Science.gov

Sample records for early-stage endometrial carcinoma

  1. Clusterin immunoexpression is associated with early stage endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah Ahmed; Butt, Nadeem Shafique; Anfinan, Nisrin; Sait, Khalid; Sait, Hesham; Bajouh, Osama; Khabaz, Mohamad Nidal

    2016-05-01

    Clusterin has anti-apoptotic, regeneration and migration stimulating effects on tumor cells. This study investigates the relation between clusterin expression and the clinicopathological parameters in endometrial carcinomas. Seventy one cases of previously diagnosed endometrial carcinoma (including 59 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 9 serous adenocarcinoma, 1 clear cell adenocarcinoma, and 2 malignant mixed Mullerian tumor) and 30 tissue samples of non-cancerous endometrium (including 16 proliferative endometrium, 10 secretory endometrium and 4 endometrial polyps) were employed for clusterin detection using tissue microarrays and immunostaining. A total number of 23 (32.4%) cases were positive for clusterin immunostaining. Brown granular cytoplasmic expression of clusterin was detected in 33.9% of endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 22.2% papillary serous endometrial carcinomas. Three (10%) control cases showed granular cytoplasmic expression. Positive clusterin immunostaining was found more frequent in well differentiated and stage I endometrial carcinomas, showing significant statistical association (p-value=0.036 and p-value=0.002 respectively). Significant difference in clusterin expression was observed between tumor cases and control group (P-Value=0.019), i.e., endometrial carcinoma cases are more than four times likely to show positive clusterin immunostaining (odds ratio 4.313 with 95% confidence interval 1.184-15.701). This study did not find relation between clusterin expression and disease recurrence, survival or any of the other clinicopathological parameters in endometrial tumors. The results of our study confirms the diagnostic values of clusterin in supporting the diagnosis of endometrioid carcinoma. When clusterin is expressed in endometrial tumors, it is associated with lower stage. The correlation of clusterin with tumor stage suggests involvement of this molecule in endometrial tumor progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Controversies in the Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Press, Joshua Z.; Gotlieb, Walter H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the publication of numerous studies, including some multicentered randomized controlled trials, there continues to be vigorous debate regarding the optimal management of early stage endometrial cancer, including the extent of surgery and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Resolving these questions has become increasingly important in view of the increase of endometrial cancer, related to the aging population and the alarming incidence of obesity. Furthermore, there are more surgical challenges encountered when operating on elderly patients or on patients with increased BMI and the associated comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and pulmonary dysfunction. This paper will focus on the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, the value of lymphadenectomy including sentinel lymph node mapping, and some of the current controversies surrounding adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. PMID:22685466

  3. Management of Early Stage, High-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma: Preoperative and Surgical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Gaetan

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed world. Most cases are diagnosed at an early stage and have low-grade histology, portending an overall excellent prognosis. There exists a subgroup of patients with early, high-risk disease, whose management remains controversial, as current data is clouded by inclusion of early stage tumors with different high-risk features for recurrence, unstandardized protocols for surgical staging, and an evolving staging system by which we are grouping these patients. Here, we present preoperative and intraoperative considerations that should be taken into account when planning surgical management for this population of patients. PMID:23878545

  4. [Feedback of ultrasound and RMI in the staging of endometrial carcinoma in early stage].

    PubMed

    Buhler, J; Routiot, T; Polet-Lefebvre, K; Morel, O

    2015-04-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in France. The therapeutic management is based on preoperative staging. The recommended imaging examination remains the MRI. This is to evaluate ultrasound and MRI in the staging for localized cancers. This is a retrospective observational study, conducted from July 2012 to July 2014, at the University Hospital of Nancy, on all patients care for endometrial cancer stage I, who underwent a pelvic ultrasound and MRI for the assessment of myometrial infiltration. Twenty-nine patients were included with a mean age of 69 years and a BMI of 30 kg/m(2). Using ultrasound, we have a sensitivity of 58%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 70% and an accuracy of 75%. Using MRI, we have a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 83%, a VPN of 88%, and an accuracy of 86%. Transvaginal sonography should be performed before post-menopausal bleeding. It remains possible in the staging of localized cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved Survival Endpoints With Adjuvant Radiation Treatment in Patients With High-Risk Early-Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Elshaikh, Mohamed A., E-mail: melshai1@hfhs.org; Vance, Sean; Suri, Jaipreet S.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the impact of adjuvant radiation treatment (RT) on recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with high-risk 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-II endometrial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We identified 382 patients with high-risk EC who underwent hysterectomy. RFS, DSS, and OS were calculated from the date of hysterectomy by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression modeling was used to explore the risks associated with various factors on survival endpoints. Results: The median follow-up time for the study cohort was 5.4 years. The median age was 71 years.more » All patients underwent hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, 93% had peritoneal cytology, and 85% underwent lymphadenectomy. Patients with endometrioid histology constituted 72% of the study cohort, serous in 16%, clear cell in 7%, and mixed histology in 4%. Twenty-three percent of patients had stage II disease. Adjuvant management included RT alone in 220 patients (57%), chemotherapy alone in 25 patients (7%), and chemoradiation therapy in 27 patients (7%); 110 patients (29%) were treated with close surveillance. The 5-year RFS, DSS, and OS were 76%, 88%, and 73%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT was a significant predictor of RFS (P<.001) DSS (P<.001), and OS (P=.017). Lymphovascular space involvement was a significant predictor of RFS and DSS (P<.001). High tumor grade was a significant predictor for RFS (P=.038) and DSS (P=.025). Involvement of the lower uterine segment was also a predictor of RFS (P=.049). Age at diagnosis and lymphovascular space involvement were significant predictors of OS: P<.001 and P=.002, respectively. Conclusion: In the treatment of patients with high-risk features, our study suggests that adjuvant RT significantly improves recurrence-free, disease-specific, and overall survival in patients with early-stage endometrial

  6. Evaluation and validation of the diagnostic value of the apparent diffusion coefficient for differentiating early-stage endometrial carcinomas from benign mimickers at 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Yumin; Zhou, Yongjin; Ye, Xinjian; Liu, Kun; Bai, Guanghui; Guo, Anna; Du, Meimei; Jiang, Lezhen; Wang, Jinhong; Yan, Zhihan

    2017-07-11

    Previous researchers obtained various apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) cutoff values to differentiate endometrial carcinoma from benign mimickers with 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Few studies have used 3T MRI or validated the effectiveness of these cutoff ADC values prospectively. This study was designed in two stages to obtain a cutoff ADC value at 3T MRI and to validate prospectively the role of the ADC value. First, we conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients to evaluate the diagnostic value of ADC by obtain a theoretical cutoff ADC value for differentiating between benign and malignant endometrial lesions. Student's t test revealed that ADC values for stage I endometrial carcinomas were significantly lower than those for benign lesions. The area under the curve value of the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.993, and the cutoff ADC value was 0.98 × 10-3 mm2/s. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of diagnosing stage I endometrial carcinoma were 100%, 97.1%, and 98.3%, respectively. Second, we conducted a prospective study of 26 patients to validate the use of the cutoff ADC value obtained in the study's first stage. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for differentiating malignant from benign endometrial lesions based on the cutoff ADC value obtained earlier were as follows: radiologist 1 attained 86.67%, 100.0%, and 92.31%, respectively; radiologist 2 attained 86.67%, 91.0%, and 88.5%, respectively. Our results suggest that ADC values could be a potential biomarker for use as a quantitative and qualitative tool for differentiating between early-stage endometrial carcinomas and benign mimickers.

  7. Evaluation and validation of the diagnostic value of the apparent diffusion coefficient for differentiating early-stage endometrial carcinomas from benign mimickers at 3T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yumin; Zhou, Yongjin; Ye, Xinjian; Liu, Kun; Bai, Guanghui; Guo, Anna; Du, Meimei; Jiang, Lezhen

    2017-01-01

    Previous researchers obtained various apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) cutoff values to differentiate endometrial carcinoma from benign mimickers with 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Few studies have used 3T MRI or validated the effectiveness of these cutoff ADC values prospectively. This study was designed in two stages to obtain a cutoff ADC value at 3T MRI and to validate prospectively the role of the ADC value. First, we conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients to evaluate the diagnostic value of ADC by obtain a theoretical cutoff ADC value for differentiating between benign and malignant endometrial lesions. Student's t test revealed that ADC values for stage I endometrial carcinomas were significantly lower than those for benign lesions. The area under the curve value of the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.993, and the cutoff ADC value was 0.98 × 10−3 mm2/s. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of diagnosing stage I endometrial carcinoma were 100%, 97.1%, and 98.3%, respectively. Second, we conducted a prospective study of 26 patients to validate the use of the cutoff ADC value obtained in the study's first stage. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for differentiating malignant from benign endometrial lesions based on the cutoff ADC value obtained earlier were as follows: radiologist 1 attained 86.67%, 100.0%, and 92.31%, respectively; radiologist 2 attained 86.67%, 91.0%, and 88.5%, respectively. Our results suggest that ADC values could be a potential biomarker for use as a quantitative and qualitative tool for differentiating between early-stage endometrial carcinomas and benign mimickers. PMID:28634318

  8. Surgical treatment for apparent early stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Most experts would agree that the standard surgical treatment for endometrial cancer includes a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; however, the benefit of full surgical staging with lymph node dissection in patients with apparent early stage disease remains a topic of debate. Recent prospective data and advances in laparoscopic techniques have transformed this disease into one that can be successfully managed with minimally invasive surgery. This review will discuss the current surgical management of apparent early stage endometrial cancer and some of the new techniques that are being incorporated. PMID:24596812

  9. Hepatocellular carcinoma: early-stage management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Erstad, Derek J; Tanabe, Kenneth K

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death and is increasing in incidence. This review focuses on HCC surveillance and treatment of early-stage disease, which are essential to improving outcomes. Multiple societies have published HCC surveillance guidelines, but screening efforts have been limited by noncompliance and overall lack of testing for patients with undiagnosed chronic liver disease. Treatment of early-stage HCC has become increasingly complex due to expanding therapeutic options and better outcomes with established treatments. Surgical indications for HCC have broadened with improved preoperative liver testing, neoadjuvant therapy, portal vein embolization, and perioperative care. Advances in post-procedural monitoring have improved efficacies of transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation, and novel therapies involving delivery of radiochemicals are being studied in small trials. Finally, advances in liver transplantation have allowed for expanded indications beyond Milan criteria with non-inferior outcomes. More clinical trials evaluating new therapies and multimodal regimens are necessary to help clinicians design better treatment algorithms and improve outcomes. PMID:28721349

  10. Pathology of Endometrial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lax, Sigurd F

    2017-01-01

    On a clinicopathological and molecular level, two distinctive types of endometrial carcinoma, type I and type II, can be distinguished. Endometrioid carcinoma, the typical type I carcinoma, seems to develop through an estrogen-driven "adenoma carcinoma" pathway from atypical endometrial hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (AEH/EIN). It is associated with elevated serum estrogen and high body mass index and expresses estrogen and progesterone receptors. They are mostly low grade and show a favorable prognosis. A subset progresses into high-grade carcinoma which is accompanied by loss of receptor expression and accumulation of TP53 mutations and behaves poorly. Other frequently altered genes in type I carcinomas are K-Ras, PTEN, and ß-catenin. Another frequent feature of type I carcinomas is microsatellite instability mainly caused by methylation of the MLH1 promoter. In contrast, the typical type II carcinoma, serous carcinoma, is not estrogen related since it usually occurs in a small uterus with atrophic endometrium. It is often associated with a flat putative precursor lesion called serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC). The molecular pathogenesis of serous carcinoma seems to be driven by TP53 mutations, which are present in SEIC. Other molecular changes in serous carcinoma detectable by immunohistochemistry involve cyclin E and p16. Since many of the aforementioned molecular changes can be demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, they are useful ancillary diagnostic tools and may further contribute to a future molecular classification of endometrial carcinoma as recently suggested based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data.

  11. Poor prognosis of uterine serous carcinoma compared with grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma in early stage patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Young; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Sohn, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Wha; Sung, Chang Ohk; Kim, Kyu-Rae

    2013-03-01

    Difference in prognosis between grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma (G3EC) of the endometrium and uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is controversial. In this study, we further evaluated the difference in prognosis, if any, between G3EC (n = 61) and USC (n = 47) on a total of 565 patients with endometrial cancer. In addition, meta-analysis was performed using data from seven previous publications (n = 8,637) and from the Asan Medical Center (n = 108). Regarding the cases from our institution, USC tended to occur in older patients (≥65 years) than G3EC (P = 0.011). Deep myometrial invasion (more than or equal to half) was more frequently identified in G3EC (36/61, 59.0 %) than in USC (17/47, 36.2 %) (P = 0.021). Between patients with early stage G3EC and USC (stages I and II), there were no significant differences in any clinicopathological parameter, but there was a significant difference in overall survival (P = 0.017) that was not found in advanced stage (P = 0.588). USC was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 6.125; P = 0.030) in early stage patients. In the meta-analysis on 5-year survival in patients with early stage cancers, which also included our study results, a higher relative risk (1.92, 95 % CI 1.62-2.27) was demonstrated in USC than in G3EC (P < 0.001). In conclusion, our study reveals that USC is associated with a poorer prognosis compared with G3EC, only in patients with early stage carcinoma, suggesting that different treatment strategies should be considered according to the histologic type in order to improve treatment outcome.

  12. Surgical Staging of Early Stage Endometrial Cancer: Comparison Between Laparotomy and Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Api, Murat; Kayatas, Semra; Boza, Aysen Telce; Nazik, Hakan; Adiguzel, Cevdet; Guzin, Kadir; Eroglu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare the laparotomy (LT) and laparoscopy (LS) in patients who undergone surgical staging for early stage endometrium cancer. Methods Retrospective data were collected and analyzed for amount of intraoperative bleeding, complication rates, total resected and laterality specific number of lymph nodes and duration of operation in patients operated with either LT or LS. Results Seventy-nine stage I endometrium cancer patients were found to be eligible for the trial purposes: 58 (73.4%) treated by LT and 21 (26.6%) treated by LS. The number of lymph nodes was similar in LT (8.9 ± 5.3) and LS (9.2 ± 4.8) (P = 0.8). In LT group, there was no difference in the number of lymph nodes between the right and left sides (10 ± 5.8 and 8.7 ± 4.8 respectively, P = 0.19); in LS group, the number of lymph nodes resected from the right side was higher than the left side (9.8 ± 5 and 7 ± 3.5 respectively, P = 0.039). The amount of intraoperative bleeding and hospitalization period were significantly higher in LT group. Seventy-nine patients had a median follow-up of 30 months. The two groups were similar for disease-free survival (P = 0.46, log rank test). Conclusions There was no significant difference between the two methods in terms of number of total resected lymph nodes. In early stage endometrial carcinoma, LS has provided adequate staging and similar survival rates with LT. PMID:29147363

  13. Brain Metastases from Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma. To date, 115 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence of 0.6% among endometrial carcinoma patients. The endometrial carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage and high-grade tumor. In most patients (~90%), brain metastasis was detected after diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma with a median interval from diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma to diagnosis of brain metastases of 17 months. Brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma was either an isolated disease limited to the brain only (~50%) or part of a disseminated disease involving also other parts of the body (~50%). Most often, brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma affected the cerebrum (~75%) and was solitary (~60%). The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma was 5 months; however, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and/or chemotherapy compared to WBRT alone. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be considered in the routine follow up of patients with endometrial carcinoma and that the search for a primary source in females with brain metastases of unknown primary should include endometrial biopsy. PMID:22523707

  14. Prediction of concurrent endometrial carcinoma in women with endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Ramzan, Amin A; Gualtieri, Marc R; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Machida, Hiroko; Moeini, Aida; Dancz, Christina E; Ueda, Yutaka; Roman, Lynda D

    2015-11-01

    Although a fraction of endometrial hyperplasia cases have concurrent endometrial carcinoma, patient characteristics associated with concurrent malignancy are not well described. The aim of our study was to identify predictive clinico-pathologic factors for concurrent endometrial carcinoma among patients with endometrial hyperplasia. A case-control study was conducted to compare endometrial hyperplasia in both preoperative endometrial biopsy and hysterectomy specimens (n=168) and endometrial carcinoma in hysterectomy specimen but endometrial hyperplasia in preoperative endometrial biopsy (n=43). Clinico-pathologic factors were examined to identify independent risk factors of concurrent endometrial carcinoma in a multivariate logistic regression model. The most common histologic subtype in preoperative endometrial biopsy was complex hyperplasia with atypia [CAH] (n=129) followed by complex hyperplasia without atypia (n=58) and simple hyperplasia with or without atypia (n=24). The majority of endometrial carcinomas were grade 1 (86.0%) and stage I (83.7%). In multivariate analysis, age 40-59 (odds ratio [OR] 3.07, p=0.021), age≥60 (OR 6.65, p=0.005), BMI≥35kg/m(2) (OR 2.32, p=0.029), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.51, p=0.019), and CAH (OR 9.01, p=0.042) were independent predictors of concurrent endometrial carcinoma. The risk of concurrent endometrial carcinoma rose dramatically with increasing number of risk factors identified in multivariate model (none 0%, 1 risk factor 7.0%, 2 risk factors 17.6%, 3 risk factors 35.8%, and 4 risk factors 45.5%, p<0.001). Hormonal treatment was associated with decreased risk of concurrent endometrial cancer in those with ≥3 risk factors. Older age, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and CAH are predictive of concurrent endometrial carcinoma in endometrial hyperplasia patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) laparoscopic assessment early stage in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, T; Giusti, M; Bottero, A; Leo, L; Brokaj, L; Armellino, F; Palladin, L

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the validity of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection after injection of radioactive isotope and patent blue dye in patients affected by early stage endometrial cancer. The second purpose was to compare radioactive isotope and patent blue dye migration. Between September 2000 and May 2001, 11 patients with endometrial cancer FIGO stage Ib (n=10) and IIa (n=1) underwent laparoscopic SLN detection during laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic bilateral systematic lymphadenectomy. Radioactive isotope injection was performed 24 ours before surgery and blue dye injection was performed just before surgery in the cervix at 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. A 350 mm laparoscopic gamma-scintiprobe MR 100 type 11, (99m)Tc setted (Pol.Hi.Tech.), was used intraoperatively for detecting SLN. Seventeen SLN were detected at lymphoscintigraphy (6 bilateral and 5 monolateral). At laparoscopic surgery the same locations were found belonging at internal iliac lymph nodes (the so called "Leveuf-Godard" area, lateral to the inferior vescical artery, ventral to the origin of uterine artery and medial or caudal to the external iliac vein). Fourteen SLN were negative at histological analysis and only 3 positive for micrometastasis (mean SLN sections = 60. All the other pelvic lymph nodes were negative at histological analysis. The same SLN locations detected with g-scintiprobe were observed during laparoscopy after patent blue dye injection. If the sensitivity of the assessment of SLN is confirmed to be 100%, this laparoscopic approach could change the management of early stage endometrial cancer. The clinical validity of this technique must be evaluated prospectively.

  16. Adjuvant Vaginal Brachytherapy for Early Stage Endometrial Cancer: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Harkenrider, Matthew M; Block, Alec M; Alektiar, Kaled M; Gaffney, David K; Jones, Ellen; Klopp, Ann; Viswanathan, Akila N; Small, William

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to review the risk stratification of endometrial cancer, treatment rationale, outcomes, treatment planning, and treatment recommendations of vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in the post-operative management of endometrial cancer patients. The authors performed a thorough review of the literature and reference pertinent articles pertaining to the aims of this review. Adjuvant VBT for early stage endometrial cancer patients results in very low rates of vaginal recurrence (0–3.1%) with low rates of late toxicity which are primarily vaginal in nature. PORTEC-2 supports that VBT results in non-inferior rates of vaginal recurrence compared to external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for the treatment of high-intermediate risk patients. VBT as a boost following EBRT, in combination with chemotherapy, and for high-risk histologies have shown excellent results as well though randomized data do not exist supporting VBT boost. There are many different applicators, dose-fractionation schedules, and treatment planning techniques which all result in favorable clinical outcomes and low rates of toxicity. Recommendations have been published by the American Brachytherapy Society and the American Society of Radiation Oncology to help guide practitioners in the use of VBT. Data support that patients and physicians both prefer joint decision-making regarding the use of VBT, and patients often desire additional treatment for a marginal benefit in risk of recurrence. Discussions regarding adjuvant therapy for endometrial cancer are best performed in a multi-disciplinary setting and patients should be counseled properly regarding the risks and benefits of adjuvant therapy. PMID:27260082

  17. Prognostic factors for patients with early-stage uterine serous carcinoma without adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Tate, Keisei; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Mitsuya; Uehara, Takashi; Ikeda, Shun Ichi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Kato, Tomoyasu

    2018-05-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is an aggressive type 2 endometrial cancer. Data on prognostic factors for patients with early-stage USC without adjuvant therapy are limited. This study aims to assess the baseline recurrence risk of early-stage USC patients without adjuvant treatment and to identify prognostic factors and patients who need adjuvant therapy. Sixty-eight patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I-II USC between 1997 and 2016 were included. All the cases did not undergo adjuvant treatment as institutional practice. Clinicopathological features, recurrence patterns, and survival outcomes were analyzed to determine prognostic factors. FIGO stages IA, IB, and II were observed in 42, 7, and 19 cases, respectively. Median follow-up time was 60 months. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for all cases were 73.9% and 78.0%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, cervical stromal involvement and positive pelvic cytology were significant predictors of DFS and OS, and ≥1/2 myometrial invasion was also a significant predictor of OS. Of 68 patients, 38 patients had no cervical stromal invasion or positive pelvic cytology and showed 88.8% 5-year DFS and 93.6% 5-year OS. Cervical stromal invasion and positive pelvic cytology are prognostic factors for stage I-II USC. Patients with stage IA or IB USC showing negative pelvic cytology may have an extremely favorable prognosis and need not receive any adjuvant therapies. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  18. The utility of serum CA-125 in predicting extra-uterine disease in apparent early-stage endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicklin, James; Janda, Monika; Gebski, Val; Jobling, Thomas; Land, Russell; Manolitsas, Tom; McCartney, Anthony; Nascimento, Marcelo; Perrin, Lewis; Baker, Jannah F; Obermair, Andreas

    2012-08-15

    Surgical staging in early-stage uterine cancer is controversial. Preoperative serum CA-125 may be of clinical value in predicting the presence of extra-uterine disease in patients with apparent early-stage endometrial cancer. Between October 6, 2005, and June 17, 2010, 760 patients were enrolled in an international, multicentre, prospective randomized trial (LACE) comparing laparotomy with laparoscopy in the management of endometrial cancer apparently confined to the uterus. Of these, 657 patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma had a preoperative serum CA-125 value recorded. Multiple cross-validation analysis was undertaken to correlate preoperative serum CA-125 with stage of disease (Stage I vs. Stage II+) after surgery. Patients' median preoperative serum CA-125 was 14 U/ml. A cutoff point of 30 U/ml was associated with the smallest misclassification error, and using this cutoff, 98 patients (14.9%) had elevated CA-125 levels. Of those, 36 (36.7%) had evidence of extra-uterine disease. Of the 116 patients (17.7%) with evidence of extra-uterine disease, 31.0% had an elevated CA-125 level. On univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis, only preoperative CA-125 level, but no other preoperative clinical characteristics were found to be associated with extra-uterine spread of disease. Utilizing a cutoff point of 30 U/ml achieved a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 31.0, 88.5, 36.7 and 85.7%, respectively. Elevated CA-125 above 30 U/ml in patients with apparent early-stage disease is a risk factor for the presence of extra-uterine disease and may assist clinicians in the management of patients with clinical Stage I endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  19. Clinicopathologic implications of DNA mismatch repair status in endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shikama, Ayumi; Minaguchi, Takeo; Matsumoto, Koji; Akiyama-Abe, Azusa; Nakamura, Yuko; Michikami, Hiroo; Nakao, Sari; Sakurai, Manabu; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Mamiko; Satoh, Toyomi; Oki, Akinori; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy in women with Lynch syndrome caused by mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. We investigated the clinicopathologic significance of deficient MMR and Lynch syndrome presumed by MMR analyses in unselected endometrial carcinomas. We analyzed immunohistochemistry of MMR proteins (MLH1/MSH2/MSH6/PMS2) and MLH1 promoter methylation in primary endometrial carcinomas from 221 consecutive patients. Based on these results, tumors were categorized as sporadic or probable Lynch syndrome (PLS). Clinicopathologic variables and prognosis were compared according to MMR status and sporadic/PLS classification. Deficient MMR showed only trends towards favorable overall survival (OS) compared with intact MMR (p=0.13), whereas PLS showed significantly better OS than sporadic (p=0.038). Sporadic was significantly associated with older age, obesity, deep myometrial invasion, and advanced stage (p=0.008, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03), while PLS was significantly associated with early stage and Lynch syndrome-associated multiple cancer (p=0.04 and 0.001). The trend towards favorable OS of PLS was stronger in advanced stage than in early stage (hazard ratio, 0.044 [95% CI 0-25.6] vs. 0.49 [0.063-3.8]). In the subset receiving adjuvant therapies, PLS showed trends towards favorable disease-free survival compared to sporadic by contrast with patients receiving no adjuvant therapies showing no such trend (hazard ratio, 0.045 [95% CI 0-20.3] vs. 0.81 [0.095-7.0]). The current findings suggest that analyzing MMR status and searching for Lynch syndrome may identify a subset of patients with favorable survival and high sensitivity to adjuvant therapies, providing novel and useful implications for formulating the precision medicine in endometrial carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thalidomide in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Endometrial Adenoacanthoma; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma

  1. FGFR2 alterations in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gatius, Sonia; Velasco, Ana; Azueta, Ainara; Santacana, Maria; Pallares, Judit; Valls, Joan; Dolcet, Xavier; Prat, Jaime; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in many biological processes such as embryogenesis, adult tissue homeostasis and cell proliferation. Mutations in FGFR2 have been reported in up to 10-12% of endometrial carcinomas identical to those found in congenital craniofacial disorders. Inhibition of FGFR2 could be a new therapeutic target in endometrial carcinoma. FGFR2 immunostaining was assessed in three tissue microarrays: one constructed from paraffin-embedded blocks of 60 samples of normal endometrium in different phases of menstrual cycle, and two tissue microarrays containing endometrial carcinoma samples (95 and 62 cases). FGFR2 expression was correlated with stage, histological type and grade as well as with immunostaining of PTEN, RASSF1A, estrogen and progesterone receptors, KI67, Cyclin D1, STAT-3 and SPRY2. FGFR2 mutations were assessed by PCR and direct sequencing, with DNA obtained from 31 paraffin-embedded endometrial carcinoma samples. In normal endometrium, FGFR2 expression was higher in the secretory than in the proliferative phase (P=0.001), with an inverse correlation with Ki67 (P=0.00032), suggesting a tumor-suppressor role for FGFR2 in normal endometrium. Cytoplasmic expression of FGFR2 was higher in endometrial carcinoma when compared with the atrophic endometrium from the same patients (P=0.0283), but was lower in comparison with normal endometrium from women in the menstrual cycle. Interestingly, nuclear staining was observed in some cases, and it was less frequent in endometrial carcinoma when compared with the adjacent atrophic endometrium (P=0.0465). There were no statistical differences when comparing superficial and myoinvasive endometrial carcinoma samples. Endometrioid endometrial carcinomas showed higher expression of FGFR2 than nonendometrioid endometrial carcinomas (fold change 2.56; P=0.0015). Grade III endometrioid endometrial carcinomas showed decreased FGFR2 expression when compared

  2. Megestrol Acetate or Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System in Treating Patients With Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia or Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-09

    Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVB Endometrial Carcinoma

  3. Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Cancer by Transumbilical Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery Versus Traditional Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui-hua; Liu, Mu-biao; He, Yuan-li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare the outcomes of transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (TU-LESS) versus traditional laparoscopic surgery (TLS) for early stage endometrial cancer (EC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with early stage EC who were surgically treated by TU-LESS or TLS between 2011 and 2014 in a tertiary care teaching hospital. We identified 18 EC patients who underwent TU-LESS. Propensity score matching was used to match this group with 18 EC patients who underwent TLS. All patients underwent laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy by TU-LESS or TLS without conversion to laparoscopy or laparotomy. Number of pelvic lymph nodes retrieved, operative time and estimated blood loss were comparable between 2 groups. Satisfaction values of the cosmetic outcome evaluated by the patient at day 30 after surgery were significantly higher in TU-LESS group than that in TLS group (9.6 ± 0.8 vs 7.5 ± 0.7, P < 0.001), while there was no statistical difference in postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery, postoperative hospital stay, and hospital cost. For the surgical management of early stage EC, TU-LESS may be a feasible alternative approach to TLS, with comparable short-term surgical outcomes and superior cosmetic outcome. Future large-scale prospective studies are needed to identify these benefits. PMID:27057851

  4. CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) mutation identifies low grade, early stage endometrial cancer patients at increased risk of recurrence.

    PubMed

    Kurnit, Katherine C; Kim, Grace N; Fellman, Bryan M; Urbauer, Diana L; Mills, Gordon B; Zhang, Wei; Broaddus, Russell R

    2017-07-01

    Although the majority of low grade, early stage endometrial cancer patients will have good survival outcomes with surgery alone, those patients who do recur tend to do poorly. Optimal identification of the subset of patients who are at high risk of recurrence and would benefit from adjuvant treatment has been difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of somatic tumor mutation on survival outcomes in this patient population. For this study, low grade was defined as endometrioid FIGO grades 1 or 2, while early stage was defined as endometrioid stages I or II (disease confined to the uterus). Next-generation sequencing was performed using panels comprised of 46-200 genes. Recurrence-free and overall survival was compared across gene mutational status in both univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 342 patients were identified, 245 of which had endometrioid histology. For grades 1-2, stages I-II endometrioid endometrial cancer patients, age (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), CTNNB1 mutation (HR 5.97, 95% CI 2.69-13.21), and TP53 mutation (HR 4.07, 95% CI 1.57-10.54) were associated with worse recurrence-free survival on multivariate analysis. When considering endometrioid tumors of all grades and stages, CTNNB1 mutant tumors were associated with significantly higher rates of grades 1-2 disease, lower rates of deep myometrial invasion, and lower rates of lymphatic/vascular space invasion. When both TP53 and CTNNB1 mutations were considered, presence of either TP53 mutation or CTNNB1 mutation remained a statistically significant predictor of recurrence-free survival on multivariate analysis and was associated with a more precise confidence interval (HR 4.69, 95% CI 2.38-9.24). Thus, mutational analysis of a 2 gene panel of CTNNB1 and TP53 can help to identify a subset of low grade, early stage endometrial cancer patients who are at high risk of recurrence.

  5. Psychosocial factors and mortality in women with early stage endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Telepak, Laura C; Jensen, Sally E; Dodd, Stacy M; Morgan, Linda S; Pereira, Deidre B

    2014-11-01

    Psychosocial factors have previously been linked with survival and mortality in cancer populations. Little evidence is available about the relationship between these factors and outcomes in gynaecologic cancer populations, particularly endometrial cancer, the fourth most common cancer among women. This study examined the relationship between several psychosocial factors prior to surgical resection and risk of all-cause mortality in women with endometrial cancer. The study utilized a non-experimental, longitudinal design. Participants were 87 women (Mage  = 60.69 years, SDage  = 9.12 years) who were diagnosed with T1N0-T3N2 endometrial cancer and subsequently underwent surgery. Participants provided psychosocial data immediately prior to surgery. Survival statuses 4-5 years post-diagnoses were abstracted via medical record review. Cox regression was employed for the survival analysis. Of the 87 women in this sample, 21 women died during the 4- to 5-year follow-up. Adjusting for age, presence of regional disease and medical comorbidity severity (known biomedical prognostic factors), greater use of an active coping style prior to surgery was significantly associated with a lower probability of all-cause mortality, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.78, p = .04. Life stress, depressive symptoms, use of self-distraction coping, receipt of emotional support and endometrial cancer quality of life prior to surgery were not significantly associated with all-cause mortality 4-5 years following diagnosis. Greater use of active coping prior to surgery for suspected endometrial cancer is associated with lower probability of all-cause mortality 4-5 years post-surgery. Future research should attempt to replicate these relationships in a larger and more representative sample and examine potential behavioural and neuroendocrine/immune mediators of this relationship. What is already known on this subject? Psychosocial factors have previously been linked with clinical outcomes in a

  6. Clinical and dosimetric implications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Matthew Christopher, E-mail: wardm3@ccf.org; Pham, Yvonne D.; Kotecha, Rupesh

    2016-04-01

    Conventional parallel-opposed radiotherapy (PORT) is the established standard technique for early-stage glottic carcinoma. However, case reports have reported the utility of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with or without image guidance (image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT) in select patients. The proposed advantages of IMRT/VMAT include sparing of the carotid artery, thyroid gland, and the remaining functional larynx, although these benefits remain unclear. The following case study presents a patient with multiple vascular comorbidities treated with VMAT for early-stage glottic carcinoma. A detailed explanation of the corresponding treatment details, dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis, and a review of the relevant literaturemore » are provided. Conventional PORT remains the standard of care for early-stage glottic carcinoma. IMRT or VMAT may be beneficial for select patients, although great care is necessary to avoid a geographical miss. Clinical data supporting the benefit of CRT are lacking. Therefore, these techniques should be used with caution and only in selected patients.« less

  7. Molecular genetic heterogeneity in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Rosa, Juan M; Leskelä, Susanna; Cristóbal-Lana, Eva; Santón, Almudena; López-García, Ma Ángeles; Muñoz, Gloria; Pérez-Mies, Belen; Biscuola, Michele; Prat, Jaime; Esther, Oliva E; Soslow, Robert A; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Palacios, Jose

    2016-11-01

    Undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are rare and highly aggressive subtypes of uterine cancer, not well characterized at a molecular level. To investigate whether dedifferentiated carcinomas carry molecular genetic alterations similar to those of pure undifferentiated carcinomas, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of these tumors, we selected a cohort of 18 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, 8 of them with a well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma component (dedifferentiated endometrioid carcinomas), and studied them by immunohistochemistry and massive parallel and Sanger sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing of the endometrioid and undifferentiated components, as well as normal myometrium, was also carried out in one case. According to The Cancer Genome Atlas classification, we distributed 95% of the undifferentiated carcinomas in this series as follows: (a) hypermutated tumors with loss of any mismatch repair protein expression and microsatellite instability (eight cases, 45%); (b) ultramutated carcinomas carrying mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE (two cases, 11%); (c) high copy number alterations (copy-number high) tumors group exhibiting only TP53 mutations and high number of alterations detected by FISH (two cases, 11%); and (d) low copy number alterations (copy-number low) tumors with molecular alterations typical of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (five cases, 28%). Two of the latter cases, however, also had TP53 mutations and higher number of alterations detected by FISH and could have progressed to a copy-number high phenotype. Most dedifferentiated carcinomas belonged to the hypermutated group, whereas pure undifferentiated carcinomas shared molecular genetic alterations with copy-number low or copy-number high tumors. These results indicate that undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are molecularly heterogeneous tumors, which may have prognostic value.

  8. Molecular genetic heterogeneity in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Rosa, J.M.; Leskelä, S.; Cristóbal-Lana, E.; Santón, A.; López-García, M.A.; Muñoz, G.; Pérez-Mies, B.; Biscuola, M; Prat, J.; Oliva, E.; Soslow, R.A.; Matias-Guiu, X.; Palacios, J.

    2017-01-01

    Undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are rare and highly aggressive subtypes of uterine cancer, not well characterized at a molecular level. To investigate whether dedifferentiated carcinomas carry molecular genetic alterations similar to those of pure undifferentiated carcinomas, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of these tumours, we selected a cohort of 18 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, 8 of them with a well differentiated endometrioid carcinoma component (dedifferentiated endometrioid carcinomas), and studied them by immunohistochemistry and massive parallel and Sanger sequencing. Whole exome sequencing of the endometrioid and undifferentiated components as well as normal myometrium, was also carried out in one case. According to The Cancer Genome Atlas classification, we distributed 95% of the undifferentiated carcinomas in this series as follows: a) hypermutated tumours with loss of any mismatch repair protein expression and microsatellite instability (eight cases, 45%); b) ultramutated carcinomas carrying mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE (two cases, 11%); c) high copy number alterations (copy-number high) tumours group exhibiting only TP53 mutations and high number of alterations detected by FISH (two cases, 11%) ; and d) low copy number alterations (copy-number low) tumours with molecular alterations typical of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (five cases, 28%). Two of the latter cases, however, also had TP53 mutations and higher number of alterations detected by FISH and could have progressed to a copy-number high phenotype. Most dedifferentiated carcinomas belonged to the hypermutated group whereas pure undifferentiated carcinomas shared molecular genetic alterations with copy-number low or copy-number high tumours. These results indicate that undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are molecularly heterogeneous tumours, which may have prognostic value. PMID:27491810

  9. [Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

    PubMed

    Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular approaches for classifying endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Piulats, Josep M; Guerra, Esther; Gil-Martín, Marta; Roman-Canal, Berta; Gatius, Sonia; Sanz-Pamplona, Rebeca; Velasco, Ana; Vidal, August; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common cancer of the female genital tract. This review article discusses the usefulness of molecular techniques to classify endometrial carcinoma. Any proposal for molecular classification of neoplasms should integrate morphological features of the tumors. For that reason, we start with the current histological classification of endometrial carcinoma, by discussing the correlation between genotype and phenotype, and the most significant recent improvements. Then, we comment on some of the possible flaws of this classification, by discussing also the value of molecular pathology in improving them, including interobserver variation in pathologic interpretation of high grade tumors. Third, we discuss the importance of applying TCGA molecular approach to clinical practice. We also comment on the impact of intratumor heterogeneity in classification, and finally, we will discuss briefly, the usefulness of TCGA classification in tailoring immunotherapy in endometrial cancer patients. We suggest combining pathologic classification and the surrogate TCGA molecular classification for high-grade endometrial carcinomas, as an option to improve assessment of prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dilatation and curettage is more accurate than endometrial aspiration biopsy in early-stage endometrial cancer patients treated with high dose oral progestin and levonorgestrel intrauterine system

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine whether less invasive endometrial (EM) aspiration biopsy is adequately accurate for evaluating treatment outcomes compared to the dilatation and curettage (D&C) biopsy in early-stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with high dose oral progestin and levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). Methods We conducted a prospective observational study with patients younger than 40 years who were diagnosed with clinical stage IA, The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 1 or 2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma and sought to maintain their fertility. The patients were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate 500 mg/day and LNG-IUS. Treatment responses were evaluated every 3 months. EM aspiration biopsy was conducted after LNG-IUS removal followed D&C. The tissue samples were histologically compared. The diagnostic concordance rate of the two tests was examined with κ statistics. Results Twenty-eight pairs of EM samples were obtained from five patients. The diagnostic concordance rate of D&C and EM aspiration biopsy was 39.3% (κ value=0.26). Of the seven samples diagnosed as normal with D&C, three (42.8%) were diagnosed as normal by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the eight samples diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma by using D&C, three (37.5%) were diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the 13 complex EM hyperplasia samples diagnosed with the D&C, five (38.5%) were diagnosed with EM hyperplasia by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the samples obtained through EM aspiration, 46.4% were insufficient for histological evaluation. Conclusion To evaluate the treatment responses of patients with early-stage EC treated with high dose oral progestin and LNG-IUS, D&C should be conducted after LNG-IUS removal. PMID:27670255

  12. Dilatation and curettage is more accurate than endometrial aspiration biopsy in early-stage endometrial cancer patients treated with high dose oral progestin and levonorgestrel intrauterine system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Hee; Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Bae, Hyo Sook; Kim, Mi La; Yun, Bo Seong; Jung, Yong Wook; Shim, Jeong Yun

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether less invasive endometrial (EM) aspiration biopsy is adequately accurate for evaluating treatment outcomes compared to the dilatation and curettage (D&C) biopsy in early-stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with high dose oral progestin and levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). We conducted a prospective observational study with patients younger than 40 years who were diagnosed with clinical stage IA, The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 1 or 2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma and sought to maintain their fertility. The patients were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate 500 mg/day and LNG-IUS. Treatment responses were evaluated every 3 months. EM aspiration biopsy was conducted after LNG-IUS removal followed D&C. The tissue samples were histologically compared. The diagnostic concordance rate of the two tests was examined with κ statistics. Twenty-eight pairs of EM samples were obtained from five patients. The diagnostic concordance rate of D&C and EM aspiration biopsy was 39.3% (κ value=0.26). Of the seven samples diagnosed as normal with D&C, three (42.8%) were diagnosed as normal by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the eight samples diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma by using D&C, three (37.5%) were diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the 13 complex EM hyperplasia samples diagnosed with the D&C, five (38.5%) were diagnosed with EM hyperplasia by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the samples obtained through EM aspiration, 46.4% were insufficient for histological evaluation. To evaluate the treatment responses of patients with early-stage EC treated with high dose oral progestin and LNG-IUS, D&C should be conducted after LNG-IUS removal.

  13. Ovarian Conservation and Overall Survival in Young Women With Early-Stage Low-Grade Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Machida, Hiroko; Shoupe, Donna; Melamed, Alexander; Muderspach, Laila I; Roman, Lynda D; Wright, Jason D

    2016-10-01

    To characterize contributing factors for ovarian conservation during surgical treatment for endometrial cancer and to examine the association of ovarian conservation on survival of young women with early-stage, low-grade tumors. This was a population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify surgically treated stage I type I (grade 1-2 endometrioid histology) endometrial cancer cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2012 (N=86,005). Multivariable models were used to identify independent factors for ovarian conservation. Survival outcomes and cause of death were examined for women aged younger than 50 with stage I type I endometrial cancer who underwent ovarian conservation (1,242 among 12,860 women [9.7%]). On multivariable analysis, age younger than 50 years, grade 1 endometrioid histology, and tumor size 2.0 cm or less were noted to be independent factors for ovarian conservation (all, P<.001). For 9,110 women aged younger than 50 years with stage I grade 1 tumors, cause-specific survival was similar between ovarian conservation and oophorectomy cases (20-year rates 98.9% compared with 97.7%, P=.31), whereas overall survival was significantly higher in ovarian conservation cases than oophorectomy cases (88.8% compared with 82.0%, P=.011). On multivariable analysis, ovarian conservation remained an independent prognostic factor for improved overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.98, P=.036) and was independently associated with a lower cumulative risk of death resulting from cardiovascular disease compared with oophorectomy (20-year rates, 2.3% compared with 3.7%, adjusted hazard ratio 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.91, P=.029). Contrary, cause-specific survival (20-year rates 94.6% compared with 96.1%, P=.68) and overall survival (81.0% compared with 80.6%, P=.91) were similar between ovarian conservation and oophorectomy among 3,750 women aged younger than 50 years with stage I grade 2 tumors

  14. Phenotypic Intratumoral Heterogeneity of Endometrial Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cátia; Pires-Luís, Ana S; Rocha, Eduardo; Bartosch, Carla; Lopes, José M

    2018-03-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity has been shown to play an important role in diagnostic accuracy, development of treatment resistance, and prognosis of cancer patients. Recent studies have proposed quantitative measurement of phenotypic intratumoral heterogeneity, but no study is yet available in endometrial carcinomas. In our study we evaluated the phenotypic intratumoral heterogeneity of a consecutive series of 10 endometrial carcinomas using measures of dispersion and diversity. Morphometric architectural (%tumor cells, %solid tumor, %differentiated tumor, and %lumens) and nuclear [volume-weighted mean nuclear volume ((Equation is included in full-text article.))] parameters, as well as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53, vimentin, and beta-catenin immunoexpression (H-score) were digitally analyzed in 20 microscopic fields per carcinoma. Quantitative measures of intratumoral heterogeneity included coefficient of variation (CV) and relative quadratic entropy (rQE). In each endometrial carcinoma there was slight variation of architecture from field to field, resulting in globally low levels of heterogeneity measures (mean CV %tumor cells: 0.10, %solid tumor: 0.73, %differentiated tumor: 0.19, %lumens: 0.61 and mean rQE %tumor cells: 18.5, %solid tumor: 20.3, %differentiated tumor: 25.6, %lumens: 21.8). Nuclear intratumoral heterogeneity was also globally low (mean (Equation is included in full-text article.)CV: 0.23 and rQE: 27.3), but significantly higher than the heterogeneity of architectural parameters within most carcinomas. In general, there was low to moderate variability of immunoexpression markers within each carcinoma, but estrogen receptor (mean CV: 0.56 and rQE: 46.2) and progesterone receptor (mean CV: 0.60 and rQE: 39.3) displayed the highest values of heterogeneity measures. Intratumoral heterogeneity of immunoexpression was significantly higher than that observed for morphometric parameters. In conclusion, our study indicates that endometrial

  15. Expression of immune checkpoint molecules in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JIA; LIU, YULING; WANG, WULIANG; WANG, CHENYANG; CHE, YANHONG

    2015-01-01

    The main obstacle in the development of an effective tumor vaccine is the inherent ability of tumors to evade immune responses. Tumors often use common immune mechanisms and regulators to evade the immune system. The present study aimed to analyze the expression levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), programmed death-ligand (PD-L) 1, PD-L2, B7-H4, galectin-1 and galectin-3 in tissue samples from patients with endometrial carcinoma, in order to detect the immunosuppressive environment of endometrial carcinomas. The levels of IDO, PD-L1, PD-L2 and B7-H4 were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods, and the levels of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in tumor lysates were determined using ELISA. PD-L2 was expressed at low levels in the majority of tumor samples. IDO expression was detected in 38, 63 and 43% of primary endometrial carcinoma, recurrent endometrial carcinoma, and metastatic endometrial carcinoma specimens, respectively. Positive expression rates for PD-L1 were 83% in primary endometrial carcinoma, 68% in recurrent endometrial carcinoma, and 100% in metastatic endometrial carcinoma, whereas B7-H4 expression was detected in 100% of both primary endometrial carcinoma and recurrent endometrial carcinoma samples, and in 96% of metastatic endometrial carcinoma specimens. The expression levels of galectin-1 and galectin-3 were not significantly different between the normal and tumor specimens. The results of the present study suggest that the interaction between PD-1/PD-L1 and B7-H4 may be a potential target for immune intervention in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma. Furthermore, the results may provide the basis for immunosuppressant therapy in the treatment of patients with uterine cancer. PMID:26640578

  16. [Endometrial carcinomas and precursor lesions--new aspects].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, D

    2009-07-01

    Endometrial carcinomas can be separated into two groups which are designated as type I and type II carcinomas today. Both groups of tumors are clearly different with regard to conventional light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, molecular pathology and clinical features. Only type I carcinomas are associated with hyperestrogenism. The group of type I carcinomas consists of endometrioid carcinoma and its variants, and mucinous carcinoma. The prototypes of type II carcinomas are serous and clear cell carcinoma. Not all carcinomas, however, can be assigned to one of the two groups, because there are hybrid tumors and mixed carcinomas, e.g. endometrioid carcinoma with a serous component. The precursor lesions of the endometrioid carcinoma and the serous carcinoma are well characterized morphologically and by molecular pathology. Atypical hyperplasia is the precursor lesion of endometrioid carcinoma, whereas endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) is the precursor lesion of serous carcinoma. No precursor lesion has as yet been identified for clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endometrial carcinoma are CK7 and vimentin, for serous carcinoma markers are p53 and p16. Correct typing is of essential prognostic necessity in endometrial carcinoma. Of utmost importance is the detection of a serous component, because serous carcinoma leads to early tumor spread with the necessity of radical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  17. Implications of a two-step procedure in surgical management of patients with early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bleu, Géraldine; Merlot, Benjamin; Boulanger, Loïc; Vinatier, Denis; Kerdraon, Olivier; Collinet, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Objective Since European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) recommendations and French guidelines, pelvic lymphadenectomy should not be systematically performed for women with early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) preoperatively assessed at presumed low- or intermediate-risk. The aim of our study was to evaluate the change of our surgical practices after ESMO recommendations, and to evaluate the rate and morbidity of second surgical procedure in case of understaging after the first surgery. Methods This retrospective single-center study included women with EEC preoperatively assessed at presumed low- or intermediate-risk who had surgery between 2006 and 2013. Two periods were defined the times before and after ESMO recommendations. Demographics characteristics, surgical management, operative morbidity, and rate of understaging were compared. The rate of second surgical procedure required for lymph node resection during the second period and its morbidity were also studied. Results Sixty-one and sixty-two patients were operated for EEC preoperatively assessed at presumed low-or intermediate-risk before and after ESMO recommendations, respectively. Although immediate pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed more frequently during the first period than the second period (88.5% vs. 19.4%; p<0.001), the rate of postoperative risk-elevating or upstaging were comparable between the two periods (31.1% vs. 27.4%; p=0.71). Among the patients requiring second surgical procedure during the second period (21.0%), 30.8% did not undergo the second surgery due to their comorbidity or old age. For the patients who underwent second surgical procedure, mean operative time of the second procedure was 246.1±117.8 minutes. Third operation was required in 33.3% of them because of postoperative complications. Conclusion Since ESMO recommendations, second surgical procedure for lymph node resection is often required for women with EEC presumed at low- or intermediate-risk. This

  18. Controversies in the Management of Endometrial Carcinoma: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Mehasseb, Mohamed K.; Latimer, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the commonest type of female genital tract malignancy in the developed countries. Endometrial carcinoma is usually confined to the uterus at the time of diagnosis and as such usually carries an excellent prognosis with high curability. Our understanding and management of endometrial cancer have continuously developed. Current controversies focus on screening and early detection, the extent of nodal surgery, and the changing roles of radiation therapy and chemotherapy and will be discussed in this paper. PMID:22518164

  19. Results and survival after photodynamic therapy in early-stage esophageal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Mancini, Andrea; Dal Fante, Marco; Meroni, Emmanuele; Jasinskas, Algirdas

    1996-01-01

    From January 1985 to December 1994, 23 early stage carcinomas of the esophagus were treated by photodynamic therapy in 21 patients. The stage of the tumors was assessed by esophagoscopy with multiple biopsies, CT scan and, from June 1991, also by endoscopic ultrasonography: 7 lesions were classified as carcinoma in situ (Tis) and 16 as invasive (T1). The photosensitizers used for PDT were hematoporphyrin derivative 3 mg/kg in 4 patients and dihematoporphyrin ether 2 mg/kg in 17. Light irradiation was performed using an Argon-dye laser system at a wavelength of 630 nm with an average energy of 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. A complete response was achieved in 17/23 (74%) tumors, 15/21 (71%) patients. In the follow-up period from 6 to 78 months (median 36 months) 3 recurrences occurred 6, 12, and 14 months after PDT, respectively. Seven patients died due to concomitant diseases, not related to tumor progression. The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 75% and 37% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications included 1 case of sunburn and 2 cases of esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage.

  20. Histologic and immunohistochemical analyses of endometrial carcinomas: experiences from endometrial biopsies in 358 consultation cases.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian-Jun; Paintal, Ajit; Keh, Pacita

    2013-11-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma is biologically more aggressive than the endometrioid carcinoma. Because uterine serous carcinoma has a high propensity for lymphovascular invasion and intraperitoneal and extra-abdominal spread, accurate diagnosis of this tumor type in endometrial biopsies/curettings is critical for appropriate clinical management. To share our experience in the evaluation of endometrial biopsy specimens in type I and type II endometrial adenocarcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 358 biopsies containing endometrial carcinoma during a recent 3 year period of our consultation records. In cases in which our interpretation differed from the submitting diagnosis, a panel of immunostains was performed. The performance characteristics of each antibody in our panel was calculated in this group of challenging cases. Among the endometrial carcinomas we examined, a diagnosis of type I carcinoma accounted for 91% of cases (327 of 358) and type II carcinoma for 9% of cases (31 of 358); 41 cases (11.5%) were ambiguous or discordant (differing from submitted diagnoses and reviewed) based on histology alone. All 41 ambiguous and discordant cases were further evaluated with a battery of immunohistochemical markers. Of the 41 cases, 36 (88%) were ultimately classified (10 cases [24%] were endometrioid carcinoma; 18 cases [44%] were uterine serous carcinoma; 8 cases [20%] resulted in various other outcomes) and 5 cases (12%) remained indeterminate. Making the distinction between type I and II endometrial carcinoma remains a common problem in general practice. Although no one biomarker provides excellent statistical performance, a panel of immunohistochemical markers is often useful in difficult cases.

