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Sample records for early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes

  1. Caries in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Collin, H L; Uusitupa, M; Niskanen, L; Koivisto, A M; Markkanen, H; Meurman, J H

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of dental caries in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and to determine whether these factors are associated with metabolic control and vascular complications of the disease. Both the occurrence of caries, acidogenic oral bacteria, and yeasts and salivary flow were studied in 25 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus whose diagnosis had been set 13 to 14 years earlier and in whom the metabolic evolution of the disease was well established. The patients' glycemic control was determined by means of analysis of the blood hemoglobin A1C concentration at the time of dental examination. The control group consisted of 40 nondiabetic subjects in the same age group. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth indices and numbers of surfaces with caries, filled surfaces, and root caries were determined by means of clinical dental caries examination. Stimulated salivary flow was measured, and levels of Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli, and yeasts were analyzed. The median hemoglobin A1C concentration of the patients was 8.6%, which indicates poor metabolic control of diabetes. No association was found between the metabolic control of disease and dental caries. The occurrence of dental caries was not increased in the patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in comparison with the control subjects. The counts of acidogenic microbes and yeasts did not differ statistically significantly between the groups. There was no association of caries with the prevalence of coronary artery disease or hypertension in either the patients or the control subjects. In a stepwise logistic regression model, a salivary flow of at least 0.8 ml/min was related to the occurrence of dental caries in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, whereas negligence with respect to dental care was the most important risk predictor in the control group. Our results showed no effect

  2. Haida perspectives on living with non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Grams, G D; Herbert, C; Heffernan, C; Calam, B; Wilson, M A; Grzybowski, S; Brown, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand the experience of Haida people living with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), in order to provide a basis for a culturally sensitive community-based approach to managing NIDDM. DESIGN: Qualitative study using grounded theory. SETTING: The villages of Skidegate and Old Massett in Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: Nine focus groups met at the beginning and six at the end of the project. The focus groups had 8 to 12 members each and roughly the same number of men and women overall. The groups included people with diabetes, family members of people with diabetes, community leaders and elders. FINDINGS: Conceptual findings related to the participants' views on the impact of NIDDM on their lives, their views on what life was like before the effects of NIDDM were felt and their beliefs about the prevention and treatment of NIDDM. Six themes recurred in the discussions: fear; grief and loss; the loss of and desire to regain control; food and eating; physical and personal strength; and traditional ways. CONCLUSIONS: Insights into the illness experience of different cultural groups can inform program development and the creation of culturally sensitive health care interventions. PMID:8956833

  3. Management of obesity in non- insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cheah, J S

    1998-12-01

    Obesity is common in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients; in Singapore in a cohort of 314 diabetics, 44.3% were overweight. Management of obesity in diabetics differs from that in non-diabetics in that it is more urgent; weight maintenance is more difficult and hypoglycaemic medication may cause weight changes. However, like in the non-diabetic, management of obesity in the diabetic requires a pragmatic and realistic approach. A team approach is required: the help of a nurse educator, a dietitian, behaviour modification therapist, exercise therapist and others are required. A detailed history, careful physical examination and relevant investigations are required to assess the severity of the diabetic state and to exclude an occasional underlying cause of the obesity in the obese NIDDM patient. Weight loss is urgent in the obese NIDDM patient, especially for those with android obesity. There must be a reduction in energy intake. Weight loss leads to an improvement in glucose tolerance and in insulin sensitivity, as well as to a reduction in lipid levels and to a fall in blood pressure in the hypertensive. Exercise is of limited short-term value measured in terms of weight reduction, except in the younger obese NIDDM patient; but it does allow improvement in overall metabolic control and, long-term, is critical for preferred weight maintenance. The biguanide, Metformin, is the hypoglycaemic drug of choice as it leads to consistent weight reduction. The sulphonylureas may cause weight gain. Insulin should be avoided where possible as it causes further weight gain. Other hypoglycaemic agents include Glucobay (alpha-glucosidase inhibitor) and Troglitazone (insulin sensitizer) which do not alter the weight. Orlistat (lipase inhibitor) is promising as it causes reduction of weight, blood glucose and lipid levels. Anti-obesity drugs (noradrenergic and serotonergic agents) have modest effects on weight reduction in the obese NIDDM patient; a widely

  4. Food Purchase Decision-Making Typologies of Women with Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carla; Warland, Rex; Achterberg, Cheryl

    1997-01-01

    Food selection is a key factor in the nutritional management of diabetes. Criteria that influence point-of-purchase decision making in women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were identified. Four types of shoppers were distinguished from interviews; cluster analysis was used to confirm the analysis. Usefulness in patient education is…

  5. Memory dysfunction and autonomic neuropathy in non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Zaslavsky, L M; Gross, J L; Chaves, M L; Machado, R

    1995-11-01

    Considering the nervous system as a unit, it might be expected that diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy could have a central abnormality expressed as cognitive dysfunction. To determine whether autonomic neuropathy is independently associated with cognitive dysfunction, we studied a cross-section of 20 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy (14 males and six females; age (mean) = 60 + or - 1 years); 29 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients without autonomic neuropathy (14 males and 15 females; age = 59 + or - 1 years) and 34 non-diabetic patients (10 males and 24 females; age = 58 + or - 1 years), matched by age, education and duration of disease. Cognitive function was evaluated by tests of immediate, recent and remote memory: verbal (digit span; word span) and visual (recognition of towers and famous faces). Diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy scored (median) lower in visual memory tests than diabetic patients without autonomic neuropathy and controls (towers immediate = 5 versus 7 and 6; towers recent = 4 versus 6 and 6; faces = 16 versus 18 and 18; respectively; Kruskal-Wallis; P < 0.05). There was no difference in verbal memory performance (Kruskal-Wallis; P > 0.05). Entering age, education, duration of disease and fasting plasma glucose in a stepwise multiple regression, the performance in these tests remained associated with autonomic neuropathy (towers immediate, P = 0.0054, partial r2 = 0.166; towers recent, P = 0.0076, partial r2 = 0.163). Scores in visual tests correlated negatively with the number of abnormal cardiovascular tests (faces, r = -0.25; towers recent, r = -0.24; Spearman; P < 0.05). Decreased visual cognitive function in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients is associated with the presence and degree of autonomic neuropathy.

  6. Effects of fat on glucose uptake and utilization in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Boden, G; Chen, X

    1995-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to determine whether FFA inhibit insulin-stimulated whole body glucose uptake and utilization in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. We performed five types of isoglycemic (approximately 11mM) clamps: (a) with insulin; (b) with insulin plus fat/heparin; (c) with insulin plus glycerol; (d) with saline; (e) with saline plus fat/heparin and two types of euglycemic (approximately 5mM) clamps: (a) with insulin; (b) with insulin plus fat/heparin. During these studies, we determined rates of glucose uptake, glycolysis (both with 3[3H] glucose), glycogen synthesis (determined as glucose uptake minus glycolysis), carbohydrate oxidation (by indirect calorimetry) and nonoxidative glycolysis (determined as glycolysis minus carbohydrate oxidation). Fat/heparin infusion did not affect basal glucose uptake, but inhibited total stimulated (insulin stimulated plus basal) glucose uptake by 40-50% in isoglycemic and in euglycemic patients at plasma FFA concentration of approximately 950 and approximately 550 microM, respectively. In isoglycemic patients, the 40-50% inhibition of total stimulated glucose uptake was due to near complete inhibition of the insulin-stimulated part of glucose uptake. Proportional inhibition of glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and glycolysis suggested a major FFA-mediated defect involving glucose transport and/or phosphorylation. In summary, fat produced proportional inhibitions of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and of intracellular glucose utilization. We conclude, that physiologically elevated levels of FFa could potentially be responsible for a large part of the peripheral insulin resistance in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. PMID:7657800

  7. Effects of fat on glucose uptake and utilization in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Boden, G; Chen, X

    1995-09-01

    It was the aim of this study to determine whether FFA inhibit insulin-stimulated whole body glucose uptake and utilization in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. We performed five types of isoglycemic (approximately 11mM) clamps: (a) with insulin; (b) with insulin plus fat/heparin; (c) with insulin plus glycerol; (d) with saline; (e) with saline plus fat/heparin and two types of euglycemic (approximately 5mM) clamps: (a) with insulin; (b) with insulin plus fat/heparin. During these studies, we determined rates of glucose uptake, glycolysis (both with 3[3H] glucose), glycogen synthesis (determined as glucose uptake minus glycolysis), carbohydrate oxidation (by indirect calorimetry) and nonoxidative glycolysis (determined as glycolysis minus carbohydrate oxidation). Fat/heparin infusion did not affect basal glucose uptake, but inhibited total stimulated (insulin stimulated plus basal) glucose uptake by 40-50% in isoglycemic and in euglycemic patients at plasma FFA concentration of approximately 950 and approximately 550 microM, respectively. In isoglycemic patients, the 40-50% inhibition of total stimulated glucose uptake was due to near complete inhibition of the insulin-stimulated part of glucose uptake. Proportional inhibition of glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and glycolysis suggested a major FFA-mediated defect involving glucose transport and/or phosphorylation. In summary, fat produced proportional inhibitions of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and of intracellular glucose utilization. We conclude, that physiologically elevated levels of FFa could potentially be responsible for a large part of the peripheral insulin resistance in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  8. Glomerular filtration rate and kidney size in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wirta, O R; Pasternack, A I

    1995-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate glomerular filtration rate and kidney size in recently diagnosed and long-term type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects. The study design comprised of a population-based controlled cross-sectional survey of middle-aged type 2 diabetic subjects in the City of Tampere, Southwest Finland. One hundred and fifty consecutive recently diagnosed and 146 long-term middle-aged type 2 diabetic subjects with a disease duration of at least five years and one hundred and fifty age- and sex-matched (to recent diabetic subjects) non-diabetic control subjects were recruited. The glomerular filtration rate by single-shot 51Cr-EDTA clearance and kidney size by native X-ray tomography were measured. The glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2) was increased in both recently diagnosed (males 121 [27] and females 112 [27]) and long-term (males 123 [24] and females 102 [36]) diabetic subjects (corrected for age) compared to control subjects (males 111 [26] and females 93 [17]). The kidney areas (cm2) were greater in both recent diabetic (males 116.6 [15.4] and females 99.1 [15.3] and long-term diabetic (males 118.3 [15.8] and females 100.4 [15.2]) subjects than in the control group (males 104.3 [12.0] and females 88.6 [12.0]). All differences between diabetic subjects and non-diabetic subjects were statistically significant (p < 0.05), except that between long-term diabetic and non-diabetic females for glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.07). Analyzed by linear regression glomerular filtration rate was related to kidney area in all study groups and to hemoglobin A1c in long-term diabetic males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Effects of obesity surgery on non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Scott E; Greenway, Frank L; Klein, Stanley

    2002-10-01

    Most individuals who have non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are obese. The obese population has proved a frustrating entity regarding weight loss and diabetes control. Results of medical weight loss programs, medications, and behavior therapy have proved disappointing. Bariatric surgery is the most effective method of diabetes management and cure in the morbidly obese population. Surgical procedures to cause malabsorption provide a more dramatic effect on diabetes owing to the imparted bypass of the hormonally active foregut. Pertinent journal articles spanning the last 40 years, as well as textbooks. Bariatric surgical procedures have proven a much more successful method of weight loss and diabetes control in the obese population than conservative methods. These surgical procedures have proven safe with reported mortality rates of 0% to 1.5%. Bariatric operations may be divided based on the method of weight loss and effect on diabetes. The first category is restrictive and includes vertical banded gastroplasty and adjustable silicone gastric banding. These operations improve diabetes by decreasing food intake and body weight with a slowing of gastric emptying. The second category not only contains restrictive components but also elements of malabsorption. This category includes the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliary-pancreatic diversion, which bypass the foregut. Although all of the surgical procedures for obesity offer improved weight loss and diabetes control compared with conservative methods, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliary-pancreatic diversion offer superior weight loss and resolution of diabetes. The more dramatic effect seen in the surgical procedures to cause malabsorption is likely secondary to the bypass of the foregut resulting in increased weight loss and elevation of the enteroglucagon level.

  10. Long-term effects of guar gum in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Groop, P H; Aro, A; Stenman, S; Groop, L

    1993-10-01

    The effects of 15 g guar gum/d on glycemic control, lipids, and insulin secretion were studied in 15 (8 male, 7 female) diet-treated subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus for 48 wk. Mean age (+/- SD) was 60 +/- 2 y (range 45-70 y), body mass index (in kg/m2) 28.6 +/- 0.9 (range 21.6 +/- 39.2), and duration of diabetes 6 +/- 1 y (range 2-14 y). Guar gum was preceded and followed by 8-wk placebo periods. Guar gum improved long-term glycemic control, postprandial glucose tolerance and lipid concentrations. The C-peptide response to a test meal increased by time during guar gum treatment, whereas the insulin response remained unchanged. This indicates that insulin secretion is enhanced by guar gum as reflected by increased C-peptide. A decreased molar ratio of insulin to C-peptide suggests that guar gum may increase hepatic insulin extraction. In conclusion, guar gum has favorable long-term effects on glycemic control and lipid concentrations.

  11. Shifts in Doctor-Patient Communication during a Series of Outpatient Consultations in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dulmen, Alexandra M.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    1997-01-01

    The first three consultations between 18 new patients with poorly controlled non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and their medical specialist were videotaped. Changes in doctors' and patients' verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors were analyzed, and those most strongly related to patient satisfaction were distinguished. Discussion…

  12. Effects of glycemic control on saliva flow rates and protein composition in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dodds, M W; Dodds, A P

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether improvements in the level of diabetic control in a group of subjects with poorly controlled non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus influence salivary output and composition. Repeated whole unstimulated and stimulated parotid saliva samples were collected from diabetic patients attending an outpatient diabetes education program and a matched nondiabetic control group. Saliva was analyzed for flow rates, parotid protein concentration and composition, and amylase activity. Subjective responses to questions about salivary hypofunction were tested. There were no significant differences in whole unstimulated and stimulated parotid flow rates or stimulated parotid protein concentration and composition between diabetics and the control group. Amylase activity was higher in diabetics and decreased with improved glycemic control. Subjects reporting taste alterations had higher mean blood glucose levels than subjects with normal taste sensation. Poorly controlled non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus has no influence on saliva output, although amylase activity may be elevated, and there may be taste alterations.

  13. Laron Dwarfism and Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in the Hnf-1α Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ying-Hue; Sauer, Brian; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    1998-01-01

    Mice deficient in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF-1α) were produced by use of the Cre-loxP recombination system. HNF-1α-null mice are viable but sterile and exhibit a phenotype reminiscent of both Laron-type dwarfism and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In contrast to an earlier HNF-1α-null mouse line that had been produced by use of standard gene disruption methodology (M. Pontoglio, J. Barra, M. Hadchouel, A. Doyen, C. Kress, J. P. Bach, C. Babinet, and M. Yaniv, Cell 84:575–585, 1996), these mice exhibited no increased mortality and only minimal renal dysfunction during the first 6 months of development. Both dwarfism and NIDDM are most likely due to the loss of expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and lower levels of insulin, resulting in stunted growth and elevated serum glucose levels, respectively. These results confirm the functional significance of the HNF-1α regulatory elements that had previously been shown to reside in the promoter regions of both the IGF-I and the insulin genes. PMID:9566924

  14. Insulin secretion and insulin action in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: which defect is primary?

    PubMed

    Reaven, G M

    1984-01-01

    Defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action exist in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The loss of the acute plasma insulin response to intravenous glucose is seen in patients with relatively mild degrees of fasting hyperglycemia, but patients with severe fasting hyperglycemia also demonstrate absolute hypoinsulinemia in response to an oral glucose challenge. In contrast, day-long circulating insulin levels are within normal limits even in severely hyperglycemic patients with NIDDM. The relationship between NIDDM and insulin action in NIDDM is less complex, and is a characteristic feature of the syndrome. This metabolic defect is independent of obesity, and the severity of the resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increases with magnitude of hyperglycemia. Control of hyperglycemia with exogenous insulin ameliorates the degree of insulin resistance, and reduction of insulin resistance with weight loss in obese patients with NIDDM leads to an enhanced insulin response. Since neither therapeutic intervention is capable of restoring all metabolic abnormalities to normal, these observations do not tell us which of these two defects is primarily responsible for the development of NIDDM. Similarly, the observation that most patients with impaired glucose tolerance are hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant does not prove that insulin resistance is the primary defect in NIDDM. In conclusion, reduction in both insulin secretion and action is seen in patients with NIDDM, and the relationship between these two metabolic abnormalities is very complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Alterations in very low density lipoprotein subfractions in normotriglyceridemic non-insulin-dependent diabetics.

    PubMed

    Patti, L; Swinburn, B; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A; Howard, B V

    1991-11-01

    Lipid and apoprotein composition of four very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subfractions decreasing in Sf value were evaluated in the fasting state in 12 normolipidemic Pima Indians (6 M, 6 F, age 39 +/- 1.7 yrs) (mean +/- SEM) with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in poor glycemic control (HbA1 9.8 +/- 2.9%) and in 14 normoglycemic Pima controls matched for age, BMI and lipid values. Total cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride (TG), phospholipids (PL), total protein (TP), apo B, apo CII, apo CIII and apoE were assayed in total VLDL and in each of the four VLDL subfractions designed as A (Sf greater than 400), B (Sf 175-400), C (Sf 100-175), and D (Sf 20-100). Diabetics compared to nondiabetics had higher concentrations of all constituents of VLDL D, with the largest changes being in TG (38.0 +/- 3.8 vs 28.0 +/- 2.5 mg/dl, P less than 0.04), PL (14.0 +/- 1.3 vs 10.0 +/- 1.0 mg/dl, P less than 0.04), TP (9.8 +/- 0.8 vs 7.6 +/- 2.4 mg/dl, P less than 0.05), apo B (6.3 +/- 0.5 vs 4.7 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, P less than 0.03) and apoE (0.73 +/- 0.09 vs 0.52 +/- 0.04 mg/dl, P less than 0.04). Since no difference was found between the groups in percentage composition of lipids or apoproteins in total VLDL and in all VLDL subfractions, the data suggest that in diabetics, even when normolipidemic, there is an increase in the number rather than in the composition of the smallest VLDL subfraction (VLDL D), which are usually considered to be more atherogenic.

  16. Effect of chloroquine on insulin and glucose homoeostasis in normal subjects and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G D; Amos, T A; Mahler, R; Peters, T J

    1987-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C peptide concentrations were determined after an oral glucose load in normal subjects and in a group of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus before and during a short course of treatment with chloroquine. In the control group there was a small but significant reduction in fasting blood glucose concentration but overall glucose tolerance and hormone concentrations were unaffected. In contrast, the patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus showed a significant improvement in their glucose tolerance, which paralleled the severity of their diabetes. This response seems to reflect decreased degradation of insulin rather than increased pancreatic output. These observations suggest that treatment with chloroquine or suitable analogues may be a new approach to the management of diabetes. PMID:3103729

  17. The course of peripheral vascular disease in non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kreines, K; Johnson, E; Albrink, M; Knatterud, G L; Levin, M E; Lewitan, A; Newberry, W; Rose, F A

    1985-01-01

    The present report is an analysis of the course of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in 619 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) recruited within 1 yr of diagnosis and followed quarterly for up to 14 yr (X = 10.5 yr). At 13 yr duration, the actuarially determined cumulative risks for intermittent claudication (IC), nonpalpable dorsalis pedis pulse (NPUL), and arterial calcification (CALC) were, respectively, 37.9%, 34.5%, and 60.9% for men and 24.3%, 37.6%, and 32.2% for women. Major amputations (AMP) occurred in only 1.3% of the patients, equivalent to approximately one case per 1000 patients per year. The corresponding incidences of IC, NPUL, and CALC were, respectively, 29, 27, and 47 per 1000 men and 19, 27, and 25 per 1000 women per year. CALC and NPUL were strongly related to mortality. Baseline risk factors with probability levels that suggest a relationship to PVD were, in women, age versus CALC (P less than 0.01), age versus NPUL (P less than 0.05), weight versus NPUL (P less than 0.05), systolic BP versus CALC (P less than 0.01), summed glucose tolerance test versus CALC (P less than 0.01), and triglyceride level versus CALC (P less than 0.05). In men, the only significant risk factors were diminished vibration perception, which was related to NPUL (P less than 0.05), and the serum triglyceride level, which was related to IC (P less than 0.05). In patients who are carefully followed prospectively, IC is far more common, but AMP is far less common than has been generally appreciated. Further studies are needed to clarify the roles of the diverse risk factors that are possibly related.

  18. Clinical experience with repaglinide in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Menachem S; Abrams, Zvi; Lieberman, Nicky

    2005-02-01

    Repaglinide, a new insulin secretagogue, is purported to be as effective as sulphonylurea but is less hypoglycemic-prone. To assess the efficacy of repaglinide and its proclivity for hypoglycemia in a post-marketing study. The study group comprised 688 patients, aged 26-95 years, clinically diagnosed with non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. The patients were divided into three groups based on previous therapy: a) sulphonylurea-treated (group 1, n = 132); b) metformin with or without sulphonylurea where sulphonylurea was replaced with repaglinide (group 2, n = 302); and c) lifestyle modification alone (drug-naive) (group 3, n = 254). At initiation of the study, all patients were transferred from their current treatment to repaglinide. Only patients in group 2, with combined sulphonylurea plus metformin, continued with metformin plus repaglinide. Fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c and weight were measured at study entry and 4-8 weeks following repaglinide therapy. A questionnaire documented the number of meals daily and the presence of eating from fear of hypoglycemia. The fasting blood sugar level of the entire cohort dropped from 191 +/- 2.4 to 155 +/- 2.0 mg/dl (P < 0.0001); HbA1c from 8.8 +/- 0.1 to 7.7 +/- 0.1% (P < 0.0001). The drop of HbA1c in groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively were: 1.04 +/- 0.22% (P < 0.0001), 1.14 +/- 0.24% (P < 0.0001), and 1.51 +/- 0.31% (P = 0.0137). Weight dropped from 81 +/- 0.7 to 80.2 +/- 0.7 kg (P < 0.0001), and eating from fear of hypoglycemia from 157 to 97 (P < 0.001). The daily number of meals decreased from 2.9 +/- 0.4 to 2.4 +/- 0.4 (P < 0.001). No serious adverse reactions occurred during the study. Repaglinide is an effective oral hypoglycemic agent taken either as monotherapy or combination therapy. There is less eating to avoid hypoglycemia, fewer meals consumed, and weight loss.

  19. VEMP responses are not affected in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with or without polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Devrim; Gazioglu, Sibel; Arslan, Selcuk; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Boz, Cavit; Caylan, Refik

    2008-07-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic responses (VEMPs) are not affected in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients with or without polyneuropathy. To compare VEMP responses of NIDDM patients and healthy subjects. VEMP responses were collected from 25 NIDDM patients with polyneuropathy (PNP), 13 NIDDM patients without PNP and 21 healthy subjects using click stimulation. After excluding ears with hearing loss (HL) (worse than 25 dB) the VEMP responses (p13 and n21 latencies and amplitude) recorded in 105 dB stimulus intensity were compared. There was no statistically significant difference between groups. VEMP responses were found to be normal in NIDDM patients with or without PNP.

  20. Birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes: thrifty genotype, thrifty phenotype, or surviving small baby genotype?

    PubMed Central

    McCance, D. R.; Pettitt, D. J.; Hanson, R. L.; Jacobsson, L. T.; Knowler, W. C.; Bennett, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of diabetes in relation to birth weight in Pima Indians. DESIGN--Follow up study of infants born during 1940-72 who had undergone a glucose tolerance test at ages 20-39 years. SETTING--Gila River Indian community, Arizona. SUBJECTS--1179 American Indians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (plasma glucose concentration > or = 11.1 mmol/l two hours after ingestion of carbohydrate). RESULTS--The prevalence was greatest in those with the lowest and highest birth weights. The age adjusted prevalences for birth weights < 2500 g, 2500-4499 g, and > or = 4500 g were 30%, 17%, and 32%, respectively. When age, sex, body mass index, maternal diabetes during pregnancy, and birth year were controlled for, subjects with birth weights < 2500 g had a higher rate than those with weights 2500-4499 g (odds ratio 3.81; 95% confidence interval 1.70 to 8.52). The risk for subsequent diabetes among higher birthweight infants (> or = 4500 g) was associated with maternal diabetes during pregnancy. Most diabetes, however, occurred in subjects with intermediate birth weights (2500-4500 g). CONCLUSIONS--The relation of the prevalence of diabetes to birth weight in the Pima Indians is U shaped and is related to parental diabetes. Low birth weight is associated with non-insulin dependent diabetes. Given the high mortality of low birthweight infants selective survival in infancy of those genetically predisposed to insulin resistance and diabetes provides an explanation for the observed relation between low birth weight and diabetes and the high prevalence of diabetes in many populations. PMID:8173400

  1. Glucose and fat utilization during intravenous administration of glucose and lipid emulsion in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Pelikánová, T; Krausová, Z; Kohout, M; Válek, J; Basĕ, J

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of substrate competition in the insulin-resistant state, we measured glucose and lipid utilization in 10 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients during an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic (approximately 75 and approximately 1500 mU/L) clamp without and with the concomitant infusion of Intralipid (0.15 g triglycerides.kg-1 x h-1) and during Intralipid infusion only in combination with indirect calorimetry. We found that a lipid emulsion does not alter the metabolic clearance rates of glucose at insulinemias of approximately 75 mU/L (5.58 +/- 2.56 vs. 6.03 +/- 2.43 ml.kg-1 x min-1) and approximately 1500 mU/L (13.55 +/- 3.17 vs. 13.75 +/- 4.36 ml.kg-1 x min-1) and it does not change oxidative and nonoxidative glucose disposal rates. Insulin and glucose attenuate the Intralipid-induced increase in serum triglycerides, free fatty acids, and lipid oxidation. We conclude that, whereas Intralipid infused at a standard rate does not decrease glucose utilization under hyperinsulinemic conditions, its own removal from the plasma is enhanced by glucose and insulin in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  2. Glycoprotein changes in non-insulin dependent diabetic rats: effect of N-benzoyl-D-phenylalanine and metformin.

    PubMed

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Ashokkumar, Natarajan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of N-benzoyl-D-phenylalanine (NBDP) and metformin on neonatal streptozotocin (nSTZ) induced diabetes has been studied on plasma and tissue glycoproteins. In some pathological conditions, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, there is an abnormal glycosylation of acute phase serum proteins. As most serum proteins are produced in the liver, we have examined glycoprotein metabolism in diabetic condition. To induce non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) a single dose of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg body weight) was injected into two day old rats. After 10-12 weeks, rats weighing above 150 g were selected for NIDDM model. In these rat, blood glucose and plasma glycoproteins were significantly increased whereas plasma insulin was significantly decreased. There was a significant decrease in the level of sialic acid and elevated levels of hexose, hexosamine and fucose in tissues. Oral administration of NBDP and metformin to diabetic rats decreased blood glucose and plasma glycoproteins. Plasma insulin and tissue sialic acid were increased whereas tissue concentrations of hexose, hexosamine and fucose were near normal. Our study suggests that NBDP and metformin possess a significant beneficial effect on glycoproteins in addition to their antidiabetic effect.

  3. Hyperhomocysteinemia following a methionine load in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and macrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Munshi, M N; Stone, A; Fink, L; Fonseca, V

    1996-01-01

    In the setting of an outpatient diabetic clinic, we determined whether macrovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia (elevated plasma homocysteine [H(e)] concentrations) following a methionine load. Methionine-load tests were performed in 18 healthy controls, 11 diabetics without vascular disease (five insulin-dependent [IDDM] and six non-insulin-dependent [NIDDM]); and 17 diabetics with vascular disease (five IDDM and 12 NIDDM). All subjects were male, and there was no significant difference in mean age among the three groups. We measured plasma H(e) concentrations before and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after an oral methionine load. Hyperhomocysteinemia (peak plasma H(e) concentration > control mean +/- 2 SD) occurred with significantly greater frequency (seven of 18, 39%) in patients with NIDDM as compared with age-matched controls (7%), being more common in those with macrovascular disease (five of 12, 41%). The area under the curve (AUC) over 24 hours, reflecting the total period of exposure to H(e), was also elevated with greater frequency in patients with NIDDM and macrovascular disease (33%) as compared with controls (0%). We conclude that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with macrovascular disease in a significant proportion of patients with NIDDM. Further investigation of this association may determine whether hyperhomocysteinemia contributes to the increased frequency and accelerated clinical course of vascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  4. Management of obesity in NIDDM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).

    PubMed

    Cheah, J S

    1998-08-01

    Obesity is common in NIDDM; in a cohort of 314 diabetics in Singapore, 44.3% are overweight. Management of obesity in diabetics differs from that in non-diabetics in that it is more urgent; weight maintenance is more difficult and hypoglycaemic medication may cause weight changes. Like in the non-diabetic, management of obesity in diabetic requires a pragmatic and realistic approach. A team approach is required: the help of the nurse educator, the dietitian, behaviour modification therapist, exercise therapist etc are required. A detailed history, careful physical examination and relevant investigations are required to assess the severity of the diabetic state and to exclude an occasional underlying cause of the obesity in the obese NIDDM. Weight loss is urgent in the obese NIDDM, especially those with android obesity. There must be a reduction in caloric intake. Weight loss leads to improvement in the glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, reduction in lipid levels and fall in blood pressure in the hypertensive. Exercise is of limited value except in the younger obese NIDDM. Metformin is the hypoglycaemic drug of choice as it leads to consistent weight reduction. The sulphonylureas may cause weight gain. Insulin should be avoided where possible as it causes further weight gain. Other hypoglycaemic agents include Glucobay (alpha-glucosidase inhibitor) and Troglitazone (insulin sensitizer) which do not alter the weight. Orlistat (lipase inhibitor) is promising as it causes reduction of weight, blood-glucose and lipid levels. Anti-obesity drugs (noradrenergic and serotonergic agents) have modest effects on weight reduction in the obese NIDDM; a widely use preparation, Dexfenfluramine (Adifax) has been withdrawn because of side effects. Surgery such as gastric plication is the last resort in treating the morbidly obese NIDDM. The discovery of leptin in 1994 has led to intense research into energy homeostasis in obesity; hopefully this will lead to better treatment of

  5. Salivary alterations in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dodds, M W; Yeh, C K; Johnson, D A

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether saliva output and composition are altered in type 2 diabetes mellitus by comparison with a healthy, non-medicated control group, and also a group of hypertensives. From a community-dwelling cohort of Mexican American and European American subjects enrolled in the OH:SALSA oral aging study, we identified 233 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 227 with hypertension, and 240 healthy control subjects. We collected unstimulated whole (UW) and submandibular/ sublingual (US) saliva, as well as stimulated parotid (SP) and submandibular/ sublingual (SS) saliva. Flow rates were determined, yeast carriage was assayed in UW saliva, and SP and SS saliva samples were analyzed for protein composition. ELISA was used to determine concentrations of an array of specific protein components, with both antimicrobial and other activities. Both diabetic and hypertensive subjects had reduced output of both stimulated and unstimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva. 30% of the diabetic subjects had high oral yeast counts (> or =1000 cfu/mL) compared with 17% of the healthy subjects and 20% of the hypertensives. Significant increases in the concentrations of a number of the protein components were found in the diabetic subjects, specifically, SP lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and salivary peroxidase (SPO), as well as SS total protein, albumin, lactoferrin and secretory IgA. The pattern of decreased flow rates and increased protein concentrations were similar, but consistently greater in diabetics than hypertensives, suggesting that disease-specific mechanisms may be responsible. Diabetics may be more prone to oral dryness and infections than non-diabetics.

  6. Guar sprinkled on food: effect on glycaemic control, plasma lipids and gut hormones in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Fuessl, H S; Williams, G; Adrian, T E; Bloom, S R

    1987-01-01

    The effects of guar granules sprinkled over food on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were studied in a double-blind cross-over trial in 18 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (mean +/- SEM age 61.3 +/- 2.5 years). Five-gram guar granules (Guarem, Rybar Laboratories, Amersham, Bucks) were sprinkled over food at each main meal for 4 weeks, and during a 4-week placebo period (separated by a 2-week 'wash-out' period), 5 g wheat bran was taken in the same way. Diabetic treatment was not changed during the study. Mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1) concentration after treatment were significantly lower than after the placebo period (FPG 8.29 +/- 0.47 vs 8.78 +/- 0.53 mmol/l, p less than 0.05; HbA1: 8.70 +/- 0.39 vs 9.09 +/- 0.39%, p less than 0.05). There was a 50% reduction in the incremental area under the postprandial glycaemic curve when guar was eaten with a standardized test meal. Total plasma cholesterol decreased from 5.79 +/- 0.29 to 5.19 +/- 0.22 mmol/l (p less than 0.05) after the guar treatment period. Guar ingestion reduced postprandial insulin and enteroglucagon responses, the latter significantly so, but had no apparent effect on gastric inhibitory polypeptide, pancreatic glucagon, gastrin, and pancreatic polypeptide.

  7. Evaluation of Jump into Action: A Program to Reduce the Risk of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in School Children on the Texas-Mexico Border.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, J. David; Lira, Juanita; Kingery, Paul M.; Smith, D. W.; Lane, Dorothy; Goodway, Jackie

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated Jump into Action, a non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)-prevention program that encouraged students to eat well and exercise regularly to reduce NIDDM risks. Surveys of predominantly Hispanic fifth graders and their teachers at Texas-Mexico border schools indicated that the program increased NIDDM-prevention knowledge and…

  8. [Effect of autogenic training on glucose regulation and lipid status in non-insulin dependent diabetics].

    PubMed

    Kostić, N; Secen, S

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the benefits of autogenic training in patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 diabetics treated with oral antidiabetic agents were assigned to receive autogenic training. Treatment effects on GHb levels, glycemia, lipids and lipid peroxidases were evaluated after 12 weeks. Subjects demonstrated significant improvements of GHb level (8.94 +/- 2.21% vs. 7.9 +/- 2.395) (p < 0.005). Fasting glucose was significantly lower after treatment (11.6 +/- 6.1 mmol/l vs. 8.32 +/- 4.53 mmol/l) (p < 0.005). The serum level of HDL cholesterol was significantly higher after autogenic training (1.21 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.36 +/- 1.42) (p < 0.005). Cholesterol level was significantly lower after training (6.63 +/- 1.66 mmol/l vs. 6.10 +/- 1.12 mmol/l) (p < 0.05). Lipid peroxidase was significantly lower after treatment (4.05 +/- 0.58 vs. 3.69 +/- 1.26) (p < 0.005). Autogenic training in selected patients, especially those who are most responsive to stress would provide benefits for glucosE control and lipid metabolism that are not always achieved by conventional treatment.

  9. Food purchase decision-making typologies of women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Miller, C; Warland, R; Achterberg, C

    1997-03-01

    Food selection is a key factor in the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus. Since up to 80% of food purchase decisions are made at the supermarket, the purpose of this study was to identify the criteria which influence point-of-purchase decision-making in women with NIDDM aged 40-60 years. A qualitative approach with individual interviews and in-store observations was used. Analysis of the interviews identified four decision-making typologies based on the extent nutrition, price and family needs were emphasized. The four typologies included (1) the Overloaded Shopper, (2) the Budget Shopper, (3) the Nutrition Savvy Shopper, and (4) the Out-of-Touch Shopper. Cluster analysis confirmed the typologies for 71% of the sample. Educators should classify shoppers according to a typology to determine their clients' personal needs and interests. Then, educators can tailor the educational or counseling message to meet those specific needs.

  10. [Aldose reductase gene polymorphism and rate of appearance of retinopathy in non insulin dependent diabetics].

    PubMed

    Olmos, P; Acosta, A M; Schiaffino, R; Díaz, R; Alvarado, D; O'Brien, A; Muñoz, X; Arriagada, P; Claro, J C; Vega, R; Vollrath, V; Velasco, S; Emmerich, M; Maiz, A

    1999-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that polymorphisms associated to the aldose reductase gene could be related to early retinopathy in noninsulin dependent diabetics (NIDDM). There is also new interest on the genetic modulation of coagulation factors in relation to this complication. To look for a possible relationship between the rate of appearance of retinopathy and the genotype of (AC)n polymorphic marker associated to aldose reductase gene. A random sample of 27 NIDDM, aged 68.1 +/- 10.6 years, with a mean diabetes duration of 20.7 +/- 4.8 years and a mean glycosilated hemoglobin of 10.6 +/- 1.6%, was studied. The genotype of the (AC)n, polymorphic marker associated to the 5' end of the aldose reductase (ALR2) gene was determined by 32P-PCR plus sequenciation. Mutations of the factor XIII-A gene were studied by single stranded conformational polymorphism, sequenciation and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Four patients lacked the (AC)24 and had a higher rate of appearance of retinopathy than patients with the (AC)24 allele (0.0167 and 0.0907 score points per year respectively, p = 0.047). Both groups had similar glycosilated hemoglobin (11.7 +/- 0.2 and 10.5 +/- 1.6% respectively). Factor XIII gene mutations were not related to the rate of appearance of retinopathy. Our data suggest that the absence of the (AC)24 allele of the (AC)n polymorphic marker associated to the 5' end of the aldose reductase gene, is associated to a five fold reduction of retinopathy appearance rate.

  11. The effectiveness of group dietary counselling among non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients in resettlement scheme areas in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Talib, R; Ali, O; Arshad, F; Kadir, K A

    1997-06-01

    A study was undertaken in FELDA (Federal Land Development Authority) resettlement scheme areas in Pahang, Malaysia, to determine the effectiveness of group dietary counselling in motivating diabetic patients to achieve good dietary habits, and weight and diabetes control. Sixty-one non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group received six sessions of group dietary counselling over 5 months and the control group received mass media diabetes-educational program during the same period. The one hour group dietary counselling sessions discussed general knowledge of diabetes, food groups for meal planning, the importance of dietary fibre-rich foods, types of fat in food, exercise and weight control. The experimental group met monthly with a dietitian as a counsellor. Effectiveness was assessed by improvement in food choice, and decline in percentage glycated haemoglobin (total HbA1) or body mass index (BMI). Measurements were made at a baseline visit, every two months during the six month program, and six months afterwards. Patients in the experimental group improved their food choices, resulting in a healthier diet high in unrefined carbohydrates and dietary fibre rich foods, and low in fat. There were significant reductions of their percentage total HbA1 levels and BMI following the counselling sessions, which decreased further six months after the program compared with patients in the control group. Thus group dietary counselling is effective in motivating NIDDM patients to achieve better food choice, and related weight and glycaemic control in a Malaysian setting.

  12. Corneal backscatter in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Maroto, Ana M; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Esteve-Taboada, José J; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Cerviño, Aleja Ndro

    2017-06-01

    To compare central corneal backscatter obtained from Scheimpflug images between patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM and NIDDM, respectively) and healthy controls. Seven patients with IDDM (7 eyes), eleven patients with NIDDM (11 eyes), and sixteen healthy subjects (16 eyes) were included in this pilot study. Scheimpflug imaging system (Pentacam, Oculus Inc., Germany) was used to obtain optical sections of the cornea. Seven meridians were analyzed for each eye, oriented from 70° to 110°. Optical density values for the central 3-mm and 5-mm zones of the cornea were obtained by image analysis using external software. Corneal backscatter was significantly higher in the diabetic patients than in the controls for the central 3-mm (p=0.016) and 5-mm (p=0.014) zones. No significant differences in corneal backscatter were found between the IDDM and NIDDM groups for either zone (both p>0.05). In the NIDDM group, significant correlations were observed for both central zones between corneal backscatter and age (3 mm: r=0.604, p=0.025; 5 mm: r=0.614, p=0.022) and central corneal thickness (3 mm: r=0.641, p=0.017; 5 mm: r=0.671, p=0.012); this was not found in the IDDM group (p>0.05). The presence of diabetes showed a significant effect on central corneal backscatter (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.001). Diabetic patients showed higher values of corneal light backscatter than healthy subjects. Corneal optical density analysis may be a useful tool for monitoring and assessing the ocular changes caused by diabetes.

  13. Effect of partially depolymerized guar gum on acute metabolic variables in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gatenby, S J; Ellis, P R; Morgan, L M; Judd, P A

    1996-04-01

    Fourteen patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) attended the study centre on 4 mornings separated by at least 3 days, to receive in random order 75 g carbohydrate breakfast meals of control or guar breads with jam and butter. Guar gum flours of low, medium, and high molecular weight (MW) were incorporated into wheat bread rolls to provide 7.6 g guar per meal. Venous blood samples were taken via an indwelling cannula in a forearm vein at fasting and at eight postprandial times and then analysed for blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). Guar gum bread significantly reduced the postprandial rise in blood glucose, plasma insulin, and, except for bread containing low MW guar gum, plasma GIP levels compared to the control. Thus, the partial depolymerization of guar gum does not diminish its physiological activity. No reductions in postprandial plasma C-peptide levels were seen after any of the guar bread meals. This suggests that guar gum attenuates the insulin concentration in peripheral venous blood in patients with NIDDM by increasing the hepatic extraction of insulin.

  14. Multiple defects in muscle glycogen synthase activity contribute to reduced glycogen synthesis in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, A W; Gumbiner, B; Bulacan, F; Brechtel, G; Henry, R R

    1991-01-01

    To define the mechanisms of impaired muscle glycogen synthase and reduced glycogen formation in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), glycogen synthase activity was kinetically analyzed during the basal state and three glucose clamp studies (insulin approximately equal to 300, 700, and 33,400 pmol/liter) in eight matched nonobese NIDDM and eight control subjects. Muscle glycogen content was measured in the basal state and following clamps at insulin levels of 33,400 pmol/liter. NIDDM subjects had glucose uptake matched to controls in each clamp by raising serum glucose to 15-20 mmol/liter. The insulin concentration required to half-maximally activate glycogen synthase (ED50) was approximately fourfold greater for NIDDM than control subjects (1,004 +/- 264 vs. 257 +/- 110 pmol/liter, P less than 0.02) but the maximal insulin effect was similar. Total glycogen synthase activity was reduced approximately 38% and glycogen content was approximately 30% lower in NIDDM. A positive correlation was present between glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity (r = 0.51, P less than 0.01). In summary, defects in muscle glycogen synthase activity and reduced glycogen content are present in NIDDM. NIDDM subjects also have less total glycogen synthase activity consistent with reduced functional mass of the enzyme. These findings and the correlation between glycogen synthase activity and glycogen content support the theory that multiple defects in glycogen synthase activity combine to cause reduced glycogen formation in NIDDM. PMID:1899428

  15. Lipoprotein(a) concentrations in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and borderline hyperglycemia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Imperatore, G; Rivellese, A; Galasso, R; Celentano, E; Iovine, C; Ferrara, A; Riccardi, G; Vaccaro, O

    1995-10-01

    The objective of the study was to compare lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations in population-based samples of individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), borderline hyperglycemia, and normoglycemia. From 2,740 male Italian Telephone Company employees aged 40 to 59 years participating in a health screening, we selected all those with NIDDM (n = 100) plus a random sample of 950 nondiabetic individuals. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of at least 140 mg/dL or current use of hypoglycemic drugs. Among nondiabetic individuals, 854 were defined as normoglycemic (FPG < 115 mg/dL) and 95 were defined as borderline hyperglycemic (115 < FPG < 140 mg/dL). Lp(a) level was measured on frozen plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lp(a) concentrations were similar in people with NIDDM, borderline hyperglycemia, and normoglycemia: 11.2 +/- 14, 14.1 +/- 20, and 13.9 +/- 18 mg/dL, respectively (F = 1.03). Accordingly, the proportion of subjects with Lp(a) levels of at least 30 mg/dL was comparable in the three groups (12%, 15%, and 14%; chi 2 = 3.95, P = .41). Results were not confounded by differences in age, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio, plasma lipids, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and use of drugs. Furthermore, within the diabetic group Lp(a) levels were not significantly different for those on diet only versus those on oral agents (10.8 +/- 14.1 v 11.7 +/- 14.7, P = .7) or for people with FPG of at least 180 as compared with people with FPG less than 180 mg/dL (9.9 +/- 12.8 v 11.5 +/- 14.8, P = .5).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Significance of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in patients with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Serban, M; Tanaseanu, Cristina; Kosaka, T; Vidulescu, Cristina; Stoian, Irina; Marta, Daciana S; Tanaseanu, S; Moldoveanu, Elena

    2002-01-01

    Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) represents an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), being characterized by a continuous low-grade inflammation and endothelial activation state. Plasma platelet - activating factor - acetylhydrolases (PAF-AHs) are a subgroup of Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) family (also known as lipoprotein-associated phospholipases A(2)) that hydrolyze and inactivate the lipid mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF) and/or oxidized phospholipids. This enzyme is considered to play an important role in inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis. The present study aims to investigate the relations between the levels of PAF-AH activity and LDL-cholesterol / HDL-cholesterol (LDL-ch / HDL-ch) ratio in NIDDM patients as compared to controls. serum PAF-AH activity was measured in 50 patients with dyslipidemia, in 50 NIDDM patients and in 50 controls (normal lipid and glucose levels). Total cholesterol, LDL-ch, HDL-ch, triglyceride and blood glucose were determined in all subjects. All NIDDM patients display hiperlipidemia, with increased LDL-ch and triglyceride levels. There is a significant correlation between LDL-ch levels (especially LDL-ch / HDL-ch ratio) and PAF-AH activity in dyslipidemic and NIDDM patients. Diabetic and dyslipidemic patients have an increased plasma PAF-AH activity correlated with their LDL-ch levels and mainly with LDL-ch / HDL-ch ratio. Plasma PAF-AH high levels appear to be important as a risk marker for endothelial dysfunction in patients with NIDDM.

  17. Sympathetic skin response versus maximum motor and sensory conduction velocity to detect subclinical neuropathy in non-insulin-dependent diabetics.

    PubMed

    Caccia, M R; Dezuanni, E; Salvaggio, A; Osio, M; Bevilacqua, M; Norbiato, G; Mangoni, A

    1991-01-01

    Conventional motor (MCV) and sensory conduction velocity (SCV) of the ulnar (UN), peroneal (PN) and median nerves (MN) and the areas of sympathetic sudomotor response (SSR) recorded from the middle finger were measured on both sides in 20 normal and 20 non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDD) subjects. Conventional statistical tests (t test, linear correlation coefficient r) and discrimination analysis were applied to the above electrophysiological parameters. To evaluate the capability of the tests to separate NIDD diseased from normal nerves, the results were represented as generalized distances, i.e., difference between mean discriminant normalized combinations adjusted for intra-group variability. The r values were 0.92 (P less than 0.01) for the UN, 0.40 (P greater than 0.05) for the PN, and 0.86 (P less than 0.01) for the MN sensory action potential (SAP) amplitudes. No significant differences were found for normalized latencies. The r values of the SSR areas were 0.62 (P less than 0.01) at the right and 0.77 (P less than 0.01) at the left, homolaterally to the side of stimulation. SR and MCV generalized distances were 1.35 and 1.39, respectively. The discriminating power of SSR, MCV and SCV considered together was higher (2.40) than that of MCV and SCV (1.70). Since motor, sensory and autonomic alterations often did not coexist in NIDD, it was possible to find at least one type of involvement in most of the diabetic subjects.

  18. Risk factors for development of incipient and overt diabetic nephropathy in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: prospective, observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Gall, M. A.; Hougaard, P.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Parving, H. H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate putative risk factors for the development of incipient diabetic nephropathy (persistent microalbuminuria) and overt diabetic nephropathy (persistent macroalbuminuria) in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study of a cohort of white, non-insulin dependent diabetic patients followed for a median period of 5.8 years. SETTING: Outpatient clinic in tertiary referral centre. SUBJECTS: 191 patients aged under 66 years with non-insulin dependent diabetes and normoalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate < 30 mg/24 h) who attended the clinic during 1987. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incipient and overt diabetic nephropathy. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were lost to follow up. Thirty six of the 176 remaining developed persistent microalbuminuria (30-299 mg/24 h in two out of three consecutive 24 hour urine collections) and five developed persistent macroalbuminuria (> or = mg/24 h in two out of three consecutive collections) during follow up. The five year cumulative incidence of incipient diabetic nephropathy was 23% (95% confidence interval 17% to 30%). Cox's multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed the following risk factors for the development of incipient or overt diabetic nephropathy: increased baseline log urinary albumin excretion rate (relative risk 11.1 (3.4 to 35.9); P < 0.0001); male sex (2.6 (1.2 to 5.4); P < 0.02); presence of retinopathy (2.4 (1.3 to 4.7); P < 0.01); increased serum cholesterol concentration (1.4 (1.1 to 1.7); P < 0.01); haemoglobin A1c concentration (1.2 (1.0 to 1.4); P < 0.05); and age (1.07 (1.02 to 1.12); P < 0.01). Known duration of diabetes, body mass index, arterial blood pressure, serum creatinine concentration, pre-existing coronary heart disease, and history of smoking were not risk factors. CONCLUSION: Several potentially modifiable risk factors predict the development of incipient and overt diabetic nephropathy in normoalbuminuric patients with non-insulin

  19. Effects of exercise training on glucose control, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in hypertriglyceridemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lampman, R M; Schteingart, D E

    1991-06-01

    Exercise training has potential benefits for patients with hyperlipidemia and/or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In nondiabetic, nonobese subjects with hypertriglyceridemia, exercise training alone increased insulin sensitivity, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. These improvements did not occur when exercise training alone was given to similar patients with impaired glucose tolerance. In severely obese (X = 125 kg) subjects without diabetes melitus, a 600 calorie diet alone decreased glucose and insulin concentrations and improved glucose tolerance but did not increase insulin sensitivity. The addition of exercise training improved insulin sensitivity. Obese, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects on sulfonylurea therapy alone increased insulin levels but failed to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose levels. In contrast, the addition of exercise training to this medication resulted in improved insulin sensitivity and lowered glucose levels. We conclude that exercise training has major effects on lowering triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic subjects and can potentiate the effect of diet or drug therapy on glucose metabolism in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  20. [Nutritional and metabolic status and dietetic evaluation in institutionalized elderly patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Casimiro, C; García de Lorenzo, A; Usán, L

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate nutritional status and blood glucose level according to type of diet followed by elderly (> 65 years old) institutionalised patients with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). A data collection questionnaire was administered to the staff of 80 Spanish geriatric facilities participating in this one-day cross-sectional study. Data collected included: age, gender, history of previous glucose control, type of antidiabetic treatment, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), type of diet with patient's preference, nutritional status evaluation and biochemical parameters. Data from a total of 486 institutionalised elderly people (66.5% female) were collected with a mean +/- SD age of 80.8 +/- 7.5. Had a diabetic diet 93.3% of patients with no gender differences 55.7% were on oral antidiabetic treatment (53.9% females and 58.9% males, ns) and 24.7% on insulin therapy (24.5% females and 26.4% males, ns). Physical activity was presented in 86% of people with no gender differences. Exercise was practiced by people younger, 78.8 +/- 7.9 years, versus walking, 80.4 +/- 7.6 years or resting 82.1 +/- 7.3 years, p < 0.05. Both nutritional indexes, BMI and NRI, were equivalent in men and in women; 28.5 +/- 10.7 vs 28.1 +/- 7.6 and 103.5 +/- 12.9 vs 104.1 +/- 11.4, respectively. History glucose control was good in 68.8% of the sample with a trend towards significance between sexes (62.7% males, 71.7% females, p = 0.07) and significant differences according to type of diet; 70.7% diabetic versus 37.0% free diet, p = 0.0006). Eating behaviors (appetite and meal completeness) were similar in both males and females and in diabetic or free diet groups. Also, no differences were observed in patient preferences about diet according to type of diet (71% of diabetic patients always or almost always liked their food versus 82% of free diet patients) and either nutritional status (9.3% vs 15.6% in status I, 10.9% vs 12.5% in level II and 79.9% vs 71.9% in

  1. Six-minute walk test in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients living in Northwest Africa.

    PubMed

    Latiri, Imed; Elbey, Rihab; Hcini, Kamel; Zaoui, Afif; Charfeddine, Bessam; Maarouf, Mohamed Ridha; Tabka, Zouhair; Zbidi, Abdelkrim; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2012-01-01

    International recommendations of the exploration of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are focused on deficiency and not incapacity. (1) To estimate the incapacity of NIDDM patients through the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) data. (2) To determine their 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) influencing factors (3) To compare data of NIDDM patient group (PG; n = 100) with those of two control groups (CG): CG1 (n = 174, healthy nonobese and nonsmoker); CG2 (n = 55, obese nondiabetic free from comorbidities). The anthropometric, socioeconomic, clinical, metabolic, and 6MWT data of 100 NIDDM patients (45 females) were collected. Total sample means ± standard deviation of age, weight, and height were 54 ± 8 years, 81 ± 14 kg, and 1.64 ± 0.09 m. (1) Measured 6MWD (566 ± 81 m) was significantly lower than the theoretical 6MWD (90% ± 12%). The profile of the PG carrying the 6MWT, was as follows: 23% had an abnormal 6MWD; at the end of the 6MWT, 21% and 12% had, respectively, a low heart rate and a high dyspnea (>5/10), and 4% had desaturation during the walk. The estimated "cardiorespiratory and muscular chain" age (68 ± 16 years) was significantly higher than the chronological age. (2) The factors that significantly influenced the 6MWD (r(2) = 0.58) are included in the following equation: 6MWD (m) = -73.94 × gender (0, male; 1, female) - 3.25 × age (years) + 7.33 × leisure activity score - 35.57 × obesity (0, no; 1, yes) + 32.86 × socioeconomic level (0, low; 1, high) - 27.67 × cigarette use (0, no; 1, yes) + 8.89 × resting oxyhemoglobin saturation - 105.48. (3) Compared to the CGs, the PG had a significantly (P < 0.05) lower 6MWD (100%+9% and 100%+8%, respectively, for the CG1 and CG2). NIDDM seems to accelerate the decline of the submaximal aerobic capacity evaluated through the 6MWD.

  2. Influence of diazepam on blood glucose levels in nondiabetic and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects under dental treatment with local anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Schaira, Vanessa Rocha Lima; Ranali, José; Saad, Mário José Abdalla; de Oliveira, Patrícia Cristine; Ambrosano, Glaúcia Maria Bovi; Volpato, Maria Cristina

    2004-01-01

    The effect of diazepam on blood glucose concentration (BGC) was investigated in a double-blind cross-over study in 10 healthy and 10 non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects taking oral hypoglycemic drugs. In the first session, fasting blood samples were taken for blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin estimation and at 60, 80, 95, 125, and 155 minutes thereafter for glucose estimation. In another 2 sessions, a venous sample was taken immediately before premedication (5 mg diazepam or placebo randomly given during breakfast). One hour later a blood sample was taken, and the volunteers were submitted to periodontal treatment after injection of 1.8 mL of 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline. Venous blood samples were taken at 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after injection. The changes in BGC were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures; the means were compared using Tukey test (P = .05). Statistically significant differences in the BGC were observed between diabetic and nondiabetic groups (P = .00003). However, there were no significant differences among the sessions of the same group (P = .29). The results of this study show that a single dose of 5 mg diazepam before dental treatment does not influence BGC in nondiabetic and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. PMID:15106685

  3. Vasoconstrictor role of cyclooxygenase-1-mediated prostacyclin synthesis in non-insulin-dependent diabetic mice induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ningxia; Liu, Bin; Luo, Wenhong; Zhang, Yingzhan; Li, Hui; Li, Shasha; Zhou, Yingbi

    2014-08-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that in diabetic arteries, cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 mediates endothelial prostacyclin (PGI2) synthesis, which evokes vasoconstrictor activity under the pathological condition. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes was induced to C57BL/6 mice and those with COX-1 deficiency (COX-1(-/-) mice) using a high-fat diet in combination with streptozotocin injection. In vitro analyses were performed 3 mo after. Results showed that in diabetic aortas, the endothelial muscarinic receptor agonist ACh evoked an endothelium-dependent production of the PGI2 metabolite 6-keto-PGF1α, which was abolished in COX-1(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, COX-1 deficiency or COX-1 inhibition prevented vasoconstrictor activity in diabetic abdominal aortas, resulting in enhanced relaxation evoked by ACh. In a similar manner, COX-1 deficiency increased the relaxation evoked by ACh in nitric oxide synthase-inhibited diabetic renal arteries. Also, in diabetic abdominal aortas and/or renal arteries, both PGI2 and the COX substrate arachidonic acid evoked contractions similar to those of nondiabetic mice. However, the contraction to arachidonic acid, but not that to PGI2, was abolished in vessels from COX-1(-/-) mice. Moreover, we found that 3 mo after streptozotocin injection, systemic blood pressure increased in diabetic C57BL/6 mice but not in diabetic COX-1(-/-) mice. These results explicitly demonstrate that in the given arteries from non-insulin-dependent diabetic mice, COX-1 remains a major contributor to the endothelial PGI2 synthesis that evokes vasoconstrictor activity under the pathological condition. Also, our data suggest that COX-1 deficiency prevents or attenuates diabetic hypertension in mice, although this could be related to the loss of COX-1-mediated activities derived from both vascular and nonvascular tissues. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of dermatophyte strains causing tinea pedis and onychomycosis in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, D; Seçkin, D; Demirbilek, M

    2010-12-01

    The efficacy of antifungal treatment may be reduced and/or delayed in diabetic patients. To date, no study has investigated the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes in this patient group. We aimed to determine the dermatophyte species causing tinea pedis and onychomycosis, and in vitro susceptibility of these dermatophytes to terbinafine, itraconazole, and fluconazole in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We compared the findings in diabetic patients with those in non-diabetic individuals. One hundred patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 100 otherwise healthy controls clinically suspected with tinea pedis and/or onychomycosis were included. Skin scrapings and/or nail clippings were taken and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar, mycobiotic agar, and dermatophyte test medium. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests were carried out according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M-38P protocol with some modifications. Fifty-seven samples of 54 diabetics and 50 samples of 50 controls grew dermatophytes. In both groups, Trichophyton rubrum was the most common isolate. Mean MIC values of terbinafine, itraconazole, and fluconazole for all of the isolated dermatophyte strains were similar in two groups (P>0.05). The difference in mean MIC values of three antifungals for T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes between two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Dermatophyte types causing tinea pedis and onychomycosis, their frequency patterns, and in vitro activity of three antifungals against dermatophytes in diabetics are similar to the non-diabetics. Terbinafine is the most active agent in vitro in both groups. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Obstetrical outcomes in patients with early onset gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Simi; Dolin, Cara; Jadhav, Ashwin; Chervenak, Judith; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan; Monteagudo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize patients with early onset gestational diabetes and compare outcomes to patients diagnosed with standard gestational diabetes and pregestational diabetes. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with gestational or pregestational diabetes. All patients received a glucose challenge test at their first prenatal visit to diagnose early onset gestational diabetes and were recommended to have postpartum glucose tolerance tests to detect undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. Outcomes were compared between patients with early onset gestational diabetes and both standard gestational diabetes and pregestational diabetes with p < 0.05 was used for significance. Four hundred and twenty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. Nine percent of the patients with early onset gestational diabetes were found to have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes based on postpartum testing and 91% to have resolution in the postpartum period. No patient with early onset gestational diabetes and resolution in the postpartum period had abnormal screening for renal or ophthalmologic disease, but 5% had abnormal fetal echocardiograms. These patients were more likely to require pharmacotherapy for glycemic control than patients with standard gestational diabetes and less likely than patients with pregestational diabetes (55% versus 39% versus 81%). Most patients diagnosed with early onset gestational diabetes do not have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes but do have unique characteristics and obstetrical outcomes.

  6. Nutritional composition of Stevia rebaudiana, a sweet herb, and its hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect on patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ritu, Mathur; Nandini, Johri

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. India shelters the highest number of diabetics and is thus known as the 'Diabetes Capital of the World'. The chemical management of diabetes has side effects and hence the present study was undertaken to assess the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect of Stevia rebaudiana in patients with type 2 diabetes, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Its nutritional composition and use as a sweetener substitute were also assessed. Chemical analysis of dried Stevia leaf powder revealed it to be a nutritious herb with a good iron and fibre content. Intervention trials in diabetics revealed that it significantly lowered fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels. The serum triglycerides and VLDL-C levels were also significantly reduced. Hence it can be said that Stevia can safely be used as an anti-diabetic herb, as a sweetener substitute and may help to prevent cardiovascular diseases in patients with long-standing diabetes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. NMR studies of muscle glycogen synthesis in insulin-resistant offspring of parents with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus immediately after glycogen-depleting exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Price, T B; Perseghin, G; Duleba, A; Chen, W; Chase, J; Rothman, D L; Shulman, R G; Shulman, G I

    1996-01-01

    To examine the impact of insulin resistance on the insulin-dependent and insulin-independent portions of muscle glycogen synthesis during recovery from exercise, we studied eight young, lean, normoglycemic insulin-resistant (IR) offspring of individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and eight age-weight matched control (CON) subjects after plantar flexion exercise that lowered muscle glycogen to approximately 25% of resting concentration. After approximately 20 min of exercise, intramuscular glucose 6-phosphate and glycogen were simultaneously monitored with 31P and 13C NMR spectroscopies. The postexercise rate of glycogen resynthesis was nonlinear. Glycogen synthesis rates during the initial insulin independent portion (0-1 hr of recovery) were similar in the two groups (IR, 15.5 +/- 1.3 mM/hr and CON, 15.8 +/- 1.7 mM/hr); however, over the next 4 hr, insulin-dependent glycogen synthesis was significantly reduced in the IR group [IR, 0.1 +/- 0.5 mM/hr and CON, 2.9 +/- 0.2 mM/hr; (P < or = 0.001)]. After exercise there was an initial rise in glucose 6-phosphate concentrations that returned to baseline after the first hour of recovery in both groups. In summary, we found that following muscle glycogen-depleting exercise, IR offspring of parents with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had (i) normal rates of muscle glycogen synthesis during the insulin-independent phase of recovery from exercise and (ii) severely diminished rates of muscle glycogen synthesis during the subsequent recovery period (2-5 hr), which has previously been shown to be insulin-dependent in normal CON subjects. These data provide evidence that exercise and insulin stimulate muscle glycogen synthesis in humans by different mechanisms and that in the IR subjects the early response to stimulation by exercise is normal. PMID:8643574

  8. Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Regimen Adherence in Self-Care of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    effective in teaching patients about the technical aspects of diabetes management, it has not led to consistent or enduring behavior changes necessary...critical element in motivating patients to achieve glycemic goals and diabetes teaching programs have been shown to be cost-effective interventions...successful. Each member of the diabetes education team - the provider, the educator, the nutritionist , the pharmacist, etc. - must shift toward a

  9. A missense mutation in hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha, resulting in a reduced transactivation activity, in human late-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Hani, E H; Suaud, L; Boutin, P; Chèvre, J C; Durand, E; Philippi, A; Demenais, F; Vionnet, N; Furuta, H; Velho, G; Bell, G I; Laine, B; Froguel, P

    1998-01-01

    Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion and action. Recent studies have found mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha gene (HNF-4alpha) in families with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), an autosomal dominant form of diabetes characterized by early age at onset and a defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. During the course of our search for susceptibility genes contributing to the more common late-onset NIDDM forms, we observed nominal evidence for linkage between NIDDM and markers in the region of the HNF-4alpha/MODY1 locus in a subset of French families with NIDDM diagnosed before 45 yr of age. Thus, we screened these families for mutations in the HNF-4alpha gene. We found a missense mutation, resulting in a valine-to-isoleucine substitution at codon 393 in a single family. This mutation cosegregated with diabetes and impaired insulin secretion, and was not present in 119 control subjects. Expression studies showed that this conservative substitution is associated with a marked reduction of transactivation activity, a result consistent with this mutation contributing to the insulin secretory defect observed in this family. PMID:9449683

  10. [Glomerular filtration and renal volume in type II diabetes (non-insulin-dependent): study in normal and microalbuminuria patients].

    PubMed

    Signorini, A M; Tanganelli, I; Fondelli, C; Vattimo, A; Ferrari, F; Borgogni, P; Borgogni, L; Gragnoli, G

    1991-08-01

    In type 2 diabetes elevated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increased renal volume (RV), often accompanied to normo or microalbuminuria, were demonstrated. This condition is considered a pathogenetic factor for clinical nephropathy. As this topic is little studied in type 2 diabetes, we have investigated 73 type 2 diabetic patients (34 normo and 39 microalbuminuric), looking for a correlation between GFR, RV, hypertension, duration of diabetes and indexes of metabolic control. GFR was measured by a scintigraphy, after infusion of 99Tc-DTPA. Renal volume was determined by ultrasound scanning. Between the groups GFR and RV weren't different; elevated GFR was demonstrated in 3 patients; increased RV in 1 patient. In the hypertensive group GFR was lower than in normotensive group and in controls. Multivariate analysis in stepwise demonstrated that GFR presents a negative correlation to systolic blood pressure as in normo as in microalbuminuric patients. In the normotensive group GFR didn't correlate to the other variables. The present data suggest that in type 2 diabetes there is a little prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration and increased renal volume and that hypertension plays a role on GFR of hypertensive diabetic patients.

  11. Recent development of single preparations and fixed-dose combination tablets for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus : A comprehensive summary for antidiabetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianwen; Lian, He

    2016-06-01

    As a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder, type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM) has become a major threat to human health. Because of the heterogeneous and progressive disorders induced by insulin resistance and pancreatic b-cell dysfunction, the treatment of NIDDM is still challenging. Although antidiabetic drugs with different pharmacological mechanisms of action have been used clinically, different degrees of undesirable glucose control and the incidences of a variety of side effects, including hypoglycemia, cardiovascular complications and weight gain require the better treatment options. This article has overviewed the current literature about commercially available antidiabetic drugs with different pharmacological mechanisms of action in the treatment of NIDDM, and summarized the published data regarding the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of currently available single preparations and fixed-dose combinations, aiming to provide important information for the development and application of antidiabetic drugs in the future. The literature search from 1989 to 2015 was conducted by PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, American Diabetes Association, and U.S. FDA Drugs databases.

  12. Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations in the Self-Regulation of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Paul M.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    1989-01-01

    Findings from a study of 127 outpatients with noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus indicate that self-efficacy and outcome expectations are moderately strong predictors of self-care in the exercise regimen, but weaker predictors in the dietary and glucose testing areas. (IAH)

  13. Incidence of hypertension and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in a rapidly developing Caribbean community: the St James survey, Trinidad.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G J; Maude, G H; Beckles, G L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence rates of hypertension and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in relation to ethnicity and other characteristics in a rapidly developing community. DESIGN: Prospective surveillance of a total community for five years. SUBJECTS: Cohort of 2491 men and women aged 35 to 69 years (79% response), of African, Indian and "other' (mainly Afro-European) descent. RESULTS: During surveillance, secular increases occurred in fasting blood glucose concentrations in both sexes and in body mass index (BMI) in men, with apparent secular reductions in systolic blood pressure in both sexes. Incidence rates of hypertension did not differ significantly with ethnicity, ranging between 33 and 41 per 1000 person-years in men and between 27 and 32 per 1000 person-years in women. In men, the incidence of diabetes (per 1000 person-years) in Indians (24) was significantly higher than in Africans (13) and others (11). In women, the diabetic incidence was similar to that for men in Indians (23) and Africans (14), but in others was twice that in men (21). In both sexes, weight gain was an important risk factor for hypertension, whereas risk of diabetes increased with BMI at baseline. The increased risk of diabetes in Indians among men was independent of baseline BMI and blood glucose. CONCLUSION: Apart from the increased risk of diabetes in Indians, ethnicity had no significant influence on incidence rates of hypertension and diabetes in Trinidad. Secular increases in blood glucose in both sexes and in BMI in men probably contributed to the concurrent increase in mortality from coronary heart disease in this community. PMID:8944854

  14. Long term effects of guar gum on metabolic control, serum cholesterol and blood pressure levels in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Uusitupa, M; Tuomilehto, J; Karttunen, P; Wolf, E

    1984-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out in 17 Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, treated with diet therapy alone to study the effects of guar gum on metabolic control, serum lipids, and blood pressure levels. Thirteen of the patients had drug treatment for hypertension. Guar gum was taken with meals three times a day, and the dose was gradually increased to 21 g per day. A slight, but not significant improvement was found in the metabolic control of the patients after the guar gum treatment compared to the placebo. Serum total cholesterol was 11% (p greater than 0.01) lower after the guar gum but no significant differences were found in HDL-cholesterol or serum triglycerides during the guar gum treatment compared to the placebo. Diastolic blood pressure level was significantly lower during the guar gum treatment compared to placebo. No difference was observed in systolic blood pressure levels between the guar gum and placebo treatments. The reduction of diastolic blood pressure was independent of changes in fasting blood glucose level or body weight, but could in part be due to simultaneous reduction in serum cholesterol concentration. The changes associated with guar gum supplementation suggest a reduction in the risk for cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients.

  15. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses to various tropical fruits of equivalent carbohydrate content in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Roongpisuthipong, C; Banphotkasem, S; Komindr, S; Tanphaichitr, V

    1991-11-01

    The plasma glucose and insulin responses were determined in 10 NIDDM female patients following the ingestion of tropical fruit containing 25 g of carbohydrate. The five tropical fruits were pineapple, mango, banana, durian and rambutan. Blood was drawn at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min, respectively. The results showed that the glucose-response curves to mango and banana were significantly less than those to rambutan, durian and pineapple (P less than 0.05). Only the glucose area after mango ingestion was significantly less than the glucose areas of the other fruits (P less than 0.05). The insulin response curve and insulin area after durian ingestion was statistically greater than after ingestion of the others. We concluded that after mango ingestion, the glucose area was lower than it had been after rambutan, durian and pineapple ingestion and the insulin area was lower than that after durian ingestion of equivalent carbohydrate content in type 2 (NIDDM) diabetes.

