities to promote health equity. Potential risk and protective factors for cancer in early life reveal patterns of disparities in their exposure. These disparities in exposures can manifest in downstream disparities in risk for cancer. These risk and protective factors include adverse childhood experiences; maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy; childhood obesity; high or low birth weight; benzene exposure; use of assisted reproductive technologies; pesticide and insecticide exposure; isolated cryptorchidism; early pubertal timing; exposure to radiation; exposure to tobacco in utero and in early life; allergies, asthma, and atopy; and early exposure to infection. Disparities on the basis of racial and ethnic minority status, economic disadvantage, disability status, sex, geography, and nation of origin can occur in these risk and protective factors. Vulnerable populations experience disproportionally greater exposure to risk factors in early life. Addressing disparities in risk factors in early life can advance opportunities for prevention, promote health equity, and possibly reduce risk for subsequent development of cancer. PMID:27940979

  18. Predictors of nutritional status among community-dwelling older adults in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Yanhong; Li, Sijian; Zheng, Yanling

    2009-08-01

    To examine the nutritional and functional status of community older adults in China, to identify the related factors and best predictors of elder nutrition. A cross-sectional, descriptive correlation design was utilized. A convenience sample of 162 community older adults (aged > or = 65 years) were administered three questionnaires, which were used to obtain demographic characteristics, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA) and functional status (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, IADL). The mean MNA score was 23.8 (sd 3.92), 36.4 % of elders were at risk of malnutrition and 8.0 % were malnourished; 61.7 % were functionally independent. Spearman's correlation analysis indicated that age, marital status, education level, personal income, number of chronic medical conditions suffered and functional status had significant correlations with nutritional status. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified that the best predictors were the number of chronic conditions suffered, age, functional status and marital status. The study has suggested that nutritional health remains a problem among older adults in the Chinese community. A large proportion was on the borderline of malnutrition, and deficiency as well as excesses coexisted. Malnutrition is an increasing hazard especially for those suffering from more diseases, at a highly advanced age, functionally dependent and widowed.

  19. Environmental influences on helminthiasis and nutritional status among Pacific schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R G; Sharp, D S; Hughes, M C; Akau'ola, S; Heinsbroek, P; Velayudhan, R; Schulz, D; Palmer, K; Cavalli-Sforza, T; Galea, G

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes a study undertaken to: (1) determine the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections and nutritional status among Pacific Island school children; (2) identify factors influencing helminthiasis; (3) identify interventions to improve school health. A total of 3,683 children aged 5-12 years attending 27 primary schools in 13 Pacific Island countries were surveyed along with school environmental data. Stool samples were collected from 1996 children (54.2%) and analysed for ova and helminths. Total prevalence of helminthiasis was 32.8%. Anaemia prevalence was 12.4%. Children with helminthiasis and anaemia were found to be 8.7 times more likely to be stunted and 4.3 times more likely to be underweight than non-anaemic and non-infected children. Four significant environmental influences on helminthiasis were identified: (1) an inadequate water supply; (2); availability of a school canteen; (3) regular water/sanitation maintenance regimes; and (4) overcrowded classrooms. Helminthiasis was found to be strongly associated with anaemia, stunting and underweight and environmental influences identified. Although mass anti-helminthic drug administrations (MDA) have been taking place, reinfection is common as drug therapy alone is not enough. Programme effectiveness depends upon upgrading school environments to include an adequate water supply, controlled food preparation/provision, well-maintained water/sanitation facilities and class sizes of 30 students or less.