  1. Targeted mutation analysis of endometrial clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lien N; McConechy, Melissa K; Meng, Bo; McIntyre, John B; Ewanowich, Carol; Gilks, Cyril Blake; Huntsman, David G; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2015-04-01

    Endometrial clear cell carcinomas (CCC) constitute fewer than 5% of all carcinomas of the endometrium. Currently, little is known regarding the genetic basis of endometrial CCC. We performed genomic and immunohistochemical analyses on 14 rigorously reviewed pure endometrial CCC. The genomic analysis consisted of sequencing the coding regions of 26 genes implicated previously in endometrial carcinoma. Twelve of 14 tumours displayed a prototypical CCC immunophenotype [napsin A+, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF1β(+) ) and oestrogen receptor(-) ] and all showed intact mismatch repair protein expression. We detected mutations in 11 of 14 tumours, and there was a predominance of mutations involving genes that are mutated more frequently in endometrial serous carcinomas than in endometrioid carcinomas. Two tumours displayed a prototypical serous carcinoma mutation profile (concurrent TP53 and PPP2R1A mutations, without PTEN, CTNNB1 or ARID1A mutation). No mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1 or POLE were identified. The overall mutation profile of this cohort of endometrial CCC appears to be more serous-like than endometrioid-like, with a minor subset in the TP53-mutated CCC showing serous carcinoma profile. These findings provide new insights into the molecular features of morphologically prototypical endometrial CCC, and underscore the need for further investigations into the oncogenesis of endometrial CCC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Immunohistochemical Study of ER, PR, Ki67 and p53 in Endometrial Hyperplasias and Endometrial Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Masjeed, Nayar Musfera Abdul; Joshi, Avinash R; Kulkarni, Maithili Mandar; Pandya, Nidhi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial carcinoma is the second most common gynecologic malignancy in the developing countries. Endometrial Hyperplasia (EH) is a precursor to Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma (EMAC). A 23% of Atypical Hyperplasias (AEH) progress to EMAC. Aim This study was undertaken to analyse ER, PR, p53 and Ki67 in EH and endometrial carcinomas and attempt correlation with clinical and histopathological findings. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted over a period of seven years. A manual tissue array technique was employed for cases subjected to IHC. Analysis of the expression of IHC markers (ER, PR, p53, Ki67) in EH and endometrial carcinoma was attempted. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. The results were considered to be significant when the p-value <0.05. Results A total of 85 cases of EH and 28 cases of endometrial carcinoma were included in the study. EH (75.22%) was more common than endometrial carcinoma (24.78%). Among 28 cases of endometrial carcinomas, EMAC was most common (78.57%) followed by Clear Cell Carcinoma (CCC) (14.28%), and Uterine Serous Carcinoma (USC) (7.14%). ER and PR expression decreased as lesion progressed from EH to EMAC. ER and PR expression was negative in USC and CCC. The p53 expression and mean Ki67 labelling index increased as the severity of lesion increased from EH to endometrial carcinoma. Conclusion The ER, PR, p53, Ki67 IHC markers may be included in every case of endometrial carcinoma to understand the tumour biological behavior which in turn could help individual treatment strategies. PMID:28969139

  3. Immunohistochemical Study of ER, PR, Ki67 and p53 in Endometrial Hyperplasias and Endometrial Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Masjeed, Nayar Musfera Abdul; Khandeparkar, Siddhi Gaurish Sinai; Joshi, Avinash R; Kulkarni, Maithili Mandar; Pandya, Nidhi

    2017-08-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the second most common gynecologic malignancy in the developing countries. Endometrial Hyperplasia (EH) is a precursor to Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma (EMAC). A 23% of Atypical Hyperplasias (AEH) progress to EMAC. This study was undertaken to analyse ER, PR, p53 and Ki67 in EH and endometrial carcinomas and attempt correlation with clinical and histopathological findings. The present study was conducted over a period of seven years. A manual tissue array technique was employed for cases subjected to IHC. Analysis of the expression of IHC markers (ER, PR, p53, Ki67) in EH and endometrial carcinoma was attempted. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. The results were considered to be significant when the p-value <0.05. A total of 85 cases of EH and 28 cases of endometrial carcinoma were included in the study. EH (75.22%) was more common than endometrial carcinoma (24.78%). Among 28 cases of endometrial carcinomas, EMAC was most common (78.57%) followed by Clear Cell Carcinoma (CCC) (14.28%), and Uterine Serous Carcinoma (USC) (7.14%). ER and PR expression decreased as lesion progressed from EH to EMAC. ER and PR expression was negative in USC and CCC. The p53 expression and mean Ki67 labelling index increased as the severity of lesion increased from EH to endometrial carcinoma. The ER, PR, p53, Ki67 IHC markers may be included in every case of endometrial carcinoma to understand the tumour biological behavior which in turn could help individual treatment strategies.

  4. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of early-stage cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Diaz, John P; Gemignani, Mary L; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Park, Kay J; Murray, Melissa P; Chi, Dennis S; Sonoda, Yukio; Barakat, Richard R; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R

    2011-03-01

    We aimed to determine the sentinel lymph node detection rates, accuracy in predicting the status of lymph node metastasis, and if pathologic ultrastaging improves the detection of micrometastases and isolated tumor cells at the time of primary surgery for cervical cancer. A prospective, non-randomized study of women with early-stage (FIGO stage IA1 with lymphovascular space involvement--IIA) cervical carcinoma was conducted from June 2003 to August 2009. All patients underwent an intraoperative intracervical blue dye injection. Patients who underwent a preoperative lymphoscintigraphy received a 99m Tc sulfur colloid injection in addition. All patients underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification followed by a complete pelvic node and parametrial dissection. SLN were evaluated using our institutional protocol that included pathologic ultrastaging. SLN mapping was successful in 77 (95%) of 81 patients. A total of 316 SLN were identified, with a median of 3 SLN per patient (range, 0-10 SLN). The majority (85%) of SLN were located at three main sites: the external iliac (35%); internal iliac (30%); and obturator (20%). Positive lymph nodes (LN) were identified in 26 (32%) patients, including 21 patients with positive SLN. Fifteen of 21 patients (71%) had SLN metastasis detected on routine processing. SLN ultrastaging detected metastasis in an additional 6/21 patients (29%). Two patients had grossly positive LN at exploration, and mapping was abandoned. Three of 26 (12%) patients had successful SLN mapping; however, the SLN failed to identify the metastatic LN. Of these 3 false negative cases, 2 patients had a metastatic parametrial node as the only positive LN with multiple negative pelvic nodes including negative SLN. One patient with stage IA1 disease and lymphovascular invasion had unilateral SLN mapping and a metastatic common iliac LN identified on completion lymphadenectomy of the contralateral side that did not map. The 4 (5%) patients with unsuccessful

  5. Racial Disparities in Recurrence Among Patients with Early Stage Endometrial Cancer: Is Recurrence Increased in Black Patients on Estrogen Replacement Therapy?: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, G. Larry; Tian, Chunqiao; Risinger, John I; Hamilton, Chad A.; Barakat, Richard R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Population-based studies suggest that Black women with localized endometrial cancer have shorter survival compared to White patients because of inequalities in treatment. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if there is a racial disparity in outcome between Black and White patients with early stage endometrial cancer treated similarly in a clinical trial setting. Methods A retrospective review of 110 Black and 1049 White patients with stage I and II endometrial cancer was performed using data from a randomized, placebo controlled trial performed by the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) that evaluated postoperative estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and the risk of cancer recurrence. Demographic, pathologic, treatment and outcome related data were collected and analyzed using regression and survival analysis. Results Estimates of recurrence-free survival (RFS) suggested that Black patients may be more likely to have disease recurrence, particularly those on ERT. Within a median follow-up of three years, 5 of 56 Black endometrial cancer patients in the ERT group were identified with recurrent disease compared to only 8 of 521 White patients. Adjusted for age, BMI and tumor grade, the relative risk of recurrence among Blacks in the ERT group was 11.2 (95% CI: 2.86-43.59, p=0.0005). Conclusions Our findings suggest that RFS may be shorter among Black women with stage I endometrial cancer, even in a clinical trials setting in which patients receive similar treatment and followup. This increased risk of recurrence appears to be most evident in Black women with endometrial cancer who maintain ERT following primary treatment. PMID:18698590

  6. Gene Expression Analysis of Early Stage Endometrial Cancers Reveals Unique Transcripts Associated with Grade and Histology but Not Depth of Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Risinger, John I.; Allard, Jay; Chandran, Uma; Day, Roger; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V. R.; Miller, Caela; Zahn, Christopher; Oliver, Julie; Litzi, Tracy; Marcus, Charlotte; Dubil, Elizabeth; Byrd, Kevin; Cassablanca, Yovanni; Becich, Michael; Berchuck, Andrew; Darcy, Kathleen M.; Hamilton, Chad A.; Conrads, Thomas P.; Maxwell, G. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States but it remains poorly understood at the molecular level. This investigation was conducted to specifically assess whether gene expression changes underlie the clinical and pathologic factors traditionally used for determining treatment regimens in women with stage I endometrial cancer. These include the effect of tumor grade, depth of myometrial invasion and histotype. We utilized oligonucleotide microarrays to assess the transcript expression profile in epithelial glandular cells laser microdissected from 79 endometrioid and 12 serous stage I endometrial cancers with a heterogeneous distribution of grade and depth of myometrial invasion, along with 12 normal post-menopausal endometrial samples. Unsupervised multidimensional scaling analyses revealed that serous and endometrioid stage I cancers have similar transcript expression patterns when compared to normal controls where 900 transcripts were identified to be differentially expressed by at least fourfold (univariate t-test, p < 0.001) between the cancers and normal endometrium. This analysis also identified transcript expression differences between serous and endometrioid cancers and tumor grade, but no apparent differences were identified as a function of depth of myometrial invasion. Four genes were validated by quantitative PCR on an independent set of cancer and normal endometrium samples. These findings indicate that unique gene expression profiles are associated with histologic type and grade, but not myometrial invasion among early stage endometrial cancers. These data provide a comprehensive perspective on the molecular alterations associated with stage I endometrial cancer, particularly those subtypes that have the worst prognosis. PMID:23785665

  7. Quantitative Tissue Proteomics Analysis Reveals Versican as Potential Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Naboulsi, Wael; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Voss, Don Marvin; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-01-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors, and the treatment outcome of this disease is improved when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. This requires biomarkers allowing an accurate and early tumor diagnosis. To identify potential markers for such applications, we analyzed a patient cohort consisting of 50 patients (50 HCC and 50 adjacent nontumorous tissue samples as controls) using two independent proteomics approaches. We performed label-free discovery analysis on 19 HCC and corresponding tissue samples. The data were analyzed considering events known to take place in early events of HCC development, such as abnormal regulation of Wnt/b-catenin and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). 31 proteins were selected for verification experiments. For this analysis, the second set of the patient cohort (31 HCC and corresponding tissue samples) was analyzed using selected (multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM). We present the overexpression of ATP-dependent RNA helicase (DDX39), Fibulin-5 (FBLN5), myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), and Serpin H1 (SERPINH1) in HCC for the first time. We demonstrate Versican core protein (VCAN) to be significantly associated with well differentiated and low-stage HCC. We revealed for the first time the evidence of VCAN as a potential biomarker for early-HCC diagnosis.

  8. Stromal signatures in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Iñigo; Catasus, Lluis; D' Angelo, Emanuela; Mozos, Ana; Pedrola, Nuria; Bértolo, Cristina; Ferrer, Irene; Zannoni, Gian Franco; West, Robert B; van de Rijn, Matt; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Prat, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    The pattern of myometrial invasion in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas varies considerably; ie, from widely scattered glands and cell nests, often associated with a fibromyxoid stromal reaction (desmoplasia) and/or a lymphocytic infiltrate, to invasive glands with little or no stromal response. Recently, two distinct stromal signatures derived from a macrophage response (colony-stimulating factor 1, CSF1) and a fibroblastic response (desmoid-type fibromatosis, DTF) were identified in breast carcinomas and correlated with clinicopathologic features including outcome. In this study, we explored whether these stromal signatures also apply to endometrioid carcinomas and how their expression patterns correlated with morphologic changes. We studied the stromal signatures both by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in 98 primary endometrioid carcinomas with (87 cases) and without (11 cases) myometrial invasion as well as in the corresponding regional lymph nodes metatases of 9 myoinvasive tumors. Desmoplasia correlated positively with the DTF expression signature. Likewise, mononuclear infiltrates were found in the stroma of tumors expressing CSF1. Twenty-four out of eighty-seven (27%) myoinvasive endometrioid carcinomas were positive for the macrophage signature and thirteen out of eighty-seven (15%) expressed the fibroblast signature. Eleven additional cases were positive for both DTF and CSF1 signatures (11/87; 13%). However, over half of the cases (39/87; 45%) and the majority of the non-myoinvasive tumors (8/11; 73%) failed to express any of the two stromal signatures. The macrophage response (CSF1) was associated with higher tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and PIK3CA mutations (P<0.05). There was a concordance in the expression of the CSF1 signature in the primary tumors and their corresponding lymph node metastases. This study is the first characterization of stromal signatures in endometrioid carcinomas. Our findings shed new light on the

  9. Adjuvant Therapy in Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Evidence, Guidelines, and Clinical Practice in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Nawar A.; Haggerty, Ashley; Jean, Stephanie; Lin, Lilie

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the U.S., with an increasing incidence likely secondary to the obesity epidemic. Surgery is usually the primary treatment for early stage endometrial cancer, followed by adjuvant therapy in selected cases. This includes radiation therapy [RT] with or without chemotherapy, based on stratification of patients into categories dependent on their future recurrence risk. Several prospective trials (PORTEC-1, GOG#99, and PORTEC-2) have shown that the use of adjuvant RT in the intermediate risk (IR) and the high-intermediate risk (HIR) groups decreases locoregional recurrence (LRR) but has no effect on overall survival. The ad hoc analyses from these studies have shown that an even larger LRR risk reduction was seen within the HIR group compared with the IR group. Vaginal brachytherapy is as good as external beam radiotherapy in controlling vaginal relapse where the majority of recurrence occur, and with less toxicity. In the high-risk group, multimodality therapy (chemotherapy and RT) may play a significant role. Although adjuvant RT has been evaluated in many cost-effectiveness studies, high-quality data in this area are still lacking. The uptake of the above prospective trial results in the U.S. has not been promising. Factors that are driving current practices and defining quality-of-care measures for patients with early-stage disease are what future studies need to address. PMID:24821823

  10. Radiation Segmentectomy versus Selective Chemoembolization in the Treatment of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Derek M; Titano, Joseph J; Korff, Ricki A; Fischman, Aaron M; Patel, Rahul S; Nowakowski, Francis S; Lookstein, Robert A; Kim, Edward

    2018-01-01

    To compare outcomes of radiation segmentectomy (RS) and segmental transarterial chemoembolization in treatment of unresectable, solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ≤ 3 cm. From January 2012 to January 2016, 534 and 877 patients were treated with radioembolization and transarterial chemoembolization, respectively. A cohort of 112 (radiation segmentectomy [RS], 55; chemoembolization, 57) locoregional therapy-naïve patients with solitary HCC ≤ 3 cm without vascular invasion or metastasis was retrospectively identified and stratified according to baseline patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and laboratory values. Propensity score matching (PSM) was conducted using a nearest neighbor algorithm (1:1). Outcomes analyzed included laboratory toxicities, imaging response, time to secondary therapy (TTST), and overall survival. Before PSM, complete response (CR) rate was 81.2% for RS and 49.1% for chemoembolization (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.3; P < .001). Median (95% CI) TTST after initial therapy was 246 days (135-250 d) in chemoembolization group and 700 days (308-812 d) in RS group (hazard ratio 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.92; P = .009). Overall survival before PSM was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .29). Overall CR rate after PSM was 92.1% in RS group and 52.6% in chemoembolization group (P = .005). Median (95% CI) TTST after matching was 161 days (76-350 d) in chemoembolization group and 812 days (363-812 d) in RS group (P = .001). Overall survival after matching was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .71). RS results in improved imaging response and longer TTST compared with transarterial chemoembolization in treatment of early-stage HCC. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Involved-Field, Low-Dose Chemoradiotherapy for Early-Stage Anal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, Paul; Cooper, Rachel; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To report the results of patients with early-stage anal cancer treated using a low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy protocol. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and June 2006, 21 patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (30 Gy in 15 fractions within 3 weeks) and concurrent chemotherapy (bolus mitomycin-C 12 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 to a maximum of 20 mg followed by infusion 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/24 h on Days 1-4). Of the 21 patients, 18 underwent small-volume, involved-field radiotherapy and 3 were treated with anteroposterior-posteroanterior parallel-opposed pelvic fields. Of the 21 patients, 17 had had lesions that weremore » excised with close (<1 mm) or involved margins, 1 had had microinvasive disease on biopsy, and 3 had had macroscopic tumor <2 cm in diameter (T1). All were considered to have Stage N0 disease radiologically. Results: After a median follow-up of 42 months, only 1 patient (4.7%) had experienced local recurrence and has remained disease free after local excision. No distant recurrences or deaths occurred. Only 1 patient could not complete treatment (because of Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity). Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity occurred in only 2 patients (9.5%). No significant late toxicity was identified. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that for patients with anal carcinoma who have residual microscopic or very-small-volume disease, a policy of low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy produces excellent local control and disease-free survival, with low rates of acute and late toxicity.« less

  12. Typical and atypical metastatic sites of recurrent endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski, Katherine M.; Jagannathan, Jyothi; Giardino, Angela; Berlin, Suzanne; Ramaiya, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this article is to illustrate the imaging findings of typical and atypical metastatic sites of recurrent endometrial carcinoma. Typical sites include local pelvic recurrence, pelvic and para-aortic nodes, peritoneum, and lungs. Atypical sites include extra-abdominal lymph nodes, liver, adrenals, brain, bones and soft tissue. It is important for radiologists to recognize the typical and atypical sites of metastases in patients with recurrent endometrial carcinoma to facilitate earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23545091

  13. p53 suppresses type II endometrial carcinomas in mice and governs endometrial tumour aggressiveness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Peter J; Ikenberg, Kristian; Fuchs, Thomas J; Rechsteiner, Markus; Georgiev, Strahil; Fankhauser, Niklaus; Noske, Aurelia; Roessle, Matthias; Caduff, Rosmarie; Dellas, Athanassios; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Krek, Wilhelm; Frew, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    Type II endometrial carcinomas are a highly aggressive group of tumour subtypes that are frequently associated with inactivation of the TP53 tumour suppressor gene. We show that mice with endometrium-specific deletion of Trp53 initially exhibited histological changes that are identical to known precursor lesions of type II endometrial carcinomas in humans and later developed carcinomas representing all type II subtypes. The mTORC1 signalling pathway was frequently activated in these precursor lesions and tumours, suggesting a genetic cooperation between this pathway and Trp53 deficiency in tumour initiation. Consistent with this idea, analyses of 521 human endometrial carcinomas identified frequent mTORC1 pathway activation in type I as well as type II endometrial carcinoma subtypes. mTORC1 pathway activation and p53 expression or mutation status each independently predicted poor patient survival. We suggest that molecular alterations in p53 and the mTORC1 pathway play different roles in the initiation of the different endometrial cancer subtypes, but that combined p53 inactivation and mTORC1 pathway activation are unifying pathogenic features among histologically diverse subtypes of late stage aggressive endometrial tumours. PMID:22678923

  14. Stromal p16 expression is significantly increased in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nara; Kim, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-01-01

    p16 is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and is considered a tumor suppressor protein. Alterations in p16 protein expression are associated with tumor development and progression. However, the p16 expression status in the peritumoral stroma has not been investigated in the endometrium. Therefore, we evaluated stromal p16 expression in different types of endometrial lesions using immunohistochemistry. Differences in the p16 expression status according to the degree of malignancy and histological type were analyzed. This study included 62, 26, and 36 cases of benign, precancerous, and malignant endometrial lesions, respectively. Most benign lesions showed negative or weak expression, whereas precancerous lesions showed a variable degree of staining proportion and intensity. Atypical hyperplasia/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (AH/EIN) and serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) had significantly higher stromal p16 expression levels than benign lesions. Endometrioid carcinoma (EC), serous carcinoma (SC), and carcinosarcoma showed significantly elevated stromal p16 expression levels compared with benign and precancerous lesions. In addition, there were significant differences in stromal p16 expression between AH/EIN and SEIC and between EC and SC. In contrast, differences in stromal p16 expression among nonpathological endometrium, atrophic endometrium, endometrial polyp, and hyperplasia without atypia were not statistically significant. Our observations suggest that stromal p16 expression is involved in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma, and raise the possibility that p16 overexpression in the peritumoral stroma is associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior of endometrial SC. PMID:27902476

  15. Comparison of outcomes in early stage uterine carcinosarcoma and uterine serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Desai, Neil B; Kollmeier, Marisa A; Makker, Vicky; Levine, Douglas A; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Alektiar, Kaled M

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether contemporary adjuvant management of early stage uterine carcinosarcoma (CS) produces equal outcomes as in uterine serous carcinoma (USC). We reviewed 172 women treated from 2000 to 2011 for stage I-II USC (n=112, 65%) or CS (n=60, 35%). Adjuvant therapy was initiated in 154 (90%) patients, with 111 patients receiving intravaginal radiotherapy (IVRT)/chemotherapy. Median follow up was 4.6 years for surviving patients. Characteristics for USC vs. CS did not differ significantly by age ≥60, pelvic or para-aortic node sampling, stage, lymphovascular invasion, chemotherapy use, RT use or omission of adjuvant therapy. Outcomes were better for USC vs. CS in 5-year actuarial rates of recurrence [17% (C.I. 10-25%) vs. 45% (C.I. 31-59%), p<0.001],disease-related mortality (DRM) [11% (5-17%) vs. 30% (16-44%), p=0.016], and all-cause mortality [12% (C.I. 6-18%) vs. 34% (C.I. 20-48%), p=0.007]. In multivariable analysis, CS histology remained a significant predictor of risk for recurrence [HR 3.1 (C.I. 1.7-5.7), p<0.001], DRM [HR 2.4 (C.I. 1.1-5.1), p=0.024], and all-cause mortality [HR 2.4 (C.I. 1.2-4.8), p=0.012]. On sub-group analysis of 111 patients (77 USC, 34 CS) able to receive IVRT/chemotherapy, CS no longer was associated significantly with increased recurrence (29% vs. 15%, p=0.18), DRM (22% vs. 10%, p=0.39), or all-cause mortality (22% vs. 10%, p=0.45). CS was associated with worse outcomes than USC. However, that difference was not maintained in patients able to receive IVRT and chemotherapy. While intriguing, this result may be due in part to selection against rapid early relapsing CS patients in this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. OVARIAN HILUS CELLS AND ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA WITH REFERENCE TO RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, S.; Janovski, N.A.

    1963-07-01

    A survey of the relation of hilus cell genesis and frequency of detection in ovaries to adenocarcinoma of the endometrium is presented. Results were based on the examination of 281 ovaries obtained from patients with endometrial carcinoma. The results showed that there was no statistical difference between the occurrence of hilus cells in the endometrial carcinoma group and a control group (33 and 25% respectively). However, if mode of treatment was taken into consideration, and patients undergoing irradiation for endometrial adenocarcinoma prior to operation separated into an individual group, there was a significant difference in the distribution of hilus cellsmore » in those patients as compared with the nonirradiated carcinoma group, at the level of 5%. The radiotherapy in these cases consisisted mainly of 50100 mg intracavitary Ra for approximates 72 hr. A surprisingly high incidence (60%) of ovarian hilus cells was found in patients who underwent radioinduced menopause for benign gynecologic conditions prior to developing adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. The incidence in all postmenopausal patients was only 37%. Ovarian hilus cells were more prevalent in postmenopausal women irrespective of endometrial carcinoma. Premenopausal women with endometrial carcinoma who received no irradiation prior to definitive operation are, therefore, the ideal subjects for further investigation of the relation between endometrial adenocarcinoma and ovarian hilus cells. (BBB)« less

  17. Quantity vs. quality: an exploration of the predictors of posttreatment sexual adjustment for women affected by early stage cervical and endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Juraskova, Ilona; Bonner, Carissa; Bell, Melanie L; Sharpe, Louise; Robertson, Rosalind; Butow, Phyllis

    2012-11-01

    Women with early stage cervical and endometrial cancer may experience complex posttreatment changes to their sexual function, but clinical practice and past research have focused more on the quantity than the perceived quality of sexual life. The aims of this prospective study were to explore the following: (i) the relative importance of quantity vs. quality of sexual life over the first year posttreatment; (ii) the psychological and sexual predictors of overall sexual function; and (iii) the relationship between sexual function and quality of life (QoL). Fifty-three cancer patients completed standardized measures at baseline, with follow-up at 6 and 12 months posttreatment. Analyses were based on prespecified linear mixed models with overall sexual function and QoL as outcomes, and quality and quantity of sexual life, anxiety, and depression as the main predictors of interest. Radiotherapy, age, and relationship satisfaction were controlled for as potential confounders. Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory subscales to assess quantity (Drive) and quality (Satisfaction) of sexual life, and overall sexual function (Global Sexual Satisfaction Index); Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy--General to assess QoL; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to assess psychological distress; and Relationship Satisfaction Interaction Scale to assess relationship satisfaction. The models demonstrated that: (i) overall sexual function was predicted more strongly by the perceived quality than the quantity of sexual interactions, (ii) a small change in perceived quality had a large impact on overall sexual function, and (iii) overall sexual function was a predictor of QoL. This study found that quality rather than quantity of sexual life is the best predictor of overall sexual function among women treated for early stage cervical and endometrial cancer, indicating the importance of including quality indices in posttreatment sexual assessment in clinical practice and research

  18. French Multicenter Study Evaluating the Risk of Lymph Node Metastases in Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer: Contribution of a Risk Scoring System.

    PubMed

    Bendifallah, Sofiane; Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Arsène, Emmanuelle; Collinet, Pierre; Huguet, Florence; Coutant, Charles; Hudry, Delphine; Graesslin, Olivier; Raimond, Emilie; Touboul, Cyril; Daraï, Emile; Ballester, Marcos

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to develop a risk scoring system (RSS) for predicting lymph node (LN) metastases in patients with early-stage endometrial cancer (EC). Data of 457 patients with early-stage EC who received primary surgical treatment between January 2001 and December 2012 were abstracted from a prospective, multicentre database (training set). A risk model based on factors impacting LN metastases was developed. To assess the discrimination of the RSS, both internal by the bootstrap approach and external validation (validation set) were adopted. Overall the LN metastasis rate was 11.8 % (54/457). LN metastases were associated with five variables: age ≥60 years, histological grade 3 and/or type 2, primary tumor diameter ≥1.5 cm, depth of myometrial invasion ≥50 %, and the positive lymphovascular space involvement status. These variables were included in the RSS and assigned scores ranging from 0 to 9. The discrimination of the RSS was 0.81 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.84] in the training set. The area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristics for predicting LN metastases after internal and external validation was 0.80 (95 % CI 0.77-0.83) and 0.85 (95 % CI 0.81-0.89), respectively. A total score of 6 points corresponded to the optimal threshold of the RSS with a rate of LN metastases of 7.5 % (29/385) and 34.7 % (25/72) for low-risk (≤6 points) and high-risk patients (>6 points), respectively. At this threshold, the diagnostic accuracy was 83 %. This RSS could be useful in clinical practice to determine which patients with early-stage EC should benefit from secondary surgical staging including complete lymphadenectomy.

  19. Diagnostic utility of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta immunoreactivity in endometrial carcinomas: lack of specificity for endometrial clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Liang, Sharon X

    2012-12-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1β) has recently emerged as a relatively sensitive and specific marker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of this marker for endometrial clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 75 endometrial tissues using a goat polyclonal antibody raised against a peptide mapping at the C-terminus of human HNF1β protein. The 75 cases included 15 clear cell carcinomas, 20 endometrioid carcinomas, 15 endometrial serous carcinomas/uterine papillary serous carcinomas, 20 cases of normal endometrium, 2 cases of clear cell metaplasia, and 3 cases of Arias Stella reaction. Staining interpretations were based on a semiquantitative scoring system, a 0 to 12+ continuous numerical scale that was derived by multiplying the extent of staining (0 to 4+ scale) by the intensity of staining (0 to 3+ scale) for each case. HNF1β expression was found to be present in a wide spectrum of tissues. Twenty-seven (54%) of the 50 carcinomas displayed at least focal nuclear HNF1β expression, including 11 (73%) of 15, 9 (60%) of 15, and 7 (35%) of 20 clear cell, serous, and endometrioid carcinomas, respectively. The average nuclear staining scores for clear cell carcinomas, endometrioid carcinomas, and serous carcinomas were 5.2, 1.4, and 4.1, respectively. Clear cell carcinomas and endometrioid carcinomas displayed statistically significant differences regarding their nuclear staining scores (P = 0.0027), but clear cell carcinomas and endometrial serous carcinomas did not (P = 0.45). The calculated sensitivity of any nuclear HNF1β expression in classifying a carcinoma as being of the clear cell histotype was 73%, whereas the specificity was 54%. Nineteen of 20 normal endometrium samples displayed at least focal nuclear expression of HNF1β, and this expression was often diffuse. The 5 cases of benign histologic mimics of clear cell carcinomas (Arias Stella reaction and clear

  20. L1CAM in early-stage type I endometrial cancer: results of a large multicenter evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Huszar, Monica; Winterhoff, Boris; Puistola, Ulla; Azim, Samira Abdel; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Ben-Arie, Alon; van Kempen, Léon C; Petru, Edgar; Jahn, Stephan; Geels, Yvette P; Massuger, Leon F; Amant, Frédéric; Polterauer, Stephan; Lappi-Blanco, Elisa; Bulten, Johan; Meuter, Alexandra; Tanouye, Staci; Oppelt, Peter; Stroh-Weigert, Monika; Reinthaller, Alexander; Mariani, Andrea; Hackl, Werner; Netzer, Michael; Schirmer, Uwe; Vergote, Ignace; Altevogt, Peter; Marth, Christian; Fogel, Mina

    2013-08-07

    Despite the excellent prognosis of Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) stage I, type I endometrial cancers, a substantial number of patients experience recurrence and die from this disease. We analyzed the value of immunohistochemical L1CAM determination to predict clinical outcome. We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study to determine expression of L1CAM by immunohistochemistry in 1021 endometrial cancer specimens. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model were applied for survival and multivariable analyses. A machine-learning approach was used to validate variables for predicting recurrence and death. Of 1021 included cancers, 17.7% were rated L1CAM-positive. Of these L1CAM-positive cancers, 51.4% recurred during follow-up compared with 2.9% L1CAM-negative cancers. Patients bearing L1CAM-positive cancers had poorer disease-free and overall survival (two-sided Log-rank P < .001). Multivariable analyses revealed an increase in the likelihood of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 16.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.55 to 25.28) and death (HR = 15.01; 95% CI = 9.28 to 24.26). In the L1CAM-negative cancers FIGO stage I subdivision, grading and risk assessment were irrelevant for predicting disease-free and overall survival. The prognostic relevance of these parameters was related strictly to L1CAM positivity. A classification and regression decision tree (CRT)identified L1CAM as the best variable for predicting recurrence (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.91) and death (sensitivity = 0.77; specificity = 0.89). To our knowledge, L1CAM has been shown to be the best-ever published prognostic factor in FIGO stage I, type I endometrial cancers and shows clear superiority over the standardly used multifactor risk score. L1CAM expression in type I cancers indicates the need for adjuvant treatment. This adhesion molecule might serve as a treatment target for the fully humanized anti-L1CAM antibody currently

  1. The Influence of Radiation Modality and Lymph Node Dissection on Survival in Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chino, Junzo P., E-mail: junzo.chino@duke.edu; Jones, Ellen; Berchuck, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Background: The appropriate uses of lymph node dissection (LND) and adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for Stage I endometrial cancer are controversial. We explored the impact of specific RT modalities (whole pelvic RT [WPRT], vaginal brachytherapy [VB]) and LND status on survival. Materials and Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results dataset was queried for all surgically treated International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage I endometrial cancers; subjects were stratified into low, intermediate and high risk cohorts using modifications of Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) protocol 99 and PORTEC (Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Cancer) trial criteria. Five-year overall survivalmore » was estimated, and comparisons were performed via the log-rank test. Results: A total of 56,360 patients were identified: 70.4% low, 26.2% intermediate, and 3.4% high risk. A total of 41.6% underwent LND and 17.6% adjuvant RT. In low-risk disease, LND was associated with higher survival (93.7 LND vs. 92.7% no LND, p < 0.001), whereas RT was not (91.6% RT vs. 92.9% no RT, p = 0.23). In intermediate-risk disease, LND (82.1% LND vs. 76.5% no LND, p < 0.001) and RT (80.6% RT vs. 74.9% no RT, p < 0.001) were associated with higher survival without differences between RT modalities. In high-risk disease, LND (68.8% LND vs. 54.1% no LND, p < 0.001) and RT (66.9% RT vs. 57.2% no RT, p < 0.001) were associated with increased survival; if LND was not performed, VB alone was inferior to WPRT (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Both WPRT and VB alone are associated with increased survival in the intermediate-risk group. In the high-risk group, in the absence of LND, only WPRT is associated with increased survival. LND was also associated with increased survival.« less

  2. Clinicopathologic analysis of matched primary and recurrent endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Soslow, Robert A; Wethington, Stephanie L; Cesari, Matthew; Chiappetta, Daniel; Olvera, Narciso; Shia, Jinru; Levine, Douglas A

    2012-12-01

    It is unknown whether the type and grade of a primary endometrial carcinoma is reliably maintained in recurrence. All matched primary and recurrent endometrial carcinomas diagnosed from 2000 to 2010 at our institution were identified; 34 cases had available slides. Histologic classification was performed using modifications to the World Health Organization criteria. Immunohistochemical analysis for p53, p16, progesterone receptor (PR), and DNA mismatch-repair proteins (MMR) (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) was performed. Endometrioid carcinoma recurrences were mostly local, whereas serous carcinoma recurrences were mostly peritoneal. Compared with endometrioid carcinoma patients, serous carcinoma patients were older, presented at high stage, and had shorter survival. Serous carcinomas were the most common recurrent endometrial carcinoma (18/34 cases). Overall, 21 cases (62%) displayed similar morphology when comparing primary and recurrent carcinomas, whereas 13 displayed discordant morphology. Seven of 13 endometrioid carcinomas (54%) had a morphologically discordant recurrence, compared with 3 of 14 serous carcinomas (21%), 1 of 4 morphologically ambiguous carcinomas (25%), and both mixed epithelial carcinomas. Serous and morphologically ambiguous carcinomas therefore demonstrated relative morphologic fidelity compared with endometrioid carcinomas. Four morphologically discordant cases demonstrated either pure clear cell carcinoma or clear cell features at recurrence. Seven of 23 matched pairs displayed discordant PR results, with 5 cases, including both endometrioid and serous carcinomas, showing diminished PR expression at recurrence. p53, p16, and DNA MMR staining results were generally concordant when evaluating matched pairs, with only occasional exceptions. Sixty-four percent of all pure endometrioid carcinomas and mixed epithelial carcinomas with an endometrioid component showed loss of expression of MLH1 and/or PMS2; no serous carcinoma demonstrated this

  3. Survival benefit of patients with early-stage ovarian carcinoma treated with paclitaxel chemotherapeutic regimens

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objective Adjuvant chemotherapy was introduced in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (OC). The benefit of standard chemotherapeutic regimens including taxane has not been established. Methods Patients with early-stage OC from the National Health Insurance Research database of Taiwan who received platinum plus cyclophosphamide (CP) or platinum plus paclitaxel (PT) for 3–6 cycles were recruited, and the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined. Results A total of 1,510 early-stage OC patients, including 841 who received CP regimen and 699 who received PT regimen, were included. The 2 groups had a similar estimated probability of 5-year DFS (PT vs. CP, 79.0% vs. 77.6%; p=0.410) and OS (84.6% vs. 84.3%; p=0.691). Patients >50 years of age who received the CP regimen had a lower 5-year DFS than the patients ≤50 years of age who received the CP (p<0.001) or PT regimens (p=0.001). Additionally, patients >50 years of age who received the CP regimen had a worse 5-year OS compared with the other 3 groups (p=0.019) (p=0.179 for patients >50 years of age in the PT group; p=0.002 for patients ≤50 years of age in the CP group; and p=0.061 for patients ≤50 years of age in the PT group). Patients with the CP or PT regimen for 3–5 cycles had a similar 5-year DFS and OS compared to 6 cycles (p>0.050). Conclusion Chemotherapeutic regimens with taxane could be recommended for early-stage OC patients >50 years of age. PMID:29185274

  4. Hypermethylation of miR-203 in endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Goodfellow, Paul J; Huang, Tim H-M; Rader, Janet S; Uyar, Denise S

    2014-05-01

    Aberrant expression of SOX4 in endometrial cancer has been identified and partially was contributed to hypermethylation of miR-129-2. Other miRNAs are suspected to influence SOX 4 as well. The current study seeks to identify other hypermethylated miRNAs that regulate SOX4 in endometrial carcinomas. Methylation levels of miRNA promoter regions were measured by combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) and pyrosequencing assays. Gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR. Methylation level of a miRNA locus was corrected with clinicopathologic factors for 252 gynecological specimens. In silico analysis identified 13 miRNA loci bound on the 3'-UTR of SOX4. Using COBRA assays, increased methylation of miR-203, miR-219-2, miR-596, and miR-618 was detected in endometrial cancer cells relative to those seen in a normal cell line and in normal endometrium. Transfection of a miR-203 mimic decreased SOX4 gene expression. Hypermethylation of miR-203 was detected in 52% of type I endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (n=131) but was not seen in any of 10 uninvolved normal endometria (P<0.001). Methylation status of miR-203 was significantly associated with microsatellite instability and MLH1 methylation in endometrial tumors (P<0.001). Furthermore, hypermethylation of miR-203 was found in endometrioid and clear endometrial subtype tumors, but not in cervical squamous cell and ovarian carcinomas. Hypermethylation of miR-203 is a frequent event in endometrial carcinomas and is strongly associated with microsatellite instability and MLH1 methylation status. Thus, miR-203 methylation level might represent a marker for patients with endometrioid and clear endometrial sub-cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Infrequent Immunohistochemical Expression of Napsin A in Endometrial Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah A; Butt, Nadeem S; Anfinan, Nisrin; Sait, Khalid; Sait, Hesham; Marzouki, Anas; Khabaz, Mohamad Nidal

    2017-10-01

    Many studies described napsin A as a specific diagnostic marker that aids in differentiating lung adenocarcinomas from other respiratory tumors. This study describes the expression phenotype of napsin A in endometrial neoplasms, it investigates the relationship between this expression profile and the clinicopathologic parameters, and assess its utilization as an independent predictive marker. A total of 76 cases of previously diagnosed endometrial carcinoma (including 53 endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 6 endometrioid adenocarcinomas with squamous differentiation, 9 serous adenocarcinomas, 6 clear cell adenocarcinomas, and 2 malignant mixed mullerian tumors) and 30 tissue samples of noncancerous endometrium (including 16 proliferative endometriums, 10 secretory endometriums and 4 endometrial polyps) were retrieved from the archives of Pathology Department at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. For napsin A detection, tissue microarrays and immunostaining were used. A total number of 12 (15.78%) cases were positive for napsin A immunostaining. Brown granular cytoplasmic expression of napsin A was detected in 9.4% of endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 16.7% of endometrioid adenocarcinomas with squamous differentiation, 22.2% of papillary serous endometrial carcinomas, and 66.7% of clear cell carcinomas. Three (10%) control cases showed similar granular cytoplasmic expression. Positive napsin A immunostaining was more frequent in clear cell carcinoma, and there is a significant association between positive napsin A immunostaining and clear cell carcinoma (P-value=0.007). Significant associations have been found also between napsin A expression and older ages (above 60 y) and higher stage (IVB), the P-values of which were 0.035 and 0.043, respectively, but not with the tumor recurrence or survival rate. Although napsin A is infrequently expressed in endometrial carcinomas, positive results of napsin A immunostaining in endometrial neoplasms might support the

  6. Impact of Adjuvant External-Beam Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Uterine Papillary Serous and Clear Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Anne, E-mail: akim2@health-quest.org; Schreiber, David; Rineer, Justin

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in early-stage high- to intermediate-risk endometrioid adenocarcinoma is well established and has been shown to improve locoregional control. Its role in the management of early-stage clear cell carcinoma and uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) remains controversial. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database, we identified women with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage Sixth Edition. Stage IA-IIB clear cell carcinoma or UPSC who underwent hysterectomy with or without adjuvant RT between 1988 and 2003. We used Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis to compare overall survival (OS) for all patients. Results: Wemore » identified 1,333 women of whom 451 had clear cell carcinoma and 882 had UPSC. Of those patients, 775 underwent surgery alone and 558 received adjuvant RT as well. For Stages I-IIB disease, the median OS with surgery alone was 106 months, vs. 151 months with adjuvant RT (p = 0.006). On subgroup analysis, we saw the benefit from adjuvant RT only in Stage IB-C patients. For Stage IB disease, patients undergoing surgery alone had a median OS of 117 months, vs. median survival not reached with the addition of RT (p = 0.006). For Stage IC disease, surgery alone had a median OS of 35 months vs. 120 months with RT (p = 0.001). Although the apparent benefit of RT diminished when measured via multivariate analysis, the impact of RT on survival did show a trend toward significance (hazard ration 0.808, confidence interval 95% 0.651-1.002, p = 0.052) Conclusion: In FIGO Stage IB-C papillary serous and clear cell uterine carcinoma, adjuvant RT seems to play an important role in improving survival.« less

  7. Accuracy of Endometrial Sampling in Endometrial Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Visser, Nicole C M; Reijnen, Casper; Massuger, Leon F A G; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Bulten, Johan; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2017-10-01

    To assess the agreement between preoperative endometrial sampling and final diagnosis for tumor grade and subtype in patients with endometrial carcinoma. MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane library were searched from inception to January 1, 2017, for studies that compared tumor grade and histologic subtype in preoperative endometrial samples and hysterectomy specimens. In eligible studies, the index test included office endometrial biopsy, hysteroscopic biopsy, or dilatation and curettage; the reference standard was hysterectomy. Outcome measures included tumor grade, histologic subtype, or both. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of the studies. Risk of bias was assessed (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies). A total of 45 studies (12,459 patients) met the inclusion criteria. The pooled agreement rate on tumor grade was 0.67 (95% CI 0.60-0.75) and Cohen's κ was 0.45 (95% CI 0.34-0.55). Agreement between hysteroscopic biopsy and final diagnosis was higher (0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98) than for dilatation and curettage (0.70, 95% CI 0.60-0.79; P=.02); however, it was not significantly higher than for office endometrial biopsy (0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.86; P=.08). The lowest agreement rate was found for grade 2 carcinomas (0.61, 95% CI 0.53-0.69). Downgrading was found in 25% and upgrading was found in 21% of the endometrial samples. Agreement on histologic subtypes was 0.95 (95% CI 0.94-0.97) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.69-0.92) for preoperative endometrioid and nonendometrioid carcinomas, respectively. Overall there is only moderate agreement on tumor grade between preoperative endometrial sampling and final diagnosis with the lowest agreement for grade 2 carcinomas.

  8. Dalantercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-13

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mixed Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  9. Lgr5High/DCLK1High phenotype is more common in early stage and intestinal subtypes of gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Elham; Asadi Lari, Mohammad Hossein; Roudi, Raheleh; Korourian, Alireza; Madjd, Zahra

    2017-12-06

    Gastric carcinoma is the third most common malignancy and is one of the main causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumour cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, likely responsible for the initiation, recurrence, metastasis and chemo/radio-resistance. This study was conducted to evaluate the expression patterns and clinicopathologic significance of putative CSC markers, Lgr5 and DCLK1, in gastric carcinoma. The expression levels of Lgr5 and DCLK1 were examined in a well-defined series of gastric carcinoma tissues, including 75 (80%) from intestinal and 19 (20%) from diffuse subtypes, using tissue microarray (TMA). In addition, the correlation of the expression of these markers with clinicopathological factors was explored. Higher expressions of Lgr5 and DCLK1 were mainly detected in intestinal subtypes of gastric carcinomas compared to diffuse subtypes (P= 0.005 and P= 0.050, respectively). We also found a higher expression of Lgr5 and DCLK1 more frequently in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma cases (P< 0.001 and P= 0.007). The combined analysis demonstrated that the co-expression of Lgr5 and DCLK1 (Lgr5High/DCLK1High) was more common in intestinal subtypes (P= 0.025) and well-differentiated gastric carcinoma samples (P< 0.001). Interestingly, there was a significant correlation between Lgr5High/DCLK1High phenotype and early-stage gastric carcinoma specimens (P= 0.045). Our findings indicated that the Lgr5High/DCLK1High expression pattern may be considered as a signature phenotype for intestinal subtypes of gastric carcinoma.

  10. Endometrial thickness and risk of breast and endometrial carcinomas in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Ashley S.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Modugno, Francesmary; Black, Amanda; Hill, Lyndon M.; Martin, Jerry; Sit, Anita S.; Sherman, Mark E.; Brinton, Louise A.

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal women with higher circulating estrogen levels are at increased risk of developing breast and endometrial carcinomas. In the endometrium, excess estrogen relative to progesterone produces a net proliferative stimulus, which may result in endometrial thickening. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that endometrial thickness is a biological marker of excess estrogen stimulation that is associated with risk of breast and endometrial carcinomas. Endometrial thickness was measured in 1,272 postmenopausal women, aged 55–74, who underwent transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) screening as part of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Serial endometrial thickness measurements were available for a subset of women at one (n=1,018), two (n=869) and three years (n=641) after baseline. We evaluated associations between endometrial thickness and breast (n=91) and endometrial (n=14) carcinoma by estimating relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression with age as the time metric. Models incorporating baseline endometrial thickness and as a time-varying covariate using all measurements were examined. Median follow-up among study participants was 12.5 years (range: 0.3–13.8 years). Compared to baseline endometrial thickness of 1.0 – 2.99 mm, women with baseline endometrial thickness greater than or equal to 5.0 mm had an increased risk of breast (RR: 2.00, 95% CI 1.15, 3.48) and endometrial (RR: 5.02, 95% CI 0.96, 26.36) carcinomas in models adjusted for menopausal hormone use and BMI. Our data suggest that increased endometrial thickness as assessed by TVU was associated with increased risk of breast and endometrial carcinomas. PMID:23907658

  11. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and alpha-fetoprotein predict prognosis of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taro; Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Hayashi, Takehiro; Nio, Kouki; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Ohno, Naoki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Okada, Hikari; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Honda, Masao; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arii, Shigeki; Wang, XinWei; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often individually different even after surgery for early-stage tumors. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced recently to evaluate hepatic lesions with regard to vascularity and the activity of the organic anion transporter OATP1B3. Here we report that Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) in combination with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) status reflects the stem/maturational status of HCC with distinct biology and prognostic information. Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was observed in ∼15% of HCCs. This uptake correlated with low serum AFP levels, maintenance of hepatocyte function with the up-regulation of OATP1B3 and HNF4A expression, and good prognosis. By contrast, HCC showing reduced Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake with high serum AFP levels was associated with poor prognosis and the activation of the oncogene FOXM1. Knockdown of HNF4A in HCC cells showing Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake resulted in the increased expression of AFP and FOXM1 and the loss of OATP1B3 expression accompanied by morphological changes, enhanced tumorigenesis, and loss of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in vivo. HCC classification based on EOB-MRI and serum AFP levels predicted overall survival in a single-institution cohort (n=70), and its prognostic utility was validated independently in a multi-institution cohort of early-stage HCCs (n=109). This noninvasive classification system is molecularly based on the stem/maturation status of HCCs and can be incorporated into current staging practices to improve management algorithms, especially in the early stage of disease. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Alpha-fetoprotein Predict Prognosis of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Taro; Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Hayashi, Takehiro; Nio, Kouki; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Ohno, Naoki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Okada, Hikari; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Honda, Masao; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arii, Shigeki; Wang, Xin Wei; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often individually different even after surgery for early-stage tumors. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced recently to evaluate hepatic lesions with regard to vascularity and the activity of the organic anion transporter OATP1B3. Here, we report that Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) in combination with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) status reflects the stem/maturational status of HCC with distinct biology and prognostic information. Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was observed in approximately 15% of HCCs. This uptake correlated with low serum AFP levels, maintenance of hepatocyte function with the up-regulation of OATP1B3 and HNF4A expression, and good prognosis. By contrast, HCC showing reduced Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake with high serum AFP levels was associated with poor prognosis and the activation of the oncogene FOXM1. Knockdown of HNF4A in HCC cells showing Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake resulted in the increased expression of AFP and FOXM1 and the loss of OATP1B3 expression accompanied by morphological changes, enhanced tumorigenesis, and loss of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in vivo. HCC classification based on EOB-MRI and serum AFP levels predicted overall survival in a single-institution cohort (n = 70), and its prognostic utility was validated independently in a multi-institution cohort of early-stage HCCs (n = 109). Conclusion: This non-invasive classification system is molecularly based on the stem/maturation status of HCCs and can be incorporated into current staging practices to improve management algorithms, especially in the early stage of disease. PMID:24700365

  13. Synchronous Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas: Evidence of Clonality.

    PubMed

    Anglesio, Michael S; Wang, Yi Kan; Maassen, Madlen; Horlings, Hugo M; Bashashati, Ali; Senz, Janine; Mackenzie, Robertson; Grewal, Diljot S; Li-Chang, Hector; Karnezis, Anthony N; Sheffield, Brandon S; McConechy, Melissa K; Kommoss, Friedrich; Taran, Florin A; Staebler, Annette; Shah, Sohrab P; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara; Gilks, C Blake; Kommoss, Stefan; Huntsman, David G

    2016-06-01

    Many women with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma present with concurrent endometrial carcinoma. Organ-confined and low-grade synchronous endometrial and ovarian tumors (SEOs) clinically behave as independent primary tumors rather than a single advanced-stage carcinoma. We used 18 SEOs to investigate the ancestral relationship between the endometrial and ovarian components. Based on both targeted and exome sequencing, 17 of 18 patient cases of simultaneous cancer of the endometrium and ovary from our series showed evidence of a clonal relationship, ie, primary tumor and metastasis. Eleven patient cases fulfilled clinicopathological criteria that would lead to classification as independent endometrial and ovarian primary carcinomas, including being of FIGO stage T1a/1A, with organ-restricted growth and without surface involvement; 10 of 11 of these cases showed evidence of clonality. Our observations suggest that the disseminating cells amongst SEOs are restricted to physically accessible and microenvironment-compatible sites yet remain indolent, without the capacity for further dissemination. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Epidemiology of Endometrial Carcinoma: Etiologic Importance of Hormonal and Metabolic Influences.

    PubMed

    Felix, Ashley S; Yang, Hannah P; Bell, Daphne W; Sherman, Mark E

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic cancer in developed nations, and the annual incidence is projected to increase, secondary to the high prevalence of obesity, a strong endometrial carcinoma risk factor. Although endometrial carcinomas are etiologically, biologically, and clinically diverse, hormonal and metabolic mechanisms are particularly strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrioid carcinoma, the numerically predominant subtype. The centrality of hormonal and metabolic disturbances in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma, combined with its slow development from well-characterized precursors in most cases, offers a substantial opportunity to reduce endometrial carcinoma mortality through early detection, lifestyle modification, and chemoprevention. In this chapter, we review the epidemiology of endometrial carcinoma, emphasizing theories that link risk factors for these tumors to hormonal and metabolic mechanisms. Future translational research opportunities related to prevention are discussed.

  15. Adenovirus mediated homozygous endometrial epithelial Pten deletion results in aggressive endometrial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Ayesha; Ellenson, Lora Hedrick, E-mail: lora.ellenson@med.cornell.edu

    2011-07-01

    Pten is the most frequently mutated gene in uterine endometriod carcinoma (UEC) and its precursor complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH). Because the mutation frequency is similar in CAH and UEC, Pten mutations are thought to occur relatively early in endometrial tumorigenesis. Previous work from our laboratory using the Pten{sup +/-} mouse model has demonstrated somatic inactivation of the wild type allele of Pten in both CAH and UEC. In the present study, we injected adenoviruses expressing Cre into the uterine lumen of adult Pten floxed mice in an attempt to somatically delete both alleles of Pten specifically in the endometrium. Ourmore » results demonstrate that biallelic inactivation of Pten results in an increased incidence of carcinoma as compared to the Pten{sup +/-} mouse model. In addition, the carcinomas were more aggressive with extension beyond the uterus into adjacent tissues and were associated with decreased expression of nuclear ER{alpha} as compared to associated CAH. Primary cultures of epithelial and stromal cells were prepared from uteri of Pten floxed mice and Pten was deleted in vitro using Cre expressing adenovirus. Pten deletion was evident in both the epithelial and stromal cells and the treatment of the primary cultures with estrogen had different effects on Akt activation as well as Cyclin D3 expression in the two purified components. This study demonstrates that somatic biallelic inactivation of Pten in endometrial epithelium in vivo results in an increased incidence and aggressiveness of endometrial carcinoma compared to mice carrying a germline deletion of one allele and provides an important in vivo and in vitro model system for understanding the genetic underpinnings of endometrial carcinoma.« less

  16. Nintedanib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-08

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Malignant Uterine Corpus Mixed Epithelial and Mesenchymal Neoplasm; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  17. The effect of adjuvant radiation on survival in early stage clear cell ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hogen, Liat; Thomas, Gillian; Bernardini, Marcus; Bassiouny, Dina; Brar, Harinder; Gien, Lilian T; Rosen, Barry; Le, Lisa; Vicus, Danielle

    2016-11-01

    To assess the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) on survival in patients with stage I and II ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). Data collection and analysis of stage I and II OCCC patients treated at two tertiary centers in Toronto, between 1995 and 2014, was performed. Descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier survival probability estimates were completed. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves. 163 patients were eligible. 44 (27%) patients were treated with adjuvant RT: 37 of them received adjuvant chemotherapy (CT), and 7 had RT only. In the no-RT group, there were 119 patients: 83 patients received adjuvant CT and 36 had no adjuvant treatment. The 10year progression free survival (PFS) was 65% for patients treated with RT, and 59% no-RT patients. There were a total of 41 (25%) recurrences in the cohort: 12 (27.2%) patients in RT group and 29 (24.3%) in the no-RT group. On multivariable analysis, adjuvant RT was not significantly associated with an increased PFS (0.85 (0.44-1.63) p=0.63) or overall survival (OS) (0.84 (0.39-1.82) p=0.66). In the subset of 59 patients defined as high-risk: stage IC with positive cytology and/or surface involvement and stage II: RT was not found to be associated with a better PFS (HR 1.18 (95% CI: 0.55-2.54) or O S(HR 1.04 (95% CI: 0.40-2.69)). Adjuvant RT was not found to be associated with a survival benefit in patients with stage I and II ovarian clear cell carcinoma or in a high risk subset of patients including stage IC cytology positive/surface involvement and stage II patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of early-stage uterine papillary serous carcinoma at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 1992-2006.