  16. Strength training alters MCT1-protein expression and exercise-induced translocation in erythrocytes of men with non-insulin-dependent type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Opitz, David; Kreutz, Thorsten; Lenzen, Edward; Dillkofer, Benedict; Wahl, Patrick; Montiel-Garcia, Gracia; Graf, Christine; Bloch, Wilhelm; Brixius, Klara

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the cellular distribution of lactate transporter (MCT1) and its chaperone CD147 (using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting) in the erythrocytes of men with non-insulin-dependent type-2 diabetes (NIDDM, n = 11, 61 ± 8 years of age) under acute exercise (ergometer cycling test, World Health Organisation scheme) performed before and after a 3-month strength training program. Cytosolic MCT1 distribution and membraneous CD147 density did not change after acute exercise (ergometer). After the 3-month strength training, MCT1-density was increased and the reaction of MCT1 (but not that of CD147) towards acute exercise (ergometer) was altered. MCT1 localisation was shifted from the centre to the cellular membrane. This resulted in a decrease in the immunohistochemically measured cytosolic MCT1-density. We conclude that strength training alters the acute exercise reaction of MCT1 but not that of CD147 in erythrocytes in patients with NIDDM. This reaction may contribute to long-term normalisation and stabilisation of the regulation of lactate plasma concentration in NIDDM.

  17. Absence of guar efficacy in complex spaghetti meals on postprandial glucose and C-peptide levels in healthy control and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects.

    PubMed

    Sels, J P; De Bruin, H; Camps, M H; Postmes, T J; Menheere, P; Wolfenbuttel, B H; Kruseman, A C

    1992-01-01

    The effects of guar incorporated into a complex spaghetti meal on the glycaemic response in 11 healthy and 6 non-insulin dependent diabetic (NIDDM) subjects was studied. To this end, subjects consumed spaghetti made of either Triticum aestivum or Triticum durum wheat with or without 20 g% guar, as part of a complex meal containing 27% fat, 19% protein and 51% carbohydrate. In both the healthy as well as the NIDDM subjects the incremental integrated postprandial glucose and C-peptide responses after ingestion of a guar spaghetti meal were not different from the values found after a spaghetti meal without guar. In NIDDM subjects the incremental glucose and C-peptide levels were lower at 60 and 90 min and 90 and 150 min respectively after ingestion of guar aestivum spaghetti. Our negative results of effects of guar on postprandial glucose values may be explained by the presence of normal quantities of fat and protein in the meal and imply that addition of dietary fibre to a complex meal is not useful in the dietary management of NIDDM.

  18. Blood glucose and serum insulin responses to breakfast including guar gum and cooked or uncooked milk in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Uusitupa, M; Aro, A; Korhonen, T; Tuunainen, A; Sarlund, H; Penttilä, I

    1984-06-01

    The post-prandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses to test meals, each including 300 ml fat-free milk taken separately with the meal or premixed before cooking into the meal consisting of oatmeal porridge, were studied in 10 diet-treated Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects. The modifying effect of guar gum on the responses was also studied by supplementing both types of test meals with 5 g granulated guar gum taken at the beginning of the meal. The blood glucose response was higher after the meal which contained cooked milk than after the respective meal with milk taken separately. The guar gum supplementation attenuated the blood glucose response after the meals, but the effect was more pronounced after the meal containing cooked milk. Post-prandial serum insulin responses were similar after all test meals. The results suggest that cooking may facilitate the absorption of lactose from milk-containing foods, and that supplementation with guar gum may counteract this response.

  19. Gastric emptying in Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus before and after therapy readjustment: no influence of actual blood glucose concentration.

    PubMed

    Holzäpfel, A; Festa, A; Stacher-Janotta, G; Bergmann, H; Shnawa, N; Brannath, W; Schernthaner, G; Stacher, G

    1999-12-01

    Hyperglycaemia that is induced short-term slows gastric emptying in healthy subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. Little information is available on the impact of longer-lasting, naturally occurring blood glucose increases and their reduction to euglycaemic values. We studied the relation between gastric emptying and pre-prandial and postprandial blood glucose concentrations in patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and secondary failure to respond to oral hypoglycaemic treatment (a) before readjusting hypoglycaemic therapy and (b) 1 week thereafter. We studied 9 female and 1 male patient (age 60-78 years, BMI 21.9-32.5 kg/m2, diabetes duration 3-33 years, HbA1c 8.8-13.2%). Gastric emptying of a radiolabelled semisolid 1168 kJ meal was recorded scintigraphically. Blood glucose concentration pre-prandial and postprandial was considerably lower subsequent to than before therapy readjustment in all patients (fasting, 7.9 mmol/l+/-1.5 SD vs 11.7+/-1.7 mmol/l; 60 min postprandial, 11.7+/-2.0 vs 15.4+/-2.2 mmol/l). By contrast, gastric emptying was unchanged (residual radioactivity in stomach 50 min postprandial 65.7+/-14.1% vs 66.5+/-12.9%). There was no relation between emptying and either fasting blood glucose concentration or its postprandial increase. The data do not support a major impact of actual, longer-lasting, naturally occurring blood glucose concentrations upon the rate of gastric emptying in patients with Type II diabetes.

  20. Specific Intellectual Deficits in Children with Early Onset Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compares 27 children with early onset diabetes (EOD) with 24 children with late onset diabetes (LOD) and 30 sibling controls in performance on tests of intellectual functioning and school achievement. Results revealed that duration of illness, age of onset, and hypoglycemic convulsions significantly predicted spatial ability. (Author/RWB)

  1. Protein kinase C is increased in the liver of humans and rats with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: an alteration not due to hyperglycemia.

    PubMed Central

    Considine, R V; Nyce, M R; Allen, L E; Morales, L M; Triester, S; Serrano, J; Colberg, J; Lanza-Jacoby, S; Caro, J F

    1995-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that liver protein kinase C (PKC) is increased in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). To this end we examined the distribution of PKC isozymes in liver biopsies from obese individuals with and without NIDDM and in lean controls. PKC isozymes alpha, beta, epsilon and zeta were detected by immunoblotting in both the cytosol and membrane fractions. Isozymes gamma and delta were not detected. There was a significant increase in immunodetectable PKC-alpha (twofold), -epsilon (threefold), and -zeta (twofold) in the membrane fraction isolated from obese subjects with NIDDM compared with the lean controls. In obese subjects without NIDDM, the amount of membrane PKC isozymes was not different from the other two groups. We next sought an animal model where this observation could be studied further. The Zucker diabetic fatty rat offered such a model system. Immunodetectable membrane PKC-alpha, -beta, -epsilon, and -zeta were significantly increased when compared with both the lean and obese controls. The increase in immunodetectable PKC protein correlated with a 40% elevation in the activity of PKC at the membrane. Normalization of circulating glucose in the rat model by either insulin or phlorizin treatment did not result in a reduction in membrane PKC isozyme protein or kinase activity. Further, phlorizin treatment did not improve insulin receptor autophosphorylation nor did the treatment lower liver diacylglycerol. We conclude that liver PKC is increased in NIDDM, a change that is not secondary to hyperglycemia. It is possible that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of some component in the insulin signaling cascade contributes to the insulin resistance observed in NIDDM. Images PMID:7769136

  2. [Insulin resistance--a physiopathological condition with numerous sequelae: non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), android obesity, essential hypertension, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, O

    1992-05-11

    Recent research has demonstrated that reduced insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle (insulin resistance) and hyperinsulinism are common features in widespread diseases such as essential hypertension, android obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia (in the form of raised serum triglyceride and reduced serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) and arteriosclerosis. Simultaneously, investigations in a comprehensive group of healthy middle-aged men have revealed insulin resistance in one fourth. On the basis of these observations, a working hypothesis is suggested which postulates that genetic abnormalities in one or more of the candidate genes in the modes of action of insulin occur in a great proportion of the population. These may result in insulin resistance (primary genetic insulin resistance). Primary insulin resistance may be potentiated by a series of circumstances such as ageing, high-fat diet, lack of physical activity, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities or drugs (secondary insulin resistance). As a consequence of the reduced effect of insulin on muscle tissue, compensatory hyperinsulinism develops. Depending on the remaining vulnerability of the individual the hyperinsulinism is presumed to result in development of one or more phenotypes. For example if the beta-cells of the pancreas are unable to secrete sufficient insulin to compensate the insulin resistance on account of genetic defects, glucose intolerance will develop. In a similar manner, hyperinsulinism in insulin-resistant individuals who are predisposed to essential hypertension is presumed to reveal genetic defects in the blood pressure regulating mechanisms and thus contribute to development of the disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Early Onset Diabetes - Genetic And Hormonal Analysis In Pakistani Population.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Maryam; Kamran, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutation and hormonal imbalance is involved in the pathogenesis of early onset diabetes but data is lacking in Pakistani population. The study was planned to delineate the clinical presentation of early onset diabetes with possible hormonal and genetic etiological factors and aascertain the possible etiological role of insulin and glucagon in these patients either on oral hypoglycaemic or subcutaneous insulin therapy. Retrospective, analytical case control study with conventional sampling technique carried at Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine (CREAM) affiliated with the department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi from Dec 2006 to July 2011. Study included the patients (20-35 years of age) with early onset diabetes on oral hypoglycemic (n=240), insulin therapy (n=280), and compared with non-diabetic healthy controls (n=150). A fragment surrounding tRNALeu (UUR) gene was amplified by AmpliTaq from mtDNA which was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Then it was subjected to restriction endonucleases, ApaI for A3242G mutation and HaeIII for G3316A mutation detection. Plasma glucose, glycosylated Hb, osmolality, insulin and glucagon levels along with ABGs analysis was also done. Non diabetic controls comprised of 51% males and 49% females, diabetics on oral hypoglycemic 60% males and 40 % females and on insulin therapy 54% males and 46% females. Insulin dependent diabetics had statistically significant hyperglucagonemia, acidemia and bicarbonate deficit. MtDNA A3242G and G3316A mutations were not detected. relative hyperglucagonemia and acidemia in Insulin dependent diabetics was a potent threat leading to DKA. The absence of two mtDNA mutations in ND1 gene rules out the possibility of involvement of these mutations in early onset diabetes in Pakistani population.

  4. Effects of red wine, tannic acid, or ethanol on glucose tolerance in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients and on starch digestibility in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gin, H; Rigalleau, V; Caubet, O; Masquelier, J; Aubertin, J

    1999-09-01

    This study examines the effect of moderate intake of red wine, tannic acid, or ethanol during a meal in type 2 diabetic patients and the influence of tannic acid on the digestibility of starch by alpha-amylase. Thirty non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients aged 53 +/- 6 years were studied (in vivo study) 10 of whom received red wine (200 mL), 10 tannic acid (150 mg), and 10 ethanol (16 g) with their midday meal (600 calories, 65 g carbohydrate, 20 g lipid, and 34 g protein). All patients were tested on two occasions (water or placebo v wine, alcohol, or tannic acid). The influence of tannic acid (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg) on the digestibility of starch (100 mg) by alpha-amylase (100 U) was tested in vitro by sequential incubation at 37 degrees C (in vitro study). The maximum glucose excursion after lunch was 2.6 +/- 0.8 mmol/L at 90 minutes (T90) for water and 1.8 +/- 0.9 mmol/L at T90 for red wine taken with the meal. The values at T60 and T90 were significant (P < .01). Comparable results were obtained with tannic acid alone (nonalcoholic component of wine): the maximum glucose excursion after lunch was 2.76 +/- 0.9 mmol/L at T120 for placebo and 1.97 +/- 0.9 mmol/L at T90 for tannic acid (P < .01); no difference in glucose and insulin excursion was observed between water and ethanol. No interaction between tannic acid and starch was observed in the in vitro experiments, although after preincubation of alpha-amylase with tannic acid, digestion was slowed in a dose-dependent manner (6.1 +/- 1.1 minutes for 0.25 mg tannic acid and 13.1 +/- 1.59 minutes for 1 mg tannic acid). Drinking red wine with a meal did not increase blood glucose in NIDDM patients, and led to a slight decrease in some instances. The effect appeared to be mediated by the nonalcoholic compounds in wine such as tannic acid. Ethanol itself had no effect on plasma glucose or insulin levels.

  5. Prognostic value of high sensitivity C-reaction protein in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yiliang; Min, Min; Shen, Wei; Deng, Pei; Du, Qiupeng; Dong, Mingjie; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    High sensitivity C-reaction protein (hsCRP) has been used as a significant predictive factor of cardiovascular events in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). However, existing reports in regards to the significance of hsCRP in predicting the progression of hepatic complications in NIDDM patients are too sparse to deliver clear results. This study is aimed at investigating the prognostic value of hsCRP in NIDDM patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). 1128 NIDDM patients with a definite diagnosis of NAFLD were enrolled and followed for one year. The baseline body mass index (BMI), waist-hip circumference ratio (WHR), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), presence of hypertension, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum hsCRP, total cholesterol (Tch), fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerine (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were recorded to analyze the significance of hsCRP in predicting the short-term progression from NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). One year after baseline, 32% of the NAFLD patients suffered progression to NASH and the percentages of NASH were respectively 8.2%, 12.5%, 33.8% and 72.6% in 4 groups with quartered baseline serum level of hsCRP; there was significant difference among the 4 groups in percentage of NASH (P<0.001). With sex, age, WHR, BMI, hypertension, TG, TCH, HDL-C, LDL-C, FBG and HBsAg included, the calibrated regression model gave the OR values of 1.000, 1.669, 6.635 and 32.131 in in 4 quartered baseline serum levels of hsCRP. High serum level of hsCRP is an independent risk factor of short-term progression to NASH in patients with NIDDM and NAFLD. Those NIDDM patients with NAFLD that present with high serum level of hsCRP should be subjected to regular monitoring, lifestyle intervention and medication.

  6. Macronutrient Composition and Management of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM): A New Paradigm for Individualized Nutritional Therapy in Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Koloverou, Efi; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy constitutes an important lifestyle intervention in diabetes management. Several nutrition patterns have been effective in improving diabetes control, but there has been a debate about the optimal macronutrient composition in diabetes meal planning. For many years, the recommended diets for persons with and without diabetes were similar, i.e. heart-healthy and low in fat. For almost three decades, carbohydrates have been lauded, lipids demonized, and proteins considered of little importance. However, in the past few years, this concept has been questioned and reassessed. Modern nutritional recommendations for people with diabetes are headed towards individualization, but lack specific guidelines. Nutritional algorithms may help nutritionists in diabetes meal planning. This review aims to discuss: 1) the effects of the three major macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) on glucose levels, 2) current recommendations for macronutrient intake for people with diabetes, and 3) specific parameters that need to be taken into consideration when determining the macronutrient composition for a person with diabetes, for example body mass index, degree of insulin resistance, HbA1c value, and lipid profile (especially triglycerides and HDL cholesterol). These aspects are analyzed in the context of the results of recent studies, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Finally, we introduce an individualized nutritional concept that proposes carbohydrate over lipid restriction, substitution of SFAs with MUFAs and PUFAs, and adequate intake of dietary fiber, which are key factors in optimizing diabetes management.

  7. Macronutrient Composition and Management of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM): A New Paradigm for Individualized Nutritional Therapy in Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koloverou, Efi; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.

    2016-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy constitutes an important lifestyle intervention in diabetes management. Several nutrition patterns have been effective in improving diabetes control, but there has been a debate about the optimal macronutrient composition in diabetes meal planning. For many years, the recommended diets for persons with and without diabetes were similar, i.e. heart-healthy and low in fat. For almost three decades, carbohydrates have been lauded, lipids demonized, and proteins considered of little importance. However, in the past few years, this concept has been questioned and reassessed. Modern nutritional recommendations for people with diabetes are headed towards individualization, but lack specific guidelines. Nutritional algorithms may help nutritionists in diabetes meal planning. This review aims to discuss: 1) the effects of the three major macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) on glucose levels, 2) current recommendations for macronutrient intake for people with diabetes, and 3) specific parameters that need to be taken into consideration when determining the macronutrient composition for a person with diabetes, for example body mass index, degree of insulin resistance, HbA1c value, and lipid profile (especially triglycerides and HDL cholesterol). These aspects are analyzed in the context of the results of recent studies, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Finally, we introduce an individualized nutritional concept that proposes carbohydrate over lipid restriction, substitution of SFAs with MUFAs and PUFAs, and adequate intake of dietary fiber, which are key factors in optimizing diabetes management. PMID:27563693

  8. Verbal and Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in…

  9. Preliminary report: BGLIIA-BGLIIB haplotype of growth hormone cluster is associated with glucose intolerance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and with growth hormone deficit in growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Bottini, E; Lucarelli, P; Amante, A; Saccucci, P; Gloria-Bottini, F

    2002-01-01

    We studied 101 growth-retarded children from the population of Ancona (Italy). Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels at the end of insulin and clonidine tests were considered for classification of children into 3 categories according to severity of GH deficit: total deficit of GH (TD), partial deficit (PD, and familiar short stature (FSS; no deficit of GH). The BGLIIA*2/BGLIIB*1 haplotype of GH cluster that was previously found to be negatively associated with severe glucose intolerance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is negatively associated with GH deficit in growth-retarded children. The hypothesis that intrauterine growth retardation and glucose intolerance in adult life could be phenotypes of the same underlying genotype has been recently put forward. The present observation suggests that genes influencing both growth and glucose tolerance are encoded in the GH cluster. Copyright 2002 by W.B. Saunders Company

  10. [Comparison of HbA1c, fructosamine and the main metabolic parameters in a non-insulin-dependent diabetic population].

    PubMed

    Magnati, G; Arsenio, L; Baroni, M C; Bodria, P; Bossi, S; Delsignore, R; Ippolito, L; Mineo, F; Strata, A

    1990-01-01

    Our objective was the checking of clinical data obtainable from the assay of some parameters in NID diabetic individuals. To this end, we studied 133 patients--57 males and 76 females, average age 74.36 +/- 1.01 years, 72.6% of which were above 65 years of age. The control population was subdivided as follows: 50 subjects, 26 F and 24 M; average age 71.25 +/- 1.32 years, with normal glucidic tolerance as assessed by OGTT. Current glycemia, average glycemia, fructosamine, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were obviously much higher than normal in the individuals admitted to the study. A statistically significant correlation was found between average glycemia, glycosylated hemoglobin, LDL-cholesterol and blood triglycerides (p less than 0.05). No correlation was found between current glycemia, fructosamine and glycosylated hemoglobin. Similarly, serum fructosamine was unrelated to the parameters studied. In our study, fructosamine, glycosylated hemoglobin and current glycemia offered unrelatable data. Hence, in our opinion it is necessary to assay these three parameters contemporaneously for a reliable assessment of metabolic compensation.

  11. Effects of a gel forming dietary fiber, guar gum, on the absorption of glibenclamide and metabolic control and serum lipids in patients with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes.

    PubMed

    Uusitupa, M; Södervik, H; Silvasti, M; Karttunen, P

    1990-04-01

    Nine patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) treated with glibenclamide (3.5 mg b.i.d.) participated in this randomized double-blind placebo controlled crossover study to evaluate the effects of granulated guar gum (5 g t.i.d. with meals) on the absorption of glibenclamide and metabolic control and serum lipids. Each treatment period lasted for 4 weeks, and there was a wash-out period of one week between the treatments. The fasting blood glucose (10.5 +/- 3.4 mmol/l on guar gum vs 11.3 +/- 3.7 mmol/l on placebo, p less than 0.05) and serum total cholesterol (5.9 +/- 1.4 mmol/l on guar gum vs 6.6 +/- 1.6 mmol/l on placebo; p less than 0.05) levels were lower after the treatment with guar gum than placebo. No significant differences were observed in serum triglycerides or HDL cholesterol between guar gum and placebo treatments. The administration of guar gum together with glibenclamide did not change significantly the maximum concentration (223 +/- 196 ng/ml on guar gum vs 184 +/- 138 ng/ml on placebo; n = 7, NS) or area under the curve (AUC0-6) [729 +/- 813 (ng/ml) X h on guar gum vs 560 +/- 513 (ng/ml) X h on placebo; NS] of glibenclamide. The fasting serum glibenclamide concentrations were similar at the end of the 4-week treatment period with guar gum and placebo. In conclusion, guar gum improved the metabolic control and decreased serum lipids of patients with NIDDM. In addition, guar gum ingested with glibenclamide did not interfere with the absorption of glibenclamide.

  12. Early onset type 2 diabetes: risk factors, clinical impact and management

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Iskandar

    2014-01-01

    Early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly prevalent with a significant impact on the individual, healthcare service delivery and planning. The individuals are likely to be obese, lead a sedentary lifestyle, have a strong family history of T2DM, be of black and minority ethnic (BME) origin and come from a less affluent socioeconomic group. They have a heightened risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular complications, often at an earlier stage and with greater frequency than seen in type 1 diabetes. As such, early and aggressive risk factor management is warranted. Early onset T2DM is complex and impacts on service delivery with a need for multidisciplinary care of complications and comorbidities’, in addition to adequate educational and psychological support. This review on the impact of early onset T2DM provides the latest insights into this emerging epidemic. PMID:25364491

  13. Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: The Effects of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…

  14. Sensorineural hearing loss--a common finding in early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Garber, Israel; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Valdés, Samantha; Enríquez, Lorena; Lobato, Marlette; Osornio, Melannie; Escobedo, Ana Rosa; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Mehta, Roopa; Ramírez-Anguiano, Jacqueline; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and potential associations of hearing impairment in patients 30 to 50 years old with diabetes diagnosed before age 40 years-early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study cohorts consisted of 46 consecutive patients with early-onset T2DM and 47 age-matched control subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. All study subjects completed clinical, serologic, and auditory assessments. The patients with T2DM had a mean age of 42 ± 6 years and a mean disease duration of 11 ± 6 years. Microalbuminuria was present in 26.1%, proliferative retinopathy in 26.1%, and symptomatic peripheral neuropathy in 23.9%. The prevalence of unilateral or bilateral hearing loss was significantly higher in the patients with T2DM than in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (21.7% versus 6.4%, respectively; P = .01). Most cases of hearing loss were mild and involved high or acute tones. After multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, there was a significant association between hearing loss and hemoglobin A1c (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.81; P = .035). In the patients with T2DM, the lengthening of the brainstem response was not significantly increased; however, the wave morphologic features were abnormal and the reproducibility was poor in both ears in 11 patients (24%). Patients with early-onset T2DM and poor glycemic control have an increased prevalence of subclinical hearing loss and impaired auditory brainstem responses. Hearing impairment may be an underrecognized complication of diabetes.

  15. Early-Onset Central Diabetes Insipidus due to Compound Heterozygosity for AVP Mutations.

    PubMed

    Bourdet, Karine; Vallette, Sophie; Deladoëy, Johnny; Van Vliet, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Genetic cases of isolated central diabetes insipidus are rare, are mostly due to dominant AVP mutations and have a delayed onset of symptoms. Only 3 consanguineous pedigrees with a recessive form have been published. A boy with a negative family history presented polyuria and failure to thrive in the first months of life and was diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a normal posterior pituitary signal. A molecular genetic analysis of the AVP gene showed that he had inherited a previously reported mutation from his Lebanese father and a novel A>G transition in the splice acceptor site of intron 1 (IVS1-2A>G) from his French-Canadian mother. Replacement therapy resulted in the immediate disappearance of symptoms and in weight gain. The early polyuria in recessive central diabetes insipidus contrasts with the delayed presentation in patients with monoallelic AVP mutations. This diagnosis needs to be considered in infants with very early onset of polyuria-polydipsia and no brain malformation, even if there is no consanguinity and regardless of whether the posterior pituitary is visible or not on imaging. In addition to informing family counseling, making a molecular diagnosis eliminates the need for repeated imaging studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Academic skills in children with early-onset type 1 diabetes: the effects of diabetes-related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Päivi; Nuuja, Anja

    2012-05-01

    The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia,on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9 y 11 mo,SD 4 mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40 females, 52 males;mean age 9 y 9 mo,SD 3 mo). Children were included if T1DM had been diagnosed before the age of 5 years and if they were aged between 9 and 10 years at the time of study. Children were not included if their native language was not Finnish and if they had a diagnosed neurological disorder that affected their cognitive development. Among the T1DM group, 37 had and 26 had not experienced severe hypoglycaemia and 26 had avoided severe hypoglycaemia. Severe hypoglycaemia, diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA), and glycaemic control were used as T1DM-related factors. Task performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics was compared among the three groups, and the effects of the T1DM-related factors were analysed with general linear models. The groups with (p<0.001) and without (p=0.001) severe hypoglycaemia demonstrated a poorer performance than the comparison group in spelling, and the group without severe hypoglycaemia showed a poorer performance than the comparison group in mathematics (p=0.003).Severe hypoglycaemia, DKA, and recent glycaemic control were not associated with poorer skills,but poorer first-year glycaemic control was associated with poorer spelling (p=0.013). An early onset of T1DM can increase the risk of learning problems, independently of the history of severe hypoglycaemia or DKA. Poorer glycaemic control after the first year of T1DM is associated with a poorer acquisition of academic skills indicating the effect of the timing of metabolic aberrations on cognitive development.

  17. Direct Diabetes-Related Costs in Young Patients with Early-Onset, Long-Lasting Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Straßburger, Klaus; Flechtner-Mors, Marion; Hungele, Andreas; Beyer, Peter; Placzek, Kerstin; Hermann, Ulrich; Schumacher, Andrea; Freff, Markus; Stahl-Pehe, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate diabetes-related direct health care costs in pediatric patients with early-onset type 1 diabetes of long duration in Germany. Research Design and Methods Data of a population-based cohort of 1,473 subjects with type 1 diabetes onset at 0–4 years of age within the years 1993–1999 were included (mean age 13.9 (SD 2.2) years, mean diabetes duration 10.9 (SD 1.9) years, as of 31.12.2007). Diabetes-related health care services utilized in 2007 were derived from a nationwide prospective documentation system (DPV). Health care utilization was valued in monetary terms based on inpatient and outpatient medical fees and retail prices (perspective of statutory health insurance). Multiple regression models were applied to assess associations between direct diabetes-related health care costs per patient-year and demographic and clinical predictors. Results Mean direct diabetes-related health care costs per patient-year were €3,745 (inter-quartile range: 1,943–4,881). Costs for glucose self-monitoring were the main cost category (28.5%), followed by costs for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (25.0%), diabetes-related hospitalizations (22.1%) and insulin (18.4%). Female gender, pubertal age and poor glycemic control were associated with higher and migration background with lower total costs. Conclusions Main cost categories in patients with on average 11 years of diabetes duration were costs for glucose self-monitoring, insulin pump therapy, hospitalization and insulin. Optimization of glycemic control in particular in pubertal age through intensified care with improved diabetes education and tailored insulin regimen, can contribute to the reduction of direct diabetes-related costs in this patient group. PMID:23967077

  18. Screening and Treatment for Early-Onset Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Immanuel, Jincy; Simmons, David

    2017-10-02

    We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the current evidence for screening and treatment for early-onset gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the women with early GDM in the first trimester do not have evidence of hyperglycemia at 24-28 weeks' gestation. A high proportion (15-70%) of women with GDM can be detected early in pregnancy depending on the setting, criteria used and screening strategy. However, there remains no good evidence for any of the diagnostic criteria for early-onset GDM. In a meta-analysis of 13 cohort studies, perinatal mortality (relative risk (RR) 3.58 [1.91, 6.71]), neonatal hypoglycemia (RR 1.61 [1.02, 2.55]), and insulin use (RR 1.71 [1.45, 2.03]) were greater among early-onset GDM women compared to late-onset GDM women, despite treatment. Considering the high likelihood of benefit from treatment, there is an urgent need for randomized controlled trials that investigate any benefits and possible harms of treatment of early-onset GDM.

  19. Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) improves biomarkers of glycemic control in patients with non-insulin-dependent type II diabetes mellitus for up to 3 months following treatment.

    PubMed

    Sardina, Paloma D; Martin, Jeffrey S; Avery, Joseph C; Braith, Randy W

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential clinical benefits of EECP on glycemic parameters [fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial glucose (PPG120), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)] in patients with a clinical diagnosis of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirty subjects (60.7 ± 1.9 years) with T2DM were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to receive either 35 1-h sessions of EECP (n = 20) or time-matched control of standard care (n = 10). FPG, PPG120, and HbA1c were evaluated before and at 48 h, 2 weeks, 3 and 6 months following EECP treatment or time-matched control. EECP significantly decreased FPG (-14.6 and -12.0 %), PPG120 (-14.6 and -13.5 %), and HbA1c (-11.5 and -19.6 %) 48 h following EECP and 2 weeks following EECP, respectively. HbA1c remained significantly reduced at 3 months following EECP (-14.3 %). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-31.1 %) and whole-body composite insulin sensitivity index (+54.2 %) were significantly improved 48 h following EECP. Nitrite/nitrate (NO x ) was significantly increased 48 h following EECP (+48.4 %) and 2 weeks (+51.9 %) following EECP treatment. Our findings provide novel evidence that EECP improves glycemic control in patients with T2DM that persist for up to 3 months following treatment.

  20. Lost opportunities to prevent early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Judith A; McCloskey, Lois; Gebel, Christina M; Iverson, Ronald E; Lee-Parritz, Aviva

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes in the decade after delivery, but few women receive appropriately timed postpartum glucose testing (PPGT) or a referral to primary care (PC) for continued monitoring. This qualitative study was designed to identify barriers and facilitators to testing and referral from patient and providers' perspectives. We interviewed patients and clinicians in depth about knowledge, values, priorities, challenges, and recommendations for increasing PPGT rates and PC linkage. Interviews were coded with NVIVO data analysis software, and analyzed using an implementation science framework. Women reported motivation to address GDM for the health of the fetus. Most women did not anticipate future diabetes for themselves, and focused on delivery outcomes rather than future health risks. Patients sought and received reassurance from clinicians, and were unlikely to discuss early onset following GDM or preventive measures. PPGT barriers described by patients included provider not mentioning the test or setting it up, transportation difficulties, work responsibilities, fatigue, concerns about fasting while breastfeeding, and timing of the test after discharge from obstetrics, and no referral to PC for follow-up. Practitioners described limited communication among multiple care providers during pregnancy and delivery, systems issues, and separation of obstetrics from PC. Patients' barriers to PPGT included low motivation for self-care, structural obstacles, and competing priorities. Providers reported the need to balance risk with reassurance, and identified systems failures related to test timing, limitations of electronic medical record systems (EMR), lack of referrals to PC, and inadequate communication between specialties. Prevention of early onset has great potential for medical cost savings and improvements in quality of life.

  1. Lost opportunities to prevent early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Judith A; McCloskey, Lois; Gebel, Christina M; Iverson, Ronald E; Lee-Parritz, Aviva

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes in the decade after delivery, but few women receive appropriately timed postpartum glucose testing (PPGT) or a referral to primary care (PC) for continued monitoring. This qualitative study was designed to identify barriers and facilitators to testing and referral from patient and providers' perspectives. Methods We interviewed patients and clinicians in depth about knowledge, values, priorities, challenges, and recommendations for increasing PPGT rates and PC linkage. Interviews were coded with NVIVO data analysis software, and analyzed using an implementation science framework. Results Women reported motivation to address GDM for the health of the fetus. Most women did not anticipate future diabetes for themselves, and focused on delivery outcomes rather than future health risks. Patients sought and received reassurance from clinicians, and were unlikely to discuss early onset following GDM or preventive measures. PPGT barriers described by patients included provider not mentioning the test or setting it up, transportation difficulties, work responsibilities, fatigue, concerns about fasting while breastfeeding, and timing of the test after discharge from obstetrics, and no referral to PC for follow-up. Practitioners described limited communication among multiple care providers during pregnancy and delivery, systems issues, and separation of obstetrics from PC. Conclusions Patients' barriers to PPGT included low motivation for self-care, structural obstacles, and competing priorities. Providers reported the need to balance risk with reassurance, and identified systems failures related to test timing, limitations of electronic medical record systems (EMR), lack of referrals to PC, and inadequate communication between specialties. Prevention of early onset has great potential for medical cost savings and improvements in quality of life. PMID:27347422

  2. Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) decreases advanced glycation end products and proinflammatory cytokines in patients with non-insulin-dependent type II diabetes mellitus for up to 6 months following treatment.

    PubMed

    Sardina, Paloma D; Martin, Jeffrey S; Dzieza, Wojciech K; Braith, Randy W

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive, non-pharmacologic intervention proven to increase nitric oxide bioavailability in patients with coronary artery disease. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential clinical benefits of EECP on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations in patients with a clinical diagnosis of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirty subjects (60.7 ± 1.9 years) with T2DM were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to receive either 35 1-h sessions of EECP (n = 20) or time-matched standard care (n = 10). AGEs, receptors for AGEs (RAGEs), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecules-1 (sVCAM-1), and 8-iso-prostaglandin 2α (8-iso-PGF2α) were evaluated before and at 48 h, 2 weeks, 3, and 6 months following EECP treatment or time-matched control. EECP significantly decreased AGEs and RAGEs at all follow-up measurement time points. AGEs and RAGEs were decreased at 48 h (-75 and -16 %), 2 weeks (-87 and -28 %), 3 months (-89 and -29 %), and 6 months (-92 and -20 %) following EECP treatment, respectively. sVCAM-1 and 8-iso-PGF2α were significantly decreased at 48 h (-30 and -49 %) and 2 weeks (-22 and -27 %) following EECP, respectively. sVCAM-1 (-27 %) remained significantly reduced at 3 months following EECP. Nitrite/nitrate (NOx) was significantly increased at 48 h (+48.4 %) and 2 weeks (+51.9 %) following EECP treatment. Our findings provide novel evidence that EECP decreases AGE/RAGE concentrations, inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with T2DM that persist for up to 6 months following treatment.

  3. Hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 protects against early-onset diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Sai Varsha, M K N; Raman, Thiagarajan; Manikandan, R; Dhanasekaran, G

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin K is a potent regulator of vascular dynamics and prevents vascular calcification. Vitamin K is increasingly being recognized for its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Recently we demonstrated that vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg) protects against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and diabetic cataract. The aim of this study was to determine whether the hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could inhibit early-onset diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced rat kidney. Male Wistar rats were administered with 35 mg/kg STZ and after 3 days were treated with vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg, twice a week) for 3 months. Blood glucose was monitored once a month. At the end of the study, animals were sacrificed and kidney was dissected out and analysed for free radicals, antioxidants, aldose reductase, membrane ATPases, histopathology evaluation and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Urea, uric acid, creatinine, albumin and insulin levels were also estimated. Treatment of diabetic rats with vitamin K1 resulted in a decrease in blood glucose and prevented microalbuminuria. Vitamin K1 also reduced oxidative stress and protected renal physiology by modulating Ca(2+) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases. Vitamin K1 inhibited renal inflammation by reducing nuclear factor-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Interleukin-10 levels were increased in renal tissues, suggesting the ability of vitamin K1 to trigger antiinflammatory state. The hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could have an indirect effect by inhibiting early-onset diabetic nephropathy triggered by high blood glucose. Vitamin K1 could be an important nutrient based interventional strategy for early onset diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mutations of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) genes in Thais with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Plengvidhya, Nattachet; Boonyasrisawat, Watip; Chongjaroen, Nalinee; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Sriussadaporn, Sutin; Vannaseang, Sathit; Banchuin, Napatawn; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2009-06-01

    Six known genes responsible for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) were analysed to evaluate the prevalence of their mutations in Thai patients with MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes. Fifty-one unrelated probands with early-onset type 2 diabetes, 21 of them fitted into classic MODY criteria, were analysed for nucleotide variations in promoters, exons, and exon-intron boundaries of six known MODY genes, including HNF-4alpha, GCK, HNF-1alpha, IPF-1, HNF-1beta, and NeuroD1/beta2, by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method followed by direct DNA sequencing. Missense mutations or mutations located in regulatory region, which were absent in 130 chromosomes of non-diabetic controls, were classified as potentially pathogenic mutations. We found that mutations of the six known MODY genes account for a small proportion of classic MODY (19%) and early-onset type 2 diabetes (10%) in Thais. Five of these mutations are novel including GCK R327H, HNF-1alpha P475L, HNF-1alphaG554fsX556, NeuroD1-1972 G > A and NeuroD1 A322N. Mutations of IPF-1 and HNF-1beta were not identified in the studied probands. Mutations of the six known MODY genes may not be a major cause of MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes in Thais. Therefore, unidentified genes await discovery in a majority of Thai patients with MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes.

  5. Synergy of bone marrow transplantation and curcumin ensue protective effects at early onset of diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Arivazhagan, Arivarasan; Krishna, Soni; Yadav, Shivangi; Shah, Harshit Rajesh; Kumar, Pravir; Ambasta, Rashmi Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the early onset effects of diabetes on pro-angiogenic signaling pathway, total number of bone marrow cells, organs (pancreas and kidney) damage and the reversal effect of diabetes by combinatorial treatment of curcumin and bone marrow transplantation in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice. In the present study, Streptozotocin induced diabetic mice were transplanted with bone marrow cells (2 × 10(6) ) followed by the administration of curcumin (80 mg/kg bodyweight). Effect of diabetes on the different organs was studied by H&E, Western blotting and immunofluorescence using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), insulin, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 antibodies. The effect of diabetes results in the reduction of the total cell number and viability of the bone marrow cells, organ degeneration and lower VEGF/PECAM expression. However, transplantation with normal bone marrow cells significantly reduced the blood glucose levels (above normal range) and initiated the organ regeneration via the VEGF/PECAM mediated manner. Curcumin treatment further reduced the blood glucose level (near normal); and accelerated the organ regeneration, enhanced VEGF/PECAM expression and decreased caspase expression level in the organs. Curcumin also had a protective role against the glucotoxicity test performed on the bone marrow cells. This study suggests that bone marrow transplantation and curcumin administration is an effective treatment in reversing the early onset effects of diabetes via the VEGF/PECAM signaling pathway. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Identifying Early Onset of Hearing Loss in Young Adults With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Using High Frequency Audiometry.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, S S; Jaya, V; Moses, Anand; Muraleedharan, A

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder caused by hyperglycemia which leads to dysfunction of various organs. Hearing acuity is equally hindered by this disorder. Among individuals with DM audiological characteristics of DM type 1 are of great concern in the literature. This study aims at establishing high frequency audiometry (HFA) as a useful tool in identifying early onset of hearing loss in individuals with DM type 2. 20 non-diabetic participants and 20 individuals with DM type 2 in the age range of 20-40 years were considered for the study. Subjects in both groups underwent otoscopic examination, PTA at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 kHz and HFA at 9, 10, 11.2, 12.5, 14 and 16 kHz. Results revealed statistically significant difference in thresholds of both PTA and HFA at all frequencies across the group, but the mean threshold difference between the diabetic and non-diabetic group was marked in HFA than in PTA. In the diabetic subjects the thresholds of PTA was within 25 dBHL at all frequencies when compared to the thresholds of HFA. Individuals with DM type 2 showed bilateral symmetrical mild hearing loss in HFA and the hearing loss increased with ascending test frequencies from 9,000 to 16,000 Hz. Mild hearing loss in HFA is an indicator for early onset of hearing loss in DM type 2. Hence this present study emphasis the clinical utility of HFA in young adults with DM type 2.

  7. Chicken Embryos as a Potential New Model for Early Onset Type I Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liheng; Ko, Michael L.; Huang, Cathy Chia-Yu; Park, So-Young; Hong, Min-Pyo; Ko, Gladys Y.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness among the American working population. The purpose of this study is to establish a new diabetic animal model using a cone-dominant avian species to address the distorted color vision and altered cone pathway responses in prediabetic and early diabetic patients. Chicken embryos were injected with either streptozotocin (STZ), high concentration of glucose (high-glucose), or vehicle at embryonic day 11. Cataracts occurred in varying degrees in both STZ- and high glucose-induced diabetic chick embryos at E18. Streptozotocin-diabetic chicken embryos had decreased levels of blood insulin, glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT). In STZ-injected E20 embryos, the ERG amplitudes of both a- and b-waves were significantly decreased, the implicit time of the a-wave was delayed, while that of the b-wave was significantly increased. Photoreceptors cultured from STZ-injected E18 embryos had a significant decrease in L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC) currents, which was reflected in the decreased level of L-VGCCα1D subunit in the STZ-diabetic retinas. Through these independent lines of evidence, STZ-injection was able to induce pathological conditions in the chicken embryonic retina, and it is promising to use chickens as a potential new animal model for type I diabetes. PMID:25133191

  8. Early onset of type 2 diabetes among visible minority and immigrant populations in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2017-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects nearly over three million Canadians, including immigrants. The timing of the first onset of diabetes has been linked to several other severe diseases. Yet, there is a dearth of empirical studies that examine the timing of the first onset of diabetes among Canadians, in general, and among immigrants and ethnic minority populations within Canada, in particular. Applying event history techniques to the 2013 Canadian Community and Health Survey, we address this research void by examining factors that contribute to the first onset of diabetes among immigrant and visible minority populations in Canada (N = 8905). Given the gendered patterns in the epidemiology of diseases and the differences in risk factors for men and women, gender-specific models were estimated. Results showed that South Asian, Black and Filipino women developed diabetes earlier, compared to women from the UK. Similarly, South Asian, Chinese, Filipino, Black, South East Asian and Arab men developed diabetes earlier than men from the UK. A significant and important finding of this analysis was that the risks of developing diabetes vanished completely for Black and Filipino women, after accounting for lifestyle factors. For South Asian women, however, there was significant attenuation in their risks after accounting for lifestyle factors. The findings were strikingly different for immigrant men. Specifically, their risks of developing diabetes increased after accounting for lifestyle factors. These results suggest the development of gender-specific and lifestyle interventions, targeted at specific immigrant groups with increased risks of developing diabetes earlier in the life course.

  9. Associations between HbA1c and depressive symptoms in young adults with early-onset type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bächle, Christina; Lange, Karin; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Castillo, Katty; Holl, Reinhard W; Giani, Guido; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    This study sought to evaluate the associations between metabolic control and each DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fifth edition) symptom of depression among young women and men with early-onset long-duration type 1 diabetes. The data of 202 18-21-year-old patients with type 1 diabetes from a population-based, nationwide survey (40.1% male) with a mean age of 19.4 (standard deviation 0.9) years, a mean HbA1c level of 8.3% (1.6%) (i.e., 67 [17.5]mmol/mol), and a mean diabetes duration of 15.7 (1.0) years were included. The German version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depression symptoms. For each PHQ-9 depressive symptom, the mean HbA1c values of screening-positive and screening-negative patients were compared via t-test. The associations between HbA1c levels and depressive symptoms were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses and stepwise adjustments for individual, socioeconomic and health-related covariates. Exactly 43.0% and 33.3% of female and male participants reported at least one depressive symptom, and 5.0% and 2.5% met the DSM-5 criteria for major depressive syndrome. HbA1c levels increased with psychomotor agitation/retardation (women), overeating/poor appetite (men/women), lethargy (men), and sleep difficulty (men). Overeating/poor appetite, lethargy, and total PHQ-9 score (per score increase by one) were associated with increased HbA1c levels of 1.10, 0.96 and 0.09 units (%), respectively. The associations between depressive symptoms and HbA1c levels vary by symptom and sex. Differentiating the symptoms of depression and targeted interventions might help to improve metabolic outcomes in young adults with early-onset type 1 diabetes and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Replication of genome-wide association signals in Asian Indians with early-onset type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Manickam; Liju, Samuel; Saboo, Banshi; Sathyavani, Kumpatla; Viswanathan, Vijay; Pankratz, Nathan; Gross, Myron; Mohan, Viswanathan; Radha, Venkatesan

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the association of 87 genetic variants previously associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in genome-wide association studies of populations of European ancestry in an Asian Indian population with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (EOT2DM). The study groups comprised of 877 type 2 diabetes individuals, 436 individuals with EOT2DM (age at diagnosis below 35 years), 441 individuals with older T2DM (diagnosis at 35 years or greater) and controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 400 younger than 35 years; n = 438 older than 35 years). The participants were genotyped for 87 SNPs from 44 genes and 27 intergenic loci. Associations were tested using logistic regression. All the variants in TCF7L2 and CDKN2A/2B showed study-wide significance (p < 1.4 × 10 -4 ) with T2DM, but only rs7903146, rs12243326, rs12255372 of TCF7L2 and rs7020996 of CDKN2A/2B showed study-wide significance (p < 1.4 × 10 -4 ) with EOT2DM in this population. In addition, an intergenic SNP on chromosome 1 (rs10493685) was also shown to be study-wide significant (p = 7.1 × 10 -6 ). Several additional SNPs previously associated with T2DM reached borderline significance in this study, but may have been limited by relatively low sample numbers. Various other SNPs of T2DM were not associated with EOT2DM. Some of the variants in TCF7L2 and CDKN2A/2B associated with T2DM are associated with EOT2DM as well. An intergenic SNP on chromosome 1p31 showed association only with early-onset T2DM in this Asian Indian population. The lack of association with many other SNPs of T2DM may be a reflection of the lack of power of the study, sample size, differences in the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms in different ethnic groups, effect sizes, as well as ancestral differences in pattern of LD between the genetic variants involved in early- and late-onset T2DM.

  11. Early-onset type 2 diabetes impairs skeletal acquisition in the male TALLYHO/JngJ mouse.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M J; Van Vliet, M; Motyl, K; Karim, L; Brooks, D J; Louis, L; Conlon, C; Rosen, C J; Bouxsein, M L

    2014-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence in adolescents is rising and may interfere with peak bone mass acquisition. We tested the effects of early-onset T2D on bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength in the TALLYHO/JngJ mouse, which develops T2D by 8 weeks of age. We assessed metabolism and skeletal acquisition in male TALLYHO/JngJ and SWR/J controls (n = 8-10/group) from 4 weeks to 8 and 17 weeks of age. Tallyho mice were obese; had an approximately 2-fold higher leptin and percentage body fat; and had lower bone mineral density vs SWR at all time points (P < .03 for all). Tallyho had severe deficits in distal femur trabecular bone volume fraction (-54%), trabecular number (-27%), and connectivity density (-82%) (P < .01 for all). Bone formation was higher in Tallyho mice at 8 weeks but lower by 17 weeks of age vs SWR despite similar numbers of osteoblasts. Bone marrow adiposity was 7- to 50-fold higher in Tallyho vs SWR. In vitro, primary bone marrow stromal cell differentiation into osteoblast and adipocyte lineages was similar in SWR and Tallyho, suggesting skeletal deficits were not due to intrinsic defects in Tallyho bone-forming cells. These data suggest the Tallyho mouse might be a useful model to study the skeletal effects of adolescent T2D.

  12. Early-onset and classical forms of type 2 diabetes show impaired expression of genes involved in muscle branched-chain amino acids metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Díaz-Ramos, Angels; Berdasco, María; Cobb, Jeff; Planet, Evarist; Cooper, Diane; Pazderska, Agnieszka; Wanic, Krzystof; O'Hanlon, Declan; Gomez, Antonio; de la Ballina, Laura R; Esteller, Manel; Palacin, Manuel; O'Gorman, Donal J; Nolan, John J; Zorzano, Antonio

    2017-10-23

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathophysiological traits of type 2 diabetes are incompletely understood. Here we have performed transcriptomic analysis in skeletal muscle, and plasma metabolomics from subjects with classical and early-onset forms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Focused studies were also performed in tissues from ob/ob and db/db mice. We document that T2D, both early and late onset, are characterized by reduced muscle expression of genes involved in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) metabolism. Weighted Co-expression Networks Analysis provided support to idea that the BCAA genes are relevant in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and that mitochondrial BCAA management is impaired in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. In diabetic mice model we detected alterations in skeletal muscle proteins involved in BCAA metabolism but not in obese mice. Metabolomic analysis revealed increased levels of branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), and BCAA in plasma of T2D patients, which may result from the disruption of muscle BCAA management. Our data support the view that inhibition of genes involved in BCAA handling in skeletal muscle takes place as part of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and this occurs both in early-onset and in classical type 2 diabetes.

  13. Serum Bicarbonate and Kidney Disease Progression and Cardiovascular Outcome in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy: A Post Hoc Analysis of the RENAAL (Reduction of End Points in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes With the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan) Study and IDNT (Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial).

    PubMed

    Schutte, Elise; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Lutgers, Helen L; Bakker, Stephan J L; Vart, Priya; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Umanath, Kausik; Lewis, Julia B; de Zeeuw, Dick; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2015-09-01

    Low serum bicarbonate level has been reported to be an independent predictor of kidney function decline and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Mechanisms underlying low serum bicarbonate levels may differ in patients with and without diabetes. We aimed to specifically investigate the association of serum bicarbonate level with kidney disease progression and cardiovascular outcome in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Post hoc analysis of 2 multicenter randomized controlled trials. 2,628 adults with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Serum bicarbonate level. Incidence of: (1) end-stage renal disease (ESRD), (2) ESRD or doubling of serum creatinine level, (3) all-cause mortality, (4) cardiovascular events (fatal/nonfatal stroke/myocardial infarction), and (5) heart failure. Serum bicarbonate was measured at baseline as total carbon dioxide. Associations of baseline serum bicarbonate level with end points were investigated using Cox regression models. Serum bicarbonate levels were studied as a continuous variable and stratified in quartiles. Follow-up was 2.8±1.0 (SD) years. Cox regression analyses showed that serum bicarbonate level had inverse associations with incident ESRD (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.89-0.93; P<0.001) and incidence of the combined end point of ESRD or serum creatinine doubling (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.96; P<0.001). These associations were independent of age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors, but disappeared after adjustment for baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (all P>0.05). Analysis of bicarbonate quartiles showed similar results for the quartile with the lowest bicarbonate (≤21 mEq/L) versus the quartile with normal bicarbonate levels (24-26 mEq/L). There was no association of bicarbonate level with cardiovascular events and heart failure. Post hoc analysis and single measurement of serum bicarbonate. In this cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes with nephropathy, serum bicarbonate level

  14. Genetic basis of early-onset, MODY-like diabetes in Japan and features of patients without mutations in the major MODY genes: dominance of maternal inheritance.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Tohru; Higuchi, Shinji; Kawakita, Rie; Hosokawa, Yuki; Aoyama, Takane; Murakami, Akiko; Kawae, Yoshiko; Hatake, Kazue; Nagasaka, Hironori; Tamagawa, Nobuyoshi

    2018-06-21

    Causative mutations cannot be identified in the majority of Asian patients with suspected maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). To elucidate the genetic basis of Japanese patients with MODY-like diabetes and gain insight into the etiology of patients without mutations in the major MODY genes. 263 Japanese patients with early-onset, nonobese, MODY-like diabetes mellitus referred to Osaka City General Hospital for diagnosis. Mutational analysis of the four major MODY genes (GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A, HNF1B) by Sanger sequencing. Mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients were further analyzed for clinical features. Mutations were identified in 103 (39.2%) patients; 57 mutations in GCK; 29, HNF1A; 7, HNF4A; and 10, HNF1B. Contrary to conventional diagnostic criteria, 18.4% of mutation-positive patients did not have affected parents and 8.2% were in the overweight range (BMI >85 th percentile). HOMA-IR at diagnosis was elevated (>2) in 15 of 66 (22.7%) mutation-positive patients. Compared with mutation-positive patients, mutation-negative patients were significantly older (p = 0.003), and had higher BMI percentile at diagnosis (p = 0.0006). Interestingly, maternal inheritance of diabetes was significantly more common in mutation-negative patients (p = 0.0332) and these patients had significantly higher BMI percentile as compared with mutation-negative patients with paternal inheritance (p = 0.0106). Contrary to the conventional diagnostic criteria, de novo diabetes, overweight, and insulin-resistance are common in Japanese patients with mutation-positive MODY. A significant fraction of mutation-negative patients had features of early-onset type 2 diabetes common in Japanese, and non-Mendelian inheritance needs to be considered for these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. The clinical characteristics of patients with mitochondrial tRNA Leu(UUR)m.3243A > G mutation: Compared with type 1 diabetes and early onset type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Yang, Peng; Liu, Xiang; Yan, Li; Rampersad, Sharvan; Li, Feng; Li, Hong; Sheng, Chunjun; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Manna; Qu, Shen

    2017-08-01

    This study presents nine patients with mitochondrial tRNA Leu (UUR) m.3243A>G mutation and compares the clinical characteristics and diabetes complications with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) or early onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The study covers 9 patients with MIDD, 33 patients with T1DM and 86 patients (age of onset ≤35years) with early onset T2DM, matched for sex, age at onset of diabetes, duration of diabetes. All patients with MIDD were confirmed as carrying the m.3243A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation. Serum HbA1c, beta-cell function, retinal and renal complications of diabetes, bone metabolic markers, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD bone mineral density were compared to characterize the clinical features of all patients. Nine patients were from five unrelated families, and the mean (SD) onset age of those patients was 31.2±7.2year. Two patients required insulin at presentation, and six patients progressed to insulin requirement after a mean of 7.2years. β-Cell function in the MIDD group was intermediate between T1DM and early-onset T2DM. In MIDD, four patients were diagnosed as diabetic retinopathy (4/9) and five patients (5/9) had macroalbuminuria. The number of patients with diabetic retinopathy and macroalbuminuria in the MIDD group was comparable to T1DM or early-onset T2DM. The rate of osteoporosis (BMD T-score<-2.5 SD) in the patient with MIDD was higher than the T1DM or early-onset T2DM group. Our study indicates that of the nine subjects with MIDD, three patients (1-II-1, 1-II-3, 1-II-4) who came from the same family had a history of acute pancreatitis. Compared with T1DM or early-onset T2DM matched for sex, age, duration of diabetes, MIDD patients had the highest rate of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deletion of mitochondrial DNA in a case of early-onset diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness (Wolfram syndrome, MIM 222300).

    PubMed Central

    Rötig, A; Cormier, V; Chatelain, P; Francois, R; Saudubray, J M; Rustin, P; Munnich, A

    1993-01-01

    The Wolfram syndrome (MIM 222300) is a disease of unknown origin consisting of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness. Here we report on a generalized deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities in skeletal muscle and lymphocyte homogenate of a girl suffering from the Wolfram syndrome. In addition, we provide evidence for a 7.6-kilobase pair heteroplasmic deletion (spanning nucleotides 6465-14135) of the mitochondrial DNA in the two tissues and show that directly repeated sequences (11 bp) were present in the wild-type mitochondrial genome at the boundaries of the deletion. Neither of the patient's parents was found to bear rearranged molecules. This study supports the view that a respiratory chain defect can present with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as the onset symptom. It also suggests that a defect of oxidative phosphorylation should be considered when investigating other cases of Wolfram syndrome, especially because this syndrome fulfills the criteria for a genetic defect of the mitochondrial energy supply: (a) an unexplained association of symptoms (b) with early onset and rapidly progressive course, (c) involving seemingly unrelated organs and tissues. Images PMID:8383698

  17. Early-onset central diabetes insipidus is associated with de novo arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II or Wolfram syndrome 1 gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Silverio; Di Iorgi, Natascia; Ragione, Fulvio Della; Scianguetta, Saverio; Borriello, Adriana; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Ferraro, Marcella; Santoro, Claudia; Napoli, Flavia; Calcagno, Annalisa; Giaccardi, Marta; Cappa, Marco; Salerno, Maria Carolina; Cozzolino, Domenico; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2015-04-01

    Idiopathic early-onset central diabetes insipidus (CDI) might be due to mutations of arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII (AVP)) or wolframin (WFS1) genes. Sequencing of AVP and WFS1 genes was performed in nine children with CDI, aged between 9 and 68 months, and negative family history for polyuria and polydipsia. Two patients carried a mutation in the AVP gene: a heterozygous G-to-T transition at nucleotide position 322 of exon 2 (c.322G>T) resulting in a stop codon at position 108 (p.Glu108X), and a novel deletion from nucleotide 52 to 54 (c.52_54delTCC) producing a deletion of a serine at position 18 (p.Ser18del) of the AVP pre-prohormone signal peptide. A third patient carried two heterozygous mutations in the WFS1 gene localized on different alleles. The first change was A-to-G transition at nucleotide 997 in exon 8 (c.997A>G), resulting in a valine residue at position 333 in place of isoleucine (p.Ile333Val). The second novel mutation was a 3 bp insertion in exon 8, c.2392_2393insACG causing the addition of an aspartate residue at position 797 and the maintenance of the correct open reading frame (p. Asp797_Val798insAsp). While similar WFS1 protein levels were detected in fibroblasts from healthy subjects and from the patient and his parents, a major sensitivity to staurosporine-induced apoptosis was observed in the patient fibroblasts as well as in patients with Wolfram syndrome. Early-onset CDI is associated with de novo mutations of the AVP gene and with hereditary WFS1 gene changes. These findings have valuable implications for management and genetic counseling. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control

    PubMed Central

    Bächle, Christina; Lange, Karin; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Castillo, Katty; Scheuing, Nicole; Holl, Reinhard W.; Giani, Guido; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Background This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control. Methods In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c. Results A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation) was 5.3 (4.4) among women and 3.9 (3.6) among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001). However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006). Conclusions Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes. PMID:26121155

  19. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control.

    PubMed

    Bächle, Christina; Lange, Karin; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Castillo, Katty; Scheuing, Nicole; Holl, Reinhard W; Giani, Guido; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control. In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c. A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation) was 5.3 (4.4) among women and 3.9 (3.6) among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001). However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006). Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  20. Polymorphism of Glucokinase Gene in Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog-Yoon; Choi, Jung-Hee; Woo, Jeong-Taek; Paeng, Jeong-Ryung; Yang, In-Myung; Kim, Sung-Woon; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young-Seol; Kim, Kwang-Won; Choi, Young-Kil

    1994-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a strong genetic component to NIDDM. To clarify the role of glucokinase gene in the development of NIDDM, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of glucokinase gene and 3′ microsatellite polymorphism analyses by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) were performed in NIDDM and control subjects. Compared to NIDDM with 1.3 kb allele/Pvu I digestion of glucokinase, 10% of NIDDM did not demonstrate 1.3 kb allele and these patients were charcterized by increased insulin secretion. In 3′ microsatellite polymorphism analysis, autoradiography of PCR products revealed three different alleles, including Z, Z+2 and Z+4. Z was the most common allele in both NIDDM and nondiabetic controls. There was no significant allele associated with NIDDM. Frequency of the homozygote Z/Z genotype was significantly lower in NIDDM subjects (16.7%) compared to normal control (46.7%) (p<0.05). There was no difference in clinical findings according to 3′ microsatellite genotypes in NIDDM. These data suggest that there does not appear to be a significant glucokinase allele associated with NIDDM but Z/Z genotype may play a suppressive role in the pathogenesis of a certain type of NIDDM in Korea. Further studies may be required to identify the molecular basis of this association. PMID:7913622

  1. Ethnic differences in association of high body mass index with early onset of Type 1 diabetes - Arab ethnicity as case study.

    PubMed

    Channanath, Arshad M; Elkum, Naser; Al-Abdulrazzaq, Dalia; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Shaltout, Azza; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse

    2017-01-01

    The "accelerator hypothesis" predicts early onset of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in heavier children. Studies testing direction of correlation between body mass index (BMI) and age at onset of T1D in different continental populations have reported differing results-inverse, direct, and neutral. Evaluating the correlation in diverse ethnic populations is required to generalize the accelerator hypothesis. The study cohort comprised 474 Kuwaiti children of Arab ethnicity diagnosed with T1D at age 6 to 18 years during 2011-2013. Age- and sex-adjusted BMI z-scores were calculated by comparing the BMI measured at diagnosis with Kuwaiti pediatric population reference data recorded during comparable time-period. Multiple linear regression and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. BMI z-score was seen inversely associated with onset age (r,-0.28; p-value<0.001). Children with BMI z-score>0 (i.e. BMI >national average) showed a stronger correlation (r,-0.38; p-value<0.001) than those with BMI z-score<0 (r,-0.19; p-value<0.001); the former group showed significantly lower mean onset age than the latter group (9.6±2.4 versus 10.5±2.7; p-value<0.001). Observed inverse correlation was consistent with that seen in Anglo-saxon, central european, caucasian, and white children while inconsistent with that seen in Indian, New Zealander, and Australian children. The accelerator hypothesis generalizes in Arab pediatric population from Kuwait.

  2. The E23K and A190A variations of the KCNJ11 gene are associated with early-onset type 2 diabetes and blood pressure in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Langen; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Weijing; Li, Ming; Yu, Ming; Lu, Ming; Zhang, Rong; Ge, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Taishan; Li, Can; Yin, Jun; Yin, Jingyuan; Bao, Yuqian; Liu, Limei; Jia, Weiping; Liu, Yanjun

    2015-06-01

    Conflicting associations between define (KCNJ11) variations and susceptibility to late-onset (>40 years old) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been reported in different ethnic groups. We investigated whether the E23K (G→A, rs5219) or A190A (C→T, rs5218) variations in KCNJ11 are associated with early-onset T2DM and blood pressure in the Chinese population. Case-control study of 175 unrelated Chinese patients with early-onset T2DM (age of onset <40 years old) who receive (ins+, n = 57) or do not receive insulin (ins-, n = 118), and 182 non-diabetic control subjects. PCR-direct sequencing was performed to genotype E23K and A190A; the genotypic frequencies and associations with clinical characteristics were analyzed. The genotypic frequencies of E23K-GA+AA were higher and A190A-TT was lower in the early-onset T2DM group, especially the T2D-ins+ group, compared to the non-diabetic control group (p < 0.01 or 0.05, respectively). In non-diabetic subjects, E23K-AA carriers had significantly higher 2 h plasma glucose and lower 2 h insulin than E23K-GG carriers (both p < 0.05). A190A-TT or E23K-GG carriers had higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) than CC or AA carriers in the non-diabetic control and T2DM groups (both p < 0.05). In the T2DM ins+ group, E23K-AA carriers had lower onset age and duration of diabetes and higher BMI than GG carriers, and A190A-TT carriers had higher SBP than CC carriers (all p < 0.05). The E23K-GA or AA genotypes may increase the susceptibility to early-onset T2DM, while A190A-TT may protect against early-onset T2DM. On the other hand the A190A-TT or E23K-GG genotypes may increase the risk of hypertension in the Chinese population.

  3. Exposure to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Impact on the Development of Early-Onset Type 2 Diabetes in Canadian First Nations and Non-First Nations Offspring.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Elizabeth A C; Dean, Heather J; Shafer, Leigh Anne; Martens, Patricia J; Phillips-Beck, Wanda; Heaman, Maureen; Prior, Heather J; Dart, Allison B; McGavock, Jonathan; Morris, Margaret; Torshizi, Ali A; Ludwig, Sora; Shen, Garry X

    2016-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing in children worldwide, with Canadian First Nations (FN) children disproportionally affected. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) also is increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of GDM exposure in utero and FN status on the subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes in offspring in the first 30 years of life. In this population-based historical prospective cohort study, we used administrative databases linked to a clinical database to explore the independent association and interaction between GDM and FN status on the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes in offspring. Among 321,008 births with a median follow-up of 15.1 years, both maternal GDM and FN status were independently associated with subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes in offspring in the first 30 years of life (hazard ratio 3.03 [95% CI 2.44-3.76; P < 0.0001] vs. 4.86 [95% CI 4.08-5.79; P < 0.0001], respectively). No interaction between GDM and FN status on type 2 diabetes risk was observed. FN status had a stronger impact on the development of type 2 diabetes in offspring than GDM. GDM is an important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and its prevention may reduce the prevalence of subsequent type 2 diabetes in offspring. This study adds unique and rigorous evidence to the global public health debate about the impact of GDM on the long-term health of offspring. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. PROX1 gene CC genotype as a major determinant of early onset of type 2 diabetes in slavic study participants from Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Hamet, Pavel; Haloui, Mounsif; Harvey, François; Marois-Blanchet, François-Christophe; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tahir, Muhammad-Ramzan; Simon, Paul H.G.; Kanzki, Beatriz Sonja; Raelson, John; Long, Carole; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Marre, Michel; Harrap, Stephen; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies according to ethnicity. Environmental as well as genetic factors contribute to the heterogeneity in the presentation of diabetic nephropathy. Our objective was to evaluate this heterogeneity within the Caucasian population. Methods: The geo-ethnic origin of the 3409 genotyped Caucasian type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients of Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation was determined using principal component analysis. Genome-wide association studies analyses of age of onset of T2D were performed for geo-ethnic groups separately and combined. Results: The first principal component separated the Caucasian study participants into Slavic and Celtic ethnic origins. Age of onset of diabetes was significantly lower in Slavic patients (P = 7.3 × 10−20), whereas the prevalence of hypertension (P = 4.9 × 10−31) and albuminuria (5.1 × 10−9) were significantly higher. Age of onset of T2D and albuminuria appear to have an important genetic component as the values of these traits were also different between Slavic and Celtic individuals living in the same countries. Common and geo-ethnic-specific loci were found to be associated to age of onset of diabetes. Among the latter, the PROX1/PROX1-AS1 genes (rs340841) had the highest impact. Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs340841 CC genotype was associated with a 4.4 year earlier onset of T2D in Slavic patients living or not in countries with predominant Slavic populations. Conclusion: These results reveal the presence of distinct genetic architectures between Caucasian ethnic groups that likely have clinical relevance, among them PROX1 gene is a strong candidate of early onset of diabetes with variations depending on ethnicity. PMID:28060188

  5. PROX1 gene CC genotype as a major determinant of early onset of type 2 diabetes in slavic study participants from Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Hamet, Pavel; Haloui, Mounsif; Harvey, François; Marois-Blanchet, François-Christophe; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tahir, Muhammad-Ramzan; Simon, Paul H G; Kanzki, Beatriz Sonja; Raelson, John; Long, Carole; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Marre, Michel; Harrap, Stephen; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies according to ethnicity. Environmental as well as genetic factors contribute to the heterogeneity in the presentation of diabetic nephropathy. Our objective was to evaluate this heterogeneity within the Caucasian population. The geo-ethnic origin of the 3409 genotyped Caucasian type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients of Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation was determined using principal component analysis. Genome-wide association studies analyses of age of onset of T2D were performed for geo-ethnic groups separately and combined. The first principal component separated the Caucasian study participants into Slavic and Celtic ethnic origins. Age of onset of diabetes was significantly lower in Slavic patients (P = 7.3 × 10), whereas the prevalence of hypertension (P = 4.9 × 10) and albuminuria (5.1 × 10) were significantly higher. Age of onset of T2D and albuminuria appear to have an important genetic component as the values of these traits were also different between Slavic and Celtic individuals living in the same countries. Common and geo-ethnic-specific loci were found to be associated to age of onset of diabetes. Among the latter, the PROX1/PROX1-AS1 genes (rs340841) had the highest impact. Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs340841 CC genotype was associated with a 4.4 year earlier onset of T2D in Slavic patients living or not in countries with predominant Slavic populations. These results reveal the presence of distinct genetic architectures between Caucasian ethnic groups that likely have clinical relevance, among them PROX1 gene is a strong candidate of early onset of diabetes with variations depending on ethnicity.

  6. Early onset of diabetes in the proband is the major determinant of risk in HLA DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 siblings.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Kathleen M; Aitken, Rachel J; Wilson, Isabel; Williams, Alistair J K; Bingley, Polly J

    2014-03-01

    Islet autoimmunity is initiated in infancy, and primary prevention trials require children at high genetic risk to be identified before autoantibodies appear. To inform screening strategies, we evaluated risks of autoimmunity and diabetes associated with HLA DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 in U.K. families. Extended HLA haplotypes were determined in 2,134 siblings from the Bart's-Oxford Study followed to a median age of 22 years. Risks of diabetes and islet autoimmunity (more than two antibodies) were estimated by survival analysis. Of 138 informative DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 siblings, 63% shared both haplotypes with their diabetic proband, 29% shared one, and 8% shared neither. In HLA-identical DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 siblings, the cumulative risk of diabetes by age 15 was 17% (vs. 6% in those sharing one haplotype or none; P = 0.095). Risk varied, however, with the age at the onset of diabetes in the proband; the cumulative risk of autoimmunity and/or diabetes by age 15 was 61% in siblings of probands diagnosed when younger than 10 years old compared with only 4.7% in those diagnosed after age 10 years (P < 0.001). The age of the proband at diagnosis, but not HLA haplotype sharing, was an independent determinant of sibling risk. This suggests that non-HLA genes or epigenetic/environmental factors that accelerate the progression of type 1 diabetes in the proband strongly affect risk in siblings.