  20. The impact of bariatric surgery on nutritional status of patients

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Currently, surgical treatment is considered to be the most efficient method of dealing with morbid obesity. Aim To evaluate changes in nutritional status after surgical treatment of obesity in the early postoperative period. Material and methods The study included 50 patients (30 women and 20 men) treated surgically due to morbid obesity. During the preliminary visit and during control visits measurements of body mass, height, and waist and hip circumference were conducted. Also, analysis of body content was performed and blood was taken for biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using the program Statistica 10. Results Six months after the surgery, in the group of women, significant reduction of average body mass, average waist circumference, average hip circumference and average body mass index (BMI) was observed. Also, significant reduction of the percentage of body fat and an increase in the percentage of fat-free body mass were observed. A significant decrease in muscle mass was also noted. Both in women and in men, 6 months after the surgery, a significant decrease in fasting glucose concentration, fasting insulin and triglycerides in blood serum was observed. Conclusions Bariatric procedures lead to significant body mass, BMI, waist and hip circumference reduction. Loss of body mass is caused mainly by the reduction of fat tissue. Application of surgical procedures in morbid obesity treatment also allowed us to achieve improvement in insulin, glucose and lipid metabolism. PMID:25960802

  1. Nutritional status assessment of HIV-positive drug addicts.

    PubMed

    Varela, P; Marcos, A; Ripoll, S; Requejo, A; Herrera, P; Casas, A

    1990-05-01

    Since human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is known to lead to modifications of immune function and interrelationships among malnutrition, anergy and drug addiction have been shown, the aim of this work was to assess the nutritional status of 36 male heroin addicts under a period of detoxication (3 months). They were divided into two groups: (1) HIV negative (n = 20) and (2) HIV positive (n = 16); heights, weights and serum albumin concentration were measured and immune function was tested, using delayed hypersensitivity skin tests containing 7 antigens. No significant differences in anthropometric measurements were found between both groups, but anthropometric improvement was shown in every patient after the detoxication period. Serum albumin, often used as a classical index of malnutrition, remained within the normal values in both groups. The whole response to skin tests was depressed in both groups and no significant differences were shown between them. Therefore, these results might suggest that in spite of the apparent anthropometric recovery and the normal values of albumin, a subclinical malnutrition was indicated by the depressed immune function, which was more noticeable in the HIV-positive group.

  2. Nutritional status and food insecurity in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gloria; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Pope, Janet; Hunt, Alice E; Connell, Carol L

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between nutrition status and food security of patients on hemodialysis (HD). A descriptive correlation study. This study consisted of HD patients undergoing treatment at three northeast Louisiana dialysis centers. Ninety-eight HD patients participated in the study. The mean age of subjects was 59.1 +/- 14.2 years. The sample was 44% white and 56% black; 49% male and 51% female. Multiple linear regression and chi2 analysis were used to assess relationships between demographics and food insecurity scores and Subjective Global Assessment scores. Race significantly predicted food insecurity (beta = 0.248; P = .019), with black patients being more food insecure than white subjects. A significant positive relationship was found between the level of education and Subjective Global Assessment scores (beta = 0.222; P = .037). In this sample, 16.3% of the subjects were found to be food insecure, and 64.3% of the patients were mildly to moderately malnourished, whereas another 13.3% were severely malnourished. Future research in this area should include food security questions related to the ability to obtain foods for health. Renal health care professionals should assess patients for possible food insecurity so that appropriate interventions can be implemented.

  3. Cerium negatively impacts the nutritional status in rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Pošćić, Filip; Schat, Henk; Marchiol, Luca

    2017-03-29

    Cerium (Ce) has been reported to be both beneficial and harmful to plants. This contradiction deserves explanation in the light of increased anthropogenic release of Ce in the environment. Ce tolerance and accumulation were evaluated in hydroponically cultivated Brassica napus L. (rapeseed). Ce and other nutrient concentrations were measured with increasing Ce concentration in the nutrient solution. Moreover, Ce and calcium (Ca) accumulation were evaluated at different Ca and Ce concentrations in nutrient solution and a Michaelis-Menten type inhibition model considering Ce and Ca competition was tested. Plants were also sprayed with Ce solution in Ca-deficient media. Ce decreased the growth and root function, which affected shoot nutritional status. Calcium was the most severely inhibited nutrient in both roots and shoots. High Ca concentrations in the nutrient solution inhibited Ce accumulation in a non-competitive way. Moreover, phosphorus (P) precipitated Ce inside root cells. Ce spraying did not alleviate Ca deficiency symptoms and the results were critically compared to the available literature.