    PubMed

    Tchabo, Nana E; McCloskey, Susan; Mashtare, Terry L; Andrews, Christopher; Singh, Anurag K; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Odunsi, Kunle; Lele, Shashikant; Jaggernauth, Wainwright

    2009-11-01

    Optimal management of early-stage uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) remains controversial. We reviewed our outcomes in this patient population. The Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) tumor registry identified all patients with Stages I and IIA UPSC treated between January 1992 and June 2006. The Fisher's exact test was used to compare recurrence rates by adjuvant therapy received. Overall survival (OS) estimates were made using the Kaplan-Meier method. Fifty-eight patients with Stage I or IIA UPSC underwent surgery. Thirty-four patients (59%) were surgically staged. Among 21 patients with Stage IA disease, 15 received adjuvant therapy. With a median follow-up of 44.7 months, only one recurrence was observed in a patient who received adjuvant brachytherapy. The 5-year OS was 66%. Among 37 patients with Stages IB-IIA, 30 patients received adjuvant therapy. With a median follow-up of 29 months, there were 7 recurrences. The 5-year OS was 60%. Although there were no significant differences in recurrence by adjuvant therapy received, a significant OS benefit was found in those who received radiation. There was no significant difference in OS distributions of those patients who received Carboplatin/Paclitaxel chemotherapy. Despite the limitations of our retrospective study, we have shown that even comprehensively staged early-stage UPSC patients are still at risk for recurrence despite adjuvant therapy received. Hence, all patients with this histologic diagnosis should be considered at high risk for recurrence and counseled appropriately regarding the risks and benefits of adjuvant therapy.

  19. Carotid-Sparing Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the True Vocal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Amdur, Robert J., E-mail: amdurr@shands.ufl.ed; Morris, Christopher G.

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To compare radiation doses to carotid arteries among various radiotherapy techniques for treatment of early-stage squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the true vocal cords. Methods and Materials: Five patients were simulated using computed tomography (CT). Clinical and planning target volumes (PTV) were created for bilateral and unilateral stage T1 vocal cord cancers. Planning risk volumes for the carotid arteries and spinal cord were delineated. For each patient, three treatment plans were designed for bilateral and unilateral target volumes: opposed laterals (LATS), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), for a total of 30 plans. More than 95% ofmore » the PTV received the prescription dose (63Gy at 2.25 Gy per treatment). Results: Carotid dose was lowest with IMRT. With a bilateral vocal cord target, the median carotid dose was 10Gy with IMRT vs. 25 Gy with 3DCRT and 38 Gy with LATS (p < 0.05); with a unilateral target, the median carotid dose was 4 Gy with IMRT vs. 19 Gy with 3DCRT and 39 Gy with LATS (p < 0.05). The dosimetric tradeoff with IMRT is a small area of high dose in the PTV. The worst heterogeneity results were at a maximum point dose of 80 Gy (127%) in a unilateral target that was close to the carotid. Conclusions: There is no question that IMRT can reduce the dose to the carotid arteries in patients with early-stage vocal cord cancer. The question is whether the potential advantage of reducing the carotid dose outweighs the risk of tumor recurrence due to contouring errors and organ motion and the risk of complications from dose heterogeneity.« less

  20. VHL and HIF-1α: gene variations and prognosis in early-stage clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lessi, Francesca; Mazzanti, Chiara Maria; Tomei, Sara; Di Cristofano, Claudio; Minervini, Andrea; Menicagli, Michele; Apollo, Alessandro; Masieri, Lorenzo; Collecchi, Paola; Minervini, Riccardo; Carini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Generoso

    2014-03-01

    Von Hipple-Lindau gene (VHL) inactivation represents the most frequent abnormality in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression is regulated by O2 level. In normal O2 conditions, VHL binds HIF-1α and allows HIF-1α proteasomal degradation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been found located in the oxygen-dependent degradation domain at codon 582 (C1772T, rs11549465, Pro582Ser). In hypoxia, VHL/HIF-1α interaction is abolished and HIF-1α activates target genes in the nucleus. This study analyzes the impact of genetic alterations and protein expression of VHL and the C1772T SNP of HIF-1α gene (HIF-1α) on prognosis in early-stage ccRCC (pT1a, pT1b, and pT2). Mutational analysis of the entire VHL sequence and the genotyping of HIF-1α C1772T SNP were performed together with VHL promoter methylation analysis and loss of heterozygosis (LOH) analysis at (3p25) locus. Data obtained were correlated with VHL and HIF-1α protein expression and with tumor-specific survival (TSS). VHL mutations, methylation status, and LOH were detected in 51, 11, and 12% of cases, respectively. Our results support the association between biallelic alterations and/or VHL silencing with a worse TSS. Moreover, we found a significant association between the HIF-1α C1772C genotype and a worse TSS. The same association was found when testing the presence of HIF-1α protein in the nucleus. Our results highlight the role of VHL/HIF-1α pathway in RCC and support the molecular heterogeneity of early-stage ccRCC. More important, we show the involvement of HIF-1α C1772T SNP in ccRCC progression.

  1. Influence of the vocal cord mobility in salvage surgery after radiotherapy for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx.

    PubMed

    Gorphe, Philippe; Blanchard, Pierre; Temam, Stephane; Janot, François

    2015-10-01

    Disease relapses occur in up to 40% of cases after radiotherapy (RT) for early-stage glottic laryngeal neoplasms, and the foremost remaining treatment option is salvage total laryngectomy (STL). Our objectives were to review the outcomes of patients treated with salvage surgery after RT for early-stage carcinoma of the glottic larynx and to assess prognostic factors. We retrospectively analyzed 43 patients who underwent surgery. Overall and disease-free survival rates among subgroups were calculated and compared, stratified by preoperative stage, vocal cord mobility and postoperative histopathologic data. Recurrences occurred 22.7 months after the end of RT. Surgery was STL in 33 cases (76.8%). The main prognostic factors associated with survival rates were initial vocal cord mobility, vocal cord mobility at the diagnosis of recurrence, and changes in mobility. Vocal cord mobility is an important clinical criterion in treatment decision making for early-stage glottis carcinoma and remains important during follow-up.

  2. CTCF genetic alterations in endometrial carcinoma are pro-tumorigenic

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, A D; Bailey, C G; Champ, K; Vellozzi, M; O'Young, P; Metierre, C; Feng, Y; Thoeng, A; Richards, A M; Schmitz, U; Biro, M; Jayasinghe, R; Ding, L; Anderson, L; Mardis, E R; Rasko, J E J

    2017-01-01

    CTCF is a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor gene with diverse normal functions in genome structure and gene regulation. However the mechanism by which CTCF haploinsufficiency contributes to cancer development is not well understood. CTCF is frequently mutated in endometrial cancer. Here we show that most CTCF mutations effectively result in CTCF haploinsufficiency through nonsense-mediated decay of mutant transcripts, or loss-of-function missense mutation. Conversely, we identified a recurrent CTCF mutation K365T, which alters a DNA binding residue, and acts as a gain-of-function mutation enhancing cell survival. CTCF genetic deletion occurs predominantly in poor prognosis serous subtype tumours, and this genetic deletion is associated with poor overall survival. In addition, we have shown that CTCF haploinsufficiency also occurs in poor prognosis endometrial clear cell carcinomas and has some association with endometrial cancer relapse and metastasis. Using shRNA targeting CTCF to recapitulate CTCF haploinsufficiency, we have identified a novel role for CTCF in the regulation of cellular polarity of endometrial glandular epithelium. Overall, we have identified two novel pro-tumorigenic roles (promoting cell survival and altering cell polarity) for genetic alterations of CTCF in endometrial cancer. PMID:28319062

  3. Oncologic outcomes of surgically treated early-stage oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kass, Jason I; Giraldez, Laureano; Gooding, William; Choby, Garret; Kim, Seungwon; Miles, Brett; Teng, Marita; Sikora, Andrew G; Johnson, Jonas T; Myers, Eugene N; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Genden, Eric M; Ferris, Robert L

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize oncologic outcomes in early (T1-T2, N0) and intermediate (T1-T2, N1) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after surgery. Patients with oropharyngeal SCC treated with surgery were identified from 2 academic institutions. Of 188 patients, 143 met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-six (60%) had T1 to T2 N0 and 57 (40%) had T1 to T2 N1 disease. Sixty-five patients (45%) underwent a robotic-assisted resection, whereas the remaining had transoral (n = 60; 42%), mandible-splitting (n = 11; 8%), or transhyoid approaches (n = 7; 5%). Human papillomavirus (HPV) status was known for 97 patients (68%), and 54 (55%) were HPV positive. Three-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-0.89). Since 2008, HPV infection was protective of recurrence (log-rank p = .0334). A single node did not increase the risk of recurrence (p = .467) or chance of a second primary (p = .175). Complete surgical resection is effective therapy for early and intermediate oropharyngeal SCC. HPV-negative patients were at increased risk for locoregional recurrence or second primary disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: First-1471, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Efficacy of the combination therapy in early stage of recurrent cholangio celluler carcinoma (CCC)].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shinichi; Hasuike, Yasunori; Fukuchi, Nariaki; Hayashi, Nobuyasu; Kida, Hiroyuki; Tsujie, Masaki; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Ebisui, Chikara; Sakita, Isao; Fujimoto, Takayoshi

    2005-10-01

    We report a case of cholangio celluler carcinoma (CCC) with a good quality of life, in spite of the recurrence of peritoneum and portal hepatic lymph nodes (PHLN), due to the combination therapy that consisted of hepatic arterial infusion, systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy and an insertion of a metallic stent into the bile duct. The patient was a 61-year-old man. Left hepatectomy was done due to multiple CCC. For the purpose of preventing the recurrence of CCC in residual liver, we performed an arterial infusion therapy. Ten months later, metastases to peritoneum and portal hepatic lymph nodes were found, so the resection of the peritoneum was performed, and cells in ascites were defined to be positive with cytology. After 2 years from the first operation, the size of portal hepatic lymph nodes had grown and both the billilbin and tumor marker levels had increased, so we started systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy and insertion of a metallic stent into the bile duct. The tumor marker level decreased in a short time. Consequently, we inserted a metallic stent into the bile duct and radiation therapy was performed. Until the patient's death due to peritonitis carcinomatosa, the recurrence in residual liver occurred only once in three years after the first operation, and portal hepatic lymph nodes did not grow for two years after the recurrence.

  5. [Expansion of secretory cells in the fallopian tubal epithelium in the early stages of the pathogenesis of ovarian serous carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Asaturova, A V; Ezhova, L S; Faizullina, N M; Adamyan, L V; Khabas, G N; Sannikova, M V

    to investigate the frequency of the types of fallopian tubal secretory cell expansion (SCE) in diseases of the reproductive organs and to determine the immunophenotype and biological role of the cells in the early stages of the pathogenesis of high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas (HGOSC). The investigation enrolled 287 patients with extraovarian diseases and ovarian serous tumors varying in grade, whose fallopian tubes were morphologically and immunohistochemically examined using p53, Ki-67, PAX2, Bcl-2, beta-catenin, and ALDH1 markers. The material was statistically processed applying the Mann-Whitney test and χ2 test. The rate of secretory cell proliferation (SCP) (more than 10 consecutive secretory cells) and that of secretory cell overgrowth (SCO) (more than 30 consecutive secretory cells) increase with age in all investigated reproductive system diseases. The rate of SCP in the corpus fimbriatum of the patients with HGOSC was 5.9 times higher than that in those with extraovarian disease (p<0.01); when comparing the same patient groups, that of SCO was 3.4 times higher (p<0.05). The immunohistochemical characteristics of the investigated lesions (in scores) were as follows: PAX2 was expressed in the intact epithelium (2.8), in SCP (1.3), in SCO (1.2), in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) (1.0), and in HGOSC (0.9); Bcl-2 was in the intact epithelium (2.2), in SCP (2.1), STIC (0.9), and in HGOSC (0.6), β-catenin was in the intact epithelium (0.5), in SCP (2.85), in SCO (2.95), in STIC (0.6), and in HGOSC (0.5); ALDH1 was in the intact epithelium (0.5), in SCP (2.91), in SCO (2.92), in STIC (1.2), and in HGOSC (0.6). There were statistically significant differences with a 95% confidence interval (p<0.05) for: 1) PAX2 between the intact epithelium and pathology (fallopian tube lesions and HGOSC); 2) Bcl-2 between the intact epithelium and SCE (SCP and SCO) and between SCE and HGOSC; 3) beta-catenin between the intact epithelium and SCE (SCP and SCO

  6. Brivanib Alaninate in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-02

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mixed Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  7. DPPIV promotes endometrial carcinoma cell proliferation, invasion and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xinhua; Wu, Rongrong; Huang, Qicheng; Jiang, Yao; Qin, Jianbing; Yao, Feng; Jin, Guohua; Zhang, Yuquan

    2017-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), also known as CD26, is a 110-kDa cell surface glycoprotein expressed in various tissues. DPPIV reportedly plays a direct role in the progression of several human malignancies. DPPIV specific inhibitors are employed as antidiabetics and could potentially be repurposed to enhance anti-tumor immunotherapies. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between DPPIV expression and tumor progression in endometrial carcinoma (EC). DPPIV overexpression altered cell morphology and stimulated cell proliferation, invasion and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. These effects were abrogated by DPPIV knockdown or pharmacological inhibition using sitagliptin. DPPIV overexpression increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF-1a) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression to promote HIF-1a-VEGFA signaling. Our results indicated that DPPIV accelerated endometrial carcinoma progression and that sitagliptin may be an effective anti-EC therapeutic. PMID:28060721

  8. DPPIV promotes endometrial carcinoma cell proliferation, invasion and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xinhua; Wu, Rongrong; Huang, Qicheng; Jiang, Yao; Qin, Jianbing; Yao, Feng; Jin, Guohua; Zhang, Yuquan

    2017-01-31

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), also known as CD26, is a 110-kDa cell surface glycoprotein expressed in various tissues. DPPIV reportedly plays a direct role in the progression of several human malignancies. DPPIV specific inhibitors are employed as antidiabetics and could potentially be repurposed to enhance anti-tumor immunotherapies. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between DPPIV expression and tumor progression in endometrial carcinoma (EC). DPPIV overexpression altered cell morphology and stimulated cell proliferation, invasion and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. These effects were abrogated by DPPIV knockdown or pharmacological inhibition using sitagliptin. DPPIV overexpression increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF-1a) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression to promote HIF-1a-VEGFA signaling. Our results indicated that DPPIV accelerated endometrial carcinoma progression and that sitagliptin may be an effective anti-EC therapeutic.

  9. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60-0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98, P=0.003; RR =0.84, 95% CI

  10. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60–0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0

  11. The genetic landscape of endometrial clear cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    DeLair, Deborah F; Burke, Kathleen A; Selenica, Pier; Lim, Raymond S; Scott, Sasinya N; Middha, Sumit; Mohanty, Abhinita S; Cheng, Donavan T; Berger, Michael F; Soslow, Robert A; Weigelt, Britta

    2017-10-01

    Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium is a rare type of endometrial cancer that is generally associated with an aggressive clinical behaviour. Here, we sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations in endometrial clear cell carcinomas (ECCs), and whether ECCs could be classified into the molecular subtypes described for endometrial endometrioid and serous carcinomas. We performed a rigorous histopathological review, immunohistochemical analysis and massively parallel sequencing targeting 300 cancer-related genes of 32 pure ECCs. Eleven (34%), seven (22%) and six (19%) ECCs showed abnormal expression patterns for p53, ARID1A, and at least one DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein, respectively. Targeted sequencing data were obtained from 30 of the 32 ECCs included in this study, and these revealed that two ECCs (7%) were ultramutated and harboured mutations affecting the exonuclease domain of POLE. In POLE wild-type ECCs, TP53 (46%), PIK3CA (36%), PPP2R1A (36%), FBXW7 (25%), ARID1A (21%), PIK3R1 (18%) and SPOP (18%) were the genes most commonly affected by mutations; 18% and 11% harboured CCNE1 and ERBB2 amplifications, respectively, and 11% showed DAXX homozygous deletions. ECCs less frequently harboured mutations affecting CTNNB1 and PTEN but more frequently harboured PPP2R1A and TP53 mutations than non-POLE endometrioid carcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Compared to endometrial serous carcinomas (TCGA), ECCs less frequently harboured TP53 mutations. When a surrogate model for the molecular-based TCGA classification was used, all molecular subtypes previously identified in endometrial endometrioid and serous carcinomas were present in the ECCs studied, including POLE, MMR-deficient, copy-number high (serous-like)/p53 abnormal, and copy-number low (endometrioid)/p53 wild-type, which were significantly associated with disease-free survival in univariate analysis. These findings demonstrate that ECCs constitute a histologically and

  12. ESR1 gene amplification in endometrial carcinomas: a clinicopathological analysis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammed Tanjimur; Nakayama, Kentaro; Rahman, Munmun; Ishikawa, Masako; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Katagiri, Atsuko; Ishibashi, Tomoka; Sato, Emi; Iida, Kouji; Ishikawa, Noriyuki; Nakayama, Naomi; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the clinicopathological significance of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene amplification and its relationship to phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), MutL homolog 1 (MLH1), p53, and AT rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) expression in endometrial carcinomas. ESR1 amplification and expression were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Clinical data were collected by retrospective chart review. ESR1 amplification was identified in 13 out of 111 (11.7%) endometrial carcinomas. No significant association was observed between ESR1 amplification and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p=0.17), histological grade (p=0.35), lymph node metastasis (p=0.51), or deep myometrial invasion (p=0.46). ESR1 amplification was independent of PTEN, p53, HER2, MLH1, and ARID1A protein expression. Patients without estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) expression had shorter progression-free and overall survival than those with ER or PR expression (p<0.01). ESR1 amplification is independent of known clinicopathological factors related to poor prognosis and PTEN, p53, HER2, MLH1, and ARID1A protein expression, suggesting ESR1 amplification may be an early event in endometrial carcinoma development.

  13. Body mass index does not influence post-treatment survival in early stage endometrial cancer: results from the MRC ASTEC trial.

    PubMed

    Crosbie, Emma J; Roberts, Chris; Qian, Wendi; Swart, Ann Marie; Kitchener, Henry C; Renehan, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a major risk factor for endometrial cancer incidence but its impact on post-treatment survival is unclear. We investigated the relationships of BMI (categorised using the WHO definitions) with clinico-pathological characteristics and outcome in women treated within the MRC ASTEC randomised trial, which provides data from patients who received standardised allocated treatments and therefore reduces biases. The impact of BMI on both recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) was analysed using the Cox regression models. An apriori framework of evaluating potential biases was explored. From 1408 participants, there were 1070 women with determinable BMI (median=29.1 kg/m(2)). Histological types were endometrioid (type 1) in 893 and non-endometrioid (type 2) in 146 women; the proportion of the latter decreasing with increasing BMI (8% versus 19% for obese III WHO category versus normal weight, p(trend)=0.003). For type 1 carcinomas, increasing BMI was associated with less aggressive histopathological features (depth of invasion, p=0.006; tumour grade, p=0.015). With a median follow-up of 34.3 months, there was no influence of BMI on RFS - adjusted HRs per 5 kg/m(2) were 0.98 (95% CI 0.86, 1.13) and 0.95 (0.74, 1.24), for type 1 and 2 carcinomas; and no influence on OS - adjusted HRs per 5 kg/m(2) were 0.96 (0.81, 1.14) and 0.92 (0.70, 1.23), respectively. These findings demonstrate an important principle: that an established link between an exposure (here, obesity) and increased incident cancer risk, does not necessarily translate into an inferior outcome following treatment for that cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cigarette smoking and endometrial carcinoma risk: the role of effect modification and tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hannah P.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Park, Yikyung; Brinton, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The inverse relationship between cigarette smoking and endometrial carcinoma risk is well established. We examined effect modification of this relationship and associations with tumor characteristics in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study. Methods We examined the association between cigarette smoking and endometrial carcinoma risk among 110,304 women. During 1,029,041 person years of follow-up, we identified 1,476 incident endometrial carcinoma cases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between smoking status, years since smoking cessation, and endometrial carcinoma risk overall and within strata of endometrial carcinoma risk factors. Effect modification was assessed using likelihood ratio test statistics. Smoking associations by histologic subtype/grade and stage at diagnosis were also evaluated. Results Reduced endometrial carcinoma risk was evident among former (RR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.80, 1.00) and current (RR 0.65, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.78) smokers compared with never smokers. Smoking cessation 1–4 years prior to baseline was significantly associated with endometrial carcinoma risk (RR 0.65, 95 % CI 0.48, 0.89), while cessation ≥10 years before baseline was not. The association between smoking and endometrial carcinoma risk was not significantly modified by any endometrial carcinoma risk factor, nor did we observe major differences in risk associations by tumor characteristics. Conclusion The cigarette smoking–endometrial carcinoma risk relationship was consistent within strata of important endometrial carcinoma risk factors and by clinically relevant tumor characteristics. PMID:24487725

  15. [Aromatase activities of endometrial carcinomas and both basic and clinical analyses of endometrial hyperplasia as a premalignant disease].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, H

    1993-08-01

    Paraffin-embedded materials obtained from 117 cases of endometrial hyperplasia and 84 cases of carcinoma were used for measurement of both ki-ras and p53 gene mutation and aromatase (ARO) and TGF-alpha immunostaining. The overall incidence of ki-ras mutations in the hyperplasia specimens (16%) was similar to the incidence detected in carcinomas (18%). None of 117 endometrial hyperplasias were found to have mutations in the p53 gene, whereas mutations were seen in 3 (13.3%) endometrial carcinomas. The intensity of both ARO and TGF-alpha immunostaining was increased in glands of both hyperplasia and carcinoma, and also in the interstitium of carcinoma. The positive sites of both ARO and TGF-alpha were almost the same, with an incidence below 40% in both hyperplasias and carcinomas. The cultured cells of endometrial carcinoma showed aromatase activity below MCF-7 cells, because testosterone was converted to estradiol (E2). TGF-alpha induced cell growth with at an optimal concentration. In HEC-59 cells, TGF-alpha increased both ARO-activity and mRNA. Some promoters on ARO-exon 1 in HEC-59 cells were different from those in BeWo cells. Progesterone inhibited the E2-induced excretion of pre TGF-alpha in endometrial carcinoma cells. These findings suggest that endometrial hyperplasia can be a premalignant condition of carcinoma, and can be initiated by both ki-ras codon 12 mutation and abnormal activity of ARO induced by TGF-alpha. In addition, HEC-59 cells may possess autocrine/paracrine properties involving ARO, E2 and TGF-alpha.

  16. Stereotactic body radiation therapy of early-stage non-small-cell lung carcinoma: Phase I study

    SciTech Connect

    McGarry, Ronald C.; Papiez, Lech; Williams, Mark

    Purpose: A Phase I dose escalation study of stereotactic body radiation therapy to assess toxicity and local control rates for patients with medically inoperable Stage I lung cancer. Methods and Materials: All patients had non-small-cell lung carcinoma, Stage T1a or T1b N0, M0. Patients were immobilized in a stereotactic body frame and treated in escalating doses of radiotherapy beginning at 24 Gy total (3 x 8 Gy fractions) using 7-10 beams. Cohorts were dose escalated by 6.0 Gy total with appropriate observation periods. Results: The maximum tolerated dose was not achieved in the T1 stratum (maximum dose = 60 Gy),more » but within the T2 stratum, the maximum tolerated dose was realized at 72 Gy for tumors larger than 5 cm. Dose-limiting toxicity included predominantly bronchitis, pericardial effusion, hypoxia, and pneumonitis. Local failure occurred in 4/19 T1 and 6/28 T2 patients. Nine local failures occurred at doses {<=}16 Gy and only 1 at higher doses. Local failures occurred between 3 and 31 months from treatment. Within the T1 group, 5 patients had distant or regional recurrence as an isolated event, whereas 3 patients had both distant and regional recurrence. Within the T2 group, 2 patients had solitary regional recurrences, and the 4 patients who failed distantly also failed regionally. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy seems to be a safe, effective means of treating early-stage lung cancer in medically inoperable patients. Excellent local control was achieved at higher dose cohorts with apparent dose-limiting toxicities in patients with larger tumors.« less

  17. Concomitant endometrial and gallbladder metastasis in advanced multiple metastatic invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bezpalko, Kseniya; Mohamed, Mohamed A; Mercer, Leo; McCann, Michael; Elghawy, Karim; Wilson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    At time of presentation, fewer than 10% of patients have metastatic breast cancer. The most common sites of metastasis in order of frequency are bone, lung, pleura, soft tissue, and liver. Breast cancer metastasis to the uterus or gallbladder is rare and has infrequently been reported in the English literature. A 47 year old female with a recent history of thrombocytopenia presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Pelvic ultrasound revealed multiple uterine fibroids and endometrial curettings revealed cells consistent with lobular carcinoma of the breast. Breast examination revealed edema and induration of the lower half of the right breast. Biopsy of the right breast revealed invasive lobular carcinoma. Bone marrow aspiration obtained at a previous outpatient visit revealed extensive involvement by metastatic breast carcinoma. Shortly after discharge, the patient presented with acute cholecystitis and underwent cholecystectomy. Microscopic examination of the gallbladder revealed metastatic infiltrating lobular carcinoma. The final diagnosis was invasive lobular carcinoma of the right breast with metastasis to the bone marrow, endometrium, gallbladder, regional lymph nodes, and peritoneum. The growth pattern of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is unique and poses a challenge in diagnosing the cancer at an early stage. Unlike other types of breast cancer, it tends to metastasize more to the peritoneum, ovary, and gastrointestinal tract. Metastasis to the endometrium or gallbladder is rare. Metastatic spread should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with invasive lobular breast carcinoma presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding or acute cholecystitis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of biological behavior between early-stage adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Fregnani, José H T G; Soares, Fernando A; Novik, Pablo R; Lopes, Ademar; Latorre, Maria R D O

    2008-02-01

    (1) To compare the anatomopathological variables and recurrence rates in patients with early-stage adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix; (2) to identify the independent risk factors for recurrence. This historical cohort study assessed 238 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix (IB and IIA), who underwent radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection between 1980 and 1999. Comparison of category variables between the two histological types was carried out using the Pearson's chi(2)-test or Fisher exact test. Disease-free survival rates for AC and SCC were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the curves were compared using the log-rank test. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the independent risk factors for recurrence. There were 35 cases of AC (14.7%) and 203 of SCC (85.3%). AC presented lower histological grade than did SCC (grade 1: 68.6% versus 9.4%; p<0.001), lower rate of lymphovascular space involvement (25.7% versus 53.7%; p=0.002), lower rate of invasion into the middle or deep thirds of the uterine cervix (40.0% versus 80.8%; p<0.001) and lower rate of lymph node metastasis (2.9% versus 16.3%; p=0.036). Although the recurrence rate was lower for AC than for SCC (11.4% versus 15.8%), this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.509). Multivariate analysis identified three independent risk factors for recurrence: presence of metastases in the pelvic lymph nodes, invasion of the deep third of the uterine cervix and absence of or slight inflammatory reaction in the cervix. When these variables were adjusted for the histological type and radiotherapy status, they remained in the model as independent risk factors. The AC group showed less aggressive histological behavior than did the SCC group, but no difference in the disease-free survival rates was noted.

  19. Converging endometrial and ovarian tumorigenesis in Lynch syndrome: Shared origin of synchronous carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Niskakoski, Anni; Pasanen, Annukka; Porkka, Noora; Eldfors, Samuli; Lassus, Heini; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Kaur, Sippy; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Bützow, Ralf; Peltomäki, Päivi

    2018-04-28

    The diagnosis of carcinoma in both the uterus and the ovary simultaneously is not uncommon and raises the question of synchronous primaries vs. metastatic disease. Targeted sequencing of sporadic synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas has shown that such tumors are clonally related and thus represent metastatic disease from one site to the other. Our purpose was to investigate whether or not the same applies to Lynch syndrome (LS), in which synchronous cancers of the gynecological tract are twice as frequent as in sporadic cases, reflecting inherited defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR). MMR gene mutation carriers with endometrial or ovarian carcinoma or endometrial hyperplasia were identified from a nationwide registry. Endometrial (n = 35) and ovarian carcinomas (n = 23), including 13 synchronous carcinoma pairs, were collected as well as endometrial hyperplasias (n = 56) and normal endometria (n = 99) from a surveillance program over two decades. All samples were studied for MMR status, ARID1A and L1CAM protein expression and tumor suppressor gene promoter methylation, and synchronous carcinomas additionally for somatic mutation profiles of 578 cancer-relevant genes. Synchronous carcinomas were molecularly concordant in all cases. Prior or concurrent complex (but not simple) endometrial hyperplasias showed a high degree of concordance with endometrial or ovarian carcinoma as the endpoint lesion. Our investigation suggests shared origins for synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas in LS, in analogy to sporadic cases. The similar degrees of concordance between complex hyperplasias and endometrial vs. ovarian carcinoma highlight converging pathways for endometrial and ovarian tumorigenesis overall. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. [Histological and molecular classification of endometrial carcinoma and therapeutical implications].

    PubMed

    Genestie, Catherine; Leary, Alexandra; Devouassoux, Mojgan; Auguste, Aurélie

    2017-12-01

    Endometrial cancer is the fourth cause of cancer in women in France and is the second most common cancer of the gynecologic cancer after breast cancer with 7275 new cases in 2012. The incidence of this neoplasm tends to increase with population aging, diabetes and obesity's augmentation. In rare cases, a hereditary factor has been described: Lynch's syndrome. The therapeutic management of the patient depends on the endometrial biopsy which specifies the histological type and the histo-prognostic grade as well as the MRI which allow the tumor staging. Within the last decade, improvement in technologies such as genomic, transcriptomic and histological analyses, allowed the establishment of new and finer classifications of endometrial carcinomas. The latest classification proposed by The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA), has been made routinely applicable through the international consortium TransPORTEC. It consists of 4 groups listed from good to poor prognosis: (1) ultra-mutated "POLE"; (2) hyper-mutated "MSI"; (3) low copy number "NSMP" and (4) high number of copies "TP53 mutated" (serous-like). This integrated characterization combined with mutational data opens new opportunities for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Ovarian and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas have distinct CTNNB1 and PTEN mutation profiles.

    PubMed

    McConechy, Melissa K; Ding, Jiarui; Senz, Janine; Yang, Winnie; Melnyk, Nataliya; Tone, Alicia A; Prentice, Leah M; Wiegand, Kimberly C; McAlpine, Jessica N; Shah, Sohrab P; Lee, Cheng-Han; Goodfellow, Paul J; Gilks, C Blake; Huntsman, David G

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian endometrioid carcinomas and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas share many histological and molecular alterations. These similarities are likely due to a common endometrial epithelial precursor cell of origin, with most ovarian endometrioid carcinomas arising from endometriosis. To directly compare the mutation profiles of two morphologically similar tumor types, endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (n=307) and ovarian endometrioid carcinomas (n=33), we performed select exon capture sequencing on a panel of genes: ARID1A, PTEN, PIK3CA, KRAS, CTNNB1, PPP2R1A, TP53. We found that PTEN mutations are more frequent in low-grade endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (67%) compared with low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinomas (17%) (P<0.0001). By contrast, CTNNB1 mutations are significantly different in low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinomas (53%) compared with low-grade endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (28%) (P<0.0057). This difference in CTNNB1 mutation frequency may be reflective of the distinct microenvironments; the epithelial cells lining an endometriotic cyst within the ovary are exposed to a highly oxidative environment that promotes tumorigenesis. Understanding the distinct mutation patterns found in the PI3K and Wnt pathways of ovarian and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas may provide future opportunities for stratifying patients for targeted therapeutics.

  2. Endometrial carcinoma in a 15-year-old obese patient with persistent uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoyan; Wang, Yingmei; Zhang, Xuhong; Yuan, Bibo; Han, Cha; Xue, Fengxia

    2014-04-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the upper female genital tract but is rare in teenagers. Here, we report the case of a 15-year-old, nulliparous, morbidly obese female with complaints of asthenia and menometrorrhagia lasting for six months. On examination, the patient had an enlarged uterus approximately 14 gestational weeks in size, and ultrasound revealed an intrauterine mass and polycystic ovaries. An endometrial biopsy performed during hysteroscopy revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and magnetic resonance imaging showed myometrial invasion. The patient underwent a laparotomy involving total abdominal hysterectomy, right salpingo-oophorectomy, wedge-shape dissection of the left ovary, and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. We analyze the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma in this case and discuss the risk factors for endometrial carcinoma, especially in young women. Gynecologists should be vigilant for persistent abnormal uterine bleeding and other signs of endometrial carcinoma in young women, especially those who have risk factors for the disease.

  3. CpG Methylation Signature Predicts Recurrence in Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results From a Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiliang; Peng, Baogang; Tang, Yunqiang; Qian, Yeben; Guo, Pi; Li, Mengfeng; Luo, Junhang; Chen, Bin; Tang, Hui; Lu, Canliang; Cai, Muyan; Ke, Zunfu; He, Wei; Zheng, Yun; Xie, Dan; Li, Binkui; Yuan, Yunfei

    2017-03-01

    Purpose Early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (E-HCC) is being diagnosed increasingly, and in one half of diagnosed patients, recurrence will develop. Thus, it is urgent to identify recurrence-related markers. We investigated the effectiveness of CpG methylation in predicting recurrence for patients with E-HCCs. Patients and Methods In total, 576 patients with E-HCC from four independent centers were sorted by three phases. In the discovery phase, 66 tumor samples were analyzed using the Illumina Methylation 450k Beadchip. Two algorithms, Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selector Operation and Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination, were used to select significant CpGs. In the training phase, penalized Cox regression was used to further narrow CpGs into 140 samples. In the validation phase, candidate CpGs were validated using an internal cohort (n = 141) and two external cohorts (n = 191 and n =104). Results After combining the 46 CpGs selected by the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selector Operation and the Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination algorithms, three CpGs corresponding to SCAN domain containing 3, Src homology 3-domain growth factor receptor-bound 2-like interacting protein 1, and peptidase inhibitor 3 were highlighted as candidate predictors in the training phase. On the basis of the three CpGs, a methylation signature for E-HCC (MSEH) was developed to classify patients into high- and low-risk recurrence groups in the training cohort ( P < .001). The performance of MSEH was validated in the internal cohort ( P < .001) and in the two external cohorts ( P < .001; P = .002). Furthermore, a nomogram comprising MSEH, tumor differentiation, cirrhosis, hepatitis B virus surface antigen, and antivirus therapy was generated to predict the 5-year recurrence-free survival in the training cohort, and it performed well in the three validation cohorts (concordance index: 0.725, 0.697, and 0.693, respectively). Conclusion MSEH, a three

  4. [Expression of Id1 and Id3 in endometrial carcinoma and their roles in regulating biological behaviors of endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Li, Xuenong; Liu, Guobing

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the expression of inhibitor of DNA differentiation/DNA binding 1 (Id1) and Id3 in endometrial carcinoma and explore their roles in regulating the proliferation, invasion, migration and adhesion of endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro. Id1 and Id3 expression in 4 fresh endometrial cancer tissue specimens and matched adjacent tissues were detected using Western blotting. Two endometrial cancer cell lines, HEC-1-B and RL-952, were both divided into 4 groups, namely the untreated group, blank virus group, promoter group and Id1/Id3 double-knockdown group, and their expressions of MMP2, CXCR4 and P21 were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The proliferation, invasion, migration and adhesion of the cells were evaluated with MTT, Transwell, wound-healing, and adhesion assays. Endometrial carcinoma tissues showed significantly higher Id1 and Id3 expression than the adjacent tissues (P<0.05). In the two endometrial carcinoma cell lines, Id1/Id3 double-knockdown significantly decreased MMP2 and CXCR4 expression and increased P21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05), and resulted in suppressed cell proliferation, invasion, migration and adhesion. Id1 and Id3 expressions are up-regulated in endometrial carcinoma to promote the proliferation, invasion, migration and adhesion of the tumor cells by increasing MMP2 and CXCR4 expression and reducing P21 expression. Therapies targeting Id1/Id3 can be a novel strategy for treatment of endometrial carcinoma.

  5. [The factors involved in invasive ability of endometrial carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Mori, Y; Mizuuchi, H; Sato, K; Okamura, N; Kudo, R

    1994-06-01

    The in vitro invasive ability, the expression of cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin, activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and K-ras point mutation were investigated in eight human endometrial carcinoma cell lines. 1) In vitro invasive abilities of endometrial carcinoma cell lines depend on the degree of cell differentiation and the origin of cell lines. A poorly-differentiated carcinoma cell line (NUE-1) and a cell line derived from metastatic lymph node (SNG-M) were more invasive than moderately-(HEC-1A, HEC-1BE) and well-differentiated (HEC-6, Ishikawa) cell lines. 2) Immunohistochemically, less or non-invasive cell lines expressed E-cadherin strongly, whereas a highly invasive cell line (NUE-1) expressed E-cadherin weakly. 3) When cultured on Matrigel-coated dishes, the tumor cells derived from moderately- and well-differentiated carcinoma aggregated with each other and did not invade Matrigel in the invasion assay. The aggregated cells expressed E-cadherin more strongly when cultured on Matrigel. 4) 72-kD gelatinase (MMP-2) was secreted in serum-free conditioned medium of all cell lines. In an invasive cell line (NUE-1,SNG-M), the activity of MMP-2 was stronger than in other cell lines. And the activity of 92-kDa gelatinase (MMP-9) was detected in most invasive cell line (NUE-1). 5) Point mutation of K-ras codon 12 was detected in four of eight (50%) cell lines by the PCR-RFLP method. The changes in the DNA sequence were identified, but K-ras point mutation was not correlated with in vitro invasiveness of the tumor cells.

  6. ZEB1 overexpression associated with E-cadherin and microRNA-200 downregulation is characteristic of undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pérez, Laura; López-García, M Ángeles; Díaz-Martín, Juan; Biscuola, Michele; Castilla, M Ángeles; Tafe, Laura J; Garg, Karuna; Oliva, Esther; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Soslow, Robert A; Palacios, José

    2013-11-01

    Undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are very aggressive high-grade endometrial carcinomas that are frequently under-recognized. This study aimed to analyze the molecular alterations underlying the development of these endometrial carcinomas, focusing on those related to dedifferentiation. We assessed a series of 120 tumors: 57 grade 1 and 2 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, 15 grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, 27 endometrial serous carcinomas, and 21 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas. We found a high frequency of DNA mismatch repair deficiency (38%) and moderate rate of p53 overexpression (∼33%) in undifferentiated carcinomas. In contrast to the characteristic endometrioid phenotype, there was a dramatic downregulation of E-cadherin expression in the undifferentiated subtype. Quantitative methylation studies dismissed CDH1 promoter hypermethylation as the mechanism responsible for this change in gene expression, while immunohistochemistry revealed that the E-cadherin repressor ZEB1 was frequently overexpressed (62%) in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas. This finding was accompanied by a sharp downregulation in the expression of the miR-200 family of microRNAs, well-known targets of ZEB1. Furthermore, there was enhanced expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, such as N-cadherin, cytoplasmic p120, and osteonectin. In addition, HMGA2, a regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that is expressed in aggressive endometrial tumors, such as endometrial serous carcinomas and carcinosarcomas, was expressed in >20% of undifferentiated carcinomas. These results suggest that ZEB1 overexpression, associated with E-cadherin and miR-200s downregulation, and the expression of mesenchymal markers might enhance the metastatic potential of undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, leading to a poor prognosis. In addition, our observations suggest that the immnohistochemical analysis

  7. High-grade endometrial carcinoma: serous and grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas have different immunophenotypes and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alkushi, Abdulmohsen; Köbel, Martin; Kalloger, Steve E; Gilks, C Blake

    2010-07-01

    High-grade endometrial carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors and include grade 3 endometrioid (EC-3), serous (SC), and clear cell carcinomas (CCC). There are conflicting data about the prognosis of these subtypes of high-grade endometrial carcinoma; this may be a result of lack of reproducibility in classifying tumor cell type. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in immunophenotype and outcome in a series of high-grade endometrial carcinomas, focusing on the comparison of EC-3 versus SC. We selected 180 endometrial carcinomas of SC, EC, or CCC type. No mixed carcinomas were included in the study. We chose the following immunohistochemical markers, estrogen receptor (ER), insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3), p16, p53, progesterone receptor (PR), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) as being significantly differentially expressed in endometrial carcinoma subtypes. The tumors were stratified into 4 groups on the basis of their cell type and grade: EC grade 1 or 2, EC-3, SC, and CCC. Univariate survival analysis revealed significant differences in outcome between the 4 groups (P<0.0001), with significantly longer disease-specific survival for grade 1 or 2 EC versus EC-3 (P=0.0001), and EC-3 versus SC (P=0.0003). p16, PTEN, and IMP3 expression was observed more frequently in SC compared with EC-3 (P<0.0001, P=0.021, and P=0.031, respectively). These 3 markers showed the highest sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between EC-3 and SC, with receiver operating characteristics area under the curve of 0.85, 0.69, and 0.71, respectively. ER and p53 approached but did not reach significance for differential expression in EC-3 versus SC (P=0.055 and P=0.068, respectively). A combination of p16 and PTEN predicts EC-3 versus SC with a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 96.8%. p16 and PTEN can aid in distinguishing between EC-3 and SC of the endometrium, and are superior to ER, PR, and p53 for this purpose. EC-3

  8. Small Foci of Serous Component as a Predictor of Recurrence and Prognosis for Stage IA Endometrial Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Morikazu; Takano, Masashi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Soyama, Hiroaki; Aoyama, Tadashi; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Kato, Kento; Iwahashi, Hideki; Matuura, Hiroko; Yoshikawa, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Ayako; Hirata, Junko; Furuya, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Most of the endometrial carcinomas are detected in early stages and have a better prognosis; however, predictive factors for recurrence have not been determined. Patients with grade 1 endometrioid carcinoma (EG1) according to the 2014 WHO criteria at FIGO 2009 stage IA that were identified through scanning medical charts were included, and we assessed whether the presence of uterine serous carcinoma (SC) component which comprised less than 5% of the total volume using the ovarian two-tiered grading system could be a recurrent risk factor in these patients. Among 126 cases which met inclusion criteria, 12 cases had SC. SC tumors were divided into 2 groups: SC resembling high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and SC resembling low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC). Five (3.9%) cases had HGSC and 7 (5.6%) cases had LGSC. Recurrence was observed in 3 of all cases (2.3%): 2 cases with HGSC, and 1 case with LGSC. Regarding several clinicopathological factors, only the presence of SC was associated with recurrence. The sensitivity and specificity to predict recurrence using this system were 100 and 93%, respectively. The identification of SC using the ovarian two-tiered grading system could be an accurate predictor of recurrence in stage IA EG1. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Increased expression of placental growth factor in high-grade endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    COENEGRACHTS, LIEVE; SCHRAUWEN, STEFANIE; VAN BREE, RITA; DESPIERRE, EVELYN; LUYTEN, CATHERINE; JONCKX, BART; STASSEN, JEAN MARIE; VERGOTE, IGNACE; AMANT, FRÉDÉRIC

    2013-01-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF), a homolog of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), exerts pleiotropic functions in cancer by affecting tumor cells as well as endothelial and inflammatory cells. Moreover, PlGF expression correlates with tumor stage, recurrence, metastasis and patient outcome in different types of cancer. Recently, administration of anti-PlGF therapy reduced tumor growth and metastasis in preclinical tumor models. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of systemic and local expression of PlGF in primary endometrial carcinomas. PlGF levels in tumor lysates (n=128) and serum (n=88) of patients with primary endometrial cancer were determined using ELISA. PlGF mRNA expression in endometrial carcinoma tissues was quantified by quantitative qRT-PCR. Results were compared to endometrial cancer stage and grade. Systemic PlGF levels were not altered in patients with endometrial cancer (FIGO stage I-II-III) as compared to healthy controls. Only in FIGO stage IV patients, serum PlGF levels were slightly increased. Local PlGF mRNA and protein expression in endometrial tumors progressively increased with tumor grade. In endometrioid carcinomas, PlGF mRNA expression was significantly increased in endometrioid grade 3 tumors as compared to normal endometrial tissue. PlGF protein expression was significantly increased in endometrioid grade 2 and 3 carcinomas and in serous carcinomas as compared to normal endometrial tissue. Our study showed that systemic/serum PlGF levels cannot be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker in endometrial cancer. However, the increased local expression of PlGF, primarily in high-grade carcinomas, underscores the possibility for preclinical assessment of anti-PlGF therapy in endometrial cancer. PMID:23232836

  10. Increased expression of placental growth factor in high-grade endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Coenegrachts, Lieve; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Van Bree, Rita; Despierre, Evelyn; Luyten, Catherine; Jonckx, Bart; Stassen, Jean Marie; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frédéric

    2013-02-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF), a homolog of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), exerts pleiotropic functions in cancer by affecting tumor cells as well as endothelial and inflammatory cells. Moreover, PlGF expression correlates with tumor stage, recurrence, metastasis and patient outcome in different types of cancer. Recently, administration of anti-PlGF therapy reduced tumor growth and metastasis in preclinical tumor models. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of systemic and local expression of PlGF in primary endometrial carcinomas. PlGF levels in tumor lysates (n=128) and serum (n=88) of patients with primary endometrial cancer were determined using ELISA. PlGF mRNA expression in endometrial carcinoma tissues was quantified by quantitative qRT-PCR. Results were compared to endometrial cancer stage and grade. Systemic PlGF levels were not altered in patients with endometrial cancer (FIGO stage I-II-III) as compared to healthy controls. Only in FIGO stage IV patients, serum PlGF levels were slightly increased. Local PlGF mRNA and protein expression in endometrial tumors progressively increased with tumor grade. In endometrioid carcinomas, PlGF mRNA expression was significantly increased in endometrioid grade 3 tumors as compared to normal endometrial tissue. PlGF protein expression was significantly increased in endometrioid grade 2 and 3 carcinomas and in serous carcinomas as compared to normal endometrial tissue. Our study showed that systemic/serum PlGF levels cannot be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker in endometrial cancer. However, the increased local expression of PlGF, primarily in high-grade carcinomas, underscores the possibility for preclinical assessment of anti-PlGF therapy in endometrial cancer.

  11. Impact of Indocyanine Green for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in Early Stage Endometrial and Cervical Cancer: Comparison with Conventional Radiotracer (99m)Tc and/or Blue Dye.

    PubMed

    Buda, Alessandro; Crivellaro, Cinzia; Elisei, Federica; Di Martino, Giampaolo; Guerra, Luca; De Ponti, Elena; Cuzzocrea, Marco; Giuliani, Daniela; Sina, Federica; Magni, Sonia; Landoni, Claudio; Milani, Rodolfo

    2016-07-01

    To compare the detection rate (DR) and bilateral optimal mapping (OM) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in women with endometrial and cervical cancer using indocyanine green (ICG) versus the standard technetium-99m radiocolloid ((99m)Tc) radiotracer plus methylene or isosulfan blue, or blue dye alone. From October 2010 to May 2015, 163 women with stage I endometrial or cervical cancer (118 endometrial and 45 cervical cancer) underwent SLN mapping with (99m)Tc with blue dye, blue dye alone, or ICG. DR and bilateral OM of ICG were compared respectively with the results obtained using the standard (99m)Tc radiotracer with blue dye, or blue dye alone. SLN mapping with (99m)Tc radiotracer with blue dye was performed on 77 of 163 women, 38 with blue dye only and 48 with ICG. The overall DR of SLN mapping was 97, 89, and 100 % for (99m)Tc with blue dye, blue dye alone, and ICG, respectively. The bilateral OM rate for ICG was 85 %-significantly higher than the 58 % obtained with (99m)Tc with blue dye (p = 0.003) and the 54 % for blue dye (p = 0.001). Thirty-one women (19 %) had positive SLNs. Sensitivity and negative predictive value of SLN were 100 % for all techniques. SLNs mapping using ICG demonstrated higher DR compared to other modalities. In addition, ICG was significantly superior to (99m)Tc with blue dye in terms of bilateral OM in women with early stage endometrial and cervical cancer. The higher number of bilateral OM may consequently reduce the overall number of complete lymphadenectomies, reducing the duration and additional costs of surgical treatment.

  12. The clinicopathologic significance of the loss of BAF250a (ARID1A) expression in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng-mao; Xiao, Shuang; Sun, Guang-yu; Liu, Yue-ping; Zhang, Feng-hua; Yang, Hong-fang; Li, Jia; Qiu, Hong-bing; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Chao; Kang, Shan; Shan, Bao-en

    2014-03-01

    AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes the BAF250a protein. Recent studies have shown the loss of ARID1A expression in several types of tumors. We aimed to investigate the clinical and pathologic role of BAF250a in endometrial carcinoma. We examined the expression of BAF250a and its correlation with the expression of p53, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, hypoxiainduciblefactor-1α, and vascular endothelial growth factor in normal and various malignant endometrial tissues. The expression of BAF250 was significantly down-regulated in endometrial carcinoma when compared with normal endometrial tissues. The loss of BAF250a expression was found in 25% of endometrial carcinoma samples but not in normal endometrial tissues, complex endometrial hyperplasia, and atypical endometrial hyperplasia samples. Subtypes of endometrial carcinoma, especially uterine endometrioid carcinoma and uterine clear cell carcinoma, had higher frequency of loss of BAF250a expression. In addition, the expression of BAF250a was positively correlated with estrogen receptor and negatively correlated with p53 in poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma. Moreover, the expression of BAF250a was significantly associated with the differentiation status of endometrial carcinoma but not associated with clinical stage, the depth of myometrial invasion, lymph node metastasis, and overall survival of patients with endometrial carcinoma. Our data showed that loss of BAF250a is frequently found in high-grade endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas but not in other types of endometrial carcinoma. The loss of BAF250a expression does not have prognostic value for endometrial carcinoma.

  13. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-14

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  14. Proteomics-based approach identified differentially expressed proteins with potential roles in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengyu; Min, Wenjiao; Huang, Canhua; Bai, Shujun; Tang, Minghai; Zhao, Xia

    2010-01-01

    We used proteomic approaches to identify altered expressed proteins in endometrial carcinoma, with the aim of discovering potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for endometrial carcinoma. The global proteins extracted from endometrial carcinoma and normal endometrial tissues were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed with PDQuest (Bio-Rad, Hercules, Calif) software. The differentially expressed spots were identified by mass spectrometry and searched against NCBInr protein database. Those proteins with potential roles were confirmed by Western blotting and immunohistochemical assays. Ninety-nine proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and a cluster diagram analysis indicated that these proteins were involved in metabolism, cell transformation, protein folding, translation and modification, proliferation and apoptosis, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, and so on. In confirmatory immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses, overexpressions of epidermal fatty acid-binding protein, calcyphosine, and cyclophilin A were also observed in endometrial carcinoma tissues, which were consistent with the proteomic results. Our results suggested that these identified proteins, including epidermal fatty acid-binding protein, calcyphosine, and cyclophilin A, might be of potential values in the studies of endometrial carcinogenesis or investigations of diagnostic biomarkers or treatment targets for endometrial carcinoma.

  15. A Comparison of Outcomes Following Laparoscopic and Open Hysterectomy With or Without Lymphadenectomy for Presumed Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer: Results From the Medical Research Council ASTEC Trial.

    PubMed

    Kyrgiou, Maria; Swart, Anne-Marie; Qian, Wendi; Warwick, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) is increasingly used for the management of endometrial malignancy. Its benefits may be particularly pronounced as these women are more likely to be older or obese. The aim of this study was to determine whether outcomes for LH are comparable to the open hysterectomy (OH). This was a prospective cohort study nested within the multicenter ASTEC (A Study in the Treatment of Endometrial Cancer) randomized controlled trial (1998-2005). Women with presumed early endometrial cancer were included. Laparoscopic hysterectomy was compared with OH with or without systematic lymphadenectomy. Overall survival, time to first recurrence, complication rates, and surgical outcomes were the main outcome measures. Of 1408 women, 1309 (93%) received OH, and 99 (7%) had LH. LH was associated with longer operating time (median, LH 105 minutes [interquartile range (IQR), 60-150] vs OH 80 minutes [IQR, 60-95]; P < 0.001) but 50% shorter hospital stay (median, LH 4 days [IQR, 3-5] vs OH 6 days [IQR, 5-7]). The number of harvested lymph nodes was similar (median, LH 13 [IQR, 10-16] vs OH 12 [IQR, 11-13]; P = 0.67). LH had fewer intraoperative and postoperative adverse events (9% difference, LH 21% vs OH 30%; borderline significance; P = 0.07). The rate of conversion to laparotomy for the LH group was high (27%). The median follow-up was 37 months. After adjusting for significant prognostic factors, the hazard ratio for overall survival in those who underwent LH compared with those who underwent OH was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.31-1.43) (P = 0.30). Laparoscopic hysterectomy for early endometrial cancer is safe. Although it requires longer operating time it is associated with shorter hospital stay and favorable morbidity profile. Further studies are required to assess the long-term safety.

  16. Combination of Scoring Criteria and Whole Exome Sequencing Analysis of Synchronous Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingyi; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Qiujuan; Liu, Changxu; Qi, Lisha; Li, Lingmei; Qu, Tongyuan; Wang, Yalei; Liu, Suxiang; Meng, Bin; Sun, Baocun; Cao, Wenfeng

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinomas from single primary tumor with metastasis by clinical pathologic criteria and whole exome sequencing (WES). Fifty-two patients with synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas (SEOCs) between 2010 and 2017 were reviewed and subjected to WES. On the basis of the Scully criteria, 11 cases were supposed as synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinomas, 38 cases as single primary tumor with metastasis, and the remaining 3 cases (S50-S52) cannot be defined. Through a quantization scoring analysis, 9 cases that were scored 0-1 point were defined as synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinomas, and 42 cases that were scored 3-8 points were defined as single primary tumor with metastasis. Two of the undefined cases were classified into metastatic disease, and another one that scored 2 points (S52) was subjected to WES. S52 was deemed synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinomas, with few shared somatic mutations and overlapping copy number varieties. The finding of a serous component examined from the uterine endometrium samples further illustrated that the case was synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinomas. By scoring criterion, SEOCs were divided into 2 groups: synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinoma group and single primary tumor with metastasis group. The analysis of clonality indicated that the case that scored 2 (S52) can be considered as synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinomas. Scoring criteria of clinical pathology, along with the study of the WES, may further identify the classification of SEOCs.