  7. Insulin treatment partially prevents cognitive and hippocampal alterations as well as glucocorticoid dysregulation in early-onset insulin-deficient diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Marissal-Arvy, Nathalie; Campas, Marie-Neige; Semont, Audrey; Ducroix-Crepy, Céline; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Brossaud, Julie; Corcuff, Jean-Benoit; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Vancassel, Sylvie; Bouzier-Sore, Anne-Karine; Touyarot, Katia; Ferreira, Guillaume; Barat, Pascal; Moisan, Marie-Pierre

    2018-04-17

    The diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) in ever younger children led us to question the impact of insulin deficiency or chronic hyperglycemia on cerebral development and memory performances. Here, we sought abnormalities in these traits in a model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in juvenile rats treated or not by insulin. We made the assumption that such alterations would be related, at least in part, to excessive glucocorticoid exposition in hippocampal neurons. We have compared 3 groups of juvenile rats: controls, untreated diabetics and insulin-treated diabetics. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg IP/day, 2 consecutive days), at postnatal days 21 and 22 and a subcutaneous pellet delivering 2 U of insulin/day was implanted in treated diabetic rats 3 days later. Three weeks after diabetes induction, cognitive performances (Y maze, object location and recognition tests), in vivo brain structure (brain volume and water diffusion by structural magnetic resonance imaging), and hippocampal neurogenesis (immunohistochemical labeling) measurements were undertaken. Corticosterone levels were evaluated in plasma under basal and stress conditions, and within hippocampus together with 11β-dehydrocorticosterone to assess 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity. The comparison of the three experimental groups revealed that, compared to controls, untreated diabetic rats showed decreased cognitive performances in Y-maze and object location test (p < 0.05), decreased brain and hippocampal microstructure (p < 0.05), and decreased maturation and survival of hippocampal newborn neurons (p < 0.05). These alterations were associated with increased plasma corticosterone at the baseline nadir of its secretion (p < 0.001) and during the recovery phase following a restraint stress (p < 0.001), as well as increased hippocampal corticosterone levels (p < 0.01) and 11β-HSD1 activity (p < 0.05). As untreated diabetic

  8. Early Onset of Type 1 Diabetes and Educational Field at Upper Secondary and University Level: Is Own Experience an Asset for a Health Care Career?

    PubMed Central

    Steen Carlsson, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Ill health in early life has a significant negative impact on school grades, grade repetition, educational level, and labor market outcomes. However, less is known about qualitative socio-economic consequences of a health shock in childhood or adolescence. We investigate the relationship between onset of type 1 diabetes up to age 15 and the probability of choosing and completing a health-oriented path at upper secondary and university level of education. We analyze the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, the National Educational Register, and other population registers in Sweden for 2756 people with type 1 diabetes and 10,020 matched population controls. Educational decisions are modeled as unsorted series of binary choices to assess the choice of educational field as a potential mechanism linking early life health to adult outcomes. The analyses reject the hypothesis of no systematic differences in choice of educational field between people with and without type 1 diabetes at both levels. The results are robust to selection on ability proxies and across sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the observed pro health-oriented educational choices among people with type 1 diabetes in our data are consistent with disease onset in childhood and adolescence having qualitative impact on life-course choices. PMID:28665347

  9. Early Onset of Type 1 Diabetes and Educational Field at Upper Secondary and University Level: Is Own Experience an Asset for a Health Care Career?

    PubMed

    Lovén, Ida; Steen Carlsson, Katarina

    2017-06-30

    Ill health in early life has a significant negative impact on school grades, grade repetition, educational level, and labor market outcomes. However, less is known about qualitative socio-economic consequences of a health shock in childhood or adolescence. We investigate the relationship between onset of type 1 diabetes up to age 15 and the probability of choosing and completing a health-oriented path at upper secondary and university level of education. We analyze the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, the National Educational Register, and other population registers in Sweden for 2756 people with type 1 diabetes and 10,020 matched population controls. Educational decisions are modeled as unsorted series of binary choices to assess the choice of educational field as a potential mechanism linking early life health to adult outcomes. The analyses reject the hypothesis of no systematic differences in choice of educational field between people with and without type 1 diabetes at both levels. The results are robust to selection on ability proxies and across sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the observed pro health-oriented educational choices among people with type 1 diabetes in our data are consistent with disease onset in childhood and adolescence having qualitative impact on life-course choices.

  10. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Kari A.; Anderson-Berry, Ann L.; Delair, Shirley F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Early-onset sepsis remains a common and serious problem for neonates, especially preterm infants. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common etiologic agent, while Escherichia coli is the most common cause of mortality. Current efforts toward maternal intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis have significantly reduced the rates of GBS disease but have been associated with increased rates of Gram-negative infections, especially among very-low-birth-weight infants. The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is based on a combination of clinical presentation; the use of nonspecific markers, including C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (where available); blood cultures; and the use of molecular methods, including PCR. Cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cell surface antigens, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and CD64, are also being increasingly examined for use as nonspecific screening measures for neonatal sepsis. Viruses, in particular enteroviruses, parechoviruses, and herpes simplex virus (HSV), should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Empirical treatment should be based on local patterns of antimicrobial resistance but typically consists of the use of ampicillin and gentamicin, or ampicillin and cefotaxime if meningitis is suspected, until the etiologic agent has been identified. Current research is focused primarily on development of vaccines against GBS. PMID:24396135

  11. [Effectiveness of increased contents of dietary fiber in early stages of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Krashenitsa, G M; Botvineva, L A; Mogila, A V

    1994-01-01

    Patients with early NIDDM were put on routine diet N 9 (food fiber 25 g/day) and test diet (food fiber 55 g/day). The diet of both groups (group 1 and 2, respectively) was supplemented with oral mineral water Essentuki 17. High-fiber diets proved to be effective for the above patients as they induced positive trends in NIDDM clinical symptoms, body weight, lowering of basal insulin, an increase in insulin immediate pool. There was also a reduction of insulinemia and hyperglycemia later in the course of glucose tolerance test. The above shifts were more pronounced in 2 patients.

  12. Epstein-Barr and other herpesvirus infections in patients with early onset type 1 diabetes treated with daclizumab and mycophenolate mofetil.

    PubMed

    Loechelt, Brett J; Boulware, David; Green, Michael; Baden, Lindsey R; Gottlieb, Peter; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Weinberg, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the morbidity of herpesviruses in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) enrolled in immunosuppressive treatment studies. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections were monitored in 126 participants of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of daclizumab (DZB) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) including DZB(+)MMF(+), DZB(-)MMF(+), DZB(+)MMF(-), and DZB(-)MMF(-). During the 2-year follow-up, herpesviral infections were monitored clinically, by serology and blood DNA polymerase chain reaction. Among 57 baseline EBV-seronegative participants, 9 developed EBV primary infections, including 2 with infectious mononucleosis syndrome. There were no appreciable differences in the course of the primary EBV infections across treatment groups. Among 69 baseline EBV-seropositive participants, 22 had virologic reactivations, including 1 symptomatic DZB(-)MMF(+) subject. Compared with 7 DZB(-)MMF(-) EBV reactivators, the 9 DZB(+)MMF(+) reactivators tended to have more prolonged viremia (11.4 vs 4.4 months; P = .06) and higher cumulative viral burden (14.2 vs 12.5 log EBV copies/mL; P = .06). Four of 85 baseline CMV-seronegative subjects developed asymptomatic primary CMV infections. There were no CMV reactivations. Of 30 baseline HSV-seropositive subjects, 8 developed ≥1 episode of herpes labialis; 1 subject had a primary HSV infection; and 1 subject without baseline serology information had a new diagnosis of genital HSV. There were no significant differences in the incidence of HSV recurrences across treatment groups. Of 100 baseline VZV-seropositive subjects, 1 DZB(-)MMF(-) subject developed herpes zoster and 1 DZB(-)MMF(+) subject had Bell's palsy possibly related to VZV. The use of DZB alone or in combination with MMF was not associated with increased morbidity due to herpesviruses. NCT00100178.

  13. Identification of HNF4A Mutation p.T130I and HNF1A Mutations p.I27L and p.S487N in a Han Chinese Family with Early-Onset Maternally Inherited Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Zhou, Tai-Cheng; Liu, Yong-Ying; Li, Xiao; Wang, Wen-Xue; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is characterized by the onset of diabetes before the age of 25 years, positive family history, high genetic predisposition, monogenic mutations, and an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Here, we aimed to investigate the mutations and to characterize the phenotypes of a Han Chinese family with early-onset maternally inherited type 2 diabetes. Detailed clinical assessments and genetic screening for mutations in the HNF4α, GCK, HNF-1α, IPF-1, HNF1β, and NEUROD1 genes were carried out in this family. One HNF4A mutation (p.T130I) and two HNF1A polymorphisms (p.I27L and p.S487N) were identified. Mutation p.T130I was associated with both early-onset and late-onset diabetes and caused downregulated HNF4A expression, whereas HNF1A polymorphisms p.I27L and p.S487N were associated with the age of diagnosis of diabetes. We demonstrated that mutation p.T130I in HNF4A was pathogenic as were the predicted polymorphisms p.I27L and p.S487N in HNF1A by genetic and functional analysis. Our results show that mutations in HNF4A and HNF1A genes might account for this early-onset inherited type 2 diabetes.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... called a syndrome. If glaucoma appears before the age of 5 without other associated abnormalities, it is called primary congenital glaucoma. Other individuals experience early onset of primary open-angle glaucoma, the most ...

  15. THE LINK BETWEEN EARLY ONSET DRINKING AND EARLY ONSET ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING IN YOUNG MALES

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Young drivers represent a disproportionate number of the individuals involved in alcohol-impaired driving. Although there is a known association between drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in young drivers, the link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving has not been explored. Objectives The present study aimed to assess this link along with potentially confounding factors. Methods The assessment used a proportional hazards model with data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men, a population based sample of 625 males at ages of 16–19 years old. Results Controlling for the effects of potentially relevant confounds, the early onset of drinking was the most influential factor in predicting the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Race and the early onset of other forms of delinquency also played a significant role in the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Conclusion Preventing an early start of drinking among adolescents may be the most critical factor to address in preventing an early start of alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:24766089

  16. The link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving in young males.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F; Welte, John W

    2014-05-01

    Young drivers represent a disproportionate number of the individuals involved in alcohol-impaired driving. Although there is a known association between drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in young drivers, the link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving has not been explored. The present study aimed to assess this link along with potentially confounding factors. The assessment used a proportional hazards model with data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men, a population-based sample of 625 males at aged 16-19. Controlling for the effects of potentially relevant confounds, the early onset of drinking was the most influential factor in predicting the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Race and the early onset of other forms of delinquency also played a significant role in the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Preventing an early start of drinking among adolescents may be the most critical factor to address in preventing an early start of alcohol-impaired driving.

  17. Association between pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A levels in the first trimester and gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Q Ky; Lo, T K; Wong, S F; Lee, C P

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have shown that women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus have significantly lower pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A levels than those without. This study aimed to evaluate whether first-trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A multiple of median is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese pregnant women. This prospectively collected case series was conducted in a regional hospital in Hong Kong. All consecutive Chinese women with a singleton pregnancy who attended the hospital for their first antenatal visit (before 14 weeks' gestation) from April to July 2014 were included. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A multiple of median was compared between the gestational diabetic (especially for early-onset gestational diabetes) and non-diabetic groups. The correlation between pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A level and glycosylated haemoglobin level in women with gestational diabetes was also examined. Of the 520 women recruited, gestational diabetes was diagnosed in 169 (32.5%). Among them, 43 (25.4%) had an early diagnosis, and 167 (98.8%) with the disease were managed by diet alone. The gestational diabetic group did not differ significantly to the non-diabetic group in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (0.97 vs 0.99, P=0.40) or free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin multiple of median (1.05 vs 1.02, P=0.29). Compared with the non-gestational diabetic group, women with early diagnosis of gestational diabetes had a non-significant reduction in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A multiple of median (median, interquartile range: 0.86, 0.57-1.23 vs 0.99, 0.67-1.44; P=0.11). Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and glycosylated haemoglobin levels were not correlated in women with gestational diabetes (r=0.027; P=0.74). Chinese women with non-insulin-dependent gestational diabetes did not exhibit significant changes to pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A multiple of median nor a correlation between pregnancy

  18. Unusual early-onset Huntingtons disease.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Antonio P; Carod-Artal, Francisco J; Bomfim, Denise; Vázquez-Cabrera, Carolina; Dantas-Barbosa, Carmela

    2003-06-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by involuntary movements, cognitive decline, and behavioral disorders leading to functional disability. In contrast to patients with adult onset, in which chorea is the major motor abnormality, children often present with spasticity, rigidity, and significant intellectual decline associated with a more rapidly progressive course. An unusual early-onset Huntington's disease case of an 11-year-old boy with severe hypokinetic/rigid syndrome appearing at the age of 2.5 years is presented. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction study of the expanded IT-15 allele with a compatible size of 102 cytosine-adenosine-guanosine repeats L-Dopa mildly ameliorated rigidity, bradykinesia, and dystonia. We conclude that Huntington's disease should be included in the differential diagnoses of regressive syndromes of early childhood.

  19. Early-onset scoliosis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Cunin, V

    2015-02-01

    Early-onset scoliosis, which appears before the age of 10, can be due to congenital vertebral anomalies, neuromuscular diseases, scoliosis-associated syndromes, or idiopathic causes. It can have serious consequences for lung development and significantly reduce the life expectancy compared to adolescent scoliosis. Extended posterior fusion must be avoided to prevent the crankshaft phenomenon, uneven growth of the trunk and especially restrictive lung disease. Conservative (non-surgical) treatment is used first. If this fails, fusionless surgery can be performed to delay the final fusion procedure until the patient is older. The gold standard delaying surgical treatment is the implantation of growing rods as described by Moe and colleagues in the mid-1980s. These rods, which are lengthened during short surgical procedures at regular intervals, curb the scoliosis progression until the patient reaches an age where fusion can be performed. Knowledge of this technique and its complications has led to several mechanical improvements being made, namely use of rods that can be distracted magnetically on an outpatient basis, without the need for anesthesia. Devices based on the same principle have been designed that preferentially attach to the ribs to specifically address chest wall and spine dysplasia. The second category of surgical devices consists of rods used to guide spinal growth that do not require repeated surgical procedures. The third type of fusionless surgical treatment involves slowing the growth of the scoliosis convexity to help reduce the Cobb angle. The indications are constantly changing. Improvements in surgical techniques and greater surgeon experience may help to reduce the number of complications and make this lengthy treatment acceptable to patients and their family. Long-term effects of surgery on the Cobb angle have not been compared to those involving conservative "delaying" treatments. Because the latter has fewer complications associated with

  20. [Early onset scoliosis. What are the options?].

    PubMed

    Farrington, D M; Tatay-Díaz, A

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of children with progressive early onset scoliosis has improved considerably due to recent advances in surgical and non-surgical techniques and the understanding of the importance of preserving the thoracic space. Improvements in existing techniques and development of new methods have considerably improved the management of this condition. Derotational casting can be considered in children with documented progression of a <60° curve without previous surgical treatment. Both single and dual growing rods are effective, but the latter seem to offer better results. Hybrid constructs may be a better option in children who require a low-profile proximal anchor. The vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR(®)) appears to be beneficial for patients with congenital scoliosis and fused ribs, and thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome. Children with medical comorbidities who may not tolerate repeated lengthenings should be considered for Shilla or Luque Trolley technique. Growth modulation using shape memory alloy staples or other tethers seem promising for mild curves, although more research is required to define their precise indications. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Early-Onset Physical Frailty in Adults with Diabesity and Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Lori J; Bittel, Daniel C; Bittel, Adam J; Sinacore, David R

    2017-12-07

    Diabesity (obesity and diabetes mellitus) has been identified as a potential contributor to early-onset frailty. Impairments contributing to early onset of physical frailty in this population are not well understood, and there is little evidence of the impact of peripheral neuropathy on frailty. The purpose of this study was to determine impairments that contribute to early-onset physical frailty in individuals with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy. We studied 105 participants, 82 with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy (57 years of age, body mass index [BMI] 31 kg/m 2 ); 13 with diabesity only (53 years of age, BMI 34 kg/m 2 ) and 10 obese controls (67 years of age, BMI 32 kg/m 2 ). Peripheral neuropathy was determined using Semmes Weinstein monofilaments; physical frailty was classified using the 9-item, modified Physical Performance Test; and knee extension and ankle plantarflexion peak torques were measured using isokinetic dynamometry. Participants with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy were 7.4 times more likely to be classified as physically frail. Impairments in lower-extremity function were associated with classification of frailty. Individuals with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy are particularly likely to be classified as frail. Earlier identification and interventions aimed at improving lower-extremity function may be important to mitigate the early-onset functional decline. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nearwork in early-onset myopia.

    PubMed

    Saw, Seang-Mei; Chua, Wei-Han; Hong, Ching-Ye; Wu, Hui-Min; Chan, Wai-Ying; Chia, Kee-Seng; Stone, Richard A; Tan, Donald

    2002-02-01

    To determine the relationship of nearwork and myopia in young elementary school-age children in Singapore. A cross-sectional study of 1005 school children aged 7 to 9 years was conducted in two schools in Singapore. Cycloplegic autorefraction, keratometry, and biometry measurements were performed. In addition, the parents completed a detailed questionnaire on nearwork activity (books read per week, reading in hours per day and diopter hours [addition of three times reading, two times computer use, and two times video games use in hours per day]). Other risk factors, such as parental myopia, socioeconomic status, and light exposure history, were assessed. In addition to socioeconomic factors, several nearwork indices were associated with myopia in these young children. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio of higher myopia (at least -3.0 D) for children who read more than two books per week was 3.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-5.18). However, the odds ratios of higher myopia for children who read more than 2 hours per day or with more than 8 diopter hours (1.50; 95% CI, 0.87-2.55 and 1.04; 95% CI, 0.61-1.78, respectively) were not significant, after controlling for several factors. Children aged 7 to 9 years with a greater current reading exposure were more likely to be myopic. This association of reading and myopia in a young age cohort was greater than the strength of the reading association generally found in older myopic subjects. Whether these results identify an association of early-onset myopia with nearwork activity or other potentially confounding factors is discussed.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset primary dystonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as seizures or a loss of intellectual function (dementia). Early-onset primary dystonia does not affect a person's intelligence. On ... of torsinA. The altered protein's effect on the function of nerve cells in the brain ... with early-onset primary dystonia do not have a loss of nerve ...

  4. Genetic Testing of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young Current Status and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Firdous, Parveena; Nissar, Kamran; Ali, Sajad; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Shabir, Uzma; Hassan, Toyeeba; Masoodi, Shariq Rashid

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes is a global epidemic problem growing exponentially in Asian countries posing a serious threat. Among diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a heterogeneous group of monogenic disorders that occurs due to β cell dysfunction. Genetic defects in the pancreatic β-cells result in the decrease of insulin production required for glucose utilization thereby lead to early-onset diabetes (often <25 years). It is generally considered as non-insulin dependent form of diabetes and comprises of 1–5% of total diabetes. Till date, 14 genes have been identified and mutation in them may lead to MODY. Different genetic testing methodologies like linkage analysis, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and DNA sequencing are used for the accurate and correct investigation of gene mutations associated with MODY. The next-generation sequencing has emerged as one of the most promising and effective tools to identify novel mutated genes related to MODY. Diagnosis of MODY is mainly relying on the sequential screening of the three marker genes like hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1α), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α), and glucokinase (GCK). Interestingly, MODY patients can be managed by diet alone for many years and may also require minimal doses of sulfonylureas. The primary objective of this article is to provide a review on current status of MODY, its prevalence, genetic testing/diagnosis, possible treatment, and future perspective. PMID:29867778

  5. Adverse Housing Conditions and Early-Onset Delinquency.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dylan B; Newsome, Jamie; Lynch, Kellie R

    2017-09-01

    Housing constitutes an important health resource for children. Research has revealed that, when housing conditions are unfavorable, they can interfere with child health, academic performance, and cognition. Little to no research, however, has considered whether adverse housing conditions and early-onset delinquency are significantly associated with one another. This study explores the associations between structural and non-structural housing conditions and delinquent involvement during childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) were employed in this study. Each adverse housing condition was significantly associated with early-onset delinquency. Even so, disarray and deterioration were only significantly linked to early delinquent involvement in the presence of health/safety hazards. The predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to housing risks in the presence of health/safety hazards was nearly three times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed only to disarray and/or deterioration, and nearly four times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to none of the adverse housing conditions. The findings suggest that minimizing housing-related health/safety hazards among at-risk subsets of the population may help to alleviate other important public health concerns-particularly early-onset delinquency. Addressing household health/safety hazards may represent a fruitful avenue for public health programs aimed at the prevention of early-onset delinquency. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  6. Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes: Neuropsychology and Neural Networks

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-11

    Alzheimer Disease, Early Onset; Alzheimer Disease; Alzheimer Disease, Late Onset; Dementia, Alzheimer Type; Logopenic Progressive Aphasia; Primary Progressive Aphasia; Visuospatial/Perceptual Abilities; Posterior Cortical Atrophy; Executive Dysfunction; Corticobasal Degeneration; Ideomotor Apraxia

  7. Early Onset Malignancies - Genomic Study of Cancer Disparities

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Onset Malignancies Initiative studies the genomic basis of six cancers that develop at an earlier age, occur in higher rates, and are typically more aggressive in certain minority populations.

  8. Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson’s disease and juvenile Parkinson disease , Parkin has been shown to promote intracellular Abeta1–42 clearance [15... Parkinsonism . Conclusions Mutations were found in 6/50 families. The presence of an APOE-4 allele may account for disease status in one affected non...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0013 TITLE: Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  9. Blood-Based Biomarkers of Early-Onset Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    n=51). The women with early-onset breast cancer were disease and treatment free for at least 6 months at time of blood donation . Cases and controls...were age matched to age at blood donation . 2. KEYWORDS: biomarkers, early-onset breast cancer, expression profiling, risk-assessment, breast cancer...matched controls. This prospectively collected cohort consists of blood donated to blood banks ~15 years ago and subsequently linked to the California

  10. Genetic Risk Score Analysis in Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Croarkin, Paul E.; Luby, Joan L.; Cercy, Kelly; Geske, Jennifer R.; Veldic, Marin; Simonson, Matthew; Joshi, Paramjit T.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Walkup, John T.; Nassan, Malik M.; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B.; Casuto, Leah; McElroy, Susan L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Frye, Mark A.; Biernacka, Joanna M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective In this study, we performed a candidate genetic risk score (GRS) analysis of early-onset bipolar disorder. Method Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study enrollment and sample collection took place from 2003–2008. Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank samples were collected from 2009–2013. Genotyping and analyses for the present study took place from 2013–2014. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), previously reported in genome-wide association studies to be associated with bipolar disorder, were chosen for GRS analysis in early-onset bipolar disease. These SNPs map to 3 genes: CACNA1C (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit), ANK3 (ankyrin-3, node of Ranvier [ankyrin G]), and ODZ4 (teneurin transmembrane protein 4 [formerly “odz, odd Oz/ten-m homolog 4 {Drosophila}, ODZ4”]). The 8 candidate SNPs were genotyped in patients from the TEAM study (n=69), adult patients with bipolar disorder (n=732) including a subset with early-onset illness [n=192]), and healthy controls (n=776). GRS analyses were performed comparing early-onset cases with controls. In addition, associations of early-onset BD with individual SNPs and haplotypes were explored. Results GRS analysis revealed associations of the risk score with early-onset bipolar disorder (P=.01). Gene-level haplotype analysis comparing TEAM patients with controls suggested association of early-onset bipolar disorder with a CACNA1C haplotype (global test, P=.01). At the level of individual SNPs, comparison of TEAM cases with healthy controls provided nominally significant evidence for association of SNP rs10848632 in CACNA1C with early-onset bipolar disorder (P=.017), which did not remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion These preliminary analyses suggest that previously identified bipolar disorder risk loci

  11. Genetic Risk Score Analysis in Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Croarkin, Paul E; Luby, Joan L; Cercy, Kelly; Geske, Jennifer R; Veldic, Marin; Simonson, Matthew; Joshi, Paramjit T; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Walkup, John T; Nassan, Malik M; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Casuto, Leah; McElroy, Susan L; Jensen, Peter S; Frye, Mark A; Biernacka, Joanna M

    In this study, we performed a candidate genetic risk score (GRS) analysis of early-onset bipolar disorder (BD). Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study enrollment and sample collection took place from 2003 to 2008. Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank samples were collected from 2009 to 2013. Genotyping and analyses for the present study took place from 2013 to 2014. The diagnosis of BD was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), previously reported in genome-wide association studies to be associated with BD, were chosen for GRS analysis in early-onset bipolar disease. These SNPs map to 3 genes: CACNA1C (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit), ANK3 (ankyrin-3, node of Ranvier [ankyrin G]), and ODZ4 (teneurin transmembrane protein 4 [formerly "odz, odd Oz/10-m homolog 4 {Drosophila}, ODZ4"]). The 8 candidate SNPs were genotyped in patients from the TEAM study (n = 69); adult patients with BD (n = 732), including a subset with early-onset illness (n = 192); and healthy controls (n = 776). GRS analyses were performed to compare early-onset cases with controls. In addition, associations of early-onset BD with individual SNPs and haplotypes were explored. GRS analysis revealed associations of the risk score with early-onset BD (P = .01). Gene-level haplotype analysis comparing TEAM patients with controls suggested association of early-onset BD with a CACNA1C haplotype (global test, P = .01). At the level of individual SNPs, comparison of TEAM cases with healthy controls provided nominally significant evidence for association of SNP rs10848632 in CACNA1C with early-onset BD (P = .017), which did not remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons. These preliminary analyses suggest that previously identified BD risk loci, especially CACNA1C, have a role in early-onset BD, possibly with stronger effects than for late-onset BD.

  12. Chorioamnionitis and Culture-Confirmed, Early-Onset Neonatal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nellie I.; Schrag, Stephanie J.; Hale, Ellen; Van Meurs, Krisa; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Cantey, Joseph B.; Faix, Roger; Poindexter, Brenda; Goldberg, Ronald; Bizzarro, Matthew; Frantz, Ivan; Das, Abhik; Benitz, William E.; Shane, Andi L.; Higgins, Rosemary; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal disease recommend diagnostic evaluations and empirical antibiotic therapy for well-appearing, chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns. Some clinicians question these recommendations, citing the decline in early-onset group B streptococcal disease rates since widespread intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis implementation and potential antibiotic risks. We aimed to determine whether chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns with culture-confirmed, early-onset infections can be asymptomatic at birth. METHODS: Multicenter, prospective surveillance for early-onset neonatal infections was conducted during 2006–2009. Early-onset infection was defined as isolation of a pathogen from blood or cerebrospinal fluid collected ≤72 hours after birth. Maternal chorioamnionitis was defined by clinical diagnosis in the medical record or by histologic diagnosis by placental pathology. Hospital records of newborns with early-onset infections born to mothers with chorioamnionitis were reviewed retrospectively to determine symptom onset. RESULTS: Early-onset infections were diagnosed in 389 of 396 586 live births, including 232 (60%) chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns. Records for 229 were reviewed; 29 (13%) had no documented symptoms within 6 hours of birth, including 21 (9%) who remained asymptomatic at 72 hours. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis exposure did not differ significantly between asymptomatic and symptomatic infants (76% vs 69%; P = .52). Assuming complete guideline implementation, we estimated that 60 to 1400 newborns would receive diagnostic evaluations and antibiotics for each infected asymptomatic newborn, depending on chorioamnionitis prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Some infants born to mothers with chorioamnionitis may have no signs of sepsis at birth despite having culture-confirmed infections. Implementation of current clinical guidelines may result in early diagnosis, but large numbers of uninfected

  13. Early-Onset Psychosis in Youth with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, R. I.; Donnelly, T.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of psychotic disorders may be very difficult in youth with intellectual disabilities. The authors reviewed the assessment, treatment and follow-up of 21 youths with ID referred because of early onset of psychotic symptoms. Just over one half of the patients had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. One third…

  14. Operational Thought in Alzheimer's Disease Early Onset and SDAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Olga B.; Breslau, Lawrence D.

    For more than a decade it has been convention to assume that senile dementia Alzheimer's type (SDAT) and Alzheimer's disease early onset represent a unitary disease process with only an onset difference. This assumption has been neither confirmed nor disconfirmed. To address this issue, a study was conducted which analyzed the dissolution of…

  15. Neurocognition in Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A.; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship…

  16. Early Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorder: Psychopharmacological, Psychological, and Educational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, David E.; Trotter, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Although published research continues to advocate medication as the first line of treatment for early onset bipolar spectrum disorder (EOBSD; N. Lofthouse & M.A. Fristad, 2004), preliminary research demonstrating the utility of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and psychoeducational therapies is promising. It appears as if future treatment of EOBSD…

  17. Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Diagnostic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danner, Stephanie; Fristad, Mary A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) have received increased attention in both the popular press and scholarly press. Rates of diagnosis of BPSD in children and adolescents have increased in inpatient, outpatient, and primary care settings. BPSDs remain difficult to diagnose, particularly in youth. The current…

  18. Evidence for a genetic etiology of early-onset delinquency.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Iacono, W G; McGue, M

    2000-11-01

    Age at onset of antisocial behavior discriminates persistent and transitory offenders. The authors proposed that early-onset delinquency has an underlying genetic influence that manifests in problems related to inhibition, whereas late-onset delinquency is more environmentally mediated. To test these notions, they selected 36 early starters, 86 late starters, and 25 nondelinquent controls from a large sample of 11-year-old twins and compared them on several measures related to inhibition and a peer group measure. As expected, early starters had more psychological, behavioral, and emotional problems related to inhibition than late starters and controls. A longitudinal analysis indicated an increase an antisocial behavior among peers of late starters shortly before their delinquency onset. Family history data and a twin analysis provided evidence of greater genetic influence on early-onset than late-onset delinquency.

  19. [Treatment of early onset scoliosis : How far can we go?].

    PubMed

    Studer, D; Hasler, C C; Schulze, A

    2015-11-01

    Recently, inconsistent definitions of early onset scoliosis (EOS) and a wide variety of treatment options have been observed. To clearly define the term EOS, to depict non-operative and operative treatment options, and to present the limitations of the boundaries of these techniques. Review of the literature, including conference presentations and expert opinions, in addition to personal experiences. Early onset scoliosis (EOS) refers to spine deformity that is present before 10 years of age, regardless of etiology. All existing operative treatment options share a high risk of complications. Therefore, non-operative treatment should act as a time-buying approach to postpone surgery. Awareness of treatment options and their specific indications, in addition to respecting each patient's individual needs and feasibilities, are crucial for the optimal outcome.

  20. Genetic Determinism of Primary Early-Onset Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Aury-Landas, Juliette; Marcelli, Christian; Leclercq, Sylvain; Boumédiene, Karim; Baugé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. A minority of cases correspond to familial presentation characterized by early-onset forms which are genetically heterogeneous. This review brings a new point of view on the molecular basis of OA by focusing on gene mutations causing early-onset OA (EO-OA). Recently, thanks to whole-exome sequencing, a gain-of-function mutation in the TNFRSF11B gene was identified in two distant family members with EO-OA, opening new therapeutic perspectives for OA. Indeed, unraveling the molecular basis of rare Mendelian OA forms will improve our understanding of molecular processes involved in OA pathogenesis and will contribute to better patient diagnosis, management, and therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lost human capital from early-onset chronic depression.

    PubMed

    Berndt, E R; Koran, L M; Finkelstein, S N; Gelenberg, A J; Kornstein, S G; Miller, I M; Thase, M E; Trapp, G A; Keller, M B

    2000-06-01

    Chronic depression starts at an early age for many individuals and could affect their accumulation of "human capital" (i.e., education, higher amounts of which can broaden occupational choice and increase earnings potential). The authors examined the impact, by gender, of early- (before age 22) versus late-onset major depressive disorder on educational attainment. They also determined whether the efficacy and sustainability of antidepressant treatments and psychosocial outcomes vary by age at onset and quantified the impact of early- versus late-onset, as well as never-occurring, major depressive disorder on expected lifetime earnings. The authors used logistic and multivariate regression methods to analyze data from a three-phase, multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial that compared sertraline and imipramine treatment of 531 patients with chronic depression aged 30 years and older. These data were integrated with U.S. Census Bureau data on 1995 earnings by age, educational attainment, and gender. Early-onset major depressive disorder adversely affected the educational attainment of women but not of men. No significant difference in treatment responsiveness by age at onset was observed after 12 weeks of acute treatment or, for subjects rated as having responded, after 76 weeks of maintenance treatment. A randomly selected 21-year-old woman with early-onset major depressive disorder in 1995 could expect future annual earnings that were 12%-18% lower than those of a randomly selected 21-year-old woman whose onset of major depressive disorder occurred after age 21 or not at all. Early-onset major depressive disorder causes substantial human capital loss, particularly for women. Detection and effective treatment of early-onset major depressive disorder may have substantial economic benefits.

  2. Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    FTD), FTD with Parkinsonism , and early-onset Alzheimer Disease (EOAD)-like presentations. Using whole exome capture with subsequent sequencing, we...dementia. The MAPT R406W mutation is associated with EOAD-like symptoms and Parkinsonism without FTD, as well as distinct cognitive courses. KEY...OUTCOMES: Carney RM, Kohli MA, Kunkle BW, Naj AC, Gilbert JR, Züchner S, PERICAK-VANCE MA, Parkinsonism and distinct dementia patterns in a

  3. Early onset marijuana use is associated with learning inefficiencies.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Evins, A Eden; Gilman, Jodi M

    2016-05-01

    Verbal memory difficulties are the most widely reported and persistent cognitive deficit associated with early onset marijuana use. Yet, it is not known what memory stages are most impaired in those with early marijuana use. Forty-eight young adults, aged 18-25, who used marijuana at least once per week and 48 matched nonusing controls (CON) completed the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Marijuana users were stratified by age of initial use: early onset users (EMJ), who started using marijuana at or before age 16 (n = 27), and late onset marijuana user group (LMJ), who started using marijuana after age 16 (n = 21). Outcome variables included trial immediate recall, total learning, clustering strategies (semantic clustering, serial clustering, ratio of semantic to serial clustering, and total number of strategies used), delayed recall, and percent retention. Learning improved with repetition, with no group effect on the learning slope. EMJ learned fewer words overall than LMJ or CON. There was no difference between LMJ and CON in total number of words learned. Reduced overall learning mediated the effect on reduced delayed recall among EMJ, but not CON or LMJ. Learning improved with greater use of semantic versus serial encoding, but this did not vary between groups. EMJ was not related to delayed recall after adjusting for encoding. Young adults reporting early onset marijuana use had learning weaknesses, which accounted for the association between early onset marijuana use and delayed recall. No amnestic effect of marijuana use was observed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Early onset marfan syndrome: Atypical clinical presentation of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Ozyurt, A; Baykan, A; Argun, M; Pamukcu, O; Halis, H; Korkut, S; Yuksel, Z; Gunes, T; Narin, N

    2015-01-01

    Early onset Marfan Syndrome (eoMFS) is a rare, severe form of Marfan Syndrome (MFS). The disease has a poor prognosis and most patients present with resistance to heart failure treatment during the newborn period. This report presents two cases of eoMFS with similar clinical features diagnosed in the newborn period and who died at an early age due to the complications related to the involvement of the cardiovascular system. PMID:26929908

  5. Intraspinal anomalies in early-onset idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E A C; Oxenham, M; Lam, K S

    2017-06-01

    In the United Kingdom, lower incidences of intraspinal abnormalities in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis have been observed than in studies in other countries. We aimed to determine the rates of these abnormalities in United Kingdom patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis before the age of 11 years. This retrospective study of patients attending an urban scoliosis clinic identified 71 patients satisfying a criteria of: clinical diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis; age of onset ten years and 11 months or less; MRI screening for intraspinal abnormalities. United Kingdom census data combined with patient referral data was used to calculate incidence. Mean age at diagnosis was six years with 39 right-sided and 32 left-sided curves. Four patients (5.6%) were found to have intraspinal abnormalities on MRI. These consisted of: two combined Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformations with syrinx; one syrinx with a low lying conus; and one isolated syrinx. Overall annual incidence of early onset idiopathic scoliosis was one out of 182 000 (0.0006%). This study reports the lowest rates to date of intraspinal anomalies in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis, adding to knowledge regarding current incidences of these abnormalities as well as any geographical variation in the nature of the disease. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:829-33. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  6. Comprehensive genomic analysis identifies pathogenic variants in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients in South India.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Viswanathan; Radha, Venkatesan; Nguyen, Thong T; Stawiski, Eric W; Pahuja, Kanika Bajaj; Goldstein, Leonard D; Tom, Jennifer; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Kong-Beltran, Monica; Bhangale, Tushar; Jahnavi, Suresh; Chandni, Radhakrishnan; Gayathri, Vijay; George, Paul; Zhang, Na; Murugan, Sakthivel; Phalke, Sameer; Chaudhuri, Subhra; Gupta, Ravi; Zhang, Jingli; Santhosh, Sam; Stinson, Jeremy; Modrusan, Zora; Ramprasad, V L; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Peterson, Andrew S

    2018-02-13

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is an early-onset, autosomal dominant form of non-insulin dependent diabetes. Genetic diagnosis of MODY can transform patient management. Earlier data on the genetic predisposition to MODY have come primarily from familial studies in populations of European origin. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive genomic analysis of 289 individuals from India that included 152 clinically diagnosed MODY cases to identify variants in known MODY genes. Further, we have analyzed exome data to identify putative MODY relevant variants in genes previously not implicated in MODY. Functional validation of MODY relevant variants was also performed. We found MODY 3 (HNF1A; 7.2%) to be most frequently mutated followed by MODY 12 (ABCC8; 3.3%). They together account for ~ 11% of the cases. In addition to known MODY genes, we report the identification of variants in RFX6, WFS1, AKT2, NKX6-1 that may contribute to development of MODY. Functional assessment of the NKX6-1 variants showed that they are functionally impaired. Our findings showed HNF1A and ABCC8 to be the most frequently mutated MODY genes in south India. Further we provide evidence for additional MODY relevant genes, such as NKX6-1, and these require further validation.

  7. Early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without tics.

    PubMed

    de Mathis, Maria Alice; Diniz, Juliana B; Shavitt, Roseli G; Torres, Albina R; Ferrão, Ygor A; Fossaluza, Victor; Pereira, Carlos; Miguel, Eurípedes; do Rosario, Maria Conceicão

    2009-07-01

    Research suggests that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is not a unitary entity, but rather a highly heterogeneous condition, with complex and variable clinical manifestations. The aims of this study were to compare clinical and demographic characteristics of OCD patients with early and late age of onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS); and to compare the same features in early onset OCD with and without tics. The independent impact of age at onset and presence of tics on comorbidity patterns was investigated. Three hundred and thirty consecutive outpatients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD were evaluated: 160 patients belonged to the "early onset" group (EOG): before 11 years of age, 75 patients had an "intermediate onset" (IOG), and 95 patients were from the "late onset" group (LOG): after 18 years of age. From the 160 EOG, 60 had comorbidity with tic disorders. The diagnostic instruments used were: the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS), Yale Global Tics Severity Scale, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-patient edition. Statistical tests used were: Mann-Whitney, full Bayesian significance test, and logistic regression. The EOG had a predominance of males, higher frequency of family history of OCS, higher mean scores on the "aggression/violence" and "miscellaneous" dimensions, and higher mean global DY-BOCS scores. Patients with EOG without tic disorders presented higher mean global DY-BOCS scores and higher mean scores in the "contamination/cleaning" dimension. The current results disentangle some of the clinical overlap between early onset OCD with and without tics.

  8. Early Onset Marijuana Use Is Associated with Learning Inefficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Hoeppner, Susanne S.; Evins, A. Eden; Gilman, Jodi M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Verbal memory difficulties are the most widely reported and persistent cognitive deficit associated with early-onset marijuana use. Yet, it is not known what memory stages are most impaired in those with early marijuana use. Method Forty-eight young adults, aged 18–25, who used marijuana at least once per week and 48 matched non-using controls (CON) completed the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Marijuana users were stratified by age of initial use: ‘early onset’ users (EMJ), who started using marijuana at or before age 16 (n = 27), and ‘late onset’ marijuana user group (LMJ), who started using marijuana after age 16 (n = 21). Outcome variables included trial immediate recall, total learning, clustering strategies (semantic clustering, serial clustering, ratio of semantic to serial clustering, and total number of strategies used), delayed recall, and percent retention. Results Learning improved with repetition, with no group effect on the learning slope. EMJ learned fewer words overall than LMJ or CON. There was no difference between LMJ and CON in total number of words learned. Reduced overall learning mediated the effect on reduced delayed recall among EMJ, but not CON or LMJ. Learning improved with greater use of semantic versus serial encoding, but this did not vary between groups. EMJ was not related to delayed recall after adjusting for encoding. Conclusions Young adults reporting early onset marijuana use had learning weaknesses, which accounted for the association between early onset marijuana use and delayed recall. No amnestic effect of marijuana use was observed. PMID:26986749

  9. Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0013 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Margaret A. Pericak...relationship between SORL1, AD, and Parkinsonism . 16 Appendix V: ABCA7 Frameshift Deletion Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease in African Americans...onset Alzheimer disease identified using whole-exome sequencing G. W. Beecham1, B. W. Kunkle1, B. Vardarajan2, P. L. Whitehead1, S . Rolati1, E. R

  10. Premature adrenarche: novel lessons from early onset androgen excess.

    PubMed

    Idkowiak, Jan; Lavery, Gareth G; Dhir, Vivek; Barrett, Timothy G; Stewart, Paul M; Krone, Nils; Arlt, Wiebke

    2011-08-01

    Adrenarche reflects the maturation of the adrenal zona reticularis resulting in increased secretion of the adrenal androgen precursor DHEA and its sulphate ester DHEAS. Premature adrenarche (PA) is defined by increased levels of DHEA and DHEAS before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys and the concurrent presence of signs of androgen action including adult-type body odour, oily skin and hair and pubic hair growth. PA is distinct from precocious puberty, which manifests with the development of secondary sexual characteristics including testicular growth and breast development. Idiopathic PA (IPA) has long been considered an extreme of normal variation, but emerging evidence links IPA to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS) and thus ultimately cardiovascular morbidity. Areas of controversy include the question whether IPA in girls is associated with a higher rate of progression to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and whether low birth weight increases the risk of developing IPA. The recent discoveries of two novel monogenic causes of early onset androgen excess, apparent cortisone reductase deficiency and apparent DHEA sulphotransferase deficiency, support the notion that PA may represent a forerunner condition for PCOS. Future research including carefully designed longitudinal studies is required to address the apparent link between early onset androgen excess and the development of insulin resistance and the MS.

  11. Alertness and cognitive control: Testing the early onset hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Darryl W

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has revealed a peculiar interaction between alertness and cognitive control in selective-attention tasks: Congruency effects are larger on alert trials (on which an alerting cue is presented briefly in advance of the imperative stimulus) than on no-alert trials, despite shorter response times (RTs) on alert trials. One explanation for this finding is the early onset hypothesis, which is based on the assumptions that increased alertness shortens stimulus-encoding time and that cognitive control involves gradually focusing attention during a trial. The author tested the hypothesis in 3 experiments by manipulating alertness and stimulus quality (which were intended to shorten and lengthen stimulus-encoding time, respectively) in an arrow-based flanker task involving congruent and incongruent stimuli. Replicating past findings, the alerting manipulation led to shorter RTs but larger congruency effects on alert trials than on no-alert trials. The stimulus-quality manipulation led to longer RTs and larger congruency effects for degraded stimuli than for intact stimuli. These results provide mixed support for the early onset hypothesis, but the author discusses how data and theory might be reconciled if stimulus quality affects stimulus-encoding time and the rate of evidence accumulation in the decision process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Dudova, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) have been successfully used in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). This review summarizes the randomized, double-blind, controlled studies of AAPs in EOS, including clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole, paliperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. No significant differences in efficacy between AAPs were found, with the exception of clozapine and ziprasidone. Clozapine demonstrated superior efficacy in treatment-resistant patients with EOS, whereas ziprasidone failed to demonstrate efficacy in the treatment of EOS. Our review also focuses on the onset of action and weight gain associated with AAPs. The data on onset of action of AAPs in pediatric psychiatry are scanty and inconsistent. Olanzapine appears to cause the most significant weight gain in patients with EOS, while ziprasidone and aripiprazole seem to cause the least. PMID:25897226

  13. Childhood Risk Factors for Early-Onset Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is relatively little research on the childhood antecedent predictors of early-onset alcohol use. This study examined an array of psychosocial variables assessed at age 10 and reflecting Problem Behavior Theory as potential antecedent risk factors for the initiation of alcohol use at age 14 or younger. Method: A sample of 452 children (238 girls) ages 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random-digit dialing procedures. Children and parents were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the age-10 univariate and multivariate predictors of the initiation of alcohol use by age 14 or younger. Results: Twenty-five percent of the sample reported having more than a sip or a taste of alcohol in their life by age 14. Sex, race, and age cohort did not relate to early drinking status. Children with two parents were less likely to initiate drinking early. Early initiation of drinking related significantly to an array of antecedent risk factors (personality, social environment, and behavioral) assessed at age 10 that reflect psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. In the multivariate model, the variables most predictive of early-onset drinking were having a single parent, sipping or tasting alcohol by age 10, having parents who also started drinking at an early age, and parental drinking frequency. Conclusions: Initiation of alcohol use by age 14 reflects childhood psychosocial proneness to engage in problem behavior as measured by Problem Behavior Theory and having a family environment conducive to alcohol use. PMID:21906502

  14. Escherichia coli early-onset sepsis: trends over two decades.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Palomar, Natalia; Balasch-Carulla, Milena; González-Di Lauro, Sabina; Céspedes, Maria Concepció; Andreu, Antònia; Frick, Marie Antoinette; Linde, Maria Ángeles; Soler-Palacin, Pere

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia coli early-onset sepsis (EOS) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, especially in preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. The aim of our study was to evaluate potential changes in the clinical and microbiological characteristics of E. coli EOS in our setting. Epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological data from all neonates with proven E. coli EOS from January 1994 to December 2014 were retrospectively collected in a single tertiary care hospital in Barcelona (Spain). Seventy-eight E. coli EOS cases were analyzed. A slight increase in the incidence of E. coli EOS was observed during the study period. VLBW newborns remained the group with higher incidence (10.4 cases per 1000 live births) and mortality (35.3%). Systematic use of PCR increased E. coli EOS diagnosis, mainly in the term newborn group. There was an increase in resistant E. coli strains causing EOS, with especially high resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin (92.8 and 28.6%, respectively). Nonetheless, resistant strains were not associated with poorer clinical outcomes. There is an urgent need to reconsider the empirical therapy used in neonatal EOS, particularly in VLBW newborns. What is Known: • E. coli early-onset sepsis (EOS) and E. coli resistant strains have been described as overall stable but increasing in VLBW neonates (< 1.500 g) in previous studies. What is New: • Our study shows an increasing incidence of E. coli EOS in all age groups, overruling group B Streptoccocus for the last 10 years. E. coli resistant strains also increased equally in all age groups, with high resistance rates to our first line antibiotics (ampicillin and gentamicin). • Empiric antibiotic therapy of EOS, mainly in VLBW newborns, should be adapted to this new scenario.

  15. Slowly progressive insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with pernicious anemia.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Jun; Hata, Shoichi; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Naoko

    2010-01-01

    A 59-year-old man was found to have diabetes mellitus five months after the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. Although the urinary C-peptide level corresponded to a non-insulin-dependent stage (39.9 microg/day), the markedly extremely elevated titers of GAD antibody suggested that this case very likely represented a non-insulin-dependent stage of slowly progressive insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM). Because thyroid and adrenal functions were normal, this our case was not considered to be polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PGAS). We report this case because patients with pernicious anemia and SPIDDM in the absence of PGAS are rare in Japan.

  16. Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes through a Physically Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Raymond W.; Kamla, Jim; Lee, Man-Cheong; Mak, Jennifer Y.

    2007-01-01

    The general decrease in physical activity in the United States population has led to an increase of cases of type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM), obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Remarkable scientific advancements have been made toward understanding the beneficial effects of physical activity…

  17. Sociodemographic Factors and Self-Management Practices Related to Type 2 Diabetes among Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti; Tejeda, Silvia; Godina, Ruby; Chen, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Context: Hispanics in the United States have a higher prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) and experience more complications for the disease than non-Hispanic whites. Differences in medical management or self-management practices may, in part, explain the relative high risk for diabetes complications among…

  18. Genomic Analyses of Patients With Unexplained Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaochong; Gotway, Garrett; Rathjen, Karl; Johnston, Charles; Sparagana, Steven; Wise, Carol A

    2014-09-01

    To test for rare genetic mutations, a cohort of patients with unexplained early-onset scoliosis (EOS) was screened using high-density microarray genotyping. A cohort of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was similarly screened and the results were compared. Patients with scoliosis in infancy or early childhood (EOS) are at high risk for progressive deformity and associated problems including respiratory compromise. Early-onset scoliosis is frequently associated with genetic disorders but many patients present with nonspecific clinical features and without an associated diagnosis. The authors hypothesized that EOS in these patients may be caused by rare genetic mutations detectable by next-generation genomic methods. The researchers identified 24 patients with unexplained EOS from pediatric orthopedic clinics. They genotyped them, along with 39 connecting family members, using the Illumina OmniExpress-12, version 1.0 beadchip. Resulting genotypes were analyzed for chromosomal changes, specifically copy number variation and absence of heterozygosity. They screened 482 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and 744 healthy controls, who were similarly genotyped with the same beadchip, for chromosomal changes identified in the EOS cohort. Copy number variation and absence of heterozygosity analyses revealed a genetic diagnosis of chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome in 1 patient and maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 in a second one. Prior genetic testing and clinical evaluations had been negative in both cases. A large novel chromosome 10 deletion was likely causal in a third EOS patient. These mutations identified in the EOS patients were absent in AIS patients and controls, and thus were not associated with AIS or found in asymptomatic individuals. These data underscore the usefulness of updated genetic evaluations including high-density microarray-based genotyping and other next-generation methods in patients with unexplained

  19. Neurocognition in early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Stephen R; Giuliano, Anthony J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A; Findling, Robert L; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship of different variables of illness severity and adaptive behavior to neuropsychological functioning. Participants ranged in age from 8 to 19 years. Diagnostic status was confirmed via structured interview over multiple time points. Domains of neuropsychological functioning included fine-motor, attention, working memory, problem-solving efficiency, inhibitory control, and social cognition. Other variables included intelligence (IQ), academic achievement skills, adaptive behavior, and different measures of illness severity. The two groups did not differ on IQ or on any of the neuropsychological domains. The SZ group performed significantly lower in spelling. A high proportion of individuals in both groups reflected significant intellectual and academic achievement skill deficits. Significant correlations were found between the neurocognitive domains and both illness severity and adaptive behavior variables. There were few differences between the SZ and SA groups on IQ, achievement, or neuropsychological functioning; however, both groups showed significantly high rates of deficits in IQ and basic academic skills. Correlations of the neurocognitive functions with illness severity and adaptive behavior were small to moderate in magnitude. These findings continue to implicate the importance of neurocognitive functioning as a key area of vulnerability in the study of youth with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  20. Sex-specific cognitive abnormalities in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel; Moreno-Granados, Josefa; Salcedo-Marin, Maria D; Barrigon, Maria L; Blanco-Morales, Maria J; Igunza, Evelio; Cañabate, Anselmo; Garcia, Maria D; Guijarro, Teresa; Diaz-Atienza, Francisco; Ferrin, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls. We compared a group of 80 boys and girls with first-episode psychosis to a group of controls. We found interactions between group and sex in verbal working memory (p = 0.04) and auditory attention (p = 0.01). The female controls showed better working memory (p = 0.01) and auditory attention (p = 0.001) than males. However, we did not find any sex differences in working memory (p = 0.91) or auditory attention (p = 0.93) in the psychosis group. These results are consistent with the presence of sex-modulated cognitive profiles at first presentation of early-onset psychosis.

  1. Early-onset schizophrenia: Symptoms and social class of origin.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Bernard J; Jones, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    The genesis of schizophrenia is multifactorial, including biological and environmental risk factors. We tested for an interactive effect between early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and social class of origins (socioeconomic status (SES)). Data were further analyzed for a possible connection to type of schizophrenic symptoms. Sampling/Methods: Data for the study are taken from the medical records of 642 patients from a large state hospital in the northeastern United States. Clinical assessments were divided into positive and negative symptomatology through application of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Detailed information about age of onset and SES of origin was obtained through Social Service Assessment interviews. We uncovered a significant impact of EOS among the poor that elevates risk for negative symptomatology. Poor SES alone does not increase the likelihood of EOS, but it magnifies the deleterious effect of EOS on negative symptoms. Future research on these variables may inform the relative contribution of each.

  2. Early-onset dementias: diagnostic and etiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the body of literature about early-onset dementia (EOD) that led to recommendations from the Fourth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia. A broader differential diagnosis is required for EOD compared with late-onset dementia. Delays in diagnosis are common, and the social impact of EOD requires special care teams. The etiologies underlying EOD syndromes should take into account family history and comorbid diseases, such as cerebrovascular risk factors, that may influence the clinical presentation and age at onset. For example, although many EODs are more likely to have Mendelian genetic and/or metabolic causes, the presence of comorbidities may drive the individual at risk for late-onset dementia to manifest the symptoms at an earlier age, which contributes further to the observed heterogeneity and may confound diagnostic investigation. A personalized medicine approach to diagnosis should therefore be considered depending on the age at onset, clinical presentation, and comorbidities. Genetic counseling and testing as well as specialized biochemical screening are often required, especially in those under the age of 40 and in those with a family history of autosomal dominant or recessive disease. Novel treatments in the drug development pipeline for EOD, such as genetic forms of Alzheimer's disease, should target the specific pathogenic cascade implicated by the mutation or biochemical defect. PMID:24565469

  3. Facial emotion identification in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Barkl, Sophie J; Lah, Suncica; Starling, Jean; Hainsworth, Cassandra; Harris, Anthony W F; Williams, Leanne M

    2014-12-01

    Facial emotion identification (FEI) deficits are common in patients with chronic schizophrenia and are strongly related to impaired functioning. The objectives of this study were to determine whether FEI deficits are present and emotion specific in people experiencing early-onset psychosis (EOP), and related to current clinical symptoms and functioning. Patients with EOP (n=34, mean age=14.11, 53% female) and healthy controls (HC, n=42, mean age 13.80, 51% female) completed a task of FEI that measured accuracy, error pattern and response time. Relative to HC, patients with EOP (i) had lower accuracy for identifying facial expressions of emotions, especially fear, anger and disgust, (ii) were more likely to misattribute other emotional expressions as fear or disgust, and (iii) were slower at accurately identifying all facial expressions. FEI accuracy was not related to clinical symptoms or current functioning. Deficits in FEI (especially for fear, anger and disgust) are evident in EOP. Our findings suggest that while emotion identification deficits may reflect a trait susceptibility marker, functional deficits may represent a sequelae of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biallelic TBCD Mutations Cause Early-Onset Neurodegenerative Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Noriko; Fukai, Ryoko; Ohba, Chihiro; Chihara, Takahiro; Miura, Masayuki; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Imagawa, Eri; Shiina, Masaaki; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Okuno-Yuguchi, Jiu; Fueki, Noboru; Ogiso, Yoshifumi; Suzumura, Hiroshi; Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Imataka, George; Leong, Huey Yin; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Kramer, Uri; Miyatake, Satoko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Nishino, Ichizo; Kaneko, Naofumi; Nishiyama, Akira; Tamura, Tomohiko; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-10-06

    We describe four families with affected siblings showing unique clinical features: early-onset (before 1 year of age) progressive diffuse brain atrophy with regression, postnatal microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, muscle weakness/atrophy, and respiratory failure. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified biallelic TBCD mutations in eight affected individuals from the four families. TBCD encodes TBCD (tubulin folding co-factor D), which is one of five tubulin-specific chaperones playing a pivotal role in microtubule assembly in all cells. A total of seven mutations were found: five missense mutations, one nonsense, and one splice site mutation resulting in a frameshift. In vitro cell experiments revealed the impaired binding between most mutant TBCD proteins and ARL2, TBCE, and β-tubulin. The in vivo experiments using olfactory projection neurons in Drosophila melanogaster indicated that the TBCD mutations caused loss of function. The wide range of clinical severity seen in this neurodegenerative encephalopathy may result from the residual function of mutant TBCD proteins. Furthermore, the autopsied brain from one deceased individual showed characteristic neurodegenerative findings: cactus and somatic sprout formations in the residual Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, which are also seen in some diseases associated with mitochondrial impairment. Defects of microtubule formation caused by TBCD mutations may underlie the pathomechanism of this neurodegenerative encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Deferred and immediate imitation in regressive and early onset autism

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Sally J.; Young, Gregory S.; Cook, Ian; Giolzetti, Angelo; Ozonoff, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Deferred imitation has long held a privileged position in early cognitive development, considered an early marker of representational thought with links to language development and symbolic processes. Children with autism have difficulties with several abilities generally thought to be related to deferred imitation: immediate imitation, language, and symbolic play. However, few studies have examined deferred imitation in early autism. The present study examined both deferred, spontaneous imitation and immediate, elicited imitation on a set of carefully matched tasks in 36 young children with autism: 16 with early onset autism, 20 with regressive autism and two contrast groups, younger typically developing children (n = 20) and age matched children with significant developmental delays (n = 21). Analyses of co-variance controlling for differences in verbal mental age revealed significant main effects for task, but no main effect of group and no interaction of task by group. Deferred imitation scores were lower than immediate imitation scores for all groups. Imitation performance was related to overall intellectual functioning for all groups, and there were moderate and significant relations between imitation in the immediate elicited condition and in the spontaneous deferred condition for all groups. Finally, there were no differences between onset subgroups in imitation scores, suggesting that the two share a similar phenotype involving both types of imitation. PMID:18221343

  6. Early-onset arthritis in retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Golightly, Yvonne M; Marshall, Stephen W; Callahan, Leigh F; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    Injury has been identified as a potential risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, no previous study has addressed playing-career injuries and subsequent osteoarthritis in a large sample of former athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and determinants of arthritis and osteoarthritis in retired professional football players. Self-reported arthritis prevalence and retrospectively-recalled injury history were examined in a cross-sectional survey of 2,538 retired football players. Football players reported a high incidence of injury from their professional playing days (52.8% reported knee injuries, 74.1% reported ligament/tendon injuries, and 14.2% reported anterior cruciate ligament tears). For those under 60 years, 40.6% of retired NFL players reported arthritis, compared with 11.7% of U.S. males (prevalence ratio = 3.5, 95% CI: 3.3 to 3.7). Within the retired NFL player cohort, osteoarthritis was more prevalent in those with a history of knee injury (prevalence ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5 to 1.9) and ligament/tendon injury (prevalence ratio = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4 to 1.9). In males under the age of 60, arthritis is over 3 times more prevalent in retired NFL players than in the general U.S. population. This excess of early-onset arthritis may be due to the high incidence of injury in football.

  7. Psychosocial impact of early onset dementia among caregivers.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Nathália R S; Maffioletti, Virgínia L R; Santos, Raquel L; Baptista, Maria Alice Tourinho; Dourado, Marcia C N

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of early onset dementia (EOD) as a significant clinical and social problem because of its effects on physical and mental health of people with dementia (PWD) and their caregivers. To analyze the psychosocial impact of EOD in family caregivers. The study design was qualitative. Nine EOD caregivers (7 women) were recruited at a service for Alzheimer's disease and assessed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze caregivers' reports. Five themes emerged from the narratives: psychological and emotional impact; physical impact; financial and professional impact; social impact and need for support services. The majority of the caregivers of people with EOD perceived their emotional wellbeing as poor or extremely poor. Carers reported poor physical health, which tends to be longer-lasting than mental health problems. Two caregivers had to retire after the disclosure of the dementia diagnosis, and seven reduced their work loads because they had to look after PWD. Preserving the abilities of PWD is essential to maintain their self-esteem, dignity and sense of utility. For the caregivers, interventions and stimulating activities make PWD feel worthwhile and contribute to improving life. The caregivers of people with EOD assume the role of caregiver prematurely and need to balance this activity with other responsibilities. There is a need for more studies of EOD in order to improve understanding of the impact of this disease and to enable development of adequate services for PWD and their caregivers.

  8. Molecular genetics of early-onset Alzheimer's disease revisited.

    PubMed

    Cacace, Rita; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2016-06-01

    As the discovery of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) genes, APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2, in families with autosomal dominant early-onset AD (EOAD), gene discovery in familial EOAD came more or less to a standstill. Only 5% of EOAD patients are carrying a pathogenic mutation in one of the AD genes or a apolipoprotein E (APOE) risk allele ε4, most of EOAD patients remain unexplained. Here, we aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of EOAD genetics and its role in ongoing approaches to understand the biology of AD and disease symptomatology as well as developing new therapeutics. Next, we explored the possible molecular mechanisms that might underlie the missing genetic etiology of EOAD and discussed how the use of massive parallel sequencing technologies triggered novel gene discoveries. To conclude, we commented on the relevance of reinvestigating EOAD patients as a means to explore potential new avenues for translational research and therapeutic discoveries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The M16 mouse: an outbred animal model of early onset polygenic obesity and diabesity.

    PubMed

    Allan, Mark F; Eisen, Eugene J; Pomp, Daniel

    2004-09-01

    To characterize the phenotypic consequences of long-term selective breeding for rapid weight gain, with an emphasis on obesity and obesity-induced diabetes (diabesity). M16 is the result of long-term selection for 3- to 6-week weight gain from an ICR base population. Experiment 1 characterized males from both lines for body weights (3, 6, and 8 weeks), feed (4 to 8 weeks) and H(2)O (6 to 8 weeks) consumption, and heat loss, body composition, and levels of several plasma proteins at 8 weeks of age. Experiment 2 characterized differences between lines for both sexes at three ages (6, 8, and 16 weeks) and fed two diets (high and normal fat). Body weight, composition, blood glucose, and plasma insulin and leptin levels were evaluated after an 8-hour fast. At all ages measured, M16 mice were heavier, fatter, hyperphagic, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperleptinemic relative to ICR. M16 males and females were hyperglycemic relative to ICR, with 56% and 22% higher fasted blood glucose levels at 8 weeks of age. M16 mice represent an outbred animal model to facilitate gene discovery and pathway regulation controlling early onset polygenic obesity and type 2 diabetic phenotypes. Phenotypes prevalent in the M16 model, with obesity and diabesity exhibited at a young age, closely mirror current trends in human populations.

  10. Complications of growth-sparing surgery in early onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Emans, John B

    2010-12-01

    Review of available literature, authors' opinion. To describe complications associated with growth-sparing surgical treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS). EOS has many potential etiologies and is often associated with thoracic insufficiency syndrome. The growth of the spine, thorax, and lungs are interrelated, and severe EOS typically involves disturbance of the normal development of all 3. Severe EOS may be treated during growth with surgical techniques, intended to preserve growth while controlling deformity, the most common of which are spinal "growing rods" (GR) or "vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib" (VEPTR). Although presently popular, there is minimal long-term data on the outcome of growth-sparing surgical techniques on EOS. Review. Potential adverse outcomes of GR or VEPTR treatment of EOS include failure to prevent progressive deformity or thoracic insufficiency syndrome, an unacceptably short or stiff spine or deformed thorax, increased family burden of care, and potentially negative psychological consequences from repeated surgical interventions. Neither technique reliably controls all deformity over the entirety of growth period. Infections are common to both GR and VEPTR. Rod breakage and spontaneous premature spinal fusion beneath rods are troublesome complications in GR, whereas drift of rib attachments and chest wall scarring are anticipated complications in VEPTR treatment. Indications for GR and VEPTR overlap, but thoracogenic scoliosis and severe upper thoracic kyphosis are best treated by VEPTR and GR, respectively. Surgeons planning treatment of EOS should anticipate the many complications common to growth-sparing surgery, share their knowledge with families, and use complications as one factor in the complex decision as to when and whether to initiate the repetitive surgeries associated with GR or VEPTR in the treatment of severe EOS.

  11. Incidence of early-onset dementia in Mar del Plata.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Abraham, M; Scharovsky, D; Romano, L M; Ayala, M; Aleman, A; Sottano, E; Etchepareborda, I; Colla Machado, C; García, M I; Gonorazky, S E

    2015-03-01

    Early-onset dementia (EOD) is defined as dementia with onset before the age of 65 years. EOD is increasingly recognised as an important clinical and social problem with devastating consequences for patients and caregivers. Determine the annual crude incidence rate and the specific incidence rates by sex and age in patients with EOD, and the standardised rate using the last national census of the population of Argentina (NCPA), from 2010. Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina, attends a closed population and is the sole healthcare provider for 17 614 people. Using the database pertaining to the Geriatric Care department, we identified all patients diagnosed with EOD between 1 January, 2005 and 31 December, 2011. EOD was defined as dementia diagnosed in patients younger than 65. The study period yielded 14 patients diagnosed with EOD out of a total of 287 patients evaluated for memory concerns. The crude annual incidence of EOD was 11 per 100 000/year (CI 95%: 6.25-19.1): 17 per 100 000 (CI 95%: 7.2-33.1) in men and 8 per 100 000 (CI 95%: 3.4-17.2) in women. We observed a statistically significant increase when comparing incidence rates between patients aged 21 to <55 years and ≥ 55 to <65 years (3 vs 22 per 100 000, P=.0014). The rate adjusted by NCPA census data was 5.8 cases of EOD habitants/year. This study, conducted in a closed population, yielded an EOD incidence rate of 11 per 100 000 inhabitants/year. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective epidemiological study in Argentina and in Latin America. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Rationale, Design, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E.; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early…

  13. Early Onset Recurrent Subtype of Adolescent Depression: Clinical and Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Herr, Nathaniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Evaluated trajectories of adolescent depression and their correlates in a longitudinal study of a community sample: early onset (by age 15) with major depression (MDE) recurrence between 15 and 20; early onset with no recurrence; later onset of major depression after age 15 with and without recurrence by 20; and never-depressed.…

  14. Social Status of Adolescents with an Early Onset of Externalizing Behavior: The SNARE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Aart; Harakeh, Zeena; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the social status (i.e., popularity, likeability, and friendships) of adolescents with an early onset of externalizing behavior (i.e., alcohol use, tobacco use, and antisocial behavior). Building on Moffitt's dual-taxonomy model, it was hypothesized that early onset adolescents were more popular, but not necessarily more…

  15. Early onset prostate cancer has a significant genetic component.

    PubMed

    Lange, Ethan M; Salinas, Claudia A; Zuhlke, Kimberly A; Ray, Anna M; Wang, Yunfei; Lu, Yurong; Ho, Lindsey A; Luo, Jingchun; Cooney, Kathleen A

    2012-02-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) affects more than 190,000 men each year with ∼10% of men diagnosed at ≤55 years, that is, early onset (EO) PCa. Based on historical findings for other cancers, EO PCa likely reflects a stronger underlying genetic etiology. We evaluated the association between EO PCa and previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 754 Caucasian cases from the Michigan Prostate Cancer Genetics Project (mean 49.8 years at diagnosis), 2,713 Caucasian controls from Illumina's iControlDB database and 1,163 PCa cases diagnosed at >55 years from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility Study (CGEMS). Significant associations existed for 13 of 14 SNPs (rs9364554 on 6q25, rs10486567 on 7p15, rs6465657 on 7q21, rs6983267 on 8q24, rs1447295 on 8q24, rs1571801 on 9q33, rs10993994 on 10q11, rs4962416 on 10q26, rs7931342 on 11q13, rs4430796 on 17q12, rs1859962 on 17q24.3, rs2735839 on 19q13, and rs5945619 on Xp11.22, but not rs2660753 on 3p12). EO PCa cases had a significantly greater cumulative number of risk alleles (mean 12.4) than iControlDB controls (mean 11.2; P = 2.1 × 10(-33)) or CGEMS cases (mean 11.9; P = 1.7 × 10(-5)). Notably, EO PCa cases had a higher frequency of the risk allele than CGEMS cases at 11 of 13 associated SNPs, with significant differences for five SNPs. EO PCa cases diagnosed at <50 (mean 12.8) also had significantly more risk alleles than those diagnosed at 50-55 years (mean 12.1; P = 0.0003). These results demonstrate the potential for identifying PCa-associated genetic variants by focusing on the subgroup of men diagnosed with EO disease. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Early Onset Prostate Cancer Has A Significant Genetic Component

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Ethan M.; Salinas, Claudia A.; Zuhlke, Kimberly A.; Ray, Anna M.; Wang, Yunfei; Lu, Yurong; Ho, Lindsey A.; Luo, Jingchun; Cooney, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostate cancer (PCa) affects more than 190,000 men each year with ~10% of men diagnosed at ≤ 55 years, i.e., early onset (EO) PCa. Based on historical findings for other cancers, EO PCa likely reflects a stronger underlying genetic etiology. METHODS We evaluated the association between EO PCa and previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 754 Caucasian cases from the Michigan Prostate Cancer Genetics Project (mean 49.8 years at diagnosis), 2,713 Caucasian controls from Illumina’s iControlDB database and 1,163 PCa cases diagnosed at >55 years from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility Study (CGEMS). RESULTS Significant associations existed for 13 of 14 SNPs (rs9364554 on 6q25, rs10486567 on 7p15, rs6465657 on 7q21, rs6983267 on 8q24, rs1447295 on 8q24, rs1571801 on 9q33, rs10993994 on 10q11, rs4962416 on 10q26, rs7931342 on 11q13, rs4430796 on 17q12, rs1859962 on 17q24.3, rs2735839 on 19q13, and rs5945619 on Xp11.22, but not rs2660753 on 3p12). EO PCa cases had a significantly greater cumulative number of risk alleles (mean 12.4) than iControlDB controls (mean 11.2; p=2.1×10−33) or CGEMS cases (mean 11.9; p=1.7 × 10−5). Notably, EO PCa cases had a higher frequency of the risk allele than CGEMS cases at 11 of13 associated SNPs, with significant differences for five SNPs. EO PCa cases diagnosed at <50 (mean 12.8) also had significantly more risk alleles than those diagnosed at 50–55 years (mean 12.1; p = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate the potential for identifying PCa-associated genetic variants by focusing on the subgroup of men diagnosed with EO disease. PMID:21538423

  17. Early onset scoliosis with intraspinal anomalies: management with growing rod.

    PubMed

    Jayaswal, Arvind; Kandwal, Pankaj; Goswami, Ankur; Vijayaraghavan, G; Jariyal, Ashok; Upendra, B N; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes of growing rod (GR) in the management of Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS) with intraspinal anomalies. The effect of repeated distractions following GR, in the presence of intraspinal anomalies has not been studied. During 2007-2012, 46 patients underwent fusionless surgery. Out of these 46 patients, 13 patients had one or more intraspinal anomalies. 11 patients had undergone prior neurosurgical procedure while 2 (filum terminale lipoma and syringomyelia) did not. A total of 88 procedures were conducted during the treatment period; 13 index surgeries, 74 distractions of GR and 1 unplanned surgery. The age at surgery was 6.8 ± 2.5 years (3.5-12 years). 11 patients had congenital scoliosis and 2 had idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 19 (41.30 %) intraspinal anomalies [Tethered Cord Syndrome (TCS) 08, Split Cord Malformation (SCM) 08, Syringomyelia 01, Meningomyelocele 01, Filum terminale Lipoma 01] were seen. The average lengthening procedures per patient were 5.7 (4-9) with distraction interval of 6.7 (6-7.25) months. Pre-operative Cobb angle was 78.50 ± 18.1 (54-114°) and improved to 53.10 ± 16.70 (36-84°) at final follow-up. A total of 15 complications related to implant (9), wound (2), anesthesia (2) and neurological (2) occurred in 7 patients. Among the two neurological complications, one patient sustained fall in the post-op period and reported to the emergency department with paraplegia and broken proximal screw. While other patient experienced MEP changes during index procedure. None of the patients had any neurological complications during repeated lengthening procedures. The most common cord anomalies associated with EOS in our study are TCS and SCM. Although presence of previous intraspinal anomaly does not seem to increase the incidence of neurological deficit, use of neuromonitoring is advisable for all index procedure and selected distractions. Level 4 (case series).