  4. Does nutritional status interfere with adolescents' body image perception?

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Karla L; Sousa, Ana L L; Carneiro, Carolina S; Nascente, Flávia M N; Póvoa, Thaís I R; Souza, Weimar K S B; Jardim, Thiago S V; Jardim, Paulo C B V

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' body image (BI) may not match their nutritional status. This study selected representative sample of healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 18 from public and private schools. Anthropometric measures were performed in order to calculate the body mass index (BMI) percentile. The silhouette scale proposed by Childress was used to evaluate BI, making it possible to assess BI satisfaction and BI distortion. The sample was composed of 1168 adolescents with a mean age of 14.7 years; 52.9% were female, 50.9% were fair-skinned, 62.4% had consumed or still consume alcohol and 67% attended public school. Male adolescents presented more overweight and obesity (28.4%) (p<0.05) than the female (17.1%). It was observed that 69.4% were dissatisfied with BI, 91.1% of the obese and 69.8% of those with overweight wished to lose body weight and 82.5% of those underweight wished to gain body weight. BI distortion was identified, since 35% of the adolescents who were underweight did not regard themselves thin, 39.1% of the overweight individuals and 62.1% of the obese did not see themselves in their adequate classifications. Adolescents with overweight/obesity were those who presented higher dissatisfaction with BI, mainly the females. Male individuals presented a greater wish of gaining weight. BI distortion was present in adolescents of all classes of BMI percentile.

  5. The nutritional status of patients starting specialized predialysis care.

    PubMed

    Westland, Gjalt J; Grootendorst, Diana C; Halbesma, Nynke; Dekker, Friedo W; Verburgh, Cornelis A

    2015-05-01

    To examine the prevalence of and risk factors for malnutrition at the start of specialized predialysis care. The present analysis was performed on cross-sectional data collected at inclusion in the study. The study included 25 outpatient clinics delivering specialized predialysis care in the Netherlands. Three hundred seventy-six incident patients with advanced chronic kidney disease attending one of the participating outpatient clinics. Subjective global assessment (SGA) of nutritional status. At the start of specialized predialysis care, 11% of patients suffer from moderate protein-energy wasting as measured by SGA. Independent risk factors are age >75 years (Odds ratio [OR], 3.88 [1.74-8.66]), female gender (OR, 2.95 [1.37-6.32]), and having a body mass index <25 kg/m(2) (OR, 2.56 [1.19-5.49]). Estimated glomerular filtration rate was not significantly associated with SGA (OR, 1.63 [0.76-3.48]). Eleven percent of patients started on specialized predialysis care suffer from moderate protein-energy wasting; risk factors are age >75 years, female gender, and BMI <25 kg/m(2). Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of nutritional status among ESRD patients in Jordanian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, Reema F; Mrayyan, Majd T; Heath, Dennis D; Bawadi, Hiba A

    2008-05-01

    Our objective was to assess nutritional status and compare quality of treatment among hemodialysis patients in public and private hospitals in Jordan. We utilized a cross-sectional survey. Our setting involved hospital hemodialysis units. This study was undertaken in five large Jordanian hospitals between 2004 and 2005. One hundred and eighty participants diagnosed with end-stage renal failure (ESRD) were enrolled. These participants (91 women and 89 men) who underwent hemodialysis treatment were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Data from participants who received hemodialysis treatment in public hospital settings were compared with equivalent data from participants treated in private hospital settings. Subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometry, and biochemical measurements were used as evaluative tools. In the anthropometric measurement of triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), we found a statistically significant difference (P < .05) between participants treated in the two hospital settings. In addition, approximately 62% of all participants, regardless of treatment site, were found to be moderately to severely malnourished. Anthropom