  17. Undifferentiated Endometrial Carcinomas Show Frequent Loss of Core Switch/Sucrose Nonfermentable Complex Proteins.

    PubMed

    Köbel, Martin; Hoang, Lien N; Tessier-Cloutier, Basile; Meng, Bo; Soslow, Robert A; Stewart, Colin J R; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2018-01-01

    Undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma is an aggressive type of endometrial carcinoma that typically presents with advanced stage disease and rapid clinical progression. In contrast to dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma lacks a concurrent differentiated (typically low-grade endometrioid) carcinoma component, though the undifferentiated component of dedifferentiated carcinoma is similar histologically and immunophenotypically to pure undifferentiated carcinoma. We recently identified 3 mutually exclusive mechanisms of switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) complex inactivation (BRG1 inactivation, INI1 inactivation or ARID1A/ARID1B co-inactivation) that are associated with histologic dedifferentiation in the majority of dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma. In the current study, we aimed to determine by immunohistochemistry whether these patterns of SWI/SNF inactivation also occur in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas. Of the 34 undifferentiated carcinomas examined, 17 (50%) exhibited SWI/SNF complex inactivation, with 11 tumors showing complete loss of both ARID1A and ARID1B, 5 showing complete loss of BRG1 and 1 showing complete loss of INI1. Ten of the remaining 17 undifferentiated carcinomas showed the following alterations: 5 tumors (15%) showed loss of ARID1A only with intact ARID1B, BRG1, and INI1 expression, 4 tumors (12%) showed mutated patterns of p53 staining with intact SWI/SNF protein expression, and 1 tumor (3%) harbored a POLE exonuclease domain mutation (P286R). SWI/SNF complex-inactivated tumors presented more frequently with extrauterine disease spread than those with intact expression (88% vs. 41%, respectively). In addition, patients with SWI/SNF complex-inactivated tumors had a significantly worse disease-specific survival (P=0.02). The findings here demonstrate frequent SWI/SNF complex inactivation in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, which has future implications regarding therapies that target

  18. L1CAM expression in endometrial carcinomas: an ENITEC collaboration study.

    PubMed

    van der Putten, Louis Jm; Visser, Nicole Cm; van de Vijver, Koen; Santacana, Maria; Bronsert, Peter; Bulten, Johan; Hirschfeld, Marc; Colas, Eva; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Garcia, Angel; Mancebo, Gemma; Alameda, Fransesc; Trovik, Jone; Kopperud, Reidun K; Huvila, Jutta; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Koskas, Martin; Walker, Francine; Weinberger, Vit; Minar, Lubos; Jandakova, Eva; Snijders, Marc Plm; van den Berg-van Erp, Saskia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Salvesen, Helga B; Amant, Frederic; Massuger, Leon Fag; Pijnenborg, Johanna Ma

    2016-09-06

    Identification of aggressive endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs) and non-endometrioid carcinomas (NEECs) is essential to improve outcome. L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) expression is a strong prognostic marker in stage I EECs, but less is known about L1CAM expression in advanced-stage EECs and NEECs. This study analyses L1CAM expression in a clinically representative cohort of endometrial carcinomas. The expression of L1CAM was immunohistochemically determined in 1199 endometrial carcinomas, treated at one of the European Network for Individualized Treatment of Endometrial Cancer (ENITEC) centres. Staining was considered positive when >10% of the tumour cells expressed L1CAM. The association between L1CAM expression and several clincopathological characteristics and disease outcome was calculated. In all, L1CAM was expressed in 10% of the 935 stage I EECs, 18% of the 160 advanced stage EECs, and 75% of the 104 NEECs. The expression of L1CAM was associated with advanced stage, nodal involvement, high tumour grade, non-endometrioid histology, lymphovascular space invasion, and distant recurrences in all cases, and with reduced survival in the EECs, but not in the NEECs. The expression of L1CAM is a strong predictor of poor outcome in EECs, but not NEECs. It is strongly associated with non-endometrioid histology and distant spread, and could improve the postoperative selection of high-risk endometrial carcinomas. The value of L1CAM expression in the preoperative selection of high-risk endometrial carcinomas should be studied.

  19. Copanlisib in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-14

    Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mixed Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Metastatic Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; PIK3CA Gene Mutation; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  20. Combined use of endometrial sample and magnetic resonance imaging in the preoperative risk-stratification of endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Luomaranta, Anna; Bützow, Ralf; Pauna, Arja-Riitta; Leminen, Arto; Loukovaara, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    To compare two treatment strategies in women undergoing surgery for endometrial carcinoma. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary care center. 1166 patients. Uterine biopsy/curettage was obtained in 1140 women, of whom 229 also had pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared two strategies: (i) routine pelvic lymphadenectomy and (ii) selective pelvic lymphadenectomy for women with high-risk carcinomas as determined from preoperative histology and MRI. High-risk carcinomas included grade 1-2 endometrioid carcinomas with ≥50% myometrial invasion, grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas, and nonendometrioid carcinomas. Others were considered low-risk carcinomas. Diagnostic indices, treatment algorithms. Of the women who underwent lymphadenectomy, positive pelvic nodes were found in 2.3% of low-risk carcinomas and 18.3% of high-risk carcinomas. The combination of preoperative histology and MRI detected high-risk carcinomas with a sensitivity of 85.7%, a specificity of 75.0%, a positive predictive value of 74.4%, and a negative predictive value of 86.1%. Area under curve was 0.804. In the routine lymphadenectomy algorithm, 54.1% of lymphadenectomies were performed for low-risk carcinomas. In the selective lymphadenectomy algorithm, 14.3% of women with high-risk carcinomas did not receive lymphadenectomy. Missed positive pelvic nodes were estimated to occur in 2.1% of patients in the selective strategy. Similarly, the estimated risk for isolated para-aortic metastasis was 2.1%, regardless of treatment strategy. The combination of preoperative histology and MRI is moderately sensitive and specific in detecting high-risk endometrial carcinomas. The clinical utility of the method is hampered by the relatively high proportion of high-risk cases that remain unrecognized preoperatively. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Treatment Outcomes and Prognostic Factors in Mexican Patients with Endometrial Carcinoma with Emphasis on Patients Receiving Radiotherapy after Surgery: An Institutional Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Christian; Mariscal, Carlos; Celis, Alfredo; Balcázar, Nidia M.; Meneses, Abelardo; Mohar, Alejandro; Mota, Aida; Trejo, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in patients with endometrial carcinoma treated in a Latin American institute with emphasis in patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods. A total of 412 patients with endometrial carcinoma admitted to our hospital between 1998 and 2008 were evaluated, retrospectively. The mean age was 55 years (28–87). Two hundred seventy patients received RT following surgery. Stage distribution was as follows: 221 patients (54%) stage I, 86 patients (21%) stage II, and 103 patients (24.5%) stage III and 2 patients (0.5%) stage IVA. Results. Overall survival rate was 95% at 2 years, 84% at 5 years, and 79% at 10 years. By the end of followup, 338 patients (82%) were disease-free, and 13 (3%) were alive with disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified age, grade, serosal and adnexial involvement as significant predictors for overall survival. Conclusion. The results of our study suggests that early-stage, low-grade endometrial cancer with no risk factors should not receive external beam radiotherapy, intermediate risk patients should receive only vaginal vault brachytherapy, and the use of chemotherapy with radiotherapy for patients high-risk and advanced-stage carcinoma the addition of radiotherapy is associated with a better survival being an effective therapeutic option. PMID:22675641

  2. [Sentinel node detection in early stage of cervical carcinoma using 99mTc-nanocolloid and blue dye].

    PubMed

    Sevcík, L; Klát, J; Gráf, P; Koliba, P; Curík, R; Kraft, O

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the feasibility of intraoperative sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) detection using gamma detection probe and blue dye in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy for treatment of early stage of cervical cancer. Prospective case observational study. In the period from May 2004 to February 2006 77 patients with early stage of cervical cancer who underwent a radical surgery were included into the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to the tumour volume. First group consists of patients FIGO IA2 and FIGO IB1 with tumour diameter less than 2 cm, second group tumours FIGO IB1 with tumour diameter more than 2 cm and third group stadium IB2. SLN was detected by blue dye and Tc99. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was done after Tc99 colloid injection, intraoperative detection was performed by visual observation and by hand-held gamma-detection probe. SLN were histologically and immunohistochemically analysed. A total number of 2764 lymph nodes with an average 36 and 202 SLN with an average 2.6 were identified. The SLN detection rate was 94.8% per patient and 85.1% for the side of dissection and depends on the tumor volume. SLN were identified in obturator area in 48%, in external iliac area in 15%, in common iliac and internal iliac both in 9%, in interiliac region in 8%, in praesacral region in 6% and in parametrial area in 5%. Metastatic disease was detected in 31 patients (40.2%), metastatic involvement of SLN only in 12 patients (15.6%). False negative rate was 2.6%, sensitivity and negative predictive value calculated by patient were 923% and 95.7%. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping using combination of technecium-99-labeled nanocolloid and blue dye are feasible, safe and accurate techniques to identified SLN in early stage of cervical cancer.

  3. Evaluation of the response of concurrent high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy with external beam radiotherapy in management of early stage carcinoma cervix.

    PubMed

    Patidar, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, H S; Walke, Rahul V; Hirapara, Pushpendra H; Jakhar, Shankar Lal; Bardia, M R

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate local disease control and early complications of concomitant brachytherapy with external beam-radiotherapy in early stage carcinoma cervix. Fifty patients of early stage carcinoma cervix (FIGO-IB/IIA) were randomly divided into study group concomitant external beam irradiation (EBRT) and HDR-ICBT (intra-cavitary brachytherapy, xrt = 50 Gy/25 Fr, HDR 5.2 Gy*5 Fr) and the control group EBRT followed by HDR-ICBT (xrt = 50 Gy/25 Fr, HDR 7.5 Gy*3 Fr). Acute reactions and local disease response were compared between treatment and at 6-month follow up. Median overall treatment times were 38 and 61 days in the study and the control groups, respectively. Acute skin reactions and diarrhea were more in the study but manageable. At the completion of the study, there were 80 and 68 % complete responses, 16 and 20 % partial responses, 0 and 8 % stable diseases in the study group and the control group, respectively. Response was better in the study group but statistically insignificant. Larger number of patients and longer follow up are required to arrive at concrete conclusion.

  4. Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like proteinase is present in early-stage mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma and related to the clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Listyarifah, Dyah; Nieminen, Mikko T; Mäkinen, Laura K; Haglund, Caj; Grenier, Daniel; Häyry, Valtteri; Nordström, Dan; Hernandez, Marcela; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Tervahartiala, Taina; Ainola, Mari; Sorsa, Timo; Hagström, Jaana

    2018-05-10

    Certain periodontopathogenic bacteria have been linked to cancers. Treponema denticola (Td) is associated with severe periodontitis. Chymotrypsin-like proteinase (CTLP), a major virulence factor of Td, can degrade various host proteins and peptides, and modulate inflammatory responses. However the role of Td in the tongue carcinogenesis remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Td-CTLP in early-stage mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma (MTSCC) and its relation to clinical and pathological characteristics. The immunopositivity of Td-CTLP was assessed in samples obtained from 60 MTSCC patients and associated with their clinicopathological data. Additionally, Td-CTLP expression was compared with immunoexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-8 and -9), toll-like receptors (TLR-2, -4, -7 and -9), c-Myc, Ki-67, Bmi-1, and Snail. Td-CTLP was present in 95% of MTSCC tumours of which many (40.4%) showed high immunopositivity. Td-CTLP positivity was significantly associated with invasion depth, tumour diameter, and the expression of TLR-7, TLR-9, and c-Myc. High Td-CTLP immunopositivity in patients under the age of 60 predicted early relapse. Our data indicate that Td and its CTLP are present in early-stage MTSCC carcinoma and may contribute to carcinogenesis, and therefore provide novel perspectives into intervention and therapeutic measures of MTSCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. The frequency and significance of WT-1 expression in serous endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Catherine; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; Showeil, Rania; Van Noorden, Susan; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2014-09-01

    Serous endometrial carcinoma is an aggressive type of endometrial carcinoma. Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT-1) is commonly expressed in ovarian serous carcinomas and considered a diagnostic marker of these tumors. However, it is generally believed that WT-1 is rarely expressed by endometrial serous carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and significance of WT-1 expression in endometrial serous carcinoma. We studied the expression of WT-1 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor sections from 77 cases of endometrial serous carcinoma. Thirty-four tumors showed positive expression for WT-1 (44%). There was a statistically significant association between the presence of WT-1 expression and disease-free survival (DFS), where patients with tumors expressing WT-1 had a shorter DFS compared with those with no WT-1 expression (P = .031; median DFS, 15 and 38 months, respectively). By multivariate Cox regression analysis, DFS was independent from other clinicopathological data (tumor stage, presence of lymphovascular space invasion, cervical involvement, and extrauterine spread), indicating that WT-1 expression is independently associated with DFS. Our study shows that WT-1 is expressed in a considerable percentage of endometrial serous carcinomas, suggesting a role for WT-1 in the pathology of these tumors. This has therapeutic significance, as WT-1 is an emerging target for immunotherapy. Moreover, our results show that WT-1 has prognostic value, being predictive of DFS. As a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target, we recommend that WT-1 expression should be included in histopathologic reports of endometrial serous carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas with neuroendocrine features: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Iñigo; De Leo, Antonio; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Rosa-Rosa, Juan M; Corominas, Marina; Gonzalez, Alan; Palacios, José; Prat, Jaime

    2018-02-01

    Undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma is an aggressive type of uterine cancer, which is occasionally associated with a low-grade endometrioid carcinoma component. This combination is referred to as "dedifferentiated endometrioid endometrial carcinoma." Neuroendocrine expression may occur in undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma, but its significance in dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas is unknown. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of these tumors we have analyzed the immunophenotype (ARID1A, MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, MSH6, p53, β-catenin, SMARCB1, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and CD56) and mutational status (PTEN, KRAS, PIK3CA, TP53 and POLE) of 4 dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas with strong and diffuse neuroendocrine expression. All tumors demonstrated neuroendocrine expression in ≥70% of the cells in the undifferentiated carcinoma areas. Loss of expression of at least 1 DNA mismatch repair protein was observed in 2 cases, and p53 immunoreaction was aberrant (mutated/inactivated) in one case. All carcinomas were negative for β-catenin and maintained nuclear SMARCB1 (INI1) and ARID1A expression. Three tumors shared identical endometrioid molecular profile (PTEN and/or PIK3CA mutations) in both components. One tumor had POLE exonuclease domain mutation in the undifferentiated component. In one case, TP53 mutation was found exclusively in the undifferentiated component. Two patients died with peritoneal carcinomatosis and abdominal metastases, respectively; one patient died of a renal failure without evidence of disease, and the last patient is alive and free of disease at 3.3 years. Dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas with neuroendocrine features are clinically and molecularly heterogeneous tumors. Probably, these carcinomas might acquire undifferentiated phenotype through mutations in TP53 and POLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha in early-stage and in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maisa; Teixeira, Sarah R; Azevedo, Monarko N; Fraga, Ailton C; Gontijo, Antônio Pm; Vêncio, Eneida F

    2017-04-01

    To investigate hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression in distinct oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies and correlate with clinicopathological data. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 93 cases of OSCC. Clinical and histopathological data were reviewed from medical records. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha status was distinct according to tumor location, subtype and topography affect. In superficial oral squamous cell carcinomas, most tumor cells overexpressed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha, whereas hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha was restricted to the intratumoral region in conventional squamous cell carcinomas. All basaloid squamous cell carcinomas exhibited downregulation of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha. Interestingly, metastatic lymph nodes (91.7%, p = 0.001) and the intratumoral regions of corresponding primary tumors (58.3%, p = 0.142) showed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha-positive tumor cells. Overall survival was poor in patients with metastatic lymph nodes. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha has distinct expression patterns in different oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies, suggesting that low oxygen tension promotes the growth pattern of superficial and conventional squamous cell carcinoma, but not basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Indeed, a hypoxic environment may facilitate regional metastasis, making it a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker in primary tumors.

  8. MicroRNA-196a-5p is a potential prognostic marker of delayed lymph node metastasis in early-stage tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Tessho; Nishihara, Kazuhide; Umikawa, Masato; Arasaki, Akira; Nakasone, Toshiyuki; Nimura, Fumikazu; Matayoshi, Akira; Takei, Kimiko; Nakachi, Saori; Kariya, Ken-Ichi; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are expected to serve as prognostic tools for cancer. However, many miRs have been reported as prognostic markers of recurrence or metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We aimed to determine the prognostic markers in early-stage tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that miR-10a, 10b, 196a-5p, 196a-3p, and 196b were prognostic markers and we retrospectively performed miR expression analyses using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of surgical specimens. Total RNA was isolated from cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissue as control, and samples were collected by laser-capture microdissection. After cDNA synthesis, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed. Statistical analyses for patient clinicopathological characteristics, recurrence/metastasis, and survival rates were performed to discern their relationships with miR expression levels, and the 2−ΔΔCq method was used. miR-196a-5p levels were significantly upregulated in early-stage TSCC, particularly in the lymph node metastasis (LNM) group. The LNM-free survival rate in the low miR-196a-5p ΔΔCq value regulation group was found to be lower than that in the high ΔΔCq value regulation group (P=0.0079). Receiver operating characteristic analysis of ΔΔCq values revealed that miR-196a-5p had a P-value=0.0025, area under the curve=0.740, and a cut-off value=−0.875 for distinguishing LNM. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine LNM-related miRs in early-stage TSCC as well as miRs and ‘delayed LNM’ in head and neck cancer. miR-196a-5p upregulation may predict delayed LNM. Our data serve as a foundation for future studies to evaluate miR levels and facilitate the prediction of delayed LNM during early-stage TSCC, which prevent metastasis when combined with close follow-up and aggressive adjuvant therapy or elective neck dissection. Moreover, our data will serve as a foundation

  9. Does a p53 "Wild-type" Immunophenotype Exclude a Diagnosis of Endometrial Serous Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Roma, Andres A; Parkash, Vinita; Zheng, Wenxin; Walavalkar, Vighnesh

    2018-01-01

    An aberrant p53 immunophenotype may be identified in several histotypes of endometrial carcinoma, and is accordingly recognized to lack diagnostic specificity in and of itself. However, based on the high frequency with which p53 aberrations have historically been identified in endometrial serous carcinoma, a mutation-type immunophenotype is considered to be highly sensitive for the histotype. Using an illustrative case study and a review of the literature, we explore a relatively routine diagnostic question: whether the negative predictive value of a wild-type p53 immunophenotype for serous carcinoma is absolute, that is, whether a p53-wild type immunophenotype is absolutely incompatible with a diagnosis of serous carcinoma. The case is an advanced stage endometrial carcinoma that was reproducibly classified by pathologists from 3 institutions as serous carcinoma based on its morphologic features. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor was p53-wild type (DO-7 clone), diffusely positive for p16 (block positivity), and showed retained expression of PTEN, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2. Next generation sequencing showed that there indeed was an underlying mutation in TP53 (D393fs*78, R213*). The tumor was microsatellite stable, had a low mutational burden (4 mutations per MB), and displayed no mutations in the exonuclease domain of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE) gene. Other genomic alterations included RB1 mutation (R46fs*19), amplifications in MYST3 and CRKL, and ARID1A deletion (splice site 5125-94_5138del108). A review of the recent literature identified 5 studies in which a total of 259 cases of serous carcinoma were whole-exome sequenced. The average TP53 mutational rate in endometrial serous carcinoma was only 75% (range, 60 to 88). A total of 12 (33%) of 36 immunohistochemical studies reported a p53-aberrant rate of <80% in endometrial serous carcinoma. We discuss in detail several potential explanations that may underlie the scenario of serous carcinoma-like morphology

  10. Transarterial chemoembolization for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma decrease local tumor control and overall survival compared to radiofrequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Hocquelet, Arnaud; Seror, Olivier; Blanc, Jean-Frédéric; Frulio, Nora; Salut, Cécile; Nault, Jean-Charles; Hervé Trillaud

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims To compare treatment failure and survival associated with ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for early-stage HCC in Child-Pugh A cirrhosis patients. Methods 122 cirrhotic patients (RFA: 61; TACE: 61) were well matched according to cirrhosis severity; tumor size and serum alpha-fetoprotein. TACE was performed in case of inconspicuous nodule on US or nodule with “at risk location”. Treatment failure was defined as local tumor progression (LTP) and primary treatment failure (failing to obtain complete response after two treatment session). Treatment failure and overall survival (OS) were compared after coarsened exact matching. Cox proportional model to assess independent predictive factors was performed. Results No significant difference was seen for baseline characteristics between the two groups. Mean tumor size was 3cm in both group with 41% HCC>3cm. Treatment failure rates after TACE was 42.6% (14 primary treatment failures and 12 LTP) and 9.8% after RFA (no primary treatment failure and 6 LTP) P < 0.001. TACE was the only predictive factor of treatment failure (Hazard ratio: 5.573). The 4-years OS after RFA and TACE were 54.1% and 31.5% (P = 0.042), respectively. Conclusion For Child-Pugh A patients with early-stage HCC, alternative treatment as supra-selective TACE to RFA regarded as too challenging using common US guidance decrease significantly the local tumor control and overall survival. Efforts to improve feasibility of RFA especially for inconspicuous target have to be made. PMID:27793027

  11. MicroRNA-93 Promotes Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition of Endometrial Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai-Xuan; Xiu, Yin-Ling; Liu, Bo-Liang; Feng, Miao-Xiao; Sang, Xiu-Bo; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-93, derived from a paralog (miR-106b-25) of the miR-17-92 cluster, is involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of many cancers such as breast, colorectal, hepatocellular, lung, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer. However, the role of miR-93 in endometrial carcinoma and the potential molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Our results showed that miR-93 was overexpressed in endometrial carcinoma tissues than normal endometrial tissues. The endometrial carcinoma cell lines HEC-1B and Ishikawa were transfected with miR-93-5P, after which cell migration and invasion ability and the expression of relevant molecules were detected. MiR-93 overexpression promoted cell migration and invasion, and downregulated E-cadherin expression while increasing N-cadherin expression. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-93 may directly bind to the 3′ untranslated region of forkhead box A1 (FOXA1); furthermore, miR-93 overexpression downregulated FOXA1 expression while miR-93 inhibitor transfection upregulated FOXA1 expression at both mRNA and protein level. In addition, transfection with the most effective FOXA1 small interfering RNA promoted both endometrial cancer cell migration and invasion, and downregulated E-cadherin expression while upregulating N-cadherin expression. Therefore, we suggest that miR-93 may promote the process of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in endometrial carcinoma cells by targeting FOXA1. PMID:27829043

  12. Mutation profiles in early-stage lung squamous cell carcinoma with clinical follow-up and correlation with markers of immune function.

    PubMed

    Choi, M; Kadara, H; Zhang, J; Parra, E R; Rodriguez-Canales, J; Gaffney, S G; Zhao, Z; Behrens, C; Fujimoto, J; Chow, C; Kim, K; Kalhor, N; Moran, C; Rimm, D; Swisher, S; Gibbons, D L; Heymach, J; Kaftan, E; Townsend, J P; Lynch, T J; Schlessinger, J; Lee, J; Lifton, R P; Herbst, R S; Wistuba, I I

    2017-01-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) accounts for 20–30% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). There are limited treatment strategies for LUSC in part due to our inadequate understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the disease. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and comprehensive immune profiling of a unique set of clinically annotated early-stage LUSCs to increase our understanding of the pathobiology of this malignancy. Matched pairs of surgically resected stage I-III LUSCs and normal lung tissues (n = 108) were analyzed by WES. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis-based profiling of 10 immune markers were done on a subset of LUSCs (n = 91). Associations among mutations, immune markers and clinicopathological variables were statistically examined using analysis of variance and Fisher’s exact test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for statistical analysis of clinical outcome. This early-stage LUSC cohort displayed an average of 209 exonic mutations per tumor. Fourteen genes exhibited significant enrichment for somatic mutation: TP53, MLL2, PIK3CA, NFE2L2, CDH8, KEAP1, PTEN, ADCY8, PTPRT, CALCR, GRM8, FBXW7, RB1 and CDKN2A. Among mutated genes associated with poor recurrence-free survival, MLL2 mutations predicted poor prognosis in both TP53 mutant and wild-type LUSCs. We also found that in treated patients, FBXW7 and KEAP1 mutations were associated with poor response to adjuvant therapy, particularly in TP53-mutant tumors. Analysis of mutations with immune markers revealed that ADCY8 and PIK3CA mutations were associated with markedly decreased tumoral PD-L1 expression, LUSCs with PIK3CA mutations exhibited elevated CD45ro levels and CDKN2A-mutant tumors displayed an up-regulated immune response. Our findings pinpoint mutated genes that may impact clinical outcome as well as personalized strategies for targeted immunotherapies in early-stage LUSC.

  13. Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinomas Not Feasible for Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation: Comparison of Transarterial Chemoembolization Alone and Combined Therapy with Transarterial Chemoembolization and Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Dongho; Cho, Sung Ki, E-mail: chosk@skku.edu; Shin, Sung Wook

    2016-03-15

    PurposeTo report the results of combined therapy with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) considered infeasible for ultrasound (US)-guided RFA in comparison with those of TACE monotherapy.MethodsFrom January 2007 through December 2010, 91 patients with early or very early stage HCC infeasible for US-guided RFA received either TACE alone (TACE group; n = 54) or TACE immediately followed by RFA (TACE–RFA group; n = 37) as a first-line treatment. 1-month tumor response, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors.ResultsTACE–RFA group showed a bettermore » 1-month tumor response than TACE group (P < .001). The mean TTP was 29.7 ± 3.4 months (95 % confidence intervals [CIs] 23.0–36.5) in TACE group and 34.9 ± 2.8 months (95 % CIs 29.4–40.4) in TACE–RFA group. TACE–RFA group had a significantly longer TTP (P = .014). Cumulative 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates in the TACE and TACE–RFA groups were 91, 79, and 71 % and 100, 97, and 93 %, respectively (P = .008). Initial treatment of TACE was found to be the only significant risk factor for tumor progression and OS in multivariate analysis.ConclusionTACE–RFA combination therapy appears superior to TACE monotherapy in terms of 1-month tumor response, TTP, and OS when performed for early stage HCC infeasible for US-guided RFA.« less

  14. Nanogram per milliliter-level immunologic detection of alpha-fetoprotein with integrated rotating-resonance microcantilevers for early-stage diagnosis of heptocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjing; Li, Xinxin; Zhang, Zhixiang; Zuo, Guomin; Cheng, Zhenxing; Yu, Haitao

    2009-02-01

    Nanogram per milliliter-level ultra-low concentration detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which is an important marker for heptocellular carcinoma, is in favor of early-stage prognosis and disease diagnosis. On-the-spot rapid detection of such antigens as AFP highly requires innovative micro/nano techniques. To meet this requirement, an advanced resonant microcantilever is developed and used for screening the tumor marker at nanogram per milliliter level. The sensing principle of the resonant microcantilever is measuring frequency-shift versus specific-adsorbed mass. With both electromagnetic resonance-exciting and piezoresistive readout elements on-chip integrated, the microcantilever sensor is operated in a rotating resonance mode to improve sensitivity and resolution to specific mass adsorption. Prior to detection of AFP with previously immobilized anti-AFP antibody, the antigen-antibody specific-binding is confirmed with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay experiment. By implementing the specific reaction in liquid and reading out the sensor signal in lab air environment, the micromechanical sensor has achieved the sensitive scale between 2 and 20 ng/ml. To effectively depress cross-talk signal and improve resolution, the insensitive regions of the cantilever surface are pre-modified with 2-[methoxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] trimethoxysilane for nonspecific bio-adsorption minimization. Finally, a better AFP detecting limit than 2 ng/mL is experimentally achieved. The label-free resonant microcantilever sensor is promising in low-cost or even disposable early-stage prognosis and diagnosis of tumors.

  15. Suppression of E-cadherin function drives the early stages of Ras-induced squamous cell carcinoma through up-regulation of FAK and Src

    PubMed Central

    Alt-Holland, Addy; Sowalsky, Adam; Szwec-Levin, Yonit; Shamis, Yulia; Hatch, Harold; Feig, Larry A.; Garlick, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced stages of epithelial carcinogenesis involve the loss of intercellular adhesion, but it remains unclear how proteins that regulate alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are deregulated to promote the early stages of cancer development. To address this, a three-dimensional human tissue model that mimics the incipient stages of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) was used to study how E-cadherin suppression promotes tumor progression in Ras-expressing human keratinocytes. We found that E-cadherin suppression triggered elevated mRNA and protein expression levels of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), and increased FAK and Src activities above the level seen in Ras-expressing E-cadherin-competent keratinocytes. sh-RNA-mediated depletion of FAK and Src restored E-cadherin expression levels by increasing its stability in the membrane, and blocked tumor cell invasion in tissues. Surface transplantation of these tissues to mice resulted in reversion of the tumor phenotype to low-grade tumor islands in contrast to control tissues that manifested an aggressive, high-grade SCC. These findings suggest that the tumor-promoting effect of E-cadherin suppression, a common event in SCC development, is exacerbated by enhanced E-cadherin degradation induced by elevated FAK and Src activities. Furthermore, they imply that targeting FAK or Src in human epithelial cells with neoplastic potential may inhibit the early stages of SCC. PMID:21716326

  16. Molecular analysis of mixed endometrial carcinomas shows clonality in most cases

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Lien N.; Almadani, Noorah; Li, Xiaodong; Soslow, Robert A; Gilks, C. Blake; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2016-01-01

    Mixed endometrial carcinoma refers to a tumor that is comprised of two or more distinct histotypes. We studied 18 mixed-type endometrial carcinomas - 11 mixed serous and low-grade endometrioid carcinomas (SC/EC), 5 mixed clear cell and low-grade endometrioid carcinomas (CCC/EC), and 2 mixed clear cell and serous carcinoma (CCC/SC), using targeted next generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry to compare the molecular profiles of the different histotypes present in each case. In 16 of 18 cases there was molecular evidence that both components shared a clonal origin. Eight cases (6 EC/SC, 1 EC/CCC and 1 SC/CCC) showed a serous carcinoma molecular profile that was the same in both components. Five cases (3 CCC/EC and 2 SC/EC) showed a shared endometrioid molecular profile and identical mismatch repair protein (MMR) deficiency in both components. A single SC/EC case harbored the same POLE exonuclease domain mutation in both components. One SC/CCC and one EC/CCC case showed both shared and unique molecular features in the two histotype components, suggesting early molecular divergence from a common clonal origin. In two cases, there were no shared molecular features and these appear to be biologically unrelated synchronous tumors. Overall, these results show that the different histologic components in mixed endometrial carcinomas typically share the same molecular aberrations. Mixed endometrial carcinomas most commonly occur through morphological mimicry, whereby tumors with serous-type molecular profile show morphological features of endometrioid or clear cell carcinoma, or through underlying deficiency in DNA nucleotide repair, with resulting rapid accrual of mutations and intratumoral phenotypic heterogeneity. Less commonly, mixed endometrial carcinomas are the result of early molecular divergence from a common progenitor clone or are synchronous biologically unrelated tumors (collision tumors). PMID:26492180

  17. Tamoxifen in the treatment of advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Thigpen, T; Brady, M F; Homesley, H D; Soper, J T; Bell, J

    2001-01-15

    In two large Gynecologic Oncology Group studies of patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma and no previous systemic therapy, progestins have demonstrated activity against advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma with response rates between 15% and 25%. Tamoxifen has been reported as variously active or inactive with or without previous systemic therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether tamoxifen exhibits enough activity in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma, who have not received systemic therapy, to warrant a phase III trial. Sixty-eight eligible patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma received oral tamoxifen 20 mg bid until toxicity was unacceptable or disease progressed. Three complete (4%) and four partial (6%) responses were observed for an overall response rate of 10% (90% confidence interval [CI], 5.7% to 17.9%). Patients with tumors that were more anaplastic tended to respond less frequently. The median progression-free survival for all 68 eligible patients was 1.9 months (90% CI, 1.7 to 3.2 months). The median survival was 8.8 months (90% CI, 7.0 to 10.1 months). Tamoxifen demonstrated modest activity at best against endometrial carcinoma and does not warrant further investigation as a single agent for this disease. Ongoing trials will assess the sequential use of tamoxifen and progestational agents.

  18. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Endometrial Carcinoma Mortality and Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Ashley S.; Cohn, David E.; McMeekin, D. Scott; Mutch, David G.; Creasman, William T.; Thaker, Premal H.; Walker, Joan L.; Moore, Richard G.; Lele, Shashikant B.; Guntupalli, Saketh R.; Downs, Levi S.; Nagel, Christa I.; Boggess, John F.; Pearl, Michael L.; Ioffe, Olga B.; Park, Kay J.; Ali, Shamshad; Brinton, Louise A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent data suggest that the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be associated with reductions in endometrial cancer risk, yet very few have examined whether their use is related to prognosis among endometrial cancer patients. Methods: Study subjects comprised 4374 participants of the NRG Oncology/Gynecology Oncology Group 210 Study with endometrial carcinoma who completed a presurgical questionnaire that assessed history of regular prediagnostic NSAID use and endometrial cancer risk factors. Recurrences, vital status, and causes of death were obtained from medical records and cancer registries. Fine-Gray semiproportional hazards regression estimated adjusted subhazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of NSAID use with endometrial carcinoma–specific mortality and recurrence. Models were stratified by endometrial carcinoma type (ie, type I [endometrioid] vs type II [serous, clear cell, or carcinosarcoma]) and histology. Results: Five hundred fifty endometrial carcinoma–specific deaths and 737 recurrences occurred during a median of five years of follow-up. NSAID use was associated with 66% (HR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.30) increased endometrial carcinoma–specific mortality among women with type I cancers. Associations were statistically significant for former and current users, and strongest among former users who used NSAIDs for 10 years or longer (HR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.19 to 4.18, two-sided Ptrend = .01). NSAID use was not associated with recurrence or endometrial carcinoma–specific mortality among women with type II tumors. Conclusions: In this study, use of NSAIDs was associated with increased endometrial carcinoma–specific mortality, especially in patients with type I tumors. Barring a clear biologic mechanism by which NSAIDs would increase the risk of cause-specific mortality, cautious interpretation is warranted. PMID:28376204

  19. Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma: a case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Pathiraja, P; Dhar, S; Haldar, K

    2013-01-01

    Minimal uterine serous cancer (MUSC) or serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) has been described by many different names since 1998. There have been very few cases reported in literature since EIC/MUSC was recognized as a separate entity. The World health Organization (WHO) Classification favors the term serous EIC. Although serous EIC is confined to the uterine endometrium at initial histology diagnosis, a significant number of patients could have distal metastasis at diagnosis, without symptoms. Serous EIC is considered as being the precursor of uterine serous cancer (USC), but pure serous EIC also has an aggressive behavior similar to USC. It is therefore prudent to have an accurate diagnosis and appropriate surgical staging. There are very few published articles in literature that discuss the pure form of serous EIC. The aim of this series is to share our experience and review evidence for optimum management of serous EIC. We report a series of five women treated in our institute in the last 3 years. We reviewed the relevant literature on serous EIC and various management strategies, to recommend best clinical practice. Pure serous EIC is a difficult histopathological diagnosis, which requires ancillary immunohistochemical staining. It can have an aggressive clinical behavior with early recurrence and poor survival. Optimum surgical staging, with appropriate adjuvant treatment, should be discussed when treating these patients.

  20. One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA): A fast molecular test based on CK19 mRNA concentration for assessment of lymph-nodes metastases in early stage endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Fanfani, Francesco; Monterossi, Giorgia; Ghizzoni, Viola; Rossi, Esther D; Dinoi, Giorgia; Inzani, Frediano; Fagotti, Anna; Gueli Alletti, Salvatore; Scarpellini, Francesca; Nero, Camilla; Santoro, Angela; Scambia, Giovanni; Zannoni, Gian F

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to evaluate the detection rate of micro- and macro-metastases of the One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) compared to frozen section examination and subsequent ultra-staging examination in early stage endometrial cancer (EC). From March 2016 to June 2016, data of 40 consecutive FIGO stage I EC patients were prospectively collected in an electronic database. The sentinel lymph node mapping was performed in all patients. All mapped nodes were removed and processed. Sentinel lymph nodes were sectioned and alternate sections were respectively examined by OSNA and by frozen section analysis. After frozen section, the residual tissue from each block was processed with step-level sections (each step at 200 micron) including H&E and IHC slides. Sentinel lymph nodes mapping was successful in 29 patients (72.5%). In the remaining 11 patients (27.5%), a systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. OSNA assay sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 100% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 99% respectively, with a diagnostic accuracy of 99%. As far as frozen section examination and subsequent ultra-staging analysis was concerned, we reported sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 94.4% respectively; positive and negative predictive values were 14.3% and 99%, respectively, with an accuracy of 93.6%. In one patient, despite negative OSNA and frozen section analysis of the sentinel node, a macro-metastasis in 1 non-sentinel node was found. The combination of OSNA procedure with the sentinel lymph node mapping could represent an efficient intra-operative tool for the selection of early-stage EC patients to be submitted to systematic lymphadenectomy.

  1. The evolution of endometrial carcinoma classification through application of immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnostics: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Emily A; Vidal, August; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Blake Gilks, C

    2017-12-12

    Uterine cancer was first subclassified based on anatomic site, separating those tumours arising from the endometrium from cervical cancers. There was then further subclassification of endometrial cancers based on cell type, and this correlated with the Type I and Type II categories identified through the epidemiological studies of Bokhman, with endometrioid carcinoma corresponding (approximately) to Type I and serous carcinoma to Type II. These histotypes are not clearly separable in practice, however, with considerable interobserver variability in histotype diagnosis, especially for high-grade tumours. There followed studies of immunomarkers and then mutational studies of single genes, in attempts to improve subclassification. While these have revealed significant differences in protein expression and mutation profiles between endometrioid and serous carcinomas, there is also considerable overlap, so that there remain challenges in subclassification of endometrial carcinoma. Gene panel testing, using next-generation sequencing, was applied to endometrial cancers and highlighted that there are tumours that show genetic alterations intermediate between classic Type I/endometrioid and Type II/serous carcinomas. The Cancer Genome Atlas studies of endometrioid and serous carcinoma offered revolutionary insight into the subclassification of endometrial carcinoma, i.e. that there are four distinct categories of endometrial carcinoma, rather than two, based on genomic architecture. In this review, we provide an overview of immunohistochemical and molecular markers in endometrial carcinoma and comment on the important future directions in endometrial carcinoma subclassification arising from The Cancer Genome Atlas results.

  2. Similar protein expression profiles of ovarian and endometrial high-grade serous carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kosuke; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Serada, Satoshi; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Hori, Yumiko; Fujimoto, Minoru; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Ueda, Yutaka; Morii, Eiichi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Naka, Tetsuji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian and endometrial high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) have similar clinical and pathological characteristics; however, exhaustive protein expression profiling of these cancers has yet to be reported. We performed protein expression profiling on 14 cases of HGSCs (7 ovarian and 7 endometrial) and 18 endometrioid carcinomas (9 ovarian and 9 endometrial) using iTRAQ-based exhaustive and quantitative protein analysis. We identified 828 tumour-expressed proteins and evaluated the statistical similarity of protein expression profiles between ovarian and endometrial HGSCs using unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (P<0.01). Using 45 statistically highly expressed proteins in HGSCs, protein ontology analysis detected two enriched terms and proteins composing each term: IMP2 and MCM2. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the higher expression of IMP2 and MCM2 in ovarian and endometrial HGSCs as well as in tubal and peritoneal HGSCs than in endometrioid carcinomas (P<0.01). The knockdown of either IMP2 or MCM2 by siRNA interference significantly decreased the proliferation rate of ovarian HGSC cell line (P<0.01). We demonstrated the statistical similarity of the protein expression profiles of ovarian and endometrial HGSC beyond the organs. We suggest that increased IMP2 and MCM2 expression may underlie some of the rapid HGSC growth observed clinically.

  3. Minimally Invasive Surgical Staging in Early-stage Ovarian Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Borghi, Chiara; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Lopez, Carlos; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Scaffa, Cono; Indini, Alice; Ferrero, Simone; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    Few studies investigated the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (eEOC). In this context, we aimed to review the current evidence comparing laparoscopy and the laparotomic approach for staging procedures in eEOC. This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Overall, 3065 patients were included: 1450 undergoing laparoscopy and 1615 undergoing laparotomic staging. Patients undergoing laparoscopy experienced a longer (but not statistically significant) operative time (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 28.3 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.59 to 59.2), a lower estimated blood loss (WMD = -156.5 mL; 95% CI, -216.4 to -96.5), a shorter length of hospital stay (WMD = -3.7 days; 95% CI, -5.2 to -2.1), and a lower postoperative complication rate (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.81) than patients undergoing laparotomy. The upstaging (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.55-1.20) and cyst rupture (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.52-3.38) rates were similar between groups. Laparoscopic staging is associated with a shorter time to chemotherapy than laparotomic procedures (WMD = -5.16 days; 95% CI, -8.68 to -1.64). Survival outcomes were not influenced by the route of surgery. Pooled data suggested that the minimally invasive surgical approach is equivalent to laparotomy for the treatment of eEOC and may be superior in terms of perioperative outcomes. However, because of the low level of evidence of the included studies, further randomized trials are warranted. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma Indirectly Caused by Pituitary Prolactinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, Kimihiro; Niwa, Yuri; Mizutani, Teruyuki; Shimizu, Ken; Hayashi, Kazumasa; Chaya, Jyunya; Kato, Noriko; Yamamuro, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 44-year-old nulliparous woman who experienced irregular menstrual cycles for about 10 years and developed both pituitary prolactinoma and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In premenopausal women, hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism by inhibiting secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thus suppressing luteinizing hormone levels, which can cause menstrual disorders ranging from amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea and chronic anovulatory cycle to short luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. A chronic anovulatory menstrual cycle is the most common cause of long-term exposure of the endometrium to endogenous estrogen without adequate opposition from progestins, which can lead to endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In this case, pituitary prolactinoma may have caused the chronic anovulatory cycle and indirectly led to the endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In patients for whom the cause of irregular menstruation and chronic anovulatory cycle is suspected to be hyperprolactinemia, explorations of both the hypophysis and endometrium are essential. PMID:23467393

  5. Endometrioid endometrial carcinoma indirectly caused by pituitary prolactinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Kimihiro; Niwa, Yuri; Mizutani, Teruyuki; Shimizu, Ken; Hayashi, Kazumasa; Chaya, Jyunya; Kato, Noriko; Yamamuro, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 44-year-old nulliparous woman who experienced irregular menstrual cycles for about 10 years and developed both pituitary prolactinoma and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In premenopausal women, hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism by inhibiting secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thus suppressing luteinizing hormone levels, which can cause menstrual disorders ranging from amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea and chronic anovulatory cycle to short luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. A chronic anovulatory menstrual cycle is the most common cause of long-term exposure of the endometrium to endogenous estrogen without adequate opposition from progestins, which can lead to endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In this case, pituitary prolactinoma may have caused the chronic anovulatory cycle and indirectly led to the endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In patients for whom the cause of irregular menstruation and chronic anovulatory cycle is suspected to be hyperprolactinemia, explorations of both the hypophysis and endometrium are essential.

  6. Benzotriazole Enhances Cell Invasive Potency in Endometrial Carcinoma Through CTBP1-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiquan; Dai, Chencheng; Zhou, Cheng; Li, Wenqu; Qian, Yujia; Wen, Juan; Wang, Yang; Han, Bing; Ma, Jingjing; Xu, Juan; Fu, Ziyi; Ruan, Hongjie; Tong, Hua; Jia, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    Benzotriazole (BTR) and its derivatives, such as intermediates and UV stabilizers, are important man-made organic chemicals found in everyday life that have been recently identified as environmental toxins and a threat to female reproductive health. Previous studies have shown that BTR could act as a carcinogen by mimicking estrogen. Environmental estrogen mimics could promote the initiation and development of female cancers, such as endometrial carcinoma, a type of estrogenic-sensitive malignancy. However, there is little information on the relationship between BTR and endometrial carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the biological function of BTR in endometrial carcinoma and explored the underlying mechanism. The CCK-8 assay was performed to detect cell viability; transwell-filter assay was used to assess cell invasion; gene microarray analysis was employed to determine gene expression patterns in response to BTR treatment; western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were carried out to detect the expression levels of BTR-related genes. Our data showed that BTR could induce the invasion and migration of endometrial carcinoma cells (Ishikawa and HEC-1-B). In addition, BTR increased the expression level of CTBP1, which could enhance the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells. Moreover, CTBP1 silencing reversed the effect of BTR on EMT progression in endometrial carcinoma cells. This study indicates that BTR could act as a carcinogen to promote the development of endometrial carcinoma mainly through CTBP1-mediated EMT, which deserves more attention. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The mucin expression profile of endometrial carcinoma and correlation with clinical-pathologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Carl; Merati, Kambiz; Marsh, William L; De Lott, Lindsey; Cohn, David E; Young, Gregory; Frankel, Wendy L

    2007-12-01

    Mucin expression patterns have been studied in tumors from various sites. Previous studies have shown an association of MUC1 with poor prognosis and MUC2 and MUC5AC with a mucinous phenotype. The pattern of mucin expression in endometrial carcinomas has not been documented in a large series. We determined the mucin expression profile in endometrial carcinomas and evaluated the relationship between mucin expression and clinical-pathologic parameters. A tissue microarray of 310 cases of endometrial carcinoma with known clinical outcome was constructed from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded donor blocks using two 0.6 mm cores from each tumor. Sections were stained with monoclonal antibodies against MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC6. Staining was considered positive if greater than or equal to 5% of cells stained positively in either core. Mucin expression was correlated with tumor type, histologic grade, International Federation Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, lymph node involvement, depth of myometrial invasion, patient age, ethnicity, and clinical outcome. MUC1 was expressed in 267/310 (86.1%) of endometrial carcinomas, MUC2 in 2/310 (0.6%), MUC4 in 73/310 (23.5%), MUC5AC in 1/310 (0.3%), and MUC6 in 4/310 (1.2%). Endometrioid endometrial carcinoma showed a higher rate of MUC1 expression than nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma (227/258, 88.0% vs. 39/52, 75.0%, P=0.01). No significant differences in any of the mucins were noted among the other end points evaluated. Mucin expression did not correlate with tumor grade, stage, or patient outcome.