  18. Mothers' experience of caring for a child with early onset scoliosis: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lauder, Bonnie; Sinclair, Peter M; Maguire, Jane

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify and describe the experience of parents of children diagnosed with early onset scoliosis living in Australia. Chronic childhood disease has a major impact on health-related quality of life. Caring for a child with a chronic illness is well documented but the specific experiences of parents who care for children with early onset scoliosis, a rare but devastating illness, has not been explored. Numerous studies have described the interrelated psychological, financial, social, physical and logistical factors that impact the experience of the caregiver role with various diseases, but in the case of early onset scoliosis, limited studies have been conducted about the parental experience. A qualitative descriptive design was used. A snowball sampling technique assisted in the recruitment. Parents invited to the study included mothers, fathers and guardians. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Data collection complied with the Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research guidelines. Twelve mothers of children with early onset scoliosis were interviewed, as only mothers consented to participate. Four major themes emerged: emotional rollercoaster ride, a lack of resources, money talks and pervasive burden. Factors that impacted on the participants' ability to confront, manage and endure caring for a child with early onset scoliosis emerged from the data. The findings suggest there are multiple factors that influence the experience of mothers' caring for a child with early onset scoliosis. The recognition and appropriate management of these factors by healthcare professionals have the potential to improve the quality of life of parents who care for a child with early onset scoliosis. Healthcare professionals have first-line contact with parents of children with early onset scoliosis and are well placed to provide parents with evidence-based education

  19. [Metabolic side effects of risperidone in early onset schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Goeb, J-L; Marco, S; Duhamel, A; Kechid, G; Bordet, R; Thomas, P; Delion, P; Jardri, R

    2010-06-01

    Atypical antipsychotics have a favourable risk/benefit profile in early onset schizophrenia (EOS). However, despite increasing use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents, their endocrine and metabolic side-effects (weight gain, obesity, and related metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia) are of particular concern, especially within this paediatric population that appears to be at greater risk as compared with adults for antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects. In addition to medication, many factors contribute to weigh gain in psychiatric patients, including sedentary lifestyle and poor diet. Excessive weigh gain has several deleterious effects in psychiatric patients, including stigmatization and further social withdrawal, and non compliance with medication. Furthermore, excessive corpulence may evolve to a metabolic syndrome with a high-risk state for future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adult age. Because youths are still developing at the time of psychotropic drug exposure, in a context of physiological changes in hormonal and endocrines levels and body composition, most reference values need to be adjusted for gender, age and growth charts. Hence, sex- and age-adjusted BMI percentiles and BMI Z scores are crucial to assess weight gain in children and adolescents. Obesity thresholds have been proposed to define "at risk" categories of patients. In recently issued guidelines, thresholds for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in adults have been set at a 5% increase or one point increase in BMI unit. To date, no definition has reached a consensus in childhood and adolescence. However, some at risk states requiring action are proposed in literature: more than 5% increase in weight within a three-month period; more than half a point increase in BMI Z score; between 85th and 95th BMI percentile plus one adverse health consequence (i.e. hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, or

  20. Diagnosis and prognosis of early-onset intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Gu, Wei; Hou, Yanyan

    2017-11-07

    To explore the gestational age of early-onset intrahepatic cholestasis (ICP) of pregnancy, and to analyze the relationship between the clinical biochemical indices and pregnancy outcomes in order to arrive at a reasonable diagnosis and administer appropriate treatment. This is a retrospective clinical study. We selected 47,260 pregnant women who received prenatal care and underwent childbirth at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University from January 2014 to December 2016 for participating in this study. Of these 47,260 women, 407 developed ICP. To calculate the gestational week cutoff between early- and late-onset ICP by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Youden's index. Two independent samples t tests and chi square test were used to compare the differences in biochemical indices and pregnancy outcomes between the two groups. We found that 34 weeks is the most appropriate cutoff gestational age for the diagnosis of early-onset ICP. Early-onset ICP is characterized by early onset, long disease duration and a higher incidence of preterm labor, fetal distress, and fetal low birth weight compared to late-onset ICP. Thirty-four weeks is the most appropriate cutoff gestational age for the diagnosis of early-onset ICP. And to reduce the adverse pregnancy outcomes in cases of early-onset ICP, we suggest prolonging gestation up to 37 weeks as far as possible before selecting iatrogenic birth.

  1. Differential Neurodevelopmental Trajectories in Patients With Early-Onset Bipolar and Schizophrenia Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders share not only clinical features but also some risk factors such as genetic markers and childhood adversity, while other risk factors such as urbanicity and obstetric complications seem to be specific to schizophrenia. An intriguing question is whether the well-established abnormal neurodevelopment present in many children and adolescents who eventually develop schizophrenia is also present in bipolar patients. The literature on adult bipolar patients is controversial. We report data on a subgroup of patients with pediatric-onset psychotic bipolar disorder who seem to share some developmental trajectories with patients with early-onset schizophrenia. These early-onset psychotic bipolar patients have low intelligence quotient, more neurological signs, reduced frontal gray matter at the time of their first psychotic episode, and greater brain changes than healthy controls in a pattern similar to early-onset schizophrenia cases. However, patients with early-onset schizophrenia seem to have more social impairment, developmental abnormalities (eg, language problems), and lower academic achievement in childhood than early-onset bipolar patients. We suggest that some of these abnormal developmental trajectories are more related to the phenotypic features (eg, early-onset psychotic symptoms) of these 2 syndromes than to categorically defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders disorders. PMID:24371326

  2. Early Onset Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Among Chilean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Lorena Sonia; Blanco, Estela; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indicators have increased globally among the pediatric population. MetS indicators in the young elevate their risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders later in life. This study examined early onset obesity as a risk factor for MetS risk in adolescence. Methods A cohort of Chilean participants (N = 673) followed from infancy was assessed at age 5 years and in adolescence (mean age, 16.8 y). Adiposity was measured at both time points; blood pressure and fasting blood samples were assessed in adolescence only. Early onset obesity was defined as a World Health Organization z score of 2 standard deviations (SDs) or more for body mass index (BMI) at age 5 years. We used linear regression to examine the association between early onset obesity and adolescent MetS risk z score, adjusting for covariates. Results Eighteen percent of participants had early onset obesity, and 50% of these remained obese in adolescence. Mean MetS risk z score in adolescence was significantly higher among those with early onset obesity than among those without (1.0; SD, 0.8 vs 0.2; SD, 0.8 [P < .001]). In the multivariable model, early onset obesity independently contributed to a higher MetS risk score in adolescence (β = 0.27, P < .001), controlling for obesity status at adolescence and sex, and explained 39% of the variance in MetS risk. Conclusion Early onset obesity as young as age 5 years relates to higher MetS risk. PMID:29023232

  3. The clinical and histopathological characteristics of early-onset basal cell carcinoma in Asians.

    PubMed

    Yang, M Y; Kim, J M; Kim, G W; Mun, J H; Song, M; Ko, H C; Kim, B S; Kim, H S; Kim, M B

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is by far the most common cancer in white populations. In addition, recent reports have demonstrated an increasing incidence of BCC in Korea. We have observed a significant number of early-onset BCC cases in which the disease occurred in patients younger than 50 years. To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of early-onset BCC in an Asian population, specifically in Koreans. One hundred and five patients with early-onset BCC were enrolled from a total of 1047 BCC patients who underwent surgery between January 1997 and December 2014 (942 patients over the age of 50 years were designated as the control group). Early-onset BCC accounted for 10.03% of all 1047 cases and the incidence over time displayed an incremental trend. The early-onset group displayed similar results as the control group, with a predominance of female BCC patients and the majority of tumours displaying the following characteristics: small in size, occurring in sun-exposed areas and belonging to the noduloulcerative clinical subtype and nodular histopathological subtype. In comparison with a previous study in a Western population, the incidence of the disease in non-exposed areas of the body, as well as the proportion of tumours of the superficial histological subtype, were lower in Asian patients. Although the clinicopathological characteristics of BCC are well-known, these characteristics have not been determined for early-onset BCC in an Asian population. Therefore, this study is the first report on early-onset BCC in Asians, specifically in a Korean patient group. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Converging approaches to understanding early onset familial Alzheimer disease: A First Nation study

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Beattie, B Lynn; Dwosh, Emily; Illes, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In 2007, a novel pathogenic genetic mutation associated with early onset familial Alzheimer disease was identified in a large First Nation family living in communities across British Columbia, Canada. Building on a community-based participatory study with members of the Nation, we sought to explore the impact and interplay of medicalization with the Nation’s knowledge and approaches to wellness in relation to early onset familial Alzheimer disease. Methods: We performed a secondary content analysis of focus group discussions and interviews with 48 members of the Nation between 2012 and 2013. The analysis focused specifically on geneticization, medicalization, and traditional knowledge of early onset familial Alzheimer disease, as these themes were prominent in the primary analysis. Results: We found that while biomedical explanations of disease permeate the knowledge and understanding of early onset familial Alzheimer disease, traditional concepts about wellness are upheld simultaneously. Conclusion: The analysis brings the theoretical framework of “two-eyed seeing” to the case of early onset familial Alzheimer disease for which the contributions of different ways of knowing are embraced, and in which traditional and western ways complement each other on the path of maintaining wellness in the face of progressive neurologic disease. PMID:27092264

  5. Sildenafil citrate therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    von Dadelszen, P; Dwinnell, S; Magee, L A; Carleton, B C; Gruslin, A; Lee, B; Lim, K I; Liston, R M; Miller, S P; Rurak, D; Sherlock, R L; Skoll, M A; Wareing, M M; Baker, P N

    2011-04-01

    Sildenafil citrate therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction. BJOG 2011;118:624-628. Currently, there is no effective therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the myometrial arteries isolated from women with IUGR-complicated pregnancies. Women were offered Sildenafil (25 mg three times daily until delivery) if their pregnancy was complicated by early-onset IUGR [abdominal circumference (AC)< 5th percentile] and either the gestational age was <25(+0) weeks or an estimate of the fetal weight was <600 g (excluding known fetal anomaly/syndrome and/or planned termination). Sildenafil treatment was associated with increased fetal AC growth [odds ratio, 12.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3, 126; compared with institutional Sildenafil-naive early-onset IUGR controls]. Randomised controlled trial data are required to determine whether Sildenafil improves perinatal outcomes for early-onset IUGR-complicated pregnancies. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  6. Key goals and indicators for successful aging of adults with early-onset disability.

    PubMed

    LaPlante, Mitchell P

    2014-01-01

    Substantial improvements have occurred in the longevity of several groups of individuals with early-onset disabilities, with many now surviving to advanced ages. This paper estimates the population of adults aging with early-onset disabilities at 12-15 million persons. Key goals for the successful aging of adults with early-onset disabilities are discussed, emphasizing reduction in risks for aging-related chronic disease and secondary conditions, while promoting social participation and independence. However, indicators suggest that elevated risk factors for aging-related chronic diseases, including smoking, obesity, and inactivity, as well as barriers to prevention and the diminished social and economic situation of adults with disabilities are continuing impediments to successful aging that must be addressed. Increased provider awareness that people with early-onset disabilities are aging and can age successfully and the integration of disability and aging services systems are transformative steps that will help adults with early-onset disability to age more successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early onset epilepsy is associated with increased mortality: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Nickels, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We examined mortality in early onset (age <12 months) epilepsy in a population-based group of children. Children with early onset epilepsy were significantly more likely to die (case fatality, CF 8/60 versus 8/407, p<0.001; mortality rate, MR 14.5/1000 versus 2/1000 person years; standardized mortality ratio, SMR 22.25 versus 5.67). Mortality was greater in children with malignant neonatal (age <1 month) epilepsy (CF 4/12 versus 12/450, p<0.001; MR 54/1000 person years versus 2.7/1000 person year; SMR 46.55 versus 7.22). Given that only 1/8 early onset epilepsy deaths was seizure-related, mortality appears to be more affected by underlying etiology. PMID:23582606

  8. Childhood adversity, early-onset depressive/anxiety disorders, and adult-onset asthma.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kate M; Von Korff, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Kessler, Ronald C; Kovess, Viviane; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José

    2008-11-01

    To investigate a) whether childhood adversity predicts adult-onset asthma; b) whether early-onset depressive/anxiety disorders predict adult-onset asthma; and c) whether childhood adversity and early-onset depressive/anxiety disorders predict adult-onset asthma independently of each other. Previous research has suggested, but not established, that childhood adversity may predict adult-onset asthma and, moreover, that the association between mental disorders and asthma may be a function of shared risk factors, such as childhood adversity. Ten cross-sectional population surveys of household-residing adults (>18 years, n = 18,303) assessed mental disorders with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) as part of the World Mental Health surveys. Assessment of a range of childhood family adversities was included. Asthma was ascertained by self-report of lifetime diagnosis and age of diagnosis. Survival analyses calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of adult-onset (>age 20 years) asthma as a function of number and type of childhood adversities and early-onset (Early-onset depressive and anxiety disorders also predicted adult-onset asthma (HRs = 1.67-2.11). Childhood adversities and early-onset depressive and anxiety disorders both predicted adult-onset asthma after mutual adjustment (HRs = 1.43-1.91). Childhood adversities and early-onset depressive/anxiety disorders independently predict adult-onset asthma, suggesting that the mental disorder-asthma relationship is not a function of a shared background of childhood adversity.

  9. Isolated early onset anemia after rh isoimmunization: a unique presentation in 3 neonates.

    PubMed

    Louis, Deepak; Oberoi, Sapna; Sundaram, Venkataseshan; Trehan, Amita

    2010-08-01

    Rh isoimmunization manifesting as isolated early onset neonatal anemia has not been reported. We describe the presentation of 3 infants who manifested with isolated early severe anemia. All the infants presented early (3 to 7 d of age) with severe pallor. None had clinically significant jaundice. Evidence for hemolysis was present in all and their direct antiglobulin test was positive. To reduce the hemolysis, immunoglobulin was administered after which their hemoglobin improved. This report highlights the possibility of early onset anemia without significant jaundice as the sole manifestation of Rh isoimmunization and the possible beneficial role of immunoglobulin in them.

  10. The angiotensin converting enzyme D allele is an independent risk factor for early onset coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Ghaneialvar, Hori; Rahimi, Zohreh; Nomani, Hamid; Saidi, Mohmadreza; Bahrehmand, Fariborz; Vaisi-Raygani, Aliakbar; Tavilani, Haidar; Pourmotabbed, Tayebeh

    2010-10-01

    The role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in early onset coronary artery disease age < 55years (ECAD) is controversial. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of this ACE(I/D) gene polymorphism on the risk of premature CAD in patients from western Iran. The ACE(I/D) genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP in 323 individuals undergoing their first coronary angiography. Patients were placed into two groups: ECAD and late onset CAD age ≥ 55years (LCAD). We found a statistically significant association of the ACE D allele, as homozygous or ACE ID plus DD genotypes (ID+DD), only in the ECAD subjects OR=1.35, p=0.015, OR=3.27, p=0.014, and OR=2.8, p=0.013, respectively. In addition, there was a significant association after adjustment for the absence of history of diabetes, presence of normolipidemia and absence of history of blood pressure [OR 1.38, p=0.017 and 2.35, p=0.02]. Our results indicated that the ACE D allele is a risk factor for early onset of CAD even after correcting for conventional risk factors. The incidence of triple vessel disease was significantly higher in individuals carrying ACE(D/D) genotype in ECAD patients compared to those who carried ACE(I/I) genotype (OR 3.38; p=0.019; 57.5% vs. 42.5%; p=0.013). The presence of D allele of ACE can be important independent risk factor in the onset of CAD patients less than 55 years old in a west population of Iran. Larger collaborative studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early-Onset Acute Recurrent and Chronic Pancreatitis Is Associated with PRSS1 or CTRC Gene Mutations.

    PubMed

    Giefer, Matthew J; Lowe, Mark E; Werlin, Steven L; Zimmerman, Bridget; Wilschanski, Michael; Troendle, David; Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane; Pohl, John F; Palermo, Joseph; Ooi, Chee Y; Morinville, Veronique D; Lin, Tom K; Husain, Sohail Z; Himes, Ryan; Heyman, Melvin B; Gonska, Tanja; Gariepy, Cheryl E; Freedman, Steven D; Fishman, Douglas S; Bellin, Melena D; Barth, Bradley; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Uc, Aliye

    2017-07-01

    To assess whether the age of onset was associated with unique features or disease course in pediatric acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) or chronic pancreatitis (CP). Demographic and clinical information on children with ARP or CP was collected at INSPPIRE (INternational Study Group of Pediatric Pancreatitis: In Search for a CuRE) centers. The Cochran-Armitage trend test and Jonckheere-Terpstra test were used to examine for differences between pediatric age groups (<6, 6-11, and ≥12 years). Between September 2012 and March 2016, 342 children with ARP or CP were enrolled; 129 (38%) were <6 years of age at the time of first diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, 111 (32%) were 6-11 years of age, and 102 (30%) were ≥12 years of age. Early-onset disease was associated with mutations in cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) (P < .01), chymotrypsin C (CTRC) (P = .01), family history of acute pancreatitis (P = .02), family history of CP (P < .01), biliary cysts (P = .04), or chronic renal failure (P = .02). Later-onset disease was more commonly present with hypertriglyceridemia (P = .04), ulcerative colitis (P = .02), autoimmune diseases (P < .0001), or medication use (P < .01). Children with later-onset disease also were more likely to visit the emergency department (P < .05) or have diabetes (P < .01). Early-onset pancreatitis is associated strongly with PRSS1 or CTRC mutations and family history of pancreatitis. Children with later-onset disease are more likely to have nongenetic risk factors. Future studies are needed to investigate whether the disease course, response to therapy, or clinical outcomes differ relative to the timing of disease onset. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  13. [Mutations of amyloid precursor protein in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Naruse, S; Tsuji, S; Miyatake, T

    1992-09-01

    Genetic linkage studies of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) have suggested that some form of early-onset FAD is linked to proximal long arm of chromosome 21. It has been also suggested that some form of late-onset FAD is linked to long arm of chromosome 19. Goate et al have identified a mis-sense mutation (Val to Ile) in exon 17 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene in 2 of 16 early-onset FAD families, and have shown that the FAD locus in an FAD family is tightly linked to the mis-sense mutation. To determine if the mis-sense mutation is observed in different ethnic origine, we have studied some early-onset FAD families. Two early-onset FAD families showed the existence of the mutation. As the mutation has been identified in different ethnic origine and the mutation has not been observed in normal individuals, it strengthen hypothesis that the mutation is pathogenic. Recently, Val to Phe and Val to Gly mutations have been also identified at the same codon (Codon 717) of the APP gene.

  14. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jean A.; McClellan, Jon; Findling, Robert L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Anderson, Robert; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Williams, Emily; McNamara, Nora K.; Jackson, Joseph A.; Ritz, Louise; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Pierson, Leslie; Varley, Jennifer A.; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E.; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Hamer, Robert M.; Noyes, Nancy; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Sikich, Linmarie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We examined baseline demographic and clinical profiles of youths enrolled from 2001 to 2006 in the publicly funded multicenter, randomized controlled trial Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. Method: Youths (8-19 years) with schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorder were recruited at four academic sites.…

  15. Co-Occurring Problems of Early Onset Persistent, Childhood Limited, and Adolescent Onset Conduct Problem Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Oliver, Bonamy R.; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems…

  16. CDKL5 and ARX mutations in males with early-onset epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Marsh, Eric D; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Medne, Livija; Alkhateeb, Asem; Grix, Art; Wirrell, Elaine C; Powell, Berkley R; Nickels, Katherine C; Burton, Barbara; Paras, Andrea; Kim, Katherine; Chung, Wendy; Dobyns, William B; Das, Soma

    2013-05-01

    Mutations in CDKL5 and ARX are known causes of early-onset epilepsy and severe developmental delay in males and females. Although numerous males with ARX mutations associated with various phenotypes have been reported in the literature, the majority of CDKL5 mutations have been identified in females with a phenotype characterized by early-onset epilepsy, severe global developmental delay, absent speech, and stereotypic hand movements. To date, only 10 males with CDKL5 mutations have been reported. Our retrospective study reports on the clinical, neuroimaging, and molecular findings of 18 males with early-onset epilepsy caused by either CDKL5 or ARX mutations. These 18 patients include eight new males with CDKL5 mutations and 10 with ARX mutations identified through sequence analysis of 266 and 346 males, respectively, at our molecular diagnostic laboratory. Our large dataset therefore expands on the number of reported males with CDKL5 mutations and highlights that aberrations of CDKL5 and ARX combined are an important consideration in the genetic forms of early-onset epilepsy in boys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CDKL5 and ARX mutations in males with early-onset epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Marsh, Eric D.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M.; Medne, Livija; Grix, Art; Wirrell, Elaine C.; Powell, Berkley R.; Nickels, Katherine C.; Burton, Barbara; Paras, Andrea; Kim, Katherine; Chung, Wendy; Dobyns, William B.; Das, Soma

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in CDKL5 and ARX are known causes of early-onset epilepsy and severe developmental delay in males and females. While numerous males with ARX mutations associated with various phenotypes have been reported in the literature, the majority of CDKL5 mutations have been identified in females with a phenotype characterized by early-onset epilepsy, severe global developmental delay, absent speech, and stereotypic hand movements. To date, only ten males with CDKL5 mutations have been reported. Our retrospective study reports on the clinical, neuroimaging and molecular findings of 18 males with early-onset epilepsy caused by either CDKL5 or ARX mutations. The 18 patients include eight new males with CDKL5 mutations and ten with ARX mutations identified through sequence analysis of 266 and 346 males, respectively, at our molecular diagnostic laboratory. Our large data set therefore expands on the number of reported males with CDKL5 mutations and highlights that aberrations of CDKL5 and ARX combined are an important consideration in the genetic forms of early-onset epilepsy. PMID:23583054

  18. CDKL5 mutations in boys with severe encephalopathy and early-onset intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Elia, M; Falco, M; Ferri, R; Spalletta, A; Bottitta, M; Calabrese, G; Carotenuto, M; Musumeci, S A; Lo Giudice, M; Fichera, M

    2008-09-23

    To search for CDKL5 gene mutations in boys presenting with severe early-onset encephalopathy and intractable epilepsy, a clinical picture very similar to that already described in girls with CDKL5 mutations. Eight boys (age range 3-16 years, mean age 8.5 years, SD 4.38) with severe or profound mental retardation and early-onset intractable seizures were selected for CDKL5 gene mutation screening by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. We found three unrelated boys carrying three different missense mutations of the CDKL5 gene: c.872G>A (p.C291Y), c.863C>T (p.T288I), and c.533G>C (p.R178P). They presented early-onset, polymorphous, and drug-resistant seizures, mostly myoclonic and tonic or spasms. EEG showed epileptiform abnormalities which were multifocal during wakefulness, and pseudoperiodic bisynchronous during sleep. This study describes three boys carrying CDKL5 missense mutations and their detailed clinical and EEG data, and indicates that CDKL5 gene mutations may represent a cause of severe or profound mental retardation and early-onset intractable seizures, also in boys. Screening for CDKL5 mutations is strongly recommended in individuals with these clinical features.

  19. Predictors of Early-Onset Permanent Hearing Loss in Malnourished Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the…

  20. Maturation, Peer Context, and Indigenous Girls' Early-Onset Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Melissa L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a biosocial model of the impact of puberty on indigenous girls' early-onset substance use by considering the potential mediating role of peer context (i.e., mixed-sex peer groups and substance use prototypes) on the puberty and substance use relationship. Data include responses from 360 girls of a common indigenous cultural…

  1. Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Subgroup with a Specific Clinical and Familial Pattern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabane, Nadia; Delorme, Richard; Millet, Bruno; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Pauls, David

    2005-01-01

    Background: The familial nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been previously demonstrated. The identification of candidate symptoms such as age at onset may help to disentangle the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. In this study, the specificity of early-onset OCD was investigated, focusing on the effect of gender,…

  2. Early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder and personality disorders in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Maina, Giuseppe; Albert, Umberto; Salvi, Virginio; Pessina, Enrico; Bogetto, Filippo

    2008-03-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often emerges in childhood or adolescence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adult patients with prepuberal onset differ from subjects with later onset in terms of personality disorder comorbidity. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders was used to assess 148 patients with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The following two subgroups of subjects were selected according to the age at onset of symptomatology: patients with an early-onset (< or =10 years), and patients with a later onset (> or =17 years). Of the 148 patients screened for the present study, 33 (22.3%) had an early onset and 1369 (46.6%) had a later onset. With regard to personality disorders, early-onset patients showed more OC personality disorders (OCPD) than later onset patients. Our finding suggests that OCD in childhood increases the risk for developing OCPD in adulthood, or that early-onset OCD and OCPD share a common pathogenesis.

  3. Differentiating early-onset persistent versus childhood-limited conduct problem youth.

    PubMed

    Barker, Edward D; Maughan, Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Among young children who demonstrate high levels of conduct problems, less than 50% will continue to exhibit these problems into adolescence. Such developmental heterogeneity presents a serious challenge for intervention and diagnostic screening in early childhood. The purpose of the present study was to inform diagnostic screening and preventive intervention efforts by identifying youths whose conduct problems persist. The authors examined 1) the extent to which early-onset persistent versus childhood-limited trajectories can be identified from repeated assessments of childhood and early-adolescent conduct problems and 2) how prenatal and early postnatal risks differentiate these two groups. To identify heterogeneity in early-onset conduct problems, the authors used data from a large longitudinal population-based cohort of children followed from the prenatal period to age 13. Predictive risk factors examined were prenatal and postnatal measures of maternal distress (anxiety, depression), emotional and practical support, and family and child characteristics (from birth to 4 years of age). Findings revealed a distinction between early-onset persistent versus childhood-limited conduct problems in youths. Robust predictors of the early-onset persistent trajectory were maternal anxiety during pregnancy (32 weeks gestation), partner cruelty to the mother (from age 0 to 4 years), harsh parenting, and higher levels of child undercontrolled temperament. Sex differences in these risks were not identified. Interventions aiming to reduce childhood conduct problems should address prenatal risks in mothers and early postnatal risks in both mothers and their young children.

  4. Two-Year Diagnostic Stability in Early-Onset First-Episode Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…

  5. Neurocognitive Outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jean A.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Method: Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8 to 19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated…

  6. Early Onset Ageing and Service Preparation in People with Intellectual Disabilities: Institutional Managers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.

    2011-01-01

    Although longevity among older adults with intellectual disabilities is increasing, there is limited information on their premature aging related health characteristics and how it may change with increasing age. The present paper provides information of the institutional manager's perception on early onset aging and service preparation for this…

  7. Early onset dementia in New Zealand Pacific boxers: a case series.

    PubMed

    Payman, Vahid; Yates, Susan; Cullum, Sarah

    2018-05-04

    To describe the biopsychosocial characteristics of a series of Pacific men living in South Auckland with a history of boxing presenting with early onset dementia. We discuss the history of boxing in Pacific people and the possibility of increased risk of early onset dementia in New Zealand Pacific men compared to their European counterparts. We reviewed the files of Pacific men with a history of amateur or professional boxing who presented to our memory and older adult mental health services with early onset dementia over a 45-month period. We gathered relevant information to construct a biopsychosocial paradigm as possible explanation of this phenomenon. We identified a series of eight New Zealand Pacific men with early onset dementia and with a history of boxing. Alcohol was a contributing factor in seven of the eight cases, and vascular risk factors in five. Historical, cultural and socio-economic factors underpin the attraction of some Pacific men to boxing as a sport. Given that New Zealand Pacific peoples may have an earlier onset of dementia than their European counterparts, further research is required to establish whether boxing is a contributory factor. Sports physicians should advise young New Zealand Pacific boxers about the long-term risks associated with their sport.

  8. Does theory of mind performance differ in children with early-onset and regressive autism?

    PubMed

    Matthews, Nicole L; Goldberg, Wendy A; Lukowski, Angela F; Osann, Kathryn; Abdullah, Maryam M; Ly, Agnes R; Thorsen, Kara; Spence, M Anne

    2012-01-01

    A deficit in theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to infer the mental states of others, has been implicated as one of the major characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); however, little attention has been devoted to possible differences in ToM ability within ASD. The current study examined ToM performance in children with early-onset autism and regressive autism in comparison to typically developing children. Results indicated that children in the regressive autism group performed significantly better than the early-onset autism group on the non-verbal appearance-reality task. Additionally, Fisher's exact tests indicated a pattern of lowest scores in the early-onset group and highest scores in the typically developing group, whereas the regressive autism group tended to score in between the early-onset and typically developing groups. The apparent heterogeneity in ToM performance within ASD could account for the lack of universality in ToM ability found in previous studies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Early Onset Substance Use in Adolescents with Depressive, Conduct, and Comorbid Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Andrea L.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether co-occurring depressive and conduct symptoms in early adolescence are associated with an elevated occurrence of early onset substance. Five hundred twenty-one sixth graders were assessed for depressive symptoms and conduct problems and underwent five substance use assessments during middle school. Logistic…

  10. [Clinical characteristics and renal uric acid excretion in early-onset gout patients].

    PubMed

    Li, Q H; Liang, J J; Chen, L X; Mo, Y Q; Wei, X N; Zheng, D H; Dai, L

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To investigate clinical characteristics and renal uric acid excretion in early-onset gout patients. Methods: Consecutive inpatients with primary gout were recruited between 2013 and 2017. The patients with gout onset younger than 30 were defined as early-onset group while the others were enrolled as control group. Clinical characteristics and uric acid (UA) indicators were compared between two groups. Results: Among 202 recruited patients, the early-onset group included 36 patients (17.8%). Compared with control group, the early-onset group presented more patients with obesity [13 patients (36.1%) vs. 22 patients (13.3%), P< 0.05], significantly higher serum UA level [(634±124)μmol/L vs.(527±169)μmol/L] and glomerular load of UA[(7.2±2.8)mg·min(-1)·1.73m(-2) vs. (4.4±2.2)mg·min(-1)·1.73m(-2)] and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) [(83±21)ml·min(-1)·1.73m(-2) vs. (67±21)ml·min(-1)·1.73m(-2)] (all P< 0.05), lower fractional excretion of UA [4.4% (3.4%,6.1%) vs. 7.2% (5.2%,9.6%), P< 0.05], whereas 24h urinary UA excretion was comparable [(2 788±882)μmol/1.73m(2) vs. (2 645±1 140)μmol/1.73m(2), P= 0.274]. Subgroup analysis of patients without chronic kidney disease showed significantly lower fractional excretion of UA in the early-onset group [4.5%(3.3%,6.1%) vs. 6.7% (5.1%,8.7%), P< 0.05]. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity ( OR= 3.25) and fractional excretion of UA less than 7% ( OR= 9.01, all P< 0.05) were risk factors of gout early onset. Conclusion: The gout patients with early-onset younger than 30 present high serum and glomerular load of uric acid which might be due to obesity and relative under-excretion of renal uric acid.

  11. Development and initial validation of the Classification of Early-Onset Scoliosis (C-EOS).

    PubMed

    Williams, Brendan A; Matsumoto, Hiroko; McCalla, Daren J; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Blakemore, Laurel C; Betz, Randal R; Flynn, John M; Johnston, Charles E; McCarthy, Richard E; Roye, David P; Skaggs, David L; Smith, John T; Snyder, Brian D; Sponseller, Paul D; Sturm, Peter F; Thompson, George H; Yazici, Muharrem; Vitale, Michael G

    2014-08-20

    Early-onset scoliosis is a heterogeneous condition, with highly variable manifestations and natural history. No standardized classification system exists to describe and group patients, to guide optimal care, or to prognosticate outcomes within this population. A classification system for early-onset scoliosis is thus a necessary prerequisite to the timely evolution of care of these patients. Fifteen experienced surgeons participated in a nominal group technique designed to achieve a consensus-based classification system for early-onset scoliosis. A comprehensive list of factors important in managing early-onset scoliosis was generated using a standardized literature review, semi-structured interviews, and open forum discussion. Three group meetings and two rounds of surveying guided the selection of classification components, subgroupings, and cut-points. Initial validation of the system was conducted using an interobserver reliability assessment based on the classification of a series of thirty cases. Nominal group technique was used to identify three core variables (major curve angle, etiology, and kyphosis) with high group content validity scores. Age and curve progression ranked slightly lower. Participants evaluated the cases of thirty patients with early-onset scoliosis for reliability testing. The mean kappa value for etiology (0.64) was substantial, while the mean kappa values for major curve angle (0.95) and kyphosis (0.93) indicated almost perfect agreement. The final classification consisted of a continuous age prefix, etiology (congenital or structural, neuromuscular, syndromic, and idiopathic), major curve angle (1, 2, 3, or 4), and kyphosis (-, N, or +) variables, and an optional progression modifier (P0, P1, or P2). Utilizing formal consensus-building methods in a large group of surgeons experienced in treating early-onset scoliosis, a novel classification system for early-onset scoliosis was developed with all core components demonstrating

  12. Distinct breast cancer subtypes in women with early-onset disease across races

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mandeep; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Li-Ying; Song, Dong; Gong, Yun; Adams, Sylvia; Ross, Dara S; Wang, Jin-Hua; Grover, Shruti; Doval, Dinesh Chandra; Shao, Charles; He, Zi-Li; Chang, Victor; Chin, Warren W; Deng, Fang-Ming; Singh, Baljit; Zhang, David; Xu, Ru-Liang; Lee, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Racial disparities among breast cancer (BCa) patients are known but not well studied in early-onset BCa. We analyzed molecular subtypes in early-onset BCa across five major races. Methods: A total of 2120 cases were included from non-Hispanic White (NHW), African American (AA) and Hispanic, Chinese and Indian. Based on ER, PR and HER-2 status, BCa was classified into 4 intrinsic subtypes as Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2/neu overexpression and Triple negative BCa (TNBC) subtypes. Data was stratified according to race and age as younger/early-onset group (40-years and younger) and older group (50-years and older). Results: In early-onset BCa, incidence of TNBC was significantly higher (p = 0.0369) in Indian women followed by AA, Hispanic, NHW and Chinese women. Incidence of Her2 over-expression subtype also was highest in Indian women, followed by Hispanic, Chinese, AA and NHW women. In contrast, Luminal B subtype was most significantly higher in AA women (p = 0.0000) followed by NHW (p = 0.0002), Chinese (p = 0.0003), Hispanic (0.0128) and Indian (p = 0.0468) women. Luminal A subtype was most significantly reduced in Indian women (p = 0.0113) followed by Hispanic, AA, NHW and Chinese women. These results were based on statistical analysis with the mean of older group populations. Conclusions: These results show significant disparities in receptor subtypes across races. This study will contribute in developing optimal clinical trial protocols and personalized management strategies for early-onset BCa patients. PMID:25057437

  13. Treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS): rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L; Frazier, Jean A; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2007-08-01

    The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study are described. Using a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design at four sites, youths with EOSS (ages 8-19 years) were assigned to an 8-week acute trial of risperidone (0.5-6.0 mg/day), olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day), or molindone (10-140 mg/day). Responders continued double-blind treatment for 44 weeks. The primary outcome measure was responder status at 8 weeks, defined by a 20% reduction in baseline Positive and Negative Symptom Scale scores plus ratings of significant improvement on the Clinical Global Impressions. Secondary outcome measures included assessments of psychopathology, functional impairment, quality of life, and medication safety. An intent-to-treat analytic plan was used. From February 2002 to May 2006, 476 youths were screened, 173 were further evaluated, and 119 were randomized. Several significant study modifications were required to address safety, the use of adjunctive medications, and the termination of the olanzapine treatment arm due to weight gain. The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study will inform clinical practice regarding the use of antipsychotic medications for youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Important safety concerns emerged during the study, including higher than anticipated rates of suicidality and problems tapering thymoleptic agents before randomization.

  14. Incidence of early-onset sepsis in infants born to women with clinical chorioamnionitis.

    PubMed

    Randis, Tara M; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Myatt, Leslie; Tita, Alan T N; Leveno, Kenneth J; Reddy, Uma M; Varner, Michael W; Thorp, John M; Mercer, Brian M; Dinsmoor, Mara J; Ramin, Susan M; Carpenter, Marshall W; Samuels, Philip; Sciscione, Anthony; Tolosa, Jorge E; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram

    2018-05-23

    To determine the frequency of sepsis and other adverse neonatal outcomes in women with a clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. We performed a secondary analysis of a multi-center placebo-controlled trial of vitamins C/E to prevent preeclampsia in low risk nulliparous women. Clinical chorioamnionitis was defined as either the "clinical diagnosis" of chorioamnionitis or antibiotic administration during labor because of an elevated temperature or uterine tenderness in the absence of another cause. Early-onset neonatal sepsis was categorized as "suspected" or "confirmed" based on a clinical diagnosis with negative or positive blood, urine or cerebral spinal fluid cultures, respectively, within 72 h of birth. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Data from 9391 mother-infant pairs were analyzed. The frequency of chorioamnionitis was 10.3%. Overall, 6.6% of the neonates were diagnosed with confirmed (0.2%) or suspected (6.4%) early-onset sepsis. Only 0.7% of infants born in the setting of chorioamnionitis had culture-proven early-onset sepsis versus 0.1% if chorioamnionitis was not present. Clinical chorioamnionitis was associated with both suspected [OR 4.01 (3.16-5.08)] and confirmed [OR 4.93 (1.65-14.74)] early-onset neonatal sepsis, a need for resuscitation within the first 30 min after birth [OR 2.10 (1.70-2.61)], respiratory distress [OR 3.14 (2.16-4.56)], 1 min Apgar score of ≤3 [OR 2.69 (2.01-3.60)] and 4-7 [OR 1.71 (1.43-2.04)] and 5 min Apgar score of 4-7 [OR 1.67 (1.17-2.37)] (vs. 8-10). Clinical chorioamnionitis is common and is associated with neonatal morbidities. However, the vast majority of exposed infants (99.3%) do not have confirmed early-onset sepsis.

  15. Parental and Child Characteristics Related to Early-Onset Disordered Eating: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Micali, Nadia; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to: Evaluate the evidence regarding parental and child characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Eating disorders are rare in children, but disordered eating is common. Understanding the phenomenology of disordered eating in childhood can aid prevention of full-blown eating disorders. The purpose of this review is to systematically extract and synthesize the evidence on parental and child characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using the following search terms: eating disorder, disordered eating, problem eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, child, preadolescent, and early onset. Studies published from 1990 to 2013 addressing parental and child characteristics of disordered eating in children aged 6 to 12 years were eligible for inclusion. The search was restricted to studies with cross-sectional, case-control, or longitudinal designs, studies in English, and with abstracts available. Forty-four studies fit these criteria. Most studies were based on community samples with a cross-sectional design. The included studies varied considerably in size, instruments used to assess early-onset disordered eating, and parental and child characteristics investigated. Important determinants included the following: higher body weight, previously reported disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, depression, parental disordered eating, and parental comments/concerns about child's weight and eating. The findings were inconsistent for sex, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-esteem/worth, and parental body weight. In conclusion, characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating have mainly been explored with a cross-sectional design. Full understanding of causal pathways will require good-quality longitudinal studies designed to address the influence of parental eating

  16. Study protocol: EXERcise and cognition in sedentary adults with early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON).

    PubMed

    Hooghiemstra, Astrid M; Eggermont, Laura H P; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Bakker, Jet; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Koppe, Peter A; Scherder, Erik J A

    2012-08-16

    Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study), after three months (end of the exercise program) and after six months (follow-up). Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental) activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. The present study is registered within The Netherlands National Trial Register (ref: NTR2124).

  17. Study protocol: EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study), after three months (end of the exercise program) and after six months (follow-up). Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental) activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. Discussion The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. Trial registration The present study is registered within The Netherlands

  18. Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with early-onset bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Nassan, Malik; Croarkin, Paul E; Luby, Joan L; Veldic, Marin; Joshi, Paramjit T; McElroy, Susan L; Post, Robert M; Walkup, John T; Cercy, Kelly; Geske, Jennifer R; Wagner, Karen D; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Casuto, Leah; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schalling, Martin; Jensen, Peter S; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met (rs6265) functional polymorphism has been implicated in early-onset bipolar disorder. However, results of studies are inconsistent. We aimed to further explore this association. DNA samples from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) and Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank were investigated for association of rs6265 with early-onset bipolar disorder. Bipolar cases were classified as early onset if the first manic or depressive episode occurred at age ≤19 years (versus adult-onset cases at age >19 years). After quality control, 69 TEAM early-onset bipolar disorder cases, 725 Mayo Clinic bipolar disorder cases (including 189 early-onset cases), and 764 controls were included in the analysis of association, assessed with logistic regression assuming log-additive allele effects. Comparison of TEAM cases with controls suggested association of early-onset bipolar disorder with the rs6265 minor allele [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, p = 0.04]. Although comparison of early-onset adult bipolar disorder cases from the Mayo Clinic versus controls was not statistically significant, the OR estimate indicated the same direction of effect (OR = 1.21, p = 0.19). When the early-onset TEAM and Mayo Clinic early-onset adult groups were combined and compared with the control group, the association of the minor allele rs6265 was statistically significant (OR = 1.30, p = 0.04). These preliminary analyses of a relatively small sample with early-onset bipolar disorder are suggestive that functional variation in BDNF is implicated in bipolar disorder risk and may have a more significant role in early-onset expression of the disorder. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [The use of sodium chloride baths in the treatment of diabetic patients with micro- and macroangiopathies].

    PubMed

    Davydova, O B; Turova, E A; Grishina, E V

    1998-01-01

    Patients suffering from insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with micro- and macroangiopathy took sodium chloride baths of diverse concentration (30 and 50 g/l). A control group consisted of patients who had taken "neutral" baths. The response to sodium chloride baths was registered in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, microcirculation, hemorheology, lower limbs circulation, exercise tolerance. Baths with sodium chloride concentrations 50 g/l have advantages, especially in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  20. Risk Factors for Early-Onset Peritonitis in Southern Chinese Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haishan; Huang, Rong; Yi, Chunyan; Wu, Juan; Guo, Qunying; Zhou, Qian; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Early peritonitis was confirmed to be associated with a higher risk of early technique failure. However, literature concerning peritonitis within the first 3 months of peritoneal dialysis (PD) initiation is scarce. The present study was to investigate risk factors associated with early-onset peritonitis in PD patients. ♦ METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, all incident PD patients from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2013, were recruited and followed up until December 31, 2014. According to time-to-first episode of peritonitis, patients were divided into early-onset (≤ 3 months) peritonitis and late-onset (> 3 months) peritonitis. Baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, as well as episodes of peritonitis, were collected. Risk factors associated with early-onset peritonitis were evaluated using logistic regression model. ♦ RESULTS: Of 1,690 patients on PD, 503 (29.8%) developed at least 1 episode of peritonitis and 118 (7.0%) patients presented the first episodes of peritonitis within the first 3 months. A multivariate logistic analysis showed that higher body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 - 1.15, p = 0.034), hypoalbuminemia (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11 - 2.78, p = 0.017), and catheter exit-site infection (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.45 - 7.00, p < 0.001) were risk factors independently associated with early-onset peritonitis. Compared to those with late-onset, patients with early-onset peritonitis had a higher overall peritonitis rate (0.76 vs 0.38 per patient-year, p < 0.001) and worse technique survival (p < 0.001), while patient survival did not differ significantly between the 2 groups during the long-term follow-up (p > 0.05). ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI, hypoalbuminemia, and catheter exit-site infection were the risk factors associated with early-onset peritonitis in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  1. Early-onset absence epilepsy aggravated by valproic acid: a video-EEG report.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, Vincenzo; Caraballo, Roberto Horacio; Romeo, Antonino; Striano, Pasquale

    2013-12-01

    Early-onset absence epilepsy refers to patients with absence seizures beginning before age 4 and comprises a heterogeneous group of epilepsies. Onset of absence seizures in the first year of life is very rare. We report a boy with absence seizures with onset at age 11 months, whose seizures increased in frequency after the introduction of valproic acid (VPA) treatment and substantially improved upon cessation of treatment. The mechanism of seizure worsening did not involve VPA toxicity, encephalopathy, Glut-1 deficiency or overdosage, and the reason for absence seizure aggravation remained unclear. The patient showed complete control of absence seizures with levetiracetam treatment and the course was benign, both in terms of seizure control and neuropsychological aspects. The similar overall electroclinical picture and outcome between children with early-onset absences and those with CAE support the view that these conditions are a continuum within the wide spectrum of IGE. [Published with video sequences].

  2. Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia: Recent Trends, Challenges and Future Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Nora S.; Gogtay, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    Early onset schizophrenia (onset before adulthood) is a rare, severe, and chronic form of schizophrenia. The clinical presentation of schizophrenia at this unusually early age of onset has been associated with premorbid developmental abnormalities, poor response to neuroleptic treatment, greater admission rates, and poor prognosis. This is a brief, condensed review of current treatment strategies for the early onset population highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies for these generally treatment-refractory cases. Based on the current literature, second-generation antipsychotics remain the mainstay of treatment, although current medications provide suboptimal response at best. Based on the adult literature, combining antipsychotic treatment with psychotherapeutic intervention may be a more comprehensive treatment strategy. Indeed, early detection, identification of relevant biomarkers, coupled with advancing knowledge of the neurochemical and neuroanatomic pathways may help design informed and novel treatment strategies. PMID:22485097

  3. Alcohol intake and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Ferrucci, L M; Cartmel, B; Molinaro, A M; Leffell, D J; Bale, A E; Mayne, S T

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiological studies of overall alcohol intake and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are inconsistent, with some evidence for differences by type of alcoholic beverage. While alcohol may enhance the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, this has not been evaluated in existing epidemiological studies. To evaluate alcohol intake in relation to early-onset BCC, and explore potential interactions with UV exposure. Basal cell carcinoma cases (n = 380) and controls with benign skin conditions (n = 390) under 40 years of age were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on lifetime alcohol intake, including type of beverage, during an in-person interview. Self-reported data on indoor tanning and outdoor sunbathing were used to categorize UV exposure. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional multivariate logistic regression in the full sample and in women only. There was no statistically significant association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC overall [above median intake vs. no regular alcohol intake (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·69-1·73)] or in women only (OR 1·21, 95% CI 0·73-2·01). Similarly, intake of red wine, white wine, beer or spirits and mixed drinks was not associated with early-onset BCC. In exploratory analyses, we saw limited evidence for an interaction (P(interaction) = 0·003), with highest risk for high alcohol and high UV exposures, especially in women, but subgroup risk estimates had wide and overlapping CIs. Overall, we did not observe any clear association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Alcohol intake and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Ferrucci, L.M.; Cartmel, B.; Molinaro, A.M.; Leffell, D.J.; Bale, A.E.; Mayne, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous epidemiologic studies of overall alcohol intake and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are inconsistent, with some evidence for differences by type of alcoholic beverage. While alcohol may enhance the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) light, this has not been evaluated in existing epidemiologic studies. Objective To evaluate alcohol intake in relation to early-onset BCC, and explore potential interactions with UV exposure. Methods BCC cases (n=380) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=390) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on lifetime alcohol intake, including type of beverage during an in-person interview. Self-report data on indoor tanning and outdoor sunbathing were used to categorize UV exposure. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional multivariate logistic regression in the full sample and in women only. Results There was no statistically significant association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC overall (above median intake vs. no regular alcohol intake OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.69-1.73) or in women only (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.73-2.01). Similarly, intake of red wine, white wine, beer or hard liquor and mixed drinks was not associated with early-onset BCC. In exploratory analyses, we saw limited evidence for an interaction (pinteraction=0.003), with highest risk for high alcohol and high UV exposures, especially in women, but subgroup risk estimates had wide and overlapping confidence intervals. Conclusions Overall, we did not observe any clear association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC. PMID:25059635

  5. Indoor tanning and risk of early-onset basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Cartmel, Brenda; Molinaro, Annette M.; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite a rise in incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) among young people and the ubiquity of indoor tanning in this population, few epidemiologic studies have investigated this exposure-disease relationship. Objective Evaluate the association between indoor tanning and early-onset BCC. Methods BCC cases (n=376) and controls with minor benign skin conditions (n=390) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on ever indoor tanning, age of initiation, frequency, duration, burns while tanning, and type of tanning device during an in-person interview. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multivariate logistic regression with never indoor tanners as the referent group. Results Ever indoor tanning was associated with a 69% increased risk of early-onset BCC (95% CI=1.15-2.48). This association was stronger among women (OR=2.14, 95% CI=1.31-3.47), for multiple BCCs (OR=2.16, 95% CI=1.26-3.70), and for BCCs on the trunk and extremities (OR=2.81, 95% CI=1.57-5.02). Risk increased dose-dependently with years used regular indoor tanning devices (p-trend=0.003), number of overall burns (p-trend=<0.001) and burns to biopsy site (p-trend=<0.001) from indoor tanning. Approximately one-quarter (27%) of early-onset BCCs (or 43% among women) could be prevented if individuals never tanned indoors. Limitations Potential recall bias of indoor tanning by cases and generalizability of the control population suggest replication in other studies is warranted. Conclusions Indoor tanning was a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC, particularly among women. Indoor tanning should continue to be targeted by both policy-based and behavioral interventions, as the impact on BCC-associated morbidity may be substantial. PMID:22153793

  6. Does Diagnostic Classification of Early-Onset Psychosis Change over Follow-Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraguas, David; de Castro, Maria J.; Medina, Oscar; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the diagnostic stability and the functional outcome of patients with early-onset psychosis (EOP) over a 2-year follow-up period. Methods: A total of 24 patients (18 males (75%) and 6 females (25%), mean age [plus or minus] SD: 15.7 [plus or minus] 1.6 years) with a first episode of EOP formed the sample. Psychotic symptoms…

  7. Cognitive ability in young adulthood predicts risk of early-onset dementia in Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Ville; Lahti, Jari; Henriksson, Markus; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G; Räikkönen, Katri

    2018-06-06

    To test if the Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test scores at 20.1 years predicted risk of organic dementia or Alzheimer disease (AD). Dementia was defined as inpatient or outpatient diagnosis of organic dementia or AD risk derived from Hospital Discharge or Causes of Death Registers in 2,785 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, divided based on age at first diagnosis into early onset (<65 years) or late onset (≥65 years). The Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test comprises verbal, arithmetic, and visuospatial subtests and a total score (scores transformed into a mean of 100 and SD of 15). We used Cox proportional hazard models and adjusted for age at testing, childhood socioeconomic status, mother's age at delivery, parity, participant's birthweight, education, and stroke or coronary heart disease diagnosis. Lower cognitive ability total and verbal ability (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD disadvantage >1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.63) scores predicted higher early-onset any dementia risk across the statistical models; arithmetic and visuospatial ability scores were similarly associated with early-onset any dementia risk, but these associations weakened after covariate adjustments (HR per 1 SD disadvantage >1.57, 95% CI 0.96-2.57). All associations were rendered nonsignificant when we adjusted for participant's education. Cognitive ability did not predict late-onset dementia risk. These findings reinforce previous suggestions that lower cognitive ability in early life is a risk factor for early-onset dementia. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Canadian patient played key role in uncovering secrets about early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lyttle, J

    1996-01-01

    Last June, the University of Toronto announced that Canadian scientists and a team of international researchers had discovered the gene responsible for most cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. One of the key players in that discovery had died just 3 months earlier. Frances Hodge, who participated in a battery of tests for the 20 years she lived with the disease, helped lead researchers to gene S182--and an ember of hope for future generations. Images p906-a PMID:8634971

  9. High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation in early onset epileptic encephalopathy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Meiron, Oded; Gale, Rena; Namestnic, Julia; Bennet-Back, Odeya; David, Jonathan; Gebodh, Nigel; Adair, Devin; Esmaeilpour, Zeinab; Bikson, Marom

    2018-01-01

    Early onset epileptic encephalopathy is characterized by high daily seizure-frequency, multifocal epileptic discharges, severe psychomotor retardation, and death at infancy. Currently, there are no effective treatments to alleviate seizure frequency and high-voltage epileptic discharges in these catastrophic epilepsy cases. The current study examined the safety and feasibility of High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) in reducing epileptiform activity in a 30-month-old child suffering from early onset epileptic encephalopathy. HD-tDCS was administered over 10 intervention days spanning two weeks including pre- and post-intervention video-EEG monitoring. There were no serious adverse events or side effects related to the HD-tDCS intervention. Frequency of clinical seizures was not significantly reduced. However, interictal sharp wave amplitudes were significantly lower during the post-intervention period versus baseline. Vital signs and blood biochemistry remained stable throughout the entire study. These exploratory findings support the safety and feasibility of 4 × 1 HD-tDCS in early onset epileptic encephalopathy and provide the first evidence of HD-tDCS effects on paroxysmal EEG features in electroclinical cases under the age of 36 months. Extending HD-tDCS treatment may enhance electrographic findings and clinical effects.

  10. Common variants at five new loci associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Imielinski, Marcin; Baldassano, Robert N; Griffiths, Anne; Russell, Richard K; Annese, Vito; Dubinsky, Marla; Kugathasan, Subra; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Walters, Thomas D; Sleiman, Patrick; Kim, Cecilia E; Muise, Aleixo; Wang, Kai; Glessner, Joseph T; Saeed, Shehzad; Zhang, Haitao; Frackelton, Edward C; Hou, Cuiping; Flory, James H; Otieno, George; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Grundmeier, Robert; Castro, Massimo; Latiano, Anna; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Stempak, Joanne; Abrams, Debra J; Taylor, Kent; McGovern, Dermot; Silber, Gary; Wrobel, Iwona; Quiros, Antonio; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Hansoul, Sarah; Nicolae, Dan L; Cho, Judy H; Duerr, Richard H; Rioux, John D; Brant, Steven R; Silverberg, Mark S; Taylor, Kent D; Barmuda, M Michael; Bitton, Alain; Dassopoulos, Themistocles; Datta, Lisa Wu; Green, Todd; Griffiths, Anne M; Kistner, Emily O; Murtha, Michael T; Regueiro, Miguel D; Rotter, Jerome I; Schumm, L Philip; Steinhart, A Hillary; Targan, Stephen R; Xavier, Ramnik J; Libioulle, Cécile; Sandor, Cynthia; Lathrop, Mark; Belaiche, Jacques; Dewit, Olivier; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Laukens, Debby; Mni, Myriam; Rutgeerts, Paul; Van Gossum, André; Zelenika, Diana; Franchimont, Denis; Hugot, J P; de Vos, Martine; Vermeire, Severine; Louis, Edouard; Cardon, Lon R; Anderson, Carl A; Drummond, Hazel; Nimmo, Elaine; Ahmad, Tariq; Prescott, Natalie J; Onnie, Clive M; Fisher, Sheila A; Marchini, Jonathan; Ghori, Jilur; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Gwillam, Rhian; Tremelling, Mark; Delukas, Panos; Mansfield, John; Jewell, Derek; Satsangi, Jack; Mathew, Christopher G; Parkes, Miles; Georges, Michel; Daly, Mark J; Heyman, Melvin B; Ferry, George D; Kirschner, Barbara; Lee, Jessica; Essers, Jonah; Grand, Richard; Stephens, Michael; Levine, Arie; Piccoli, David; Van Limbergen, John; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Monos, Dimitri S; Guthery, Stephen L; Denson, Lee; Wilson, David C; Grant, Straun F A; Daly, Mark; Silverberg, Mark S; Satsangi, Jack; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2009-12-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are common causes of morbidity in children and young adults in the western world. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study in early-onset IBD involving 3,426 affected individuals and 11,963 genetically matched controls recruited through international collaborations in Europe and North America, thereby extending the results from a previous study of 1,011 individuals with early-onset IBD. We have identified five new regions associated with early-onset IBD susceptibility, including 16p11 near the cytokine gene IL27 (rs8049439, P = 2.41 x 10(-9)), 22q12 (rs2412973, P = 1.55 x 10(-9)), 10q22 (rs1250550, P = 5.63 x 10(-9)), 2q37 (rs4676410, P = 3.64 x 10(-8)) and 19q13.11 (rs10500264, P = 4.26 x 10(-10)). Our scan also detected associations at 23 of 32 loci previously implicated in adult-onset Crohn's disease and at 8 of 17 loci implicated in adult-onset ulcerative colitis, highlighting the close pathogenetic relationship between early- and adult-onset IBD.

  11. A girl with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with microdeletion involving CDKL5.

    PubMed

    Saitsu, Hirotomo; Osaka, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Doi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that aberrations of CDKL5 in female patients cause early-onset intractable seizures, severe developmental delay or regression, and Rett syndrome-like features. We report on a Japanese girl with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, hypotonia, developmental regression, and Rett syndrome-like features. The patient showed generalized tonic seizures, and later, massive myoclonus induced by phone and light stimuli. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no structural brain anomalies but cerebral atrophy. Electroencephalogram showed frontal dominant diffuse poly spikes and waves. Through copy number analysis by genomic microarray, we found a microdeletion at Xp22.13. A de novo 137-kb deletion, involving exons 5-21 of CDKL5, RS1, and part of PPEF1 gene, was confirmed by quantitative PCR and breakpoint specific PCR analyses. Our report suggests that the clinical features associated with CDKL5 deletions could be implicated in Japanese patients, and that genetic testing of CDKL5, including both sequencing and deletion analyses, should be considered in girls with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and RTT-like features. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of early-onset cannabis use on functional brain correlates of working memory.

    PubMed

    Becker, Benjamin; Wagner, Daniel; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Spuentrup, Elmar; Daumann, Jörg

    2010-08-16

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug. Prevalence rates are particularly high among adolescents. Neuropsychological studies have identified cannabis-associated memory deficits, particularly linked to an early onset of use. However, it remains unclear, whether the age of onset accounts for altered cortical activation patterns usually observed in cannabis users. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine cortical activation during verbal working memory challenge in (1) early-onset (onset before the age of sixteen; n=26) and (2) late-onset cannabis users (age at onset at least sixteen; n=17). Early-onset users showed increased activation in the left superior parietal lobe. Correlational analyses confirmed the association between an earlier start of use and increased activity. Contrariwise neither cumulative dose, frequency nor time since last use was significantly associated with cortical activity. Our findings suggest that an early start of cannabis use is associated with increased cortical activation in adult cannabis users, possibly reflecting suboptimal cortical efficiency during cognitive challenge. The maturing brain might be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of cannabis use. However, due to a lack of a non-using control group we cannot exclude alternative interpretations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exome Sequencing Frequently Reveals the Cause of Early-Onset Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vivante, Asaf; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    The primary causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children differ from those of adult onset CKD. In the United States the most common diagnostic groups of CKD that manifests before 25 years of age are: i) congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) (49.1%), ii) steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) (10.4%), iii) chronic glomerulonephritis (8.1%), and iv) renal cystic ciliopathies (5.3 %), encompassing >70% of CKD together. Recent findings suggest that early-onset CKD is caused by mutations in any one of over 200 different monogenic genes. High-throughput sequencing has very recently rendered identification of causative mutations in this high number of genes feasible. Molecular genetic diagnostics in early onset-CKD (before the age of 25 years) will, i) provide patients and families with a molecular genetic diagnosis, ii) generate new insights into diseases mechanisms, iii) allow etiology-based classification of patient cohorts for clinical studies and, iv) may have consequences for personalized treatment and prevention of CKD. In this review, we will discuss the implications of next-generation sequencing for clinical genetic diagnostics and discovery of novel genes in early-onset CKD. We also delineate the resulting opportunities for deciphering disease mechanisms and therapeutic implications. PMID:26750453

  14. Increased genetic vulnerability to smoking at CHRNA5 in early-onset smokers.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Sarah M; Short, Susan E; Saccone, Nancy L; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Gubjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R; Vink, Jacqueline M; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H; Balmforth, Anthony J; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W; Boyd, Heather A; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hewitt, John K; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M; Mathias, Rasika A; McNeil, Daniel W; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeböller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F; Marazita, Mary L; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nöthen, Markus M; Penninx, Brenda W; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J; Sanders, Alan R; Schwartz, Ann G; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Völzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H-Erich; Amos, Christopher I; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G; Stevens, Victoria L; Stitzel, Jerry A; Weiss, Robert B; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Primary data. Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94,050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ≤10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33,348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ≤16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.36-1.55; n = 13,843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.33, n = 19,505) (P = .01). These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers.

  15. Neurological soft signs in juvenile patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, María; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Rapado, Marta; Leiva, Marta; Moreno, Carmen; Giráldez, Marisa; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2010-11-01

    The study of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with Asperger syndrome may help us to elucidate the neurological basis of this disorder and to clarify its relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of NSS in a sample of patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis and healthy controls. NSS were assessed by means of the Neurological Evaluation Scale in a sample of 29 patients with Asperger syndrome (mean age = 12.86 ± 2.58 years), 30 patients with first-episode early-onset psychoses (mean age 14.17 ± 1.02 years) and 30 healthy controls (mean age 12.33 ± 2.69 years). Significant group differences were found between Asperger syndrome patients and healthy controls both in all the Neurological Evaluation Scale subscales and in the Neurological Evaluation Scale total score. There were no significant differences between both groups of patients in any of the Neurological Evaluation Scale scores. NSS are more prevalent in Asperger syndrome than in healthy controls. The NSS profile was not disorder-specific in our samples of patients with Asperger syndrome and early-onset psychoses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Functional neuroanatomical associations of working memory in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kobylecki, Christopher; Haense, Cathleen; Harris, Jennifer M; Stopford, Cheryl L; Segobin, Shailendra H; Jones, Matthew; Richardson, Anna M T; Gerhard, Alexander; Anton-Rodriguez, José; Thompson, Jennifer C; Herholz, Karl; Snowden, Julie S

    2018-01-01

    To characterize metabolic correlates of working memory impairment in clinically defined subtypes of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Established models of working memory suggest a key role for frontal lobe function, yet the association in Alzheimer's disease between working memory impairment and visuospatial and language symptoms suggests that temporoparietal neocortical dysfunction may be responsible. Twenty-four patients with predominantly early-onset Alzheimer's disease were clinically classified into groups with predominantly amnestic, multidomain or visual deficits. Patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation focused on the domains of episodic and working memory, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data were analysed by using a region-of-interest approach. Patients with multidomain and visual presentations performed more poorly on tests of working memory compared with amnestic Alzheimer's disease. Working memory performance correlated with glucose metabolism in left-sided temporoparietal, but not frontal neocortex. Carriers of the apolipoprotein E4 gene showed poorer episodic memory and better working memory performance compared with noncarriers. Our findings support the hypothesis that working memory changes in early-onset Alzheimer's disease are related to temporoparietal rather than frontal hypometabolism and show dissociation from episodic memory performance. They further support the concept of subtypes of Alzheimer's disease with distinct cognitive profiles due to prominent neocortical dysfunction early in the disease course. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Early-onset facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 with some atypical features.

    PubMed

    Dorobek, Małgorzata; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Lemmers, Richard J L F; Ryniewicz, Barbara; Kabzińska, Dagmara; Frants, Rune R; Gawel, Malgorzata; Walecki, Jerzy; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, Irena

    2015-04-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy cases with facial weakness before the age of 5 and signs of shoulder weakness by the age of 10 are defined as early onset. Contraction of the D4Z4 repeat on chromosome 4q35 is causally related to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1, and the residual size of the D4Z4 repeat shows a roughly inverse correlation with the severity of the disease. Contraction of the D4Z4 repeat on chromosome 4q35 is believed to induce a local change in chromatin structure and consequent transcriptional deregulation of 4qter genes. We present early-onset cases in the Polish population that amounted to 21% of our total population with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. More than 27% of them presented with severe phenotypes (wheelchair dependency). The residual D4Z4 repeat sizes ranged from 1 to 4 units. In addition, even within early-onset facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 phenotypes, some cases had uncommon features (head drop, early disabling contractures, progressive ptosis, and respiratory insufficiency and cardiomyopathy). © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Variants of early-onset restrictive eating disturbances in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Susanne; van Dyck, Zoé; Dremmel, Daniela; Munsch, Simone; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine the factor structure of the newly developed self-report screening questionnaire Eating Disturbances in Youth-Questionnaire (EDY-Q) as well as to report the distribution of variants of early-onset restrictive eating disturbances characteristic of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) in a middle childhood population sample. Using the EDY-Q, a total of 1,444 children aged 8-13 years were screened in elementary schools in Switzerland via self-report. The factor analysis of the 12 items covering ARFID related symptoms was performed using a principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA showed a four factor solution, with clear allocation to the scales covering three variants of early-onset restrictive eating disturbances and weight problems. Inadequate overall food intake was reported by 19.3% of the children, a limited accepted amount of food by 26.1%, and food avoidance based on a specific underlying fear by 5.0%. The postulated factor structure of the EDY-Q was confirmed, further supporting the existence of distinct variants of early-onset restrictive eating disturbances. Avoidant/restrictive eating behavior seems to be a common experience in middle childhood, but results have to be confirmed using validated interviews. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evaluation of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    We retrospectively assessed the medical records of pregnant women who delivered at Asahikawa Kosei Hospital during a period of 3 years between January 2009 and December 2011 and their neonates. Our prophylactic measures against group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection are based on the Japanese guidelines. More specifically, we performed screening by examining bacterial cultures of vaginal-perianal swabs from pregnant women between gestational weeks 33 and 37. Then, sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC) was given at a dose of 1.5 g through a drip intravenous infusion at delivery if pregnant women were screened positive for GBS. For neonates born to GBS carrier women, bacterial cultures of pharyngeal swabs, vernix caseosa, stool, and gastric juice were performed at birth. There were 2,399 deliveries and 2,499 births at our hospital. In 169 of the deliveries (175 of the births), GBS was isolated from specimens obtained from gestational weeks 33-37. According to delivery mode, there were 42 cases of cesarean section (45 births) and 127 cases of vaginal delivery (130 births). The GBS-positive neonates accounted for 4.1 % of all deliveries in pregnant women who tested positive for GBS at gestational weeks 33-37. In neonates born by vaginal delivery, the GBS-positive rate was 5.5 %. Of the 2,499 neonates born at our hospital during a period of 3 years, early-onset GBS infection occurred in 1 neonate. The incidence of early-onset GBS infection was 0.40 per 1,000 live births. From 1997 to 2001 (routine GBS screening of mothers was not performed), there were 2,097 deliveries and 2,166 births. Early-onset GBS infection occurred in 1 neonate during this period; thus, the incidence of early-onset GBS infection was 0.46 per 1,000 live births. There were no significant differences in the two periods. The present prophylactic measures such as screening of maternal GBS carriers and intrapartum antibiotic administration are inadequate to decrease the occurrence of early-onset GBS

  20. [Analysis of gene mutation of early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason].