  8. Endometrial Carcinomas with POLE Exonuclease Domain Mutations Have a Favorable Prognosis.

    PubMed

    McConechy, Melissa K; Talhouk, Aline; Leung, Samuel; Chiu, Derek; Yang, Winnie; Senz, Janine; Reha-Krantz, Linda J; Lee, Cheng-Han; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; McAlpine, Jessica N

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to confirm the prognostic significance of POLE exonuclease domain mutations (EDM) in endometrial carcinoma patients. In addition, the effect of treatment on POLE-mutated tumors was assessed. A retrospective patient cohort of 496 endometrial carcinoma patients was identified for targeted sequencing of the POLE exonuclease domain, yielding 406 evaluable tumors. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to determine the effect of POLE mutation status on progression-free survival (PFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Combining results from eight studies in a meta-analysis, we computed pooled HR for PFS, DSS, and OS. POLE EDMs were identified in 39 of 406 (9.6%) endometrial carcinomas. Women with POLE-mutated endometrial carcinomas were younger, with stage I (92%) tumors, grade 3 (62%), endometrioid histology (82%), and frequent (49%) lymphovascular invasion. In univariable analysis, POLE-mutated endometrial carcinomas had significantly improved outcomes compared with patients with no EDMs for PFS, DSS, and OS. In multivariable analysis, POLE EDMs were only significantly associated with improved PFS. The effect of adjuvant treatment on POLE-mutated cases could not be determined conclusively; however, both treated and untreated patients with POLE EDMs had good outcomes. Meta-analysis revealed an association between POLE EDMs and improved PFS and DSS with pooled HRs 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.15-0.73] and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.13-0.92), respectively. POLE EDMs are prognostic markers associated with excellent outcomes for endometrial carcinoma patients. Further investigation is needed to conclusively determine if treatment is necessary for this group of women. Clin Cancer Res; 22(12); 2865-73. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. L1CAM expression in endometrial carcinomas: an ENITEC collaboration study

    PubMed Central

    van der Putten, Louis JM; Visser, Nicole CM; van de Vijver, Koen; Santacana, Maria; Bronsert, Peter; Bulten, Johan; Hirschfeld, Marc; Colas, Eva; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Garcia, Angel; Mancebo, Gemma; Alameda, Fransesc; Trovik, Jone; Kopperud, Reidun K; Huvila, Jutta; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Koskas, Martin; Walker, Francine; Weinberger, Vit; Minar, Lubos; Jandakova, Eva; Snijders, Marc PLM; van den Berg-van Erp, Saskia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Salvesen, Helga B; Amant, Frederic; Massuger, Leon FAG; Pijnenborg, Johanna MA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identification of aggressive endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs) and non-endometrioid carcinomas (NEECs) is essential to improve outcome. L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) expression is a strong prognostic marker in stage I EECs, but less is known about L1CAM expression in advanced-stage EECs and NEECs. This study analyses L1CAM expression in a clinically representative cohort of endometrial carcinomas. Methods: The expression of L1CAM was immunohistochemically determined in 1199 endometrial carcinomas, treated at one of the European Network for Individualized Treatment of Endometrial Cancer (ENITEC) centres. Staining was considered positive when >10% of the tumour cells expressed L1CAM. The association between L1CAM expression and several clincopathological characteristics and disease outcome was calculated. Results: In all, L1CAM was expressed in 10% of the 935 stage I EECs, 18% of the 160 advanced stage EECs, and 75% of the 104 NEECs. The expression of L1CAM was associated with advanced stage, nodal involvement, high tumour grade, non-endometrioid histology, lymphovascular space invasion, and distant recurrences in all cases, and with reduced survival in the EECs, but not in the NEECs. Conclusions: The expression of L1CAM is a strong predictor of poor outcome in EECs, but not NEECs. It is strongly associated with non-endometrioid histology and distant spread, and could improve the postoperative selection of high-risk endometrial carcinomas. The value of L1CAM expression in the preoperative selection of high-risk endometrial carcinomas should be studied. PMID:27505134

  10. Seromucinous component in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma as a histological predictor of prognosis.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Morikazu; Takano, Masashi; Aoyama, Tadashi; Soyama, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Tomoyuki; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Furuya, Kenichi

    2018-03-01

    In 2014 World Health Organization criteria, seromucinous carcinoma was defined as a new histological subtype in ovarian carcinomas, but "seromucinous carcinoma" was not defined in endometrial carcinomas. The aim of this study was to identify seromucinous carcinoma resembling ovarian seromucinous carcinoma in endometrial carcinomas, and to evaluate the clinical significance for prognoses of the patients. Central pathological review was conducted for patients with endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium treated by primary surgery at our hospital between 1990 and 2013. Among 340 cases included in the study, no case had all tumor cells resembling ovarian seromucinous carcinoma in all specimens, and 31 cases (9.1%) had seromucinous component in combination with endometrioid carcinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed seromucinous component had positive reactivity for cytokeratin (CK) 7, and negative reactivity for CK20 and caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) in all cases. Seromucinous component showed lower immunoreactivity of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, compared with endometrioid carcinoma component. Progression-free survival of the cases with seromucinous component was better than those without seromucinous component (p=0.049). Seromucinous component was identified in approximately 10% of endometrioid carcinoma, and could be a histological predictor for prognosis. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  11. Frequent loss of claudin-4 expression in dedifferentiated and undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tessier-Cloutier, Basile; Soslow, Robert A; Stewart, Colin J R; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2018-04-19

    Dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas (DDECs)/undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas (UECs) are aggressive endometrial cancers with frequent genomic inactivation of core components of switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) complex proteins. Claudin-4, an epithelial intercellular tight junction protein, was recently found to be expressed in SWI/SNF-deficient undifferentiated carcinomas but not in SWI/SNF-deficient sarcomas. The aim of this study was to examine claudin-4 expression in UECs/DDECs and other high-grade uterine carcinomas. We examined claudin-4 expression by immunohistochemistry (clone 3E2C1) on tissue microarrays that contained 44 UECs/DDECs (24 SWI/SNF-deficient), 50 carcinosarcomas, 164 grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas, 57 serous carcinomas, and 20 clear cell carcinomas. Tumours with <5% claudin-4 expression were considered to be negative. Nearly all SWI/SNF-deficient, and most SWI/SNF-proficient, UECs/DDECs showed a complete absence of claudin-4 expression in the undifferentiated component, whereas the differentiated component in DDECs showed consistent and diffuse claudin-4 expression. Only one SWI/SNF-deficient DDEC showed focal expression of claudin-4 in the undifferentiated component, as compared with diffuse expression in the corresponding differentiated component. Claudin-4 expression was consistently absent in the sarcomatous component of carcinosarcoma, and it was absent in 24% of grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas and serous carcinomas. Claudin-4 expression can be absent or very focal in a subset of high-grade endometrial carcinomas, and is almost always absent in the undifferentiated components of SWI/SNF-deficient UECs/DDECs, despite the apparent epithelial origin in the case of DDECs. Therefore, claudin-4 expression cannot be used to infer mesenchymal or epithelial tumour origin in the endometrium. The consistent loss or down-regulation of claudin-4, a tight junction protein, in SWI/SNF-deficient UECs/DDECs further supports the

  12. Deregulation of SYCP2 predicts early stage human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma: A prospective whole transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Liam; Sorgeloos, Frederic; Winder, David; Lechner, Matt; Marker, Alison; Malhotra, Shalini; Sudhoff, Holger; Jani, Piyush; Goon, Peter; Sterling, Jane

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to identify significant differences in gene expression profiles of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and to better understand the functional and biological effects of HPV infection in the premalignant pathway. Twenty-four consecutive patients with locally advanced primary OPSCC were included in a prospective clinical trial. Fresh tissue samples (tumor vs. matched normal epithelium) were subjected to whole transcriptome analysis and the results validated on the same cohort with RT-quantitative real-time PCR. In a separate retrospective cohort of 27 OPSCC patients, laser capture microdissection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue allowed RNA extraction from adjacent regions of normal epithelium, carcinoma in situ (premalignant) and invasive SCC tissue. The majority of patients showed evidence of high-risk HPV16 positivity (80.4%). Predictable fold changes of RNA expression in HPV-associated disease included multiple transcripts within the p53 oncogenic pathway (e.g. CDKN2A/CCND1). Other candidate transcripts found to have altered levels of expression in this study have not previously been established (SFRP1, CRCT1, DLG2, SYCP2, and CRNN). Of these, SYCP2 showed the most consistent fold change from baseline in premalignant tissue; aberrant expression of this protein may contribute to genetic instability during HPV-associated cancer development. If further corroborated, this data may contribute to the development of a non-invasive screening tool. This study is registered with the UK Clinical Research Network (ref.: 11945). © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Mixed and Ambiguous Endometrial Carcinomas: A Heterogenous Group of Tumors With Different Clinicopathologic and Molecular Genetic Features.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Iñigo; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Palacios, José; Prat, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Besides endometrioid, serous, and clear cell carcinomas, there are endometrial carcinomas exhibiting mixed and ambiguous morphologic features. We have analyzed the immunophenotype (p53, p16, β-catenin, ER, HNF-1B, MLH1, and Ki-67) and mutational status (PTEN, KRAS, PIK3CA, and POLE) of 7 mixed carcinomas and 13 ambiguous carcinomas, all of them classified initially as mixed carcinomas. Only 2 of the 7 (28%) mixed carcinomas showed different immunophenotypes in different components. All but 2 tumors (5/7, 71%) overexpressed p53 and p16 and were negative for ER. Both carcinomas (2/7, 28%) showed a prominent micropapillary component that resembled an ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma and merged with villoglandular endometrioid carcinoma. The ambiguous carcinomas exhibited glandular architecture, high nuclear grade, and overlapping features of endometrioid and serous carcinomas. All tumors overexpressed p53 and p16, and the majority of cases (12/13, 92%) were negative for ER. KRAS mutations were identified in 3 of 7 (42%) mixed carcinomas, including the 2 cases with a "low-grade" serous-like component. PIK3CA mutations occurred in 2 (2/13, 15%) ambiguous carcinomas and PTEN mutations in 1 (1/7, 14%) mixed and 1 (1/13, 8%) ambiguous carcinoma. POLE exonuclease domain mutations were encountered in a case of mixed undifferentiated and well-differentiated (dedifferentiated) carcinoma. Two of the 7 (29%) mixed endometrial carcinomas and 5 of the 13 (38%) ambiguous carcinomas had extended beyond the pelvis (stages III and IV). Two of the 7 (29%) patients with mixed endometrial carcinoma and 6 of 12 (50%) patients with ambiguous endometrial carcinoma were alive with disease or had died of tumor. Our results show that, biologically, many so-called mixed carcinomas represent serous carcinomas with ambiguous morphology. Our series include 2 true mixed endometrial carcinomas with a "low-grade serous"-like component, microcystic, elongated, or fragmented features, KRAS mutations

  14. Use of mutation profiles to refine the classification of endometrial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cheang, Maggie CU; Wiegand, Kimberly; Senz, Janine; Tone, Alicia; Yang, Winnie; Prentice, Leah; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; McDonald, Helen; Schmidt, Amy P.; Mutch, David G.; McAlpine, Jessica N; Hirst, Martin; Shah, Sohrab P; Lee, Cheng-Han; Goodfellow, Paul J; Gilks, C. Blake; Huntsman, David G

    2014-01-01

    The classification of endometrial carcinomas is based on pathological assessment of tumour cell type; the different cell types (endometrioid, serous, carcinosarcoma, mixed, and clear cell) are associated with distinct molecular alterations. This current classification system for high-grade subtypes, in particular the distinction between high-grade endometrioid (EEC-3) and serous carcinomas (ESC), is limited in its reproducibility and prognostic abilities. Therefore, a search for specific molecular classifiers to improve endometrial carcinoma subclassification is warranted. We performed target enrichment sequencing on 393 endometrial carcinomas from two large cohorts, sequencing exons from the following 9 genes; ARID1A, PPP2R1A, PTEN, PIK3CA, KRAS, CTNNB1, TP53, BRAF and PPP2R5C. Based on this gene panel each endometrial carcinoma subtype shows a distinct mutation profile. EEC-3s have significantly different frequencies of PTEN and TP53 mutations when compared to low-grade endometrioid carcinomas. ESCs and EEC-3s are distinct subtypes with significantly different frequencies of mutations in PTEN, ARID1A, PPP2R1A, TP53, and CTNNB1. From the mutation profiles we were able to identify subtype outliers, i.e. cases diagnosed morphologically as one subtype but with a mutation profile suggestive of a different subtype. Careful review of these diagnostically challenging cases suggested that the original morphological classification was incorrect in most instances. The molecular profile of carcinosarcomas suggests two distinct mutation profiles for these tumours; endometrioid-type (PTEN, PIK3CA, ARID1A, KRAS mutations), and serous-type (TP53 and PPP2R1A mutations). While this nine gene panel does not allow for a purely molecularly based classification of endometrial carcinoma, it may prove useful as an adjunct to morphological classification and serve as an aid in the classification of problematic cases. If used in practice, it may lead to improved diagnostic reproducibility

  15. Xerostomia and quality of life after intensity-modulated radiotherapy vs. conventional radiotherapy for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Initial report on a randomized controlled clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Pow, Edmond; Kwong, Dora; McMillan, Anne S.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To compare directly the effect of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional radiotherapy (CRT) on salivary flow and quality of life (QoL) in patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: Fifty-one patients with T2, N0/N1, M0 NPC took part in a randomized controlled clinical study and received IMRT or CRT. Stimulated whole (SWS) and parotid (SPS) saliva flow were measured and Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 (SF-36), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core quetionnaire, and EORTC head-and-neck module (QLQ-H and N35) were completed at baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Results:more » Forty-six patients (88%) were in disease remission 12 months after radiotherapy. At 12 months postradiotherapy, 12 (50.0%) and 20 patients (83.3%) in the IMRT group had recovered at least 25% of preradiotherapy SWS and SPS flow respectively, compared with 1 (4.8%) and 2 patients (9.5%), respectively, in the CRT group. Global health scores showed continuous improvement in QoL after both treatments (p < 0.001). However, after 12 months subscale scores for role-physical, bodily pain, and physical function were significantly higher in the IMRT group, indicating a better condition (p < 0.05). Dry mouth and sticky saliva were problems in both groups 2 months after treatment. In the IMRT group, there was consistent improvement over time with xerostomia-related symptoms significantly less common than in the CRT group at 12 months postradiotherapy. Conclusions: IMRT was significantly better than CRT in terms of parotid sparing and improved QoL for early-stage disease. The findings support the case for assessment of health-related QoL in relation to head-and-neck cancer using a site-specific approach.« less

  16. [Pitfalls in the histopathological diagnostics of endometrial carcinoma and its precursors : Clinically relevant differential diagnoses, avoidance of false positive diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Kommoss, F; Lax, S F

    2016-11-01

    Making an incorrect histopathological diagnosis of an endometrial lesion may lead to unwanted loss of fertility and therapy-associated morbidity; therefore, endometrial carcinomas need to be correctly typed and differentiated from hyperplastic precursors, benign lesions and artifacts. Typical diagnostic pitfalls are described in this article. Misdiagnosing endometrial lesions can be avoided by paying thorough attention to gross as well as microscopic features and by taking crucial differential diagnoses into consideration. These are, in particular, well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium versus atypical endometrial hyperplasia, myoinvasive endometrioid adenocarcinoma versus atypical polypoid adenomyoma and endometrioid carcinoma versus serous carcinoma of the endometrium with a predominantly glandular pattern. It is also important to consider the possibility of a false positive diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma in cases of biopsy-induced artifacts.

  17. Exome capture sequencing reveals new insights into hepatitis B virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma at the early stage of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Lijuan; Xu, Hexiang; Liu, Xingxiang; Zhao, Yingren

    2013-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, is the third primary cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and formation of HCC remain obscure. In the present study, we performed exome sequencing using tumor and normal tissues from 3 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive BCLC stage A HCC patients. Bioinformatic analysis was performed to find candidate protein-altering somatic mutations. Eighty damaging mutations were validated and 59 genes were reported to be mutated in HBV-related HCCs for the first time here. Further analysis using whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of 88 HBV-related HCC patients from the European Genome-phenome Archive database showed that mutations in 33 of the 59 genes were also detected in other samples. Variants of two newly found genes, ZNF717 and PARP4, were detected in more than 10% of the WGS samples. Several other genes, such as FLNA and CNTN2, are also noteworthy. Thus, the exome sequencing analysis of three BCLC stage A patients provides new insights into the molecular events governing the early steps of HBV-induced HCC tumorigenesis.

  18. The value of histological grading of biopsy and resection specimens in early stage oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Dik, Eric A; Ipenburg, Norbertus A; Kessler, Peter A; van Es, Robert J J; Willems, Stefan M

    2018-04-05

    In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) the differentiation grade of the tumor is determined on the biopsy and the resection specimen. The relation between tumor grade, nodal metastasis and survival is debatable. The aims of this study were to determine the correlation between differentiation grade of the biopsy and the resection specimen. Furthermore, we wanted to correlate tumor differentiation grade with nodal stage and survival. One-hundred and forty-five patients with OSCC staged as T1-2, N0 of the tongue, floor of mouth or cheek with primary resection of the tumor were examined. Biopsy and resection specimen were histologically re-assessed with regard to differentiation grade, as well as infiltrative, peri-neural and vascular invasive growth. This study showed a poor correlation between differentiation grade in the incisional biopsy and the resection specimen of the same tumor. No significant relation between differentiation grade of the resection specimen and nodal involvement, as well as overall and disease-specific survival was found. In early OSCC the differentiation grade determined by biopsy is of little predictive value for the grading of the resection specimen. Poor differentiation grade could not be related to the presence of nodal metastasis or survival and seems not to have any prognostic value concerning outcome. Treatment planning must be related to these findings. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of adjuvant treatment in early-stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: An international collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Eran; Na'ara, Shorook; Agarwal, Jaiprakash; Amit, Moran; Bachar, Gideon; Villaret, Andrea Bolzoni; Brandao, Jose; Cernea, Claudio R; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Clark, Jonathan; Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Fliss, Dan M; Jonnalagadda, Sashikanth; Kohler, Hugo F; Kowalski, Luiz P; Kreppel, Matthias; Liao, Chun-Ta; Patel, Snehal G; Patel, Raj P; Robbins, K Thomas; Shah, Jatin P; Shpitzer, Thomas; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Zöller, Joachim E; Gil, Ziv

    2018-05-14

    Up to half of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) have stage I to II disease. When adequate resection is attained, no further treatment is needed; however, re-resection or radiotherapy may be indicated for patients with positive or close margins. This multicenter study evaluated the outcomes and role of adjuvant treatment in patients with stage I to II OCSCC. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival, local-free survival, and disease-free survival rates were calculated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Of 1257 patients with T1-2N0M0 disease, 33 (2.6%) had positive margins, and 205 (16.3%) had close margins. The 5-year OS rate was 80% for patients with clear margins, 52% for patients with close margins, and 63% for patients with positive margins (P < .0001). In a multivariate analysis, age, depth of invasion, and margins were independent predictors of outcome. Close margins were associated with a >2-fold increase in the risk of recurrence (P < .0001). The multivariate analysis revealed that adjuvant treatment significantly improved the outcomes of patients with close/positive margins (P = .002 to .03). Patients with stage I to II OCSCC and positive/close margins have poor long-term outcomes. For this population, adjuvant treatment may be associated with improved survival. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  20. Salivary zinc finger protein 510 peptide as a novel biomarker for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma in early stages.

    PubMed

    Jou, Yu-Jen; Lin, Chia-Der; Lai, Chih-Ho; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Su-Hua; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chen, Shih-Yin; Kao, Jung-Yie; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2011-07-15

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis can mean adequate treatment and increase survival. This study uses ClinProt technique to identify salivary biomarkers for early diagnosis of OSCC. A total of 77 salivary samples from both OSCC patients (n=47) and healthy donors (n=30) were analyzed with MALDI-TOF MS technology. Salivary peptides from OSCC patients were separated, using C8-functionalized magnetic beads. Three signals (2918.57 Da, 5592.64 Da, and 4372.66 Da) distinguished OSCC patients from controls. Among them, unique peptide 2918.57 Da, identified as a 24-mer peptide of zinc finger protein 510 (ZNF510), was found in 0% of saliva from healthy individuals, versus 25.0% and 60% from OSCC patients with T1+T2 and T3+T4 stages, respectively (P<0.001). ELISA analysis with rabbit anti-ZNF510 peptide sera shows a starkly higher 24-mer ZNF510 peptide level in saliva from OSCC patients than that in controls (P<0.001). Also, in immunohistochemical analysis of oral tissues, a significantly higher level of ZNF510 was observed in OSCC tissues than in the OSCC free control tissues. Analysis of areas under receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves in OSCC early (T1+T2) and late stages (T3+T4) shows greater than 0.95. Identifying 24-mer ZNF510 peptide as OSCC-related salivary biomarkers via proteomic approach proved useful in adjunct diagnosis for early detection rather than specific diagnosis marker for progression of OSCC patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Analysis of Mixed Endometrial Carcinomas Shows Clonality in Most Cases.

    PubMed

    Köbel, Martin; Meng, Bo; Hoang, Lien N; Almadani, Noorah; Li, Xiaodong; Soslow, Robert A; Gilks, C Blake; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2016-02-01

    Mixed endometrial carcinoma refers to a tumor that comprises 2 or more distinct histotypes. We studied 18 mixed-type endometrial carcinomas-11 mixed serous and low-grade endometrioid carcinomas (SC/EC), 5 mixed clear cell and low-grade ECs (CCC/EC), and 2 mixed CCC and SCs (CCC/SC), using targeted next-generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry to compare the molecular profiles of the different histotypes present in each case. In 16 of 18 cases there was molecular evidence that both components shared a clonal origin. Eight cases (6 EC/SC, 1 EC/CCC, and 1 SC/CCC) showed an SC molecular profile that was the same in both components. Five cases (3 CCC/EC and 2 SC/EC) showed a shared endometrioid molecular profile and identical mismatch-repair protein deficiency in both components. A single SC/EC case harbored the same POLE exonuclease domain mutation in both components. One SC/CCC and 1 EC/CCC case showed both shared and unique molecular features in the 2 histotype components, suggesting early molecular divergence from a common clonal origin. In 2 cases, there were no shared molecular features, and these appear to be biologically unrelated synchronous tumors. Overall, these results show that the different histologic components in mixed endometrial carcinomas typically share the same molecular aberrations. Mixed endometrial carcinomas most commonly occur through morphologic mimicry, whereby tumors with serous-type molecular profile show morphologic features of EC or CCC, or through underlying deficiency in DNA nucleotide repair, with resulting rapid accrual of mutations and intratumoral phenotypic heterogeneity. Less commonly, mixed endometrial carcinomas are the result of early molecular divergence from a common progenitor clone or are synchronous biologically unrelated tumors (collision tumors).

  2. Endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephanie

    2002-08-01

    To provide an update for nurses involved in the care of women at risk or being treated for endometrial cancer. Review articles, research reports, and medical and nursing text-books. Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. Although most women with endometrial cancer present with early stage disease and have an excellent chance of cure, approximately 6,600 women in the United States are expected to die from the disease in 2002. Treatment of patients with advanced or recurrent disease remains challenging, with no proven best standard of treatment. Nursing plays an important role in prevention and early detection of endometrial cancer, patient education, patient care, and rehabilitation.

  3. MiR-218 inhibits HMGB1-mediated autophagy in endometrial carcinoma cells during chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xiaomin; Yang, Juan; Liu, Chaoxia; Zhou, Ping; Xiao, Linzhi; Zhang, Keqiang

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecological malignancy among women worldwide. Although treatment for EC has improved with the introduction of Paclitaxel (Tax) chemotherapy, the majority of patients will develop resistance to the treatment, leading to poor prognosis. One of the causes of chemoresistance is the increased ability to undergo autophagy. In this study, we identified that miR-218 was significantly down-regulated in Tax-resistant EC cells compared to the non-drug resistant cell lines, and overexpression of miR-218 sensitized paclitaxel resistant EC cells to paclitaxel. Moreover, we demonstrated that miR-218 directly binds to the 3'-UTR of HMGB1 gene. HMGB1 was upregulated in paclitaxel resistant EC cells, it mediated autophagy and contributed to chemotherapy resistance in endometrial carcinoma in vitro. HMGB1-mediated autophagy could be suppressed by miR-218 overexpression in Tax resistant EC cells. In summary, we determined the targeting role of miR-218 to HMGB1 and the regulation of miR-218 on the HMGB1-mediated cell autophagy during chemotherapy resistance in endometrial carcinoma cells. These results reveal novel potential role of miR-218 against chemotherapy resistance during the treatment of endometrial carcinoma.

  4. CCNE1 amplification is associated with aggressive potential in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kentaro; Rahman, Mohammed Tanjimur; Rahman, Munmun; Nakamura, Kohei; Ishikawa, Masako; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Sato, Emi; Ishibashi, Tomoka; Iida, Kouji; Ishikawa, Noriyuki; Kyo, Satoru

    2016-02-01

    The clinicopathological significance of amplification was investigated of the gene encoding cyclin E (CCNE1) and we assessed whether CCNE1 was a potential target in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas. CCNE1 amplification and CCNE1 or F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7) expression in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma was assessed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. CCNE1 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to assess the CCNE1 function. The results showed that CCNE1 amplification was present in 9 (8.3%) of 108 endometrial carcinomas. CCNE1 amplification was correlated with high histological grade (Grade 3; p=0.0087) and lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.0258). No significant association was observed between CCNE1 amplification and FIGO stage (p=0.851), lymph node metastasis (p=0.078), body mass index (p=0.265), deep myometrial invasion (p=0.256), menopausal status (p=0.289) or patient age (p=0.0817). CCNE1 amplification was significantly correlated with shorter progression-free and overall survival (p=0.0081 and 0.0073, respectively). CCNE1 protein expression or loss of FBXW7 expression in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma tended to be correlated with shorter progression-free and overall survival; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis showed that CCNE1 amplification was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival but not for progression-free survival (P=0.0454 and 0.2175, respectively). Profound growth inhibition was observed in siRNA-transfected cancer cells with endogenous CCNE1 overexpression compared with that in cancer cells having low CCNE1 expression. CCNE1 amplification was independent of p53, HER2, MLH1 and ARID1A expression but dependent on PTEN expression in endometrial carcinomas. These findings indicated that CCNE1 amplification was critical for the survival of endometrial endometrioid carcinomas. Furthermore, the effects of CCNE1 knockdown

  5. CCNE1 amplification is associated with aggressive potential in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    NAKAYAMA, KENTARO; RAHMAN, MOHAMMED TANJIMUR; RAHMAN, MUNMUN; NAKAMURA, KOHEI; ISHIKAWA, MASAKO; KATAGIRI, HIROSHI; SATO, EMI; ISHIBASHI, TOMOKA; IIDA, KOUJI; ISHIKAWA, NORIYUKI; KYO, SATORU

    2016-01-01

    The clinicopathological significance of amplification was investigated of the gene encoding cyclin E (CCNE1) and we assessed whether CCNE1 was a potential target in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas. CCNE1 amplification and CCNE1 or F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7) expression in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma was assessed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. CCNE1 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to assess the CCNE1 function. The results showed that CCNE1 amplification was present in 9 (8.3%) of 108 endometrial carcinomas. CCNE1 amplification was correlated with high histological grade (Grade 3; P=0.0087) and lymphovascular space invasion (P=0.0258). No significant association was observed between CCNE1 amplification and FIGO stage (P=0.851), lymph node metastasis (P=0.078), body mass index (P=0.265), deep myometrial invasion (P=0.256), menopausal status (P=0.289) or patient age (P=0.0817). CCNE1 amplification was significantly correlated with shorter progression-free and overall survival (P=0.0081 and 0.0073, respectively). CCNE1 protein expression or loss of FBXW7 expression in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma tended to be correlated with shorter progression-free and overall survival; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis showed that CCNE1 amplification was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival but not for progression-free survival (P=0.0454 and 0.2175, respectively). Profound growth inhibition was observed in siRNA-transfected cancer cells with endogenous CCNE1 overexpression compared with that in cancer cells having low CCNE1 expression. CCNE1 amplification was independent of p53, HER2, MLH1 and ARID1A expression but dependent on PTEN expression in endometrial carcinomas. These findings indicated that CCNE1 amplification was critical for the survival of endometrial endometrioid carcinomas. Furthermore, the effects of CCNE1 knockdown

  6. Improving treatment for obese women with early stage cancer of the uterus: rationale and design of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device ± metformin ± weight loss in endometrial cancer (feMME) trial.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, A L; Quinn, M; Gebski, V; Armes, J; Brennan, D; Janda, M; Obermair, A

    2014-09-01

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma (EC) is the most common gynaecologic cancer. Up to 90% of EC patients are obese which poses a health threat to patients post-treatment. Standard treatment for EC includes hysterectomy, although this has significant side effects for obese women at high risk of surgical complications and for women of childbearing age. This trial investigates the effectiveness of non-surgical or conservative treatment options for obese women with early stage EC. The primary aim is to determine the efficacy of: levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD); with or without metformin (an antidiabetic drug); and with or without a weight loss intervention to achieve a pathological complete response (pCR) in EC at six months from study treatment initiation. The secondary aim is to enhance understanding of the molecular processes and to predict a treatment response by investigating EC biomarkers. An open label, three-armed, randomised, phase-II, multi-centre trial of LNG-IUD ± metformin ± weight loss intervention. 165 participants from 28 centres are randomly assigned in a 3:3:5 ratio to the treatment arms. Clinical, quality of life and health behavioural data will be collected at baseline, six weeks, three and six months. EC biomarkers will be assessed at baseline, three and six months. There is limited prospective evidence for conservative treatment for EC. Trial results could benefit patients and reduce health system costs through a reduction in hospitalisations and through lower incidence of adverse events currently observed with standard treatment. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) in human endometrial carcinoma: a potent prognostic factor associated with cell proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kiyoshi; Miki, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Sota; Hashimoto, Chiaki; Watanabe, Mika; Sasano, Hironobu; Ito, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) is a multifunctional protein containing several functional domains, and associated with wide variety of biological process such as food intake and energy homeostasis. Recently, NUCB2 has been implicated in not only normal human tissues but also some kinds of human malignancies. However, its clinical and/or biological significance has largely remained unknown in endometrial carcinomas. We therefore immunolocalized NUCB2 protein in 87 endometrial carcinoma tissues and examined its clinical significance. NUCB2 immunoreactivity was detected in 19 out of 87 (22%) of endometrial carcinoma cases examined, and positively correlated with Ki67 labeling index, while there was no significant correlation between NUCB2 and stage, histological grade, and progesterone receptor status. Furthermore, NUCB2 immunoreactivity was significantly correlated with increased risk of recurrence and worse clinical outcome regardless of stage or histological grade. Subsequent multivariate analyses did reveal that NUCB2 immunoreactivity was an independent prognostic factor for both disease-free survival and endometrial cancer specific survival. In vitro experiments demonstrated that knockdown of NUCB2 using specific siRNA for NUCB2 significantly impaired cell proliferation and migration of the endometrial carcinoma cell lines, Ishikawa and Sawano cells, and that nesfatin-1 treatment significantly promoted cell proliferation and migration in Ishikawa cells. These findings possibly suggested that NUCB2 and/or nesfatin-1 had pivotal roles in the progression of endometrial carcinomas. Immunohistochemical NUCB2 status may therefore serve as a potent biomarker for endometrial carcinomas.

  8. Prior Tubal Ligation Might Influence Metastatic Spread of Nonendometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingxia; Li, Mingzhu; Zhao, Lijun; Wang, Zhiqi; Wang, Yue; Shen, Danhua; Wang, Jianliu; Wei, Lihui

    2016-07-01

    The exfoliation of endometrial carcinoma might intraperitoneally spread through the fallopian tube. We analyzed the influence of prior tubal ligation (TL) in endometrial carcinoma to evaluate whether it can prevent the process and improve patients' survival. A total of 562 patients with a diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma at the Peking University People's Hospital between July 1995 and June 2012 were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of prior TL. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage distributions, recurrence rates, survival status, and histopathological findings were compared between the 2 groups. Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests were used to compare the survival status based on TL in the overall population and stratified by histopathological subtypes and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages. Cox models analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations between TL and carcinoma-specific mortality. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Of the 562 patients, 482 (85.7%) had a diagnosis of endometrioid and 80 patients (14.2%) with nonendometrioid carcinoma. Tubal ligation was associated with negative peritoneal cytology in the total population (P = 0.015) and in patients with endometrioid carcinomas (P = 0.02) but not help to reduce carcinoma-specific mortality (P = 0.095 and P = 0.277, respectively). In the nonendometrioid group, TL was not only associated with negative peritoneal cytology (P = 0.004) but also with lower stage (P < 0.001) and lower recurrence rate(P < 0.005), resulting in improved prognosis (P = 0.022). In Cox models analysis adjusted for covariates, TL was inversely associated with lower endometrial carcinoma-specific mortality (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-2.6). Tubal ligation was associated with lower positive peritoneal cytology, stages, and recurrence rate, and

  9. Contrast-enhanced dynamic and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0 T to assess early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Liangping; Liu, Ying

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3.0 T. A total of 44 patients newly diagnosed with NPC were included in the present study. All patients underwent MR examination at 3.0 T using DCE-MRI and DWI. The volume transfer constant ( K trans ), flux rate constant between extravascular extracellular space and plasma ( K ep ), the volume of extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue ( V e ) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of tumours were investigated. Furthermore, the correlation between clinical stages and ADC value and K trans were analysed. The diagnostic accuracy of K trans and ADC were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curves. NPC stage correlated positively with K trans and negatively with ADC values. Additionally, tumour K trans negatively correlated with ADC value. The sensitivity and accuracy of combined K trans and ADC in distinguishing between stage II and stage III and stage III and IV were higher than the values of either measurement used separately. The present study suggested that K trans and ADC derived from DCE-MRI and DWI may be useful to detect stage early NPC accurately. K trans and ADC in combination were superior than either alone.

  10. Alpha-Tocopherol prevents esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by modulating PPARγ-Akt signaling pathway at the early stage of carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiannan; Lu, Ping; Feng, Yongquan; Geng, Xue; Zhang, Lishi; Jia, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    The poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) emphasizes the urgent need to better understand the carcinogenesis and develop prevention strategies. Previous studies have highlighted the potential of using Vitamin E (tocopherols) for cancer chemoprevention, but the preventive activity of α-Tocopherol against ESCC remains to be elucidated. Our data showed that early-stage supplementation with α-Tocopherol significantly prevented esophageal carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) in ESCC rat model. In the Het-1A cell model, α-Tocopherol markedly suppressed cell proliferation, promoted cell cycle G2-phase arrest and increased apoptosis. Gene microarray and proteins array analysis indicated that Akt signaling was a potential target for α-Tocopherol. We further demonstrated that α-Tocopherol increased the expression of PPARγ and its downstream tumor suppressor PTEN. Knockdown of PPARγ activated Akt signaling transduction, whereas this process was attenuated by the presence of α-Tocopherol and PPARγ agonist Rosiglitazone. In contrast, the effect of α-Tocopherol on Akt inhibition was not observed in established tumors, neither in cancerous cell lines which constitutively expressed higher levels of PPARγ. These results were closely correlated with the ineffectiveness of α-Tocopherol in the late stage of ESCC carcinogenesis. Taken together, our study suggested that α-Tocopherol may serve as a PPARγ agonist for the chemoprevention of esophageal cancer. PMID:29221176

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of galectin-3 is significantly associated with grade, stage and differentiation of endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdelrahman, Amer Shafie; Ghabrah, Tawfik; Butt, Nadeem Shafique; Al-Maghrabi, Basim; Khabaz, Mohamad Nidal

    2017-04-01

    This study describes galectin-3 immunohistochemical phenotype and its association with clinicopathological factors in the carcinoma of endometrium. Seventy one cases of endometrial carcinoma and 30 cases of benign and normal endometrium were employed for the detection of galectin-3 protein using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry staining. Thirty nine (55%) cases, including 54.2% of endometrioid adenocarcinomas and 55.5% serous carcinomas, were positively stained for galectin-3. Brown granular expression of this glycoprotein was detected in transformed epithelial cells of 36 cases including 28 cases with membranous and cytoplasmic staining and 8 cases with only cytoplasmic staining; nuclear expression was present in stromal cells of the remaining 3 cases. Twenty-four (80%) control cases showed granular cytoplasmic and membranous expression, and six control cases were negative. Tumor grade, stage and differentiation were significantly associated with galectin-3 immunoreactivity (p-values are 0.043, 0.016, and 0.044 respectively), cases with membranous and cytoplasmic staining is significantly associated with grade I and stage II, while cases with loss of staining are more frequent in grade II, III and poorly differentiated tumors. No significant association of galectin-3 staining was observed with age, diagnosis, recurrence and alive status. The current study supports the tumor suppression role of galectin-3 in endometrial carcinoma. Greater galectin-3 immunostaining has been found in control endometrial tissues compared to endometrial tumors. Loss or decreased galectin-3 immunoexpression gives a sign for poor prognoses in endometrial carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinicopathologic Association and Prognostic Value of Microcystic, Elongated, and Fragmented (MELF) Pattern in Endometrial Endometrioid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Reiko; Takahashi, Kenta; Kato, Tomoyasu; Ino, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Masanobu; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi

    2017-07-01

    Microcystic, elongated, and fragmented (MELF) pattern is seen in the invasive front of some endometrial endometrioid carcinomas. Although MELF pattern can be expected as an indicator of patient outcomes, its prognostic significance remains unclear. This study was conducted to elucidate clinicopathologic features and the prognostic impact of MELF pattern in patients with endometrial endometrioid carcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed data of 479 consecutive patients with endometrial endometrioid carcinoma that had been surgically resected. In 45 of 427 patients (11%) with low-grade endometrioid carcinoma, MELF pattern was found, but it was found in none of the 52 patients with high-grade endometrioid carcinoma. Among the patients with low-grade endometrioid carcinoma, MELF pattern was associated significantly with larger tumor size, myometrial invasion of more than 50%, advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages, lymphovascular space invasion, lymph node metastasis, papillary architecture, and mucinous differentiation. However, survival analysis revealed that the patients with MELF pattern showed no significantly worse prognosis than those without MELF pattern either in disease-specific survival or in recurrence-free survival. MELF was not a significant prognosticator after adjustment for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (disease-specific survival [hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-7.67; P=0.64], recurrence-free survival [hazard ratio, 0.98, 95% confidence interval, 0.32-2.99, P=0.98]). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that MELF pattern was positive for p16 and p21 and almost negative for Ki-67 labeling, which suggested that tumor cells in MELF pattern were involved in growth arrest or cellular senescence. We conclude that MELF pattern could have little impact on outcomes of patients with low-grade endometrial endometrioid carcinoma.

  13. Are the uterine serous carcinomas underdiagnosed? Histomorphologic and immunohistochemical correlates and clinical follow up in high-grade endometrial carcinomas initially diagnosed as high-grade endometrioid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaomin; Hinson, Jeff L; Matnani, Rahul; Cibull, Michael L; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G

    2018-02-01

    Histologic subclassification of high-grade endometrial carcinomas can sometimes be a diagnostic challenge when based on histomorphology alone. Here we utilized immunohistochemical markers to determine the immunophenotype in histologically ambiguous high-grade endometrial carcinomas that were initially diagnosed as pure or mixed high-grade endometrioid carcinoma, aiming to determine the utility of selected immunohistochemical panel in accurate classification of these distinct tumor types, while correlating these findings with the clinical outcome. A total of 43 high-grade endometrial carcinoma cases initially classified as pure high-grade endometrioid carcinoma (n=32), mixed high-grade endometrioid carcinoma/serous carcinoma (n=9) and mixed high-grade endometrioid carcinoma/clear cell carcinoma (n=2) were retrospectively stained with a panel of immunostains, including antibodies for p53, p16, estrogen receptor, and mammaglobin. Clinical follow-up data were obtained, and stage-to-stage disease outcomes were compared for different tumor types. Based on aberrant staining for p53 and p16, 17/43 (40%) of the high-grade endometrial carcinoma cases initially diagnosed as high-grade endometrioid carcinoma were re-classified as serous carcinoma. All 17 cases showed negative staining for mammaglobin, while estrogen receptor was positive in only 6 (35%) cases. The remaining 26 cases of high-grade endometrioid carcinoma showed wild-type staining for p53 in 25 (96%) cases, patchy staining for p16 in 20 (77%) cases, and were positive for mammaglobin and estrogen receptor in 8 (31%) and 19 (73%) cases, respectively, thus the initial diagnosis of high-grade endometrioid carcinoma was confirmed in these cases. In addition, the patients with re-classified serous carcinoma had advanced clinical stages at diagnosis and poorer overall survival on clinical follow-up compared to that of the remaining 26 high-grade endometrioid carcinoma cases. These results indicate that selected

  14. The immunoexpression of p53 and Snail in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Dragomirescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Alex Emilian; Mărgăritescu, Claudiu; Simionescu, Cristiana Eugenia

    2018-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is one of the most common tumors in women worldwide. P53 has a well-known function as tumor suppressor, but it can also regulate the tissues metabolism, differentiation and development. Snail is a zinc-finger transcription factor, involved in the cell differentiation and survival. We analyzed the immunoexpression of p53 and Snail in 55 cases of endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC), in relation with the histopathological prognosis parameters and tumoral compartments, respectively intratumoral and advancing edge areas. For both markers, we found a statistically significant association with histological grade, in relation with tumoral compartments. P53 and Snail can be used in developing EEC targeted treatment.

  15. Small endometrial carcinoma 10 mm or less in diameter: clinicopathologic and histogenetic study of 131 cases for early detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Sugiyama, Yuko; Sakamoto, Kimihiko; Akiyama, Futoshi

    2013-12-01

    Natural history and clinicopathologic features of early endometrial carcinoma are not evident. Its knowledge is essential to make up strategies for prevention, early detection, and treatment of endometrial carcinoma. Especially it is important to know pathways of endometrial carcinogenesis and frequency of endometrial carcinomas arising from endometrial hyperplasia. Clinicopathologically 131 patients with endometrial carcinoma measuring ≤10 mm in diameter ("small endometrial carcinoma") were studied to get useful information for early diagnosis, treatment, and histogenesis. The entire endometrium of surgically removed uterus was step-cut and examined. The patients were, on average, 5 years younger than the controls whose carcinomas measure >10 mm (P < 0.0001). Of the 131 patients, 20% were asymptomatic although only 5% of the controls were asymptomatic (P < 0.0001). Seventy-six percent had the carcinomas located in the upper third section of the uterine corpus. Macroscopically 44% of the tumors were flat and 56% were elevated. Incidence of nodal and ovarian metastases were <1%. Forty percent of "small endometrial carcinomas" were associated with endometrial hyperplasia and 60% were not. It is logical to believe that there are two pathways of endometrial carcinogenesis: carcinomas occurring from hyperplasia (40%) and carcinomas occurring from normal endometrium (60%). As hyperplasia-carcinoma sequence is not a main route, we cannot probably prevent carcinomas only by treatment of hyperplasia. Effort must be focused on detecting early de novo carcinomas. As most "small endometrial carcinomas" arise in the upper third of the corpus, careful endometrial sampling there is important for early detection. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Clinical and Pathologic Comparison Between Stage-Matched Endometrial Intraepithelial Carcinoma and Uterine Serous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hou, June Y.; McAndrew, Thomas C.; Goldberg, Gary L.; Whitney, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) is a rare pathologic variant of uterine serous carcinoma (USC). Our aim is to distinguish patterns of clinic–pathologic outcomes in patients with EIC and USC for disease limited to the endometrium (stage 1A) as well as with distant metastasis (stage 4B). Surgically staged patients were retrospectively identified and relevant variables were extracted and compared. Kaplan-Meier was used to generate the survival data. More USC (n = 29) exhibited lymphovascular invasion (stage 4, P = .01) and expressed higher levels of estrogen receptor-α than EIC (P = .0009 and .063 for stages 1 and 4, respectively). The survival is comparable, with 1 recurrence in each group for stage 1A disease. For stage 4 EIC and USC, the progression-free survival (14 vs10 months) and overall survival (19 vs 20 months) are similar to what is previously published. In conclusion, EIC, whether limited to the endometrium, or widely metastatic, imparts similar outcomes and should be treated comparably with stage-matched USC. PMID:24023030

  17. Comparison of Two Combination Chemotherapy Regimens Plus Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-30

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer

  18. Undifferentiated and Dedifferentiated Endometrial Carcinomas With POLE Exonuclease Domain Mutations Have a Favorable Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Iñigo; Lee, Cheng-Han; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Palacios, José; Prat, Jaime

    2017-08-01

    POLE exonuclease domain mutations have recently been described in undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma but, because of the rarity of this aggressive type of endometrial cancer, their prognostic significance is unknown. We have analyzed the immunophenotype (ARID1A, MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, MSH6, p53, β-catenin, and SMARCB1) and mutational status (POLE, PIK3CA, and PTEN) of 21 undifferentiated carcinomas (8 undifferentiated and 13 dedifferentiated carcinomas). Loss of ARID1A expression was observed in 9 of 19 cases (47%), loss of expression of at least 1 DNA mismatch repair protein in 7 (7/21; 33%), and p53 immunoreaction was aberrant (mutated/inactivated) in 11 cases (11/21; 52%). All tumors were negative for β-catenin. Normal nuclear SMARCB1 (INI1) staining was found in all but 1 dedifferentiated case. Two undifferentiated and 7 dedifferentiated carcinomas showed POLE exonuclease domain mutations (9/21; 42%). PIK3CA mutations occurred in six tumors (6/21; 28%) (2 undifferentiated and 4 dedifferentiated carcinomas). PTEN mutations were found in 7 of 15 cases (47%) (4 undifferentiated and 3 dedifferentiated carcinomas). POLE-mutated undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas were more frequently stage I tumors than similar carcinomas lacking exonuclease domain mutations (7/9; 78% vs. 3/12; 25%; P=0.023) and patients had significantly better outcome (disease-specific survival) than those without POLE exonuclease domain mutations (P=0.02). Determination of the POLE mutation status is important for the management of these patients.

  19. Immunohistochemical and genetic profiles of endometrioid endometrial carcinoma arising from atrophic endometrium.

    PubMed

    Geels, Yvette P; van der Putten, Louis J M; van Tilborg, Angela A G; Lurkin, Irene; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; van den Berg-van Erp, Saskia H; Snijders, Marc P L M; Bulten, Johan; Visscher, Daniel W; Dowdy, Sean C; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2015-05-01

    Endometrial carcinomas are divided into type I endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs), thought to arise from hyperplastic endometrium, and type II nonendometrioid endometrial carcinomas, thought to arise from atrophic endometrium. However, a minority (20%) of EECs have atrophic background endometrium, which was shown to be a marker of a worse prognosis. This study compares the immunohistochemical and genetic profiles of this possible third type to that of the known two types. 43 patients with grade 1 EEC and hyperplastic background endometrium (type I), 43 patients with grade 1 EEC and atrophic background endometrium (type III) and 21 patients with serous carcinoma (type II) were included (n=107). Tissue microarrays of tumor samples were immunohistochemically stained for PTEN, L1CAM, ER, PR, p53, MLH1, PMS2, β-catenin, E-cadherin and MIB1. The BRAF, KRAS, and PIK3CA genes were analyzed for mutations. A significantly higher expression of ER and PR, and a lower expression of L1CAM, p53 and MLH1 were found in type I and III compared to type II carcinomas. Expression of E-cadherin was significantly reduced in type III compared to type I carcinomas. Mutation analysis showed significantly less mutations of KRAS in type III compared to type I and II carcinomas (p<0.01). There appear to be slight immunohistochemical and genetic differences between EECs with hyperplastic and atrophic background endometrium. Carcinogenesis of EEC in atrophic endometrium seems to be characterized by loss of E-cadherin and a lack of KRAS mutations. As expected, endometrioid and serous carcinomas were immunohistochemically different. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Utility of PET-CT in detecting nodal metastasis in cN0 early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Seikaly, Hadi; Biron, Vincent L; Jeffery, Caroline C

    2018-05-01

    Management of the clinically node-negative neck (cN0) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) is challenging. Accurate imaging alternatives to elective neck dissections would help reduce surgical morbidity. While pooled studies suggest that imaging modalities have similar accuracy in predicting occult nodal disease, no study has examined the utility of PET-CT in this specific population of low-volume, clinically T1 and T2 OCSCC patients. A retrospective review of patients in the Alberta Cancer Registry who were diagnosed with cT1 or T2N0M0 OCSCC who underwent elective unilateral or bilateral neck dissections was performed. Pre-operative PET-CT and CT necks were reviewed for number of radiographically suspicious lymph nodes. Surgical pathology reports were reviewed to obtain the total number of nodes sampled and number of malignant nodes. Between 2009 and 2013, 148 patients were diagnosed with cT1 or T2N0M0 OCSCC. Of these, 96 patients underwent elective neck dissections. All patients underwent preoperative CT of the neck with 32 patients having undergone additional preoperative PET-CT. Based on finally surgical pathology, the overall rate of occult metastasis was 13.5% (13/96). The overall sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT in this cohort was 21.4% and 98.4%, respectively with a negative predictive value of 99.1%. Although sensitivity improved in patients with tumors ≥2 cm and depth ≥4 mm, specificity remained unchanged. In patients with cT1 and T2N0 OCSCC, PET-CT has high negative predictive value. These patients can be considered for treatment with single modality surgical resection and elective neck dissection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I binding with invasion in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ambros, R A; Kurman, R J

    1993-10-01

    Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), a lectin which specifically binds L-fucose, has been shown to extensively bind endometrial carcinoma cells but not benign endometrial glands. Patterns of UEA-I binding were examined in five cases of uteri containing proliferative endometrium, five cases of endometrial hyperplasia, and 54 cases of endometrioid (typical) carcinoma of the endometrium and correlated with the histologic features of the tumor and its behavior. Whereas proliferative endometrium showed luminal staining only, diffuse cytoplasmic staining was frequently seen in hyperplasia and carcinoma. Carcinomas with a high percentage of tumor cells staining with UEA-I tended to be high-grade with a greater tendency to deep myometrial and vascular invasion than tumors with little or no staining. By univariate survival analysis, the extent of UEA-I binding was found to correlate with patient survival. By multivariate analysis, however, survival correlated most closely with the presence of deep myometrial and vascular invasion, and UEA-I binding was not found to be an independent prognostic indicator. This study suggests that increased fucosylation of proteins in endometrioid cancer cells may play a role in myometrial and vascular invasion.

  2. Papillary syncytial metaplasia associated with endometrial breakdown exhibits an immunophenotype that overlaps with uterine serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn; McBride, Hilary A

    2012-05-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is an aggressive variant of Type 2 endometrial carcinoma, which in most cases exhibits, at least focally, a papillary architecture. Occasionally, especially in small biopsy specimens, it may be difficult to distinguish between USC and a variety of metaplastic or reactive processes. In particular, papillary syncytial metaplasia (PSM), as a result of endometrial breakdown, may be confused with USC or its precursor serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma. In such cases, immunohistochemistry is often undertaken, the panel of markers usually including estrogen receptor (ER), p53, p16, and MIB1. The expected immunoprofile of USC is ER negative, p53 and p16 positive, and a high MIB1 proliferation index, although studies have shown that significant numbers of cases deviate from this immunophenotype. With regard to the aforementioned markers, PSM has not been studied extensively, but intuitively, the expected immunophenotype would be ER positive, p53 and p16 negative, and a low MIB1 proliferation index. After 2 index cases in which breaking down menstrual endometrium with florid PSM was misdiagnosed on an endometrial biopsy as USC or suspected USC, in part due to the observed immunophenotype, we studied the expression of ER, p53, p16, MIB1, and HMGA2 (a recently described useful marker of USC) in 10 further cases of PSM associated with endometrial breakdown. We illustrate that compared with a nonbreaking down endometrium, PSM is characterized by a decreased expression of ER and an increased expression of p53 (although still wild-type staining) and p16, the latter marker typically being diffusely positive. HMGA2 is negative, and there is a low MIB1 proliferation index. In cases of PSM, which are morphologically problematic, the immunophenotype may further heighten the suspicion of serous malignancy and potentially result in a misdiagnosis.

  3. The effect of first chromosome long arm duplication on survival of endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sever, Erman; Doğer, Emek; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Sünnetçi, Deniz; Çine, Naci; Savlı, Hakan; Yücesoy, İzzet

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of first chromosome long arm duplication (dup(1q)) in cases with endometrial carcinoma detected with array based comperative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on survival from the cancer. A total of 53 patients with the diagnosis of endometrial carcinom due to endometrial biopsy and who have been operated for this reason have been allocated in the study. Frozen section biopsy and staging surgery have been performed for all the cases. Samples obtained from the tumoral mass have been investigated for chromosomal aberrations with aCGH method. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis have been performed for survival analysis. Among 53 cases with endometrial carcinomas, dup(1q) was diagnosed in 14 (26.4%) of the cases. For the patient group that has been followed-up for 24 months (3-33 months), dup(1q) (p=.01), optimal cytoreduction (p<.001), lymph node positivity (p=.006), tumor stage >1 (p=.006) and presence of high risk tumor were the factors that were associated with survival. Cox-regression analysis has revealed that optimal cytoreduction was the most important prognostic factor (p=.02). Presence of 1q duplication can be used as a prognostic factor in the preoperative period.

  4. The effect of first chromosome long arm duplication on survival of endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sever, Erman; Doğer, Emek; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Sünnetçi, Deniz; Çine, Naci; Savlı, Hakan; Yücesoy, İzzet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of first chromosome long arm duplication (dup(1q)) in cases with endometrial carcinoma detected with array based comperative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on survival from the cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 53 patients with the diagnosis of endometrial carcinom due to endometrial biopsy and who have been operated for this reason have been allocated in the study. Frozen section biopsy and staging surgery have been performed for all the cases. Samples obtained from the tumoral mass have been investigated for chromosomal aberrations with aCGH method. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis have been performed for survival analysis. Results: Among 53 cases with endometrial carcinomas, dup(1q) was diagnosed in 14 (26.4%) of the cases. For the patient group that has been followed-up for 24 months (3-33 months), dup(1q) (p=.01), optimal cytoreduction (p<.001), lymph node positivity (p=.006), tumor stage >1 (p=.006) and presence of high risk tumor were the factors that were associated with survival. Cox-regression analysis has revealed that optimal cytoreduction was the most important prognostic factor (p=.02). Conclusion: Presence of 1q duplication can be used as a prognostic factor in the preoperative period. PMID:28913021

  5. Molecular Analysis of Single Tumor Glands Using the Crypt Isolation Method in Endometrial Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takayuki; Sugai, Tamotsu; Shoji, Tadahiro; Habano, Wataru; Sugiyama, Toru

    2016-11-01

    Endometrial adenocarcinomas are characterized by the presence of many single tumor glands in which multiple genetic changes have accumulated. To elucidate the differences in molecular abnormalities among single tumor glands, individual tumor glands were analyzed and microsatellite alterations (loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability [MSI]) were examined using the crypt isolation method in glands from each tumor from patients with endometrial carcinoma. Twenty-five patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery were included in this study. We obtained cancerous individual isolated tumor glands from each patient using the crypt isolation method. For LOH and MSI analyses, we used 15 microsatellite markers (3p, 5q, 10q, 13q, 17p, 18q, BAT25, and BAT26) and the promoter regions of 6 genes (transforming growth factor beta receptor II, BAX, insulin-like growth factor II receptor, E2F4, MutS homolog 3, and MSH6). Loss of heterozygosity was detected in 8 (32%) of 25 patients, and MSI was detected in 9 (36%) of 25 patients. Some MSI-positive carcinomas had LOH in single tumor gland samples, and the coexistence of LOH and MSI was confirmed. In 16 (64%) of 25 cases, intratumoral genetic heterogeneity among single tumor gland samples was detected. By analyzing multiple single tumor glands within the same tumor, we found that endometrial adenocarcinoma was composed of various tumor glands with different molecular abnormalities, even in a limited region within the same tumor.

  6. Prognostic importance of DNA ploidy in non-endometrioid, high-risk endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sorbe, Bengt

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the predictive and prognostic impact of DNA ploidy together with other well-known prognostic factors in a series of non-endometrioid, high-risk endometrial carcinomas. From a complete consecutive series of 4,543 endometrial carcinomas of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages I-IV, 94 serous carcinomas, 48 clear cell carcinomas and 231 carcinosarcomas were selected as a non-endometrioid, high-risk group for further studies regarding prognosis. The impact of DNA ploidy, as assessed by flow cytometry, was of particular focus. The age of the patients, FIGO stage, depth of myometrial infiltration and tumor expression of p53 were also included in the analyses (univariate and multivariate). In the complete series of cases, the recurrence rate was 37%, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 39% with no difference between the three histological subtypes. The primary cure rate (78%) was also similar for all tumor types studied. DNA ploidy was a significant predictive factor (on univariate analysis) for primary tumor cure rate, and a prognostic factor for survival rate (on univariate and multivariate analyses). The predictive and prognostic impact of DNA ploidy was higher in carcinosarcomas than in serous and clear cell carcinomas. In the majority of multivariate analyses, FIGO stage and depth of myometrial infiltration were the most important predictive (tumor recurrence) and prognostic (survival rate) factors. DNA ploidy status is a less important predictive and prognostic factor in non-endometrioid, high-risk endometrial carcinomas than in the common endometrioid carcinomas, in which FIGO and nuclear grade also are highly significant and important factors.

  7. Clinicopathological analysis of endometrial carcinomas harboring somatic POLE exonuclease domain mutations.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Yaser R; Weigelt, Britta; Levine, Douglas A; Schoolmeester, J Kenneth; Dao, Linda N; Balzer, Bonnie L; Liles, Georgia; Karlan, Beth; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han; Soslow, Robert A

    2015-04-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas described four major genomic groups of endometrial carcinomas, including a POLE ultramutated subtype comprising ∼10% of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, characterized by POLE exonuclease domain mutations, ultrahigh somatic mutation rates, and favorable outcome. Our aim was to examine the morphological and clinicopathological features of ultramutated endometrial carcinomas harboring somatic POLE exonuclease domain mutations. Hematoxylin and eosin slides and pathology reports for 8/17 POLE-mutated endometrial carcinomas described in the Cancer Genome Atlas study were studied; for the remaining cases, virtual whole slide images publicly available at cBioPortal (www.cbioportal.org) were examined. A second cohort of eight POLE mutated endometrial carcinomas from University of Calgary was also studied. Median age was 55 years (range 33-87 years). Nineteen patients presented as stage I, 1 stage II, and 5 stage III. The majority of cases (24 of the 25) demonstrated defining morphological features of endometrioid differentiation. The studied cases were frequently high grade (60%) and rich in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and/or peri-tumoral lymphocytes (84%); many tumors showed morphological heterogeneity (52%) and ambiguity (16%). Foci demonstrating severe nuclear atypia led to concern for serous carcinoma in 28% of cases. At the molecular level, the majority of the Cancer Genome Atlas POLE-mutated tumors were microsatellite stable (65%), and TP53 mutations were present in 35% of cases. They also harbored mutations in PTEN (94%), FBXW7 (82%), ARID1A (76%), and PIK3CA (71%). All patients from both cohorts were alive without disease, and none of the patients developed recurrence at the time of follow-up (median 33 months; range 2-102 months). In conclusion, the recognition of ultramutated endometrial carcinomas with POLE exonuclease domain mutation is important given their favorable outcome. Our histopathological review revealed that these tumors are

  8. Use of mutation profiles to refine the classification of endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    McConechy, Melissa K; Ding, Jiarui; Cheang, Maggie Cu; Wiegand, Kimberly; Senz, Janine; Tone, Alicia; Yang, Winnie; Prentice, Leah; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; McDonald, Helen; Schmidt, Amy P; Mutch, David G; McAlpine, Jessica N; Hirst, Martin; Shah, Sohrab P; Lee, Cheng-Han; Goodfellow, Paul J; Gilks, C Blake; Huntsman, David G

    2012-09-01

    The classification of endometrial carcinomas is based on pathological assessment of tumour cell type; the different cell types (endometrioid, serous, carcinosarcoma, mixed, undifferentiated, and clear cell) are associated with distinct molecular alterations. This current classification system for high-grade subtypes, in particular the distinction between high-grade endometrioid (EEC-3) and serous carcinomas (ESC), is limited in its reproducibility and prognostic abilities. Therefore, a search for specific molecular classifiers to improve endometrial carcinoma subclassification is warranted. We performed target enrichment sequencing on 393 endometrial carcinomas from two large cohorts, sequencing exons from the following nine genes: ARID1A, PPP2R1A, PTEN, PIK3CA, KRAS, CTNNB1, TP53, BRAF, and PPP2R5C. Based on this gene panel, each endometrial carcinoma subtype shows a distinct mutation profile. EEC-3s have significantly different frequencies of PTEN and TP53 mutations when compared to low-grade endometrioid carcinomas. ESCs and EEC-3s are distinct subtypes with significantly different frequencies of mutations in PTEN, ARID1A, PPP2R1A, TP53, and CTNNB1. From the mutation profiles, we were able to identify subtype outliers, ie cases diagnosed morphologically as one subtype but with a mutation profile suggestive of a different subtype. Careful review of these diagnostically challenging cases suggested that the original morphological classification was incorrect in most instances. The molecular profile of carcinosarcomas suggests two distinct mutation profiles for these tumours: endometrioid-type (PTEN, PIK3CA, ARID1A, KRAS mutations) and serous-type (TP53 and PPP2R1A mutations). While this nine-gene panel does not allow for a purely molecularly based classification of endometrial carcinoma, it may prove useful as an adjunct to morphological classification and serve as an aid in the classification of problematic cases. If used in practice, it may lead to improved

  9. Molecular alterations in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas: clinical impacts of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsien-Neng; Chiang, Ying-Cheng; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Chen, Chi-An; Lin, Ming-Chieh; Kuo, Kuan-Ting

    2015-02-01

    Recently, mutations of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter were found in several types of cancer. A few reports demonstrate TERT promoter mutations in ovarian clear cell carcinomas but endometrial clear cell carcinoma has not been studied. The aims of this study were to compare differences of molecular alterations and clinical factors, and identify their prognostic impact in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas. We evaluated mutations of the TERT promoter and PIK3CA, expression of ARID1A, and other clinicopathological factors in 56 ovarian and 14 endometrial clear cell carcinomas. We found that TERT promoter mutations were present in 21% (3/14) of endometrial clear cell carcinomas and 16% (9/56) of ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Compared with ovarian clear cell carcinomas, endometrial clear cell carcinomas showed older mean patient age (P<0.001), preserved ARID1A immunoreactivity (P=0.017) and infrequent PIK3CA mutation (P=0.025). In ovarian clear cell carcinomas, TERT promoter mutations were correlated with patient age >45 (P=0.045) and preserved ARID1A expression (P=0.003). In cases of endometrial clear cell carcinoma, TERT promoter mutations were not statistically associated with any other clinicopathological factors. In ovarian clear cell carcinoma patients with early FIGO stage (stages I and II), TERT promoter mutation was an independent prognostic factor and correlated with a shorter disease-free survival and overall survival (P=0.015 and 0.009, respectively). In recurrent ovarian clear cell carcinoma patients with early FIGO stage, TERT promoter mutations were associated with early relapse within 6 months (P=0.018). We concluded that TERT promoter mutations were present in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Distinct molecular alteration patterns in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas implied different processes of tumorigenesis in these morphologically similar tumors. In ovarian clear cell carcinoma of early FIGO

  10. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ: Report of a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S; Hassan, Mohammad J; Madaan, Garima; Jain, Reena

    2015-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year's duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up.

  11. Small endometrial carcinoma 10 mm or less in diameter: clinicopathologic and histogenetic study of 131 cases for early detection and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Sugiyama, Yuko; Sakamoto, Kimihiko; Akiyama, Futoshi

    2013-01-01

    Natural history and clinicopathologic features of early endometrial carcinoma are not evident. Its knowledge is essential to make up strategies for prevention, early detection, and treatment of endometrial carcinoma. Especially it is important to know pathways of endometrial carcinogenesis and frequency of endometrial carcinomas arising from endometrial hyperplasia. Clinicopathologically 131 patients with endometrial carcinoma measuring ≤10 mm in diameter (“small endometrial carcinoma”) were studied to get useful information for early diagnosis, treatment, and histogenesis. The entire endometrium of surgically removed uterus was step-cut and examined. The patients were, on average, 5 years younger than the controls whose carcinomas measure >10 mm (P < 0.0001). Of the 131 patients, 20% were asymptomatic although only 5% of the controls were asymptomatic (P < 0.0001). Seventy-six percent had the carcinomas located in the upper third section of the uterine corpus. Macroscopically 44% of the tumors were flat and 56% were elevated. Incidence of nodal and ovarian metastases were <1%. Forty percent of “small endometrial carcinomas” were associated with endometrial hyperplasia and 60% were not. It is logical to believe that there are two pathways of endometrial carcinogenesis: carcinomas occurring from hyperplasia (40%) and carcinomas occurring from normal endometrium (60%). As hyperplasia-carcinoma sequence is not a main route, we cannot probably prevent carcinomas only by treatment of hyperplasia. Effort must be focused on detecting early de novo carcinomas. As most “small endometrial carcinomas” arise in the upper third of the corpus, careful endometrial sampling there is important for early detection. PMID:24403260

  12. Lipocalin 2 Enhances Migration and Resistance against Cisplatin in Endometrial Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Tsutomu; Kashima, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Yasushi; Kobara, Hisanori; Asaka, Ryoichi; Ando, Hirofumi; Higuchi, Shotaro; Ida, Koichi; Mvunta, David Hamisi; Shiozawa, Tanri

    2016-01-01

    Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a secretory protein that is involved in various physiological processes including iron transport. We previously identified LCN2 as an up-regulated gene in endometrial carcinoma, and found that the overexpression of LCN2 and its receptor, SLC22A17, was associated with a poor prognosis. However, the functions and mechanism of action of LCN2 currently remain unclear. The LCN2-overexpressing endometrial carcinoma cell lines, HHUA and RL95-2, and LCN2-low-expressing one, HEC1B, were used. The effects of LCN2 on cell migration, cell viability, and apoptosis under various stresses, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and cisplatin treatment, were examined using the scratch wound healing assay, WST-1 assay, and Apostrand assay, respectively. LCN2-silencing using shRNA method significantly reduced the migration ability of cells (p<0.05). Cytotoxic stresses significantly decreased the viability of LCN2-silenced cells more than that of control cells. In contrast, LCN2 overexpression was significantly increased cisplatin resistance. These effects were canceled by the addition of the iron chelator, deferoxamine. After UV irradiation, the expression of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) was decreased in LCN2-silenced cells, and the PI3K inhibitor canceled the difference induced in UV sensitivity by LCN2. The cisplatin-induced expression of pAkt was not affected by LCN2; however, the expression of p53 and p21 was increased by LCN2-silencing. These results indicated that LCN2 was involved in the migration and survival of endometrial carcinoma cells under various stresses in an iron-dependent manner. The survival function of LCN2 may be exerted through the PI3K pathway and suppression of the p53-p21 pathway. These functions of LCN2 may increase the malignant potential of endometrial carcinoma cells.

  13. Lipocalin 2 Enhances Migration and Resistance against Cisplatin in Endometrial Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Yasushi; Kobara, Hisanori; Asaka, Ryoichi; Ando, Hirofumi; Higuchi, Shotaro; Ida, Koichi; Mvunta, David Hamisi; Shiozawa, Tanri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a secretory protein that is involved in various physiological processes including iron transport. We previously identified LCN2 as an up-regulated gene in endometrial carcinoma, and found that the overexpression of LCN2 and its receptor, SLC22A17, was associated with a poor prognosis. However, the functions and mechanism of action of LCN2 currently remain unclear. Methods The LCN2-overexpressing endometrial carcinoma cell lines, HHUA and RL95-2, and LCN2-low-expressing one, HEC1B, were used. The effects of LCN2 on cell migration, cell viability, and apoptosis under various stresses, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and cisplatin treatment, were examined using the scratch wound healing assay, WST-1 assay, and Apostrand assay, respectively. Results LCN2-silencing using shRNA method significantly reduced the migration ability of cells (p<0.05). Cytotoxic stresses significantly decreased the viability of LCN2-silenced cells more than that of control cells. In contrast, LCN2 overexpression was significantly increased cisplatin resistance. These effects were canceled by the addition of the iron chelator, deferoxamine. After UV irradiation, the expression of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) was decreased in LCN2-silenced cells, and the PI3K inhibitor canceled the difference induced in UV sensitivity by LCN2. The cisplatin-induced expression of pAkt was not affected by LCN2; however, the expression of p53 and p21 was increased by LCN2-silencing. Conclusions These results indicated that LCN2 was involved in the migration and survival of endometrial carcinoma cells under various stresses in an iron-dependent manner. The survival function of LCN2 may be exerted through the PI3K pathway and suppression of the p53-p21 pathway. These functions of LCN2 may increase the malignant potential of endometrial carcinoma cells. PMID:27168162

  14. Clinicopathological Characteristics and KRAS Mutation Status of Endometrial Mucinous Metaplasia and Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji-Youn; Jung, Yoon Yang; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2018-05-01

    Mucinous metaplasia of the endometrium occurs as a spectrum of epithelial alterations ranging from the formation of simple, tubular glands to architecturally complex glandular proliferation with intraglandular papillary projection and cellular tufts. Endometrial mucinous metaplasia often presents a diagnostic challenge in endometrial curettage. We analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and the mutation status for V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) of 11 cases of endometrial mucinous metaplasia. Electronic medical record review and histopathological examination were performed. KRAS mutation status was analyzed using a pyrosequencing technique. Cases were classified histopathologically into simple (5/11) or papillary (6/11) mucinous metaplasias. All (6/6) papillary mucinous metaplasias were associated with atypical hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (AH/EIN; 1/6) or carcinoma (5/6), whereas in a single patient with simple mucinous metaplasia, grade 1 endometrioid carcinoma was incidentally detected. The difference in frequency of association of the metaplasia with AH/EIN or carcinoma was significant (p=0.015). KRAS mutations were identified in five out of six cases of papillary mucinous metaplasias, comprising three cases with G12D and two with G12V mutations; the frequency of KRAS mutation was significantly higher (p=0.015) than in cases of simple mucinous metaplasia (0/5). Papillary mucinous metaplasia is frequently associated with endometrial neoplastic lesions. The high incidence of KRAS mutations in papillary mucinous metaplasia suggests that papillary mucinous metaplasia may be a precancerous lesion of a certain subset of mucinous carcinomas of the endometrium. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Destructive effect of HIFU on rabbit embedded endometrial carcinoma tissues and their vascularities

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Liming; Xu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate damage effect of High-intensity focused ultrasound on early stage endometrial cancer tissues and their vascularities. Materials and Methods Rabbit endometrial cancer models were established via tumor blocks implantation for a prospective control study. Ultrasonic ablation efficacy was evaluated by pathologic and imaging changes. The target lesions of experimental rabbits before and after ultrasonic ablation were observed after autopsy. The slides were used for hematoxylin-eosin staining, elastic fiber staining and endothelial cell staining; the slides were observed by optical microscopy. One slide was observed by electron microscopy. Then the target lesions of experimental animals with ultrasonic ablation were observed by vascular imaging, one group was visualized by digital subtract angiography, one group was quantified by color Doppler flow imaging, and one group was detected by dye perfusion. SPSS 19.0 software was used for statistical analyses. Results Histological examination indicated that High-intensity focused ultrasound caused the tumor tissues and their vascularities coagulative necrosis. Tumor vascular structure components including elastic fiber, endothelial cells all were destroyed by ultrasonic ablation. Digital subtract angiography showed tumor vascular shadow were dismissed after ultrasonic ablation. After ultrasonic ablation, gray-scale of tumor nodules enhanced in ultrasonography, tumor peripheral and internal blood flow signals disappeared or significantly reduced in color Doppler flow imaging. Vascular perfusion performed after ultrasonic ablation, tumor vessels could not filled by dye liquid. Conclusion High-intensity focused ultrasound as a noninvasive method can destroy whole endometrial cancer cells and their supplying vascularities, which maybe an alternative approach of targeted therapy and new antiangiogenic strategy for endometrial cancer. PMID:28121624

  16. Destructive effect of HIFU on rabbit embedded endometrial carcinoma tissues and their vascularities.

    PubMed

    Guan, Liming; Xu, Gang

    2017-03-21

    To evaluate damage effect of High-intensity focused ultrasound on early stage endometrial cancer tissues and their vascularities. Rabbit endometrial cancer models were established via tumor blocks implantation for a prospective control study. Ultrasonic ablation efficacy was evaluated by pathologic and imaging changes. The target lesions of experimental rabbits before and after ultrasonic ablation were observed after autopsy. The slides were used for hematoxylin-eosin staining, elastic fiber staining and endothelial cell staining; the slides were observed by optical microscopy. One slide was observed by electron microscopy. Then the target lesions of experimental animals with ultrasonic ablation were observed by vascular imaging, one group was visualized by digital subtract angiography, one group was quantified by color Doppler flow imaging, and one group was detected by dye perfusion.SPSS 19.0 software was used for statistical analyses. Histological examination indicated that High-intensity focused ultrasound caused the tumor tissues and their vascularities coagulative necrosis. Tumor vascular structure components including elastic fiber, endothelial cells all were destroyed by ultrasonic ablation. Digital subtract angiography showed tumor vascular shadow were dismissed after ultrasonic ablation. After ultrasonic ablation, gray-scale of tumor nodules enhanced in ultrasonography, tumor peripheral and internal blood flow signals disappeared or significantly reduced in color Doppler flow imaging. Vascular perfusion performed after ultrasonic ablation, tumor vessels could not filled by dye liquid. High-intensity focused ultrasound as a noninvasive method can destroy whole endometrial cancer cells and their supplying vascularities, which maybe an alternative approach of targeted therapy and new antiangiogenic strategy for endometrial cancer.

  17. SLUG expression is an indicator of tumour recurrence in high-grade endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Atsushi; Wakana, Kimio; Kubota, Toshiro; Kitagawa, Masanobu

    2016-09-01

    To investigate how SNAIL and SLUG were involved in the nature of high-grade endometrial carcinomas (grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma, serous carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma), we analysed the correlation of their expression status with clinicopathological characteristics and evaluated their prognostic significance. We performed immunohistochemical staining in 52 high-grade endometrial carcinomas. Expression status of SNAIL and SLUG was classified into a high expression (positive in more than 50% of the tumour cells) and a low expression. Thirteen cases (25%) showed a high expression of SLUG, whereas all 52 cases showed a low expression of SNAIL. High expression of SLUG was correlated significantly with tumour recurrence (P = 0.0203) and aberrant p53 expression (P = 0.000559). Overall survival was worse in patients with high SLUG expression at all stages (P = 0.0327) and in those who underwent adjuvant therapy (P = 0.00963). Among the patients with complete tumour resection, high SLUG expression was associated with worse recurrence-free survival (RFS) in the patients at all stages (P = 0.00264), at stages III/IV (P = 0.0146), and who underwent adjuvant therapy (P = 0.000743). SLUG expression was identified as an independent factor of RFS by multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 5.938, 95% confidence interval 1.251-28.18, P = 0.025). SLUG expression could be correlated with TP53 mutational status and could be involved in therapeutic resistance resulting in tumour recurrence. A high expression level of SLUG can be an indicator of recurrence and a therapeutic target for long-term remission in high-grade endometrial carcinomas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. High frequency of coexistent mutations of PIK3CA and PTEN genes in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Oda, Katsutoshi; Stokoe, David; Taketani, Yuji; McCormick, Frank

    2005-12-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) pathway is activated in many human cancers. In addition to inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene, mutations or amplifications of the catalytic subunit alpha of PI3K (PIK3CA) have been reported. However, the coexistence of mutations in these two genes seems exceedingly rare. As PTEN mutations occur at high frequency in endometrial carcinoma, we screened 66 primary endometrial carcinomas for mutations in the helical and catalytic domains of PIK3CA. We identified a total of 24 (36%) mutations in this gene and coexistence of PIK3CA/PTEN mutations at high frequency (26%). PIK3CA mutations were more common in tumors with PTEN mutations (17 of 37, 46%) compared with those without PTEN mutations (7 of 29, 24%). Array comparative genomic hybridization detected 3q24-qter amplification, which covers the PIK3CA gene (3q26.3), in one of nine tumors. Knocking down PTEN expression in the HEC-1B cell line, which possesses both K-Ras and PIK3CA mutations, further enhances phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473), indicating that double mutation of PIK3CA and PTEN has an additive effect on PI3K activation. Our data suggest that the PI3K pathway is extensively activated in endometrial carcinomas, and that combination of PIK3CA/PTEN alterations might play an important role in development of these tumors.

  19. Endometrial carcinoma in a single horn of a bicornuate uterus: A case report.

    PubMed

    Gaballa, Khaled; Cicero, Carla; Gallotta, Valerio; Zannoni, Gianfranco; Scambia, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    We discuss the diagnosis and the management of endometrial carcinoma in a single horn of bicornuate uterus in a 64-year-old woman as a case report. The case underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and bilateral iliac lymphadenectomy. The gross examination of the uterus revealed a bicornuate uterus with a greater horn of 12 × 9 × 8 cm and a smaller horn of 10 × 3 cm. The cavity of the greater horn showed a neoplastic growth of 10 cm with infiltration of about 1,8 cm of the myometrium from whole thickness of 1.9 cm. while the other horn was free of tumor tissue. The microscopic examination of the uterus revealed G2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium of the greater horn with infiltration of more than 50% of the myometrium. In the presence of bicornuate uterus, a bilateral endometrial biopsy should be performed in order to reduce the risk of delayed or missed diagnosis. The management of a case of bicornuate unicollis uterus with endometrial carcinoma in only one horn is the same as patients with endometrial cancer in single uterus and depends mainly on stage and histological grade of the tumor. The possibility of existence of a separate uterine cavity should always be considered when endometrial cancer is clinically suspected but pathology fails to confirm the diagnosis. This points out the importance of a careful physical examination and radiographic evaluation in such cases. Copyright © 2018. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Quality of Life Over Time in Women Diagnosed with Ductal Carcinoma In situ, Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer, and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Jeffe, DB; Pérez, M; Liu, Y; Collins, KK; Aft, RL; Schootman, M

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about quality-of-life (QOL) differences over time between incident ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and early-stage invasive breast cancer (EIBC) cases as compared with same-aged women without breast cancer (controls). We prospectively recruited and interviewed 1096 women (16.8% DCIS, 33.3% EIBC [25.7% Stage I, 7.6% Stage IIA], 49.9% controls; mean age 58; 23.7% non-white) a mean 6.7 weeks (T1), and 6.2 (T2), 12.3 (T3), and 24.4 months (T4) after surgery (patients) or screening mammogram (controls). We tested two hypotheses: (1) DCIS patients would report lower levels of QOL compared with controls but would report similar QOL compared with EIBC patients at baseline; and (2) DCIS patients’ QOL would improve during 2-year follow-up and approach levels similar to that of controls faster than EIBC patients. We tested Hypothesis 1 using separate general linear regression models for each of the eight subscales on the RAND 36-item Health Survey, controlling for variables associated with at least one subscale at T1. Both DCIS and EIBC patients reported lower QOL at T1 than controls on all subscales (each p < .05). We tested Hypothesis 2 using generalized estimating equations to examine change in each QOL subscale over time across the three diagnostic groups adjusting for covariates. By T3, physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, energy/fatigue, and general health each differed significantly by diagnostic group at P < 0.05, due to larger differences between EIBC patients and controls; but DCIS patients no longer differed significantly from controls on any of the QOL subscales. At T4, EIBC patients still reported worse physical functioning (P = 0.0001) and general health (P = 0.0017) than controls, possibly due to lingering treatment effects. DCIS patients’ QOL was similar to that of controls two years after diagnosis, but some aspects of EIBC patients’ QOL remained lower. PMID:22484800

  1. Chromatin remodelling and DNA repair genes are frequently mutated in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    García-Sanz, Pablo; Triviño, Juan Carlos; Mota, Alba; Pérez López, María; Colás, Eva; Rojo-Sebastián, Alejandro; García, Ángel; Gatius, Sonia; Ruiz, María; Prat, Jaime; López-López, Rafael; Abal, Miguel; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Reventós, Jaume; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Moreno-Bueno, Gema

    2017-04-01

    In developed countries, endometrial carcinoma is the most common cancer that affects the female genital tract. Endometrial carcinoma is divided into two main histological types, type I or endometrioid and type II or non-endometrioid, each of which have characteristic, although not exclusive, molecular alterations and mutational profiles. Nevertheless, information about the implication and relevance of some of these genes in this disease is lacking. We sought here to identify new recurrently mutated genes in endometrioid cancers that play a role in tumourigenesis and that influence the clinical outcome. We focused on low-grade, non-ultramutated tumours as these tumours have a worse prognosis than the ultramutated POLE-positive endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs). We performed exome-sequencing of 11 EECs with matched normal tissue and subsequently validated 15 candidate genes in 76 samples. For the first time, we show that mutations in chromatin remodelling-related genes (KMT2D, KMT2C, SETD1B and BCOR) and in DNA-repair-related genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD50 and CHD4) are frequent in this subtype of endometrial cancer. The alterations to these genes occurred with frequencies ranging from 35.5% for KMT2D to 10.5% for BRCA1 and BCOR, with some showing a tendency toward co-occurrence (RAD50-KMT2D and RAD50-SETD1B). All these genes harboured specific mutational hotspots. In addition, the mutational status of KMT2C, KMT2D and SETD1B helps to predict the degree of myometrial invasion, a critical prognostic feature. These results highlight the possible implication of these genes in this disease, creating opportunities for new therapeutic approaches. © 2016 UICC.

  2. Loss of switch/sucrose non-fermenting complex protein expression is associated with dedifferentiation in endometrial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Karnezis, Anthony N.; Hoang, Lien N.; Coatham, Mackenzie; Ravn, Sarah; Almadani, Noorah; Cloutier, Basile; Irving, Julie; Meng, Bo; Li, Xiaodong; Chow, Christine; McAlpine, Jessica; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Mao, Tsui-Lien; Djordjevic, Bojana; Soslow, Robert A.; Huntsman, David G.; Gilks, C. Blake; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma is an aggressive type of endometrial cancer that contains a mix of low grade endometrioid and undifferentiated carcinoma components. We performed targeted sequencing of 8 dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas and identified somatic frameshift/nonsense mutations in SMARCA4, a core member of the switch/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF) complex, in the undifferentiated components of 4 tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the loss of SMARCA4 in the undifferentiated component of these 4 SMARCA4-mutated cases while the corresponding low grade endometrioid component showed retained SMARCA4 expression. An expanded survey of another member of the SWI/SNF complex showed SMARCB1 loss in the undifferentiated component of 2 SMARCA4-intact tumors. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of SMARCA4 and SMARCB1 was done in an additional set of 22 centrally reviewed dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas and 31 grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas. Combining the results from the index and the expansion set, 15 of 30 (50%) of the dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas examined showed either SMARCA4 loss (37%) or SMARCB1 loss (13%). The loss of SMARCA4 or SMARCB1 was mutually exclusive and occurred only in the undifferentiated component. All 31 grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas showed intact SMARCA4/SMARCB1 expression. The majority (73%) of the SMARCA4-deficient and half of SMARCB1-deficient undifferentiated component developed in a mismatch repair protein (MMR)-deficient molecular context. The observed spatial association between SMARCA4/SMARCB1 loss and histologic dedifferentiation suggests that loss of these SWI/SNF complex proteins may contribute to the development of dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma. PMID:26743474

  3. Relationships of Tubal Ligation to Endometrial Carcinoma Stage and Mortality in the NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group 210 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, Louise A.; McMeekin, D. Scott; Creasman, William T.; Mutch, David; Cohn, David E.; Walker, Joan L.; Moore, Richard G.; Downs, Levi S.; Soslow, Robert A.; Zaino, Richard; Sherman, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stage is a critical determinant of treatment among endometrial carcinoma patients; understanding patterns of tumor spread may suggest approaches to improve staging. Specifically, the importance of exfoliation of endometrial carcinoma cells through the fallopian tubes into the peritoneum is ill defined. We assessed the hypothesis that tubal ligation (TL), which should impede transtubal passage of cells, is associated with lower endometrial carcinoma stage at presentation and, consequently, lower mortality. Methods: The NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 210 Trial included 4489 endometrial carcinoma patients who completed a risk factor questionnaire that included TL history. Pathology data were derived from clinical reports and central review. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between TL with stage and peritoneal metastasis, overall and by tumor subtype. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for TL and mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Compared with stage I, TL was inversely associated with stage III (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.78) and stage IV carcinomas (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.24) overall and among individual tumor subtypes. TL was inversely related to peritoneal metastasis overall (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.68) and among serous carcinomas (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.68). In multivariable models unadjusted for stage, TL was associated with lower endometrial carcinoma-specific mortality (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.91); however, adjustment for stage eliminated the survival advantage. Similar relationships with all-cause mortality were observed. Conclusions: TL is associated with lower stage and mortality among women with aggressive endometrial carcinomas, suggesting transtubal spread is clinically important. Future studies should evaluate whether detection of intraluminal tumor

  4. Establishment and characterization of a human uterine endometrial undifferentiated carcinoma cell line, TMG-L.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Machiko; Ishikawa, Kunimi; Yasue, Akira; Kato, Rina; Nakamura, Azumi; Kuroki, Jun; Udagawa, Yasuhiro

    2003-03-01

    A new cell line of human uterine endometrial undifferentiated carcinoma, designated as TMG-L, was established from the metastatic lymph node of 56-year-old patient TMG-L cells have been cultured with Ham's F-12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and grew as a loosely adherent monolayer with polygonal or spindle-shaped cells exhibiting poor cell-cell contact and piled up against each other, showing a tendency to grow as floating cells. The doubling time of this cell line was about 48 hours, and chromosomal analysis revealed aneuploidy at passage 25. The cells formed tumors in SCID mouse, the histology of which was similar to that of undifferentiated carcinoma component of primary tumor. TMG-L cells showed the loss of expression and membranous localization of either E-cadherin or alpha-catenin, implied corresponding loss of their adhesive function. And this dysfunction implicated the biological aggressive behavior of uterine endometrial undifferentiated carcinoma. This cell line appears to provide a useful system for studying uterine undifferentiated carcinoma in vivo and in vitro.

  5. [Expression of DNA mismatch repair protein in endometrial carcinomas and its correlation with clinicopathologic features].

    PubMed

    Bi, R; Tu, X Y; Xiao, Y X; Shan, B E; Wang, H Y; Cai, X; Zhou, X Y; Yang, W T

    2016-05-08

    To study the expression of mismatch repair protein in a series of endometrial carcinomas and its correlation with clinicopathologic features. The clinical data of 150 consecutive cases of endometrial carcinoma were collected during the period from December, 2014 to August, 2015 in Fudan University Cancer Center. Morphologic features including tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), peritumoral lymphocytes and tumor heterogeneity were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry for expression of mismatch repair proteins was performed. The correlation with clinicopathologic features was analyzed. Loss of mismatch repair protein expression was observed in 43 cases (28.7%), including loss of MLH1/PMS2 in 27 cases (18%), loss of MSH2/MSH6 in 7 cases (4.7%), loss of MSH6 in 6 cases (4%) and loss of PMS2 in 3 cases (2%). There were 23.3% and 27.1% of mismatch repair protein-deficient endometrial carcinomas in women under and above 50 years of age, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Amongst the 12 cases with family history of tumors, 4 of the 6 mismatch repair protein-deficient cases were under 50 years of age, which was higher than that in the 6 cases with mismatch repair protein expression (P=0.014). The mismatch repair protein-deficient group showed significantly more prominent TIL and peritumoral lymphocytes than protein-expression group (P=0.033 and <0.001). Moreover, there were also significant differences in depth of myometrial invasion and occurrence of synchronous malignancy (2 cases of ovarian clear cell carcinoma and 1 case of colonic carcinoma) between the two groups (P=0.039 and 0.022). However, there were no significant differences in lymph node metastasis, tumor heterogeneity, lower uterine segment involvement and tumor stage between the two groups. Prominent TIL and peritumoral lymphocytes characteristically occur in mismatch repair protein-deficient endometrial carcinomas. Patient age does not significantly correlate with the loss of mismatch repair

  6. Endometrial and ovarian carcinomas with undifferentiated components: clinically aggressive and frequently underrecognized neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tafe, Laura J; Garg, Karuna; Chew, Ivy; Tornos, Carmen; Soslow, Robert A

    2010-06-01

    Carcinomas of the endometrium and ovary with undifferentiated components are uncommon neoplasms that are likely underdiagnosed. They are important to recognize as they have been shown to be clinically aggressive. We identified 32 carcinomas with undifferentiated components as defined by Silva and co-workers, 26 endometrial and 6 of ovarian origin. The patient age ranged from 21 to 76 years (median 55); 40% of patients were endometrial and 83% of ovarian carcinomas with undifferentiated components) presented at advanced stages (FIGO III-IV). Pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes were the most frequent sites of metastases. Twenty tumors, entirely undifferentiated, consisted of sheets of dyshesive, ovoid cells with uniform, large vesicular nuclei, whereas 12 tumors contained combinations of differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma with undifferentiated components. Although most undifferentiated tumors had a monotonous cytologic appearance without prominent stroma, six showed focal nuclear pleomorphism and eight cases had variably sized zones of rhabdoid cells in a background of myxoid stroma. The tumors were frequently misdiagnosed; they received a wide range of diagnoses, including FIGO grade 2 or 3 endometrioid carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, high-grade sarcoma including endometrial stromal sarcoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, lymphoma, granulosa cell tumor and epithelioid sarcoma. Up to 86% of the cases showed focal, but strong keratin and/or epithelial membrane antigen staining, with CK18 being the most frequently positive keratin stain. They were predominantly negative for neuroendocrine markers, smooth muscle markers and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor. Mismatch repair protein expression by immunohistochemistry was evaluated in 17 cases, and 8 (47%) were abnormal (7 with loss of MLH1/PMS2 and 1 with MSH6 loss). Follow-up was available for 27 patients, although it was very short in many cases, ranging from 0.5 to 89

  7. Expression of placental protein 14 by the new endometrial cancer cell line MFE-280 in vitro and by endometrial carcinomas in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, R; Loos, S; Nia, A H; Kunzmann, R; Schulz, K D

    1998-01-01

    MFE-280 endometrial cancer cells express PP14 (placental protein 14) in vitro. PP14 is normally found in the secretory endometrium and in placental tissue. MFE-280 cells, which are tumorigenic in nude mice, were derived from a recurrent, poorly differentiated endometrial carcinoma. The cells were initially grown in suspension culture and later transferred to monolayer cultures. Karyotyping revealed near-diploidy with a complex heterogeneous aberration pattern. MFE-280 cells were positive for the cytokeratins 7, 8, 18 and 19 as well as for vimentin. The expression of PP14 in MFE-280 cells was demonstrated by immunochemistry and reverse transcriptase--polymerase chain reaction. PP14-mRNA was also detected in one out of five endometrial cancer specimen. In tumor tissue the expression of PP14 was not dependent on progestins.

  8. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in endometrial cancer: a targetable mechanism of immune resistance in mismatch repair-deficient and intact endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Mills, Anne; Zadeh, Sara; Sloan, Emily; Chinn, Zachary; Modesitt, Susan C; Ring, Kari L

    2018-03-20

    Mismatch repair-deficient endometrial carcinomas are optimal candidates for immunotherapy given their high neoantigen loads, robust lymphoid infiltrates, and frequent PD-L1 expression. However, co-opting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is just one mechanism that tumors can utilize to evade host immunity. Another immune modulatory molecule that has been demonstrated in endometrial carcinoma is indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We herein evaluate IDO expression in 60 endometrial carcinomas and assess results in relation to PD-L1 and mismatch repair status. IDO immunohistochemistry was performed on 60 endometrial carcinomas (20 Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated, 20 MLH1 promoter hypermethylated, and 20 mismatch repair-intact). Eight-five percent of endometrial carcinomas showed IDO tumor staining in >1% of cells. Twenty-five percent were positive in >25% of tumor cells and only 7% exceeded 50% staining. Mismatch repair-deficient cancers were more likely than mismatch repair-intact cancers to be >25% IDO-positive (35% vs. 5% p = 0.024). Differences were amplified when Lynch syndrome-associated cases were evaluated in isolation (50% Lynch syndrome-associated vs. 10% mismatch repair-intact and MLH1-hypermethylated, p = 0.001). Of the four cases showing >50% staining, three were Lynch syndrome-associated and one was MLH1-hypermethylated; no mismatch repair-intact cases had >50% staining. Forty-three percent of IDO-positive tumors were also positive for PD-L1, whereas only two cases showed tumoral PD-L1 in the absence of IDO. In summary, IDO expression is prevalent in endometrial carcinomas and diffuse staining is significantly more common in mismatch repair-deficient cancers, particularly Lynch syndrome-associated cases. Given that the majority of PD-L1 positive cancers also express IDO, synergistic combination therapy with anti-IDO and anti-PD1/PD-L1 may be relevant in this tumor type. Furthermore, anti-IDO therapy may be an option for a small subset of mismatch repair

  9. Failure to recognize preoperatively high-risk endometrial carcinoma is associated with a poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Di Cello, Annalisa; Rania, Erika; Zuccalà, Valeria; Venturella, Roberta; Mocciaro, Rita; Zullo, Fulvio; Morelli, Michele

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the misdiagnosis between endometrial biopsy and definitive surgical pathology and to assess whether the failure in recognizing preoperatively high-risk endometrial carcinoma (EC) can impact oncological outcomes. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate patients with EC diagnosed by preoperative endometrial biopsy who subsequently underwent surgical staging between 2006 and 2013 at our institution. In patients with a surgical diagnosis of high-risk EC, histotype and grade change between the endometrial biopsy and surgical specimen (discordance diagnosis) were evaluated and correlated to survival outcomes. Cox's regression model for multivariable analysis was used to evaluate the effect of several variables (age, stage, discordance in diagnosis, co-morbidities, frozen section, extensive surgical staging and adjuvant chemotherapy) on the survival rate. Data from 447 patients were reviewed. Among 109 women with surgical diagnosis of high-risk EC, 35 (32.1%) were preoperatively misdiagnosed. Of these 35 women, 24 (68.6%) cases were upgraded to grade 3, and 11 (3.4%) were upgraded to serous or clear cell type in the definitive specimen. The 5-year overall survival (OS; 70.2 vs. 86.8%; p=0.029), disease-specific survival (DSS; 72.5 vs. 88.2%; p=0.039) and recurrence free survival (RFS; 62.6 vs. 82.5%; p=0.024) were significantly lower in the high-risk EC patients who were preoperatively undiagnosed in the endometrial biopsy compared with patients with an appropriate preoperative histological diagnosis. Controlling for age, stage, co-morbidities, frozen section, extensive surgical staging and adjuvant chemotherapy, multivariable analysis revealed that discordance in diagnosis was associated with poorer survival outcomes. Failure to recognize preoperatively high-risk ECs is associated with worse outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. New models to predict depth of infiltration in endometrial carcinoma based on transvaginal sonography.

    PubMed

    De Smet, F; De Brabanter, J; Van den Bosch, T; Pochet, N; Amant, F; Van Holsbeke, C; Moerman, P; De Moor, B; Vergote, I; Timmerman, D

    2006-06-01

    Preoperative knowledge of the depth of myometrial infiltration is important in patients with endometrial carcinoma. This study aimed at assessing the value of histopathological parameters obtained from an endometrial biopsy (Pipelle de Cornier; results available preoperatively) and ultrasound measurements obtained after transvaginal sonography with color Doppler imaging in the preoperative prediction of the depth of myometrial invasion, as determined by the final histopathological examination of the hysterectomy specimen (the gold standard). We first collected ultrasound and histopathological data from 97 consecutive women with endometrial carcinoma and divided them into two groups according to surgical stage (Stages Ia and Ib vs. Stages Ic and higher). The areas (AUC) under the receiver-operating characteristics curves of the subjective assessment of depth of invasion by an experienced gynecologist and of the individual ultrasound parameters were calculated. Subsequently, we used these variables to train a logistic regression model and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) with linear and RBF (radial basis function) kernels. Finally, these models were validated prospectively on data from 76 new patients in order to make a preoperative prediction of the depth of invasion. Of all ultrasound parameters, the ratio of the endometrial and uterine volumes had the largest AUC (78%), while that of the subjective assessment was 79%. The AUCs of the blood flow indices were low (range, 51-64%). Stepwise logistic regression selected the degree of differentiation, the number of fibroids, the endometrial thickness and the volume of the tumor. Compared with the AUC of the subjective assessment (72%), prospective evaluation of the mathematical models resulted in a higher AUC for the LS-SVM model with an RBF kernel (77%), but this difference was not significant. Single morphological parameters do not improve the predictive power when compared with the subjective assessment

  11. Endometrial carcinoma in the baby boomer generation. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Elshaikh, Mohamed A; Cattaneo, Richard; Shah, Mira; Patel, Suketu; Mahan, Meredith; Buekers, Thomas; Siddiqui, Farzan

    2013-02-01

    Baby boomers (BB) entering retirement represent a significant burden on medical resources. The unique lifestyle characteristics engendered by the BB may lead to different endometrial cancer characteristics that bear understanding. We sought to characterize BB with endometrioid carcinoma after hysterectomy and compare the results to those of prior to the baby boomers (PB). After reviewing our prospectively maintained database of 1,450 patients with endometrial cancer, we identified 595 patients who underwent hysterectomy for 1988 International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology (FIGO) stage I-II uterine endometrioid carcinomas, who were born between 1926 and 1964. Their medical records were reviewed in this Institutional review board (IRB)-approved study. Patients with non-endometrioid carcinoma and those who received preoperative therapy were excluded. Patients were defined as BB (born 1946-1964) or PB (born in 1926-1945). The two groups were compared regarding patients' demographics, tumor characteristics and survival. Following a univariate analysis, multivariable modeling was carried out using Cox regression analysis. All patients underwent hysterectomy with a minimum of two years' follow-up. There were 234 patients (39%) in the BB group and 361 patients (61%) in the PB group. Median follow-up for the study cohort was 56 months. BB had higher body mass index (p=0.027), lower tumor grade (p=0.002), earlier FIGO stage (p=0.023), higher number of dissected lymph nodes (p=0.008), less lymphvascular space involvement (p=<0.034), less utilization of adjuvant therapy (p=<0.001), and younger age at diagnosis (p=0.002). However, there was no significant difference found between the BB and PB in regards to local control, disease-specific survival and overall survival. For the study cohort, FIGO stage and tumor grade were independent predictors of recurrence-free and disease-specific survival. There was a trend towards shorter overall survival for the PB women (p=0

  12. L1CAM: amending the "low-risk" category in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kommoss, Felix; Kommoss, Friedrich; Grevenkamp, Friederike; Bunz, Anne-Kathrin; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Fend, Falko; Brucker, Sara Y; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Schönfisch, Birgitt; Greif, Karen; Lax, Sigurd; Staebler, Annette; Kommoss, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Low- and intermediate-risk endometrial carcinomas have an excellent prognosis. Nonetheless, a small subgroup of such patients will experience unexpected relapse. Recently L1CAM was suggested to be a strong prognosticator in endometrial carcinoma. The focus of our study was on low- and intermediate-risk disease, where no or only limited adjuvant treatment is recommended according to current guidelines. Endometrial carcinomas of low, intermediate and high-intermediate risk according to published 2016 consensus guidelines were identified. The study was limited to cases with previous central pathology review focusing on histotype, depth of myometrial invasion, presence of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) and MELF pattern of invasion. Standard L1CAM immunohistochemistry was performed. Disease-specific uni- and multivariate survival analyses were calculated. A total of 344 cases were available for immunohistochemistry (low-risk: n = 250; intermediate-risk: n = 67; high-intermediate-risk: n = 27). L1CAM positivity rates were: 29/344 (8.4 %; all cases), 18/250 (7.2 %; low-risk), 6/67 (9.0 %; intermediate-risk) and 5/27 (18.5 %; high-intermediate-risk). Expression of L1CAM was independent of LVSI and MELF. L1CAM was a significant independent prognosticator for disease-specific survival with a hazard ratio of 5.98 [CI 1.50-22.14, p = 0.012]. Adverse prognostic significance of L1CAM positivity was maintained after low-risk subgroup analysis (5-year disease-specific survival rates 71.8 vs. 100 %, p < 0.0001). All four tumour-related deaths in the subgroup of low-risk disease occurred in patients with L1CAM-positive tumours. The current definition of "low-risk" in endometrial carcinoma should be amended. "Low-risk carcinomas" should be limited to L1CAM-negative tumours. L1CAM status will play a key role in future algorithms to tailor adjuvant treatment and patient follow-up strategies.

  13. Clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of myoinvasive patterns in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amălinei, Cornelia; Aignătoaei, Anda Maria; Balan, Raluca Anca; Giuşcă, Simona Eliza; Lozneanu, Ludmila; Avădănei, Elena Roxana; Căruntu, Irina Draga

    2018-01-01

    Endometrioid endometrial carcinoma has an overall good prognosis. However, variable five-year survival rates (92%-42%) have been reported in FIGO stage I, suggesting the involvement of other factors related to tumor biological behavior. These may be related to the role played by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells in endometrial carcinogenesis. In this context, our review highlights the prognostic significance of several types of myoinvasion in low grade, low stage endometrioid endometrial carcinoma, as a reflection of these molecular changes at the invasive front. According to recently introduced myoinvasive patterns, the diffusely infiltrating and microcystic, elongated, and fragmented (MELF) patterns show loss of hormone receptors, along with EMT and high expression of cancer stem cell markers, being associated with a poor prognosis. Additionally, MELF pattern exhibits a high incidence of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases. Conversely, the broad front pattern has a good prognosis and a low expression of EMT and stem cells markers. Similarly, the adenomyosis (AM)-like and adenoma malignum patterns of invasion are associated to a favorable prognosis, but nevertheless, they raise diagnostic challenges. AM-like pattern must be differentiated from carcinoma invasion of AM foci, while adenoma malignum pattern creates difficulties in appreciating the depth of myoinvasion and requires differential diagnosis with other conditions. Another pattern expecting its validation and prognostic significance value is the nodular fasciitis-like stroma and large cystic growth pattern. In practice, the knowledge of these patterns of myoinvasion may be valuable for the correct assessment of stage, may improve prognosis evaluation and may help identify molecules for future targeted therapies.

  14. The prognostic significance of preoperative serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels in endometrial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Tas, Emre E.; Yavuz, Ayse F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the associations between serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels and prognostic factors in patients with endometrial carcinomas. Additionally, we investigated the clinical utility of serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels in the selection of low-risk patients with endometrioid type, tumor size <2 cm, myometrial invasion ≤50%, and histological grade 1-2. Methods: Ninety-six patients, who were surgically staged at Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey, between 2007 and 2016, were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, clinical, and surgical characteristics were retrieved from the patients’ hospital records. A p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Fifteen patients had advanced (≥Stage II) disease, 14 patients had Type 2 histology, 20 patients had Grade 3 tumors, 23 patients had lymphovascular space invasion, and 10 patients had positive lymph node involvement. Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced (≥Stage II) disease, Type 2 histology, Grade 3 tumors, lymp°hovascular space invasion, and positive lymph node involvement (p<0.05). Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were also significantly correlated with tumor size (p=0.006). Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were significantly lower (95% confidence interval: 0.57−0.79; p=0.03) in low-risk patients compared to other endometrial carcinoma patients. A cutoff of 25.0 IU/mL was used to identify high-risk patients with a specificity of 100%. Conclusion: Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels significantly correlated with prognostic factors and were a useful diagnostic tool for endometrial carcinomas. PMID:29114696

  15. Immunohistochemical characterization of prototypical endometrial clear cell carcinoma--diagnostic utility of HNF-1β and oestrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lien N; Han, Guangming; McConechy, Melissa; Lau, Sherman; Chow, Christine; Gilks, C Blake; Huntsman, David G; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2014-03-01

    The great majority of ovarian clear cell carcinomas have a hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF-1β)-positive and oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative immunoprofile. However, the pattern of HNF-1β and ER immunostaining in clear cell carcinomas of the endometrium and the usefulness of this panel in distinguishing clear cell carcinoma from other histological types of endometrial carcinoma have yet to be well defined. We examined the immunostaining patterns of HNF-1β, ER and p53 in 15 morphologically classic pure endometrial clear cell carcinomas, and compared these patterns with 15 endometrioid and 15 serous carcinomas of the endometrium. We observed the presence of diffuse (>70%) moderate to strong nuclear HNF-1β staining and negative ER staining in 14 of 15 clear cell carcinomas, with the remaining case showing both diffuse strong nuclear HNF-1β staining and focal ER staining. In comparison, only one of 15 serous carcinomas and none of 15 endometrioid carcinomas showed a combination of diffuse moderate to strong HNF-1β nuclear staining and negative ER staining. Aberrant p53 immunostaining was observed in five of 15 (33%) clear cell carcinomas. Overall, our findings demonstrate that, similarly to the situation for the ovary, a diagnostic panel of HNF-1β and ER may be considered for separating clear cell carcinoma from endometrioid and serous carcinoma of the endometrium. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Reversible inhibition of lysine specific demethylase 1 is a novel anti-tumor strategy for poorly differentiated endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Emily R; Gajiwala, Snehal; Bearss, Jared; Sorna, Venkataswamy; Sharma, Sunil; Janat-Amsbury, Margit

    2014-10-09

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. Type II endometrial carcinoma is often poorly differentiated and patients diagnosed with Type II disease (~11%) are disproportionately represented in annual endometrial cancer deaths (48%). Recent genomic studies highlight mutations in chromatin regulators as drivers in Type II endometrial carcinoma tumorigenesis, suggesting the use of epigenetic targeted therapies could provide clinical benefit to these patients. We investigated the anti-tumor efficacy of the LSD1 inhibitor HCI2509 in two poorly differentiated Type II endometrial cancer cell lines AN3CA and KLE. The effects of HCI2509 on viability, proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, global histone methylation, LSD1 target gene induction, cell cycle, caspase activation and TUNEL were assayed. KLE cells were used in an orthotopic xenograft model to assess the anti-tumor activity of HCI2509. Both AN3CA and KLE cells were sensitive to HCI2509 treatment with IC50s near 500 nM for cell viability. Inhibition of LSD1 with HCI2509 caused decreased proliferation and anchorage independent growth in soft agar, elevated global histone methylation, and perturbed the cell cycle in both cell lines. These effects were largely dose-dependent. HCI2509 treatment also caused apoptotic cell death. Orthotopic implantation of KLE cells resulted in slow-growing and diffuse tumors throughout the abdomen. Tumor burden was distributed log-normally. Treatment with HCI2509 resulted 5/9 tumor regressions such that treatment and regressions were significantly associated (p=0.034). Our findings demonstrate the anti-cancer properties of the LSD1 inhibitor HCI2509 on poorly differentiated endometrial carcinoma cell lines, AN3CA and KLE. HCI2509 showed single-agent efficacy in orthotopic xenograft studies. Continued studies are needed to preclinically validate LSD1 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for endometrial carcinoma.

  17. Clinicopathological comparison of colorectal and endometrial carcinomas in patients with Lynch-like syndrome versus patients with Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mas-Moya, Jenny; Dudley, Beth; Brand, Randall E; Thull, Darcy; Bahary, Nathan; Nikiforova, Marina N; Pai, Reetesh K

    2015-11-01

    Screening for DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas identifies patients at risk for Lynch syndrome. Some patients with MMR-deficient tumors have no evidence of a germline mutation and have been described as having Lynch-like syndrome. We compared the clinicopathological features of colorectal and endometrial carcinomas in patients with Lynch-like syndrome and Lynch syndrome. Universal screening identified 356 (10.6%) of 3352 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 72 (33%) of 215 patients with endometrial carcinoma with deficient DNA MMR. Sixty-six patients underwent germline mutation analysis with 45 patients (68%) having evidence of a germline MMR gene mutation confirming Lynch syndrome and 21 patients (32%) having Lynch-like syndrome with no evidence of a germline mutation. Most patients with Lynch-like syndrome had carcinoma involving the right colon compared to patients with Lynch syndrome (93% versus 45%; P < .002). All patients with colorectal carcinomas demonstrating isolated loss of MSH6 expression had Lynch syndrome confirmed by germline mutation analysis. Synchronous or metachronous Lynch syndrome-associated carcinoma was more frequently identified in patients with Lynch syndrome compared to Lynch-like syndrome (38% versus 7%; P = .04). There were no significant differences in clinicopathological variables between patients with Lynch-like syndrome and Lynch syndrome with endometrial carcinoma. In summary, 32% of patients with MMR deficiency concerning Lynch syndrome will have Lynch-like syndrome. Our results demonstrate that patients with Lynch-like syndrome are more likely to have right-sided colorectal carcinoma, less likely to have synchronous or metachronous Lynch syndrome-associated carcinoma, and less likely to demonstrate isolated loss of MSH6 expression within their tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Histotype-genotype correlation in 36 high-grade endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lien N; McConechy, Melissa K; Köbel, Martin; Han, Guangming; Rouzbahman, Marjan; Davidson, Ben; Irving, Julie; Ali, Rola H; Leung, Sam; McAlpine, Jessica N; Oliva, Esther; Nucci, Marisa R; Soslow, Robert A; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2013-09-01

    Endometrioid, serous, and clear cell carcinomas are the major types of endometrial carcinoma. Histologic distinction between these different tumor types can be difficult in high-grade cases, in which significant interobserver diagnostic disagreement exists. Endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas frequently harbor ARID1A and/or PTEN mutations. Serous carcinoma acquires TP53 mutations/inactivation at onset, with a significant subset harboring an additional mutation in PPP2R1A. This study examines the correlation between tumor histotype and genotype in 36 previously genotyped high-grade endometrial carcinomas. This included 23 endometrioid/clear cell genotype and 13 serous genotype tumors. Eight subspecialty pathologists reviewed representative online slides and rendered diagnoses before and after receiving p53, p16, and estrogen receptor immunostaining results. κ statistics for histotype-genotype concordance were calculated. The average κ values for histotype-genotype concordance was 0.55 (range, 0.30 to 0.67) on the basis of morphologic evaluation alone and it improved to 0.68 (range, 0.54 to 0.81) after immunophenotype consideration (P<0.001). Genotype-incompatible diagnoses were rendered by at least 2 pathologists in 12 of 36 cases (33%) (3 cases by 2/8 pathologists, 2 by 3/8, 2 by 4/8, 3 by 6/8, 1 by 7/8, and 1 case by 8/8 pathologists). Six of the 12 were endometrioid/clear cell genotype tumors, and the other 6 were serous genotype tumors. The histopathologic features associated with histotype-genotype-discordant cases were reviewed, and specific diagnostic recommendations were made to improve concordance. This study found that although the majority of morphologic diagnoses are genotype concordant, genotype-incompatible diagnoses are made in a significant subset of cases. Judicious use and interpretation of p53 immunohistochemistry in selected scenarios can improve histotype-genotype concordance.

  19. L1CAM Expression is Related to Non-Endometrioid Histology, and Prognostic for Poor Outcome in Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geels, Yvette P; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; Gordon, Bart B M; Fogel, Mina; Altevogt, Peter; Masadah, Rina; Bulten, Johan; van Kempen, Léon C; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2016-10-01

    The majority of endometrial carcinomas are classified as Type I endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs) and have a good prognosis. Type II non-endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (NEECs) have a significant worse outcome. Yet, 20 % of the EECs are associated with an unexplained poor outcome. The aim of this study was to determine if L1CAM expression, a recently reported biomarker for aggressive tumor behavior in endometrial carcinoma, was associated with clinicopathological features of EECs. A total of 103 patients diagnosed as EEC at the Radboud University Medical Centre, based on the pathology report were selected. L1CAM status of these tumors was determined, and histologic slides were reviewed by two expert pathologists. L1CAM-positivity was observed in 17 % (18/103). Review of the diagnostic slides revealed that 11 out of these 18 L1CAM-positive tumors (61 %) contained a serous- or mixed carcinoma component that was not initially mentioned in the pathology report. L1CAM-expression was associated with advanced age, poor tumor grade, and lymphovascular space invasion. A worse five year progression free survival rate was observed for patients with L1CAM-positive tumors (55.6 % for the L1CAM-positive group, compared to 83.3 % for the L1CAM-negative group P = 0.01). L1CAM expression carries prognostic value for histologically classified EEC and supports the identification of tumors with a NEEC component.