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Pan, G; Li, W H; Zhang, L M; Wu, B B; Wang, H J; Zhang, P; Zhou, S Z

    2017-11-02

    Objective: To summarize the gene mutation of early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason. Method: In this prospective study, data of patients with early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason were collected from neurological department of Children's Hospital of Fudan University between March 2016 and December 2016. Patients with known disorders such as infection, metabolic, structural, immunological problems and known genetic mutations were excluded. Patients with genetic disease that can be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and phenotypic characteristics were also excluded. Genetic research methods included nervous system panel containing 1 427 epilepsy genes, whole exome sequencing (WES), analysis of copy number variation (CNV) and karyotype analysis of chromosome. The basic information, phenotypes, genetic results and the antiepileptic treatment of patients were analyzed. Result: Nine of the 17 cases with early onset epileptic spasm were boys and eight were girls. Patients' age at first seizure onset ranged from 1 day after birth to 8 months (median age of 3 months). The first hospital visit age ranged from 1 month to 2 years (median age of 4.5 months). The time of following-up ranged from 8 months to 3 years and 10 months. All the 17 patients had early onset epileptic spasm. Video electroencephalogram was used to monitor the spasm seizure. Five patients had Ohtahara syndrome, 10 had West syndrome, two had unclear classification. In 17 cases, 10 of them had detected pathogenic genes. Nine cases had point mutations, involving SCN2A, ARX, UNC80, KCNQ2, and GABRB3. Except one case of mutations in GABRB3 gene have been reported, all the other cases had new mutations. One patient had deletion mutation in CDKL5 gene. One CNV case had 6q 22.31 5.5MB repeats. Ten cases out of 17 were using 2-3 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the drugs had no effect. Seven cases used adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and prednisone besides AEDs (a total course for 8 weeks

  1. Functional and Radiographic Outcomes Following Growth-Sparing Management of Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Charles E; Tran, Dong-Phuong; McClung, Anna

    2017-06-21

    In this study, we sought to evaluate radiographic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes of patients who have completed growth-sparing management of early-onset scoliosis. This prospective study involved patients with early-onset scoliosis who underwent growth-sparing treatment and either "final" fusion or observation for ≥2 years since the last lengthening procedure. Demographics, radiographic parameters, pulmonary function test (PFT) values, and scores of patient-reported assessments (Early-Onset Scoliosis Questionnaire [EOSQ] and Scoliosis Research Society [SRS]-30) were obtained. At the most recent follow-up, patients performed 2 additional functional outcome tests: step-activity monitoring and a treadmill exercise-tolerance test. Twelve patients were evaluated as "graduates" of growth-sparing management of early-onset scoliosis (mean of 37 months since the most recent surgery). The major scoliosis curve measurement averaged 88° before treatment and 47° at the most recent follow-up. T1-S1 height increased from a mean of 22.3 cm to 34.7 cm and T1-T12 height, from 13.3 to 22.3 cm. At the most recent follow-up, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) as a percentage of the predicted volume were 52.1% and 55.3%, respectively, and were essentially unchanged from the earliest PFT that patients could perform (FEV1 = 53.8% of predicted and FVC = 53.5% of predicted). There was no difference between graduates and controls with respect to activity time or total steps in step-activity monitoring, and in the exercise-tolerance test, graduates walked at the same speed but at a higher heart rate and at a significantly higher (p <0.001) VO2 cost (rate of oxygen consumed per distance traveled). The EOSQ mean score was 102.2 of a possible 120 points, and the SRS mean score was 4.1 of a possible 5 points. A realistic long-term goal for the management of early-onset scoliosis appears to be spine elongation and maintenance of

  2. Risk of early-onset prostate cancer associated with occupation in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Barry, Kathryn Hughes; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Alavanja, Michael C R; Andreotti, Gabriella; Blair, Aaron; Hansen, Johnni; Kjærheim, Kristina; Koutros, Stella; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sparèn, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Berndt, Sonja I; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-12-01

    Early-onset prostate cancer is often more aggressive and may have a different aetiology than later-onset prostate cancer, but has been relatively little studied to date. We evaluated occupation in relation to early- and later-onset prostate cancer in a large pooled study. We used occupational information from census data in five Nordic countries from 1960 to 1990. We identified prostate cancer cases diagnosed from 1961 to 2005 by linkage of census information to national cancer registries and calculated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) separately for men aged 30-49 and those aged 50 or older. We also conducted separate analyses by period of follow-up, 1961-1985 and 1986-2005, corresponding to pre- and post-prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. For early-onset prostate cancer (n = 1521), we observed the highest SIRs for public safety workers (e.g. firefighters) (SIR = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-2.31) and military personnel (SIR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.85). These SIRs were significantly higher than the SIRs for later-onset disease (for public safety workers, SIR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.07-1.14 and for military personnel, SIR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.13; p heterogeneity  = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Administrators and technical workers also demonstrated significantly increased risks for early-onset prostate cancer, but the SIRs did not differ from those of later-onset disease (p heterogeneity >0.05). While our early-onset finding for public safety workers was restricted to the post-PSA period, that for military personnel was restricted to the pre-PSA period. Our results suggest that occupational exposures, particularly for military personnel, may be associated with early-onset prostate cancer. Further evaluation is needed to explain these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The relationship between accommodative accuracy at different near-work distances and early-onset myopia].

    PubMed

    Yu, Q W; Zhang, P; Zhou, S B; Hu, Y; Ji, M X; Luo, Y C; You, H L; Yao, Z X

    2016-07-01

    To observe the accommodative accuracy of children with early-onset myopia at different near-work distances, and discuss the relationship between accommodative accuracy and early-onset myopia. This was a case-control study. Thirty-seven emmetropic children, 41 early-onset myopic children without correction, and 39 early-onset myopic children with spectacles, aged 7 to 13 years, were included. Measures of refractive errors and accommodative accuracy at four near-work distances, including 50 cm, 40 cm, 30 cm, and 20 cm, were made using the binocular fusion cross cylinder (FCC) of an automatic phoropter. Most candidates showed accommodative lags, including the children with emmetropia. The ratio of lags in all candidates at different near-work distances was 75.21% (50 cm), 87.18% (40 cm), 92.31% (30 cm), and 98.29% (20 cm), respectively. All accommodative accuracies became worse, and the accommodative lag ratio and values of FCC increased, along with the shortening of the distance. The difference in accommodative accuracy among groups was statistically significant at 30 cm (χ(2)=7.852, P= 0.020) and 20 cm (χ(2)=6.480, P=0.039). The values of FCC among groups were significantly different at 30 cm (F=3.626, P=0.030) and 20 cm (F=3.703, P=0.028), but not at 50 cm and 40 cm (P>0.05). In addition, the FCC values of 30 cm and 20 cm had a statistically significant difference between myopic children without correction [(1.25±0.44) D and (1.76±0.43) D] and emmetropic children [(0.95±0.52) D and (1.41±0.58) D] (P=0.012, 0.008). The correlation between diopters of myopia and accommodative accuracy at different nearwork distances was not statistically significant (P>0.05). However, the correlation between diopters of myopia and the accommodative lag value (FCC) at 20 cm was statistically significant (r=0.246, P=0.028). The closer the near-work distance is, the worse the accommodative accuracy is. This is more significant in early-onset myopia, especially myopia without

  4. Identification of nine genes as novel susceptibility loci for early-onset ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshiji; Kato, Kimihiko; Oguri, Mitsutoshi; Horibe, Hideki; Fujimaki, Tetsuo; Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Sakuma, Jun

    2018-07-01

    Given that substantial genetic components have been shown in ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), heritability may be higher in early-onset than late-onset individuals with these conditions. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified various genes and loci significantly associated with ischemic stroke, ICH, or intracranial aneurysm mainly in European ancestry populations, genetic variants that contribute to susceptibility to these disorders remain to be identified definitively. We performed exome-wide association studies (EWASs) to identify genetic variants that confer susceptibility to ischemic stroke, ICH, or SAH in early-onset subjects with these conditions. A total of 6,649 individuals aged ≤65 years were examined. For the EWAS of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, 6,224 individuals (450 subjects with ischemic stroke, 5,774 controls) or 6,179 individuals (261 subjects with ICH, 176 subjects with SAH, 5,742 controls), respectively, were examined. EWASs were performed with the use of Illumina Human Exome-12 v1.2 DNA Analysis BeadChip or Infinium Exome-24 v1.0 BeadChip. To compensate for multiple comparisons of allele frequencies with ischemic stroke, ICH, or SAH, we applied a false discovery rate (FDR) of <0.05 for statistical significance of association. The association of allele frequencies of 31,245 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that passed quality control to ischemic stroke was examined with Fisher's exact test, and 31 SNPs were significantly (FDR <0.05) associated with ischemic stroke. The association of allele frequencies of 31,253 or 30,970 SNPs to ICH or SAH, respectively, was examined with Fisher's exact test, and six or two SNPs were significantly associated with ICH or SAH, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus revealed that 12 SNPs were significantly [P<0.0004 (0

  5. [Early coronary heart disease together with tyoe II diabetes mellitus in persons of Hindustani origin].

    PubMed

    Bongers, I; Westendorp, R G; Stolk, B; Huysmans, H A; Vandenbroucke, J P

    1995-01-07

    To investigate the association between early coronary heart disease and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in South Asian patients in the Netherlands, a homogeneous population which descends from Indian immigrants to Surinam in the late nineteenth century. Case control study. University hospital Leiden. South Asian patients (n = 38) and control patients (n = 76) were identified in an automated data base comprising all patients who had aortocoronary surgery in the period January 1st 1990 to January 1st 1993. Control patients were from the general population and matched for calendar time. Patients' characteristics such as the onset of coronary heart disease and the presence of non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus were obtained from the medical records at the time of surgery. The onset of coronary heart disease in South Asian patients occurred about eight years earlier than in control patients (49.8 versus 58.2 years; 95% confidence interval of the difference: 4.3-12.5). Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was about four times more frequent in South Asian patients (50% versus 13%; 19-54). This difference was the same after correction for differences in sex, age, and body mass index. Diabetes mellitus caused by insulin resistance significantly contributes to early coronary heart disease in South Asian immigrant patients, in accordance with the literature on the present population of India. These findings strengthen the belief that genetic factor are important in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis.

  6. Association between polymorphisms in cancer-related genes and early onset of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-Chen; Zhao, Yang; Zhai, Rihong; Liu, Geoffrey; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Liu, Chen-Yu; Chen, Feng; Kulke, Matthew H; Heist, Rebecca S; Christiani, David C

    2011-04-01

    There is an increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among younger people in the western populations. However, the association between genetic polymorphisms and the age of EA onset is unclear. In this study, 1330 functional/tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 354 cancer-related genes were genotyped in 335 white EA patients. Twenty important SNPs that have the highest importance scores and lowest classification error rate were identified by the random forest algorithm to be associated with early onset of EA (age ≤ 55 years). Subsequent logistic regression analysis indicated that 10 SNPs (rs2070744 of NOS3, rs720321 of BCL2, rs17757541 of BCL2, rs11775256 of TNFRSF10A, rs1035142 of CASP8, rs2236302 of MMP14, rs4740363 of ABL1, rs696217 of GHRL, rs2445762 of CYP19A1, and rs11941492 of VEGFR2/KDR) were significantly associated with early onset of EA (≤55 vs >55 years, all P < .05 after adjusting for co-variates and false discovery rate). Among them, five SNPs in the NOS3, BCL2, TNFRSF10A, and CASP8 genes were known to be involved in apoptosis processes. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, rs2070744 of NOS3, rs720321 of BCL2, and rs1035142 of CASP8 were also significantly associated with early onset of EA. Moreover, there was a higher risk of developing EA at a younger age when one had more risk genotypes. In conclusion, polymorphisms in cancer-related genes, especially those in the apoptotic pathway, play an important role in the development of younger-aged EA in a dose-response manner.

  7. [Knowledge of Andalusian pediatricians and parents about early-onset tooth decay].

    PubMed

    González, E; Pérez-Hinojosa, S; Alarcón, J A; Peñalver, M A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the level of knowledge of pediatricians and parents from Andalucía (southern Spain) about early-onset tooth decay, and to assess if pediatricians provide information to parents about pediatric oral care and visits to the pediatric dentist. A random sample of 113 pediatricians and 112 parents with children under 3 years of age received an anonymous questionnaire comprising 14 items for pediatricians and 16 items for parents, grouped into five blocks: visits to the dentist, oral hygiene, caries, nutritional habits, and treatment of caries. The chi-squared test was used to assess differences between groups. Pediatricians showed deficiencies in their knowledge about visits to the dentist and treatment of caries, however their level of knowledge on oral hygiene, tooth decay and nutritional habits were adequate. Parents showed a low level of knowledge in all aspects of the study, mainly about the treatment of tooth decay. There were no significant differences between pediatricians and parents in the knowledge about visits to the dentist, however pediatricians had more knowledge than the parents about hygiene, tooth decay, nutritional habits and treatment (P<0.001). Most of the parents indicated that pediatricians did not provide them detailed information on oral care, and about the possibility of visiting a pediatric dentist. Andalusian pediatricians should improve their knowledge about early-onset tooth decay, and provide more information to parents about the oral care and the possibility of visiting a pediatric dentist. Parents have a very low level of knowledge about early-onset tooth decay, and particularly about treatment. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical and molecular characterization of KCNT1-related severe early-onset epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Umesh; Malhotra, Sony; Meyer, Esther; Trump, Natalie; Gazina, Elena V.; Papandreou, Apostolos; Ngoh, Adeline; Ackermann, Sally; Ambegaonkar, Gautam; Appleton, Richard; Desurkar, Archana; Eltze, Christin; Kneen, Rachel; Kumar, Ajith V.; Lascelles, Karine; Montgomery, Tara; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Samanta, Rajib; Scott, Richard H.; Tan, Jeen; Whitehouse, William; Poduri, Annapurna; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Chong, W.K. “Kling”; Cross, J. Helen; Topf, Maya; Petrou, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Objective To characterize the phenotypic spectrum, molecular genetic findings, and functional consequences of pathogenic variants in early-onset KCNT1 epilepsy. Methods We identified a cohort of 31 patients with epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) and screened for variants in KCNT1 using direct Sanger sequencing, a multiple-gene next-generation sequencing panel, and whole-exome sequencing. Additional patients with non-EIMFS early-onset epilepsy in whom we identified KCNT1 variants on local diagnostic multiple gene panel testing were also included. When possible, we performed homology modeling to predict the putative effects of variants on protein structure and function. We undertook electrophysiologic assessment of mutant KCNT1 channels in a xenopus oocyte model system. Results We identified pathogenic variants in KCNT1 in 12 patients, 4 of which are novel. Most variants occurred de novo. Ten patients had a clinical diagnosis of EIMFS, and the other 2 presented with early-onset severe nocturnal frontal lobe seizures. Three patients had a trial of quinidine with good clinical response in 1 patient. Computational modeling analysis implicates abnormal pore function (F346L) and impaired tetramer formation (F502V) as putative disease mechanisms. All evaluated KCNT1 variants resulted in marked gain of function with significantly increased channel amplitude and variable blockade by quinidine. Conclusions Gain-of-function KCNT1 pathogenic variants cause a spectrum of severe focal epilepsies with onset in early infancy. Currently, genotype-phenotype correlations are unclear, although clinical outcome is poor for the majority of cases. Further elucidation of disease mechanisms may facilitate the development of targeted treatments, much needed for this pharmacoresistant genetic epilepsy. PMID:29196579

  9. Neurocognitive outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders study.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Jean A; Giuliano, Anthony J; Johnson, Jacqueline L; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Hooper, Stephen R

    2012-05-01

    To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8 to 19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated in a four-site, randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing molindone, olanzapine, and risperidone. The primary outcomes were overall group change from baseline in neurocognitive composite and six domain scores after 8 weeks and continued treatment up to 52 weeks. Age and sex were included as covariates in all analyses. Of 116 TEOSS participants, 77 (66%) had post-baseline neurocognitive data. No significant differences emerged in the neurocognitive outcomes of the three medication groups. Therefore, the three treatment groups were combined into one group to assess overall neurocognitive outcomes. Significant modest improvements were observed in the composite score and in three of six domain scores in the acute phase, and in four of six domain scores in the combined acute and maintenance phases. Partial correlation analyses revealed very few relationships among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) baseline or change scores and neurocognition change scores. Antipsychotic intervention in youth with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOSS) led to modest improvement in measures of neurocognitive function. The changes in cognition were largely unrelated to baseline symptoms or symptom change. Small treatment effect sizes, easily accounted for by practice effects, highlight the critical need for the development of more efficacious interventions for the enduring neurocognitive deficits seen in EOSS. Clinical trial registry information-Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00053703. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published

  10. CDKL5 and ARX mutations are not responsible for early onset severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy.

    PubMed

    Nabbout, Rima; Depienne, Christel; Chipaux, Mathilde; Girard, Benoit; Souville, Isabelle; Trouillard, Oriane; Dulac, Olivier; Chelly, Jamel; Afenjar, Alexandra; Héron, Delphine; Leguern, Eric; Beldjord, Cherif; Bienvenu, Thierry; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia

    2009-11-01

    Severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) or Dravet syndrome (DS) is a distinctive epilepsy syndrome often associated with de novo mutations in the SCN1A gene. However, 25-30% patients with SMEI/DS are negative for SCN1A mutation screening, suggesting that other molecular mechanisms may account for these disorders. Given the overlapping and heterogeneous clinical features of CDKL5- and ARX-related epilepsies and SMEI/DS, we postulated that CDKL5 mutations in females and ARX mutations gene in males may be associated with early onset seizures forms of SMEI/DS. Twenty-eight patients with early onset SMEI/DS before 6 months negative for SCN1A mutational screening were selected and screened for mutations in the ARX gene in males (n=14) or the CDKL5 gene in females (n=14). No mutations in either gene were found except one intronic variation of uncertain pathogenicity in the CDKL5 gene. All patients started seizures at mean age of 3.48 months. Thirteen patients had familial history of epilepsy or febrile seizures. Patients evolved toward refractory epilepsy with generalized tonic clonic seizures (18/28) and myoclonia (23/28) and severe neurological impairment with autistic features (13/28), ataxia (14/28) and spasticity (5/28). No patient ever exhibited infantile spasms, dystonia, or Rett-like features. Our results illustrate that mutation screening of ARX and CDKL5 is not effective in patients selected on the basis of clinical signs associated to early onset SMEI/DS. In addition, they might reflect that other phenotypic features associated with CDKL5 mutations (Rett-like features, infantile spasm) or ARX mutations (dystonia, spasticity) are more distinctive. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The CDKL5 disorder is an independent clinical entity associated with early-onset encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Stephanie; Wilson, Meredith; Downs, Jenny; Williams, Simon; Murgia, Alessandra; Sartori, Stefano; Vecchi, Marilena; Ho, Gladys; Polli, Roberta; Psoni, Stavroula; Bao, Xinhua; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen; Christodoulou, John

    2013-03-01

    The clinical understanding of the CDKL5 disorder remains limited, with most information being derived from small patient groups seen at individual centres. This study uses a large international data collection to describe the clinical profile of the CDKL5 disorder and compare with Rett syndrome (RTT). Information on individuals with cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) mutations (n=86) and females with MECP2 mutations (n=920) was sourced from the InterRett database. Available photographs of CDKL5 patients were examined for dysmorphic features. The proportion of CDKL5 patients meeting the recent Neul criteria for atypical RTT was determined. Logistic regression and time-to-event analyses were used to compare the occurrence of Rett-like features in those with MECP2 and CDKL5 mutations. Most individuals with CDKL5 mutations had severe developmental delay from birth, seizure onset before the age of 3 months and similar non-dysmorphic features. Less than one-quarter met the criteria for early-onset seizure variant RTT. Seizures and sleep disturbances were more common than in those with MECP2 mutations whereas features of regression and spinal curvature were less common. The CDKL5 disorder presents with a distinct clinical profile and a subtle facial, limb and hand phenotype that may assist in differentiation from other early-onset encephalopathies. Although mutations in the CDKL5 gene have been described in association with the early-onset variant of RTT, in our study the majority did not meet these criteria. Therefore, the CDKL5 disorder should be considered separate to RTT, rather than another variant.

  12. The CDKL5 disorder is an independent clinical entity associated with early-onset encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Stephanie; Wilson, Meredith; Downs, Jenny; Williams, Simon; Murgia, Alessandra; Sartori, Stefano; Vecchi, Marilena; Ho, Gladys; Polli, Roberta; Psoni, Stavroula; Bao, Xinhua; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen; Christodoulou, John

    2013-01-01

    The clinical understanding of the CDKL5 disorder remains limited, with most information being derived from small patient groups seen at individual centres. This study uses a large international data collection to describe the clinical profile of the CDKL5 disorder and compare with Rett syndrome (RTT). Information on individuals with cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) mutations (n=86) and females with MECP2 mutations (n=920) was sourced from the InterRett database. Available photographs of CDKL5 patients were examined for dysmorphic features. The proportion of CDKL5 patients meeting the recent Neul criteria for atypical RTT was determined. Logistic regression and time-to-event analyses were used to compare the occurrence of Rett-like features in those with MECP2 and CDKL5 mutations. Most individuals with CDKL5 mutations had severe developmental delay from birth, seizure onset before the age of 3 months and similar non-dysmorphic features. Less than one-quarter met the criteria for early-onset seizure variant RTT. Seizures and sleep disturbances were more common than in those with MECP2 mutations whereas features of regression and spinal curvature were less common. The CDKL5 disorder presents with a distinct clinical profile and a subtle facial, limb and hand phenotype that may assist in differentiation from other early-onset encephalopathies. Although mutations in the CDKL5 gene have been described in association with the early-onset variant of RTT, in our study the majority did not meet these criteria. Therefore, the CDKL5 disorder should be considered separate to RTT, rather than another variant. PMID:22872100

  13. The Burden of Invasive Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis in the United States, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Emily J.; Pondo, Tracy; Lewis, Melissa M.; Martell-Cleary, Pat; Morin, Craig; Jewell, Brenda; Daily, Pam; Apostol, Mirasol; Petit, Sue; Farley, Monica; Lynfield, Ruth; Reingold, Art; Hansen, Nellie I.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Shane, Andi L.; Zell, Elizabeth; Schrag, Stephanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sepsis in the first 3 days of life is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among infants. Group B Streptococcus (GBS), historically the primary cause of early-onset sepsis, has declined through widespread use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. We estimated the national burden of invasive early-onset sepsis (EOS) cases and deaths in the era of GBS prevention. Methods Population-based surveillance for invasive EOS was conducted in 4 of CDC’s Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) sites from 2005–2008. We calculated incidence using state and national live birth files. Estimates of the national number of cases and deaths were calculated, standardizing by race and gestational age. Results ABCs identified 658 cases of EOS; 72 (10.9%) were fatal. Overall incidence remained stable during the three years (2005:0.77 cases/1,000 live births; 2008:0.76 cases/1,000 live births). GBS (~38%) was the most commonly reported pathogen followed by Escherichia coli (~24%). Black preterm infants had the highest incidence (5.14 cases/1,000 live births) and case fatality (24.4%). Non-black term infants had the lowest incidence (0.40 cases/1,000 live births) and case fatality (1.6%). The estimated national annual burden of EOS was approximately 3,320 cases (95% CI: 3,060–3,580) including 390 deaths (95% CI: 300–490). Among preterm infants, 1,570 cases (95% CI: 1,400–1,770; 47.3% of the overall) and 360 deaths (95% CI: 280–460; 92.3% of the overall) occurred annually. Conclusions The burden of invasive early-onset sepsis remains substantial in the era of GBS prevention and disproportionately affects preterm and black infants. Identification of strategies to prevent preterm births is needed to reduce the neonatal sepsis burden. PMID:21654548

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome and early-onset preeclampsia: reproductive manifestations of increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M; van Rijn, Bas B; Westerveld, H Egbertine; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W; Fauser, Bart C J M; Goverde, Angelique J

    2010-01-01

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women is a major healthcare issue. Detection of premenopausal women with increased risk of CVD could enhance prevention strategies and reduce first event-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, we argue that an unfavorable metabolic constitution in women may present itself early in life as a reproductive complication, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and preeclampsia. We evaluated the cardiovascular risk of women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and women with PCOS and assessed their need for implementation of early risk factor-reduction strategies. We performed a standardized evaluation of 240 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 456 women diagnosed with PCOS for established major CVD risk factors. Metabolic syndrome characteristics were analyzed per body mass index category. Mean age was 30.6 and 29.0 years for women with preeclampsia and PCOS, respectively. High percentages of metabolic syndrome were found in both groups (preeclampsia group, 14.6%; and PCOS group, 18.4%), with an incidence of greater than 50% in both groups of women if body mass index was greater than 30 kg/m. Overall, more than 90% of the women qualified for either lifestyle or medical intervention according to the American Heart Association guideline for CVD prevention in women. Women with PCOS and early-onset preeclampsia already show an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile with high need for lifestyle or medical intervention at a young age. We therefore recommend an active role of the gynecologist in routine screening and follow-up of women with reproductive conditions linked to future cardiovascular risk.

  15. Hippocampal Morphology and Distinguishing Late-Onset From Early-Onset Elderly Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ballmaier, Martina; Narr, Katherine L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Thompson, Paul M.; Hamilton, Liberty; Haroon, Ebrahim; Pham, Daniel; Heinz, Andreas; Kumar, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite evidence for hippocampal abnormalities in elderly depression, it is unknown whether these changes are regionally specific. This study used three-dimensional mapping techniques to identify regional hippocampal abnormalities in early- and late-onset depression. Neuropsychological correlates of hippocampal morphology were also investigated. Method With high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, hippocampal morphology was compared among elderly patients with early- (N=24) and late-onset (N=22) depression and comparison subjects (N=34). Regional structural abnormalities were identified by comparing distances, measured from homologous hippocampal surface points to the central core of each individual’s hippocampal surface model, between groups. Results Hippocampal volumes differed between depressed patients and comparison subjects but not between patients with early- and late-onset depression. However, statistical mapping results showed that regional surface contractions were significantly pronounced in late-compared to early-onset depression in the anterior of the subiculum and lateral posterior of the CA1 subfield in the left hemisphere. Significant shape differences were observed bilaterally in anterior CA1–CA3 subfields and the subiculum in patients in relation to comparison subjects. These results were similar when each disease group was separately compared to comparison subjects. Hippocampal surface contractions significantly correlated with memory measures among late- but not early-onset depressed patients or comparison subjects. Conclusions More pronounced regional volume deficits and their associations with memory in late-onset depression may suggest that these patients are more likely to develop cognitive impairment over time than individuals with early-onset depression. Mapping regional hippocampal abnormalities and their cognitive correlates may help guide research in defining risk profiles and treatment strategies. PMID:17986679

  16. Internet-Delivered, Family-Based Treatment for Early-Onset OCD: A Preliminary Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Cooper-Vince, Christine E.; Kerns, Caroline E.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Edson, Aubrey L.; Khanna, Muniya; Franklin, Martin E.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Freeman, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Given the burdens of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), limitations in the broad availability and accessibility of evidence-based care for affected youth present serious public health concerns. The growing potential for technological innovations to transform care for the most traditionally remote and underserved families holds enormous promise. This article presents the rationale, key considerations, and a preliminary case series for a promising behavioral telehealth innovation in the evidence-based treatment of early-onset OCD. We developed an Internet-based format for the delivery of family-based treatment for early-onset OCD directly to families in their homes, regardless of their geographic proximity to a mental health facility. Videoteleconferencing (VTC) methods were used to deliver real-time cognitive-behavioral therapy centering on exposure and response prevention to affected families. Participants in the preliminary case series included 5 children between the ages of 4 and 8 (MAge = 6.5) who received the Internet-delivered treatment format. All youth completed a full treatment course, all showed OCD symptom improvements and global severity improvements from pre- to posttreatment, all showed at least partial diagnostic response, and 60% no longer met diagnostic criteria for OCD at posttreatment. No participants got worse, and all mothers characterized the quality of services received as “excellent.” The present work adds to a growing literature supporting the potential of VTC and related computer technology for meaningfully expanding the reach of supported treatments for OCD and lays the foundation for subsequent controlled evaluations to evaluate matters of efficacy and engagement relative to standard in-office evidence-based care. PMID:24295036

  17. Disease evolution in late-onset and early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Aljohani, R; Gladman, D D; Su, J; Urowitz, M B

    2017-10-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare clinical features, disease activity, and outcome in late-onset versus early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) over 5 years of follow up Method Patients with SLE since 1970 were followed prospectively according to standard protocol and tracked on a computerized database. Patients entering the cohort within one year of diagnosis constitute the inception cohort. Patients with late-onset (age at diagnosis ≥50) disease were identified and matched 1:2 based on gender and first clinic visit (±5) years with patients with early-onset disease (age at diagnosis 18-40 years). Results A total of 86 patients with late-onset disease (84.9% female, 81.4% Caucasian, mean age at SLE diagnosis ± SD 58.05 ± 7.30) and 169 patients with early-onset disease (86.4% female, 71% Caucasian, mean age at SLE diagnosis ± SD 27.80 ± 5.90) were identified. At enrollment, late-onset SLE patients had a lower total number of American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, with less renal and neurologic manifestations. Mean SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) scores were lower in late-onset SLE, especially renal features and anti-dsDNA positivity. Over 5 years, mean SLEDAI-2K scores decreased in both groups, while mean Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR Damage Index (SDI) scores increased more significantly in the late-onset group; they developed more cardiovascular, renal, and ocular damage, and had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Although the late-onset SLE group had a milder presentation and less active disease, with the evolution of disease, they developed more organ damage likely as a consequence of cardiovascular risk factors and aging.

  18. Clinical features of early onset, familial Alzheimer`s disease linked to chromosome 14

    SciTech Connect

    Mullan, M.; Bennett, C.; Figueredo, C.

    1995-02-27

    Early onset familial Alzheimer`s disease (AD) has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Two genes are responsible for the majority of cases of this subtype of AD. Mutations in the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein ({beta}APP) gene on chromosome 21 have been shown to completely cosegregate with the disease. We and others have previously described the clinical features of families with {beta}APP mutations at the codon 717 locus in an attempt to define the phenotype associated with a valine to isoleucine (Val {r_arrow} Ile) or a valine to glycine (Val {r_arrow} Gly) change. More recently, a second locus for very early onsetmore » disease has been localized to chromosome 14. The results of linkage studies in some families suggesting linkage to both chromosomes have been explained by the suggestion of a second (centromeric) locus on chromosome 21. Here we report the clinical features and genetic analysis of a British pedigree (F74) with early onset AD in which neither the {beta}APP locus nor any other chromosome 21 locus segregates with the disease, but in which good evidence is seen for linkage on the long arm of chromosome 14. In particular we report marker data suggesting that the chromosome 14 disease locus is close to D14S43 and D14S77. Given the likelihood that F74 represents a chromosome 14 linked family, we describe the clinical features and make a limited clinical comparison with the {beta}APP717 Val {r_arrow} Ile and {beta}APP717 Val {r_arrow} Gly encoded families that have been previously described. We conclude that although several previously reported clinical features occur to excess in early onset familial AD, no single clinical feature demarcates either the chromosome 14 or {beta}APP codon 717 mutated families except mean age of onset. 52 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  19. Outcomes of subsequent pregnancy after first pregnancy with early-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Bas B; Hoeks, Lette B; Bots, Michiel L; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to report outcome of subsequent pregnancy after early-onset preeclampsia in first pregnancy, and to evaluate potential risk factors for recurrence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery. Reproductive follow-up data were obtained for women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia, resulting in delivery before 34 weeks of gestation at the University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands, between July 1993 and September 2002. The relative contributions of demographic data, outcome variables of first pregnancy, and common thrombophilias to the recurrence risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancy, were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Subsequent pregnancy outcome data were available for 120 women. Overall, preeclampsia reoccurred in the second pregnancy in 30 women (25%). However, 6 women delivered before 34 weeks of gestation (5%), 20 women between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation (17%), and 94 women after 37 weeks of gestation (78%). Forty-one women (34%) had an uneventful pregnancy. Recurrence rates for preeclampsia or preterm delivery were not related to severity of first pregnancy complications, including delivery before 28 weeks of gestation, occurrence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome, small-for-gestational age infants, and to hereditary or acquired thrombophilias. Chronic hypertension was related to a higher recurrence risk of preeclampsia in the second pregnancy (hazard ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.4), and smoking was related to a higher recurrence risk of preterm birth (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.6). Outcomes of subsequent pregnancy after first pregnancy with early-onset preeclampsia is generally favorable.

  20. Association Between Early-Onset Parkinson Disease and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Nancy J.; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Chow, Eva W. C.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Lang, Anthony E.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Clinical case reports of parkinsonism co-occurring with hemizygous 22q11.2 deletions and the associated multisystem syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), suggest that 22q11.2 deletions may lead to increased risk of early-onset Parkinson disease (PD). The frequency of PD and its neuropathological presentation remain unknown in this common genetic condition. OBJECTIVE To evaluate a possible association between 22q11.2 deletions and PD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An observational study of the occurrence of PD in the world’s largest cohort of well-characterized adults with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS (n = 159 [6 with postmortem tissue]; age range, 18.1–68.6 years) was conducted in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Rare postmortem brain tissue from individuals with 22q11.2DS and a clinical history of PD was investigated for neurodegenerative changes and compared with that from individuals with no history of a movement disorder. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A clinical diagnosis of PD made by a neurologist and neuropathological features of PD. RESULTS Adults with 22q11.2DS had a significantly elevated occurrence of PD compared with standard population estimates (standardized morbidity ratio = 69.7; 95% CI, 19.0–178.5). All cases showed early onset and typical PD symptom pattern, treatment response, and course. All were negative for family history of PD and known pathogenic PD-related mutations. The common use of antipsychotics in patients with 22q11.2DS to manage associated psychiatric symptoms delayed diagnosis of PD by up to 10 years. Postmortem brain tissue revealed classic loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in all 3 postmortem 22q11.2DS-PD cases. Typical α-synuclein–positive Lewy bodies were present in the expected distribution in 2 cases but absent in another. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that 22q11.2 deletions represent a novel genetic risk factor for early-onset PD with variable neuropathological

  1. [Early-onset and late-onset male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Shin, Takeshi; Kobori, Yoshitomo

    2016-07-01

    Hypogonadism is classified into two major clinical entities, namely early-onset hypogonadism and late-onset hypogonadism. The former is characterized by the malfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal(testicular)axis or by the primary hypofunction of testes(e.g. Klinefelter's syndrome). The latter is summarized as LOH syndrome which is attributed to the dropped level of bioavailable testosterone. In these diseases testosterone is the key molecule which may cause various symptoms relating not only to physical health but also to mental or psychologic health. In this review issues concerning bone health in these disease are described.

  2. Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Characteristics and Outcomes in the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Ford, Julian D; Pearson, Geraldine S; Scranton, Victoria L; Dusad, Asha

    2017-12-01

    To assess patient characteristics and clinician-rated outcomes for children diagnosed with early-onset bipolar disorder in comparison to a depressive disorders cohort from a single clinic site. To assess predictors of bipolar treatment response. Medical records from 714 consecutive pediatric patients evaluated and treated at an academic tertiary child and adolescent psychiatry clinic between 2006 and 2012 were reviewed. Charts of bipolar children (n = 49) and children with depressive disorders (n = 58) meeting study inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared on variables assessing clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. Outcomes were assessed by using pre- and post-Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)-Severity and Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores, and a CGI-Improvement score ≤2 at final visit determined responder status. Bipolar outcome predictors were assessed by using multiple linear regression. Clinic prevalence rates were 6.9% for early-onset bipolar disorder and 1.5% for very early-onset bipolar disorder. High rates of comorbid diagnoses, symptom severity, parental stress, and child high-risk behaviors were found in both groups. The bipolar cohort had higher rates of aggression and higher lifetime systems of care utilization. The final CGI and CGAS outcomes for unipolar depression patients differed statistically significantly from those for the bipolar cohort, reflecting better clinical status and more improvement at outcome for the depression patients. Both parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist total T-score at clinic admission and the number of lifetime systems-of-care for the child were significantly and inversely associated with improvement for the bipolar cohort. Early-onset bipolar disorder is a complex and heterogeneous psychiatric disorder. Evidence-based treatment should emphasize psychopharmacology with adjunctive family and individual psychotherapy. Strategies to improve engagement in treatment may be especially

  3. Serial elongation-derotation-flexion casting for children with early-onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Canavese, Federico; Samba, Antoine; Dimeglio, Alain; Mansour, Mounira; Rousset, Marie

    2015-12-18

    Various early-onset spinal deformities, particularly infantile and juvenile scoliosis (JS), still pose challenges to pediatric orthopedic surgeons. The ideal treatment of these deformities has yet to emerge, as both clinicians and surgeons still face multiple challenges including preservation of thoracic motion, spine and cage, and protection of cardiac and lung growth and function. Elongation-derotation-flexion (EDF) casting is a technique that uses a custom-made thoracolumbar cast based on a three-dimensional correction concept. EDF can control progression of the deformity and - in some cases-coax the initially-curved spine to grow straighter by acting simultaneously in the frontal, sagittal and coronal planes. Here we provide a comprehensive review of how infantile and JS can affect normal spine and thorax and how serial EDF casting can be used to manage these spinal deformities. A fresh review of the literature helps fully understand the principles of the serial EDF casting technique and the effectiveness of conservative treatment in patients with early-onset spinal deformities, particularly infantile and juvenile scolisois.

  4. Serial elongation-derotation-flexion casting for children with early-onset scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Samba, Antoine; Dimeglio, Alain; Mansour, Mounira; Rousset, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Various early-onset spinal deformities, particularly infantile and juvenile scoliosis (JS), still pose challenges to pediatric orthopedic surgeons. The ideal treatment of these deformities has yet to emerge, as both clinicians and surgeons still face multiple challenges including preservation of thoracic motion, spine and cage, and protection of cardiac and lung growth and function. Elongation-derotation-flexion (EDF) casting is a technique that uses a custom-made thoracolumbar cast based on a three-dimensional correction concept. EDF can control progression of the deformity and - in some cases-coax the initially-curved spine to grow straighter by acting simultaneously in the frontal, sagittal and coronal planes. Here we provide a comprehensive review of how infantile and JS can affect normal spine and thorax and how serial EDF casting can be used to manage these spinal deformities. A fresh review of the literature helps fully understand the principles of the serial EDF casting technique and the effectiveness of conservative treatment in patients with early-onset spinal deformities, particularly infantile and juvenile scolisois. PMID:26716089

  5. Germline Mutations of Inhibins in Early-Onset Ovarian Epithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tournier, Isabelle; Marlin, Régine; Walton, Kelly; Charbonnier, Françoise; Coutant, Sophie; Théry, Jean-Christophe; Charbonnier, Camille; Spurrell, Cailyn; Vezain, Myriam; Ippolito, Lorena; Bougeard, Gaëlle; Roman, Horace; Tinat, Julie; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caron, Olivier; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Vaur, Dominique; King, Mary-Claire; Harrison, Craig; Frebourg, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    To identify novel genetic bases of early-onset epithelial ovarian tumors, we used the trio exome sequencing strategy in a patient without familial history of cancer who presented metastatic serous ovarian adenocarcinomas at 21 years of age. We identified a single de novo mutation (c.1157A>G/p.Asn386Ser) within the INHBA gene encoding the βA-subunit of inhibins/activins, which play a key role in ovarian development. In vitro, this mutation alters the ratio of secreted activins and inhibins. In a second patient with early-onset serous borderline papillary cystadenoma, we identified an unreported germline mutation (c.179G>T/p.Arg60Leu) of the INHA gene encoding the α-subunit, the partner of the βA-subunit. This mutation also alters the secreted activin/inhibin ratio, by disrupting both inhibin A and inhibin B biosynthesis. In a cohort of 62 cases, we detected an additional unreported germline mutation of the INHBA gene (c.839G>A/p.Gly280Glu). Our results strongly suggest that inhibin mutations contribute to the genetic determinism of epithelial ovarian tumors. PMID:24302632

  6. Linkage of early-onset osteoarthritis and chondrocalcinosis to human chromosome 8q

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C.T.; Farrer, L.A.; Adair, R.

    Calcium pyrophosphate-deposition disease (CPDD), also called {open_quotes}chondrocalcinosis{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}pseudogout{close_quotes}, is a disorder characterized by the deposition of calcium-containing crystals in joint tissue, which leads to arthritis-like symptoms. The presence of these crystals in joint tissue is a common finding in the elderly, and, in this population, there is a poor correlation with joint pain. In contrast, early-onset CPDD has been described in several large families in which the disease progresses to severe degenerative osteoarthritis (OA). In these families, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is observed, with an age at onset between the 2nd and 5th decades of life. Inmore » this report, we describe a large New England family with early-onset CPDD and severe degenerative OA. We found genetic linkage between the disease in this family and chromosome 8q, with a multipoint lod score of 4.06. These results suggest that a defective gene at this location causes the disease in this family. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  7. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Rafaela Torres Portugal; Nogueira, Sarah de Oliveira; do Nascimento, João Paulo Rodrigues; de Lima, Laisa Soares; da Nóbrega, Taís Bastos; Virgínio, Mariana da Silva; Moreno, Lucas Monte da Costa; Sampaio, Bruno Henrique Barbosa; Souza, Fábio Gomes de Matos e

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO) of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words “bipolar disorder,” “suicide attempts,” “cannabis,” “marijuana,” “early age at onset,” and “early onset.” Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6–42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5–60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15–42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear. PMID:26097750

  8. Early onset of delinquency and the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving among young males.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F; Welte, John W

    2011-12-01

    Building upon the literature in developmental and life-course criminology, the present study assesses the possible association of age onset of delinquency with the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving using data collected from the three waves of the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). It is argued that as a unique form of delinquency, alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents may be better understood in a broad context of adolescent delinquency involvement. The study adopts the general approach for the analysis of early onset of delinquency and criminal careers in developmental and life-course criminology and hypothesizes that early onset of delinquency is associated with a higher growth of alcohol-impaired driving over time among adolescents when age onsets of alcohol-impaired driving, drinking, and drug use are controlled. Our analysis with the HLM growth modeling method provides support for the hypothesis. Respondents who had an early start in delinquency were likely to have a faster growth of alcohol-impaired driving over the three waves of BLSYM, which implies that these respondents were likely to have a longer path of alcohol-impaired driving in their transition to adulthood. The implication of this finding is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EARLY ONSET OF DELINQUENCY AND THE TRAJECTORY OF ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING AMONG YOUNG MALES*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Building upon the literature in developmental and life-course criminology, the present study assesses the possible association of age onset of delinquency with the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving using data collected from the three waves of the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). It is argued that as a unique form of delinquency, alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents may be better understood in a broad context of adolescent delinquency involvement. The study adopts the general approach for the analysis of early onset of delinquency and criminal careers in developmental and life-course criminology and hypothesizes that early onset of delinquency is associated with a higher growth of alcohol-impaired driving over time among adolescents when age onsets of alcohol-impaired driving, drinking, and drug use are controlled. Our analysis with the HLM growth modeling method provides support for the hypothesis. Respondents who had an early start in delinquency were likely to have a faster growth of alcohol-impaired driving over the three waves of BLSYM, which implies that these respondents were likely to have a longer path of alcohol-impaired driving in their transition to adulthood. The implication of this finding is discussed. PMID:21831528

  10. Prognosis and response to laser treatment of early-onset hypertrophic port-wine stains (PWS).

    PubMed

    Passeron, Thierry; Salhi, Aicha; Mazer, Jean-Michel; Lavogiez, Céline; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Galliot, Chrystèle; Collet-Villette, Anne-Marie; Labreze, Christine; Boon, Laurence; Hardy, Jean-Philippe; Fayard, Virginie; Livideanu, Cristina Bulai; Toubel, Gérard; Georgescou, Gabriela; Gral, Nathalie; Maza, Aude; Lacour, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    There is limited information regarding early development of soft-tissue and/or bone hypertrophy with facial port-wine stains (PWS). We sought to characterize patients with hypertrophic PWS presenting during childhood. Patients with a facial PWS and underlying hypertrophy that developed before the age of 18 years were included in a multicenter retrospective study. Age at onset of the hypertrophy, its location, association with odontologic problems, presence of other associated complications, and response to laser treatment were recorded. A total of 98 patients were included. The mean age at onset of hypertrophy, retrieved for 77 of 98 patients, was 5.6 years. The hypertrophy was congenital in 26%. Odontologic problems were noted in 39.8% of cases. Other complications, including cataract, asymmetric development of the maxillary bone, and speech delay/disorders, were reported in 18.4%. In all, 67 patients received laser treatment. Only 3% achieved complete or nearly complete clearance of the PWS. As only cases of PWS with early-onset hypertrophy were included, we were unable to calculate the prevalence of this manifestation. PWS with early-onset hypertrophy are associated with a high rate of complications and a poor response to laser treatment. Periodic monitoring is recommended for early detection and treatment of complications. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurocognitive findings in Prader-Willi syndrome and early-onset morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer; Kranzler, John; Liu, Yijun; Schmalfuss, Ilona; Theriaque, Douglas W; Shuster, Jonathan J; Hatfield, Ann; Mueller, O Thomas; Goldstone, Anthony P; Sahoo, Trilochan; Beaudet, Arthur L; Driscoll, Daniel J

    2006-08-01

    To examine whether early-onset morbid obesity is associated with cognitive impairment, neuropathologic changes, and behavioral problems. This case-control study compared head MRI scans and cognitive, achievement, and behavioral evaluations of subjects with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), early-onset morbid obesity (EMO), and normal-weight sibling control subjects from both groups. Head MRI was done on 17 PWS, 18 EMO, and 21 siblings, and cognitive, achievement, and behavioral evaluations were done on 19 PWS, 17 EMO, and 24 siblings. The mean General Intellectual Ability score of the EMO group was 77.4 +/- 17.8; PWS, 63.3 +/- 14.2; and control subjects, 106.4 +/- 13.0. Achievement scores for the three groups were EMO, 78.7 +/- 18.8; PWS, 71.2 +/- 17.0; and control subjects, 104.8 +/- 17.0. Significant negative behaviors and poor adaptive skills were found in the EMO group. White matter lesions were noted on brain MRI in 6 subjects with PWS and 5 with EMO. None of the normal-weight control subjects had these findings. Individuals with EMO have significantly lower cognitive function and more behavioral problems than control subjects with no history of childhood obesity. Both EMO and PWS subjects have white matter lesions on brain MRI that have not previously been described.

  12. Early-onset restrictive eating disturbances in primary school boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Susanne; van Dyck, Zoé; Dremmel, Daniela; Munsch, Simone; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to determine the distribution of early-onset restrictive eating disturbances characteristic of the new DSM-5 diagnosis, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) in middle childhood, as well as to evaluate the screening instrument, Eating Disturbances in Youth-Questionnaire (EDY-Q). A total of 1,444 8- to 13-year-old children were screened in regular schools (3rd to 6th grade) in Switzerland using the self-report measure EDY-Q, consisting of 12 items based on the DSM-5 criteria for ARFID. 46 children (3.2%) reported features of ARFID in the self-rating. Group differences were found for body mass index, with underweight children reporting features of ARFID more often than normal and overweight children. The EDY-Q revealed good psychometric properties, including adequate discriminant and convergent validity. Early-onset restrictive eating disturbances are commonly reported in middle childhood. Because of possible negative short- and long-term impact, early detection is essential. Further studies with structured interviews and parent reports are needed to confirm this study's findings.

  13. Allelic association at the D14S43 locus in early onset Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, A.; Tardieu, S.; Campion, D.

    1995-04-24

    The D14S43 marker is closely linked to the major gene for early onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer`s disease on chromosome 14. Allelic frequencies at the D14S43 locus were compared in 113 familial and isolated cases of early onset Alzheimer`s disease (<60 years of age at onset) (EOAD) and 109 unaffected individuals of the same geographic origin. Allele 7 was significantly (P = 0.033) more frequent in type 1 EOAD patients (13.2%), defined by the presence of at least another first degree relative with EOAD, than in controls (4.1%). Since an autosomal dominant gene is probably responsible for type 1 patients, allelicmore » association may reflect linkage disequilibrium at the D14S43 locus. This would mean that some patients share a common ancestral mutation. However, since multiple tests were carried out, this result must be interpreted with caution, and needs confirmation in an independent sample. 16 refs., 2 tabs.« less

  14. Case report of an atypical early onset X-linked retinoschisis in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Murro, Vittoria; Caputo, Roberto; Bacci, Giacomo Maria; Sodi, Andrea; Mucciolo, Dario Pasquale; Bargiacchi, Sara; Giglio, Sabrina Rita; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2017-02-24

    X-linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) is one of the most common macular degenerations in young males, with a worldwide prevalence ranging from 1:5000 to 1:20000. Clinical diagnosis of XLRS can be challenging due to the highly variable phenotypic presentation and limited correlation has been identified between mutation type and disease severity or progression. We report the atypical early onset of XLRS in 3-month-old monozygotic twins. Fundus examination was characterized by severe bullous retinal schisis with pre-retinal and intraretinal haemorrhages. Molecular genetic analysis of the RS1 was performed and the c.288G > A (p. Trp96Ter) mutation was detected in both patients. Early onset XLRS is associated with a more progressive form of the disease, characterized by large bullous peripheral schisis involving the posterior pole, vascular abnormalities and haemorrhages. The availability of specific technology permitted detailed imaging of the clinical picture of unusual cases of XLRS. The possible relevance of modifying genes should be taken into consideration for the future development of XLRS gene therapy.

  15. The Value of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio for Detecting Early-onset Neonatal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Can, Emrah; Hamilcikan, Şahin; Can, Ceren

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between neonate early-onset sepsis (EOS) and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) of term neonates. This prospective observational study was conducted with term neonates diagnosed with EOS compared with 44 healthy controls. Exclusion criteria were prematurity, postmaturity, small or large for gestational age according to week of pregnancy, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, chorioamnionitis, congenital major anomalies, and cyanotic congenital heart disease. A total of 122 term neonates were included in the study. Of these, 78 were diagnosed with EOS and 44 were healthy controls. Tachycardia and apnea with bradycardia were the most common clinical signs of the onset of EOS in neonates in the EOS group. This group had significantly higher neutrophil counts, axillary temperatures, NLRs, PLRs, C-reactive proteins, and procalcitonin levels compared with the control group. There was a positive association between neutrophil counts, NLR, and PLR in the EOS group. An NLR of 6.76 was determined as the predictive cutoff value of neonate EOS (sensitivity 97.4%; specificity 100%; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.99; P=0.001). A PLR of 94.05 was determined as the predictive cutoff value of neonate EOS (sensitivity 97.4; specificity 100%; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.93; P=0.001). NLRs and PLRs were positively correlated with EOS in term neonates, and these ratios can be used as diagnostic adjunct tests for neonate EOS workups.

  16. Alcohol use in motion pictures and its relation with early-onset teen drinking.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Wills, Thomas A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Gibson, Jennifer; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of viewing depictions of alcohol in entertainment media on adolescent drinking behavior. Our aims were to assess drinking in a sample of popular contemporary movies and to examine the association of movie alcohol exposure with early-onset drinking in an adolescent sample. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional survey (N=4655) with longitudinal follow-up of never-drinkers (N=2406) involving adolescents ages 10-14 years and recruited from 15 New Hampshire and Vermont schools. Screen depictions of alcohol use were timed for each of 601 popular contemporary movies. Each adolescent was asked if he/she had seen a unique list of 50 movie titles, randomly selected from the larger pool. Movie alcohol use was summed for movies the adolescent had seen, adjusted to reflect exposure to the larger pool and modeled as a continuous variable. Ninety-two percent of the movies in the sample depicted drinking; median screen time for movie alcohol use was 2.5 minutes (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.9-5.0 minutes). Median exposure to movie alcohol use from the 601 movies was 8.6 hours (IQR: 4.6-13.5 hours). Overall 23.1% of the cross-sectional sample had tried alcohol, and 14.8% of initial nondrinkers had tried alcohol at the follow-up assessment. We found statistical evidence to support a curvilinear association between higher exposure to movie alcohol use and increased risk of prevalent and incident alcohol use, with a statistically significant linear and quadratic effect, and suggesting a higher dose-effect relationship at lower movie alcohol exposure levels compared to higher levels. The linear and the quadratic associations remained strong and significant in cross-sectional and prospective models after controlling for sociodemographics (grade in school, school, gender, parent education), personality characteristics of the adolescent (sensation seeking, rebelliousness, self-esteem), school performance, parenting style, and smoking experimentation

  17. Comparison of Growing Rod Instrumentation Versus Serial Cast Treatment for Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Charles E; McClung, Anna M; Thompson, George H; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Sanders, James O

    2013-09-01

    A comparison of 2 methods of early-onset scoliosis treatment using radiographic measures and complication rates. To determine whether a delaying tactic (serial casting) has comparable efficacy to a surgical method (insertion of growing rod instrumentation [GRI]) in the initial phase of early-onset deformity management. Serial casts are used in experienced centers to delay operative management of curves of surgical magnitude (greater than 50°) in children up to age 6 years. A total of 27 casted patients from 3 institutions were matched with 27 patients from a multicenter database according to age (within 6 months of each other), curve magnitude (within 10° of each other), and diagnosis. Outcomes were compared according to major curve magnitude, spine length (T1-S1), duration and number of treatment encounters, and complications. There was no difference in age (5.5 years) or initial curve magnitude (65°) between groups, which reflects the accuracy of the matching process. Six pairs of patients had neuromuscular diagnoses, 11 had idiopathic deformities, and 10 had syndromic scoliosis. Growing rod instrumentation patients had smaller curves (45.9° vs. 64.9°; p = .002) at follow-up, but there was no difference in absolute spine length (GRI = 32.0 cm; cast = 30.6 cm; p = .26), even though GRI patients had been under treatment for a longer duration (4.5 vs. 2.4 years; p < .0001) and had undergone a mean of 5.5 lengthenings compared with 4.0 casts. Growing rod instrumentation patients had a 44% complication rate, compared with 1 cast complication. Of 27 casted patients, 15 eventually had operative treatment after a mean delay of 1.7 years after casting. Cast treatment is a valuable delaying tactic for younger children with early-onset scoliosis. Spine deformity is adequately controlled, spine length is not compromised, and surgical complications associated with early GRI treatment are avoided. Copyright © 2013 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc

  18. Nutrition and exercise in individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zinker, B A

    1999-07-01

    Individuals with type 1 (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [IDDM]) and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]) diabetes should be encouraged to exercise. Although there is an absence of consistent evidence that adaptations to routine exercise improve glucose control in type 1 diabetes, there is evidence that shows improved glucose control in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Although both groups benefit from exercise, the merit and suitability of routine exercise is measured by the extent to which the advantageous adaptive effects of regular exercise surpass the risks of a sole bout of exercise. In addition, when considering acute versus routine exercise, special considerations must be given to children with diabetes and older adults at risk for insulin resistance. Finally, a greater research focus is needed on engaging in competitive and recreational sports so that children and adults with diabetes may participate safely in activities such as baseball, swimming, basketball, soccer, and hockey.

  19. Novel CDKL5 Mutations in Czech Patients with Phenotypes of Atypical Rett Syndrome and Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Záhoráková, D; Langová, M; Brožová, K; Laštůvková, J; Kalina, Z; Rennerová, L; Martásek, P

    2016-01-01

    The X-linked CDKL5 gene, which encodes cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 protein, has been implicated in early-onset encephalopathy and atypical Rett syndrome with early-onset seizures. The CDKL5 protein is a kinase required for neuronal development and morphogenesis, but its precise functions are still largely unexplored. Individuals with CDKL5 mutations present with severe global developmental delay, intractable epilepsy, and Rett-like features. A clear genotype-phenotype correlation has not been established due to an insufficient number of reported cases. The aim of this study was to analyse the CDKL5 gene in Czech patients with early-onset seizures and Rett-like features. We performed mutation screening in a cohort of 83 individuals using high-resolution melting analysis, DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation- dependent probe amplification. Molecular analyses revealed heterozygous pathogenic mutations in three girls with severe intellectual disability and intractable epilepsy starting at the age of two months. All three identified mutations, c.637G>A, c.902_977+29del105, and c.1757_1758delCT, are novel, thus significantly extending the growing spectrum of known pathogenic CDKL5 sequence variants. Our results support the importance of genetic testing of the CDKL5 gene in patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and Rett-like features with early-onset seizures. This is the first study referring to molecular defects of CDKL5 in Czech cases.

  20. The common single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ji-Peng; Wang, Hong; Li, Chang-Zhong; Zhao, Han; You, Li; Shi, Dong-Hong; Sun, Xiu-Hua; Lv, Hong; Wang, Fei; Wen, Ze-Qing; Wang, Xie-Tong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs2681472, as a new hypertension susceptibility genetic variant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between preeclampsia and rs268172 in a Northern Han Chinese population. We genotyped 1218 unrelated Northern Han Chinese women, including 515 patients with preeclampsia and 703 healthy controls. No significant differences were detected in the allele frequencies between patients and controls (P = .23). When patients were divided into early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia according to gestational age of disease onset, the allele frequencies significantly differed between controls and patients with early-onset preeclampsia (P = .02). Genotype frequencies also were significantly different between controls and patients early-onset preeclampsia when data were analyzed under additive (P = .03) and dominant (P = .009) models. We replicated this association in an independent Northern Han Chinese population and observed a significant difference in the allele frequencies between patients with early-onset preeclampsia and controls (P = .011). We report that rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Facial affect processing in social anxiety disorder with early onset: evidence of an intensity amplification bias.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Daniela; Schienle, Anne

    2018-06-01

    The present event-related potential (ERP) study investigated for the first time whether children with early-onset social anxiety disorder (SAD) process affective facial expressions of varying intensities differently than non-anxious controls. Participants were 15 SAD patients and 15 non-anxious controls (mean age of 9 years). They were presented with schematic faces displaying anger and happiness at four intensity levels (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%), as well as with neutral faces. ERPs in early and later time windows (P100, N170, late positivity [LP]), as well as affective ratings (valence and arousal) for the faces, were recorded. SAD patients rated the faces as generally more arousing, regardless of the type of emotion and intensity. Moreover, they displayed enhanced right-parietal LP (350-650 ms). Both arousal ratings and LP reflect stimulus intensity. Therefore, this study provides first evidence of an intensity amplification bias in pediatric SAD during facial affect processing.

  2. ABCC6 mutations and early onset stroke: Two cases of a typical Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum.

    PubMed

    Bertamino, Marta; Severino, Mariasavina; Grossi, Alice; Rusmini, Marta; Tortora, Domenico; Gandolfo, Carlo; Pederzoli, Silvia; Malattia, Clara; Picco, Paolo; Striano, Pasquale; Ceccherini, Isabella; Di Rocco, Maja

    2018-04-12

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by fragmented and mineralized elastic fibers in the mid-dermis of the skin, eye, digestive tract and cardiovascular system. Clinical presentation includes typical skin lesions, ocular angioid streaks, and multisystem vasculopathy. The age of onset varies considerably from infancy to old age, but the diagnosis is usually made in young adults due to frequent absence of pathognomonic skin and ocular manifestations in early childhood. We report two children with PXE presenting with isolated multisystem vasculopathy and early-onset stroke. In the first patient, diagnosis was delayed until typical dermatologic alterations appeared; in the second patient, next-generation sequencing (NGS) study led to early diagnosis and specific follow-up, underlying the crucial role in idiopathic pediatric stroke of early genetic testing using NGS-based panels. Copyright © 2018 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early onset of a nasal perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm not related to tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Gana, S; Morbini, P; Giourgos, G; Matti, E; Chu, F; Danesino, C; Pagella, F

    2012-06-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms are a group of rare tumours reported in various organs under a variety of designations. Such tumours are of interest primarily because of the distinctive morphology of their cell population and their immunoreactivity with melanocytic and myoid markers. There is a strong association between perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms and tuberous sclerosis complex. Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms very rarely occur in the upper aero-digestive tract. To date only three cases of nasal perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms have been reported in the literature. The present report refers to a 22-year old woman, without any stigmata of tuberous sclerosis complex, with early onset of a polypoid nasal mass with pathological and immunohistochemical features entirely compatible with those of a perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm.

  4. Reversible Pisa Syndrome Induced by Rivastigmine in a Patient With Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Lee, Yu; Lee, Chun-Yi; Lin, Pao-Yen

    Pisa syndrome (PS) is a state of dystonic muscle contraction with a marked truncal deviation to one side. It is an uncommon adverse effect of antipsychotic drugs, but is rarely reported in patients receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, especially rivastigmine. We present a 57-year-old female patient with Alzheimer disease who began to develop symptoms of dementia at the age of 51 years. She was observed to have symptoms of PS after continuous use of rivastigmine (9 mg/d) for nearly 2 years. The PS symptoms improved after the dose of rivastigmine was reduced but recurred when the dose was added back to 9 mg/d. Finally, after we decreased the dose to 4.5 mg/d, her PS symptoms were remitted. This report reminds us that clinicians need to be cautious about the risk of PS when prescribing rivastigmine in a patient with early-onset Alzheimer disease.

  5. Investigating autism spectrum disorder and autistic traits in early onset eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Pooni, Jyoti; Ninteman, Aafke; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Nicholls, Dasha; Mandy, William

    2012-05-01

    To investigate whether young people (8-16 years) with an eating disorder have a higher prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASDs) and elevated autistic traits compared to typically developing (TD) peers. Twenty-two participants with early onset eating disorder (EOED) were assessed using standardized ASD measures and compared to IQ matched TD (n = 24) and ASD (n = 20) controls. An ASD diagnosis was no more common in EOED than in TD controls. However, repetitive and stereotyped behavior was more often observed in the EOED group and, compared to TD controls, there was a trend (p = .07) toward greater autistic social impairment in EOED. Whilst participants with EOED did not show increased ASD prevalence, they did have elevated autistic traits of clinical significance, particularly repetitive and stereotyped behavior. Further work is required to determine whether inflexibility and social difficulties in EOED have identical phenomenology and etiology to those seen in ASD. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Assessment of early onset of driver fatigue using multimodal fatigue measures in a static simulator.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, M; Balasubramanian, Venkatesh

    2014-07-01

    Driver fatigue is an important contributor to road accidents. This paper reports a study that evaluated driver fatigue using multimodal fatigue measures, i.e., surface electromyography (sEMG), electroencephalography (EEG), seat interface pressure, blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation level. Twenty male participants volunteered in this study by performing 60 min of driving on a static simulator. Results from sEMG showed significant physical fatigue (ρ < 0.05) in back and shoulder muscle groups. EEG showed significant (ρ < 0.05) increase of alpha and theta activities and a significant decrease of beta activity during monotonous driving. Results also showed significant change in bilateral pressure distribution on thigh and buttocks region during the study. These findings demonstrate the use of multimodal measures to assess early onset of fatigue. This will help us understand the influence of physical and mental fatigue on driver during monotonous driving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasound control of magnet growing rod distraction in early onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Pérez Cervera, T; Lirola Criado, J F; Farrington Rueda, D M

    2016-01-01

    The growing rod technique is currently one of the most common procedures used in the management of early onset scoliosis. However, in order to preserve spine growth and control the deformity it requires frequent surgeries to distract the rods. Magnetically driven growing rods have recently been introduced with same treatment goal, but without the inconvenience of repeated surgical distractions. One of the limitations of this technical advance is an increase in radiation exposure due to the increase in distraction frequency compared to conventional growing rods. An improvement of the original technique is presented, proposing a solution to the inconvenience of multiple radiation exposure using ultrasound technology to control the distraction process of magnetically driven growing rods. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Completed suicide in an autopsy-confirmed case of early onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hartzell, Jennifer Wiener; Geary, Richard; Gyure, Kymberly; Chivukula, Venkata Ravi; Haut, Marc W

    2018-04-01

    We report a case of a 57-year-old male with clinically diagnosed and autopsy-confirmed early onset Alzheimer's disease who completed suicide by gunshot wound to the chest. This case has several unique aspects that have not been discussed in previous case reports of completed suicide in Alzheimer's disease. In particular, our patient's death was highly planned with successful compensation for his cognitive deficits. After all firearms had been removed from the home as a safety precaution, he obtained a new weapon, hid it and left himself cues to find and use it. The case is discussed in the context of literature differentiating the neural circuitry propagating impulsive versus planned suicidal acts.

  9. Child, Parent, and Peer Predictors of Early-Onset Substance Use: A Multisite Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaplow, Julie B.; Curran, Patrick J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify kindergarten-age predictors of early-onset substance use from demographic, environmental, parenting, child psychological, behavioral, and social functioning domains. Data from a longitudinal study of 295 children were gathered using multiple-assessment methods and multiple informants in kindergarten and 1st grade. Annual assessments at ages 10, 11, and 12 reflected that 21% of children reported having initiated substance use by age 12. Results from longitudinal logistic regression models indicated that risk factors at kindergarten include being male, having a parent who abused substances, lower levels of parental verbal reasoning, higher levels of overactivity, more thought problems, and more social problem solving skills deficits. Children with no risk factors had less than a 10% chance of initiating substance use by age 12, whereas children with 2 or more risk factors had greater than a 50% chance of initiating substance use. Implications for typology, etiology, and prevention are discussed. PMID:12041707

  10. The Prevention of Early-Onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease.

    PubMed

    Money, Deborah; Allen, Victoria M

    2016-12-01

    To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use. Neonatal outcomes of rates of early-onset group B streptococcal infections are evaluated. Published literature was retrieved through searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library from January 1980 to July 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (group B streptococcus, antibiotic therapy, infection, prevention). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The recommendations in this guideline are designed to help clinicians identify and manage pregnancies at risk for neonatal group B streptococcal disease to optimize maternal and perinatal outcomes. No cost-benefit analysis is provided. There is good evidence based on randomized control trial data that in women with pre-labour rupture of membranes at term who are colonized with group B streptococcus, rates of neonatal infection are

  11. Definition, clinical profile, microbiological spectrum, and prognostic factors of early-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    López, Javier; Revilla, Ana; Vilacosta, Isidre; Villacorta, Eduardo; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Gómez, Itziar; Rollán, María Jesús; San Román, José Alberto

    2007-03-01

    There is no agreement in the best cutoff time to distinguish between early- and late- onset prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). Our objectives are to define early-onset PVE according to the microbiological spectrum and to analyse the profile and short-term prognosis of this entity. The microbiological profile of 172 non-drug users, who were patients with PVE, were compared according to the time elapsed from surgery among 640 endocarditis diagnosed between 1996 and 2004. There were no differences in the microbiological profile of patients with PVE occurred within 2 months of valve replacement and those accounting between 2 and 12 months. The proportion of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) was higher during the first year post-intervention (37 vs. 18%, P = 0.005) and Streptococci viridans were more common after 1 year (18 vs. 1%, P = 0.001). The percentage of methicilin-resistant CNS strains was higher before 1 year (77 vs. 30%, P = 0.004). Early-onset PVE represented 38% of all episodes of PVE, CNS being the most frequent isolated microorganisms (37%), most of them methicilin resistant (77%). In-hospital mortality of patients who needed urgent surgery was 46% and elective surgery 25%. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 38% and no differences were seen between surgical and medical groups (32 vs. 45%, P = 0.30). Periannular complications were associated with higher in-hospital mortality (60 vs. 27%, P = 0.007). According to the microbiological profile, the most appropriate cutoff time to distinguish between early- and late-onset PVE was 1 year. Methicilin-resistant CNS are the most frequent pathogens and periannular complications, the only risk factor for in-hospital mortality.