  20. Cyclin D1 is significantly associated with stage of tumor and predicts poor survival in endometrial carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Khabaz, Mohamad Nidal; Abdelrahman, Amer Shafie; Butt, Nadeem Shafique; Al-Maghrabi, Basim; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah

    2017-10-01

    Cyclin D1 overexpression has been described to have oncogenic role and association with diagnosis, prognosis and survival in various tumors. This study will describe the immunohistochemical phenotype of cyclin D1, and investigate the correlation between these patterns of expression and clinicopathological parameters of endometrial carcinomas, to conclude the clinical relevance of cyclin D1 expression in the evolution of endometrial neoplasms. This study employed 101 endometrial tissue samples which include 71 endometrial carcinomas and thirty normal and benign endometrium cases. All these tissue samples were used in the assembly of tissue microarrays which have been utilized afterward in immunohistochemistry staining to detect cyclin D1 expression. Forty (56.3%) cases of endometrial carcinomas showed brown nuclear expression of cyclin D1 including 36 (61%) cases of endometrioid carcinomas, and 3 (33.3%) cases of serous carcinomas. Twenty three (76.6%) cases of control group demonstrated nuclear expression. High score cyclin D1 immunohistochemical staining has been significantly linked with patient age (P=0.0001). Large proportion of high score cyclin D1 immunohistochemical staining was observed in females who are <40years of age while high proportions of negative staining were observed in older age groups. Histologic type of tissue was also significantly related to cyclin D1 immunohistochemical staining (P-value=0.0001), high staining is more common in normal proliferative and secretory endometrium while serous carcinoma is more prevalent with negative staining. Stage of tumor was significantly associated with cyclin D1 immunohistochemical staining (P-value=0.029), proportion of stage III and IV are higher in negative cyclin D1 immunostaining. Significantly higher proportion of high score cyclin D1 immunostaining is observed in controls while higher proportion of negative cyclin D1 immunostaining is observed among carcinoma cases (P-value=0.0001). No significant

  1. Relationship between PTEN, DNA mismatch repair, and tumor histotype in endometrial carcinoma: retained positive expression of PTEN preferentially identifies sporadic non-endometrioid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Bojana; Barkoh, Bedia A; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Broaddus, Russell R

    2013-10-01

    Loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) expression and microsatellite instability are two of the more common molecular alterations in endometrial carcinoma. From the published literature, it is controversial as to whether there is a relationship between these different molecular mechanisms. Therefore, a cohort of 187 pure endometrioid and non-endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, carefully characterized as to clinical and pathological features, was examined for PTEN sequence abnormalities and the immunohistochemical expression of PTEN and the DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. MLH1 methylation analysis was performed when tumors had loss of MLH1 protein. Mismatch repair protein loss was more frequent in endometrioid carcinomas compared with non-endometrioid carcinomas, a difference primarily attributable to the presence of MLH1 methylation in a greater proportion of endometrioid tumors. Among the non-endometrioid group, mixed endometrioid/non-endometrioid carcinomas were the histotype that most commonly had loss of a mismatch repair protein. In endometrioid tumors, the frequency of PTEN loss measured by immunohistochemistry and mutation did not differ significantly between the mismatch repair protein intact or mismatch repair protein loss groups, suggesting that PTEN loss is independent of mismatch protein repair status in this group. However, in non-endometrioid carcinomas, both intact positive PTEN immunohistochemical expression and PTEN wild type were highly associated with retained positive expression of mismatch repair proteins in the tumor. Relevant to screening endometrial cancers for Lynch Syndrome, an initial PTEN immunohistochemistry determination may be able to replace the use of four mismatch repair immunohistochemical markers in 63% of patients with non-endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. Therefore, PTEN immunohistochemistry, in combination with tumor histotype, is a useful adjunct in the clinical evaluation of endometrial

  2. Relationship between PTEN, DNA Mismatch Repair, and Tumor Histotype in Endometrial Carcinoma: Retained Positive Expression of PTEN Preferentially Identifies Sporadic Non-Endometrioid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, Bojana; Barkoh, Bedia A.; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Broaddus, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) expression and microsatellite instability are two of the more common molecular alterations in endometrial carcinoma. From the published literature, it is controversial as to whether there is a relationship between these different molecular mechanisms. Therefore, a cohort of 187 pure endometrioid and non-endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, carefully characterized as to clinical and pathological features, was examined for PTEN sequence abnormalities and the immunohistochemical expression of PTEN and the DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. MLH1 methylation analysis was performed when tumors had loss of MLH1 protein. Mismatch repair protein loss was more frequent in endometrioid carcinomas compared to non-endometrioid carcinomas, a difference primarily attributable to the presence of MLH1 methylation in a greater proportion of endometrioid tumors. Among the non-endometrioid group, mixed endometrioid/non-endometrioid carcinomas were the histotype that most commonly had loss of a mismatch repair protein. In endometrioid tumors, the frequency of PTEN loss measured by immunohistochemistry and mutation did not differ significantly between the mismatch repair protein intact or mismatch repair protein loss groups, suggesting that PTEN loss is independent of mismatch protein repair status in this group. However, in non-endometrioid carcinomas, both intact positive PTEN immunohistochemical expression and PTEN wild type were highly associated with retained positive expression of mismatch repair proteins in the tumor. Relevant to screening endometrial cancers for Lynch Syndrome, an initial PTEN immunohistochemistry determination may be able to replace the use of four mismatch repair immunohistochemical markers in 63% of patients with non-endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. Therefore, PTEN immunohistochemistry, in combination with tumor histotype, is a useful adjunct in the clinical evaluation of endometrial

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in local staging of endometrial carcinoma: diagnostic performance, pitfalls, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zandrino, Franco; La Paglia, Ernesto; Musante, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in local staging of endometrial carcinoma, and to review the results and pitfalls described in the literature. Thirty women with a histological diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Unenhanced T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced Ti-weighted sequences were obtained. Hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy was performed in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were calculated for the detection of deep myometrial and cervical infiltration. For deep myometrial infiltration T2-weighted sequences reached a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 76%, PPV of 73%, NVP of 87%, and accuracy of 80%, while contrast-enhanced scans reached a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 80%, PPV of 82%, NPV of 89%, and accuracy of 85%. For cervical infiltration T2-weighted sequences reached a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 88%, PPV of 50%, NPV of 96%, and accuracy of 87%, while contrast-enhanced scans reached a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 94%, PPV of 75%, NPV of 100%, and accuracy of 95%. Unenhanced and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance allows accurate assessment of myometrial and cervical infiltration. Information provided by magnetic resonance imaging can define prognosis and management.

  4. Endometrial Metastasis from Ductal Breast Carcinoma: A Case Report with Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Maryam; Nili, Fatemeh; Tabibian, Elnaz

    2018-04-27

    BACKGROUND There are few reports of breast cancer cases with uterine metastases; among them, myometrium is more frequently involved than endometrium. The majority of breast cancer metastases to endometrium are lobular type, and there have been only 5 reported cases of ductal type since 1984. Here, we describe a new case of invasive ductal carcinoma with metastases to endometrium and isolated presentation of abnormal uterine bleeding, in addition to reviewing the existing literature on other similar cases. CASE REPORT The patient was a 51-year-old Persian woman with no remarkable past medical or family history of cancer, who presented with a 6-month complaint of menorrhagia to our gynecology clinic. Diagnostic studies including trans-vaginal ultrasonography, pathological examination of endometrial curettage specimen, immunohistochemistry findings, and X-plane and magnetic resonance mammography, and breast core-needle biopsy revealed invasive ductal breast carcinoma as the origin of the endometrial metastasis. CONCLUSIONS Abnormal uterine bleeding in a premenopausal patient should alert clinicians to the possibility of secondary as well as primary neoplasms. It is necessary to differentiate a metastatic tumor from a primary one, since the treatment and prognosis are completely different.

  5. Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Definition of Risk Groups in Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sorbe, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim was to evaluate predictive and prognostic factors in a large consecutive series of endometrial carcinomas and to discuss pre- and postoperative risk groups based on these factors. Material and Methods. In a consecutive series of 4,543 endometrial carcinomas predictive and prognostic factors were analyzed with regard to recurrence rate and survival. The patients were treated with primary surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. Two preoperative and three postoperative risk groups were defined. DNA ploidy was included in the definitions. Eight predictive or prognostic factors were used in multivariate analyses. Results. The overall recurrence rate of the complete series was 11.4%. Median time to relapse was 19.7 months. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, FIGO grade, myometrial infiltration, and DNA ploidy were independent and statistically predictive factors with regard to recurrence rate. The 5-year overall survival rate was 73%. Tumor stage was the single most important factor with FIGO grade on the second place. DNA ploidy was also a significant prognostic factor. In the preoperative risk group definitions three factors were used: histology, FIGO grade, and DNA ploidy. Conclusions. DNA ploidy was an important and significant predictive and prognostic factor and should be used both in preoperative and postoperative risk group definitions. PMID:23209924

  6. Synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas: predictors of risk and associations with survival and tumor expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Linda E; Rambau, Peter F; Koziak, Jennifer M; Steed, Helen; Köbel, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Synchronous endometrial and ovarian tumors (SEOs) are diagnosed in 10% of ovarian cancer patients. We examined predictors of SEOs, evaluated associations of SEOs with survival and characterized ovarian tumor profiles using immunohistochemistry. We included patients with endometrioid (n = 180) and clear cell (n = 165) ovarian carcinoma identified from the Alberta Cancer Registry between 1979 and 2010 for whom we abstracted medical records and constructed tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). A concurrent diagnosis of endometrial cancer was obtained from the medical chart. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Protein expression in ovarian tumors of patients with and without SEOs was evaluated using Fisher's exact test. Comparing 52 patients with SEO tumors to 293 patients with endometrioid or clear cell ovarian carcinomas, endometriosis at the ovary (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.23-0.87, p = 0.02) was the strongest predictor of decreased risk in multivariable models. Premenopausal status (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 0.92-5.13, p = 0.08) and lower pre-treatment CA125 levels (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.02-1.32, p = 0.09) showed weaker associations. There were no significant differences in survival between patients with or without SEO tumors. More patients with SEO tumors compared to endometrioid ovarian carcinoma were deficient in MLH1, PMS2 and PTEN (p ≤ 0.03). Endometriosis may not be the mechanism by which SEO cancers arise. Altered tumor oncoprotein expression between women with and without SEOs indicates important biological differences although this did not translate into prognostic differences.

  7. Relationships of Tubal Ligation to Endometrial Carcinoma Stage and Mortality in the NRG Oncology/ Gynecologic Oncology Group 210 Trial.

    PubMed

    Felix, Ashley S; Brinton, Louise A; McMeekin, D Scott; Creasman, William T; Mutch, David; Cohn, David E; Walker, Joan L; Moore, Richard G; Downs, Levi S; Soslow, Robert A; Zaino, Richard; Sherman, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Stage is a critical determinant of treatment among endometrial carcinoma patients; understanding patterns of tumor spread may suggest approaches to improve staging. Specifically, the importance of exfoliation of endometrial carcinoma cells through the fallopian tubes into the peritoneum is ill defined. We assessed the hypothesis that tubal ligation (TL), which should impede transtubal passage of cells, is associated with lower endometrial carcinoma stage at presentation and, consequently, lower mortality. The NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 210 Trial included 4489 endometrial carcinoma patients who completed a risk factor questionnaire that included TL history. Pathology data were derived from clinical reports and central review. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between TL with stage and peritoneal metastasis, overall and by tumor subtype. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for TL and mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided. Compared with stage I, TL was inversely associated with stage III (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.78) and stage IV carcinomas (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.24) overall and among individual tumor subtypes. TL was inversely related to peritoneal metastasis overall (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.68) and among serous carcinomas (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.68). In multivariable models unadjusted for stage, TL was associated with lower endometrial carcinoma-specific mortality (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.91); however, adjustment for stage eliminated the survival advantage. Similar relationships with all-cause mortality were observed. TL is associated with lower stage and mortality among women with aggressive endometrial carcinomas, suggesting transtubal spread is clinically important. Future studies should evaluate whether detection of intraluminal tumor cells is prognostically relevant. Published

  8. Irregular vascular pattern by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and high serum Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein level predict poor outcome after successful radiofrequency ablation in patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takada, Hitomi; Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Yasui, Yutaka; Nakakuki, Natsuko; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Shoko; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Itakura, Jun; Takahashi, Yuka; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2016-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is considered the most effective treatment for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients unsuitable for resection. However, poor outcome after RFA has occasionally been reported worldwide. To predict such an outcome, we investigated imaging findings using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid and serum tumor markers before RFA. This study included 176 early-stage HCC patients who had initially achieved successful RFA. Patients were examined using CEUS; their levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin before RFA were measured. Sonazoid provided parenchyma-specific contrast imaging and facilitated tumor vascular architecture imaging through maximum intensity projection (MIP). Kaplan-Meier analysis examined cumulative rates of local tumor progression, intrasubsegmental recurrence, and survival; factors associated with these were determined with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Local tumor progression (n = 15), intrasubsegmental recurrence (n = 46), and death (n = 18) were observed. Irregular pattern in MIP classification and serum AFP-L3 level (>10%) before RFA were identified as independent risk factors for local tumor progression and intrasubsegmental recurrence. These two factors were independently associated with poor survival after RFA (irregular pattern in MIP: hazard ratio, (HR) = 8.26; 95% confidence interval, (CI) = 2.24-30.3; P = 0.002 and AFP-L3 > 10%: HR = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.09-7.94; P = 0.033). Irregular MIP pattern by CEUS and high level of serum AFP-L3 were independent risk factors for poor outcome after successful RFA. The Patients with these findings should be considered as special high-risk group in early-stage HCC. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [The Role of 5-Aza-CdR on Methylation of Promoter in RASSF1A Gene in Endometrial Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-ping; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xue-ping; Liu, Hui

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effect of demethylating drug 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) on methtylation status of the Ras-association domain familylA gene (RASSF1A) in human endometrial carcinoma. Randomly'assign the human endometrial carcinoma cell line HEC-1-B into groups and use demethylating drug 5-Aza-CdR of different concentration to treat them. Then Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), real-time PCR, Western blot, TUNEL technology were used to analyze methylation status of RASSF1A promoter CpG islands, RASSF1A mRNA expression, RASSF1A protein expression and apoptosis of HEC-1-B cell. High DNA methylation in RASSF1A gene promoter region, low RASSF1A mRNA level and protein expression and out of control of human endometrial carcinoma cell HEC-1-B apoptosis were observed. 5-Aza-CdR of different concentration could reverse RASSF1A gene's methylation status, recover the expression of mRNA and protein, and control the growth of HEC-1-B by inducing apoptosis. Aberrant methylation of RASSF1A in endometrial cancer as a therapeutic target, demethylating agent 5-Aza-CdR could be an effective way of gene therapy.

  10. Utility of α-methylacyl-coenzyme-A racemase (p504s) immunohistochemistry in distinguishing endometrial clear cell carcinomas from serous and endometrioid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Parkash, Vinita; Gwin, Katja; Hanley, Krisztina Z; Jarboe, Elke A; Liang, Sharon X; Quick, Charles M; Zheng, Wenxin; Rawish, Kojo R; Hecht, Jonathan L; Desouki, Mohamed M

    2013-12-01

    The expression of α-methylacyl-coenzyme-A racemase (AMACR) has previously been reported in 75% to 100% of urethral/bladder clear cell carcinomas, tumors that are known to display broad phenotypic overlap with their identically named müllerian counterparts. Herein, we assess the utility of AMACR in distinguishing endometrial clear cell carcinomas (CCCs) from endometrial serous carcinomas (ESCs) and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (EECs). A total of 111 endometrial carcinomas in a tissue microarray, including 49 CCCs, 13 ESCs, and 49 EECs, were assessed for AMACR immunoreactivity, with results scored semiquantitatively (scores 0, 1+, 2+, 3+ for 0%, 1%-5%, 6%-50%, >50% immunoreactive cells, respectively). Fifty (45%) of the 111 carcinomas were AMACR positive, with the following score distribution: CCC: 0 (n = 12), 1+ (n = 12), 2+ (n = 3), 3+ (n = 22); EEC: 0 (n = 38), 1+ (n = 4), 2+ (n = 4), 3+ (n = 3); ESC: 0 (n = 11), 1+ (n = 1), 2+ (n = 0), 3+ (n = 1). AMACR expression was significantly more frequent in CCC (75%) than in ESC (15%) or EEC (22%); P < .0001. The sensitivity and specificity of AMACR expression in classifying a carcinoma as CCC were 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.86) and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.66-0.88), respectively, with an odds ratio of 11.62 (95% CI, 5-28; P < .001) and an area under the curve of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68-0.88). These findings indicate that AMACR expression is strongly associated with CCC and displays a relatively robust diagnostic test performance. However, its practical utility may be limited by the focal nature of its expression in 32% of the AMACR-positive CCC cases as well as its expression in 15% to 22% of the non-CCC histotypes. © 2013.

  11. PIK3CA missense mutation is associated with unfavorable outcome in grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma but not in serous endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, John B; Nelson, Gregg S; Ghatage, Prafull; Morris, Don; Duggan, Máire A; Lee, Cheng-Han; Doll, Corinne M; Köbel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the outcome association of PIK3CA mutational status within histological types of rigorously classified high-grade endometrial carcinomas. We assessed PIK3CA mutational status in exon 9 and exon 20 hot spots by Sanger sequencing of DNA derived from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue of 57 grade 3 endometrioid, 26 serous, 11 clear cell and 5 dedifferentiated carcinomas. We correlated PIK3CA mutation status with clinicopathological and other molecular parameters. Univariate and multivariate disease specific survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. PIK3CA exon 9 or exon 20 missense mutations were identified in 20 of 99 (20%) high-grade endometrial carcinomas without significant difference across histological types (p=0.22). Presence of PIK3CA exon 9 or exon 20 missense mutations was associated with shorter disease specific survival within grade 3 endometrioid (p=0.0029) but not endometrial serous (p=0.57) carcinoma based on univariate analysis. Within grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma, PIK3CA exon 9 or exon 20 missense mutations were more commonly observed in cases that were deficient for mismatch repair protein expression (p=0.0058) and showed loss of ARID1A expression (p=0.037). PIK3CA exon 9 or exon 20 missense mutations are present across all histological types of high-grade endometrial carcinomas but a significant outcome association is only seen in grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma, suggesting a greater biological importance in this tumor type. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hereditary Syndromes Manifesting as Endometrial Carcinoma: How Can Pathological Features Aid Risk Assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Adele; Ngeow, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecological tumor worldwide. It can be the presenting malignancy, acting as the harbinger, of an undiagnosed hereditary syndrome. Up to 50% of females with Lynch syndrome present in this manner. Differentiation between Lynch, Muir-Torre, and Cowden syndromes can at times be challenging due to the overlapping features. Our review emphasizes on the strengths, pitfalls, and limitations of microscopic features as well as immunohistochemical and polymerase chain reaction- (PCR-) based tests used by laboratories to screen for DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and PTEN gene mutations in patients to enable a more targeted and cost effective approach in the use of confirmatory gene mutational analysis tests. This is crucial towards initiating timely and appropriate surveillance measures for the patient and affected family members. We also review the evidence postulating on the possible inclusion of uterine serous carcinoma as part of the spectrum of malignancies seen in hereditary breast and ovarian carcinoma syndrome, driven by mutations in BRCA1/2. PMID:26161390

  13. [The Study of Decitabine Effect on the Endometrial Carcinoma Xenografted in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran-Hong; Wang, Xue-Ping; Liu, Hui

    2016-11-01

    To explore the effect of the demethylation drug 5-Aza-CdR on endometrial carcinoma xenografted in nude mice. Randomly assigned the mice into decitabine (AZA),cisplatin (DDP),medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA),AZA+DDP,AZA+MPA,DDP+MPA and model groups (three in each group) after building the models of xenografted tumor by transplanting the HEC-1B cells on nude mice,and dealt them respectively with corresponding drugs (1 μg/g,single or combination) in the experiment groups and normal saline in model group (injected per 3 d,8 injections in total).Then the tumor inhibitory rates in different groups were calculated.The methylation and protein expression of RASSF1A gene was estimated by methylation specific PCR (MSP) and Western blot respectively,and apoptosis situation of carcinoma cell was estimated by tunel. Inhibitory rate in AZA+DDP group was the highest,and the lowest was AZA group. RASSF1A gene promoter region methylation levels of AZA,AZA+DDP and AZA+MPA groups significantly reduced and showed obvious demethylation stripes while other groups mainly showed the methylation stripes.The differences of RASSF1A protein expression between AZA,AZA+DDP and AZA+MPA groups were not statistical significant ( P >0.05),but the three were higher than model group ( P <0.05);there was no statistically significant difference respectively in the DDP,MPA,DDP+ MPA groups compared with that of model group ( P >0.05).In the comparison of apoptosis index,model group was the lowest,followed by the three single medicine groups,and the highest was three combination groups ( P <0.05). Demethylation drug 5-Aza-CdR in endometrial cancer treatment has a great potential clinical application value by reversing the abnormal methylation of RASSF1A gene,restoring biological functions of RASSF1A protein and strengthening the efficacy of DDP and MPA.

  14. Endometrial Serous Carcinoma With Clear-Cell Change: Frequency and Immunohistochemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Nosaibah; Qarmali, Morad; Fadare, Oluwole

    2018-04-01

    The diagnostic distinction between endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) and endometrial clear-cell carcinoma (CCC) may occasionally be problematic, and one potentially contributing factor is the finding of clear cells in otherwise classic cases of ESC. This study aimed to define the frequency of this finding and comparatively assessed the immunophenotype of the clear cells. A review of 56 cases of ESC identified 8 (14.28%) with clear cells, representing 1% to 20% (median 7.5) of tumoral volume in these cases. In only 3 cases were clear cells discernible at low (×20) magnification. There was no significant difference in stage distribution or age between ESC patients with and without clear cells. The immunophenotypes of ESC-associated clear cells (group 1) were compared with foci of conventional ESC on another tissue block within the same case (group 2; n = 8) as well as a randomly selected cohort of CCC cases (group 3; n = 8). Groups 1 and 2 showed no significant differences regarding p53, ER, PR, Napsin-A, p504S, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β) expression, or regarding mitotic indices or Ki67 proliferation rate. In contrast, group 1 cases showed an immunophenotypic profile that was notably different from that of group 3 cases, with the former showing statistically significantly higher/more frequent expression of ER, PR, Ki67, and p53 and lower/less frequent expression of Napsin-A, p504S, and HNF1β. We conclude that clear-cell change is seen in 14% of ESCs and is discernible at low magnification in only 5%; these areas show an immunophenotype that is essentially identical to the associated background conventional ESC and are phenotypically dissimilar to CCC.

  15. Loss of switch/sucrose non-fermenting complex protein expression is associated with dedifferentiation in endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Karnezis, Anthony N; Hoang, Lien N; Coatham, Mackenzie; Ravn, Sarah; Almadani, Noorah; Tessier-Cloutier, Basile; Irving, Julie; Meng, Bo; Li, Xiaodong; Chow, Christine; McAlpine, Jessica; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Mao, Tsui-Lien; Djordjevic, Bojana; Soslow, Robert A; Huntsman, David G; Blake Gilks, C; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma is an aggressive type of endometrial cancer that contains a mix of low-grade endometrioid and undifferentiated carcinoma components. We performed targeted sequencing of eight dedifferentiated carcinomas and identified somatic frameshift/nonsense mutations in SMARCA4, a core ATPase of the switch/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF) complex, in the undifferentiated components of four tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the loss of SMARCA4 in the undifferentiated component of these four SMARCA4-mutated cases, whereas the corresponding low-grade endometrioid component showed retained SMARCA4 expression. An expanded survey of other members of the SWI/SNF complex showed SMARCB1 loss in the undifferentiated component of two SMARCA4-intact tumors, and all SMARCA4- or SMARCB1-deficient tumors showed concomitant loss of expression of SMARCA2. We subsequently examined the expression of SMARCA2, SMARCA4, and SMARCB1 in an additional set of 22 centrally reviewed dedifferentiated carcinomas and 31 grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas. Combining the results from the index and the expansion set, 15 of 30 (50%) of the dedifferentiated carcinomas examined showed either concurrent SMARCA4 and SMARCA2 loss (37%) or concurrent SMARCB1 and SMARCA2 loss (13%) in the undifferentiated component. The loss of SMARCA4 or SMARCB1 was mutually exclusive. All 31 grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas showed intact expression of these core SWI/SNF proteins. The majority (73%) of the SMARCA4/SMARCA2-deficient and half of SMARCB1/SMARCA2-deficient undifferentiated component developed in a mismatch repair-deficient molecular context. The observed spatial association between SWI/SNF protein loss and histologic dedifferentiation suggests that inactivation of these core SWI/SNF proteins may contribute to the development of dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma.

  16. Circulating human papillomavirus DNA detected using droplet digital PCR in the serum of patients diagnosed with early stage human papillomavirus-associated invasive carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Becette, Véronique; Campitelli, Maura; Calméjane, Marie-Ange; Lappartient, Emmanuelle; Ruff, Evelyne; Saada, Stéphanie; Holmes, Allyson; Bellet, Dominique; Sastre-Garau, Xavier

    2016-10-01

    Specific human papillomavirus genotypes are associated with most ano-genital carcinomas and a large subset of oro-pharyngeal carcinomas. Human papillomavirus DNA is thus a tumour marker that can be detected in the blood of patients for clinical monitoring. However, data concerning circulating human papillomavirus DNA in cervical cancer patients has provided little clinical value, due to insufficient sensitivity of the assays used for the detection of small sized tumours. Here we took advantage of the sensitive droplet digital PCR method to identify circulating human papillomavirus DNA in patients with human papillomavirus-associated carcinomas. A series of 70 serum specimens, taken at the time of diagnosis, between 2002 and 2013, were retrospectively analyzed in patients with human papillomavirus-16 or human papillomavirus-18-associated carcinomas, composed of 47 cases from the uterine cervix, 15 from the anal canal and 8 from the oro-pharynx. As negative controls, 18 serum samples from women with human papillomavirus-16-associated high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were also analyzed. Serum samples were stored at -80°C (27 cases) or at -20°C (43 cases). DNA was isolated from 200 µl of serum or plasma and droplet digital PCR was performed using human papillomavirus-16 E7 and human papillomavirus-18 E7 specific primers. Circulating human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 61/70 (87%) serum samples from patients with carcinoma and in no serum from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The positivity rate increased to 93% when using only serum stored at -80°C. Importantly, the two patients with microinvasive carcinomas in this series were positive. Quantitative evaluation showed that circulating viral DNA levels in cervical cancer patients were related to the clinical stage and tumour size, ranging from 55 ± 85 copies/ml (stage I) to 1774 ± 3676 copies/ml (stage IV). Circulating human papillomavirus DNA is present in patients with

  17. Circulating human papillomavirus DNA detected using droplet digital PCR in the serum of patients diagnosed with early stage human papillomavirus‐associated invasive carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Becette, Véronique; Campitelli, Maura; Calméjane, Marie‐Ange; Lappartient, Emmanuelle; Ruff, Evelyne; Saada, Stéphanie; Holmes, Allyson; Bellet, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Specific human papillomavirus genotypes are associated with most ano‐genital carcinomas and a large subset of oro‐pharyngeal carcinomas. Human papillomavirus DNA is thus a tumour marker that can be detected in the blood of patients for clinical monitoring. However, data concerning circulating human papillomavirus DNA in cervical cancer patients has provided little clinical value, due to insufficient sensitivity of the assays used for the detection of small sized tumours. Here we took advantage of the sensitive droplet digital PCR method to identify circulating human papillomavirus DNA in patients with human papillomavirus‐associated carcinomas. A series of 70 serum specimens, taken at the time of diagnosis, between 2002 and 2013, were retrospectively analyzed in patients with human papillomavirus‐16 or human papillomavirus‐18‐associated carcinomas, composed of 47 cases from the uterine cervix, 15 from the anal canal and 8 from the oro‐pharynx. As negative controls, 18 serum samples from women with human papillomavirus‐16‐associated high‐grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were also analyzed. Serum samples were stored at −80°C (27 cases) or at −20°C (43 cases). DNA was isolated from 200 µl of serum or plasma and droplet digital PCR was performed using human papillomavirus‐16 E7 and human papillomavirus‐18 E7 specific primers. Circulating human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 61/70 (87%) serum samples from patients with carcinoma and in no serum from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The positivity rate increased to 93% when using only serum stored at −80°C. Importantly, the two patients with microinvasive carcinomas in this series were positive. Quantitative evaluation showed that circulating viral DNA levels in cervical cancer patients were related to the clinical stage and tumour size, ranging from 55 ± 85 copies/ml (stage I) to 1774 ± 3676 copies/ml (stage IV). Circulating human

  18. Tazemetostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-02

    Grade 1 Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Grade 2 Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  19. Evaluation of the dosimetric impact of applying flattening filter-free beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage upper thoracic carcinoma of oesophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wuzhe; Lin, Zhixiong; Yang, Zhining

    2015-06-15

    Flattening filter-free (FFF) radiation beams have recently become clinically available on modern linear accelerators in radiation therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the dosimetric impact of using FFF beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for early-stage upper thoracic oesophageal cancer. Eleven patients with primary stage upper thoracic oesophageal cancer were recruited. For each patient, two IMRT plans were computed using conventional beams (Con-P) and FFF beams (FFF-P), respectively. Both plans employed a five-beam arrangement and were prescribed with 64 Gy to (planning target volume) PTV1 and 54 Gy to PTV2 in 32 fractions using 6 MV photons. The dose parameters ofmore » the target volumes and organs at risks (OARs), and treatment parameters including the monitor units (MU) and treatment time (TT) for Con-P and FFF-P were recorded and compared. The mean D{sub 5} of PTV1 and PTV2 were higher in FFF-P than Con-P by 0.4 Gy and 0.3 Gy, respectively. For the OARs, all the dose parameters did not show significant difference between the two plans except the mean V{sub 5} and V{sub 10} of the lung in which the FFF-P was lower (46.7% vs. 47.3% and 39.1% vs. 39.6%, respectively). FFF-P required 54% more MU but 18.4% less irradiation time when compared to Con-P. The target volume and OARs dose distributions between the two plans were comparable. However, FFF-P was more effective in sparing the lung from low dose and reduced the mean TT compared with Con-P. Long-term clinical studies are suggested to evaluate the radiobiological effects of FFF beams.« less

  20. A clinical and pathologic comparison between stage-matched endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma and uterine serous carcinoma: is there a difference?

    PubMed

    Hou, June Y; McAndrew, Thomas C; Goldberg, Gary L; Whitney, Kathleen; Shahabi, Shohreh

    2014-04-01

    Endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) is a rare pathologic variant of uterine serous carcinoma (USC). Our aim is to distinguish patterns of clinic-pathologic outcomes in patients with EIC and USC for disease limited to the endometrium (stage 1A) as well as with distant metastasis (stage 4B). Surgically staged patients were retrospectively identified and relevant variables were extracted and compared. Kaplan-Meier was used to generate the survival data. More USC (n = 29) exhibited lymphovascular invasion (stage 4, P = .01) and expressed higher levels of estrogen receptor-α than EIC (P = .0009 and .063 for stages 1 and 4, respectively). The survival is comparable, with 1 recurrence in each group for stage 1A disease. For stage 4 EIC and USC, the progression-free survival (14 vs10 months) and overall survival (19 vs 20 months) are similar to what is previously published. In conclusion, EIC, whether limited to the endometrium, or widely metastatic, imparts similar outcomes and should be treated comparably with stage-matched USC.

  1. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 blockade by RNA interference is implicated with inhibited proliferation, invasion and promoted apoptosis in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Ai, Zhihong; Chen, Jing; Teng, Yincheng; Zhu, Jieping

    2018-06-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecological malignancy of the female genital tract worldwide (2012). Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a critical component of the polycomb repressive complex 2, has been found to be associated with multiple biological processes and is overexpressed in multiple types of cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that EZH2 is associated with endometrial carcinoma. The present study investigated the expression and biology function of EZH2 in endometrial cancer (EC). It was found that EZH2 levels were markedly increased in endometrial cancer tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. EZH2 was significantly overexpressed in 3 separate endometrial cancer cell lines (Ishikawa, RL95-2 and HEC1-A) when compared with the normal endometrial cell line ESC. Additionally, small interfering RNA was used to investigate the role of EZH2 in endometrial carcinoma cell proliferation, and the results showed that EZH2 knockdown suppressed the proliferation of endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro . Furthermore, EZH2 knockdown induced apoptosis of human EC cells by promoting the expression of pro-apoptosis protein caspase 3, caspase 9, BCL2 associated X and decreasing the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2. Finally, the present study demonstrated that EZH2 knockdown suppressed the invasion of EC cells through downregulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Collectively, these data demonstrate that EZH2 is frequently overexpressed in EC cells and its overexpression is associated with promoting the proliferation and invasion and decreasing the apoptosis of EC cells, suggesting that EZH2 may provide potential therapeutic targets for treatment of endometrial carcinoma.

  2. Mutational Analysis of Mismatch Repair Genes, hMLH1 and hMSH2, in Sporadic Endometrial Carcinomas with Microsatellite Instability

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kanji; Matsushima, Mieko; Koi, Sumiko; Saito, Hiroko; Sagae, Satoru; Kudo, Ryuichi

    1996-01-01

    Microsatellite instability, monitored by replication error (RER), bas been observed in both sporadic and hereditary types of endometrial carcinoma. In the hereditary tumors, this instability is considered to be caused by a germline defect in the DNA mismatch‐repair system. We previously reported that nearly one‐quarter of sporadic endometrial carcinomas examined revealed an RER‐positive phenotype at multiple microsatellite loci. To investigate the role of genetic alterations of DNA mismatch‐repair genes in sporadic endometrial carcinomas, we screened 18 RER(+) endometrial carcinomas for mutations of hMLH1 and hMSH2. Although we found no germline mutations, we detected two somatic mutations of hMLH1 in a single endometrial cancer; these two mutations had occurred on different alleles, suggesting that two separate mutational events had affected both copies of hMLH1 in this particular tumor. These data implied that mutations of hMLH1 or hMSH2 play limited roles in the development of sporadic endometrial carcinomas, and that the tumors with genetic instability might have alterations of other mismatch‐repair genes, such as hPMS1 and hPMS2, or of unknown genes related to the mismatch‐repair system. PMID:8609062

  3. Histopathological features of endometrial carcinomas associated with POLE mutations: implications for decisions about adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakhsh, Salwa; Kinloch, Mary; Hoang, Lien N; Soslow, Robert A; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han; McAlpine, Jessica N; McConechy, Melissa K; Gilks, C Blake

    2016-05-01

    To characterize the histomorphological features of endometrial carcinomas (ECs) harbouring polymerase ε (POLE) mutations. Forty-three ECs with POLE mutations were compared with a cohort of 202 ECs. Most POLE-mutated ECs were endometrioid [34/43 (79%)]; the remaining tumours were mixed [6/43 (14%)], serous [2/43 (5%)], and clear cell [1/43 (2%)]. The endometrioid carcinomas were predominantly International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 3 (27/43, 63%). The histotype distribution did not differ from that of control ECs (P = 0.69), but the grade of the EC was higher (P < 0.0005). Both nuclear grade and mitotic index were significantly higher in POLE-mutated ECs than in the comparison cohort. POLE-mutated ECs were associated with peritumoral lymphocytes and numerous tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. Lymphovascular invasion was present in 20 of 43 tumours. Adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy would be offered in up to 80% and 40% of patients, respectively, on the basis of stage, grade, lymphovascular invasion, and histotype. POLE-mutated ECs are typically of high grade, with prominent lymphocytic infiltration, but they are not sufficiently distinctive to allow accurate diagnosis based on routine haematoxylin and eosin staining. Even though POLE-mutated tumours are associated with an excellent prognosis, current guidelines for giving adjuvant treatment for EC result in most patients receiving adjuvant therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis of endometrial carcinoma: Seeing the forest for the trees.

    PubMed

    Barlin, Joyce N; Zhou, Qin; St Clair, Caryn M; Iasonos, Alexia; Soslow, Robert A; Alektiar, Kaled M; Hensley, Martee L; Leitao, Mario M; Barakat, Richard R; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the study are to evaluate which clinicopathologic factors influenced overall survival (OS) in endometrial carcinoma and to determine if the surgical effort to assess para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes (LNs) at initial staging surgery impacts OS. All patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer from 1/1993-12/2011 who had LNs excised were included. PALN assessment was defined by the identification of one or more PALNs on final pathology. A multivariate analysis was performed to assess the effect of PALNs on OS. A form of recursive partitioning called classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was implemented. Variables included: age, stage, tumor subtype, grade, myometrial invasion, total LNs removed, evaluation of PALNs, and adjuvant chemotherapy. The cohort included 1920 patients, with a median age of 62 years. The median number of LNs removed was 16 (range, 1-99). The removal of PALNs was not associated with OS (P=0.450). Using the CART hierarchically, stage I vs. stages II-IV and grades 1-2 vs. grade 3 emerged as predictors of OS. If the tree was allowed to grow, further branching was based on age and myometrial invasion. Total number of LNs removed and assessment of PALNs as defined in this study were not predictive of OS. This innovative CART analysis emphasized the importance of proper stage assignment and a binary grading system in impacting OS. Notably, the total number of LNs removed and specific evaluation of PALNs as defined in this study were not important predictors of OS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [The Expression of Pokemon in Endometrial Carcinoma Tissue and the Correlation with Mutant p53].

    PubMed

    Yi, Tian-jin; Wang, Ping

    2016-05-01

    To detect the expression of Pokemon in endometrial carcinoma (EC), to provide preliminary theoretical basis for clarifying pathogenesis and searching for effective targets. Ninety-eight cases of endometrial tissue paraffin specimens form July 2012 to July 2014 in West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, were collected, including: EC group, consisting of adenocarcinoma 23 cases, adenosquamous 12 cases, serous 3 cases, mucinous 11 cases and clear cell 9 cases, and control group, consisting of atypical hyperplasia endometrium 20 cases and normal endometrium 20 cases (secretory 10 cases, hyperplasia 10 cases). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Pokemonin each section, analyzing the correlation of Pokemon expression with clinicopathologic characteristics and p53 expression. The positive rate of Pokemon in normal endometrium was 25% (5/20), significantly lower than that in atypical hyperplasia endometrium (60.0%, 12/20) and EC (93.1%, 54/58) (P < 0.05); the rate in type II was 97. 12% (34/35), significantly higher than that in type I (86.96%, 20/23) (P = 0.018). The positive rate of Pokemon in III-IV stage, type II and Ki-67 ≥ 50 EC tissue was much higher (P = 0.012, 0.023, 0.029). In type II EC tissue, the correlation index between Pokemon and p53 is 0.669 (P = 0.000). The over expression of Pokemon upregulates the expression of mutant p53, which may be one of the carcinogenesis modes in type II EC.

  6. Reproductive and oncologic outcomes after progestin therapy for endometrial complex atypical hyperplasia or carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kudesia, Rashmi; Singer, Tomer; Caputo, Thomas A; Holcomb, Kevin Michael; Kligman, Isaac; Rosenwaks, Zev; Gupta, Divya

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated fertility and oncological outcomes in women with complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) or nonmyoinvasive grade 1 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EM) who desired fertility-sparing therapy. The retrospective cohort study included women younger than 45 years with CAH or EM who desired fertility-sparing treatment at our institution. Only patients for whom both oncological treatment and pregnancy outcomes were available were included. Statistical analyses were performed using a Fisher exact test, Pearson χ(2) test, and Spearman rank correlation test, as appropriate. Seventy-five patients were identified, and 23 (13 CAH, 10 EM) met the inclusion criteria. All 23 patients had at least 1 prior pregnancy. Treatment was split between oral progesterone only (38.5% CAH, 40% EM), levonorgestrel intrauterine device only (30.8% CAH, 20% EM), and both (30.8% CAH, 40% EM). After a median follow-up of 13 months (range, 3-74 months), 9 patients (46.2% CAH, 30% EM, P = .39) had persistent/progressive disease. Eight patients (30.8% CAH, 40% EM, P = .69) ultimately had a hysterectomy, and 3 of these (13.0%) were found to have persistent/progressive disease. Median time from diagnosis to hysterectomy was 13 months (range, 4-56 months). Fourteen of the 23 patients utilized assisted reproductive techniques (60.9%); 12 underwent IVF and 2 chose a gestation carrier. Seven clinical intrauterine pregnancies (30.4%) resulting in 6 live births (26.1%) were found in the entire cohort. Fertility-sparing treatment for CAH and grade 1 endometrial cancer is feasible with progestin therapy and leads to clinically meaningful rates of pregnancy in young women who desire fertility. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Overexpression of microRNA-194 suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in targeting stem cell transcription factor Sox3 in endometrial carcinoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Baolan; Yue, Yan; Wang, Renxiao; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Quanfang; Zhou, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is the key process driving cancer metastasis. MicroRNA-194 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers and its downregulation indicates a poor prognosis in human endometrial carcinoma. Self-renewal factor Sox3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition at gastrulation and is also involved epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers. We intended to determine the roles of Sox3 in inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer stem cells and the possible role of microRNA-194 in controlling Sox3 expression. Firstly, we found that Sox3 and microRNA-194 expressions were associated with the status of endometrial cancer stem cells in a panel of endometrial carcinoma tissue, the CD133+ cell was higher in tumorsphere than in differentiated cells, and overexpression of microRNA-194 would decrease CD133+ cell expression. Silencing of Sox3 in endometrial cancer stem cell upregulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin, downregulated the mesenchymal marker vimentin, and significantly reduced cell invasion in vitro; overexpression of Sox3 reversed these phenotypes. Furthermore, we discovered that the expression of Sox3 was suppressed by microRNA-194 through direct binding to the Sox3 3'-untranslated region. Ectopic expression of microRNA-194 in endometrial cancer stem cells induced a mesenchymal-epithelial transition by restoring E-cadherin expression, decreasing vimentin expression, and inhibiting cell invasion in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of microRNA-194 inhibited endometrial cancer stem cell invasion or metastasis in vivo by injection of adenovirus microRNA-194. These findings demonstrate the novel mechanism by which Sox3 contributes to endometrial cancer stem cell invasion and suggest that repression of Sox3 by microRNA-194 may have therapeutic potential to suppress endometrial carcinoma metastasis. The cancer stem cell marker, CD133, might be the surface marker of endometrial cancer stem

  8. [Study of dynamic contrast-enhanced characteristics of stage-I endometrial carcinomas versus polyps with 3.0 T MRI].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Ji, Taotao; Liu, Kun; Ye, Xinjian; Bai, Guanghui; Yan, Zhihan

    2015-01-20

    To comparatively analyze the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) characteristics and its clinical value between stage-I endometrial carcinomas versus polyps with 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective analysis was performed for DCE-MRI manifestation in 27 patients with histopathologically proved endometrial masses. There were stage-I endometrial carcinomas (n = 14) and polyps (n = 13). The signal intensity of solid component was measured and time-intensity curves (TIC) was obtained. TIC of lesions were divided into 4 subtypes. The time-to-peak (TTP) and signal intensity (SI) were determined from TICs. The arterial phase relative signal increase ratio (ARSIR), maximal relative signal increase ratio (MRSIR), signal enhancement ratio (SER) and signal intensity difference values (D) of each phase were calculated based on TIC curves respectively. The TIC of 14 stage-I endometrial carcinomas included type I (n = 4), type II (n = 6) and type IV (n = 4). The TIC of 13 polyps included type III (n = 3) and type IV (n = 10). The D values in each phase of 14 stage-I endometrial carcinomas were lower than normal muscle layers. There were statistic differences (P < 0.05) of each phase including 32, 48, 64, 109, 154, 199 s. For stage-I endometrial carcinomas, MRSIR and TTP were lower (P < 0.01) than normal muscle layers while SER was higher (P < 0.01) than normal muscle layers . The each phase of D of stage-I endometrial carcinomas were lower than polyps, and there were statistic differences (P < 0.05) of each phase including 32, 48, 64, 109, 154, 199 s. The MRSIR and TTP of stage-I endometrial carcinomas were lower (P < 0.01) than those of polyps while SER was higher (P < 0.01) than polyps. DCE-MRI can reflect enhanced features of stage-I endometrial carcinomas and polyps during different phases quantitatively. Parameters of DCE-MR and TIC are helpful in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of stage-I endometrial carcinomas versus polyps.

  9. Uterine Carcinomas in Tetrabromobisphenol A-Exposed Wistar Han Rats Harbor Increased Tp53 Mutations and Mimic High-Grade Type I Endometrial Carcinomas in Women

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Janice B.; Osborne, Tanasa S.; Hong, Hue-Hua L.; Bhusari, Sachin; Ton, Tai-Vu; Pandiri, Arun R.; Masinde, Tiwanda; Dunnick, June; Peddada, Shyamal; Elmore, Susan; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic malignancy is the United States, and accounts for 6% of all cancers in women. The disease is classified as Type I or Type II based on clinicopathologic and molecular features. It is a multifactorial disease with a number of risk factors, including environmental exposures. How environmental exposures, such as flame retardants, may affect the incidence of endometrial cancer is a topic of current and ongoing interest. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a widely used brominated flame retardant found in a variety of household products. A recent two-year National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity study found that exposure to TBBPA was associated with a marked increase in the development of uterine tumors, specifically uterine carcinomas, in Wistar Han rats. Molecularly, TBBPA-induced uterine carcinomas in Wistar Han rats were characterized by a marked increase in Tp53 mutation compared to spontaneous uterine carcinomas, as well as overexpression of Her2. Similar to spontaneous carcinomas, tumors in TBBPA-exposed rats were ERα positive and PR negative by immunohistochemistry. The morphologic and molecular features of uterine carcinomas in TBBPA-exposed rats resemble those of high-grade Type I tumors in women, and these data suggest that exposure to TBBPA may pose an increased cancer risk. PMID:26353976

  10. Clinicopathological analysis of mixed endometrial carcinomas: clinical relevance of different neoplastic components.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Bizzarro, Tommaso; Monterossi, Giorgia; Inzani, Frediano; Fanfani, Francesco; Scambia, Giovanni; Zannoni, Gian Franco

    2017-04-01

    Mixed endometrial carcinomas (MECs) refer to tumors characterized by 2 or more distinct histotypes mostly that comprised endometrioid (EC) and serous/clear cell carcinomas (SC/CC). The specific quantification of these distinct components represents a challenging and critical point for both prognosis and management. Herein, we analyze a large series of MEC and compare them with EC and SC/CC. We evaluated a series of 69 MECs between January 2002 and December 2015. We compared the MEC series with 186 ECs (including 117 endometrioid G3), 31 SCs, and 38 CCs. The prognostic implication of the percentage of each component was analyzed. Among the 69 MECs, those patients older than 45 years represent the significant population, with 52.2% of them with stage III-IV disease. A similar result was found among pure SC. The comparative analysis of some prognostic parameters (multifocality, vascular invasion, and lymph node metastasis) underlined that MECs with a type II component larger than 5% represent a more aggressive entity. However, relapse, disease-free survival, mortality, and overall survival are statistically significant (P<.05) in EC-SC (SC<5%or >5%) and in EC-CC (CC<5%or >5%), whereas they are not significant (P>.05) in SC-CC (SC/CC<%or >5%). MECs, including also cases with less than 5% of SC/CC, show features as aggressive as those of pure SC/CC. In this perspective, MEC should be followed by personalized and tailored managements. The presence of different components suggests different pathogenic and metastatic processes when compared with pure carcinomas. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Endometrial cancer screening by ultrasonography or tissue sampling is not supported by current evidence, but most cases are diagnosed at early stage. Get detailed information about potential harms of endometrial cancer screening in this summary for clinicians.

  12. Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed at an early stage and can be treated with surgery. Learn about the symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, staging, and treatment for early- and advanced-stage endometrial cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  13. Tumorigenesis of K-ras mutation in human endometrial carcinoma via upregulation of estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zheng; Gui, Liming; Wang, Jianliu; Li, Xiaoping; Sun, Pengming; Wei, Lihui

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the tumorigenesis of mutant [12Asp]-K-ras in endometrial carcinoma and its relationship with ER. We constructed pcDI-[12Asp]K-ras4B by inserting full-length [12Asp]K-ras4B from human endometrial carcinoma Hec-1A cells, into pcDI vector. Cell proliferation of NIH3T3 after transfection with pcDI-[12Asp]K-ras4B was measured by MTT assay. The cell transformation was determined by colony formation and tumor nodule development. [12Asp]-K-ras4B-NIH3T3 cells were transfected with constitutively active pCMV-RafCAAX and dominant-negative pCMV-RafS621A. Cell growth was measured by MTT assay and [3H]thymidine incorporation. After transfected with pcDI-[12Asp]K-ras4B or pCMV-RafS621A, the cells were harvested for Western blot and reporter assay to determine the expression and transcriptional activity of ERalpha and ERbeta, respectively. [12Asp]-K-ras4B enhanced NIH3T3 cells proliferation after 48 h post-transfection (P < 0.05). More colonies were grown 10 days after incubating pcDI-[12Asp]-K-ras4B-NIH3T3 cells (13.48%) than pcDI-NIH3T3 (4.26%) or untreated NIH3T3 (2.33%). The pcDI-[12Asp]-K-ras4B-NIH3T3 cells injected to the nude mice Balb/C developed tumor nodules with poor-differentiated cells after 12 days. An increase of ERalpha and ERbeta was observed in pcDI-[12Asp]-K-ras4B-NIH3T3 cells. RafS621A downregulated ERalpha and ERbeta expression. Estrogen induced the ER transcriptional activity by 5-fold in pcDI-NIH3T3 cells, 13-fold in pcDI-[12Asp]K-ras4B-NIH3T3 and 19-fold in HEC-1A. RafS621A suppressed the ER transcriptional activity. K-ras mutation induces tumorigenesis in endometrium, and this malignant transformation involves Raf signaling pathway and ER.

  14. Fifteen-Year Radiotherapy Outcomes of the Randomized PORTEC-1 Trial for Endometrial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Creutzberg, Carien L., E-mail: c.l.creutzberg@lumc.nl; Nout, Remi A.; Lybeert, Marnix L.M.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the very long-term results of the randomized Post Operative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Carcinoma (PORTEC)-1 trial for patients with Stage I endometrial carcinoma (EC), focusing on the role of prognostic factors for treatment selection and the long-term risk of second cancers. Patients and Methods: The PORTEC trial (1990-1997) included 714 patients with Stage IC Grade 1-2 or Stage IB Grade 2-3 EC. After surgery, patients were randomly allocated to external-beam pelvic radiotherapy (EBRT) or no additional treatment (NAT). Analysis was by intention to treat. Results: 426 patients were alive at the date of analysis. The median follow-upmore » time was 13.3 years. The 15-year actuarial locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates were 6% for EBRT vs. 15.5% for NAT (p < 0.0001). The 15-year overall survival was 52% vs. 60% (p = 0.14), and the failure-free survival was 50% vs. 54% (p = 0.94). For patients with high-intermediate risk criteria, the 15-year overall survival was 41% vs. 48% (p = 0.51), and the 15-year EC-related death was 14% vs. 13%. Most LRR in the NAT group were vaginal recurrences (11.0% of 15.5%). The 15-year rates of distant metastases were 9% vs. 7% (p = 0.25). Second primary cancers had been diagnosed over 15 years in 19% of all patients, 22% vs. 16% for EBRT vs. NAT (p = 0.10), with observed vs. expected ratios of 1.6 (EBRT) and 1.2 (NAT) compared with a matched population (p = NS). Multivariate analysis confirmed the prognostic significance of Grade 3 for LRR (hazard ratio [HR] 3.4, p = 0.0003) and for EC death (HR 7.3, p < 0.0001), of age >60 (HR 3.9, p = 0.002 for LRR and 2.7, p = 0.01 for EC death) and myometrial invasion >50% (HR 1.9, p = 0.03 and HR 1.9, p = 0.02). Conclusions: The 15-year outcomes of PORTEC-1 confirm the relevance of HIR criteria for treatment selection, and a trend for long-term risk of second cancers. EBRT should be avoided in patients with low- and intermediate-risk EC.« less

  15. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of high-volume locally recurrent endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kitty; D'Souza, David; Patil, Nikhilesh; Velker, Vikram; Leung, Eric; Stitt, Larry; Whiston, Frances; Sugimoto, Akira; McGee, Jacob; Prefontaine, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Limited therapeutic options are available for the treatment of locally recurrent endometrial carcinoma. Our objective was to report an institutional experience using interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) to treat significant recurrent endometrial carcinoma, including previously irradiated disease. Between December 2004 and September 2012, 40 patients with high-volume locally recurrent endometrial cancer were treated by high-dose-rate IBT (± external beam radiation therapy EBRT). Sixteen patients had prior radiotherapy: EBRT alone (n = 5), intracavitary brachytherapy alone (n = 3), or EBRT with intracavitary brachytherapy boost (n = 8). Actuarial outcome rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Median followup interval was 18 months. Median disease-free interval was 61 months. Actuarial local control, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were 74% and 60%, 70% and 51%, and 83% and 72% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. p-Values for local control, progression-free survival, and overall survival between patient who had prior RT (n = 16) to no prior RT (n = 24) were p = 0.38, 0.32, and 0.90, respectively. Acute toxicities include Grade 1-2 pain (5%), genitourinary (7%), gastrointestinal (12%), soft tissue (5%), and dermatologic (12%). Four patients observed late Grade 3-4 toxicities, including rectal bleeding/fistula and soft tissue necrosis. High-dose-rate IBT is an effective treatment for locally recurrent endometrial carcinoma with an acceptable toxicity profile. Outcomes are similar between previously irradiated and nonirradiated patients. In women who have received prior radiotherapy and are often considered for palliative treatment, interstitial brachytherapy is a potentially curative option. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Utility of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient maps obtained using 3.0T MRI for distinguishing uterine carcinosarcoma from endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Kozawa, Eito; Tanisaka, Megumi; Hasegawa, Kousei; Yasuda, Masanori; Sakai, Fumikazu

    2016-06-01

    We explored the role of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for discriminating uterine carcinosarcoma and endometrial carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated findings in 13 patients with uterine carcinosarcoma and 50 patients with endometrial carcinoma who underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (b = 0, 500, 1000 s/mm(2) ) at 3T with acquisition of corresponding ADC maps. We derived histogram data from regions of interest drawn on all slices of the ADC maps in which tumor was visualized, excluding areas of necrosis and hemorrhage in the tumor. We used the Mann-Whitney test to evaluate the capacity of histogram parameters (mean ADC value, 5th to 95th percentiles, skewness, kurtosis) to discriminate uterine carcinosarcoma and endometrial carcinoma and analyzed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine the optimum threshold value for each parameter and its corresponding sensitivity and specificity. Carcinosarcomas demonstrated significantly higher mean vales of ADC, 95th, 90th, 75th, 50th, 25th percentiles and kurtosis than endometrial carcinomas (P < 0.05). ROC curve analysis of the 75th percentile yielded the best area under the ROC curve (AUC; 0.904), sensitivity of 100%, and specificity of 78.0%, with a cutoff value of 1.034 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s. Histogram analysis of ADC maps might be helpful for discriminating uterine carcinosarcomas and endometrial carcinomas. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;43:1301-1307. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Immunomorphologic features of epithelial-stromal relationships at hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bantysh, B B; Paukov, v S; Kogan, E A

    2012-01-01

    The results of a immunomorphologic comprehensive study of epithelial-stromal relationships in the uterus hyperplasia and endometrial cancer suggest that the suppressor gene of cancer (PTEN) plays a key role in the process of neoplastic transformation of endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma development. For the first time the existence of two highly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma immunophenotype were detected The first one is a PTEN-negative endometrial aedenocarcinoma, characterized by an almost complete inhibition of tumor suppressor gene PTEN in the epithelium of the glands and stromal cell of the tumor The second type is a PTEN-positive endometrial adenocarcinoma, in which epithelial and stromal tumor suppressor gene PTEN activity has retained Based on these results we have formulated a hypothesis about the different types of endometrial hyperplasia morphogenesis and its possible transfer to cervical cancer associated with features of tumor suppressor gene PTEN.