  12. Are early-onset cannabis smokers at an increased risk of depression spells?

    PubMed

    Fairman, Brian J; Anthony, James C

    2012-04-01

    A recent research focus is a set of hypothesized adult-onset mental health disturbances possibly due to early-onset cannabis use (EOCU, onset <18 years). We seek to estimate the suspected EOCU-associated excess odds of experiencing an incident depression spell during adulthood, with comparisons to never cannabis smokers and those with delayed cannabis onset (i.e., not starting to smoke cannabis until adulthood). The National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) assess non-institutionalized community-dwelling residents of the United States after probability sampling each year. In aggregate, the NSDUH analytical sample included 173,775 adult participants from survey years 2005-2009 (74-76% of designated respondents). Standardized computer-assisted interviews collected information on background determinants, age of first cannabis use, and depression spell onset. Logistic regression was used to estimate EOCU-depression spell associations in the form of odds ratios, with statistical adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, years of cannabis involvement, tobacco cigarette onset, and alcohol onset. About 1 in 10 experienced a depression spell during adulthood, and both early-onset and adult-onset cannabis smokers had a modest excess odds of a depression spell compared to never cannabis smokers, even with covariate adjustment (OR=1.7 and 1.8, respectively; both p<0.001). Estimates for early- and adult-onset cannabis smokers did not statistically differ from one another. Shared diathesis that might influence both EOCU and adult-onset depression spell is controlled no more than partially, as will be true until essentially all known early-life shared vulnerabilities are illuminated. Cannabis smoking initiated at any age signals a modest increased risk of a spell of depression in adulthood, even when adjusted for suspected confounding variables studied here. Delaying cannabis onset until adulthood does not appear to diminish the cannabis-associated risk. Copyright © 2011

  13. Early childhood predictors of early onset of smoking: a birth prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Mamun, Abdullah A; Williams, Gail M; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Najman, Jake M

    2013-10-01

    Early onset of smoking is associated with subsequent abuse of other substances and development of negative health outcomes. This study aimed to examine early life predictors of onset of smoking in an Australian young cohort. Data were from the Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), a population-based prospective birth cohort study (1981-2012). The present study is based on a cohort of 3714 young adults who self-reported smoking status and age of onset of smoking at the 21-year follow-up. Of these, data were available for 3039 on early childhood factors collected between the baseline and 14-year follow-up of the study. Of 3714 young adults, 49.6% (49.9% males and 49.3% females) reported having ever smoked cigarettes. For those who had ever smoked, mean and median ages at first smoke were 15.5 and 16.0years, respectively. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis mother's education, change in maternal marital status, maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, maternal depression and child externalizing when the child was 5years statistically significantly predicted early onset of smoking. The data suggest that individuals exposed to personal and environmental risk factors during the early stage of childhood are at increased risk of initiation to cigarette smoking at an earlier age. Identification of the pathways of association between these early life factors and initiation to cigarette smoking may help reduce risk of tobacco smoking in adolescents and its adverse consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology of early-onset dementia: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Renata Teles; Caixeta, Leonardo; Machado, Sergio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Presenile Dementia or Early Onset Dementia (EOD) is a public health problem, it differs from Senile Dementia, and encloses a significant number of cases; nevertheless, it is still poorly understood and underdiagnosed. This study aims to review the prevalence and etiology of EOD, comparing EOD with Senile Dementia, as well as to show the main causes of EOD and their prevalence in population and non-population based studies. The computer-supported search used the following databases: Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scielo. The search terms were alcohol-associated dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, Creutzfeldt-jakob disease, dementia with lewy bodies, early onset dementia, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Huntington’s disease, mixed dementia, neurodegenerative disorders, Parkinson’s disease dementia, presenile dementia, traumatic brain injury, vascular dementia. Only papers published in English and conducted from 1985 up to 2012 were preferentially reviewed. Neurodegenerative diseases are the most common etiologies seen in EOD. Among the general population, the prevalence of EOD was found to range between 0 to 700 per 100.000 habitants in groups of 25-64 years old, with an increasing incidence with age. The progression of EOD was found to range between 8.3 to 22.8 new cases per 100.000 in those aged under 65 years. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major etiology, followed by Vascular Dementia (VaD) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). A larger number of epidemiological studies to elucidate how environmental issues contribute to EOD are necessary, thus, we can collaborate in the planning and prevention of services toward dementia patients. PMID:23878613

  15. IRAK-M Is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Early-Onset Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Balaci, Lenuta ; Spada, Maria Cristina ; Olla, Nazario ; Sole, Gabriella ; Loddo, Laura ; Anedda, Francesca ; Naitza, Silvia ; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta ; Maschio, Andrea ; Altea, Daniele ; Uda, Manuela ; Pilia, Sabrina ; Sanna, Serena ; Masala, Marco ; Crisponi, Laura ; Fattori, Matilde ; Devoto, Marcella ; Doratiotto, Silvia ; Rassu, Stefania ; Mereu, Simonetta ; Giua, Enrico ; Cadeddu, Natalina Graziella ; Atzeni, Roberto ; Pelosi, Umberto ; Corrias, Adriano ; Perra, Roberto ; Torrazza, Pier Luigi ; Pirina, Pietro ; Ginesu, Francesco ; Marcias, Silvano ; Schintu, Maria Grazia ; Giacco, Gennaro Sergio Del ; Manconi, Paolo Emilio ; Malerba, Giovanni ; Bisognin, Andrea ; Trabetti, Elisabetta ; Boner, Attilio ; Pescollderungg, Lydia ; Pignatti, Pier Franco ; Schlessinger, David ; Cao, Antonio ; Pilia, Giuseppe 

    2007-01-01

    Asthma is a multifactorial disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors. In the past decade, several loci and >100 genes have been found to be associated with the disease in at least one population. Among these loci, region 12q13-24 has been implicated in asthma etiology in multiple populations, suggesting that it harbors one or more asthma susceptibility genes. We performed linkage and association analyses by transmission/disequilibrium test and case-control analysis in the candidate region 12q13-24, using the Sardinian founder population, in which limited heterogeneity of pathogenetic alleles for monogenic and complex disorders as well as of environmental conditions should facilitate the study of multifactorial traits. We analyzed our cohort, using a cutoff age of 13 years at asthma onset, and detected significant linkage to a portion of 12q13-24. We identified IRAK-M as the gene contributing to the linkage and showed that it is associated with early-onset persistent asthma. We defined protective and predisposing SNP haplotypes and replicated associations in an outbred Italian population. Sequence analysis in patients found mutations, including inactivating lesions, in the IRAK-M coding region. Immunohistochemistry of lung biopsies showed that IRAK-M is highly expressed in epithelial cells. We report that IRAK-M is involved in the pathogenesis of early-onset persistent asthma. IRAK-M, a negative regulator of the Toll-like receptor/IL-1R pathways, is a master regulator of NF-κB and inflammation. Our data suggest a mechanistic link between hyperactivation of the innate immune system and chronic airway inflammation and indicate IRAK-M as a potential target for therapeutic intervention against asthma. PMID:17503328

  16. Focused Molding Using Adhesive Pads in Mehta Casting for Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Roby; Sponseller, Paul D

    2014-11-01

    Prospective clinical series. To determine the effect of adhesive pads placed over the apex of scoliosis curves on curve correction 1) after the first cast and 2) after the final cast. Early-onset scoliosis is often effectively managed by serial casting. Properly localizing the apex of the molds with the cast in place is challenging. The authors explored the effectiveness of a novel technique: incorporation of adhesive pads placed over the major curve apex before Mehta casting. The 27 patients who received body casts (2000-2013) were divided into 2 groups: those without and with apical adhesive pads (5-6 layers of pads placed on the major curve's apex during casting): non-pad (NP) group (n = 12) and pad (P) group (n = 15), respectively. Groups were compared regarding the percentage of Cobb angle change from the first cast and curve correction to a Cobb angle of <25° with Student t and chi-square tests (significance was p < .05). The mean percentage of major first-cast curve correction was 39% ± 18% and 56% ± 17% in the NP and P groups, respectively. Of the 26 patients out of a cast, 11 (42%) had a Cobb angle of <25°: 3 (25%) and 8 (57%) in the NP and P groups, respectively. The mean differences between the 2 groups in percentage of major curve correction and this Cobb angle correction were significant: p = .023 and .005, respectively. Adhesive pads placed over major curve(s) during Mehta casting were effective in increasing the amount of major curve correction from the first cast for idiopathic early-onset scoliosis and in decreasing curves to <25° at final follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurocognitive Outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Jean A.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Method Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8–19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated in a four-site randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing molindone, olanzapine or risperidone. The primary outcomes were overall group change from baseline in neurocognitive composite and six domain scores after 8 weeks and continued treatment up to 52 weeks. Age and sex were included as covariates in all analyses. Results Seventy-seven of 116 TEOSS participants (66%) had post-baseline neurocognitive data. No significant differences emerged in the neurocognitive outcomes of the three medication groups. Therefore, the three treatment groups were combined into one group to assess overall neurocognitive outcomes. Significant modest improvements were observed in the composite score and in three of six domain scores in the acute phase, and in four of six domain scores in the combined acute and maintenance phases. Partial correlation analyses revealed very few relationships among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) baseline or change scores and neurocognition change scores. Conclusions Antipsychotic intervention in youth with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOSS) led to modest improvement in measures of neurocognitive function. The changes in cognition were largely unrelated to baseline symptoms or symptom change. Small treatment effect sizes, easily accounted for by practice effects, highlight the critical need for the development of more efficacious interventions for the enduring neurocognitive deficits seen in EOSS. PMID:22525956

  18. Clinical dissection of early onset absence epilepsy in children and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Agostinelli, Sergio; Accorsi, Patrizia; Beccaria, Francesca; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Canevini, Maria Paola; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Cappanera, Silvia; Dalla Bernardina, Bernardo; Darra, Francesca; Del Gaudio, Luigi; Elia, Maurizio; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giordano, Lucio; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Minetti, Carlo; Nicita, Francesco; Parisi, Pasquale; Pavone, Piero; Pezzella, Marianna; Sesta, Michela; Spalice, Alberto; Striano, Salvatore; Tozzi, Elisabetta; Traverso, Monica; Vari, Stella; Vignoli, Aglaia; Zamponi, Nelia; Zara, Federico; Striano, Pasquale; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    To investigate whether patients with typical absence seizures (TAS) starting in the first 3 years of life, conformed to Panayiotopoulos's definition of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), show different electroclinical course than those not fulfilling CAE criteria. In this multicenter retrospective study, we choose a fixed duration follow-up of 36 months to examine the electroclinical course of epilepsy in all children with TAS starting before 3 years of age. The probands who fulfilled Panayiotopoulos's criteria for CAE were classified as having pure early onset absence epilepsy (P-EOAE), whereas those who did not as nonpure EOAE (NP-EOAE). In addition, these two groups of patients were further stratified according to the number of antiepileptic drugs taken to obtain initial seizure control (mono-, bi-, and tritherapy). Patients with P-EOAE (n = 111) showed earlier initial seizure control (p = 0.030) and better seizure-free survival curve (p = 0.004) than those with NP-EOAE (n = 77). No mutation in SLC2A1 gene or abnormal neuroimaging was observed in P-EOAE. Among patients with NP-EOAE, those receiving tritherapy showed increased risk of structural brain abnormalities (p = 0.001) or SLC2A1 mutations (p = 0.001) but fewer myoclonic features (p = 0.031) and worse seizure-free survival curve (p = 0.047) than those treated with mono- and bitherapy. Children with NP-EOAE had 2.134 the odds of having relapse during the follow-up compare to those with P-EOAE. Children with early onset TAS who did meet Panayiotopoulos's criteria showed a favorable course of epilepsy, whereas patients not fulfilling Panayiotopoulos's criteria showed increased risk of relapse at long-term follow-up. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Gene expression profiling at birth characterizing the preterm infant with early onset infection.

    PubMed

    Hilgendorff, Anne; Windhorst, Anita; Klein, Manuel; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Kreuder, Joachim; Heckmann, Matthias; Gkatzoflia, Anna; Ehrhardt, Harald; Mysliwietz, Josef; Maier, Michael; Izar, Benjamin; Billion, Andre; Gortner, Ludwig; Chakraborty, Trinad; Hossain, Hamid

    2017-02-01

    Early onset infection (EOI) in preterm infants <32 weeks gestational age (GA) is associated with a high mortality rate and the development of severe acute and long-term complications. The pathophysiology of EOI is not fully understood and clinical and laboratory signs of early onset infections in this patient cohort are often not conclusive. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify signatures characterizing preterm infants with EOI by using genome-wide gene expression (GWGE) analyses from umbilical arterial blood of preterm infants. This prospective cohort study was conducted in preterm infants <32 weeks GA. GWGE analyses using CodeLink human microarrays were performed from umbilical arterial blood of preterm infants with and without EOI. GWGE analyses revealed differential expression of 292 genes in preterm infants with EOI as compared to infants without EOI. Infants with EOI could be further differentiated into two subclasses and were distinguished by the magnitude of the expression of genes involved in both neutrophil and T cell activation. A hallmark activity for both subclasses of EOI was a common suppression of genes involved in natural killer (NK) cell function, which was independent from NK cell numbers. Significant results were recapitulated in an independent validation cohort. Gene expression profiling may enable early and more precise diagnosis of EOI in preterm infants. Gene expression (GE) profiling at birth characterizes preterm infants with EOI. GE analysis indicates dysregulation of NK cell activity. NK cell activity at birth may be a useful marker to improve early diagnosis of EOI.

  20. Polygenic risk score in postmortem diagnosed sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Sultan; Patel, Tulsi; Barber, Imelda S; Guetta-Baranes, Tamar; Brookes, Keeley J; Chappell, Sally; Turton, James; Guerreiro, Rita; Bras, Jose; Hernandez, Dena; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Mann, David; Morgan, Kevin

    2018-02-01

    Sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease (sEOAD) exhibits the symptoms of late-onset Alzheimer's disease but lacks the familial aspect of the early-onset familial form. The genetics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) identifies APOEε4 to be the greatest risk factor; however, it is a complex disease involving both environmental risk factors and multiple genetic loci. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) accumulate the total risk of a phenotype in an individual based on variants present in their genome. We determined whether sEOAD cases had a higher PRS compared to controls. A cohort of sEOAD cases was genotyped on the NeuroX array, and PRSs were generated using PRSice. The target data set consisted of 408 sEOAD cases and 436 controls. The base data set was collated by the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project consortium, with association data from 17,008 late-onset Alzheimer's disease cases and 37,154 controls, which can be used for identifying sEOAD cases due to having shared phenotype. PRSs were generated using all common single nucleotide polymorphisms between the base and target data set, PRS were also generated using only single nucleotide polymorphisms within a 500 kb region surrounding the APOE gene. Sex and number of APOE ε2 or ε4 alleles were used as variables for logistic regression and combined with PRS. The results show that PRS is higher on average in sEOAD cases than controls, although there is still overlap among the whole cohort. Predictive ability of identifying cases and controls using PRSice was calculated with 72.9% accuracy, greater than the APOE locus alone (65.2%). Predictive ability was further improved with logistic regression, identifying cases and controls with 75.5% accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Familial Pathways to Early-Onset Suicidal Behavior: Familial and Individual Antecedents of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Brent, David A.; Ziegler, Melissa; Iyengar, Satish; Kolko, David; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Burke, Ainsley; Zelazny, Jamie; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to identify clinical predictors of new-onset suicidal behavior in children of parents with a history of mood disorder and suicidal behavior. Method In a prospective study of offspring of parents with mood disorders, 365 offspring (average age, 20 years) of 203 parents were followed for up to 6 years. Offspring with incident suicide attempts or emergency referrals for suicidal ideation or behavior (“incident events”) were compared with offspring without such events on demographic and clinical characteristics. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine predictors of incident events and predictors of time to incident event. Results Offspring of probands who had made suicide attempts, compared with offspring of parents with mood disorders who had not made attempts, had a higher rate of incident suicide attempts (4.1% versus 0.6%, relative risk=6.5) as well as overall suicidal events (8.3% versus 1.9%, relative risk=4.4). Mood disorder and self-reported impulsive aggression in offspring and a history of sexual abuse and self-reported depression in parents predicted earlier time to, and greater hazard of, an incident suicidal event. Conclusions In offspring of parents with mood disorders, precursors of early-onset suicidal behavior include mood disorder and impulsive aggression as well as parental history of suicide attempt, sexual abuse, and self-reported depression. These results suggest that efforts to prevent the familial transmission of early-onset suicidal behavior by targeting these domains could reduce the morbidity of suicidal behavior in high-risk youths. PMID:17728421

  2. Managing the Risk for Early Onset Osteoporosis in Long-Duration Astronauts Due to Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    Early Onset Osteoporosis is probably the most recognized but poorly understood long-term health risk due to spaceflight. Osteoporosis management is primarily prophylactic and clinical interventions rely upon the ability to predict fractures which is currently determined by surrogate measures of bone strength. The RMAT for Early Onset Osteoporosis identified some open issues related to the fact that long-duration astronauts compose a unique group of subjects for which clinical approaches for osteoporosis management do not apply. Long-duration astronauts are healthy, young (25 to 55 years of age), predominantly male, and physical fit relative to the typical osteoporosis patient. Moreover, during prolonged space missions (typically 6-month missions) the skeleton not only adapts to weightlessness, but is influenced by numerous risk factors induced by operational constraints, e.g., inability to maintain preflight weight-bearing and aerobic activities, sub-optimal dietary intake (e.g., high sodium content for food stability, lack of fresh fruit and vegetables), suppression of vitamin D metabolism by uv shielding, and remote medicine care. Moreover, adaptation results in novel changes to astronauts bones that cannot be detected by current medically-useful measures. Consequently, a panel of clinicians (recognized leaders and policy-makers in osteoporosis) was convened to review the dataset of bone measures and bone loss risk factors in long-duration astronauts. Driven by the queries in the RMAT, the panel was charged to determine 1) if an intervention is required to prevent this risk, 2) what type and at what time would intervention be optimal, 3) what is the clinical trigger that would require a medical response from flight surgeons and 4) how should research data be used in the clinical care of astronauts. Hence, the RMAT determined that a bone health policy need to be formulated specific for this unique cohort subjected to a novel skeletal condition

  3. Impact of DNA testing for early-onset familial Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Steinbart, E J; Smith, C O; Poorkaj, P; Bird, T D

    2001-11-01

    DNA testing of persons at risk for hereditary, degenerative neurologic diseases is relatively new. Only anecdotal reports of such testing in familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) exist, and little is know about the personal and social impact of such testing. In a descriptive, observational study, individuals at 50% risk for autosomal dominant, early-onset FAD or frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 underwent DNA testing for the genetic mutations previously identified in affected family members. Individuals were followed up for (1/2) to 3 years and were interviewed regarding attitudes toward the testing process and the impact of the results. Twenty-one (8.4%) of 251 persons at risk for FAD or frontotemporal dementia requested genetic testing. The most common reasons for requesting testing were concern about early symptoms of dementia, financial or family planning, and relief from anxiety. Twelve individuals had positive DNA test results, and 6 of these had early symptoms of dementia; 8 had negative results; and 1 has not yet received results. Of 14 asymptomatic individuals completing testing, 13 believed the testing was beneficial. Two persons reported moderate anxiety and 1 reported moderate depression. As expected, persons with negative test results had happier experiences overall, but even they had to deal with ongoing anxiety and depression. Thus far, there have been no psychiatric hospitalizations, suicide attempts, or denials of insurance. Genetic testing in early-onset FAD and frontotemporal dementia can be completed successfully. Most individuals demonstrate effective coping skills and find the testing to be beneficial, but long-term effects remain unknown.

  4. Are early-onset cannabis smokers at an increased risk of depression spells?

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, Brian J.; Anthony, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Background A recent research focus is a set of hypothesized adult-onset mental health disturbances possibly due to early-onset cannabis use (EOCU, onset <18 years). We seek to estimate the suspected EOCU-associated excess odds of experiencing an incident depression spell during adulthood, with comparisons to never cannabis smokers and those with delayed cannabis onset (i.e., not starting to smoke cannabis until adulthood). Methods The National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) assess non-institutionalized community-dwelling residents of the United States after probability sampling each year. In aggregate, the NSDUH analytical sample included 173,775 adult participants from survey years 2005–2009 (74–76% of designated respondents). Standardized computer-assisted interviews collected information on background determinants, age of first cannabis use, and depression spell onset. Logistic regression was used to estimate EOCU-depression spell associations in the form of odds ratios, with statistical adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, years of cannabis involvement, tobacco cigarette onset, and alcohol onset. Results About 1 in 10 experienced a depression spell during adulthood, and both early-onset and adult-onset cannabis smokers had a modest excess odds of a depression spell compared to never cannabis smokers, even with covariate adjustment (OR = 1.7 & 1.8, respectively; both p<0.001). Estimates for early- and adult-onset cannabis smokers did not statistically differ from one another. Limitations Shared diathesis that might influence both EOCU and adult-onset depression spell is controlled no more than partially, as will be true until essentially all known early-life shared vulnerabilities are illuminated. Conclusion Cannabis smoking initiated at any age signals a modest increased risk of a spell of depression in adulthood, even when adjusted for suspected confounding variables studied here. Delaying cannabis onset until adulthood does not appear to

  5. Comparing Characteristics of Early-Onset Injection Drug Users to Those With Late-Onset Injection in Kermanshah, Iran.

    PubMed

    Jorjoran Shushtari, Zahra; Noroozi, Alireza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Ahounbar, Elahe; Hajbi, Ahmad; Najafi, Mohammad; Bazrafshan, Ali; Farhadi, Mohammad Hossin; Farhoudian, Ali; Higgs, Peter; Shahboulagh, Farahnaz Mohammadi; Waye, Katherine; Noroozi, Mehdi

    2017-05-12

    Characteristics and behaviors of early-onset injection drug users are under studied topics in Iran. This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic characteristics as well as the drug using behaviors of early-onset and late-onset injection drug users in Kermanshah, West Iran. In this cross-sectional study using snowball and convenience sampling, we recruited 450 people during the Fall of 2014 from two drop in centers in Kermanshah, Iran. We collected data through face-to-face interviews. Early-onset injection is defined as whether the person reported their first injection at 22 years of age or younger. Subsequently, late-onset injection is defined as 23 years of age or older. We compared the characteristics of the two groups through both univariate and multiple logistic analyses. Overall, 54% (CI 95%: 44.3%, 62.2%) were early injectors. After controlling for low socioeconomic status, initiation of drug use at a young age, multiple drug use and methamphetamine use were all significantly associated with a higher likelihood of early-onset injection. Additionally, early-onset injection was associated with recent syringe borrowing (OR = 2.6, p = 0.001), recent syringe lending (OR = 1.4, p = 0.01), recent cooker sharing (OR = 3.2, p = 0.01) and injecting two or more times a day (OR = 2.2, p = 0.04). Early-onset injectors were more likely to report a lower socioeconomic status, initiation of first drug use at a younger age, using methamphetamine alongside polydrug use, and engaging in higher risk taking behaviors like borrowing needles. With these associations, the study emphasizes the need for drug-prevention programs to focus on the transition to injection drug use at younger ages.

  6. The prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Money, Deborah M; Dobson, Simon

    2004-09-01

    To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use. Neonatal outcomes of rates of early-onset group B streptococcal infections are evaluated. A review of the literature through MEDLINE from January 1980 to December 2003, relating to neonatal group B streptococcal infection and a review of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. 1. Offer all women screening for group B streptococcal disease at 35 to 37 weeks' gestation with culture done from one swab first to the vagina then to the rectal area. (II-1)2. Treat the following women intrapartum at time of labour or rupture of membranes with IV antibiotics: -all women positive by GBS culture screening done at 35 to 37 weeks (II-2) - any women with an infant previously infected with GBS (II-3) - any women with documented GBS bacteriuria (regardless of level of colony-forming units per mL) in this pregnancy (II-2) 3. Treat women at less than 37 weeks' gestation with IV antibiotics unless there has been a negative GBS vaginal/rectal swab culture within 5 weeks. (II-3) 4. Treat women with intrapartum fever with IV antibiotics (i.e., chorioamnionitis must be treated, but broader spectrum antibiotics would be advised). (II-2) 5. If a woman is GBS-positive by culture screening or by history of bacteriuria, with prelabour rupture of membranes at term, treat with GBS antibiotic prophylaxis and initiate induction of

  7. Addressing the link between paraoxonase-1 gene variants and the incidence of early onset myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hashad, Ingy M.; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; Abdel-Maksoud, Sahar M.; Gad, Mohamed Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON1) represents an endogenous defense mechanism against vascular oxidative stress, thereby contributing to the prevention of atherosclerosis. Several polymorphisms have been reported in the PON1 gene, including Q192R. PON1 phenotype is commonly expressed as the paraoxonase/arylesterase ratio (PON/ARE). The major aim of this study was to investigate the association between PON1 Q192R polymorphism, PON1 phenotypes and the incidence of early-onset acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Egyptians. Material and methods The study subjects consisted of 102 AMI patients and 72 age-matched healthy controls. Genotyping and enzyme activities were determined using PCR-RFLP and kinetic spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Results The genotype distribution for the PON1 gene was significantly different between AMI patients (QQ = 38.24%, QR = 49.02%, RR = 12.75%) and controls (QQ = 66.67%, QR = 25%, RR = 8.33%). Allele frequencies were also significantly different between patients (Q = 62.75%, R = 37.25%) and controls (Q = 79.17%, R = 20.83%). The genotypes QR and RR showed higher risk for AMI compared to the homozygous QQ (odds ratio (OR) = 3.231, p < 0.001). The average PON/ARE ratio in MI patients (1.187 ±0.1) did not differ significantly from controls (1.118 ±0.26). However, it showed a significant difference among different genotypes in both AMI patients (QQ = 0.91 ±0.11, QR = 1.09 ±0.11 and RR = 2.65 ±0.4) (p = 0.0002) and controls (QQ = 0.68 ±0.1, QR = 1.07 ±0.11 and RR = 4.89 ±2.84) (p < 0.0001). Conclusions PON1 192R allele represents an independent risk factor for early-onset AMI in Egyptians, and PON1 Q192R polymorphism modulates the paraoxonase phenotype. PMID:26170843

  8. [Outcome of traditional growing rods for correction of apical vertebra rotation in early-onset scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Xu, L; Chen, Z H; Chen, X; Du, C Z; Li, S; Liu, Z; Qian, B P; Wang, B; Zhu, Z Z; Qiu, Y

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correction result of traditional dual growing rods on apical vertebral rotation. Methods: This study recruited 19 early-onset scoliosis patients (6 boys and 13 girls) who had received traditional dual growing rods treatment at Department of Spine Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from January 2009 to July 2015. The age at initial surgery was (5.7±1.7)years(range, 3 to 9 years). Measurements of primary curve magnitude, height of T(1)-S(1), apical vertebral translation(AVR), apical vertebral body-rib ratio, apical vertebral rotation, thoracic rotation and rib hump were compared between pre-operatively, post-operatively, and at latest follow-up, through a paired- t test. Pearson correlation test was used for correlation analysis between parameters. Results: All patients had a follow-up of (49.5±12.8)months(range, 24 to 71 months). A total of 111 operative procedures were performed, among which there were 92 lengthening procedures, averagely 4.8 lengthening procedures per patient. The average interval for each lengthening procedure was 10 months. The Cobb angle of primary curve was notably decreased from (66.5±13.2)° to (35.2±10.9)°( t =24.013, P <0.01), and no significant correction loss was found at the latest follow-up ((36.7±10.7)°)( t =-1.324, P =0.202). In addition, significant correction of AVR, thoracic rotation, apical vertebral translation, apical vertebra body-rib ratio, and rib hump were noted after initial surgery. Whereas, these parameters significant increased during follow-up(all P <0.05) except for thoracic rotation. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the increase of AVR during follow-up significantly correlated with change of apical vertebra translation, apical vertebral body-rib ratio, and rib hump( r =0.652, 0.814, 0.695; all P <0.05). Conclusions: Significant correction of AVR can be achieved after initial surgery in early-onset scoliosis patients treated with traditional dual growing rods. However, such

  9. [Genital bacterial carriage during the last trimester of pregnancy and early-onset neonatal sepsis].

    PubMed

    Balaka, B; Agbèrè, A; Dagnra, A; Baeta, S; Kessie, K; Assimadi, K

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. To determine the bacterial ecology and pathological status of the genital organs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the germs of the following early-onset neonatal sepsis, in order to evaluate the risk of materno-foetal infections and to find out a drug prophylaxis. Vaginal and endocervical samples, usually taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were delayed and taken during the last trimester of pregnancy. A macroscopic examination described the aspect of the vagina, the cervix uteri, leukorrhea and of possible inflammatory lesions or ulcerations. A microscopic examination searched for parasites, epithelial cells, clue cells and leukocytes. The appropriate bacteriological cultures were performed after reading the Gram stain and scoring the vaginal flora. The clinical and cytobacteriological aspects were used to identify the bacterial ecology and the pathological genital states. An exploration was carried out in every newborn suspected of infection. Genital samples were collected from 306 pregnant women. Among them, 118 were at 29-32 weeks of gestation, 104 at 33-36, and 84 at 37-40. The most frequent germs were C. albicans (33,5%), Enterbacteriaceae (20.3%) including E. coli (10.9%), S. aureus (15.4%), Gardnerella (13.6%), and Trichomonas (10.6%), in monomicrobian (79.2%) and polymicrobian carriage (20.8%). Lower genital tract pathological states such as vaginitis (29.4%), bacterial vaginosis (21.5%) or endocervicitis (10.4%), asymptomatic bacterial carriage (23.5%) and normal genital flora (15%) were identified. These pregnancies led to 334 live births with 27 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis to which endocervicitis (25%) and vaginosis (19,7%) were most often linked. Genital samples at the last trimester of pregnancy could evaluate the risk of maternofoetal infections and allow to adapt a drug prophylaxis of Enterobacteriaceae, the most frequent germ of

  10. Detorsion night-time bracing for the treatment of early onset idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Moreau, S; Lonjon, G; Mazda, K; Ilharreborde, B

    2014-12-01

    Management for early onset scoliosis has recently changed, with the development of new surgical procedures. However, multiple surgeries are often required and high complication rates are still reported. Conservative management remains an alternative, serial casting achieving excellent results in young children. Better compliance and improvement over natural history have been reported with night-time bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but this treatment has never been reported in early onset idiopathic scoliosis (EIOS). All patients treated for progressive EOIS by detorsion night-time bracing (DNB), and meeting the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria for brace studies were reviewed. Recommendations were given to wear the DNB 8h/night and no restriction was given regarding sports activities. Radiological parameters were compared between referral and latest follow-up. Based on the SRS criteria defined for AIS, a similar classification was used as follows to analyze the course of the curves: success group: patients with a progression of 5° or less; unsuccess group (progression or failure): patients with a progression>5°, patients with curves exceeding 45° at maturity, or who have had recommendation for/undergone surgery, or patients who changed orthopaedic treatment, or who were lost to follow-up. Thirty-three patients were included (21 girls and 12 boys), with a median Cobb angle of 31° (Q1-Q3: 22-40). Age at brace initiation averaged 50months (Q1-Q3: 25-60). Median follow-up was 102-months (Q1-Q3: 63-125). Fifteen patients (45.5%) had reached skeletal maturity at last follow-up. The success rate was 67% (22 patients), with a median Cobb angle reduction of 15° (P<0.001). Four patients stopped DNB due to an important regression. Eleven patients were in the unsuccessful group (33%). Only one had surgery. All patients remained balanced in the frontal plane and normokyphotic. Initial curve magnitude and age at brace initiation appeared to be

  11. Exploring reasons for late identification of children with early-onset hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Dos Santos, Johnny Cesconetto; Grandpierre, Viviane; Whittingham, JoAnne

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have shown that early identification of childhood hearing loss leads to better language outcomes. However, delays in the confirmation of hearing loss persist even in the presence of well-established universal newborn hearing screening programs (UNHS). The objective of this population-based study was to document the proportion of children who experienced delayed confirmation of congenital and early onset hearing loss in a UNHS program in one region of Canada. The study also sought to determine the reasons for delayed confirmation of hearing loss in children. Population level data related to age of first assessment, age of identification and clinical characteristics were collected prospectively for all children identified through the UNHS program. We documented the number of children who experienced delay (defined as more than 3 months) from initial audiologic assessment to confirmation of hearing loss. A detailed chart review was subsequently performed to examine the reasons for delay to confirmation. Of 418 children identified from 2003 to 2013, 182 (43.5%) presented with congenital or early onset hearing loss, of whom 30 (16.5%) experienced more than 3 months delay from initial audiologic assessment to confirmation of their hearing disorder. The median age of first assessment and confirmation of hearing loss for these 30 children was 3.7 months (IQR: 2.0, 7.6) and 13.8 months (IQR: 9.7, 26.1) respectively. Close examination of the factors related to delay to confirmation revealed that for the overwhelming majority of children, a constellation of factors contributed to late diagnosis. Several children (n = 22; 73.3%) presented with developmental/medical issues, 15 of whom also had middle ear dysfunction at assessment, and 9 of whom had documented family follow-up concerns. For the remaining eight children, additional reasons included ongoing middle ear dysfunction for five children, complicated by family follow-up concerns (n = 3) and mild

  12. Neural abnormalities in early-onset and adolescence-onset conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, Luca; Fairchild, Graeme; Goodyer, Ian M; Hurford, Georgina; Hagan, Cindy C; Rowe, James B; Calder, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by severe antisocial behavior that emerges in childhood (early-onset CD [EO-CD]) or adolescence (adolescence-onset CD [AO-CD]). Early-onset CD is proposed to have a neurodevelopmental basis, whereas AO-CD is thought to emerge owing to social mimicry of deviant peers. However, this developmental taxonomic theory is debated after reports of neuropsychological impairments in both CD subtypes. A critical, although unaddressed, issue is whether these subtypes present similar or distinct neurophysiological profiles. Hence, we investigated neurophysiological responses to emotional and neutral faces in regions associated with antisocial behavior (ie, the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex) in individuals with EO-CD and AO-CD and in healthy control subjects. To investigate whether EO-CD and AO-CD subjects show neurophysiological abnormalities. Case-control study. Government research institute, university department. Seventy-five male adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 21 years, including 27 with EO-CD, 25 with AO-CD, and 23 healthy controls. Main Outcome Measure Neural activations measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants viewed angry, sad, and neutral faces. Comparing angry vs neutral faces, participants with both CD subtypes displayed reduced responses in regions associated with antisocial behavior compared with controls; differences between the CD subtypes were not significant. Comparing each expression with fixation baseline revealed an abnormal (increased) amygdala response to neutral but not angry faces in both groups of CD relative to controls. For sad vs neutral faces, reduced amygdala activation was observed in EO-CD relative to AO-CD and control participants. Comparing each expression with fixation revealed hypoactive amygdala responses to sadness in individuals with EO-CD relative to AO-CD participants and controls. These findings were not accounted for

  13. Double-blind comparison of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder: findings from the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS) study.

    PubMed

    Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A; McClellan, Jon; Findling, Robert L; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ritz, Louise; Ambler, Denisse; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E; Michael, Emily; De Jong, Sandra; Slifka, Karen; Noyes, Nancy; Hlastala, Stefanie; Pierson, Leslie; McNamara, Nora K; Delporto-Bedoya, Denise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2008-11-01

    Atypical (second-generation) antipsychotics are considered standard treatment for children and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. However, the superiority of second-generation antipsychotics over first-generation antipsychotics has not been demonstrated. This study compared the efficacy and safety of two second-generation antipsychotics (olanzapine and risperidone) with a first-generation antipsychotic (molindone) in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. This double-blind multisite trial randomly assigned pediatric patients with early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to treatment with either olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day), risperidone (0.5-6 mg/day), or molindone (10-140 mg/day, plus 1 mg/day of benztropine) for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was response to treatment, defined as a Clinical Global Impression (CGI) improvement score of 1 or 2 and >or=20% reduction in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score after 8 weeks of treatment. In total, 119 youth were randomly assigned to treatment. Of these subjects, 116 received at least one dose of treatment and thus were available for analysis. No significant differences were found among treatment groups in response rates (molindone: 50%; olanzapine: 34%; risperidone: 46%) or magnitude of symptom reduction. Olanzapine and risperidone were associated with significantly greater weight gain. Olanzapine showed the greatest risk of weight gain and significant increases in fasting cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, insulin, and liver transaminase levels. Molindone led to more self-reports of akathisia. Risperidone and olanzapine did not demonstrate superior efficacy over molindone for treating early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Adverse effects were frequent but differed among medications. The results question the nearly exclusive use of second-generation antipsychotics to treat early-onset schizophrenia

  14. The effect of intrapartum antibiotics on early-onset neonatal sepsis in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a propensity score matched analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We estimate the effect of antibiotics given in the intrapartum period on early-onset neonatal sepsis in Dhaka, Bangladesh using propensity score techniques. Methods We followed 600 mother-newborn pairs as part of a cohort study at a maternity center in Dhaka. Some pregnant women received one dose of intravenous antibiotics during labor based on clinician discretion. Newborns were followed over the first seven days of life for early-onset neonatal sepsis defined by a modified version of the World Health Organization Young Infants Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses criteria. Using propensity scores we matched women who received antibiotics with similar women who did not. A final logistic regression model predicting sepsis was run in the matched sample controlling for additional potential confounders. Results Of the 600 mother-newborn pairs, 48 mothers (8.0%) received antibiotics during the intrapartum period. Seventy-seven newborns (12.8%) were classified with early-onset neonatal sepsis. Antibiotics appeared to be protective (odds ratio 0.381, 95% confidence interval 0.115–1.258), however this was not statistically significant. The results were similar after adjusting for prematurity, wealth status, and maternal colonization status (odds ratio 0.361, 95% confidence interval 0.106–1.225). Conclusions Antibiotics administered during the intrapartum period may reduce the risk of early-onset neonatal sepsis in high neonatal mortality settings like Dhaka. PMID:24742087

  15. The Northern Ireland Early Onset Psychosis Study: Phenomenology and Co-Morbidity in the First 25 Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Karen; Short, Mary; Harvey-Smith, Diane; Rushe, Teresa M.; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing psychotic disorders in young people is difficult. High rates of co-morbidity may be one reason for this difficulty, but it may also be the case that current diagnostic categories are not the most useful when approaching the care of young people with psychotic symptoms. The Northern Ireland Early Onset Psychosis Study is the first study…

  16. A Follow-up Study of Early Onset Psychosis: Comparison between Outcome Diagnoses of Schizophrenia, Mood Disorders, and Personality Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study of 95 youths previously diagnosed with psychotic disorders found that at follow-up, 24 had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 9 with psychotic mood disorders, 5 with personality disorders, and 1 with schizo-affective disorder. The study confirmed findings regarding early onset schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders and emphasized the…

  17. Double-Blind Maintenance Safety and Effectiveness Findings from the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum (TEOSS) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; McClellan, Jon; Frazier, Jean A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hamer, Robert M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Ritz, Louise; McNamara, Nora K.; Lingler, Jacqui; Hlastala, Stefanie; Pierson, Leslie; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E.; Kaufman, Emily Michael; Noyes, Nancy; Sikich, Linmarie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of three antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Method: Patients (8 to 19 years old) who had improved during an 8-week, randomized, double-blind acute trial of olanzapine, risperidone, or molindone (plus benztropine) were eligible to continue on the same medication…

  18. Deficits in Facial Expression Recognition in Male Adolescents with Early-Onset or Adolescence-Onset Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Calder, Andrew J.; Stollery, Sarah J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined whether conduct disorder (CD) is associated with deficits in facial expression recognition and, if so, whether these deficits are specific to the early-onset form of CD, which emerges in childhood. The findings could potentially inform the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour, which suggests that…

  19. Xp22.3 genomic deletions involving the CDKL5 gene in girls with early onset epileptic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Mei, Davide; Marini, Carla; Novara, Francesca; Bernardina, Bernardo D; Granata, Tiziana; Fontana, Elena; Parrini, Elena; Ferrari, Anna R; Murgia, Alessandra; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Guerrini, Renzo

    2010-04-01

    Mutations of the X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) cause an X-linked encephalopathy with early onset intractable epilepsy, including infantile spasms and other seizure types, and a Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. Very limited information is available on the frequency and phenotypic spectrum associated with CDKL5 deletions/duplications. We investigated the role of CDKL5 deletions/duplications in causing early onset intractable epilepsy of unknown etiology in girls. We studied 49 girls with early onset intractable epilepsy, with or without infantile spasms, and developmental impairment, for whom no etiologic factors were obvious after clinical examination, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and expanded screening for inborn errors of metabolism. We performed CDKL5 gene mutation analysis in all and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA) in those who were mutation negative. Custom Array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), breakpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and X-inactivation studies were performed in patients in whom MLPA uncovered a genomic alteration. We found CDKL5 mutations in 8.2% (4 of 49) of patients and genomic deletions in 8.2% (4 of 49). Overall, abnormalities of the CDKL5 gene accounted for 16.3% (8 of 49) of patients. CDKL5 gene deletions are an under-ascertained cause of early onset intractable epilepsy in girls. Genetic testing of CDKL5, including both mutation and deletion/duplication analysis, should be considered in this clinical subgroup.

  20. Treating Children with Early-Onset Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits: An Empirical Evaluation of KooLKIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Carroll, Annemaree; Zadow, Corinne; O'connor, Emma Sanders; Hattie, John; Lynn, Sasha

    2017-01-01

    Children with early-onset conduct problems (EOCP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits are highly resistant to treatment and cost society significantly more than their healthy counterparts. Employing a multiple baseline design, 13 males (9.0-10.2 years of age) with a history of school suspensions were sequentially introduced to KooLKIDS, a…

  1. Evidence for possible non-canonical pathway(s) driven early-onset colorectal cancer in India

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Ratheesh; Kotapalli, Viswakalyan; Adduri, Raju; Gowrishankar, Swarnalata; Bashyam, Leena; Chaudhary, Ajay; Vamsy, Mohana; Patnaik, Sujith; Srinivasulu, Mukta; Sastry, Regulagadda; Rao, Subramanyeshwar; Vasala, Anjayneyulu; Kalidindi, NarasimhaRaju; Pollack, Jonathan; Murthy, Sudha; Bashyam, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Two genetic instability pathways viz. chromosomal instability, driven primarily by APC mutation induced deregulated Wnt signaling, and microsatellite instability (MSI) caused by mismatch repair (MMR) inactivation, together account for greater than 90% of late-onset colorectal cancer. Our understanding of early-onset sporadic CRC is however comparatively limited. In addition, most seminal studies have been performed in the western population and analyses of tumorigenesis pathway(s) causing CRC in developing nations have been rare. We performed a comparative analysis of early and late-onset CRC from India with respect to common genetic aberrations including Wnt, KRAS and p53 (constituting the classical CRC progression sequence) in addition to MSI. Our results revealed the absence of Wnt and MSI in a significant proportion of early-onset as against late-onset CRC in India. In addition, KRAS mutation frequency was significantly lower in early-onset CRC indicating that a significant proportion of CRC in India may follow tumorigenesis pathways distinct from the classical CRC progression sequence. Our study has therefore revealed the possible existence of non-canonical tumorigenesis pathways in early-onset CRC in India. PMID:23168910

  2. "I Need a Cigarette"--The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Depression and Anxiety of Youth with Early Onset Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ya-Ling; Rittner, Barbara; Maguin, Eugene; Dziadaszek, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine effects of cigarette smoking on depression and anxiety among children and adolescents (youth) with early onset schizophrenia and/or psychosis. Data were obtained from the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program (CMHS Program). Cubic…

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Early Onset Schizophrenia and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Rebeca Garcia; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Despite the nosological distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there is increasing evidence that these conditions share phenomenological characteristics. To examine the similarities in their patterns of cognitive impairment, we conducted a meta-analysis from 12 studies of Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and 12 studies of Pediatric…

  4. QIL1 mutation causes MICOS disassembly and early onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Guarani, Virginia; Jardel, Claude; Chrétien, Dominique; Lombès, Anne; Bénit, Paule; Labasse, Clémence; Lacène, Emmanuelle; Bourillon, Agnès; Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Dorboz, Imen; Gilleron, Mylène; Goetzman, Eric S; Gaignard, Pauline; Slama, Abdelhamid; Elmaleh-Bergès, Monique; Romero, Norma B; Rustin, Pierre; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Paulo, Joao A; Harper, J Wade; Schiff, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we identified QIL1 as a subunit of mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex and demonstrated a role for QIL1 in MICOS assembly, mitochondrial respiration, and cristae formation critical for mitochondrial architecture (Guarani et al., 2015). Here, we identify QIL1 null alleles in two siblings displaying multiple clinical symptoms of early-onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease, including defects in respiratory chain function in patient muscle. QIL1 absence in patients’ fibroblasts was associated with MICOS disassembly, abnormal cristae, mild cytochrome c oxidase defect, and sensitivity to glucose withdrawal. QIL1 expression rescued cristae defects, and promoted re-accumulation of MICOS subunits to facilitate MICOS assembly. MICOS assembly and cristae morphology were not efficiently rescued by over-expression of other MICOS subunits in patient fibroblasts. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence of altered MICOS assembly linked with a human mitochondrial disease and confirm a central role for QIL1 in stable MICOS complex formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17163.001 PMID:27623147

  5. Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Sergi; Gassó, Patricia; Morer, Astrid; Calvo, Anna; Bargalló, Nuria; Lafuente, Amalia; Lázaro, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI), neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. From a cohort of 87 patients, 56 with complete information were used in the present analysis. First, we performed a multivariate genetic association analysis of OCD severity with 266 genetic polymorphisms. This association analysis was used to select and prioritize the SNPs that would be included in the model. Second, we split the sample into a training set (N = 38) and a validation set (N = 18). Third, entropy-based measures of information gain were used for feature selection with the training subset. Fourth, the selected features were fed into two supervised methods of class prediction based on machine learning, using the leave-one-out procedure with the training set. Finally, the resulting model was validated with the validation set. Nine variables were used for the creation of the OCD severity predictor, including six genetic polymorphisms and three variables from the neuropsychological data. The developed model classified child and adolescent patients with OCD by disease severity with an accuracy of 0.90 in the testing set and 0.70 in the validation sample. Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder. PMID:27093171

  6. Web survey of sleep problems associated with early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, Nicholas; Fristad, Mary; Splaingard, Mark; Kelleher, Kelly; Hayes, John; Resko, Susan

    2008-05-01

    As research on sleep difficulties associated with Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (EBSD) is limited, a web-based survey was developed to further explore these problems. 494 parents of 4-to-12 year-olds, identified by parents as being diagnosed with EBSD, completed a web survey about past and current EBSD-related sleep problems. The survey included Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) items and sleep problems from the International Classification of Sleep Disorders 2nd edition. Nearly all parents reported some type of past or current EBSD-sleep problem. Most occurred during a worst mood period, particularly with mixed manic-depressive symptoms. Symptoms caused impairments at home, school, or with peers in 96.9% of the sample and across all three contexts in 64.0% of children. Sleep problems were also noted after three-day weekends and Spring and Fall Daylight Savings time changes. Findings, study limitations, and implications for treatment and etiology are discussed.

  7. Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma and Indoor Tanning: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Zens, M. Scot; Li, Zhigang; Stukel, Therese A.; Perry, Ann E.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Sayarath, Vicki; Stephenson, Rita S.; Barton, Dorothea; Nelson, Heather H.; Spencer, Steven K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Indoor tanning with UV radiation–emitting lamps is common among adolescents and young adults. Rising incidence rates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have been reported for the United States and elsewhere, particularly among those diagnosed at younger ages. Recent epidemiologic studies have raised concerns that indoor tanning may be contributing to early occurrence of BCC, and younger people may be especially vulnerable to cancer risk associated with this exposure. Therefore, we sought to address these issues in a population-based case–control study from New Hampshire. METHODS: Data on indoor tanning were obtained on 657 cases of BCC and 452 controls ≤50 years of age. RESULTS: Early-onset BCC was related to indoor tanning, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.3–2.1). The strongest association was observed for first exposure as an adolescent or young adult, with a 10% increase in the OR with each age younger at first exposure (OR per year of age ≤23 = 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–1.2). Associations were present for each type of device examined (ie, sunlamps, tanning beds, and tanning booths). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest early exposure to indoor tanning increases the risk of early development of BCC. They also underscore the importance of counseling adolescents and young adults about the risks of indoor tanning and for discouraging parents from consenting minors to this practice. PMID:24958589

  8. Successful Object Encoding Induces Increased Directed Connectivity in Presymptomatic Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, John Fredy; Alonso, Joan Francesc; Duque, Jon Edinson; Tobón, Carlos Andrés; Mañanas, Miguel Angel; Lopera, Francisco; Hernández, Alher Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies report increases in neural activity in brain regions critical to episodic memory at preclinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although electroencephalography (EEG) is widely used in AD studies, given its non-invasiveness and low cost, there is a need to translate the findings in other neuroimaging methods to EEG. Objective: To examine how the previous findings using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at preclinical stage in presenilin-1 E280A mutation carriers could be assessed and extended, using EEG and a connectivity approach. Methods: EEG signals were acquired during resting and encoding in 30 normal cognitive young subjects, from an autosomal dominant early-onset AD kindred from Antioquia, Colombia. Regions of the brain previously reported as hyperactive were used for connectivity analysis. Results: Mutation carriers exhibited increasing connectivity at analyzed regions. Among them, the right precuneus exhibited the highest changes in connectivity. Conclusion: Increased connectivity in hyperactive cerebral regions is seen in individuals, genetically-determined to develop AD, at preclinical stage. The use of a connectivity approach and a widely available neuroimaging technique opens the possibility to increase the use of EEG in early detection of preclinical AD. PMID:27792014

  9. Molecular approach to genetic and epigenetic pathogenesis of early-onset colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Ak, Secil; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer type and the incidence of this disease is increasing gradually per year in individuals younger than 50 years old. The current knowledge is that early-onset CRC (EOCRC) cases are heterogeneous population that includes both hereditary and sporadic forms of the CRC. Although EOCRC cases have some distinguishing clinical and pathological features than elder age CRC, the molecular mechanism underlying the EOCRC is poorly clarified. Given the significance of CRC in the world of medicine, the present review will focus on the recent knowledge in the molecular basis of genetic and epigenetic mechanism of the hereditary forms of EOCRC, which includes Lynch syndrome, Familial CRC type X, Familial adenomatous polyposis, MutYH-associated polyposis, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome and sporadic forms of EOCRC. Recent findings about molecular genetics and epigenetic basis of EOCRC gave rise to new alternative therapy protocols. Although exact diagnosis of these cases still remains complicated, the present review paves way for better predictions and contributes to more accurate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies into clinical approach. PMID:26798439

  10. Early-onset invasive aspergillosis and other fungal infections in patients treated with ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Ghez, David; Calleja, Anne; Protin, Caroline; Baron, Marine; Ledoux, Marie-Pierre; Damaj, Gandhi; Dupont, Mathieu; Dreyfus, Brigitte; Ferrant, Emmanuelle; Herbaux, Charles; Laribi, Kamel; Le Calloch, Ronan; Malphettes, Marion; Paul, Franciane; Souchet, Laetitia; Truchan-Graczyk, Malgorzata; Delavigne, Karen; Dartigeas, Caroline; Ysebaert, Loïc

    2018-04-26

    Ibrutinib has revolutionized the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and is now being increasingly used. Although considered to be less immunosuppressive than conventional immunochemotherapy, the observation of a few cases of invasive fungal infections in patients treated with ibrutinib prompted us to conduct a retrospective survey. We identified 33 cases of invasive fungal infections in patients receiving ibrutinib alone or in combination. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) was overrepresented (27/33) and was associated with cerebral localizations in 40% of the cases. Remarkably, most cases of invasive fungal infections occurred with a median of 3 months after starting ibrutinib. In 18/33 cases, other conditions that could have contributed to decreased antifungal responses, such as corticosteroids, neutropenia, or combined immunochemotherapy, were present. These observations indicate that ibrutinib may be associated with early-onset invasive fungal infections, in particular IA with frequent cerebral involvement, and that patients on ibrutinib should be closely monitored in particular when other risk factors of fungal infections are present. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Mouse Model of Gestational Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Busso, Dolores; Mascareño, Lilian; Salas, Francisca; Berkowitz, Loni; Santander, Nicolás; Quiroz, Alonso; Amigo, Ludwig; Valdés, Gloria; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis is increased by intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal exposure to maternal hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied whether mouse gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis affected fetal development and growth at different stages of gestation. Female LDLR KO mice fed a proatherogenic, high cholesterol (HC) diet for 3 weeks before conception and during pregnancy exhibited a significant increase in non-HDL cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. At embryonic days 12.5 (E12.5), E15.5, and E18.5, maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were associated to a 22–24% reduction in male and female fetal weight without alterations in fetal number/litter or morphology nor placental weight or structure. Feeding the HC diet exclusively at the periconceptional period did not alter fetal growth, suggesting that maternal hypercholesterolemia affected fetal weight only after implantation. Vitamin E supplementation (1,000 UI of α-tocopherol/kg) of HC-fed females did not change the mean weight of E18.5 fetuses but reduced the percentage of fetuses exhibiting body weights below the 10th percentile of weight (HC: 90% vs. HC/VitE: 68%). In conclusion, our results showed that maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice were associated to early onset fetal growth restriction and that dietary vitamin E supplementation had a beneficial impact on this condition. PMID:25295255

  12. Predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss in malnourished infants in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the criteria for undernutrition by the Growth Standards of the World Health Organization (WHO) based on weight-for-age, weight-for-length and body-mass-index-for-age were enlisted. EPHL was determined after two-stage screening with transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, automated auditory brainstem response and diagnostic evaluation. Factors predictive of EPHL were explored with multivariable logistic regression analysis. Some 39 (1.7%) infants from 2254 undernourished infants were confirmed with hearing loss (>30 dB HL). Bilateral EPHL was mild in 7 (17.9%) and moderate-to-profound in 26 (66.7%). EPHL was unilateral in 6 (15.4%). Multiparity, chronological age of more than 30 days, the absence of skilled attendant at birth and severe neonatal jaundice were associated with an increased risk of EPHL while having a Christian mother and exclusive breast feeding had protective effect against EPHL. EPHL is highly prevalent among undernourished infants and associated with modifiable risk factors that can be addressed at the community-level and used as a basis for targeted intervention in resource-poor countries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recessive Twinkle mutations in early onset encephalopathy with mtDNA depletion.

    PubMed

    Hakonen, Anna H; Isohanni, Pirjo; Paetau, Anders; Herva, Riitta; Suomalainen, Anu; Lönnqvist, Tuula

    2007-11-01

    Twinkle is a mitochondrial replicative helicase, the mutations of which have been associated with autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO), and recessively inherited infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA). We report here a new phenotype in two siblings with compound heterozygous Twinkle mutations (A318T and Y508C), characterized by severe early onset encephalopathy and signs of liver involvement. The clinical manifestations included hypotonia, athetosis, sensory neuropathy, ataxia, hearing deficit, ophthalmoplegia, intractable epilepsy and elevation of serum transaminases. The liver showed mtDNA depletion, whereas the muscle mtDNA was only slightly affected. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome has previously been associated with mutations of polymerase gamma, a replicative polymerase of mtDNA. We show here that recessive mutations of the close functional partner of the polymerase, the Twinkle helicase, can also manifest as early encephalopathy with liver involvement, a phenotype reminiscent of Alpers syndrome, and are a new genetic cause underlying tissue-specific mtDNA depletion.

  14. The role of monogenic disease in children with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Judith R; Baldassano, Robert N

    2017-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic intestinal microbes, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. Patients diagnosed with IBD occurring before the age of 5 are a unique population, known as very early onset (VEO)-IBD and can be phenotypically and genetically distinct from older-onset IBD. We aim to review the clinical presentation of children with VEO-IBD and recent discoveries that point to genomic drivers of disease that may impact our therapeutic decisions. VEO-IBD is increasing in incidence and is associated with more severe disease, aggressive progression and poor response to most conventional therapies. This article will review the advances in sequencing technology that have led to identification of novel gene variants associated with disease and potentially new targeted therapeutic options. Children with VEO-IBD may present with a different phenotype and more severe disease than older children and adults. Identification of the causal gene or pathways, these children may allow for true precision medicine with targeted therapy and improved disease course.

  15. Maintaining intestinal health: the genetics and immunology of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Judith R; Baldassano, Robert N; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactoral disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic microbes in the intestine, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. An emerging population of patients with IBD occurring before the age of 5 represent a unique form of disease, termed Very Early Onset (VEO)-IBD, which is phenotypically- and genetically-distinct from older-onset IBD. VEO-IBD is associated with increased disease severity, aggressive progression and poor responsiveness to most conventional therapies. Further investigation into the causes and pathogenesis of VEO-IBD will help improve treatment strategies, and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that are essential to maintain intestinal health or provoke the development of targeted therapeutic strategies to limit intestinal disease. Here we discuss the phenotypic nature of VEO-IBD, the recent identification of novel gene variants associated with disease, and functional immunologic studies interrogating the contribution of specific genetic variants to the development of chronic intestinal inflammation.

  16. Newcomers in paediatric GI pathology: childhood enteropathies including very early onset monogenic IBD.

    PubMed

    Ensari, Arzu; Kelsen, Judith; Russo, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response. While the intestinal mucosa is usually normal in enteropathies related to congenital transport or enzyme deficiencies, the intestinal biopsy in other disorders may reveal a wide range of abnormalities varying from normal villous architecture to villous atrophy and/or inflammation, or features specific to the underlying disorder including epithelial abnormalities, lipid vacuolization in the enterocytes, absence of plasma cells, lymphangiectasia, microorganisms, and mucosal eosinophilic or histiocytic infiltration. This review intends to provide an update on small intestinal biopsy findings in childhood enteropathies, the "newcomers", including very early onset monogenic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in particular, for the practicing pathologist.

  17. Co-occurring problems of early onset persistent, childhood limited, and adolescent onset conduct problem youth.

    PubMed

    Barker, Edward D; Oliver, Bonamy R; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-11-01

    It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems differentially co-develop with the EOP, CL and AO trajectories across the childhood and adolescent years. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, an epidemiological, longitudinal cohort of boys and girls, we estimated growth curves for parent-reported hyperactivity, emotional difficulties, peer relational problems, and prosocial behaviors conditional on trajectories of conduct problems (i.e., EOP, CL and AO) from ages 4 to 13 years. At ages 7-8 years, DSM-IV-based diagnoses of conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, depression were examined by conduct problems trajectory. Overall, the development of hyperactivity, emotional difficulties, peer relational problems, and prosocial behaviors mirrored the development of conduct problems, showing similar trajectories. Results indicated that the problems of EOP youth were persistent across domains, CL youth showed decreased behavior problems while increasing in prosocial behaviors, and AO youth increased in adjustment problems after 10 years of age. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Differentiation of neuropsychological features between posterior cortical atrophy and early onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieying; Wu, Liyong; Tang, Yi; Zhou, Aihong; Wang, Fen; Xing, Yi; Jia, Jianping

    2018-05-10

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a group of clinical syndromes characterized by visuospatial and visuoperceptual impairment, with memory relatively preserved. Although PCA is pathologically almost identical to Alzheimer's disease (AD), they have different cognitive features. Those differences have only rarely been reported in any Chinese population. The purpose of the study is to establish neuropsychological tests that distinguish the clinical features of PCA from early onset AD (EOAD). Twenty-one PCA patients, 20 EOAD patients, and 20 healthy controls participated in this study. Patients had disease duration of ≤4 years. All participants completed a series of neuropsychological tests to evaluate their visuospatial, visuoperceptual, visuo-constructive, language, executive function, memory, calculation, writing, and reading abilities. The cognitive features of PCA and EOAD were compared. All the neuropsychological test scores showed that both the PCA and EOAD patients were significantly more impaired than people in the control group. However, PCA patients were significantly more impaired than EOAD patients in visuospatial, visuoperceptual, and visuo-constructive function, as well as in handwriting, and reading Chinese characters. The profile of neuropsychological test results highlights cognitive features that differ between PCA and EOAD. One surprising result is that the two syndromes could be distinguished by patients' ability to read and write Chinese characters. Tests based on these characteristics could therefore form a brief PCA neuropsychological examination that would improve the diagnosis of PCA.

  19. Cross-sex pattern of bone mineral density in early onset gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Haraldsen, I R; Haug, E; Falch, J; Egeland, T; Opjordsmoen, S

    2007-09-01

    Hormonally controlled differences in bone mineral density (BMD) between males and females are well studied. The effects of cross-sex hormones on bone metabolism in patients with early onset gender identity disorder (EO-GID), however, are unclear. We examined BMD, total body fat (TBF) and total lean body mass (TLBM) in patients prior to initiation of sex hormone treatment and during treatment at months 3 and 12. The study included 33 EO-GID patients who were approved for sex reassignment and a control group of 122 healthy Norwegians (males, n=77; females, n=45). Male patients (n=12) received an oral dose of 50 mug ethinylestradiol daily for the first 3 months and 100 mug daily thereafter. Female patients (n=21) received 250 mg testosterone enantate intramuscularly every third week. BMD, TBF and TLBM were estimated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In male patients, the DXA measurements except TBF were significantly lower compared to their same-sex control group at baseline and did not change during treatment. In female patients, the DXA measurements were slightly higher than in same-sex controls at baseline and also remained unchanged during treatment. In conclusion, this study reports that body composition and bone density of EO-GID patients show less pronounced sex differences compared to controls and that bone density was unaffected by cross-sex hormone treatment.

  20. Anosognosia and Its Relation to Psychiatric Symptoms in Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Bora; Shim, Yong S; Hong, Yun Jeong; Choi, Seong Hye; Park, Hee Kyung; Park, Sun Ah; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Yoon, Soo Jin; Yang, Dong-Won

    2017-05-01

    We investigated differences in the prevalence of anosognosia and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) characteristics according to disease severity in patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD). We recruited 616 patients with EOAD. We subdivided participants into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of anosognosia and then again by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. We compared the differences in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scores according to anosognosia and disease severity. The percentage of patients with anosognosia in each CDR group steadily increased as the CDR rating increased (CDR 0.5 8.6% vs CDR 1 13.6% vs CDR 2 26.2%). The NPI total score was significantly higher in patients with anosognosia in the CDR 0.5 and 1 groups; by contrast, it had no association in the CDR 2 group. Frontal lobe functions were associated with anosognosia only in the CDR 0.5 and 1 groups. After stratification by CDR, in the CDR 0.5 group, the prevalence of agitation ( P = .040) and appetite ( P = .013) was significantly higher in patients with anosognosia. In the CDR 1 group, patients with anosognosia had a significantly higher prevalence of delusions ( P = .032), hallucinations ( P = .048), and sleep disturbances ( P = .047). In the CDR 2 group, we found no statistical difference in the frequency of symptoms between patients with and without anosognosia. These results confirm that the prevalence of anosognosia as well as the individual NPS and cognitive functions associated with it differ according to EOAD severity.

  1. Genomewide significant linkage to recurrent, early-onset major depressive disorder on chromosome 15q.

    PubMed

    Holmans, Peter; Zubenko, George S; Crowe, Raymond R; DePaulo, J Raymond; Scheftner, William A; Weissman, Myrna M; Zubenko, Wendy N; Boutelle, Sandra; Murphy-Eberenz, Kathleen; MacKinnon, Dean; McInnis, Melvin G; Marta, Diana H; Adams, Philip; Knowles, James A; Gladis, Madeleine; Thomas, Jo; Chellis, Jennifer; Miller, Erin; Levinson, Douglas F

    2004-06-01

    A genome scan was performed on the first phase sample of the Genetics of Recurrent Early-Onset Depression (GenRED) project. The sample consisted of 297 informative families containing 415 independent affected sibling pairs (ASPs), or, counting all possible pairs, 685 informative affected relative pairs (555 ASPs and 130 other pair types). Affected cases had recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) with onset before age 31 years for probands or age 41 years for other affected relatives; the mean age at onset was 18.5 years, and the mean number of depressive episodes was 7.3. The Center for Inherited Disease Research genotyped 389 microsatellite markers (mean spacing of 9.3 cM). The primary linkage analysis considered allele sharing in all possible affected relative pairs with the use of the Z(lr) statistic computed by the ALLEGRO program. A secondary logistic regression analysis considered the effect of the sex of the pair as a covariate. Genomewide significant linkage was observed on chromosome 15q25.3-26.2 (Zlr=4.14, equivalent LOD = 3.73, empirical genomewide P=.023). The linkage was not sex specific. No other suggestive or significant results were observed in the primary analysis. The secondary analysis produced three regions of suggestive linkage, but these results should be interpreted cautiously because they depended primarily on the small subsample of 42 male-male pairs. Chromosome 15q25.3-26.2 deserves further study as a candidate region for susceptibility to MDD.

  2. Early-onset lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Tiphanie P.; Forbes, Lisa; Ma, Chi A.; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Niemela, Julie E.; Lyons, Jonathan J.; Engelhardt, Karin R.; Zhang, Yu; Topcagic, Nermina; Roberson, Elisha D. O.; Matthews, Helen; Verbsky, James W.; Dasu, Trivikram; Vargas-Hernandez, Alexander; Varghese, Nidhy; McClain, Kenneth L.; Karam, Lina B.; Nahmod, Karen; Makedonas, George; Mace, Emily M.; Sorte, Hanne S.; Perminow, Gøri; Rao, V. Koneti; O’Connell, Michael P.; Price, Susan; Su, Helen C.; Butrick, Morgan; McElwee, Joshua; Hughes, Jason D.; Willet, Joseph; Swan, David; Xu, Yaobo; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Slowik, Voytek; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Ciaccio, Christina E.; Saunders, Carol J.; Septer, Seth; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; White, Andrew J.; Cant, Andrew J.; Hambleton, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Germline loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) cause immunodeficiency, whereas somatic gain-of-function mutations in STAT3 are associated with large granular lymphocytic leukemic, myelodysplastic syndrome, and aplastic anemia. Recently, germline mutations in STAT3 have also been associated with autoimmune disease. Here, we report on 13 individuals from 10 families with lymphoproliferation and early-onset solid-organ autoimmunity associated with 9 different germline heterozygous mutations in STAT3. Patients exhibited a variety of clinical features, with most having lymphadenopathy, autoimmune cytopenias, multiorgan autoimmunity (lung, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and/or endocrine dysfunction), infections, and short stature. Functional analyses demonstrate that these mutations confer a gain-of-function in STAT3 leading to secondary defects in STAT5 and STAT1 phosphorylation and the regulatory T-cell compartment. Treatment targeting a cytokine pathway that signals through STAT3 led to clinical improvement in 1 patient, suggesting a potential therapeutic option for such patients. These results suggest that there is a broad range of autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations, and that hematologic autoimmunity is a major component of this newly described disorder. Some patients for this study were enrolled in a trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:25359994

  3. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2005-01-01

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3βAdiol). 3βAdiol is estrogenic in ERα or ERβ positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1–/– mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous estrogenic stimulation. We conclude that, by cell-specific regulation of the estrogenicity of 3βAdiol, CYP7B1 performs two major tasks: (i) it allows 3βAdiol to have growth inhibitory effects through ERβ and (ii) it permits estradiol-specific activation of estrogen receptors by protection of certain cells from the estrogenic effects of 3βAdiol. When CYP7B1 is inactivated, 3βAdiol activates estrogen receptors indiscriminately, and the overall effect is prolonged and inappropriate exposure to estrogen. PMID:15710898

  4. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2005-02-22

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5alpha-androstane-3beta, 17beta-diol (3betaAdiol). 3betaAdiol is estrogenic in ERalpha or ERbeta positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1(-/-) mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous estrogenic stimulation. We conclude that, by cell-specific regulation of the estrogenicity of 3betaAdiol, CYP7B1 performs two major tasks: (i) it allows 3betaAdiol to have growth inhibitory effects through ERbeta and (ii) it permits estradiol-specific activation of estrogen receptors by protection of certain cells from the estrogenic effects of 3betaAdiol. When CYP7B1 is inactivated, 3betaAdiol activates estrogen receptors indiscriminately, and the overall effect is prolonged and inappropriate exposure to estrogen.

  5. Peer and Teacher Effects on the Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Brendgen, Mara; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the links between peer rejection and verbal abuse by a teacher during childhood with the early onset of sexual intercourse and the mediating role of delinquent behavior and low self-esteem in this context. Methods. We assessed 312 students (159 girls) in northwestern Quebec annually from kindergarten through seventh grade. Peer identifications were used to assess peer rejection and verbal abuse by teachers from kindergarten through fourth grade. In seventh grade, self-reports were used to assess delinquent behavior, self-esteem, and having sexual intercourse. Multiple sources were used to assess control variables. Results. Multiple imputation-based linear and logistic regressions showed that peer rejection was indirectly associated with a higher risk of early intercourse by its link with lower self-esteem, but only for girls. Verbal abuse by teachers during childhood was directly associated with a higher risk of early sexual intercourse and indirectly by its link with delinquent behavior. Conclusions. The results underline the importance of both peers and teachers in healthy sexual development among youths, especially for girls, and emphasize the need for targeted health and sexual education programs. PMID:17901435

  6. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Baglivio, Michael T.; Wolff, Kevin T.

    2017-01-01

    While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention. PMID:28212340

  7. Copper to Zinc Ratio as Disease Biomarker in Neonates with Early-Onset Congenital Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewska, Monika; Cremer, Malte; Wiehe, Lennart; Becker, Niels-Peter; Rijntjes, Eddy; Martitz, Janine; Renko, Kostja; Bührer, Christoph; Schomburg, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential trace elements for regular development. Acute infections alter their metabolism, while deficiencies increase infection risks. A prospective observational case-control study was conducted with infected (n = 21) and control (n = 23) term and preterm newborns. We analyzed trace element concentrations by X-ray fluorescence, and ceruloplasmin (CP) by Western blot. Median concentration of Cu at birth (day 1) was 522.8 [387.1–679.7] μg/L, and Zn was 1642.4 ± 438.1 μg/L. Cu and Zn correlated positively with gestational age in control newborns. Cu increased in infected newborns from day 1 to day 3. CP correlated positively to Cu levels at birth in both groups and on day 3 in the group of infected neonates. The Cu/Zn ratio was relatively high in infected newborns. Interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations on day 1 were unrelated to Cu, Zn, or the Cu/Zn ratio, whereas C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on day 3 correlated positively to the Cu/Zn -ratio at both day 1 and day 3. We conclude that infections affect the trace element homeostasis in newborns: serum Zn is reduced, while Cu and CP are increased. The Cu/Zn ratio combines both alterations, independent of gestational age. It may, thus, constitute a meaningful diagnostic biomarker for early-onset infections. PMID:28358335

  8. In utero arsenic exposure induces early onset of atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sanjay; D’Souza, Stanley E.; Sen, Utpal; States, J. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated drinking water has been linked to higher rates of coronary disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Recent evidence suggests that early life exposures may play a significant role in the onset of chronic adult diseases. To investigate the potential for in utero exposure to accelerate the onset of cardiovascular disease we exposed pregnant ApoE-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice to arsenic in their drinking water and examined the aortic trees of their male offspring for evidence of early disease 10 and 16 weeks after birth. Mice were maintained on normal chow after weaning. ApoE−/− mice are a commonly used model for atherogenesis and spontaneously develop atherosclerotic disease. Mice exposed to arsenic in utero showed a >2-fold increase in lesion formation in the aortic roots as well as the aortic arch compared to control mice at both 10 and 16 weeks of age. The mice exposed to arsenic also had a 20 – 40% decrease in total triglycerides, but no change in total cholesterol, phospholipids and total abundance of VLDL or HDL particles. Subfractionation of VLDL particles showed a decrease in large VLDL particles. In addition, the arsenic exposed mice showed a vasorelaxation defect in response to acetylcholine suggesting disturbance of endothelial cell signalling. These results indicate that in utero arsenic exposure induces an early onset of atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice without a hyperlipidemic diet and support the hypothesis that in utero arsenic exposure may be atherogenic in humans. PMID:17317095

  9. Early-onset basal cell carcinoma and indoor tanning: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Karagas, Margaret R; Zens, M Scot; Li, Zhigang; Stukel, Therese A; Perry, Ann E; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Sayarath, Vicki; Stephenson, Rita S; Barton, Dorothea; Nelson, Heather H; Spencer, Steven K

    2014-07-01

    Indoor tanning with UV radiation-emitting lamps is common among adolescents and young adults. Rising incidence rates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have been reported for the United States and elsewhere, particularly among those diagnosed at younger ages. Recent epidemiologic studies have raised concerns that indoor tanning may be contributing to early occurrence of BCC, and younger people may be especially vulnerable to cancer risk associated with this exposure. Therefore, we sought to address these issues in a population-based case-control study from New Hampshire. Data on indoor tanning were obtained on 657 cases of BCC and 452 controls ≤50 years of age. Early-onset BCC was related to indoor tanning, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.1). The strongest association was observed for first exposure as an adolescent or young adult, with a 10% increase in the OR with each age younger at first exposure (OR per year of age ≤23 = 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.2). Associations were present for each type of device examined (ie, sunlamps, tanning beds, and tanning booths). Our findings suggest early exposure to indoor tanning increases the risk of early development of BCC. They also underscore the importance of counseling adolescents and young adults about the risks of indoor tanning and for discouraging parents from consenting minors to this practice. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Children's parasympathetic reactivity to specific emotions moderates response to intervention for early-onset aggression.

    PubMed

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Greenberg, Mark; Bierman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Following theories that individual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) denote differential sensitivity to environmental influences, this study examines whether differences in RSA reactivity to specific emotional challenges predict differential response to intervention. We present data from a randomized clinical trial of a targeted intervention for early onset aggression. In collaboration with a high-risk urban school district, 207 kindergarten children (73% African American, 66% male), identified by their teachers as having high levels of aggressive and disruptive behavior, were recruited. All children received a universal social-emotional curriculum. One hundred children were randomly assigned to an additional intervention consisting of weekly peer-based social skills training. Complete RSA data were available for 139 of the children. Teacher-reported externalizing symptoms and emotion regulation in 1st grade (post intervention) were examined controlling for baseline levels. First-grade peer nominations of aggressive behavior, controlling for baseline nominations, were also examined as outcomes. No effect of resting RSA was found. However, greater reactivity to anger was associated with higher externalizing symptoms and lower emotion regulation skills in 1st grade relative to low reactive children. Lower reactivity to fear was associated with greater improvement over time, an effect that was enhanced in the targeted intervention condition. Results suggest that measures of affective reactivity may provide insight into children's capacity to benefit from different types of interventions.

  11. Premorbid Risk Factors for Major Depressive Disorder: Are They Associated With Early Onset and Recurrent Course?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sylia; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Miller, Michael B.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Premorbid risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and predictors of an earlier onset and recurrent course were examined in two studies in a large, community-based sample of parents and offspring, prospectively assessed from late childhood into adulthood. In Study 1 (N = 2,764 offspring and their parents), parental psychiatric status, offspring personality at age 11, and age-11 offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted the subsequent development of MDD, as did poor quality parent-child relationships, poor academic functioning, early pubertal development, and childhood maltreatment by age 11. Parental MDD and adult antisocial behavior, offspring negative emotionality and disconstraint, externalizing symptoms, and childhood maltreatment predicted an earlier onset of MDD, after accounting for course; lower positive emotionality, trait anxiety, and childhood maltreatment predicted recurrent MDD, after accounting for age of onset. In Study 2 (N = 7,146), we examined molecular genetic risk for MDD by extending recent reports of associations with glutamatergic system genes. We failed to confirm associations with MDD using either individual SNP-based tests or gene-based analyses. Overall, results speak to the pervasiveness of risk for MDD, as well as specific risk for early-onset MDD; risk for recurrent MDD appears to be largely a function of its often earlier onset. PMID:25422974

  12. Early onset intellectual disability in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco; Muzio, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, or DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome, is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. This syndrome is commonly caused by a microdelection from chromosome 22 at band q11.2. Although this genetic disorder may reflect several clinical abnormalities and different degrees of organ commitment, the clinical features that have driven the greatest amount of attention are behavioral and developmental features, because individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have a 30-fold risk of developing schizophrenia. There are differing opinions about the cognitive development, and commonly a cognitive decline rather than an early onset intellectual disability has been observed. We report a case of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with both early assessment of mild intellectual disabilities and tetralogy of Fallot as the only physic manifestation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain network informed subject community detection in early-onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Xu, Yong; Xu, Ting; Hoy, Colin W; Handwerker, Daniel A; Chen, Gang; Northoff, Georg; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Bandettini, Peter A

    2014-07-03

    Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) offers a unique opportunity to study pathophysiological mechanisms and development of schizophrenia. Using 26 drug-naïve, first-episode EOS patients and 25 age- and gender-matched control subjects, we examined intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) deficits underlying EOS. Due to the emerging inconsistency between behavior-based psychiatric disease classification system and the underlying brain dysfunctions, we applied a fully data-driven approach to investigate whether the subjects can be grouped into highly homogeneous communities according to the characteristics of their ICNs. The resultant subject communities and the representative characteristics of ICNs were then associated with the clinical diagnosis and multivariate symptom patterns. A default mode ICN was statistically absent in EOS patients. Another frontotemporal ICN further distinguished EOS patients with predominantly negative symptoms. Connectivity patterns of this second network for the EOS patients with predominantly positive symptom were highly similar to typically developing controls. Our post-hoc functional connectivity modeling confirmed that connectivity strength in this frontotemporal circuit was significantly modulated by relative severity of positive and negative syndromes in EOS. This study presents a novel subtype discovery approach based on brain networks and proposes complex links between brain networks and symptom patterns in EOS.

  14. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease: nonamnestic subtypes and type 2 AD.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Mario F

    2012-11-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative dementia, are usually elderly; however, ∼4-5% develop early-onset AD (EOAD) with onset before age 65. Most EOAD is sporadic, but about 5% of patients with EOAD have an autosomal dominant mutation such as Presenilin 1, Presenilin 2, or alterations in the Amyloid Precursor Protein gene. Although most Alzheimer's research has concentrated on older, late-onset AD (LOAD), there is much recent interest and research in EOAD. These recent studies indicate that EOAD is a heterogeneous disorder with significant differences from LOAD. From 22-64% of EOAD patients have a predominant nonamnestic syndrome presenting with deficits in language, visuospatial abilities, praxis, or other non-memory cognition. These nonamnestic patients may differ in several ways from the usual memory or amnestic patients. Patients with nonamnestic EOAD compared to typical amnestic AD have a more aggressive course, lack the apolipoprotein Eɛ4 (APOE ɛ4) susceptibility gene for AD, and have a focus and early involvement of non-hippocampal areas of brain, particularly parietal neocortex. These differences in the EOAD subtypes indicate differences in the underlying amyloid cascade, the prevailing pathophysiological theory for the development of AD. Together the results of recent studies suggest that nonamnestic subtypes of EOAD constitute a Type 2 AD distinct from the usual, typical disorder. In sum, the study of EOAD can reveal much about the clinical heterogeneity, predisposing factors, and neurobiology of this disease. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early-Onset LMNA-Associated Muscular Dystrophy with Later Involvement of Contracture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younggun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Park, Hyung Jun; Choi, Young Chul

    2017-10-01

    The early diagnosis of LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy is important for preventing sudden arrest related to cardiac conduction block. However, diagnosing early-onset Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) with later involvement of contracture and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B is often delayed due to heterogeneous clinical presentations. We aimed to determine the clinical features that contribute to a delayed diagnosis. We reviewed four patients who were recently diagnosed with LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy by targeted exome sequencing and who were initially diagnosed with nonspecific or other types of muscular dystrophy. Certain clinical features such as delayed contracture involvement and calf hypertrophy were found to contribute to a delayed diagnosis. Muscle biopsies were not informative for the diagnosis in these patients. Genetic testing of single or multiple genes is useful for confirming a diagnosis of LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy. Even EDMD patients could experience the later involvement of contracture, so clinicians should consider early genetic testing for patients with undiagnosed muscular dystrophy or laminopathy. Copyright © 2017 Korean Neurological Association

  16. Early onset of industrial-era warming across the oceans and continents.

    PubMed

    Abram, Nerilie J; McGregor, Helen V; Tierney, Jessica E; Evans, Michael N; McKay, Nicholas P; Kaufman, Darrell S

    2016-08-25

    The evolution of industrial-era warming across the continents and oceans provides a context for future climate change and is important for determining climate sensitivity and the processes that control regional warming. Here we use post-ad 1500 palaeoclimate records to show that sustained industrial-era warming of the tropical oceans first developed during the mid-nineteenth century and was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere continental warming. The early onset of sustained, significant warming in palaeoclimate records and model simulations suggests that greenhouse forcing of industrial-era warming commenced as early as the mid-nineteenth century and included an enhanced equatorial ocean response mechanism. The development of Southern Hemisphere warming is delayed in reconstructions, but this apparent delay is not reproduced in climate simulations. Our findings imply that instrumental records are too short to comprehensively assess anthropogenic climate change and that, in some regions, about 180 years of industrial-era warming has already caused surface temperatures to emerge above pre-industrial values, even when taking natural variability into account.

  17. Fathers' Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorder and Early Onset of Drug Use by Their Children.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kimberly L

    2017-05-01

    The unique influence of fathers' alcohol and cannabis use disorder on children's onset of use of these same substances has been rarely studied. A clear understanding of family history in this context is important for the development of family-based prevention initiatives aimed at delaying the onset of substance use among children. Prospective, longitudinal, and intergenerational data on 274 father-child dyads were used. Logistic regression models were estimated to assess the association between fathers' lifetime incidence of an alcohol and cannabis use disorder and children's onset of use of these same substances at or before age 15. The children of fathers who met the criteria for a lifetime cannabis use disorder were more likely to initiate use of alcohol (odds ratio = 6.71, 95% CI [1.92, 23.52]) and cannabis (odds ratio = 8.13, 95% CI [2.07, 31.95]) by age 15, when background covariates and presence of a lifetime alcohol use disorder were controlled for. No unique effect of fathers' alcohol use disorder on children's onset of alcohol and cannabis use was observed. Fathers' lifetime cannabis use disorder had a unique and robust association with children's uptake of alcohol and cannabis by age 15. Future research is needed to identify the mediating mechanisms that link fathers' disorder with children's early onset.

  18. Leber congenital amaurosis/early-onset severe retinal dystrophy: clinical features, molecular genetics and therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Neruban; Moore, Anthony T; Weleber, Richard G; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-09-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and early-onset severe retinal dystrophy (EOSRD) are both genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous, and characterised clinically by severe congenital/early infancy visual loss, nystagmus, amaurotic pupils and markedly reduced/absent full-field electroretinograms. The vast genetic heterogeneity of inherited retinal disease has been established over the last 10 - 20 years, with disease-causing variants identified in 25 genes to date associated with LCA/EOSRD, accounting for 70-80% of cases, with thereby more genes yet to be identified. There is now far greater understanding of the structural and functional associations seen in the various LCA/EOSRD genotypes. Subsequent development/characterisation of LCA/EOSRD animal models has shed light on the underlying pathogenesis and allowed the demonstration of successful rescue with gene replacement therapy and pharmacological intervention in multiple models. These advancements have culminated in more than 12 completed, ongoing and anticipated phase I/II and phase III gene therapy and pharmacological human clinical trials. This review describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of LCA/EOSRD and the differential diagnoses to be considered. We discuss in further detail the diagnostic clinical features, pathophysiology, animal models and human treatment studies and trials, in the more common genetic subtypes and/or those closest to intervention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T

    2017-02-16

    While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%-8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention.

  20. Characteristics of familial aggregation in early-onset Alzheimer`s disease: Evidence of subgroups

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, D.; Martinez, M.; Babron, M.C.

    1995-06-19

    Characteristics of familial aggregation of Alzheimer`s Disease were studied in 92 families ascertained through a clinically diagnosed proband with an onset below age 60 years. In each family data were systematically collected on the sibships of the proband, of his father, and of his mother. A total of 926 relatives were included and 81% of the living relatives (i.e., 251 individuals) were directly examined. The estimated cumulative risk among first degree relatives was equal to 35% by age 89 years (95% confidence interval 22 to 47%). This result does not support the hypothesis that an autosomal dominant gene, fully penetrantmore » by age 90 years, is segregating within all these pedigrees. Despite the fact that all probands were selected for an onset before age 60 years it was shown that two types of families could be delineated with respect to age at onset among affected relatives: all secondary cases with an onset below age 60 years were contributed by a particular group of families (type 1 families), whereas all secondary cases with an onset after age 60 years were contributed by another group of families (type 2 families). Although genetic interpretation of these findings is not straightforward, they support the hypothesis of etiologic heterogeneity in the determinism of early-onset Alzheimer`s disease. 58 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  1. Characterization of an Early-Onset, Autosomal Recessive, Progressive Retinal Degeneration in Bengal Cats.

    PubMed

    Ofri, Ron; Reilly, Christopher M; Maggs, David J; Fitzgerald, Paul G; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Good, Kathryn L; Grahn, Robert A; Splawski, Danielle D; Lyons, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A form of retinal degeneration suspected to be hereditary was discovered in a family of Bengal cats. A breeding colony was established to characterize disease progression clinically, electrophysiologically, and morphologically, and to investigate the mode of inheritance. Affected and related cats were donated by owners for breeding trials and pedigree analysis. Kittens from test and complementation breedings underwent ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic examinations and ERG, and globes were evaluated using light microscopy. Pedigree analysis, along with test and complementation breedings, indicated autosomal recessive inheritance and suggested that this disease is nonallelic to a retinal degeneration found in Persian cats. Mutation analysis confirmed the disease is not caused by CEP290 or CRX variants found predominantly in Abyssinian and Siamese cats. Ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal degeneration were noted at 9 weeks of age and became more noticeable over the next 4 months. Visual deficits were behaviorally evident by 1 year of age. Electroretinogram demonstrated reduced rod and cone function at 7 and 9 weeks of age, respectively. Rod responses were mostly extinguished at 14 weeks of age; cone responses were minimal by 26 weeks. Histologic degeneration was first observed at 8 weeks, evidenced by reduced photoreceptor numbers, then rapid deterioration of the photoreceptor layer and, subsequently, severe outer retinal degeneration. A recessively inherited primary photoreceptor degeneration was characterized in the Bengal cat. The disease is characterized by early onset, with histologic, ophthalmoscopic, and electrophysiological signs evident by 2 months of age, and rapid progression to blindness.

  2. Characterization of an Early-Onset, Autosomal Recessive, Progressive Retinal Degeneration in Bengal Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ofri, Ron; Reilly, Christopher M.; Maggs, David J.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Good, Kathryn L.; Grahn, Robert A.; Splawski, Danielle D.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A form of retinal degeneration suspected to be hereditary was discovered in a family of Bengal cats. A breeding colony was established to characterize disease progression clinically, electrophysiologically, and morphologically, and to investigate the mode of inheritance. Methods Affected and related cats were donated by owners for breeding trials and pedigree analysis. Kittens from test and complementation breedings underwent ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic examinations and ERG, and globes were evaluated using light microscopy. Results Pedigree analysis, along with test and complementation breedings, indicated autosomal recessive inheritance and suggested that this disease is nonallelic to a retinal degeneration found in Persian cats. Mutation analysis confirmed the disease is not caused by CEP290 or CRX variants found predominantly in Abyssinian and Siamese cats. Ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal degeneration were noted at 9 weeks of age and became more noticeable over the next 4 months. Visual deficits were behaviorally evident by 1 year of age. Electroretinogram demonstrated reduced rod and cone function at 7 and 9 weeks of age, respectively. Rod responses were mostly extinguished at 14 weeks of age; cone responses were minimal by 26 weeks. Histologic degeneration was first observed at 8 weeks, evidenced by reduced photoreceptor numbers, then rapid deterioration of the photoreceptor layer and, subsequently, severe outer retinal degeneration. Conclusions A recessively inherited primary photoreceptor degeneration was characterized in the Bengal cat. The disease is characterized by early onset, with histologic, ophthalmoscopic, and electrophysiological signs evident by 2 months of age, and rapid progression to blindness. PMID:26258614

  3. Football and dementia: A qualitative investigation of a community based sports group for men with early onset dementia.

    PubMed

    Carone, Laura; Tischler, Victoria; Dening, Tom

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the impact of a weekly group providing sport and physical activities for men with early onset dementia established by Notts County Football in the Community (NCFC). There were three aims: to investigate the effect of early onset dementia on individuals with the condition and their carers; to examine the perceptions of current levels of service provision for people with early onset dementia; and to analyse the impact of the group. Men with dementia (n = 5) attending the sessions, their carers (n = 5), NCFC coaching staff (n = 5) and people organizing/facilitating the sessions (n = 5) were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews explored the participants' experiences of dementia, their opinions on current service provisions and on the sessions. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were found: loss related to the condition of dementia and its impact on relationships ('Loss'); lack of age-appropriate services for people with early onset dementia ('Lack of Resources'); enjoyment and positive anticipation related to the group for all involved ('Enjoyment and Anticipation'); and 'the Notts County Effect' which attributed the success of the sessions to the strong brand of the football club, and to personalized service in a "dementia-free" environment. The NCFC sessions provided a safe low-cost intervention with positive effects upon quality of life for both people with early onset dementia, their carers and the staff involved. This suggests that the service may be valuable to a wider range of people living in different areas. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Family history of skin cancer is associated with early-onset basal cell carcinoma independent of MC1R genotype.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Nicholas L; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J; Bale, Allen E; Mayne, Susan T; Ferrucci, Leah M

    2015-12-01

    As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual's risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80-3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74-3.35). Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90-7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Profile of cognitive deficits and associations with depressive symptoms and intelligence in chronic early-onset schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Christensen, Anne Marie Raaberg; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive deficits in several domains have been demonstrated in early-onset schizophrenia patients but their profile and relation to depressive symptoms and intelligence need further characterization. The purpose was to characterize the profile of cognitive deficits in chronic, early-onset schizophrenia patients, assess the potential associations with depressive symptom severity, and examine whether cognitive deficits within several domains reflect intelligence impairments. This study compared attention, visual-construction, aspects of visual and verbal memory, and executive functions in chronic, early-onset schizophrenia patients (mean age = 20.7 years) (N = 18) and healthy controls (N = 38). Schizophrenia diagnoses were established at the time of the patients' first clinical presentation during childhood or adolescence and were confirmed five years later. In the chronic phase of early-onset schizophrenia, significant deficits were observed in all specific cognitive functions. The profile of cognitive deficits was jagged, and visual-construction, attention, and one aspect of verbal memory (verbal stories recall) were differentially impaired. Deficits of visual recall, visual recognition, and executive functions were accounted for by deficits in intelligence, while this was not the case for deficits of verbal recall of stories or attention. No significant associations were observed between the severity of cognitive deficits and that of depressive symptoms. Chronic, early-onset schizophrenia is characterized by a broad and jagged profile of cognitive deficits. Deficits of attention and verbal recall of stories appear not to be accounted for by deficits in intelligence, and the severity of cognitive deficits seems independent from that of depressive symptoms. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  6. Bioresonance information laser therapy of diabetes miellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdawon, Pretidev

    2002-10-01

    Following the ethio-pathogenetic approach in the therapeutic management of any pathological process, and being armed with the latest information and practical experience in the newly-developing and very promising field of bioresonance information laser medicine, thereby arose the obvious aim to elaborate a highly effective method of treatment for insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) or Type I diabetes and non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDD) or Type II diabetes with the application of bioresonance information laser method of treatment, which involves the complex integrative use of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI), microwave resonance puncture (MRP) and light-emitting diode chromatotherapy (LEDCT) that would free diabetic patients from life-long insulin injections or hypoglycemic tables and enable them to lead a normal life with a normal or not severely restrained diet.

  7. Developmental outcome after surgery in focal cortical dysplasia patients with early-onset epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Nobusuke; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Imai, Katsumi; Ikeda, Hiroko; Ootani, Hideyuki; Takayama, Rumiko; Mogami, Yukiko; Kimura, Noriko; Baba, Koichi; Matsuda, Kazumi; Tottori, Takayasu; Usui, Naotaka; Inoue, Yushi

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental outcome after surgery for early-onset epilepsy in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Among 108 patients with histopathologically confirmed FCD operated between 1985 and 2008, we selected 17 patients with epilepsy onset up to 3 years of age. Development was evaluated by the developmental quotient or intelligence quotient (DQ-IQ) and mental age was measured by the Mother-Child Counseling baby test or the Tanaka-Binet scale of intelligence. Postsurgical development outcome was evaluated by the changes in DQ-IQ and mental age as well as rate of increase in mental age (RIMA) after surgery. RIMA was calculated as the increase in mental age per chronological year (months/year; normal average rate: 12 months/year). Age at epilepsy onset of 17 patients ranged from 15 days to 36 months (mean±SD, 11.0±10.0 months). Age at surgery ranged from 18 to 145 months (75.1±32.4 months). Evaluation just before surgery showed that 13 of 17 (76.4%) patients had DQ-IQ below 70. Ten patients (58.8%) were seizure-free throughout the postsurgical follow-up period. After surgery, DQ-IQ was maintained within 10 points of the presurgical level in 13 patients (76.4%), and increased by more than 10 points in one patient (5.9%). After surgery, RIMA in patients with Engel's class I (7.5±3.8) was higher than patients with Engel's class II-IV (2.6±3.4) (unpaired t-test with Welch's correction, t=2.99, df=15, p=0.0092). RIMA was particularly low in two patients with spasm. In four patients with presurgical DQ-IQ<70, seizure-free after surgery and without spasm, DQ-IQ did not increase but RIMA improved from 3.6±2.8 before surgery to 6.9±2.5 months/year after surgery. RIMA became better from 2 years after surgery. In four patients with presurgical DQ-IQ≥70 and no spasm, two showed the same or higher RIMA than normal average after surgery. In 58.8% of FCD patients with early onset epilepsy, epilepsy surgery effectively

  8. Identification of candidate genes for familial early-onset essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinmin; Hernandez, Nora; Kisselev, Sergey; Floratos, Aris; Sawle, Ashley; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Ottman, Ruth; Louis, Elan D; Clark, Lorraine N

    2016-07-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common causes of tremor in humans. Despite its high heritability and prevalence, few susceptibility genes for ET have been identified. To identify ET genes, whole-exome sequencing was performed in 37 early-onset ET families with an autosomal-dominant inheritance pattern. We identified candidate genes for follow-up functional studies in five ET families. In two independent families, we identified variants predicted to affect function in the nitric oxide (NO) synthase 3 gene (NOS3) that cosegregated with disease. NOS3 is highly expressed in the central nervous system (including cerebellum), neurons and endothelial cells, and is one of three enzymes that converts l-arginine to the neurotransmitter NO. In one family, a heterozygous variant, c.46G>A (p.(Gly16Ser)), in NOS3, was identified in three affected ET cases and was absent in an unaffected family member; and in a second family, a heterozygous variant, c.164C>T (p.(Pro55Leu)), was identified in three affected ET cases (dizygotic twins and their mother). Both variants result in amino-acid substitutions of highly conserved amino-acid residues that are predicted to be deleterious and damaging by in silico analysis. In three independent families, variants predicted to affect function were also identified in other genes, including KCNS2 (KV9.2), HAPLN4 (BRAL2) and USP46. These genes are highly expressed in the cerebellum and Purkinje cells, and influence function of the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic system. This is in concordance with recent evidence that the pathophysiological process in ET involves cerebellar dysfunction and possibly cerebellar degeneration with a reduction in Purkinje cells, and a decrease in GABA-ergic tone.

  9. Sibling sex ratio and birth order in early-onset gender dysphoric adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schagen, Sebastian E E; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Blanchard, Ray; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2012-06-01

    Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands' position (e.g., first-born, middle-born, last-born) within their sibships. Fraternal birth order refers to their position among male siblings only. Such research was extended in this study to a large group of early-onset gender dysphoric adolescents. The probands comprised 94 male-to-female and 95 female-to-male gender dysphoric adolescents. The overwhelming majority of these were homosexual or probably prehomosexual. The control group consisted of 875 boys and 914 girls from the TRAILS study. The sibling sex ratio of the gender dysphoric boys was very high (241 brothers per 100 sisters) compared with the expected ratio (106:100). The excess of brothers was more extreme among the probands' older siblings (300:100) than among their younger siblings (195:100). Between-groups comparisons showed that the gender dysphoric boys had significantly more older brothers, and significantly fewer older sisters and younger sisters, than did the control boys. In contrast, the only notable finding for the female groups was that the gender dysphoric girls had significantly fewer total siblings than did the control girls. The results for the male probands were consistent with prior speculations that a high fraternal birth order (i.e., an excess of older brothers) is found in all homosexual male groups, but an elevated sibling sex ratio (usually caused by an additional, smaller excess of younger brothers) is characteristic of gender dysphoric homosexual males. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain unknown.

  10. Comparison of clinical characteristics between familial and non-familial early onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Aditi; Ringman, John M; Lee, Albert S; Juarez, Kevin O; Mendez, Mario F

    2012-10-01

    Although familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) is an early onset AD (EAD), most patients with EAD do not have a familial disorder. Recent guidelines recommend testing for genes causing FAD only in those EAD patients with two first-degree relatives. However, some patients with FAD may lack a known family history or other indications for suspecting FAD but might nonetheless be carriers of FAD mutations. The study was aimed to identify clinical features that distinguish FAD from non-familial EAD (NF-EAD). A retrospective review of a university-based cohort of 32 FAD patients with PSEN1-related AD and 81 with NF-EAD was conducted. The PSEN1 patients, compared to the NF-EAD patients, had an earlier age of disease onset (41.8 ± 5.2 vs. 55.9 ± 4.8 years) and, at initial assessment, a longer disease duration (5.1 ± 3.4 vs. 3.3 ± 2.6 years) and lower MMSE scores (10.74 ± 8.0 vs. 20.95 ± 5.8). Patients with NF-EAD were more likely to present with non-memory deficits, particularly visuospatial symptoms, than were FAD patients. When age, disease duration, and MMSE scores were controlled in a logistical regression model, FAD patients were more likely to have significant headaches, myoclonus, gait abnormality, and pseudobulbar affect than those with NF-EAD. In addition to a much younger age of onset, FAD patients with PSEN1 mutations differed from those with NF-EAD by a history of headaches and pseudobulbar affect, as well as myoclonus and gait abnormality on examination. These may represent differences in pathophysiology between FAD and NF-EAD and in some contexts such findings should lead to genetic counseling and appropriate recommendations for genetic testing for FAD.

  11. Comparison of clinical characteristics between familial and non-familial early onset Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ringman, John M.; Lee, Albert S.; Juarez, Kevin O.; Mendez, Mario F.

    2012-01-01

    Although familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) is an early onset AD (EAD), most patients with EAD do not have a familial disorder. Recent guidelines recommend testing for genes causing FAD only in those EAD patients with two first-degree relatives. However, some patients with FAD may lack a known family history or other indications for suspecting FAD but might nonetheless be carriers of FAD mutations. The study was aimed to identify clinical features that distinguish FAD from non-familial EAD (NF-EAD). A retrospective review of a university-based cohort of 32 FAD patients with PSEN1-related AD and 81 with NF-EAD was conducted. The PSEN1 patients, compared to the NF-EAD patients, had an earlier age of disease onset (41.8 ± 5.2 vs. 55.9 ± 4.8 years) and, at initial assessment, a longer disease duration (5.1 ± 3.4 vs. 3.3 ± 2.6 years) and lower MMSE scores (10.74 ± 8.0 vs. 20.95 ± 5.8). Patients with NF-EAD were more likely to present with non-memory deficits, particularly visuospatial symptoms, than were FAD patients. When age, disease duration, and MMSE scores were controlled in a logistical regression model, FAD patients were more likely to have significant headaches, myoclonus, gait abnormality, and pseudobulbar affect than those with NF-EAD. In addition to a much younger age of onset, FAD patients with PSEN1 mutations differed from those with NF-EAD by a history of headaches and pseudobulbar affect, as well as myoclonus and gait abnormality on examination. These may represent differences in pathophysiology between FAD and NF-EAD and in some contexts such findings should lead to genetic counseling and appropriate recommendations for genetic testing for FAD. PMID:22460587

  12. Staphylococcus aureus carriage at admission predicts early-onset pneumonia after burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Fournier, A; Voirol, P; Krähenbühl, M; Bonnemain, C-L; Fournier, C; Dupuis-Lozeron, E; Pantet, O; Pagani, J-L; Revelly, J-P; Sadeghipour, F; Eggimann, P; Que, Y-A

    2017-03-01

    Early-onset pneumonia (EOP) is frequent after burn trauma, increasing morbidity in the critical resuscitation phase, which may preclude early aggressive management of burn wounds. Currently, however, preemptive treatment is not recommended. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors for EOP that may justify early empirical antibiotic treatment. Data for all burn patients requiring ≥4 h mechanical ventilation (MV) who were admitted between January 2001 and October 2012 were extracted from the hospital's computerized information system. We reviewed EOP episodes (≤7 days) among patients who underwent endotracheal aspiration (ETA) within 5 days after admission. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent factors associated with EOP. Logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting EOP development. During the study period, 396 burn patients were admitted. ETA was performed within 5 days in 204/290 patients receiving ≥4 h MV. One hundred and eight patients developed EOP; 47 cases were caused by Staphylococcus aureus, 37 by Haemophilus influenzae, and 23 by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Among the 33 patients showing S. aureus positivity on ETA samples, 16 (48.5 %) developed S. aureus EOP. Among the 156 S. aureus non-carriers, 16 (10.2 %) developed EOP. Staphylococcus aureus carriage independently predicted EOP (p < 0.0001). We identified S. aureus carriage as an independent and strong predictor of EOP. As rapid point-of-care testing for S. aureus is readily available, we recommend testing of all patients at admission for burn trauma and the consideration of early preemptive treatment in all positive patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate this new strategy.

  13. [Early onset pneumonia after successful resuscitation : Incidence after mild invasive hypothermia therapy].

    PubMed

    Erath, J W; Hodrius, J; Bushoven, P; Fichtlscherer, S; Zeiher, A M; Seeger, F H; Honold, J

    2017-09-01

    Targeted temperature management (TTM) represents an effective therapy to improve neurologic outcome in patients who survive an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). First publications about this therapy reported a higher incidence of infections in patients who underwent TTM induced by external cooling devices. Whether intravascular cooling devices are also associated with an increased infection rate has not been investigated so far. In a single center retrospective study, the incidence of early onset pneumonia (EOP) in OHCA patients with or without intravascular TTM at 33 °C target temperature for 24 h who survived at least 24 h after admission was analyzed. A total of 68 OHCA survivors (mean age 65 ± 15 years) were included in this analysis. The most common causes of OHCA were myocardial infarction (35 %), primary ventricular fibrillation (24 %), asystole (15 %), and pulmonary embolism (7 %). Of those, 32 patients (48 %) received TTM. The overall incidence of EOP was 38 %. Incidence of EOP did not differ significantly between groups, was more frequent in the group without TTM (42 % vs. 34 %, p = 0.57) and had no impact on mortality (hazard ratio = 1.02; 95 % confidence interval 0.25-4.16; p = 0.97). Intravascular TTM at 33 °C with a cooling catheter is not associated with more infective complications in OHCA patients. This finding underscores the safety of TTM.

  14. Copeptin concentration in cord blood in infants with early-onset sepsis, chorioamnionitis and perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Schlapbach, Luregn J; Frey, Stefanie; Bigler, Susanna; Manh-Nhi, Chiem; Aebi, Christoph; Nelle, Mathias; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc

    2011-05-19

    Vasopressin is one of the most important physiological stress and shock hormones. Copeptin, a stable vasopressin precursor, is a promising sepsis marker in adults. In contrast, its involvement in neonatal diseases remains unknown. The aim of this study was to establish copeptin concentrations in neonates of different stress states such as sepsis, chorioamnionitis and asphyxia. Copeptin cord blood concentration was determined using the BRAHMS kryptor assay. Neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS, n = 30), chorioamnionitis (n = 33) and asphyxia (n = 25) were compared to a control group of preterm and term (n = 155) neonates. Median copeptin concentration in cord blood was 36 pmol/l ranging from undetectable to 5498 pmol/l (IQR 7 - 419). Copeptin cord blood concentrations were non-normally distributed and increased with gestational age (p < 0.0001). Neonates born after vaginal compared to cesarean delivery had elevated copeptin levels (p < 0.0001). Copeptin correlated strongly with umbilical artery pH (Spearman's Rho -0.50, p < 0.0001), umbilical artery base excess (Rho -0.67, p < 0.0001) and with lactate at NICU admission (Rho 0.54, p < 0.0001). No difference was found when comparing copeptin cord blood concentrations between neonates with EOS and controls (multivariate p = 0.30). The highest copeptin concentrations were found in neonates with asphyxia (median 993 pmol/l). Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that copeptin cord blood concentrations were strongly associated with asphyxia: the area under the curve resulted at 0.91 (95%-CI 0.87-0.96, p < 0.0001). A cut-off of 400 pmol/l had a sensitivity of 92% and a specifity of 82% for asphyxia as defined in this study. Copeptin concentrations were strongly related to factors associated with perinatal stress such as birth acidosis, asphyxia and vaginal delivery. In contrast, copeptin appears to be unsuitable for the diagnosis of EOS.

  15. Copeptin concentration in cord blood in infants with early-onset sepsis, chorioamnionitis and perinatal asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vasopressin is one of the most important physiological stress and shock hormones. Copeptin, a stable vasopressin precursor, is a promising sepsis marker in adults. In contrast, its involvement in neonatal diseases remains unknown. The aim of this study was to establish copeptin concentrations in neonates of different stress states such as sepsis, chorioamnionitis and asphyxia. Methods Copeptin cord blood concentration was determined using the BRAHMS kryptor assay. Neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS, n = 30), chorioamnionitis (n = 33) and asphyxia (n = 25) were compared to a control group of preterm and term (n = 155) neonates. Results Median copeptin concentration in cord blood was 36 pmol/l ranging from undetectable to 5498 pmol/l (IQR 7 - 419). Copeptin cord blood concentrations were non-normally distributed and increased with gestational age (p < 0.0001). Neonates born after vaginal compared to cesarean delivery had elevated copeptin levels (p < 0.0001). Copeptin correlated strongly with umbilical artery pH (Spearman's Rho -0.50, p < 0.0001), umbilical artery base excess (Rho -0.67, p < 0.0001) and with lactate at NICU admission (Rho 0.54, p < 0.0001). No difference was found when comparing copeptin cord blood concentrations between neonates with EOS and controls (multivariate p = 0.30). The highest copeptin concentrations were found in neonates with asphyxia (median 993 pmol/l). Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that copeptin cord blood concentrations were strongly associated with asphyxia: the area under the curve resulted at 0.91 (95%-CI 0.87-0.96, p < 0.0001). A cut-off of 400 pmol/l had a sensitivity of 92% and a specifity of 82% for asphyxia as defined in this study. Conclusions Copeptin concentrations were strongly related to factors associated with perinatal stress such as birth acidosis, asphyxia and vaginal delivery. In contrast, copeptin appears to be unsuitable for the diagnosis of EOS. PMID:21595972

  16. Biochemical Predictors of Early Onset Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Young Children with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Young; Cho, Jinmin; Yang, Hye Ran

    2018-04-16

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their associated risk factors are not well-established in young children with obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of early onset NAFLD and identify its biochemical predictors in obese children aged less than 10 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, laboratory tests, and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all subjects. National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria for MS diagnosis and liver enzymes and USG for NAFLD diagnosis were assessed. A total of 356 children with obesity (233 boys, 123 girls) were included, with 172 children age ≤ 10 years and 184 adolescents. The prevalence of MS was 23.3% in young children and 35.3% in adolescents (P = 0.020); while the prevalence of NAFLD was 36.0% and 70.7%, respectively (P = 0.001). In obese children aged 10 years or less, there were significant differences in levels of serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γGT) (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P = 0.042), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P < 0.001) between the non-NAFLD and the NAFLD group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant increase in serum γGT and uric acid levels in young children. Although MS and NAFLD were more prevalent in adolescents, young children also demonstrated MS and NAFLD as obesity-related complications. Elevated serum γGT and uric acid levels may serve as biochemical predictors in detecting NAFLD in young children with obesity before investigation with abdominal USG. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  17. Early-Onset Endocrine Disruptor–Induced Prostatitis in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cowin, Prue A.; Foster, Paul; Pedersen, John; Hedwards, Shelley; McPherson, Stephen J.; Risbridger, Gail P.

    2008-01-01

    Background Androgens are critical for specifying prostate development, with the fetal prostate sensitive to altered hormone levels and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that exhibit estrogenic or antiandrogenic properties. Prostatic inflammation (prostatitis) affects 9% of men of all ages, and > 90% of cases are of unknown etiology. Objectives In this study we aimed to evaluate effects of in utero exposure to the antiandrogenic EDC vinclozolin, during the period of male reproductive tract development, on neonatal, prepubertal, and postpubertal prostate gland function of male offspring. Methods Fetal rats were exposed to vinclozolin (100 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle control (2.5 mL/kg body weight) in utero from gestational day 14 (GD14) to GD19 via oral administration to pregnant dams. Tissue analysis was carried out when male offspring were 0, 4, or 8 weeks of age. Results In utero exposure to vinclozolin was insufficient to perturb prostatic development and branching, although expression of androgen receptor and mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor-10 was down-regulated. Prostate histology remained normal until puberty, but 100% of animals displayed prostatitis postpubertally (56 days of age). Prostatic inflammation was associated with phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) and postpubertal activation of proinflammatory NFκB-dependent genes, including the chemokine interleukin-8 and the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1. Significantly, inflammation arising from vinclozolin exposure was not associated with the emergence of premalignant lesions, such as prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia or proliferative inflammatory atrophy, and hence mimics nonbacterial early-onset prostatitis that commonly occurs in young men. Conclusions These data are the first to unequivocally implicate EDCs as a causative factor and fill an important knowledge gap on the etiology of prostatitis. PMID:18629315

  18. Quantification of Maternal Serum Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Early-Onset Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Shen, Yanting; Ge, Qinyu; He, Youji; Qiao, Dongyan; Ren, Mulan; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the increased serum cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) level of gravidas developed into early-onset preeclampsia (EOPE) subsequently in the early second trimesters is related to prenatal screening markers. Serum was collected from 1011 gravidas. The level of cffDNA and prenatal screening markers were analyzed in 20 cases with EOPE and 20 controls. All fetuses were male. The maternal serum cffDNA level was assessed by amplification of the Y chromosome specific gene. Correlations between the variables were examined. (Logged) cffDNA in EOPE (median, 3.08; interquartile range, 2.93–3.68) was higher than controls (median, 1.79; interquartile range, 1.46–2.53). The increased level of (logged) cffDNA was correlated significantly with the increased human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level (r = 0.628, p < 0.001). Significant reciprocal correlations between cffDNA and babies’ birth weight as well as gestation weeks at delivery were noted (r = −0.516, p = 0.001; r = −0.623, p < 0.001, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of cffDNA to discriminate between the EOPE cases and the controls were 90% and 85%, respectively. CffDNA is a potential marker for EOPE, which had a significant reciprocal correlation with babies’ birth weight and gestation weeks at delivery. Moreover, it may help in indicating the underlying hypoxic condition in the placenta. PMID:23567271

  19. Homotopic connectivity in drug-naïve, first-episode, early-onset schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Jie; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ke-Rang; Hoptman, Matthew J.; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Background The disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia has been extensively tested in adults. Recent studies have reported the presence of brain disconnection in younger patients, adding evidence to support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Because of drug confounds in chronic and medicated patients, it has been extremely challenging for researchers to directly investigate abnormalities in the development of connectivity and their role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine functional homotopy – a measure of interhemispheric connection – and its relevance to clinical symptoms in first-episode drug-naïve early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) patients. Methods Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 first-episode drug-naïve EOS patients (age: 14.5 ± 1.94, 13 males) and 25 matched typically developing controls (TDCs) (age: 14.4 ± 2.97, 13 males). We were mainly concerned with the functional connectivity between any pair of symmetric inter-hemispheric voxels (i.e., functional homotopy) measured by voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC). Results EOS patients exhibited both global and regional VMHC reductions in comparison with TDCs. Reduced VMHC values were observed within the superior temporal cortex and postcentral gyrus. These interhemispheric synchronization deficits were negatively correlated with negative symptom of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Moreover, regions of interest analyses based on left and right clusters of temporal cortex and postcentral gyrus revealed abnormal heterotopic connectivity in EOS patients. Conclusions Our findings provide novel neurodevelopmental evidence for the disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia and suggest that these alterations occur early in the course of the disease and are independent of medication status. PMID:25130214

  20. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis: Still Room for Improvement in Procalcitonin Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa, Claudio; Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John F.; Bonci, Enea; Hofer, Nora; Resch, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To perform a systematic review assessing accuracy and completeness of diagnostic studies of procalcitonin (PCT) for early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) using the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) initiative. EONS, diagnosed during the first 3 days of life, remains a common and serious problem. Increased PCT is a potentially useful diagnostic marker of EONS, but reports in the literature are contradictory. There are several possible explanations for the divergent results including the quality of studies reporting the clinical usefulness of PCT in ruling in or ruling out EONS. We systematically reviewed PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases up to October 1, 2014. Studies were eligible for inclusion in our review if they provided measures of PCT accuracy for diagnosing EONS. A data extraction form based on the STARD checklist and adapted for neonates with EONS was used to appraise the quality of the reporting of included studies. We found 18 articles (1998–2014) fulfilling our eligibility criteria which were included in the final analysis. Overall, the results of our analysis showed that the quality of studies reporting diagnostic accuracy of PCT for EONS was suboptimal leaving ample room for improvement. Information on key elements of design, analysis, and interpretation of test accuracy were frequently missing. Authors should be aware of the STARD criteria before starting a study in this field. We welcome stricter adherence to this guideline. Well-reported studies with appropriate designs will provide more reliable information to guide decisions on the use and interpretations of PCT test results in the management of neonates with EONS. PMID:26222858

  1. Cooperative Genome-Wide Analysis Shows Increased Homozygosity in Early Onset Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nalls, Michael A.; Martinez, Maria; Schulte, Claudia; Holmans, Peter; Gasser, Thomas; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew B.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Brice, Alexis; Heutink, Peter; Williams, Nigel; Morris, Huw R.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) occurs in both familial and sporadic forms, and both monogenic and complex genetic factors have been identified. Early onset PD (EOPD) is particularly associated with autosomal recessive (AR) mutations, and three genes, PARK2, PARK7 and PINK1, have been found to carry mutations leading to AR disease. Since mutations in these genes account for less than 10% of EOPD patients, we hypothesized that further recessive genetic factors are involved in this disorder, which may appear in extended runs of homozygosity. We carried out genome wide SNP genotyping to look for extended runs of homozygosity (ROHs) in 1,445 EOPD cases and 6,987 controls. Logistic regression analyses showed an increased level of genomic homozygosity in EOPD cases compared to controls. These differences are larger for ROH of 9 Mb and above, where there is a more than three-fold increase in the proportion of cases carrying a ROH. These differences are not explained by occult recessive mutations at existing loci. Controlling for genome wide homozygosity in logistic regression analyses increased the differences between cases and controls, indicating that in EOPD cases ROHs do not simply relate to genome wide measures of inbreeding. Homozygosity at a locus on chromosome19p13.3 was identified as being more common in EOPD cases as compared to controls. Sequencing analysis of genes and predicted transcripts within this locus failed to identify a novel mutation causing EOPD in our cohort. There is an increased rate of genome wide homozygosity in EOPD, as measured by an increase in ROHs. These ROHs are a signature of inbreeding and do not necessarily harbour disease-causing genetic variants. Although there might be other regions of interest apart from chromosome 19p13.3, we lack the power to detect them with this analysis. PMID:22427796

  2. Molecular Diagnostics of Copper-Transporting Protein Mutations Allows Early Onset Individual Therapy of Menkes Disease.

    PubMed

    Králík, L; Flachsová, E; Hansíková, H; Saudek, V; Zeman, J; Martásek, P

    2017-01-01

    Menkes disease is a severe X-linked recessive disorder caused by a defect in the ATP7A gene, which encodes a membrane copper-transporting ATPase. Deficient activity of the ATP7A protein results in decreased intestinal absorption of copper, low copper level in serum and defective distribution of copper in tissues. The clinical symptoms are caused by decreased activities of copper-dependent enzymes and include neurodegeneration, connective tissue disorders, arterial changes and hair abnormalities. Without therapy, the disease is fatal in early infancy. Rapid diagnosis of Menkes disease and early start of copper therapy is critical for the effectiveness of treatment. We report a molecular biology-based strategy that allows early diagnosis of copper transport defects and implementation of individual therapies before the full development of pathological symptoms. Low serum copper and decreased activity of copperdependent mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase in isolated platelets found in three patients indicated a possibility of functional defects in copper-transporting proteins, especially in the ATPA7 protein, a copper- transporting P-type ATPase. Rapid mutational screening of the ATP7A gene using high-resolution melting analysis of DNA indicated presence of mutations in the patients. Molecular investigation for mutations in the ATP7A gene revealed three nonsense mutations: c.2170C>T (p.Gln724Ter); c.3745G>T (p.Glu1249Ter); and c.3862C>T (p.Gln1288Ter). The mutation c.3745G>T (p.Glu1249Ter) has not been identified previously. Molecular analysis of the ATOX1 gene as a possible modulating factor of Menkes disease did not reveal presence of pathogenic mutations. Molecular diagnostics allowed early onset of individual therapies, adequate genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis in the affected families.

  3. Elucidating Pathogenic Mechanisms of Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease in Down Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Asai, Masashi; Kawakubo, Takashi; Mori, Ryotaro; Iwata, Nobuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) patients demonstrate the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) characterized by the formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles by age 40-50 years. It has been considered for a number of years that 1.5-fold expression of the gene for the amyloid precursor protein (APP) located on chromosome 21 leading to overproduction of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) results in the early onset of AD in adults with DS. However, the mean age of onset of familial AD with the Swedish mutation on APP which has high affinity for β-secretase associated with a dramatic increase in Aβ production is about 55 years. This paradox indicates that there is a poor correlation between average ages of AD onset and the theoretical amount of Aβ production and that there are factors exacerbating AD on chromosome 21. We therefore focused on dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), since overexpressing transgenic mice show AD-like brain pathology. The overexpression of DYRK1A caused suppression of the activity of neprilysin (NEP), which is a major Aβ-degrading enzyme in the brain, and phosphorylation at the NEP cytoplasmic domain. NEP activity was markedly reduced in fibroblasts derived from DS patients compared with that in fibroblasts derived from healthy controls. This impaired activity of NEP was rescued by DYRK1A inhibition. These results show that DYRK1A overexpression causes suppression of NEP activity through its phosphorylation in DS patients. Our results suggest that DYRK1A inhibitors could be effective against AD not only in adults with DS but also in sporadic AD patients.

  4. Slit ventricle syndrome and early-onset secondary craniosynostosis in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Hyun Gee; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 14 months Final Diagnosis: Slit ventricle syndrome Symptoms: Hydrocephalus • lethargy and seizure • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Shunt surgery is a common solution for hydrocephalus in infancy. Slit ventricle syndrome and secondary craniosynostosis are late-onset complications after shunt placement; these 2 conditions occasionally occur together. Case Report: We report a case of early-onset secondary craniosynostosis with slit ventricle syndrome after shunt surgery in an infant, which led to a catastrophic increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). A 4-month-old girl with a Dandy-Walker malformation underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. Her head circumference (HC) gradually decreased to approximately the 5th percentile for her age group after shunt surgery. Seven months later, she developed increased ICP symptoms and underwent a shunt revision with a diagnosis of shunt malfunction. Her symptoms were temporarily relieved, but she repeatedly visited the emergency room (ER) for the same symptoms and finally collapsed, with an abrupt increase in ICP, 3 months later. Further evaluation revealed the emergence of sagittal synostosis at 7 months after initial shunt surgery. After reviewing all clinical data, slit ventricle syndrome combined with secondary craniosynostosis was diagnosed. Emergent cranial expansion surgery with shunt revision was performed, and the increased ICP signs subsided in the following days. Conclusions: Clinical suspicion and long-term HC monitoring are important in the diagnosis of slit ventricle syndrome and secondary craniosynostosis after shunt surgery, even in infants and young children. PMID:24944727

  5. Early-Onset Invasive Candidiasis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Perinatal Acquisition Predicts Poor Outcome.

    PubMed

    Barton, Michelle; Shen, Alex; O'Brien, Karel; Robinson, Joan L; Davies, H Dele; Simpson, Kim; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Langley, Joanne; Le Saux, Nicole; Sauve, Reginald; Synnes, Anne; Tan, Ben; de Repentigny, Louis; Rubin, Earl; Hui, Chuck; Kovacs, Lajos; Yau, Yvonne C W; Richardson, Susan E

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal invasive candidiasis (IC) presenting in the first week of life is less common and less well described than later-onset IC. Risk factors, clinical features, and disease outcomes have not been studied in early-onset disease (EOD, ≤7 days) or compared to late-onset disease (LOD, >7 days). All extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) cases with IC and controls from a multicenter study of neonatal candidiasis enrolled from 2001 to 2003 were included in this study. Factors associated with occurrence and outcome of EOD in ELBW infants were determined. Forty-five ELBW infants and their 84 matched controls were included. Fourteen (31%) ELBW infants had EOD. Birth weight <750 g, gestation <25 weeks, chorioamnionitis, and vaginal delivery were all strongly associated with EOD. Infection with Candida albicans, disseminated disease, pneumonia, and cardiovascular disease were significantly more common in EOD than in LOD. The EOD case fatality rate (71%) was higher than in LOD (32%) or controls (15%) (P = .0001). The rate of neurodevelopmental impairment and mortality combined was similar in EOD (86%) and LOD (72%), but higher than in controls (32%; P = .007). ELBW infants with EOD have a very poor prognosis compared to those with LOD. The role of perinatal transmission in EOD is supported by its association with chorioamnionitis, vaginal delivery, and pneumonia. Dissemination and cardiovascular involvement are common, and affected infants often die. Empiric treatment should be considered for ELBW infants delivered vaginally who have pneumonia and whose mothers have chorioamnionitis or an intrauterine foreign body. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A comparative study of socio-demographic and substance use correlates in early onset psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Paruk, S; Jhazbhay, K; Singh, K; Sartorius, B; Burns, JK

    2016-01-01

    Background Comorbid substance use particularly cannabis among adolescents with mental illness is a major public health concern in developing countries with limited mental health resources. Better understanding of the association between cannabis use and other poly-substance use and early mental illness will provide for more targeted early interventions. Aim To examine the socio-demographic profile and cannabis use characteristics among adolescents with first episode early onset psychosis (EOP) and compare to age and gender matched adolescents with first episode non-psychotic mental illness (controls). Method Forty-five adolescents with first episode EOP and 45 controls were assessed using a clinical interview, PANSS and WHO ASSIST for substance related problems. Results There were significant socio-demographic differences among the adolescents with EOP (73% Black, 64% from low family income, 44% from rural areas) compared to controls (24% Black, 53% from low family income, 2% from rural areas). Whilst there was no difference in lifetime cannabis use, EOP adolescents differed in motivation for cannabis use, had increased current cannabis use (38%, p=0.01) and more frequent use (52%, p=0.04) compared to controls (16% current and 18% frequent use). EOP adolescents reported more hazardous use with higher ASSIST mean cannabis specific involvement scores (EOP 10,2; controls 2,3; p= 0.004). Conclusion The differences in socio-demographic variables may reflect the marked disparity in access to mental health care for rural Black youth. Psychotic youth may be more vulnerable to comorbid cannabis related problems than other mentally ill adolescents. The study highlights the need for early introduction of substance use interventions among adolescents with mental illness. PMID:27038079

  7. Severe and Rapid Progression in Very Early-Onset Chronic Granulomatous Disease-Associated Colitis.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshinao; Arai, Katsuhiro; Harayama, Shizuko; Nakazawa, Yumiko; Goto, Fumihiro; Maekawa, Takanobu; Tamura, Eiichiro; Uchiyama, Toru; Onodera, Masafumi

    2015-08-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease that leads to recurrent infection and hyper-inflammation, occasionally represented by CGD-associated colitis (CGD colitis). Although clinical symptoms of CGD colitis mimic those of ulcerative colitis (UC), there is no reliable standard measurement of disease activity or standard therapeutic strategy for CGD colitis. Here, we examined the clinical manifestation of CGD colitis based on severity using a noninvasive measure of disease activity, the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI), which has been validated and widely used for pediatric UC. Sixteen of 35 CGD patients, who were diagnosed with CGD colitis based on colonoscopic and histological findings, were examined using the PUCAI. Both the PUCAI and the physician global assessment (PGA) tool were retrospectively scored by reviewing medical records. Disease activity defined by PUCAI was correlated with PGA, and increased at diagnosis of CGD colitis, especially in patients who were younger than 6 years of age (very early-onset CGD colitis: VEO-CGD colitis) when diagnosed with CGD colitis. All severe patients had a more progressive form of VEO-CGD colitis. Unlike mild and moderate patients, severe patients required multidrug therapy of corticosteroids and immunomodulator/immunosuppressants, and some were eventually treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although the validation of PUCAI in CGD colitis should be considered for future use, our results indicate that noninvasive measures could be effective to measure disease activity and help to determine suitable treatment for CGD colitis. In patients with VEO-CGD colitis, multidrug therapy would need to be considered at an early stage on the basis of disease activity.

  8. Etiology of early onset septicemia among neonates at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akindolire, Abimbola Ellen; Tongo, Olukemi; Dada-Adegbola, Hannah; Akinyinka, Olusegun

    2016-12-30

    Neonatal septicemia remains a major cause of newborn deaths in developing countries. Its burden is further compounded by the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens, which is related to a lack of antibiotic protocols resulting in unrestricted use of antibiotics. The absence of reliable antibiotic sensitivity testing makes the formulation of antibiotic guidelines and judicious use of antibiotics difficult. This study sought to identify the current bacterial agents associated with early onset septicemia (EOS; age <72 hours) and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns among neonates at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 202 inborn and outborn neonates with risk factors for or clinical features of septicemia in the first 72 hours of life had samples for blood cultures and antibiotic sensitivity patterns taken prior to treatment. Of the subjects, 95 (47.0%) were inborn and 107 (53.0%) outborn, with a M:F ratio of 1.3:1; 12.5% were culture positive, and the prevalence of EOS was 8.8/1,000 live births. The isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (52%), 30.7% of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12%), Enterobacter aerogenes (8%), Enterococcus spp. (8%), Eschericia coli (4%), and other Gram-negatives (12%). All the isolates except Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, amikacin, gentamicin, and third-generation cephalosporins. All MRSA were sensitive to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol, while all methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to ampicillin/sulbactam. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest cause of EOS in our setting, with 30.7% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates being MRSA. Only MRSA demonstrated multidrug resistance.

  9. [Cord blood procalcitonin in the assessment of early-onset neonatal sepsis].

    PubMed

    Oria de Rueda Salguero, Olivia; Beceiro Mosquera, José; Barrionuevo González, Marta; Ripalda Crespo, María Jesús; Olivas López de Soria, Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Early diagnosis of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. Procalcitonin (PCT) in cord blood could provide a diagnosis of infected patients from birth. To study the usefulness and safety of a procedure for the evaluation of newborns at risk of EONS, based on the determination of PCT in cord blood. Neonates with infectious risk factors, born in our hospital from October 2013 to January 2015 were included. They were processed according to an algorithm based on the values of cord blood procalcitonin (< 0.6ng/ml versus ≥0.6ng/ml). They were later classified as proved infection, probable, or no infection. Of the 2,519 infants born in the study period, 136 met inclusion criteria. None of 120 cases with PCT<0.6ng/ml in cord blood developed EONS (100% negative predictive value). On the other hand, of the 16 cases with PCT ≥0.6ng/ml, 10 were proven or probably infected (62.5% positive predictive value). The sensitivity of the PCT against infection was 100%, with a specificity of 95.2% (area under the receiver operator curve 0.969). The incidence of infection in the study group was 7.4%, and 26.1% in cases with maternal chorioamnionitis. 21 newborn (15.4%) received antibiotic therapy. The studied protocol has shown to be effective and safe to differentiate between patients with increased risk of developing an EONS, in those where the diagnostic and therapeutic approach was more interventionist, versus those with less likelihood of sepsis, who would benefit from a more conservative management. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The Etiology and Clinical Course of Chronic Pancreatitis in Children With Early Onset of the Disease.

    PubMed

    Wejnarska, Karolina; Kolodziejczyk, Elwira; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Dadalski, Maciej; Sobczynska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Kierkus, Jarosław; Bal, Jerzy; Rygiel, Agnieszka Magdalena; Oracz, Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    The etiological factors of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in children differ from those in adults. To date, no study has assessed the clinical course of CP in young children. The aim of our study was to evaluate the etiology and the clinical presentation of the disease in children with disease onset before 5 years of age in comparison to later-onset of CP. A total of 276 children with CP, hospitalized from 1988 to 2015, were enrolled in the study. Data on presentation, diagnostic findings, and treatment were reviewed. Two hundred sixty patients were screened for the most frequent mutations in major pancreatitis-associated genes, such as cationic trypsinogen/serine protease gene (PRSS1), serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 gene (SPINK1), and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). The disease onset before the age of 5 years occurred in 51 patients (group 1), the later onset in 225 patients (group 2). We found no significant discrepancies in distribution of the etiological factors between groups. The youngest patients (group 1) had more pancreatitis episodes (median 5.0 vs 3.00; P < 0.05) and underwent surgeries more frequently (25.5% vs 8.9%; P < 0.05). It could be associated with significantly longer follow-up in early onset group (median 6 vs 4 years; P < 0.05). There were no differences in nutritional status or exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function. Early- and later-onset pancreatitis have similar etiological factors with predominance of gene mutations. The most frequent mutation found was p.Asn34Ser (N34S) in SPINK1 gene. The clinical presentation differed in number of pancreatitis episodes and frequency of surgeries.

  11. The Effect of Growing Rod Treatment on Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels in Early-onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Kody K; Lee, Christopher; Myung, Karen; Johnston, Charles; Shah, Suken A; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Skaggs, David L

    2016-09-01

    This study examines preoperative hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels in a group of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients and the effect of distraction-based growing rods (GRs) on these levels. Children with EOS are at risk for respiratory insufficiency and chronic hypoxemia. Increased Hgb and Hct levels have been identified as surrogate markers for chronic hypoxemia. A study of patients who underwent VEPTR surgery showed a significant decrease in Hgb levels following surgery. Data were retrospectively collected on 66 EOS patients without confounding respiratory issues or oxygen dependence who were treated with GRs at 5 institutions. Average age at initial surgery was 5.5 years. Patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years (average 3.7 y). Preoperative and postoperative Hgb and Hct levels were converted to Z-scores based on age-adjusted mean blood indices and were compared using a paired t test. The prevalence of elevated Hgb and Hct levels (Z-score >2) preoperatively was 15% (10/66) and 19% (12/64), respectively. The average Hgb Z-score decreased from 0.20 to -0.31 (P=0.005) 6 to 24 months following surgery and the Hct Z-score decreased from 0.31 to -0.28 (P=0.002) 6 to 24 months following surgery. Following distraction-based GR treatment of children with EOS there was a significant decrease in both their Hgb and Hct. This is a physiological marker of decreased hypoxemia and improved pulmonary function. Level III-therapeutic study.

  12. Disrupted rich club network in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Daianu, Madelaine; Mezher, Adam; Mendez, Mario F.; Jahanshad, Neda; Jimenez, Elvira E.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    In network analysis, the so-called ‘rich club’ describes the core areas of the brain that are more densely interconnected among themselves than expected by chance, and has been identified as a fundamental aspect of the human brain connectome. This is the first in-depth diffusion imaging study to investigate the rich club along with other organizational changes in the brain's anatomical network in behavioral frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and a matched cohort with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). Our study sheds light on how bvFTD and EOAD affect connectivity of white matter fiber pathways in the brain, revealing differences and commonalities in the connectome among the dementias. To analyze the breakdown in connectivity, we studied 3 groups: 20 bvFTD, 23 EOAD and 37 healthy elderly controls. All participants were scanned with diffusion-weighted MRI, and based on whole-brain probabilistic tractography and cortical parcellations, we analyzed the rich club of the brain's connectivity network. This revealed distinct patterns of disruption in both forms of dementia. In the connectome, we detected less disruption overall in EOAD than in bvFTD (False Discovery Rate (FDR) critical Pperm=5.7×10−3, 10,000 permutations), with more involvement of richly interconnected areas of the brain (chi-squared PΧ2=1.4×10−4) – predominantly posterior cognitive alterations. In bvFTD, we found a greater spread of disruption including the rich club (FDR critical Pperm=6×10−4), but especially more peripheral alterations (PΧ2=6.5×10−3), particularly in medial frontal areas of the brain, in line with the known behavioral socioemotional deficits seen in these patients. PMID:26678225

  13. Chromosome 17q12 variants contribute to risk of early-onset prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Albert M.; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zuhlke, Kimberly A.; Ray, Anna M.; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Douglas, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent genome-wide association study by Gudmundsson et al. (2007), two prostate cancer susceptibility loci were identified on chromosome 17q. The first locus, at 17q12, was distinguished by two intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TCF2 gene (rs4430796 and rs7501939). The second locus was in a gene-poor region of 17q24, where the strongest evidence of association was for SNP rs1859962. To determine if these loci were also associated with hereditary prostate cancer, we genotyped them in a family-based association sample of 403 non-Hispanic white families, including 1,015 men with and without prostate cancer. SNPs rs4430796 and rs7501939, which were in strong linkage disequilibrium (r2=0.68), showed the strongest evidence of prostate cancer association. Using a family-based association test, the “A” allele of SNP rs4430796 was over-transmitted to affected men (p=0.006), with an odds ratio of 1.40 (95%CI=1.09–1.81) under an additive genetic model. Notably, rs4430796 was significantly associated with prostate cancer among men diagnosed at an early (<50 years) but not later age (p=0.006 versus p=0.118). Our results confirm the prostate cancer association with SNPs on chromosome 17q12 initially reported by Gudmundsson et al. In addition, our results suggest that the increased risk associated with these SNPs is approximately doubled in individuals predisposed to develop early onset disease. Importantly, these SNPs do not account for a significant portion of our prior prostate cancer linkage evidence on chromosome 17. Thus, there likely exist one or more additional independent prostate cancer susceptibility loci in this region. PMID:18701471

  14. Epileptic spasms and early-onset photosensitive epilepsy in Patau syndrome: An EEG study.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, Carlotta; Kugathasan, Umaiyal; Brittain, Helen; Boyd, Stewart G

    2015-08-01

    Patau syndrome, trisomy 13, is the third commonest autosomal trisomy. It is associated with a 25-50% prevalence of epilepsy, but detailed electroclinical descriptions are rare. The occurrence of early-onset photosensitivity has recently been reported in single patients. We collected electroclinical data on 8 infants (age range from 2 months to 3 years and 9 months, median: 17 months) with Patau syndrome referred for an EEG in our Clinical Neurophysiology Department between 1991 and 2011. All EEGs, case-notes, cytogenetic diagnosis and neuroimaging when available were reviewed; data on the occurrence of seizures, epileptiform discharges, photoparoxysmal response and their characteristics in terms of positive frequencies, latencies, grade and duration were noted and analysed. Two patients had been previously diagnosed with epilepsy (one with tonic spasms and one with multiple seizure types). We found 3 patients with photosensitive myoclonic epilepsy (37.5%), and one with non-photosensitive myoclonic epilepsy. We also recorded non-epileptic myoclonic jerks in one patient known to suffer from epileptic spasms. Among photosensitive patients we found self-limited, Waltz's grade 2-4, spike-wave/polyspike-wave discharges in low, medium and high frequency ranges in two patients and in the high frequency range in the third patient, with latencies and duration from less than 1s to a maximum of 9s. In our cohort of Patau syndrome patients, we found a high prevalence of spasms and photic-induced myoclonic jerks. Photosensitivity shows an unusual early age of onset. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis: The Burden of Group B Streptococcal and E. coli Disease Continues

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nellie I.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Faix, Roger G.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Bizzarro, Matthew J.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Frantz, Ivan D.; Hale, Ellen C.; Shankaran, Seetha; Kennedy, Kathleen; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Bell, Edward F.; Walsh, Michele C.; Schibler, Kurt; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shane, Andi L.; Schrag, Stephanie J.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines for prevention of group B streptococcal (GBS) infection have successfully reduced early onset (EO) GBS disease. Study results suggest that Escherichia coli is an important EO pathogen. OBJECTIVE: To determine EO infection rates, pathogens, morbidity, and mortality in a national network of neonatal centers. METHODS: Infants with EO infection were identified by prospective surveillance at Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Network centers. Infection was defined by positive culture results for blood and cerebrospinal fluid obtained from infants aged ≤72 hours plus treatment with antibiotic therapy for ≥5 days. Mother and infant characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were studied. Numbers of cases and total live births (LBs) were used to calculate incidence. RESULTS: Among 396 586 LBs (2006–2009), 389 infants developed EO infection (0.98 cases per 1000 LBs). Infection rates increased with decreasing birth weight. GBS (43%, 0.41 per 1000 LBs) and E coli (29%, 0.28 per 1000 LBs) were most frequently isolated. Most infants with GBS were term (73%); 81% with E coli were preterm. Mothers of 67% of infected term and 58% of infected preterm infants were screened for GBS, and results were positive for 25% of those mothers. Only 76% of mothers with GBS colonization received intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. Although 77% of infected infants required intensive care, 20% of term infants were treated in the normal newborn nursery. Sixteen percent of infected infants died, most commonly with E coli infection (33%). CONCLUSION: In the era of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis to reduce GBS, rates of EO infection have declined but reflect a continued burden of disease. GBS remains the most frequent pathogen in term infants, and E coli the most significant pathogen in preterm infants. Missed opportunities for GBS prevention continue. Prevention of E coli sepsis, especially among preterm infants, remains a

  16. Studying parents and grandparents to assess genetic contributions to early-onset disease.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Clarice R

    2003-02-01

    Suppose DNA is available from affected individuals, their parents, and their grandparents. Particularly for early-onset diseases, maternally mediated genetic effects can play a role, because the mother determines the prenatal environment. The proposed maximum-likelihood approach for the detection of apparent transmission distortion treats the triad consisting of the affected individual and his or her two parents as the outcome, conditioning on grandparental mating types. Under a null model in which the allele under study does not confer susceptibility, either through linkage or directly, and when there are no maternally mediated genetic effects, conditional probabilities for specific triads are easily derived. A log-linear model permits a likelihood-ratio test (LRT) and allows the estimation of relative penetrances. The proposed approach is robust against genetic population stratification. Missing-data methods permit the inclusion of incomplete families, even if the missing person is the affected grandchild, as is the case when an induced abortion has followed the detection of a malformation. When screening multiple markers, one can begin by genotyping only the grandparents and the affected grandchildren. LRTs based on conditioning on grandparental mating types (i.e., ignoring the parents) have asymptotic relative efficiencies that are typically >150% (per family), compared with tests based on parents. A test for asymmetry in the number of copies carried by maternal versus paternal grandparents yields an LRT specific to maternal effects. One can then genotype the parents for only the genes that passed the initial screen. Conditioning on both the grandparents' and the affected grandchild's genotypes, a third log-linear model captures the remaining information, in an independent LRT for maternal effects.

  17. Early onset ageing and service preparation in people with intellectual disabilities: institutional managers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M

    2011-01-01

    Although longevity among older adults with intellectual disabilities is increasing, there is limited information on their premature aging related health characteristics and how it may change with increasing age. The present paper provides information of the institutional manager's perception on early onset aging and service preparation for this population. We used purposive sampling to recruit 54 institutional managers who care for people with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan. The present study employed a cross-sectional design using a self-administrative structured questionnaire that was completed by the respondents in November 2009. The results showed that more than 90% of the respondents agreed with earlier onset aging characteristics of people with ID. However, nearly all of the respondents expressed that the government policies were inadequate and the institution is not capable of caring for aging people with ID, and more than half of them did not satisfy to their provisional care for this group of people. With regard to the service priority of government aging policy for people with ID, the respondent expressed that medical care, financial support, daily living care were the main areas in the future policy development for them. The factors of institutional type, expressed adequacy of government's service, respondent's job position, age, and working years in disability service were variables that can significantly predict the positive perceptions toward future governmental aging services for people with ID (adjusted R(2) = 0.563). We suggest that the future study strategy should underpin the aging characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities and its differences with general population to provide the useful information for the institutional caregivers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Older adults in jail: high rates and early onset of geriatric conditions.

    PubMed

    Greene, Meredith; Ahalt, Cyrus; Stijacic-Cenzer, Irena; Metzger, Lia; Williams, Brie

    2018-02-17

    The number of older adults in the criminal justice system is rapidly increasing. While this population is thought to experience an early onset of aging-related health conditions ("accelerated aging"), studies have not directly compared rates of geriatric conditions in this population to those found in the general population. The aims of this study were to compare the burden of geriatric conditions among older adults in jail to rates found in an age-matched nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults. This cross sectional study compared 238 older jail inmates age 55 or older to 6871 older adults in the national Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We used an age-adjusted analysis, accounting for the difference in age distributions between the two groups, to compare sociodemographics, chronic conditions, and geriatric conditions (functional, sensory, and mobility impairment). A second age-adjusted analysis compared those in jail to HRS participants in the lowest quintile of wealth. All geriatric conditions were significantly more common in jail-based participants than in HRS participants overall and HRS participants in the lowest quintile of net worth. Jail-based participants (average age of 59) experienced four out of six geriatric conditions at rates similar to those found in HRS participants age 75 or older. Geriatric conditions are prevalent in older adults in jail at significantly younger ages than non-incarcerated older adults suggesting that geriatric assessment and geriatric-focused care are needed for older adults cycling through jail in their 50s and that correctional clinicians require knowledge about geriatric assessment and care.

  19. Melancholia in later life: late and early onset differences in presentation, course, and dementia risk.

    PubMed

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Moxley, Jerad H; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Rushing, Nicole Collins; Sheffler, Julia; Selby, Edward A; Gotlib, Ian; Steffens, David C

    2014-09-01

    Depression is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. This risk may vary with age of onset and depression subtype. Late onset depression (LOD, 60 years and older) is associated with more cognitive decline, whereas early onset depression (EOD, before 60 years) is associated with more residual depressive symptoms. Potential differences may reflect divergent etiologies. These onset differences, however, have not been examined in the melancholic subtype of depression in older adults. Data were obtained from the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly study. Participants (N = 284, 73% EOD-melancholic (EOD-M) and 27% LOD-melancholic (LOD-M)) were followed up over 3 years. Factor analyses examined differences in baseline depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear growth curve models examined changes in depressive symptoms (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and cognition (mini mental state examination). An annual clinical review panel assigned diagnoses of dementia. The LOD-M participants had more vegetative symptoms at baseline. LOD-M exhibited greater cognitive decline but fewer residual depressive symptoms than EOD-M. Among participants who remained in the study for at least 1 year, in uncontrolled analyses, a greater percentage of LOD-M compared with EOD-M developed dementia (23.0% vs. 7.8%). Whereas in logistic analyses, controlling for baseline demographics, age at onset remained a predictor of dementia, the odds ratio suggested that the effect was relatively small. The EOD-M and LOD-M participants have a different presentation and course. LOD-M may represent a syndrome of neuropsychiatric deterioration with expression of both depressive symptoms and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Different Alterations of Cerebral Regional Homogeneity in Early-Onset and Late-Onset Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ke; Fang, Weidong; Zhu, Yingcheng; Shuai, Guangying; Zou, Dezhi; Su, Meilan; Han, Yu; Cheng, Oumei

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Eighteen EOPD, 21 LOPD and 37 age-matched normal control subjects participated in the resting state fMRI scans.Age at onset of PD modulates the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity during resting state.Disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in PD patients with a younger age of onset. Objective: Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) is distinct from late-onset PD (LOPD) as it relates to the clinical profile and response to medication. The objective of current paper is to investigate whether characteristics of spontaneous brain activity in the resting state are associated with the age of disease onset. Methods: We assessed the correlation between neural activity and age-at-onset in a sample of 39 PD patients (18 EOPD and 21 LOPD) and 37 age-matched normal control subjects. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) approaches were employed using ANOVA with two factors: PD and age. Results: In the comparisons between LOPD and EOPD, EOPD revealed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with age-matched control subjects, EOPD exhibited lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left inferior temporal gyrus; However, LOPD showed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and left insula. The ReHo values were negatively correlated with the UPDRS total scores in the right putamen in LOPD, but a correlation between the ReHo value and UPDRS score was not detected in EOPD. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that age at onset is associated with the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity in the resting state and suggest that disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. PMID:27462265

  1. Mutations, associated with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease, discovered in Asian countries

    PubMed Central

    Bagyinszky, Eva; Youn, Young Chul; An, Seong Soo A; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of senile dementia, is a genetically complex disorder. In most Asian countries, the population and the number of AD patients are growing rapidly, and the genetics of AD has been extensively studied, except in Japan. However, recent studies have been started to investigate the genes and mutations associated with AD in Korea, the People’s Republic of China, and Malaysia. This review describes all of the known mutations in three early-onset AD (EOAD) causative genes (APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2) that were discovered in Asian countries. Most of the EOAD-associated mutations have been detected in PSEN1, and several novel PSEN1 mutations were recently identified in patients from various parts of the world, including Asia. Until 2014, no PSEN2 mutations were found in Asian patients; however, emerging studies from Korea and the People’s Republic of China discovered probably pathogenic PSEN2 mutations. Since several novel mutations were discovered in these three genes, we also discuss the predictions on their pathogenic nature. This review briefly summarizes genome-wide association studies of late-onset AD and the genes that might be associated with AD in Asian countries. Standard sequencing is a widely used method, but it has limitations in terms of time, cost, and efficacy. Next-generation sequencing strategies could facilitate genetic analysis and association studies. Genetic testing is important for the accurate diagnosis and for understanding disease-associated pathways and might also improve disease therapy and prevention. PMID:27799753

  2. Cognitive performance in children with acute early-onset anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Betteke Maria; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Ehrlich, Stefan; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Kappel, Viola

    2016-11-01

    When anorexia nervosa (AN) occurs in children below the age of 14 years, it is referred to as early-onset AN (EO-AN). Over the last years, there has been an increased focus on the role of cognitive functioning in the development and maintenance of AN. Adults with AN show inefficiencies in cognitive functions such as flexibility and central coherence. Systematic neuropsychological examinations of patients with EO-AN are missing. Thirty children with EO-AN and 30 adolescents with AN, as well as 60 healthy controls (HC) underwent an extensive neuropsychological examination. ANOVAs with post hoc tests and explorative regression analyses were conducted. Patients with EO-AN (mean age = 2.17 ± 1.57 years) showed no significant differences in flexibility, inhibition, planning, central coherence, visuospatial short- and long-term memory or recognition in comparison to HC (mean age = 11.62 ± 1.29 years). Performance of adolescents with AN (mean age = 15.93 ± 0.70 years) was not significantly different compared to HC (mean age = 16.20 ± 1.26 years). Explorative regression analyses revealed a significant interaction of age and group for flexibility (adjusted R 2  = 0.30, F = 17.85, p = 0.013, η p 2  = 0.32). Contrary to expectations, the current study could not confirm the presence of inefficient cognitive processing in children with EO-AN compared to HC. Nonetheless, the expected age-related improvement of flexibility might be disrupted in children and adolescents with AN. Longitudinal neuropsychological examinations are necessary to provide more information about the role of cognitive functioning in the development and maintenance of AN.

  3. Rapidly-growing mycobacterial infection: a recognized cause of early-onset prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Jitmuang, Anupop; Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Charoencholvanich, Keerati; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2017-12-28

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major complication of total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA). Although mycobacteria are rarely the causative pathogens, it is important to recognize and treat them differently from non-mycobacterial infections. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, associated factors and long-term outcomes of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with PJI of the hip or knee at Siriraj Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. Patient characteristics, clinical data, treatments and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 178 patients were included, among whom 162 had non-mycobacterial PJI and 16 had mycobacterial PJI. Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) (11) and M. tuberculosis (MTB) (5) were the causative pathogens of mycobacterial PJI. PJI duration and time until onset were significantly different between mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. Infection within 90 days of arthroplasty was significantly associated with RGM infection (OR 21.86; 95% CI 4.25-112.30; p < .001). Implant removal was associated with improved favorable outcomes at 6 months (OR 5.96; 95% CI 1.88-18.88; p < .01) and 12 months (OR 3.96; 95% CI 1.15-13.71; p = .03) after the infection. RGM were the major pathogens of early onset PJI after THA and TKA. Both a high clinical index of suspicion and mycobacterial cultures are recommended when medically managing PJI with negative cultures or non-response to antibiotics. Removal of infected implants was associated with favorable outcomes.

  4. The prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Money, Deborah; Allen, Victoria M

    2013-10-01

    To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use. Neonatal outcomes of rates of early-onset group B streptococcal infections are evaluated. Published literature was retrieved through searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library from January 1980 to July 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (group B streptococcus, antibiotic therapy, infection, prevention). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The recommendations in this guideline are designed to help clinicians identify and manage pregnancies at risk for neonatal group B streptococcal disease to optimize maternal and perinatal outcomes. No cost-benefit analysis is provided. There is good evidence based on randomized control trial data that in women with pre-labour rupture of membranes at term who are colonized with group B streptococcus, rates of neonatal infection are

  5. Late onset dysthymic disorder and major depression differ from early onset dysthymic disorder and major depression in elderly outpatients.

    PubMed

    Devanand, D P; Adorno, Elizabeth; Cheng, Jocelyn; Burt, Tal; Pelton, G H Gregory H; Roose, S P Steven P; Sackeim, H A Harold A

    2004-03-01

    Age of onset may affect clinical features and prognosis in elderly patients with major depression (MDD), but there is a lack of such data in elderly patients with dysthymic disorder (DD) and systematic comparisons of late onset MDD and DD have not been conducted. In a Late Life Depression Clinic, patients > or = 60 years old who met DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria for MDD or DD were studied. The 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and SCID-P were completed, family history was obtained, and medical illnesses were assessed. In the total sample (n=370; 211 MDD and 159 DD), compared to early onset patients, late onset (onset > or =60 years) patients had a higher rate of cardiovascular disease (chi(2)=4.12, df=1, P<0.05), lower rate of anxiety disorder (chi(2)=4.19, df=1, P<0.05), and a lower rate of family history of affective disorder (chi(2)=9.37, df=1, P<0.002). Late onset DD patients were more likely to have cardiovascular disease than early onset DD patients (chi(2)=5.63, df=1, P<0.02), but the rate of cardiovascular disease did not differ between late and early onset MDD patients (chi(2)=0.35, df=1, P<0.6). Late onset MDD patients were less likely to have a family history of affective disorder than early onset MDD patients (chi(2)=10.71, df=1, P<0.001). Prevalence of anxiety disorders did not differ between the early and late onset MDD patients (chi(2)=0.07, df=1, P<0.79), but was more common in the early onset DD compared to the late onset DD patients (17.98% versus 4.29%, chi(2)=6.98, df=1, P<0.01). Late onset DD did not differ from late onset MDD in the rates of cardiovascular disease, anxiety disorders, and family history of affective disorder. Excluding patients with double depression (n=32) did not alter the cardiovascular or family history findings, but the difference in anxiety disorders between early and late onset DD patients was no longer significant. Academic clinic sample results may not generalize to community populations. In the

  6. Rare causes of early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism with cognitive impairment: a de novo PSEN-1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Carecchio, Miryam; Picillo, Marina; Valletta, Lorella; Elia, Antonio E; Haack, Tobias B; Cozzolino, Autilia; Vitale, Annalisa; Garavaglia, Barbara; Iuso, Arcangela; Bagella, Caterina F; Pappatà, Sabina; Barone, Paolo; Prokisch, Holger; Romito, Luigi; Tiranti, Valeria

    2017-07-01

    Mutations in PSEN1 are responsible for familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) inherited as autosomal dominant trait, but also de novo mutations have been rarely reported in sporadic early-onset dementia cases. Parkinsonism in FAD has been mainly described in advanced disease stages. We characterized a patient presenting with early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism later complicated by dementia and myoclonus. Brain MRI showed signs of iron accumulation in the basal ganglia mimicking neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) as well as fronto-temporal atrophy. Whole exome sequencing revealed a novel PSEN1 mutation and segregation within the family demonstrated the mutation arose de novo.We suggest considering PSEN1 mutations in cases of dystonia-parkinsonism with positive DAT-Scan, later complicated by progressive cognitive decline and cortical myoclonus even without a dominant family history.

  7. A founder mutation in presenilin 1 causing early-onset Alzheimer disease in unrelated Caribbean Hispanic families.

    PubMed

    Athan, E S; Williamson, J; Ciappa, A; Santana, V; Romas, S N; Lee, J H; Rondon, H; Lantigua, R A; Medrano, M; Torres, M; Arawaka, S; Rogaeva, E; Song, Y Q; Sato, C; Kawarai, T; Fafel, K C; Boss, M A; Seltzer, W K; Stern, Y; St George-Hyslop, P; Tycko, B; Mayeux, R

    2001-11-14

    Genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease (AD) have not been comprehensively examined in Caribbean Hispanics, a population in the United States in whom the frequency of AD is higher compared with non-Hispanic whites. To identify variant alleles in genes related to familial early-onset AD among Caribbean Hispanics. Family-based case series conducted in 1998-2001 at an AD research center in New York, NY, and clinics in the Dominican Republic. Among 206 Caribbean Hispanic families with 2 or more living members with AD who were identified, 19 (9.2%) had at least 1 individual with onset of AD before the age of 55 years. The entire coding region of the presenilin 1 gene and exons 16 and 17 of the amyloid precursor protein gene were sequenced in probands from the 19 families and their living relatives. A G-to-C nucleotide change resulting in a glycine-alanine amino acid substitution at codon 206 (Gly206Ala) in exon 7 of presenilin 1 was observed in 23 individuals from 8 (42%) of the 19 families. A Caribbean Hispanic individual with the Gly206Ala mutation and early-onset familial disease was also found by sequencing the corresponding genes of 319 unrelated individuals in New York City. The Gly206Ala mutation was not found in public genetic databases but was reported in 5 individuals from 4 Hispanic families with AD referred for genetic testing. None of the members of these families were related to one another, yet all carriers of the Gly206Ala mutation tested shared a variant allele at 2 nearby microsatellite polymorphisms, indicating a common ancestor. No mutations were found in the amyloid precursor protein gene. The Gly206Ala mutation was found in 8 of 19 unrelated Caribbean Hispanic families with early-onset familial AD. This genetic change may be a prevalent cause of early-onset familial AD in the Caribbean Hispanic population.

  8. Early-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Isfahan, Iran: Report of the Demographic and Clinical Features of 221 Patients.

    PubMed

    Etemadifar, Masoud; Nourian, Sayed-Mohammadamin; Nourian, Niloofaralsadat; Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein; Sayahi, Farnaz; Saraf, Zahra; Fereidan-Esfahani, Mahboobeh

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that early-onset multiple sclerosis multiple sclerosis (early-onset multiple sclerosis) approximately incorporates 3-5% of the multiple sclerosis population. In this report on early-onset multiple sclerosis, the authors aimed to define demographic, clinical and imaging features in a case-series of true-childhood multiple sclerosis and to compare its characteristics with juvenile multiple sclerosis. The authors inspected the records of multiple sclerosis patients who were registered by Isfahan MS Society. Clinical and demographic data of children with less than 16 years of age were reviewed retrospectively. Out of 4536 multiple sclerosis patients referred to the authors' center, 221 patients (4.8%) had multiple sclerosis starting at the age of 16 or less (11 true-childhood multiple sclerosis vs 210 juvenile-onset multiple sclerosis); the female to male ratio was 4.81:1. In the mean follow-up period of 6.2 years, 22 patients (10.5%) had positive family history of multiple sclerosis, 196 (88.6%) patients were classified as relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, the mean (± SD Expanded Disability Status Scale) was 1.5 ± 1.1 at the last evaluation. The most common initial presentation was optic nerve involvement (36.1%) and cerebellar sign and symptoms (14.6%). In all, 13 patients (5.8%) had experienced seizure in the course of multiple sclerosis. This study indicated that early-onset multiple sclerosis is not rare condition and overwhelmingly affects girls even at prepubertal onset. Physicians should consider multiple sclerosis in suspicious pediatric cases. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Rare variants of the 3’-5’ DNA exonuclease TREX1 in early onset small vessel stroke

    PubMed Central

    McGlasson, Sarah; Rannikmäe, Kristiina; Bevan, Steven; Logan, Clare; Bicknell, Louise S.; Jury, Alexa; Jackson, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Monoallelic and biallelic mutations in the exonuclease TREX1 cause monogenic small vessel diseases (SVD). Given recent evidence for genetic and pathophysiological overlap between monogenic and polygenic forms of SVD, evaluation of TREX1 in small vessel stroke is warranted. Methods: We sequenced the TREX1 gene in an exploratory cohort of patients with lacunar stroke (Edinburgh Stroke Study, n=290 lacunar stroke cases). We subsequently performed a fully blinded case-control study of early onset MRI-confirmed small vessel stroke within the UK Young Lacunar Stroke Resource (990 cases, 939 controls). Results: No patients with canonical disease-causing mutations of TREX1 were identified in cases or controls. Analysis of an exploratory cohort identified a potential association between rare variants of TREX1 and patients with lacunar stroke. However, subsequent controlled and blinded evaluation of TREX1 in a larger and MRI-confirmed patient cohort, the UK Young Lacunar Stroke Resource, identified heterozygous rare variants in 2.1% of cases and 2.3% of controls. No association was observed with stroke risk (odds ratio = 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-1.65 p=0.74). Similarly no association was seen with rare TREX1 variants with predicted deleterious effects on enzyme function (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-2.61 p=0.91). Conclusions: No patients with early-onset lacunar stroke had genetic evidence of a TREX1-associated monogenic microangiopathy. These results show no evidence of association between rare variants of TREX1 and early onset lacunar stroke. This includes rare variants that significantly affect protein and enzyme function. Routine sequencing of the TREX1 gene in patients with early onset lacunar stroke is therefore unlikely to be of diagnostic utility, in the absence of syndromic features or family history. PMID:29387804

  10. High-Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor From Men with Early-Onset Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0371 TITLE: High-Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor From Men with Early- Onset Metastatic Prostate Cancer...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2013 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER High-Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor From Men with...presenting with metastatic prostate cancer at a young age (before age 60 years). Whole exome sequencing identified a panel of germline variants that have

  11. Early-onset pediatric atopic dermatitis is characterized by TH2/TH17/TH22-centered inflammation and lipid alterations.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Patrick M; Israel, Ariel; Zhang, Ning; Leonard, Alexandra; Wen, Huei-Chi; Huynh, Thy; Tran, Gary; Lyon, Sarah; Rodriguez, Giselle; Immaneni, Supriya; Wagner, Annette; Zheng, Xiuzhong; Estrada, Yeriel D; Xu, Hui; Krueger, James G; Paller, Amy S; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2018-06-01

    Although atopic dermatitis (AD) often starts in early childhood, detailed tissue profiling of early-onset AD in children is lacking, hindering therapeutic development for this patient population with a particularly high unmet need for better treatments. We sought to globally profile the skin of infants with AD compared with that of adults with AD and healthy control subjects. We performed microarray, RT-PCR, and fluorescence microscopy studies in infants and young children (<5 years old) with early-onset AD (<6 months disease duration) compared with age-matched control subjects and adults with longstanding AD. Transcriptomic analyses revealed profound differences between pediatric patients with early-onset versus adult patients with longstanding AD in not only lesional but also nonlesional tissues. Although both patient populations harbored T H 2-centered inflammation, pediatric AD also showed significant T H 17/T H 22 skewing but lacked the T H 1 upregulation that characterizes adult AD. Pediatric AD exhibited relatively normal expression of epidermal differentiation and cornification products, which is downregulated in adults with AD. Defects in the lipid barrier (eg, ELOVL fatty acid elongase 3 [ELOVL3] and diacylglycerol o-acyltransferase 2 [DGAT2]) and tight junction regulation (eg, claudins 8 and 23) were evident in both groups. However, some lipid-associated mediators (eg, fatty acyl-CoA reductase 2 and fatty acid 2-hydroxylase) showed preferential downregulation in pediatric AD, and lipid barrier genes (FA2H and DGAT2) showed inverse correlations with transepidermal water loss, a functional measure of the epidermal barrier. Skin samples from children and adult patients with AD share lipid metabolism and tight junction alterations, but epidermal differentiation complex defects are only present in adult AD, potentially resulting from chronic immune aberration that is not yet present in early-onset disease. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy

  12. Global development and adaptive behaviour in children with early-onset epilepsy: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Memon, Ayesha; Jones, Chloe; Dabydeen, Lyvia; Das, Krishna B; Gillberg, Christopher; Neville, Brian G R; Mahoney, J Matthew; Scott, Rod C

    2018-06-03

    There are limited population-based data on global development and adaptive behaviour in children with early-onset epilepsy. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify the prevalence of deficits in global development and adaptive behaviour experienced by children with early-onset epilepsy; (2) to identify factors associated with such deficits; and (3) to compare the relationship between measures of neurodevelopment in the group with epilepsy to a group without epilepsy who had other neurological or neurodevelopmental difficulties. The Sussex Early Epilepsy and Neurobehaviour study is a prospective, community-based study involving children (1-7y) with epilepsy. We undertook comprehensive psychological assessment with participants, including measures of global development and adaptive behaviour. We compared the children with epilepsy with a sex, age, and developmentally-matched group of children without epilepsy who had neurodevelopmental or neurological difficulties using correlation matrices. Forty-eight children (91% of the eligible population) with epilepsy underwent assessment. Seventy-one per cent of children displayed delayed global development (<2SD) and 56% showed significant deficits (<2SD) in adaptive behaviour. Our analysis revealed that non-white ethnicity and use of polytherapy were independently associated with decreased scores on measures of global development and adaptive behaviour. The correlations between measures of developmental functioning were higher in children with epilepsy than in those without. Children with early-onset epilepsy frequently have difficulties with global development and adaptive behaviour. The higher correlations between neurodevelopmental measures in children with epilepsy suggest that the profile in children with epilepsy is different. This may have significant implications for both neuropathology and interventions. Children with early-onset epilepsy are at significant risk of intellectual disability. Developmental

  13. Potentially pathogenic germline CHEK2 c.319+2T>A among multiple early-onset cancer families.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Nakken, Sigve; Tubeuf, Hélène; Vodak, Daniel; Ekstrøm, Per Olaf; Nissen, Anke M; Morak, Monika; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Martins, Alexandra; Møller, Pål; Hovig, Eivind

    2018-01-01

    To study the potential contribution of genes other than BRCA1/2, PTEN, and TP53 to the biological and clinical characteristics of multiple early-onset cancers in Norwegian families, including early-onset breast cancer, Cowden-like and Li-Fraumeni-like syndromes (BC, CSL and LFL, respectively). The Hereditary Cancer Biobank from the Norwegian Radium Hospital was used to identify early-onset BC, CSL or LFL for whom no pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2, PTEN, or TP53 had been found in routine diagnostic DNA sequencing. Forty-four cancer susceptibility genes were selected and analyzed by our in-house designed TruSeq amplicon-based assay for targeted sequencing. Protein- and RNA splicing-dedicated in silico analyses were performed for all variants of unknown significance (VUS). Variants predicted as the more likely to affect splicing were experimentally analyzed by minigene assay. We identified a CSL individual carrying a variant in CHEK2 (c.319+2T>A, IVS2), here considered as likely pathogenic. Out of the five VUS (BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, MAP3K1, NOTCH3) tested in the minigene splicing assay, only NOTCH3 c.14090C>T (p.Ser497Leu) showed a significant effect on RNA splicing, notably by inducing partial skipping of exon 9. Among 13 early-onset BC, CSL and LFL patients, gene panel sequencing identified a potentially pathogenic variant in CHEK2 that affects a canonical RNA splicing signal. Our study provides new information on genetic loci that may affect the risk of developing cancer in these patients and their families, demonstrating that genes presently not routinely tested in molecular diagnostic settings may be important for capturing cancer predisposition in these families.

  14. Parental R-rated movie restriction and early-onset alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Tanski, Susanne E; Dal Cin, Sonya; Stoolmiller, Mike; Sargent, James D

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if parental restriction regarding Restricted-rated movies (R movies) predicts lower rates of early-onset alcohol use. Students from 15 northern New England middle schools were surveyed in 1999, and never-drinkers were resurveyed 13-26 months later to determine alcohol use. Drinking was determined by the question, "Have you ever had beer, wine, or other drink with alcohol that your parents didn't know about?" R-movie restriction was assessed by the question, "How often do your parents allow you to watch movies that are rated R?" The sample included 2,406 baseline never-drinkers who were surveyed at follow-up, of whom 14.8% had initiated alcohol use. At baseline, 20% reported never being allowed to watch R movies, and 21% reported being allowed all the time. Adolescents allowed to watch R-rated movies had higher rates of alcohol initiation (2.9% initiation among never allowed, 12.5% once in a while, 18.8% sometimes, and 24.4% all the time). Controlling for sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and authoritative parenting style, the adjusted odds ratios for initiating alcohol use were 3.0 (95% CI [1.7, 5.1]) for those once in a while allowed, 3.3 [1.9, 5.6] for those sometimes allowed, and 3.5 [2.0, 6.0] for those always allowed to watch R-rated movies. Alcohol initiation was more likely if R-rated movie restriction relaxed over time; tightening of restriction had a protective effect (p < .001). A structural model was developed that modeled two latent parenting constructs: (a) authoritative parenting and (b) media parenting. Both constructs had direct inverse paths to trying alcohol and indirect paths through lower exposure to R-rated movies. After accounting for differences in authoritative parenting style, adolescents reporting lesser restrictions for R movies have higher odds of future alcohol use. The structural model suggests that media parenting operates independently from authoritative parenting and should be

  15. Diagnostic delays in children with early-onset epilepsy: impact, reasons, and opportunities to improve care

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Anne T.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Baca, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Delayed diagnosis of early-onset epilepsy is a potentially important and avoidable complication in epilepsy care. We examined the frequency of diagnostic delays in young children with newly presenting epilepsy, their developmental impact, and reasons for delays. Methods Children who developed epilepsy before their third birthday were identified in a prospective community-based cohort. An interval ≥1 month from second seizure to diagnosis was considered a delay. Testing of development at baseline and for up to three years after and of IQ 8–9 years later was performed. Detailed parental baseline interview accounts and medical records were reviewed to identify potential reasons for delays. Factors associated with delays included the parent, child, pediatrician, neurologist, and scheduling. Results Diagnostic delays occurred in 70/172 (41%) children. Delays occurred less often if children had received medical attention for the first seizure (p<0.0001), previously had neonatal or febrile seizures (p=0.02), had only convulsions before diagnosis (p=0.005) or had a college-educated parent (p=0.01). A ≥1 month diagnostic delay was associated with an average 7.4 point drop (p=0.02) in the Vineland Scales of Adaptive Behavior motor score. The effect was present at diagnosis, persisted for at least three years, and was also apparent in IQ scores 8–9 years later which were lower in association with a diagnostic delay by 8.4 points (p=0.06) for processing speed up to 14.5 points (p=0.004) for full scale IQ, after adjustment for parental education and other epilepsy-related clinical factors. Factors associated with delayed diagnosis included parents not recognizing events as seizures (N=47), pediatricians missing or deferring diagnosis (N=15), neurologists deferring diagnosis (N=7), and scheduling problems (N=11). Significance Diagnostic delays occur in many young children with epilepsy. They are associated with substantial decrements in development and IQ later

  16. Identifying Niemann-Pick type C in early-onset ataxia: two quick clinical screening tools.

    PubMed

    Synofzik, Matthis; Fleszar, Zofia; Schöls, Ludger; Just, Jennifer; Bauer, Peter; Torres Martin, Juan V; Kolb, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare multisystemic lysosomal disorder which, albeit treatable, is still starkly underdiagnosed. As NP-C features early onset ataxia (EOA) in 85-90 % of cases, EOA presents a promising target group for undiagnosed NP-C patients. Here, we assessed the ability of the previously established NP-C suspicion index (SI) and a novel abbreviated '2/3 SI' tool for rapid appraisal of suspected NP-C in unexplained EOA. This was a retrospective observational study comparing 'NP-C EOA' cases (EOA patients with confirmed NP-C) with non-NP-C EOA controls (EOA patients negative for NP-C gene mutations). NP-C risk prediction scores (RPS) from both the original and 2/3 SIs were calculated and their discriminatory performance evaluated. Among 133 patients (47 NP-C EOA cases; 86 non-NP-C EOA controls), moderate (40-69 points) and high (≥70 points) RPS were common based on original SI assessments in non-NP-C EOA controls [16 (19 %) and 8 (9 %), respectively], but scores ≥70 points were far more frequent [46 (98 %)] among NP-C EOA cases. RPS cut-off values provided 98 % sensitivity and 91 % specificity for NP-C at 70-point cut-off, and ROC analysis revealed an AUC of 0.982. Using the 2/3 SI, 90 % of NP-C EOA cases had scores of 2 or 3, and RPS analysis showed an AUC of 0.961. In conclusion, the NP-C SI and the new, quick-to-apply 2/3 SI distinguished well between NP-C and non-NP-C patients, even in EOA populations with high background levels of broadly NPC-compatible multisystemic disease features. While the original SI showed the greatest sensitivity, both tools reliably aided identification of patients with unexplained EOA who warranted further investigation for NP-C.

  17. Serial Derotational Casting in Idiopathic and Non-Idiopathic Progressive Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Gussous, Yazeed M; Tarima, Sergey; Zhao, Shi; Khan, Safdar; Caudill, Angela; Sturm, Peter; Hammerberg, Kim W

    2015-05-01

    Serial derotational casting has been used as a definitive treatment or as delaying strategy in progressive idiopathic (IS) and non-idiopathic (NIS) early-onset scoliosis (EOS). Retrospective chart and radiographic review of patients who underwent serial casting for progressive EOS between 2005 and 2012 at a single institution. A total of 74 consecutive patients entered serial cast treatment. Twenty-eight were currently being casted, 30 completed cast treatment and were converted to thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO), 9 were treated surgically, 6 were lost to follow-up, and 1 had no further treatment. The researchers diagnosed IS in 41 patients; 33 had NIS. At presentation the IS group had an average Cobb angle (CA) of 49° and a rib vertebral angle difference (RVAD) of 37°. The NIS group had a CA of 51° (p = .69) and RVAD of 37° (p = .94). In patients currently being casted, 19 IS patients had a decreased CA, from 47° to 27°. The 9 NIS patients had a decreased CA, from 62° to 57° (p = .0002). Cobb angle improvement was significantly better in IS (p = .0005). In the TLSO group the 17 IS patients had a decreased average CA, from 46° to 18°, after serial casting and the 13 NIS patients decreased CA from 42° to 32°. Patients with IS had better improvement in CA than the NIS group (p < .001). At last follow-up, this was reduced to 11° in the IS group and maintained at 32° in the NIS. In the IS group, 5 of 41 patients were converted to growth constructs, and 4 of 26 in the NIS group. Casting initiated before age 2 years yielded better curve correction for IS (p < .01) compared with NIS. Progressive idiopathic scoliosis patients had better curve correction with casting than NIS patients. Casting in IS patients before age 24 months yielded better curve correction. Patients who required surgery had a higher age and Cobb angle at presentation than those who transitioned to a TLSO. The surgical group was observed for a similar duration of time and there was no

  18. The role of serial casting in early-onset scoliosis (EOS).

    PubMed

    Baulesh, David M; Huh, Jeannie; Judkins, Timothy; Garg, Sumeet; Miller, Nancy H; Erickson, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Serial casting has demonstrated efficacy for idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (EOS). Results of casting in nonidiopathic (syndromic and congenital) EOS patients have not previously been well described. A total of 53 patients underwent serial casting for EOS from 2005 to 2010 at a single institution. Deformity was classified as idiopathic or nonidiopathic. Diagnosis, time in cast, number of casts, use of bracing, complications, and outcomes were recorded. Radiographic measures included Cobb angle and thoracic height (T1-T12). Thoracic height velocity was calculated and compared with established norms. A total of 36 patients, 19 idiopathic and 17 nonidiopathic (14 syndromic, 3 congenital), completed cast treatment and had >6-month follow-up and were therefore included. Of those, 17% (6/36) experienced resolution of their deformity, 53% (19/26) are currently in braces, and 31% (11/36) had undergone surgery. Surgery occurred on average at age 5.6 years and was delayed by an average of 2.1 years from time of first cast. A 19% complication was observed. There was no statistical difference in the rate of resolution of deformity between idiopathic (5/19) and nonidiopathic (1/17) patients (P=0.182), although there exists a trend toward greater curve correction in idiopathic patients. Surgery occurred in fewer patients (2/19) in the idiopathic group compared with the nonidiopathic group (9/17) (P=0.006). Significant improvements in Cobb angle was observed in the idiopathic group (12.2 degrees) during casting (P=0.003). Nonidiopathic patients did not maintain the correction gained during casting at the time of final follow-up. T1-T12 height increased across all study patients regardless of etiology during the period of casting at similar velocity to established norms of 1.4 cm/y for this age group. Serial casting offers modest deformity correction in idiopathic deformities compared with nonidiopathic deformities. Thoracic height growth continued throughout the casting period

  19. The Potential Contribution of BRCA Mutations to Early Onset and Familial Breast Cancer in Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Abdikhakimov, Abdulla; Tukhtaboeva, Mukaddas; Adilov, Bakhtiyar; Turdikulova, Shahlo

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and affects approximately 1 out of 8 females in the US. Risk of developing breast cancer is strongly influenced by genetic factors. Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with 5-10% of breast cancer incidence. To reduce the risk of developing cancer and to increase the likelihood of early detection, carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations are offered surveillance programs and effective preventive medical interventions. Identification of founder mutations of BRCA1/2 in high risk communities can have a significant impact on the management of hereditary cancer at the level of the national healthcare systems, making genetic testing more affordable and cost-effective. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer patients have not been characterized in the Uzbek population. This pilot study aimed to investigate the contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation to early onset and familial cases of breast cancer in Uzbekistan. A total of 67 patients with breast cancer and 103 age-matched disease free controls were included in this study. Utilizing SYBR Green based real-time allele-specific PCR, we have analyzed DNA samples of patients with breast cancer and disease free controls to identify the following BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations: BRCA1 5382insC, BRCA1 4153delA, BRCA1 185delAG, BRCA1 300T>G, BRCA2 6174delT. Three unrelated samples (4.5%) were found to be positive for the heterozygous 5382insCBRCA1 mutation, representing a possible founder mutation in the Uzbek population, supporting the need for larger studies examining the contribution of this mutation to breast cancer incidence in Uzbekistan. We did not find BRCA1 4153delA, BRCA1 185delAG, BRCA1 300T>G, and BRCA2 6174delT mutations. This preliminary evidence suggests a potential contribution of BRCA1 5382insC mutation to breast cancer development in Uzbek population. Taking into account a high disease penetrance in carriers of BRCA1 mutation, it seems

  20. Growth-Friendly Surgery Is Effective at Treating Early-Onset Scoliosis Associated With Goldenhar Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Connell, Braydon; Oore, Jonathan J; Pahys, Joshua M; Thompson, George H; St Hilaire, Tricia; Flynn, Tara; El-Hawary, Ron

    To evaluate the radiographic results and complications of growth-friendly (GF) surgery in the treatment of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) associated with Goldenhar syndrome. Goldenhar syndrome has been associated with spinal deformity, which may be progressive. Efficacy and complication rate of GF treatment has not been reported for this population of patients with EOS. Patients with Goldenhar syndrome and EOS with two years' follow-up were identified from two international multicenter EOS databases. Scoliosis, kyphosis, spine height, and hemithoracic height/width were determined preimplant, immediately postoperative, and at the two-year follow-up. Severity of complications (SV) was recorded (Smith et al. JPO 2015). Ten patients met inclusion criteria and had a mean age of 4.6 ± 2.5 years at GF implantation (one spine and nine rib-based). Mean preoperative scoliosis was 64°, postimplant 52°, and at mean follow up of 2.4 ± 0.5 years was 50° (p = .09). Preoperative kyphosis was 36°, postimplant 38°, and final 42° (p = .08). Preoperative T1-S1 height was 23.5 cm, postimplant 23.6 cm, and final 27.3 cm (p = .06). Preoperative convex hemithoracic height was 10.4 cm, postimplant 7.9 cm, and final 12.8 cm (p < .05). Preoperative concave hemithoracic height was 8.4 cm, postimplant 8.8 cm, and final 9.9 cm (p = .30). Preoperative right hemithoracic width was 8.02 cm, postimplant 7.22 cm, and final 7.86 cm (p = .07). Preoperative left hemithoracic width was 7.18 cm, postimplant 7.86 cm, and final 8.60 cm (p = .43). Eight patients had ≥1 complication with SV I (n = 7), SV II (n = 2), and SV IIA (n = 7). These included infection (n = 4), migration (n = 3), pneumonia (n = 2), and instrumentation failure (n = 2). At minimum two-year follow-up, GF surgical intervention for the treatment of EOS associated with Goldenhar syndrome trended toward improvements in scoliosis and spine height, but had a significant improvement in convex hemithoracic height; however, the majority

  1. CDKL5 mutations cause infantile spasms, early onset seizures, and severe mental retardation in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Archer, H L; Evans, J; Edwards, S; Colley, J; Newbury‐Ecob, R; O'Callaghan, F; Huyton, M; O'Regan, M; Tolmie, J; Sampson, J; Clarke, A; Osborne, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of mutations in CDKL5 in both male and female patients with infantile spasms or early onset epilepsy of unknown cause, and to consider whether the breadth of the reported phenotype would be extended by studying a different patient group. Methods Two groups of patients were investigated for CDKL5 mutations. Group 1 comprised 73 patients (57 female, 16 male) referred to Cardiff for CDKL5 analysis, of whom 49 (42 female, 7 male) had epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life. Group 2 comprised 26 patients (11 female, 15 male) with infantile spasms previously recruited to a clinical trial, the UK Infantile Spasms Study. Where a likely pathogenic mutation was identified, further clinical data were reviewed. Results Seven likely pathogenic mutations were found among female patients from group 1 with epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life, accounting for seven of the 42 in this group (17%). No mutations other than the already published mutation were found in female patients from group 2, or in any male patient from either study group. All patients with mutations had early signs of developmental delay and most had made little developmental progress. Further clinical information was available for six patients: autistic features and tactile hypersensitivity were common but only one had suggestive Rett‐like features. All had a severe epileptic seizure disorder, all but one of whom had myoclonic jerks. The EEG showed focal or generalised changes and in those with infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia. Slow frequencies were seen frequently with a frontal or fronto‐temporal predominance and high amplitudes. Conclusions The spectrum of the epileptic seizure disorder, and associated EEG changes, in those with CDKL5 mutations is broader than previously reported. CDKL5 mutations are a significant cause of infantile spasms and early epileptic seizures in female patients, and of a later intractable seizure disorder

  2. Deleterious ABCA7 mutations and transcript rescue mechanisms in early onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    De Roeck, Arne; Van den Bossche, Tobi; van der Zee, Julie; Verheijen, Jan; De Coster, Wouter; Van Dongen, Jasper; Dillen, Lubina; Baradaran-Heravi, Yalda; Heeman, Bavo; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Lladó, Albert; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Gelpi, Ellen; Grau-Rivera, Oriol; Gómez-Tortosa, Estrella; Pastor, Pau; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Pastor, Maria A; Graff, Caroline; Thonberg, Håkan; Benussi, Luisa; Ghidoni, Roberta; Binetti, Giuliano; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Martins, Madalena; Borroni, Barbara; Padovani, Alessandro; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Santana, Isabel; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Koutroumani, Maria; Matěj, Radoslav; Rohan, Zdenek; De Deyn, Peter; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Cras, Patrick; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Sleegers, Kristel

    2017-09-01

    Premature termination codon (PTC) mutations in the ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family A, Member 7 gene (ABCA7) have recently been identified as intermediate-to-high penetrant risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). High variability, however, is observed in downstream ABCA7 mRNA and protein expression, disease penetrance, and onset age, indicative of unknown modifying factors. Here, we investigated the prevalence and disease penetrance of ABCA7 PTC mutations in a large early onset AD (EOAD)-control cohort, and examined the effect on transcript level with comprehensive third-generation long-read sequencing. We characterized the ABCA7 coding sequence with next-generation sequencing in 928 EOAD patients and 980 matched control individuals. With MetaSKAT rare variant association analysis, we observed a fivefold enrichment (p = 0.0004) of PTC mutations in EOAD patients (3%) versus controls (0.6%). Ten novel PTC mutations were only observed in patients, and PTC mutation carriers in general had an increased familial AD load. In addition, we observed nominal risk reducing trends for three common coding variants. Seven PTC mutations were further analyzed using targeted long-read cDNA sequencing on an Oxford Nanopore MinION platform. PTC-containing transcripts for each investigated PTC mutation were observed at varying proportion (5-41% of the total read count), implying incomplete nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Furthermore, we distinguished and phased several previously unknown alternative splicing events (up to 30% of transcripts). In conjunction with PTC mutations, several of these novel ABCA7 isoforms have the potential to rescue deleterious PTC effects. In conclusion, ABCA7 PTC mutations play a substantial role in EOAD, warranting genetic screening of ABCA7 in genetically unexplained patients. Long-read cDNA sequencing revealed both varying degrees of NMD and transcript-modifying events, which may influence ABCA7 dosage, disease severity, and may

  3. Exercise Tolerance in Children With Early Onset Scoliosis: Growing Rod Treatment "Graduates".

    PubMed

    Jeans, Kelly A; Johnston, Charles E; Stevens, Wilshaw R; Tran, Dong-Phuong

    2016-11-01

    Prospectively enrolled early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients undergoing growing rod treatment, who have had no surgery for >1 year and/or have received definitive fusion (growing rod "graduates"). To assess oxygen consumption during exercise and determine if a diminished conventional pulmonary function test (PFT) correlates with metabolic, pulmonary, and cardiovascular measures during exercise. Based on clinical impression and sequential PFT values, EOS patients who have undergone extensive treatment are thought to have limited capacity during exercise. The use of PFTs in this population has been a primary outcome measure of respiratory capacity; however, PFTs are dependent on effort, and thus subjective. This led us to find a new assessment of outcome, to better understand their pulmonary capacity. Patients underwent oxygen consumption (VO 2 ) testing while walking at self-selected speed over-ground and during a graded exercise test. Maximal VO 2 was predicted in those who completed the test to 85% of maximal heart rate (HR). Statistical analysis included Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlation coefficient (α = 0.05). 12 patients participated. Over-ground walking showed that EOS graduates chose to walk at the same speed, but at a higher VO 2 Cost (0.28 mL/kg/m) than controls (0.22 mL/kg/m; p < .001). Treadmill exercise testing showed 9 of 12 subjects able to complete the 85% of predicted maximum protocol. The EOS group had lower VO 2 during the final stage (27.9 mL/kg/min) compared to controls (34.2 mL/kg/min; p = .021); however, their heart rate reached the same values. Subjects completing the protocol had lower predicted VO 2 max (38.5 mL/kg/min) compared with controls (45.0 mL/kg/min), but this was not significant. Although PFT data suggest clinically relevant pulmonary compromise in EOS patients, the current study shows that these children are able to keep up with their peers in daily activities and also have the capacity to exercise. Level II

  4. Incidence, outcomes, and health services burden of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Eric I; Mack, David R; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Snapper, Scott B; Li, Wenbin; Mojaverian, Nassim; Quach, Pauline; Muise, Aleixo M

    2014-10-01

    The Paris pediatric modification of the Montreal classification defines very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) as a form of IBD distinct from that of older children. We compared the incidence and outcomes of VEO-IBD with those of IBD in older children. We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of all children diagnosed with IBD in Ontario, Canada, from 1994 through 2009. Trends in standardized incidence were calculated using Poisson regression. We compared outpatient and emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and surgeries among children diagnosed with IBD when they were younger than age 6, ages 6-9.9, and older than age 10 years. Multivariable models were adjusted for income and stratified by sex. The incidence of IBD increased from 9.4 per 100,000 children (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.2-10.8/100,000 children) in 1994 to 13.2 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 11.9-14.6/100,000 children) in 2009 (P < .0001). The incidence increased by 7.4% per year among children younger than 6 years old and 6-9.9 years old, and by 2.2% per year among children ≥10 years old. IBD-related outpatient visits were less frequent among children <6 years old than ≥10 years old (odds ratio for female patients, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58-0.78; odds ratio for male patients, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.98). Hazard ratios [HRs] for hospitalization were lower for children <6 years old (female HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56-0.87; male HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.94-1.33) than for older children. HRs for surgery among children <6 years old with Crohn's disease were 0.35 for female patients (95% CI, 0.16-0.78) and 0.59 for male patients (95% CI, 0.34-0.99). HRs for children <6 years old with ulcerative colitis were 0.88 for female patients (95% CI, 0.47-1.63) and 0.42 for male patients (95% CI, 0.21-0.85). There was no difference in hospitalization or surgery rates among children 6-9.9 years old vs those ≥10 years old. Based on a retrospective cohort study, the incidence of VEO

  5. Usherin defects lead to early-onset retinal dysfunction in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dona, Margo; Slijkerman, Ralph; Lerner, Kimberly; Broekman, Sanne; Wegner, Jeremy; Howat, Taylor; Peters, Theo; Hetterschijt, Lisette; Boon, Nanda; de Vrieze, Erik; Sorusch, Nasrin; Wolfrum, Uwe; Kremer, Hannie; Neuhauss, Stephan; Zang, Jingjing; Kamermans, Maarten; Westerfield, Monte; Phillips, Jennifer; van Wijk, Erwin

    2018-05-16

    Mutations in USH2A are the most frequent cause of Usher syndrome and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. To unravel the pathogenic mechanisms underlying USH2A-associated retinal degeneration and to evaluate future therapeutic strategies that could potentially halt the progression of this devastating disorder, an animal model is needed. The available Ush2a knock-out mouse model does not mimic the human phenotype, because it presents with only a mild and late-onset retinal degeneration. Using CRISPR/Cas9-technology, we introduced protein-truncating germline lesions into the zebrafish ush2a gene (ush2a rmc1 : c.2337_2342delinsAC; p.Cys780GlnfsTer32 and ush2a b1245 : c.15520_15523delinsTG; p.Ala5174fsTer). Homozygous mutants were viable and displayed no obvious morphological or developmental defects. Immunohistochemical analyses with antibodies recognizing the N- or C-terminal region of the ush2a-encoded protein, usherin, demonstrated complete absence of usherin in photoreceptors of ush2a rmc1 , but presence of the ectodomain of usherin at the periciliary membrane of ush2a b1245 -derived photoreceptors. Furthermore, defects of usherin led to a reduction in localization of USH2 complex members, whirlin and Adgrv1, at the photoreceptor periciliary membrane of both mutants. Significantly elevated levels of apoptotic photoreceptors could be observed in both mutants when kept under constant bright illumination for three days. Electroretinogram (ERG) recordings revealed a significant and similar decrease in both a- and b-wave amplitudes in ush2a rmc1 as well as ush2a b1245 larvae as compared to strain- and age-matched wild-type larvae. In conclusion, this study shows that mutant ush2a zebrafish models present with early-onset retinal dysfunction that is exacerbated by light exposure. These models provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying USH2A-associated RP and a unique opportunity to evaluate future therapeutic strategies. Copyright

  6. Parental R-Rated Movie Restriction and Early-Onset Alcohol Use*

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne E.; Dal Cin, Sonya; Stoolmiller, Mike; Sargent, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if parental restriction regarding Restricted-rated movies (R movies) predicts lower rates of early-onset alcohol use. Method: Students from 15 northern New England middle schools were surveyed in 1999, and never-drinkers were resurveyed 13–26 months later to determine alcohol use. Drinking was determined by the question, “Have you ever had beer, wine, or other drink with alcohol that your parents didn't know about?” R-movie restriction was assessed by the question, “How often do your parents allow you to watch movies that are rated R?” Results: The sample included 2,406 baseline never-drinkers who were surveyed at follow-up, of whom 14.8% had initiated alcohol use. At baseline, 20% reported never being allowed to watch R movies, and 21% reported being allowed all the time. Adolescents allowed to watch R-rated movies had higher rates of alcohol initiation (2.9% initiation among never allowed, 12.5% once in a while, 18.8% sometimes, and 24.4% all the time). Controlling for sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and authoritative parenting style, the adjusted odds ratios for initiating alcohol use were 3.0 (95% CI [1.7, 5.1]) for those once in a while allowed, 3.3 [1.9, 5.6] for those sometimes allowed, and 3.5 [2.0, 6.0] for those always allowed to watch R-rated movies. Alcohol initiation was more likely if R-rated movie restriction relaxed over time; tightening of restriction had a protective effect (p < .001). A structural model was developed that modeled two latent parenting constructs: (a) authoritative parenting and (b) media parenting. Both constructs had direct inverse paths to trying alcohol and indirect paths through lower exposure to R-rated movies. Conclusions: After accounting for differences in authoritative parenting style, adolescents reporting lesser restrictions for R movies have higher odds of future alcohol use. The structural model suggests that media parenting operates

  7. PP087. Multicenter external validation and recalibration of a model for preconceptional prediction of recurrent early-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Kuijk, Sander; Delahaije, Denise; Dirksen, Carmen; Scheepers, Hubertina C J; Spaanderman, Marc; Ganzevoort, W; Duvekot, Hans; Oudijk, M A; van Pampus, M G; Dadelszen, Peter von; Peeters, Louis L; Smiths, Luc

    2013-04-01

    In an earlier paper we reported on the development of a model aimed at the prediction of preeclampsia recurrence, based on variables obtained before the next pregnancy (fasting glucose, BMI, previous birth of a small-for-gestational-age infant, duration of the previous pregnancy, and the presence of hypertension). To externally validate and recalibrate the prediction model for the risk of recurrence of early-onset preeclampsia. We collected data about course and outcome of the next ongoing pregnancy in 229 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia. Recurrence was defined as preeclampsia requiring delivery before 34 weeks. We computed risk of recurrence and assessed model performance. In addition, we constructed a table comparing sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for different suggested risk-thresholds. Early-onset preeclampsia recurred in 6.6% of women. The model systematically underestimated recurrence risk. The model's discriminative ability was modest, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 58.9% (95% CI: 45.1 - 72.7). Using relevant risk-thresholds, the model created groups that were only moderately different in terms of their average risk of recurrent preeclampsia (Table 1). Compared to an AUC of 65% in the development cohort, the discriminate ability of the model was diminished. It had inadequate performance to classify women into clinically relevant risk groups. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Theory of Mind differences in older patients with early-onset and late-onset paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smeets-Janssen, M M J; Meesters, P D; Comijs, H C; Eikelenboom, P; Smit, J H; de Haan, L; Beekman, A T F; Stek, M L

    2013-11-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is considered an essential element of social cognition. In younger schizophrenia patients, ToM impairments have extensively been demonstrated. It is not clear whether similar impairments can be found in older schizophrenia patients and if these impairments differ between older patients with early-onset and late-onset schizophrenia. Theory of Mind abilities were assessed using the Hinting Task in 15 older patients (age 60 years and older) with early-onset paranoid schizophrenia, 15 older patients with late-onset paranoid schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. ANCOVA was performed to test differences between groups. Analyses were adjusted for level of education. Effect sizes, partial eta squared (ε(2) ), were computed as an indication of the clinical relevance of the findings. Patients with early-onset schizophrenia scored significantly lower on the Hinting Task (mean 16.1; SD 4.3) compared with patients with late-onset schizophrenia (mean 18.6; SD 1.5) and with healthy controls (mean 19.0; SD 1.4). The effect size of this difference was large (ε(2)  = 0.2). These results suggest that ToM functioning may be a protective factor modulating the age at onset of psychosis. Further studies into the relationship between social cognition and onset age of psychosis are warranted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Two Novel Mutations in the GDAP1 and PRX Genes in Early Onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Auer-Grumbach, M.; Fischer, C.; Papić, L.; John, E.; Plecko, B.; Bittner, R. E.; Bernert, G.; Pieber, T. R.; Miltenberger, G.; Schwarz, R.; Windpassinger, C.; Grill, F.; Timmerman, V.; Speicher, M. R.; Janecke, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome (AR-CMT) is often characterised by an infantile disease onset and a severe phenotype. Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1) gene are thought to be a common cause of AR-CMT. Mutations in the periaxin (PRX) gene are rare. They are associated with severe demyelination of the peripheral nerves and sometimes lead to prominent sensory disturbances. To evaluate the frequency of GDAP1 and PRX mutations in early onset CMT, we examined seven AR-CMT families and 12 sporadic CMT patients, all presenting with progressive distal muscle weakness and wasting. In one family also prominent sensory abnormalities and sensory ataxia were apparent from early childhood. In three families we detected four GDAP1 mutations (L58LfsX4, R191X, L239F and P153L), one of which is novel and is predicted to cause a loss of protein function. In one additional family with prominent sensory abnormalities a novel homozygous PRX mutation was found (A700PfsX17). No mutations were identified in 12 sporadic cases. This study suggests that mutations in the GDAP1 gene are a common cause of early-onset AR-CMT. In patients with early-onset demyelinating AR-CMT and severe sensory loss PRX is one of the genes to be tested. PMID:18504680

  10. Intrauterine growth restriction and placental gene expression in severe preeclampsia, comparing early-onset and late-onset forms.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Jaana; Skarp, Sini; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Ryynänen, Markku; Järvenpää, Jouko

    2017-10-26

    To evaluate placental gene expression in severe early- or late-onset preeclampsia with intrauterine growth restriction compared to controls. Chorionic villus sampling was conducted after cesarean section from the placentas of five women with early- or late-onset severe preeclampsia and five controls for each preeclampsia group. Microarray analysis was performed to identify gene expression differences between the groups. Pathway analysis showed over-representation of gene ontology (GO) biological process terms related to inflammatory and immune response pathways, platelet development, vascular development, female pregnancy and reproduction in early-onset preeclampsia. Pathways related to immunity, complement and coagulation cascade were overrepresented in the hypergeometric test for the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Ten genes (ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G, IL2RB, KRBOX1, LRRC15, METTL7B, MPP5, RFLNB and SLC20A) had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to early controls. There were 362 genes that had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to late-onset preeclampsia group including ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB. There are significant differences in placental gene expression between severe early- and late-onset preeclampsia when both are associated with intrauterine growth restriction. ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB might contribute to the development of early form of severe preeclampsia.

  11. A novel CDKL5 mutation in a 47,XXY boy with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Stefano; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Polli, Roberta; Bettella, Elisa; Tricomi, Giovanni; Tortorella, Gaetano; Murgia, Alessandra

    2009-02-01

    Mutations of the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5), reported almost exclusively in female subjects, have been recently found to be the cause of a phenotype overlapping Rett syndrome with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. We describe the first CDKL5 mutation detected in a male individual with 47,XXY karyotype. This previously unreported, de novo, mutation truncates the large CDKL5 COOH-terminal region, thought to be crucial for the proper sub-cellular localization of the CDKL5 protein. The resulting phenotype is characterized by a severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, global developmental delay, and profound intellectual and motor impairment with features reminiscent of Rett syndrome. In light of the data presented we discuss the possible phenotypic modulatory effects of the supernumerary wild type X allele and pattern of X chromosome inactivation and stress the importance of considering the causal involvement of CDKL5 in developmentally delayed males with early-onset seizures. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Early-onset neonatal sepsis is associated with a high heart rate during automatically selected stationary periods.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga; Vandenbroucke, Laurent; Hernández, Alfredo; Pham, Tu; Beuchée, Alain; Pladys, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the heart rate variability characteristics associated with early-onset neonatal sepsis in a prospective, observational controlled study. Eligible patients were full-term neonates hospitalised with clinical signs that suggested early-onset sepsis and a C-reactive protein of >10 mg/L. Sepsis was considered proven in cases of symptomatic septicaemia, meningitis, pneumonia or enterocolitis. Heart rate variability parameters (n = 16) were assessed from five-, 15- and 30-minute stationary sequences automatically selected from electrocardiographic recordings performed at admission and compared with a control group using the U-test with post hoc Benjamini-Yekutieli correction. Stationary sequences corresponded to the periods with the lowest changes of heart rate variability over time. A total of 40 full-term infants were enrolled, including 14 with proven sepsis. The mean duration of the cardiac cycle length was lower in the proven sepsis group than in the control group (n = 11), without other significant changes in heart rate variability parameters. These durations, measured in five-minute stationary periods, were 406 (367-433) ms in proven sepsis group versus 507 (463-522) ms in the control group (p < 0.05). Early-onset neonatal sepsis was associated with a high mean heart rate measured during automatically selected stationary periods. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Is early-onset microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer a hallmark of a genetic susceptibility syndrome?

    PubMed

    Kets, C M; van Krieken, J H J M; van Erp, P E J; Feuth, T; Jacobs, Y H A; Brunner, H G; Ligtenberg, M J L; Hoogerbrugge, N

    2008-02-15

    Most colorectal cancers show either microsatellite or chromosomal instability. A subset of colorectal cancers, especially those diagnosed at young age, is known to show neither of these forms of genetic instability and thus might have a distinct pathogenesis. Colorectal cancers diagnosed at young age are suggestive for hereditary predisposition. We investigate whether such early-onset microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancers are a hallmark of a genetic susceptibility syndrome. The ploidy status of microsatellite stable (familial) colorectal cancers of patients diagnosed before age 50 (n = 127) was analyzed in relation to the histopathological characteristics and family history. As a control the ploidy status of sporadic colorectal cancer, with normal staining of mismatch repair proteins, diagnosed at the age of 69 years or above (n = 70) was determined. A diploid DNA content was used as a marker for chromosomal stability. Within the group of patients with (familial) early onset microsatellite stable colorectal cancer the chromosomally stable tumors did not differ from chromosomally unstable tumors with respect to mean age at diagnosis, fulfillment of Amsterdam criteria or pathological characteristics. Segregation analysis did not reveal any family with microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer in 2 relatives. The prevalence of microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer was not significantly different for the early and late onset group (28 and 21%, respectively). We find no evidence that early-onset microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer is a hallmark of a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. POLE and POLD1 screening in 155 patients with multiple polyps and early-onset colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Jurado, Clara; Giménez-Zaragoza, David; Muñoz, Jenifer; Franch-Expósito, Sebastià; Álvarez-Barona, Miriam; Ocaña, Teresa; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Carballal, Sabela; López-Cerón, María; Marti-Solano, Maria; Díaz-Gay, Marcos; van Wezel, Tom; Castells, Antoni; Bujanda, Luis; Balmaña, Judith; Gonzalo, Victoria; Llort, Gemma; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Cubiella, Joaquín; Balaguer, Francesc; Aligué, Rosa; Castellví-Bel, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Germline mutations in POLE and POLD1 have been shown to cause predisposition to colorectal multiple polyposis and a wide range of neoplasms, early-onset colorectal cancer being the most prevalent. In order to find additional mutations affecting the proofreading activity of these polymerases, we sequenced its exonuclease domain in 155 patients with multiple polyps or an early-onset colorectal cancer phenotype without alterations in the known hereditary colorectal cancer genes. Interestingly, none of the previously reported mutations in POLE and POLD1 were found. On the other hand, among the genetic variants detected, only two of them stood out as putative pathogenic in the POLE gene, c.1359 + 46del71 and c.1420G > A (p.Val474Ile). The first variant, detected in two families, was not proven to alter correct RNA splicing. Contrarily, c.1420G > A (p.Val474Ile) was detected in one early-onset colorectal cancer patient and located right next to the exonuclease domain. The pathogenicity of this change was suggested by its rarity and bioinformatics predictions, and it was further indicated by functional assays in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This is the first study to functionally analyze a POLE genetic variant outside the exonuclease domain and widens the spectrum of genetic changes in this DNA polymerase that could lead to colorectal cancer predisposition. PMID:28423643

  15. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation analysis of early-onset and familial breast cancer cases in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Flores, Pablo; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Badzioch, Michael; Calderon-Garcidueñas, A L; Chopin, Sandrine; Fabrice, Odefrey; González-Guerrero, J F; Szabo, Csilla; Lenoir, Gilbert; Goldgar, David E; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A

    2002-12-01

    The entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were screened for mutations by heteroduplex analysis in 51 Mexican breast cancer patients. One BRCA1 and one BRCA2 truncating mutation each was identified in the group of 32 (6%) early-onset breast cancer patients (< or =35 years). Besides these two likely deleterious mutations, eight rare variants of unknown significance, mostly in the BRCA2 gene, were detected in six of 32 (19%) early-onset breast cancer cases and in three of 17 (18%) site-specific breast cancer families, one containing a male breast cancer case. No mutations or rare sequence variants have been identified in two additional families including each an early-onset breast cancer case and an ovarian cancer patient. The two truncating mutations (BRCA1 3857delT; BRCA2 2663-2664insA) and six of the rare variants have never been reported before and may be of country-specific origin. The majority of the alterations appeared to be distinct, with only one of them being observed in more than one family. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Prevalence and Spectrum of Germline Cancer Susceptibility Gene Mutations Among Patients With Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, Rachel; Frankel, Wendy L.; Swanson, Benjamin; Zhao, Weiqiang; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Miller, Kristin; Bacher, Jason; Bigley, Christopher; Nelsen, Lori; Goodfellow, Paul J.; Goldberg, Richard M.; Paskett, Electra; Shields, Peter G.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Stanich, Peter P; Lattimer, Ilene; Arnold, Mark; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Kalady, Matthew; Heald, Brandie; Greenwood, Carla; Paquette, Ian; Prues, Marla; Draper, David J.; Lindeman, Carolyn; Kuebler, J. Philip; Reynolds, Kelly; Brell, Joanna M.; Shaper, Amy A.; Mahesh, Sameer; Buie, Nicole; Weeman, Kisa; Shine, Kristin; Haut, Mitchell; Edwards, Joan; Bastola, Shyamal; Wickham, Karen; Khanduja, Karamjit S.; Zacks, Rosemary; Pritchard, Colin C.; Shirts, Brian H.; Jacobson, Angela; Allen, Brian; de la Chapelle, Albert; Hampel, Heather

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Hereditary cancer syndromes infer high cancer risks and require intensive cancer surveillance, yet the prevalence and spectrum of these conditions among unselected patients with early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely undetermined. OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and spectrum of cancer susceptibility gene mutations among patients with early-onset CRC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Overall, 450 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer younger than 50 years were prospectively accrued from 51 hospitals into the Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative from January 1, 2013, to June 20, 2016. Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency was determined by microsatellite instability and/or immunohistochemistry. Germline DNA was tested for mutations in 25 cancer susceptibility genes using next-generation sequencing. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Mutation prevalence and spectrum in patients with early-onset CRC was determined. Clinical characteristics were assessed by mutation status. RESULTS In total 450 patients younger than 50 years were included in the study, and 75 gene mutations were found in 72 patients (16%). Forty-eight patients (10.7%) had MMR-deficient tumors, and 40 patients (83.3%) had at least 1 gene mutation: 37 had Lynch syndrome (13, MLH1 [including one with constitutional MLH1 methylation]; 16, MSH2; 1, MSH2/monoallelic MUTYH; 2, MSH6; 5, PMS2); 1 patient had the APC c.3920T>A, p.I1307K mutation and a PMS2 variant; 9 patients (18.8%) had double somatic MMR mutations (including 2 with germline biallelic MUTYH mutations); and 1 patient had somatic MLH1 methylation. Four hundred two patients (89.3%) had MMR-proficient tumors, and 32 patients (8%) had at least 1 gene mutation: 9 had mutations in high-penetrance CRC genes (5, APC; 1, APC/PMS2; 2, biallelic MUTYH; 1, SMAD4); 13 patients had mutations in high- or moderate-penetrance genes not traditionally associated with CRC (3, ATM; 1, ATM/CHEK2; 2, BRCA1; 4, BRCA2; 1, CDKN2A; 2, PALB2); 10

  17. Double-blind maintenance safety and effectiveness findings from the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum (TEOSS) study.

    PubMed

    Findling, Robert L; Johnson, Jacqueline L; McClellan, Jon; Frazier, Jean A; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Ritz, Louise; McNamara, Nora K; Lingler, Jacqui; Hlastala, Stefanie; Pierson, Leslie; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E; Kaufman, Emily Michael; Noyes, Nancy; Sikich, Linmarie

    2010-06-01

    To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of three antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Patients (8 to 19 years old) who had improved during an 8-week, randomized, double-blind acute trial of olanzapine, risperidone, or molindone (plus benztropine) were eligible to continue on the same medication for up to 44 additional weeks under double-blind conditions. Adjunctive medications were allowed according to defined algorithms. Standardized symptom, safety, and functional assessments were conducted every 4 weeks. Of the 116 youths randomized in the acute trial, 54 entered maintenance treatment (molindone, n = 20; olanzapine, n = 13; risperidone, n = 21). Fourteen (26%) completed 44 weeks of treatment. Adverse effects (n = 15), inadequate efficacy (n = 14), or study nonadherence (n = 8) were the most common reasons for discontinuation. The three treatment arms did not significantly differ in symptom decrease or time to discontinuation. Akathisia was more common with molindone and elevated prolactin concentrations more common with risperidone. Although weight gain and metabolic adverse events had occurred more often with olanzapine and risperidone during the acute trial, no significant between-drug differences emerged in most of these parameters during maintenance treatment. Only 12% of youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders continued on their originally randomized treatment at 52 weeks. No agent demonstrated superior efficacy, and all were associated with side effects, including weight gain. Improved treatments are needed for early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Clinical trial registry information-Treatment of Schizophrenia and Related Disorders in Children and Adolescents; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, unique identifier: NCT00053703. 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early-onset obesity dysregulates pulmonary adipocytokine/insulin signaling and induces asthma-like disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dinger, Katharina; Kasper, Philipp; Hucklenbruch-Rother, Eva; Vohlen, Christina; Jobst, Eva; Janoschek, Ruth; Bae-Gartz, Inga; van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel, Silke; Plank, Christian; Dötsch, Jörg; Alejandre Alcázar, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but the molecular mechanisms linking both remain elusive. Since obesity leads to chronic low-grade inflammation and affects metabolic signaling we hypothesized that postnatal hyperalimentation (pHA) induced by maternal high-fat-diet during lactation leads to early-onset obesity and dysregulates pulmonary adipocytokine/insulin signaling, resulting in metabolic programming of asthma-like disease in adult mice. Offspring with pHA showed at postnatal day 21 (P21): (1) early-onset obesity, greater fat-mass, increased expression of IL-1β, IL-23, and Tnf-α, greater serum leptin and reduced glucose tolerance than Control (Ctrl); (2) less STAT3/AMPKα-activation, greater SOCS3 expression and reduced AKT/GSK3β-activation in the lung, indicative of leptin resistance and insulin signaling, respectively; (3) increased lung mRNA of IL-6, IL-13, IL-17A and Tnf-α. At P70 body weight, fat-mass, and cytokine mRNA expression were similar in the pHA and Ctrl, but serum leptin and IL-6 were greater, and insulin signaling and glucose tolerance impaired. Peribronchial elastic fiber content, bronchial smooth muscle layer, and deposition of connective tissue were not different after pHA. Despite unaltered bronchial structure mice after pHA exhibited significantly increased airway reactivity. Our study does not only demonstrate that early-onset obesity transiently activates pulmonary adipocytokine/insulin signaling and induces airway hyperreactivity in mice, but also provides new insights into metabolic programming of childhood obesity-related asthma. PMID:27087690

  19. Copy number variations in "classical" obesity candidate genes are not frequently associated with severe early-onset obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Windholz, Jan; Kovacs, Peter; Schlicke, Marina; Franke, Christin; Mahajan, Anubha; Morris, Andrew P; Lemke, Johannes R; Klammt, Jürgen; Kiess, Wieland; Schöneberg, Torsten; Pfäffle, Roland; Körner, Antje

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is genetically heterogeneous and highly heritable, although polymorphisms explain the phenotype in only a small proportion of obese children. We investigated the presence of copy number variations (CNVs) in "classical" genes known to be associated with (monogenic) early-onset obesity in children. In 194 obese Caucasian children selected for early-onset and severe obesity from our obesity cohort we screened for deletions and/or duplications by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification reaction (MLPA). As we found one MLPA probe to interfere with a polymorphism in SIM1 we investigated its association with obesity and other phenotypic traits in our extended cohort of 2305 children. In the selected subset of most severely obese children, we did not find CNV with MLPA in POMC, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, MC3R or MC2R genes. However, one SIM1 probe located at exon 9 gave signals suggestive for SIM1 insufficiency in 52 patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis identified this as a false positive result due to interference with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3734354/rs3734355. We, therefore, investigated for associations of this polymorphism with obesity and metabolic traits in our extended cohort. We found rs3734354/rs3734355 to be associated with body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) (p = 0.003), but not with parameters of insulin metabolism, blood pressure or food intake. In our modest sample of severely obese children, we were unable to find CNVs in well-established monogenic obesity genes. Nevertheless, we found an association of rs3734354 in SIM1 with obesity of early-onset type in children, although not with obesity-related traits.

  20. Tea, coffee, and caffeine and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Cartmel, Brenda; Molinaro, Annette M.; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Tea and coffee are hypothesized to play a protective role in skin carcinogenesis via bioactive components, such as caffeine, yet the epidemiologic evidence is mixed. Existing data supports an inverse association with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) more so than for melanoma or squamous cell carcinoma. To understand if tea, coffee, and caffeine are related to early-onset BCC, we evaluated data from 767 non-Hispanic Whites under age 40 in a case-control study in Connecticut. Methods BCC cases (n=377) were identified through Yale's Dermatopathology database. Controls (n=390) were randomly sampled from individuals in the same database with benign skin diagnoses and frequency matched to cases on age, gender, and biopsy site. Subjects completed an in-person interview including assessment of caffeinated coffee and hot tea. We calculated multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with unconditional logistic regression for regular consumption and frequency and duration measures. Results Combined regular consumption of caffeinated coffee plus hot tea was inversely associated with early-onset BCC (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.38–0.96). Those in the highest category of caffeine from these sources had a 43% reduced risk of BCC compared to non-consumers (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.34–0.95, p-trend=0.037). Conclusions Our findings suggest a modest protective effect for caffeinated coffee plus tea in relation to early-onset