  18. Construction of a pathological risk model of occult lymph node metastases for prognostication by semi-automated image analysis of tumor budding in early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Nicklas Juel; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Kiss, Katalin; Charabi, Birgitte; Specht, Lena; von Buchwald, Christian

    2017-01-01

    It is challenging to identify at diagnosis those patients with early oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), who have a poor prognosis and those that have a high risk of harboring occult lymph node metastases. The aim of this study was to develop a standardized and objective digital scoring method to evaluate the predictive value of tumor budding. We developed a semi-automated image-analysis algorithm, Digital Tumor Bud Count (DTBC), to evaluate tumor budding. The algorithm was tested in 222 consecutive patients with early-stage OSCC and major endpoints were overall (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). We subsequently constructed and cross-validated a binary logistic regression model and evaluated its clinical utility by decision curve analysis. A high DTBC was an independent predictor of both poor OS and PFS in a multivariate Cox regression model. The logistic regression model was able to identify patients with occult lymph node metastases with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.78–0.89, P <0.001) and a 10-fold cross-validated AUC of 0.79. Compared to other known histopathological risk factors, the DTBC had a higher diagnostic accuracy. The proposed, novel risk model could be used as a guide to identify patients who would benefit from an up-front neck dissection. PMID:28212555

  19. [Effects of pathological assessment of endometrial tissue in fertility-sparing treatment with progestin for endometrial carcinoma of stage I a and complex atypical hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Gong, Qinglin; Chen, Xiaoduan; Xie, Xing

    2014-09-01

    To assess the efficacy and pathological change of fertility-sparing treatment with progestin for endometrial carcinoma (EC) of stage I a and complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) and to observe the prognosis of the treatment. Nine EC patients of stage I a and 21 CAH patients aged under 40 years who desired childbearing and retaining their fertility were enrolled into this study. All patients were given a daily oral high-dose of progestin with duration of treatment ranging from 6 to 9 months. Diagnostic curettage was performed every 3 months as a modality for seeing the histologic change of neoplastic tissues and endometrial tissue. A careful and long- term follow- up is necessary for patients with complete response (CR). During the first period of fertility-sparing management, according to histologic change, 5 EC patients and 18 CAH patients showed CR with no evidence of endometrial adenocarcinoma or hyperplasia, 2 EC patients and 2 CAH patients showed partial response with a regression to complex or simple hyperplasia without atypia, 2 EC patients and 1 CAH patient showed stable disease or progressive disease. Accordingly, a total of 26 patients showed CR (26 of 30 patients). The median time to CR was 6 months (range, 3 to 21 months) of progestin treatment. The median follow-up time was 55.5 months (range, 24 to 104 months) and all patients were alive. During follow-up, among the 26 patients with CR, 3 of 6 EC patients achieved CR recurred disease after a median time interval of 10 months (range, 6 to 51 months), 7 of 20 CAH patients achieved CR had recurrent disease after a median time interval of 12 months (range, 6 to 55 months). Four of 7 CAH with recurrent disease achieved CR to progestin re-treatment. Eight of 26 patients achieved CR continued a further 3 or 6 months of consolidation therapy, 3 of them had recurrent disease, the remaining 18 stopped progesterone treatment after CR and 7 patients had recurrent disease; there was no significant statistical

  20. Correlation Between Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen Level and the Clinicopathological Features of Early-Stage Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and the Predictive Value of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen Combined With Computed Tomography Scan for Lymph Node Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dianbo; Wang, Danbo; Wang, Shuo; Tian, Ye; Long, Zaiqiu; Ren, Xuemei

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) and the clinicopathological features of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The value of SCC-Ag and computed tomography (CT) for predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) was evaluated. A total of 197 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB to IIA cervical squamous cell carcinoma who underwent radical surgery were enrolled in this study. The SCC-Ag was measured, and CT scans were used for the preoperative assessment of lymph node status. Increased preoperative SCC-Ag levels were associated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P = 0.001), tumor diameter of greater than 4 cm (P < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.001), LNM (P < 0.001), and greater than one half stromal infiltration (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified LNM (P < 0.001, odds ratio [OR] = 4.399), tumor diameter of greater than >4 cm (P = 0.001, OR = 4.019), and greater than one half stromal infiltration (P = 0.002, OR = 3.680) as independent factors affecting SCC-Ag greater than or equal to 2.35 ng/mL. In the analysis of LNM, SCC-Ag greater than or equal to 2.35 ng/mL (P < 0.001, OR = 4.825) was an independent factor for LNM. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of SCC-Ag was 0.763 for all patients, and 0.805 and 0.530 for IB1 + IIA1 and IB2 + IIA2 patients, respectively; 2.35 ng/mL was the optimum cutoff for predicting LNM. The combination of CT and SCC-Ag showed a sensitivity and specificity of 82.9% and 66% in parallel tests, and 29.8% and 93.3% in serial tests, respectively. The increase of SCC-Ag level in the preoperative phase means that there may be a pathological risk factor for postoperative outcomes. The SCC-Ag (≥2.35 ng/mL) may be a useful marker for predicting LNM of cervical cancer, especially in stages IB1 and IIA1, and the combination of SCC-Ag and CT may help identify patients

  1. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  2. Early stages of soldering reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, R.A.; Umantsev, A.

    2005-09-15

    An experiment on the early stages of intermetallic compound layer growth during soldering and its theoretical analysis were conducted with the intent to study the controlling factors of the process. An experimental technique based on fast dipping and pulling of a copper coupon in liquid solder followed by optical microscopy allowed the authors to study the temporal behavior of the sample on a single micrograph. The technique should be of value for different areas of metallurgy because many experiments on crystallization may be described as the growth of a layer of intermediate phase. Comparison of the experimental results with themore » theoretical calculations allowed one to identify the kinetics of dissolution as the rate-controlling mechanism on the early stages and measure the kinetic coefficient of dissolution. A popular model of intermetallic compound layer structure coarsening is discussed.« less

  3. Preoperative tumor size at MRI predicts deep myometrial invasion, lymph node metastases, and patient outcome in endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ytre-Hauge, Sigmund; Husby, Jenny A; Magnussen, Inger J; Werner, Henrica M J; Salvesen, Øyvind O; Bjørge, Line; Trovik, Jone; Stefansson, Ingunn M; Salvesen, Helga B; Haldorsen, Ingfrid S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relation between preoperative tumor size based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the surgical pathologic staging parameters (deep myometrial invasion, cervical stroma invasion, and metastatic lymph nodes) and to assess the prognostic impact of tumor size in endometrial carcinomas. Interobserver variability for the different tumor size measurements was also assessed. Preoperative pelvic MRI of 212 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial carcinomas was read independently by 3 radiologists. Maximum tumor diameters were measured in 3 orthogonal planes (anteroposterior, transverse, and craniocaudal planes [CC]), and tumor volumes were estimated. Tumor size was analyzed in relation to surgical staging results and patient survival. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for preoperative risk status based on endometrial biopsy. Intraclass correlation coefficients and receiver operating characteristics curves for the different tumor measurements were also calculated. Anteroposterior tumor diameter independently predicted deep myometrial invasion (P < 0.001), whereas CC tumor diameter tended to independently predict lymph node metastases (P = 0.06). Based on receiver operating characteristic curves, the following tumor size cutoff values were identified: anteroposterior diameter greater than 2 cm predicted deep myometrial invasion (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 12.4; P < 0.001; adjusted OR, 6.7; P < 0.001) and CC diameter greater than 4 cm predicted lymph node metastases (unadjusted OR, 6.2; P < 0.001; adjusted OR, 4.9; P = 0.009). Large tumor size was associated with reduced progression/recurrence-free survival (P ≤ 0.005 for all size parameters), and CC diameter had an independent impact on survival (adjusted hazards ratio, 1.04; P = 0.009). The interobserver variability for the different size measurements was very low (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.78-0.85). Anteroposterior tumor diameter greater than 2 cm

  4. SPECIFICITIES OF ENDOMETRIAL PROLIFERATION/STEM CELL INDEX DISTRIBUTION IN ENDOMETRIOID CARCINOMA OF DIFFERENT GRADE OF MALIGNANCY.

    PubMed

    Kikalishvili, N; Beriashvili, R; Muzashvili, T; Burkadze, G

    2018-03-01

    Endometrial neoplasia is the most common malignant tumor of female genital system in developed countries. The incidence of endometrial cancer has increased in the last years and despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, the death rates have steadily been increasing over the past 20 years. Therefore aspects of endometrial cancer development, pathogenesis and effective treatment is especially urgent to this day, as much of the risk for endometrial cancer development is influenced by the environment and lifestyle. Endometrial stem cells take the special place among somatic stem cells of female reproductive system-the detection of them and identification of their location in the complex cellular hierarchy still remains challenging. Further study of endometrial stem cells will clarify their role in gynecologic pathologies associated with hyper-proliferative states of endometrium. The aim of our study was to explore the specificities of endometrial proliferative/stem cell index distribution under endometrioid carcinoma of different grade of malignancy. The study represents a retrospective research. The coded and depersonalized material data from Acad. N. Kipshidze Central University Clinic was used in the study. 3 study groups - 1st study group "Endometrioid Carcinoma Grade 1" (14 cases), 2nd study group "Endometrioid Carcinoma Grade 2" (23 cases) and 3rd study group "Endometrioid Carcinoma Grade 3" were selected from routine histopathology tissue specimens of uterus. Hematoxilyn-eosin technology and immunohistochemistry with proliferation marker ki67 and stem cell marker CD146 was performed. The proliferative/stem cell index was calculated by the ratio of Ki67-positive cell percentage value divided by CD146-positive cell percentage value. The study showed that in the 1st study group labeled as "Endometrioid Carcinoma Grade 1", the proliferative/stem cell index ranges between 21.7 and 25.5. Its mean average value in the age distribution subgroups accounts for: 1

  5. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for managing peritoneal carcinomatosis from endometrial carcinoma: a single-center experience of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Azzam, Ayman Zaki; AlOmar, Osama; Salem, Hany; Amin, Tarek; Al-Badawi, Ismail A

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic malignancy worldwide. Prognosis of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from endometrial carcinoma is deadly, with an estimated median survival not exceeding 12 months. The objective of this study was to report our experience with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for managing PC from primary and recurrent endometrial carcinoma. A retrospective analysis of 6 patients with PC arising from endometrial cancer, who were managed with CRS and HIPEC at our referral tertiary care center, from November 2010 to August 2013. Six patients underwent CRS and HIPEC. CRS was performed using standard peritonectomy procedures and visceral resections directed toward the complete elimination of tumors from ab.dominopelvic cavity. HIPEC was performed with cisplatin (50 mg/m2) and doxorubicin (15 mg/m2) and allowed to circulate in abdominopelvic cavity for 90 minutes at 41.0 to 42.2°C. Two patients with primary endometrial carcinoma and 4 patients with recurrent endometrial carcino.ma confined to peritoneal cavity were studied. Complete cytoreduction (CC-0) was achieved in 5 patients. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages and histopathological types were as follows: IB endometrioid adenocarcinomas (n=1), IC mesonephric carcinomas (n=1), IIIA endometrioid adenocarcino.mas (n=2), IIIA papillary serous carcinomas (n=1), and IIIC clear-cell carcinomas (n=1). Anastomotic leak (grade I) was the most commonly encountered postoperative complication. Two patients developed grade IV compli.cations due to septicemia and pulmonary embolism. No intraoperative mortality occurred. Postoperatively, all patients received chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel). In 1 patient, the clear-cell carcinoma histologic lesion relapsed within 6 months; the metastases spread to hepatic, pelvic, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and the patient died 5 months later. One patient

  6. Management and results of endometrial carcinoma treated at Instituto Português de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil.

    PubMed

    Tavares, M A; Patricio, M B; Vilhena, M; Da Silva, J N

    1977-02-01

    The experience of 260 patients with endometrial carcinoma was reviewed. The influence of factors such as age, stage of disease, grade and degree of myometrial penetration on the survival was presented, showing that survival decreases in elderly patients, in patients with advanced stage of disease, when the tumor is undifferentiated, and when the tumor deeply penetrates the myometrium. The methods of therapy, fall into three main groups: surgery, radiotherapy, and combined therapy, the latter yielding the best 5-year survival rate, in all stages. The incidence of vaginal recurrences was low, probably due to the fact that 68.8% of the patients were treated by a combined therapeutic modality.

  7. Systemic review: Radiation therapy alone in medical non-operable endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van der Steen-Banasik, E; Christiaens, M; Shash, E; Coens, C; Casado, A; Herrera, F G; Ottevanger, P B

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a good option for inoperable and frail patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer. Because of the lack of large multicentre trials, a systematic review was performed in an attempt to get an overview on the feasibility and efficacy of this specific approach. We performed a bibliographic search for articles in English or French which were published in PubMed from the start of this database in January 1969 to identify publications on radiation therapy (RT) as single treatment for localised non-operable carcinoma of the endometrium. The review was completed following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Twenty-five reports containing 2694 patients treated with RT as single treatment were identified that fulfilled the selection criteria. Disease-specific survival (DSS) at 5 years was reported for a cohort of 1322 (49.1%) patients. The combined DSS for this group of patients was 78.5% (range: 68.4-92%; 95% confidence interval: 74.5-82.5). External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with brachytherapy (BT) was used in 1278 patients (47.4%), BT alone in 1383 patients (51.3%), and EBRT alone in 33 patients (1.2%). The average occurrence of grade III or worse late toxicity was 3.7% for EBRT + BT, 2.8% for BT alone, and 1.2% for EBRT alone. RT is in terms of disease control and toxicity, an acceptable option for non-surgical candidate patients. Prospective multicentre randomised or observational trials are needed to validate these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A 9-protein biomarker molecular signature for predicting histologic type in endometrial carcinoma by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Santacana, Maria; Maiques, Oscar; Valls, Joan; Gatius, Sònia; Abó, Ana Isabel; López-García, María Ángeles; Mota, Alba; Reventós, Jaume; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Palacios, Jose; Bartosch, Carla; Dolcet, Xavier; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Histologic typing may be difficult in a subset of endometrial carcinoma (EC) cases. In these cases, interobserver agreement improves when immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used. A series of endometrioid type (EEC) grades 1, 2, and 3 and serous type (SC) were immunostained for p53, p16, estrogen receptor, PTEN, IMP2, IMP3, HER2, cyclin B2 and E1, HMGA2, FolR1, MSLN, Claudins 3 and 4, and NRF2. Nine biomarkers showed significant differences with thresholds in IHC value scale between both types (p53 ≥ 20, IMP2 ≥ 115, IMP3 ≥ 2, cyclin E1 ≥ 220, HMGA2 ≥ 30, FolR1 ≥ 50, p16 ≥ 170, nuclear PTEN ≥ 2 and estrogen receptor ≤ 50; P < .005). This combination led to increased discrimination when considering cases satisfying 0 to 5 conditions predicted as EEC and those satisfying 6 to 9 conditions predicted as SC. This signature correctly predicted all 48 EEC grade 1-2 cases and 18 SC cases, but 3 SC cases were wrongly predicted as EEC. Sensitivity was 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64%-97%), and specificity was 100% (95% CI, 89%-100%). The classifier correctly predicted all 28 EEC grade 3 cases but only identified the EEC and SC components in 4 of 9 mixed EEC-SC. An independent validation series (29 EEC grades 1-2, 28 EEC grade 3, and 31 SC) showed 100% sensitivity (95% CI, 84%-100%) and 83% specificity (95% CI, 64%-94%). We propose an internally and externally validated 9-protein biomarker signature to predict the histologic type of EC (EEC or SC) by IHC. The results also suggest that mixed EEC-SC is molecularly ambiguous. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Upregulation of TrkB Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Anoikis Resistance in Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wei; Qiu, Haifeng; Yang, Tingting; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Huijuan; Wan, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms governing the metastasis of endometrial carcinoma (EC) are poorly defined. Recent data support a role for the cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB in the progression of several human tumors. Here we present evidence for a direct role of TrkB in human EC. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TrkB and its secreted ligand, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are more highly expressed in EC than in normal endometrium. High TrkB levels correlated with lymph node metastasis (p<0.05) and lymphovascular space involvement (p<0.05) in EC. Depletion of TrkB by stable shRNA-mediated knockdown decreased the migratory and invasive capacity of cancer cell lines in vitro and resulted in anoikis in suspended cells. Conversely, exogenous expression of TrkB increased cell migration and invasion and promoted anoikis resistance in suspension culture. Furthermore, over-expression of TrkB or stimulation by BDNF resulted in altered the expression of molecular mediators of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of the downstream regulator, Twist, blocked TrkB-induced EMT-like transformation. The use of in vivo models revealed decreased peritoneal dissemination in TrkB-depleted EC cells. Additionally, TrkB-depleted EC cells underwent mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and anoikis in vivo. Our data support a novel function for TrkB in promoting EMT and resistance to anoikis. Thus, TrkB may constitute a potential therapeutic target in human EC. PMID:23936232

  10. CD8 down-regulation on cytotoxic T lymphocytes of patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pascual-García, Mónica; Bértolo, Cristina; Nieto, Juan C; Serrat, Neus; Espinosa, Íñigo; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Muñoz, Raquel; Rovira, Ramón; Vidal, Silvia; Prat, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which cancer cells and tumor stroma cells play important roles. T lymphocytes are immune constituents of tumor stroma and play a crucial function in anti-tumor response. By immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, we studied T cytotoxic (CTLs) and T helper lymphocyte distribution and percentage in the tumor microenvironment and peripheral blood from 35 patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EEC). We also studied 23 healthy donors' blood samples as a control group. Tumor and non-tumoral endometrium samples were obtained. Immunohistochemistry revealed a high number of CTLs and T helper lymphocytes in the tumor stroma of myoinvasive EECs. T lymphocytes were mostly located in the invasive front. By flow cytometry, the percentages of CTLs and T helper lymphocytes were significantly higher in the tumor compared with the non-neoplastic endometrium (P = .0492 and P = .002). The mean fluorescence intensity of CD8 staining was lower in the tumor compared to the non-neoplastic endometrium (P = .001). There was also reduction of the mean fluorescence intensity of CD8 staining on peripheral blood from patients with grade 3 EECs compare to the peripheral blood from healthy donors (P = .0093). No alterations in the expression of granzymes A and B were found in the CTLs from the EEC cases. Finally, in a proteome profiler cytokine array we found that the growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) increased in blood in parallel to the tumor grade. EECs are capable of down-regulating CD8 expression of CTLs. Most likely, this effect is mediated by a soluble molecule present in plasma and is not a result of anergy or exhaustion state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypomethylation associated enhanced transcription of trefoil factor-3 mediates tamoxifen-stimulated oncogenicity of ER+ endometrial carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vijay; Zhang, Min; Chong, Qing-Yun; You, Mingliang; Raquib, Ainiah Rushdiana; Pandey, Amit K; Liu, Dong-Xu; Liu, Liang; Ma, Lan; Jha, Sudhakar; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Zhu, Tao; Lobie, Peter E

    2017-09-29

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is widely used as an adjuvant therapy for women with breast cancer (BC). However, TAM possesses partial oestrogenic activity in the uterus and its use has been associated with an increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma (EC). The molecular mechanism for these observations is not well understood. Herein, we demonstrated that forced expression of Trefoil factor 3 ( TFF3) , in oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) EC cells significantly increased cell cycle progression, cell survival, anchorage-independent growth, invasiveness and tumour growth in xenograft models. Clinically, elevated TFF3 protein expression was observed in EC compared with normal endometrial tissue, and its increased expression in EC was significantly associated with myometrial invasion. TAM exposure increased expression of TFF3 in ER+ EC cells and its elevated expression resulted in increased oncogenicity and invasiveness. TAM-stimulated expression of TFF3 in EC cells was associated with hypomethylation of the TFF3 promoter sequence and c-JUN/SP1-dependent transcriptional activation. In addition, small interfering ( si) RNA -mediated depletion or polyclonal antibody inhibition of TFF3 significantly abrogated oncogenicity and invasiveness in EC cells consequent to TAM induction or forced expression of TFF3. Hence, TAM-stimulated upregulation of TFF3 in EC cells was critical in promoting EC progression associated with TAM treatment. Importantly, inhibition of TFF3 function might be an attractive molecular modality to abrogate the stimulatory effects of TAM on endometrial tissue and to limit the progression of EC.

  12. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  13. Differential Expression and Clinical Significance of DNA Methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B), Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) and Human MutL Homologs 1 (hMLH1) in Endometrial Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenting; Wang, Ying; Fang, Xinzhi; Zhou, Mei; Li, Yiqun; Dong, Ying; Wang, Ruozheng

    2017-02-21

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and the clinicopathologic significance of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and human MutL homologs 1 (hMLH1) in endometrial carcinomas between Han and Uygur women in Xinjiang. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of DNMT3B, PTEN, and hMLH1 in endometrial carcinomas were assessed by immunohistochemistry, followed by an analysis of their relationship to clinical-pathological features and prognosis. RESULTS There were a 61.7% (95/154) overexpression of DNMT3B, 50.0% (77/154) loss of PTEN expression and 18.2% (28/154) loss of hMLH1 expression. The expression of DNMT3B and PTEN in endometrial carcinomas was statistically significantly different between Uygur women and Han women (p=0.001, p=0.010, respectively). DNMT3B expression was statistically significant based on the grade of endometrial carcinomas (p=0.031). PTEN loss was statistically significant between endometrioid carcinomas (ECs) and non endometrioid carcinomas (NECs) (p=0.040). DNMT3B expression was statistically significant in different myometrial invasion groups in Uygur women (p=0.010). Furthermore, the correlation of DNMT3B and PTEN expression was significant in endometrial carcinomas (p=0.021). PTEN expression was statistically significant in the overall survival (OS) rate of women with endometrial cancers (p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that PTEN and DNMT3B possess common regulation features as well as certain ethnic differences in expression between Han women and Uygur women. An interaction may exist in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma. DNMT3B was expressed differently in cases of myometrial invasion and PTEN was associated with OS, which suggested that these molecular markers may be useful in the evaluation of the biological behavior of endometrial carcinomas and may be useful indicators of prognosis in women with endometrial carcinomas.

  14. Application of Combined Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Transvaginal Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui-li; Xiang, Hong; Duan, Li; Shahai, Gulinaer; Liu, Hui; Li, Xiang-hong; Mou, Rui-xue

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to explore the clinical value of combining two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal contrast-enhanced ultrasounds (CEUS) in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma (EC). Methods. In this prospective diagnostic study, transvaginal 2D and 3D CEUS were performed on 68 patients with suspected EC, and the results of the obtained 2D-CEUS and 3D-CEUS images were compared with the gold standard for statistical analysis. Results. 2D-CEUS benign endometrial lesions showed the normal uterine perfusion phase while EC cases showed early arrival and early washout of the contrast agent and nonuniform enhancement. The 3D-CEUS images differed in central blood vessel manifestation, blood vessel shape, and vascular pattern between benign and malignant endometrial lesions (P < 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of transvaginal 2D-CEUS and 2D-CEUS combined with 3D-CEUS for diagnosis of benign and malignant endometrial lesions were 76.9%, 73.8%, 64.5%, 83.8%, and 75.0% and 84.6%, 83.3%, 75.9%, 89.7%, and 83.8%, respectively. Conclusion. 3D-CEUS is a useful supplement to 2D-CEUS and can clearly reveal the angioarchitecture spatial relationships between vessels and depth of myometrial invasion in EC. The combined use of 2D and 3D-CEUS can offer direct, accurate, and comprehensive diagnosis of early EC. PMID:26090396

  15. HIF-1α and GLUT-1 Expression in Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia, Type I and II Endometrial Carcinoma: A Potential Role in Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Wahed, Moshira Mohammed Abdel; Kassem, Hend Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) is one of the major adaptive responses to hypoxia, regulating the activity of glucose transporter -1 (GLUT-1), responsible for glucose uptake. Aim To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of both HIF-1α and GLUT-1 in type I and II endometrial carcinoma and their correlation with the available clinicopathologic variables in each type. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted on archival blocks diagnosed from pathology department between April 2010 and August 2014 included 9 cases of atypical hyperplasia and 67 cases of endometrial carcinoma. Evaluation of both HIF-1α and GLUT-1 expression using standard immunohistochemical techniques performed on cut sections from selected paraffin embedded blocks. Statistical Analysis Descriptive analysis of the variables and statistical significances were calculated by non-parametric chi-square test using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 12.0 (SPSS). Results HIF-1α was expressed in epithelial (88.9%, 52.2%, 61.2% and 50%) and stromal (33.3%, 74.6%. 71.4% and 83.3%) components of hyperplasia, total cases of EC, type I and II EC, respectively. GLUT-1 was expressed in the epithelial component of 88.9%, 98.5%, 98% and 100% of hyperplasia, total EC cases, type I and II EC, respectively. The necrosis related pattern of epithelial HIF-1α expression was in favour of type II (p=0.018) and grade III (p=0.038). HIF-1α H-score was associated with high apoptosis in both type I and total cases of EC (p=0.04). GLUT-1 H-score was negatively correlated with apoptotic count (p=0.04) and associated with high grade (p=0.003) and advanced stage in total EC (p=0.004). GLUT-1 H-score was correlated with the pattern of HIF-1α staining in all cases of EC (p= 0.04). Conclusion The role of HIF-1α in epithelial cells may differ from that of stromal cells in EC; however they augment the expression of each other supporting the crosstalk between them. The

  16. HIF-1α and GLUT-1 Expression in Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia, Type I and II Endometrial Carcinoma: A Potential Role in Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Al-Sharaky, Dalia Rifaat; Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Wahed, Moshira Mohammed Abdel; Kassem, Hend Abdou

    2016-05-01

    Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) is one of the major adaptive responses to hypoxia, regulating the activity of glucose transporter -1 (GLUT-1), responsible for glucose uptake. To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of both HIF-1α and GLUT-1 in type I and II endometrial carcinoma and their correlation with the available clinicopathologic variables in each type. A retrospective study was conducted on archival blocks diagnosed from pathology department between April 2010 and August 2014 included 9 cases of atypical hyperplasia and 67 cases of endometrial carcinoma. Evaluation of both HIF-1α and GLUT-1 expression using standard immunohistochemical techniques performed on cut sections from selected paraffin embedded blocks. Descriptive analysis of the variables and statistical significances were calculated by non-parametric chi-square test using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 12.0 (SPSS). HIF-1α was expressed in epithelial (88.9%, 52.2%, 61.2% and 50%) and stromal (33.3%, 74.6%. 71.4% and 83.3%) components of hyperplasia, total cases of EC, type I and II EC, respectively. GLUT-1 was expressed in the epithelial component of 88.9%, 98.5%, 98% and 100% of hyperplasia, total EC cases, type I and II EC, respectively. The necrosis related pattern of epithelial HIF-1α expression was in favour of type II (p=0.018) and grade III (p=0.038). HIF-1α H-score was associated with high apoptosis in both type I and total cases of EC (p=0.04). GLUT-1 H-score was negatively correlated with apoptotic count (p=0.04) and associated with high grade (p=0.003) and advanced stage in total EC (p=0.004). GLUT-1 H-score was correlated with the pattern of HIF-1α staining in all cases of EC (p= 0.04). The role of HIF-1α in epithelial cells may differ from that of stromal cells in EC; however they augment the expression of each other supporting the crosstalk between them. The stepwise increase in H- score of GLUT-1 in the studied cases implies its

  17. MicroRNA-424/E2F6 feedback loop modulates cell invasion, migration and EMT in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zheng; Nian, Zhou; Jingjing, Zhang; Tao, Luo; Quan, Li

    2017-01-01

    Our previous study explored the roles of microRNA-424 (miR-424) in the development of endometrial carcinoma (EC) and analyzed the miR-424/E2F7 axis in EC cell growth. In this study, we investigated the status of miR-424 in human endometrial cancer tissues, which were collected from a cohort of Zunyi patients. We found that the expression level of miR-424 was associated with clinical tumor stage, cell differentiation, lymph node metastasis and cell migration ability. Cell function experiments demonstrated that miR-424 overexpression suppressed the invasion and migration abilities of endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro. Bioinformatic predictions and dual-luciferase reporter assays suggested E2F6 as a possible target of miR-424. RT-PCR and western blot assays demonstrated that miR-424 transfection reduced the expression level of E2F6, while inhibiting miR-424 with ASO-miR-424 (antisense oligonucleotides of miR-424) increased the expression level of E2F6. Cell function experiments indicated that E2F6 transfection rescued the EC cell phenotype induced by miR-424. In addition, we also found that E2F6 negatively regulated miR-424 expression in EC cells. In summary, our results demonstrated that the miR-424/E2F6 feedback loop modulates cell invasion, migration and EMT in EC and that the miR-424/E2Fs regulation network may serve as a new and potentially important therapeutic target in EC. PMID:29371986

  18. The role of metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) in endometrial carcinoma tumorigenesis and progression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuo; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Dan-Dan; Sun, Kai-Xuan; Liu, Bo-Liang; Zhao, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1), has recently been identified as a key regulator in the progression of many cancers. However, its role in endometrial carcinoma (EC) remains unknown. MACC1 expression was determined in EC and normal endometrial tissues by immunohistochemistry. EC cell phenotypes and related molecules were examined after MACC1 downregulation by Small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA) transfection. We found that MACC1 was highly expressed in EC tissues than normal samples, and was significantly different in FIGO staging (I and II vs. III and IV), the depth of myometrial infiltration (<1/2 vs. ≥1/2), lymph nodes metastasis (negative vs. positive), besides, MACC1 overexpression was correlated with lower cumulative and relapse-free survival rate. MACC1 downregulation by siRNA transfection significantly induced G1 phrase arrest, suppressed EC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. In addition, MACC1 downregulation also reduced expression of Cyclin D1 and Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2), N-cadherin (N-Ca), α-SMA, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), and MMP9, but increased expression of E-cadherin (E-Ca). Bioinformatic predictions and dual-luciferase reporter assays indicate that MACC1 is a possible target of miR-23b. MiR-23b overexpression reduced MACC1 expression in vitro and induced G1 phrase arrest, suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. MiR-23b transfection also reduced Cyclin D1 and CDK2, N-Ca, α-SMA, MMP2, MMP9 expression, but increased E-Ca expression. Furthermore, the nude mouse xenograft assay showed that miR-23b overexpression suppressed tumour growth through downregulating MACC1 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that MACC1 may be a new and important diagnosis and therapeutic target of endometrial carcinoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mixed endometrial carcinomas with a "low-grade serous"-like component: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Iñigo; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Corominas, Marina; Gonzalez, Alan; Prat, Jaime

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we reported 2 mixed endometrioid endometrial carcinomas with a "low-grade serous"-like component, which does not fit into any of the 4 molecular groups described by The Cancer Genome Atlas. To understand the nature of these tumors, we have done an immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study of these 2 cases and added a third case. Immunoreactivity for p53, ER, Ki67, WT1, MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6 was assessed. Targeted next-generation sequencing for somatic mutations, including genes commonly implicated in carcinogenesis including TP53, KRAS, and PIK3CA, and Sanger sequencing for PTEN and POLE were also performed. All patients were nulliparous and had morbid obesity. Their tumors showed a micropapillary component that resembled that of ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma and merged with villoglandular endometrioid carcinoma. The invasive tumor glands exhibited a microcystic, elongated, or fragmented pattern and contained psammoma bodies. Two tumors showed aberrant p53 expression, and all 3 were positive for ER. All showed KRAS mutations, and TP53 mutations were found in 2 cases. One patient developed peritoneal carcinomatosis, one patient is alive with disease, and another died of a brain tumor. The third patient, whose tumor was confined to the uterus (stage IA), is alive without evidence of disease, but she has been followed for only 6 months. Mixed endometrial carcinomas with a "low-grade" serous-like component exhibit a morphologic spectrum of endometrioid and serous differentiation with microcystic, elongated, or fragmented features; ER expression; KRAS and TP53 mutations; and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ABO Blood Group and Endometrial Carcinoma: A Preliminary Single-Center Experience from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alsabban, Mohannad; Abuzaid, Mohammed; Alomar, Osama; Al-Badawi, Ismail A; Salem, Hany

    2017-12-18

    Inherited ABO blood groups have been shown to play possible contributions in the pathogenesis of various gynecologic and non-gynecologic carcinomas. With regard to gynecologic carcinomas, there is a confined number of studies that explored the relationship between ABO blood group and endometrial carcinoma (EC) in the PubMed-indexed literature. To the best of our knowledge, no such study has ever been conducted in Saudi Arabia. Our study has two objectives: (I) to determine the prevalence of ABO blood groups among Saudi patients with EC, and (II) to explore the relationship between ABO blood group and several clinico-pathological prognostic parameters (namely: menopausal status [age], body mass index [BMI], tumor grade, FIGO [Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique] stage and recurrence) in Saudi patients with EC. A retrospective cross-sectional study from 01-January-2010 to 31-July-2014 was conducted at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia - a referral tertiary healthcare institute. One-hundred and fourteen patients (n=114) were included in the study. Clinico-pathological data were extrapolated from medical records, and their association with ABO blood groups were evaluated. Categorical data were presented as number of cases (n) and percentages (%). Two-tailed Chi-square test was used for univariate analysis. For all purposes, p values <0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. The mean age and BMI were 59.5 ± 10.8 years (range: 31 - 90) and 36.6 ± 8.6 kg/m 2 (range: 17 - 60), respectively. The vast majority of patients were post-menopausal (86%), had BMI >28 kg/m 2 (84.2%), diagnosed with early FIGO stage I-II (76.3%) and developed no recurrence (86.8%). The frequencies of ABO blood group types A, B, AB, and O were 28.1%, 12.3%, 3.5% and 56.1%, respectively. When ABO blood groups were analyzed as four different types (A, B, AB and O), O-type was the most common ABO blood group in pre- and post

  1. Interval Between Hysterectomy and Start of Radiation Treatment Is Predictive of Recurrence in Patients With Endometrial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cattaneo, Richard; Hanna, Rabbie K.; Jacobsen, Gordon

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to improve local control in patients with endometrial carcinoma. We analyzed the impact of the time interval between hysterectomy and RT initiation in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board-approved study, we identified 308 patients with endometrial carcinoma who received adjuvant RT after hysterectomy. All patients had undergone hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and pelvic and para-aortic lymph node evaluation from 1988 to 2010. Patients' demographics, pathologic features, and treatments were compared. The time interval between hysterectomy and the start of RT was calculated. The effects of time interval onmore » recurrence-free (RFS), disease-specific (DSS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated. Following univariate analysis, multivariate modeling was performed. Results: The median age and follow-up for the study cohort was 65 years and 72 months, respectively. Eighty-five percent of the patients had endometrioid carcinoma. RT was delivered with high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone (29%), pelvic RT alone (20%), or both (51%). Median time interval to start RT was 42 days (range, 21-130 days). A total of 269 patients (74%) started their RT <9 weeks after undergoing hysterectomy (group 1) and 26% started ≥9 weeks after surgery (group 2). There were a total of 43 recurrences. Tumor recurrence was significantly associated with treatment delay of ≥9 weeks, with 5-year RFS of 90% for group 1 compared to only 39% for group 2 (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, RT delay of ≥9 weeks (P<.001), presence of lymphovascular space involvement (P=.001), and higher International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade (P=.012) were independent predictors of recurrence. In addition, RT delay of ≥9 weeks was an independent significant predictor for worse DSS and OS (P=.001 and P=.01, respectively). Conclusions: Delay in administering adjuvant RT after

  2. Molecular classification of endometrial carcinoma on diagnostic specimens is highly concordant with final hysterectomy: Earlier prognostic information to guide treatment.

    PubMed

    Talhouk, Aline; Hoang, Lien N; McConechy, Melissa K; Nakonechny, Quentin; Leo, Joyce; Cheng, Angela; Leung, Samuel; Yang, Winnie; Lum, Amy; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han; Soslow, Robert A; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; McAlpine, Jessica N

    2016-10-01

    Categorization and risk stratification of endometrial carcinomas is inadequate; histomorphologic assessment shows considerable interobserver variability, and risk of metastases and recurrence can only be derived after surgical staging. We have developed a Proactive Molecular Risk classification tool for Endometrial cancers (ProMisE) that identifies four distinct prognostic subgroups. Our objective was to assess whether molecular classification could be performed on diagnostic endometrial specimens obtained prior to surgical staging and its concordance with molecular classification performed on the subsequent hysterectomy specimen. Sequencing of tumors for exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs) in POLE and immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins and p53 were applied to both pre- and post-staging archival specimens from 60 individuals to identify four molecular subgroups: MMR-D, POLE EDM, p53 wild type, p53 abn (abnormal). Three gynecologic subspecialty pathologists assigned histotype and grade to a subset of samples. Concordance of molecular and clinicopathologic subgroup assignments were determined, comparing biopsy/curetting to hysterectomy specimens. Complete molecular and pathologic categorization was achieved in 57 cases. Concordance metrics for pre- vs. post-staging endometrial samples categorized by ProMisE were highly favorable; average per ProMisE class sensitivity(0.9), specificity(0.96), PPV(0.9), NPV(0.96) and kappa statistic 0.86(95%CI, 0.72-0.93), indicating excellent agreement. We observed the highest level of concordance for 'p53 abn' tumors, the group associated with the worst prognosis. In contrast, grade and histotype assignment from original pathology reports pre- vs. post-staging showed only moderate levels of agreement (kappa=0.55 and 0.44 respectively); even with subspecialty pathology review only moderate levels of agreement were observed. Molecular classification can be achieved on diagnostic endometrial samples and accurately

  3. George Papanicolaou's Efforts to Develop Novel Cytologic Methods for the Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Austin, R Marshall

    2017-01-01

    Toward the end of his career, Dr. George Papanicolaou became interested in human endometrial explants placed into tissue culture. The initial focus of his studies was on phagocytic cells emanating from endometrial explants and their role in cleansing the uterine cavity after each menstrual cycle and in sterilizing the uterine cavity in the face of infection. Papanicolaou also observed that growth rates of explanted normal and pathologic endometrial tissues differed considerably. Explants of endometrial malignancies exhibited not only increased growth rates but also visible proliferation of cells with readily identifiable cytologic features of malignancy. Acknowledging that cytologic screening for early diagnosis of intrauterine malignancies had up to that point not proven to be reliable as screening for cervical cancer, he hoped that the tissue culture explant technique could prove to be a new adjunctive diagnostic method for the diagnosis of endometrial and other female genital tract malignancies not readily detectible by other diagnostic procedures. Papanicolaou's untimely death in 1962 cut short his progress in this area of study. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Endometrial or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-04

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of MRI, DWI MRI, FDG-PET/CT and FEC PET/CT in the Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Surgically Staged Endometrial and Cervical Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-30

    Surgically Staged Endometrial and Cervical Carcinoma; Cervical Cancer: Invasive Disease, FIGO Stage 1B1 or Higher; Endometrial Cancer; Stage 1A With Myometrial Invasion or Any Higher Stage and Grade 3; Stage 1A With Myometrial Invasion or Any Other Higher Stage and Serous Papillary or Clear Cell Sub-types; Stage II Disease or Above and Any Histology Grade

  6. Early stages of zeolite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep

    Zeolites are crystalline nonporous aluminosilicates with important applications in separation, purification, and adsorption of liquid and gaseous molecules. However, an ability to tailor the zeolite microstructure, such as particle size/shape and pore-size, to make it benign for specific application requires control over nucleation and particle growth processes. But, the nucleation and crystallization mechanisms of zeolites are not fully understood. In this context, the synthesis of an all-silica zeolite with MFI-type framework has been studied extensively as a model system. Throughout chapters 2, 4 and 5, MFI growth process has been investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Of fundamental importance is the role of nanoparticles (~5 nm), which are present in the precursor sol, in MFI nucleation and crystallization. Formation of amorphous aggregates and their internal restructuring are concluded as essential steps in MFI nucleation. Early stage zeolite particles have disordered and less crystalline regions within, which indicates the role of structurally distributed population of nanoparticles in growth. Faceting occurs after the depletion of nanoparticles. The chapter 6 presents growth studies in silica sols prepared by using a dimer of tertaprpylammonium (TPA) and reports that MFI nucleation and crystallization are delayed with a more pronounced delay in crystal growth.

  7. Endometrial carcinomas with significant mucinous differentiation associated with higher frequency of k-ras mutations: a morphologic and molecular correlation study.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinjun; He, Mai; Jackson, Cynthia; Ou, Joyce J; Sung, C James; Breese, Virgina; Steinhoff, Margaret M; Quddus, M Ruhul; Tejada-Berges, Trevor; Lawrence, W Dwayne

    2013-09-01

    K-ras gene product in the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway is critical in the development of certain types of malignancies. K-ras mutation-associated pancreatic and ovarian carcinomas often display mucinous differentiation. Previous studies have shown that k-ras mutation is found in 10% to 30% of endometrial carcinomas. We investigated k-ras mutations in several morphologic subtypes of endometrial carcinomas with particular emphasis on various degrees of mucinous differentiation. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. Polymerase chain reaction amplification for k-ras codons 12 and 13 were performed, followed by sequencing using capillary electrophoresis. The Fisher exact test is used to compare the prevalent difference of k-ras mutation among the groups. P < 0.05 was considered significant. K-ras mutations were detected in 8 (80%) of 10 mucinous carcinomas, 12 (67%) of 18 endometrioid carcinomas (ECs) with significant mucinous differentiation (ECMD), 4 (25%) of 16 ECs, and 1 (9%) of 11 serous carcinomas. The differences were statistically significant between mucinous carcinomas versus EC (P < 0.01) and ECMD versus EC (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that mucinous carcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma with significant mucinous component are more likely to be associated with k-ras mutation. Potential clinical implications of k-ras mutation lies in the management of recurrent or higher-stage endometrial mucinous tumors, which would not be responsive to treatment protocols containing epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

  8. Appendiceal metastasis 10 years following ‘curative’ resection for low-grade primary endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Alfred Bentsi; Miller, Katy; Hammouch, Dalia; Waraich, Naseem; Kaye, Phillip; Kapur, Rakesh; Tennant, William

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis of primary endometrial adenocarcinoma to unusual sites has been occasionally reported. However, the authors believe this to be the first case report of metastasis to the appendix. This occurred more than 10 years after curative resection, and presented as sepsis with an intra-abdominal focus. PMID:22605700

  9. Clinicopathologic Comparison of Lynch Syndrome-associated and "Lynch-like" Endometrial Carcinomas Identified on Universal Screening Using Mismatch Repair Protein Immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Mills, Anne M; Sloan, Emily A; Thomas, Martha; Modesitt, Susan C; Stoler, Mark H; Atkins, Kristen A; Moskaluk, Christopher A

    2016-02-01

    Expanded testing for Lynch syndrome (LS) is increasingly recommended for patients with endometrial carcinomas, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for tumor loss of mismatch-repair (MMR) protein expression is the most common primary screen. This has led to the recognition of MMR-IHC-deficient cases without identifiable mutations on directed germline sequencing. The clinical implications of such "Lynch-like" (LL) cancers are unclear. We here report the clinicopathologic features of putative familial endometrial carcinoma identified on universal MMR-IHC screening with attention to cases with discordant IHC and germline results. The files of the University of Virginia Pathology Department were retrospectively searched for all MMR-deficient endometrial carcinomas identified on screening. Cases were categorized as likely sporadic (MLH1/PMS2 loss, evidence of MLH1 promoter hypermethylation) or putative LS (PLS) (loss of MSH2/MSH6, MSH6, or PMS2). PLS cases were further subdivided into LS and LL groups on the basis of the presence or absence of a confirmatory mutation by germline testing, and the clinicopathologic features of these cases were compared. A deficiency of ≥1 MMR protein was observed in 31.4% (66/210) of endometrial carcinomas, including 26 PLS cases, 15 of which had germline testing. Directed germline sequencing confirmed LS in 46.7% (7/15); the remaining cases were classified as LL. High-grade and/or biphasic morphology was seen in 42.9% (3/7) of LS and 62.5% (5/8) of LL cases; the remaining cases showed low-grade, conventional endometrioid morphology. High level microsatellite instability was observed in 71.4% (5/7) of LL cases. The majority of cases from both groups (LS: 85.7% [6/7]; LL: 87.5% [7/8]) were low-stage (T1a/T1b). Endometrial carcinoma was the presenting malignancy in 85.7% (6/7) of LS patients and 87.5% (7/8) of LL patients. Family history was suggestive of LS in 28.5% (2/7) of LS patients and 12.5% (1/8) of LL patients. Screening algorithms

  10. Endometrial metastasis of colorectal cancer with coincident endometrial adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Colling, Richard; Lopes, Tito; Das, Nagiindra; Mathew, Joe

    2010-11-05

    Metastasis to the uterine corpus is uncommon and secondary colorectal tumours of the endometrium are rare. We describe a uterine tumour with components of both primary endometrial and metastatic colorectal carcinomata. In this case, a 72-year-old obese woman presented with a 2-week history of postmenopausal bleeding per vaginum and weight loss. She had an abdominoperineal resection 3 years previously for a Dukes stage B rectal carcinoma. A transvaginal ultrasonography showed a thickened endometrium. Histology immunophenotyping showed a CK7+, CK20+, CA125- and CEA+ colorectal metastasis (a profile consistent with her previous cancer) associated with a primary CK7+, CK20-, CA125+ and CEA- endometroid endometrial adenocarcinoma. We conclude this represents endometrial metastasis of colorectal carcinoma with coincident primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. We speculate as to whether the endometrial carcinoma arose de novo or was induced by the colorectal metastasis, or whether the primary endometrial tumour provided a fertile site for the colorectal metastasis.

  11. Amplification of the NSD3-BRD4-CHD8 pathway in pelvic high-grade serous carcinomas of tubo-ovarian and endometrial origin.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek H; Lin, Douglas I

    2017-08-01

    Identification of novel therapeutics in pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) has been hampered by a paucity of actionable point mutations in target genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of amplification of the therapeutically targetable NSD3-CHD8-BRD4 pathway in pelvic HGSC, and to determine whether amplification is associated with worse prognosis. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ovarian and endometrial cancer cohorts were retrospectively analyzed via online data-mining tools to test the association of NSD3 , CHD8 and BRD4 genomic alterations with survival of pelvic HGSC patients. It was demonstrated that amplification of the NSD3-CHD8-BRD4 pathway in the ovarian HGSC cohort (observed in 18% of the cases, 88/489) was significantly associated with worse overall and progression-free survival compared with non-amplified cases. In addition, amplification of NSD3 , CHD8 and BRD4 also occurred in 9% (21/232) of overall endometrial cancer TCGA cases, which was associated with worse overall survival. In the endometrial cancer TCGA cohort, NSD3 , CHD8 and BRD4 amplification occurred specifically in the serous carcinoma (25%, 13/53) and 'serous-like' copy number high endometrial carcinoma (33%, 20/60) subgroups, compared with the polymerase e (0%, 0/17), microsatellite instability high (0%, 0/65) or low copy number (1%, 1/90) subgroups. These findings support the hypothesis that amplification of the NSD3-BRD4-CDH8 axis is frequent in pelvic HGSC of both ovarian and endometrial origin, and that this pathway is potentially targetable in a subset of HGSC patients.

  12. Endometrial Cancer and the Role of Lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leslie H; Soper, John T

    2016-06-01

    The role of lymph node dissection in early-stage endometrial cancer is highly debated, but staging and prognosis are dependent on knowledge of lymph node metastasis. We sought to review the available data on the use of lymph node assessment in presumed early-stage endometrial cancer. A comprehensive literature review was performed using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaborative Database, and PubMed. There is limited retrospective data that suggest a therapeutic benefit to lymphadenectomy. Prospective randomized trials have not shown a benefit to lymphadenectomy in low-risk patients, but found significant morbidity in patients undergoing lymphadenectomy. Selective lymph node assessment should be used in low-risk endometrial cancer. Sentinel lymph node assessment is emerging as a potential strategy for lymph node assessment. Selective use of lymphadenectomy in early-stage endometrial cancer can reduce the morbidity associated with lymph node dissection without compromising clinical outcomes. Multiple strategies are available including sentinel lymph nodes and risk factor based lymphadenectomy.

  13. EphA2 Targeted Chemotherapy Using an Antibody Drug Conjugate in Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Won; Stone, Rebecca L.; Lee, Sun Joo; Nam, Eun Ji; Roh, Ju-Won; Nick, Alpa M.; Han, Hee-Dong; Shahzad, Mian M.K.; Kim, Hye-Sun; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Jennings, Nicholas B.; Mao, Shenlan; Gooya, John; Jackson, Dowdy; Coleman, Robert L.; Sood, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose EphA2 overexpression is frequently observed in endometrial cancers, and is predictive of poor clinical outcome. Here, we utilize an antibody drug conjugate (MEDI-547) composed of a fully human monoclonal antibody against both human and murine EphA2 (1C1) and the tubulin polymerization inhibitor, monomethylauristatin F (MMAF). Experimental design EphA2 expression was examined in endometrial cancer cell lines by Western Blot. Specificity of MEDI-547 was examined by antibody degradation and internalization assays. Viability and apoptosis were investigated in endometrial cancer cell lines and orthotopic tumor models. Results EphA2 was expressed in the Hec-1A and Ishikawa cells, but was absent in the SPEC-2 cells. Antibody degradation and internalization assays showed that the antibody drug conjugate decreased EphA2 protein levels and was internalized in EphA2 positive cells (Hec-1A and Ishikawa). Moreover, in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays demonstrated that the antibody drug conjugate decreased viability and increased apoptosis of Hec-1A and Ishikawa cells. In vivo therapy experiments in mouse orthotopic models with this antibody drug conjugate resulted in 86 to 88% growth inhibition (P < 0.001) in the orthotopic Hec-1A and Ishikawa models compared to controls. Moreover, the mice treated with this antibody drug conjugate had a lower incidence of distant metastasis compared with controls. The anti-tumor effects of the therapy were related to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of tumor and associated endothelial cells. Conclusions The preclinical data for endometrial cancer treatment using MEDI-547 demonstrate substantial anti-tumor activity. PMID:20388851

  14. Characterization of LHY-821, a novel moderately differentiated endometrial carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qian; Yu, Li; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Yan; Xie, Ya; Liao, Qinping

    2012-08-01

    Endometrial cancer is a major problem for women but only a small number of comprehensively characterized cell models are available for studies. Here, we established a new cell line derived from a Stage IIIc(1) Grade 2 endometrial adenocarcinoma. The cell line, designated LHY-821, was characterized using growth curve, karyotyping, immunohistochemical staining, immunoblotting, drug sensitivity assay, invasion assay, and xenografting in nude mice. LHY-821 has a doubling time of about 46 h and a colony-forming efficiency of approximately 71 %. These cells expresse high levels of progesterone receptor but not estrogen receptor and are sensitive to medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). LHY-821 also expresses pan-cytokeratin, PTEN, p53, β-catenin, IGF-1, and IGF-2. In addition, karyotype analysis revealed that LHY-821 possessed a near diploid karyotype including 6q-, 10p-, Xq-, 13q+, 17p+, and Triplo-12. LHY-821 showed highly tumorigenicity in nude mice (100 %) and weak invasiveness. Chemosensitivity tests showed that LHY-821 was sensitive to both carboplatin and paclitaxel. LHY-821 is an immortalized cell line which had survived more than 80 serial passages; it may provide a novel tool to study the molecular mechanism and potential treatment for endometrial cancer.

  15. VSV-hIFNbeta-NIS in Treating Patients With Stage IV or Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-09

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mixed Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Metastatic Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  16. Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Resulting from Endometrial Carcinogenesis Enhances Tumor Invasion and Correlates with Poor Outcome of Endometrial Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chia-Yen; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Yun; Huang, Ching-Ting; Tang, Yu-Chien; Huang, Hsien-Da; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Chen, Chi-An; Cheng, Wen-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the dysregulated genes involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEC), and their possible mechanisms. Endometrial specimens including normal endometrial tissues, atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and EEC were analyzed. The expression profiles were compared using GeneChip Array. The gene expression levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR in the training and testing sets to correlate the clinico-pathological parameters of EEC. Immunoblotting, in vitro cell migration and invasion assays were performed in human endometrial cancer cell lines and their transfectants. In microarray analysis, seven dysregulated genes were identified. Only the levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) were higher in EEC with deep myometrial invasion, positive lympho-vascular space invasion, lymph node metastasis, and advanced stages. After multivariate analysis, uPA was the only independent poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival in the EEC patients (hazard ratio: 4.65, p = 0.03). uPA may enhance the migratory and invasive capabilities of endometrial tumor cells by the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt and p38 molecules. uPA is a dysregulated gene involved in the tumorigenesis, bio-pathological features and outcomes of EEC. uPA may be a potential molecule and target for the detection and treatment of EEC. PMID:26033187

  17. Endometrial cancer: magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, R; Gui, B; Maresca, G; Fanfani, F; Bonomo, L

    2005-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy of the female genital tract. Clinically, patients with endometrial carcinoma present with abnormal uterine bleeding. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endometrial carcinoma is disease staging and treatment planning. MRI has been shown to be the most valuable imaging mod-ality in this task, compared with endovaginal ultrasound and computed tomography, because of its intrinsic contrast resolution and multiplanar capability. MRI protocol includes axial T1-weighted images; axial, sagittal, and coronal T2-weighted images; and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. MR examination is usually performed in the supine position with a phased array multicoil using a four-coil configuration. Endometrial carcinoma is isointense with the normal endometrium and myometrium on noncontrast T1-weighted images and has a variable appearance on T2-weighted images demonstrating heterogeneous signal intensity. The appearance of noninvasive endometrial carcinoma on MRI is characterized by a normal or thickened endometrium, with an intact junctional zone and a sharp tumor-myometrium interface. Invasive endometrial carcinoma is characterized disruption or irregularity of the junctional zone by intermediate signal intensity mass on T2-weighted images. Invasion of the cervical stroma is diagnosed when the low signal intensity cervical stroma is disrupted by the higher signal intensity endometrial carcinoma. MRI in endometrial carcinoma performs better than other imaging modalities in disease staging and treatment planning. Further, the accuracy and the cost of MRI are equivalent to those of surgical staging.

  18. Efficacy of combination chemotherapy using irinotecan and nedaplatin for patients with recurrent and refractory endometrial carcinomas: preliminary analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Morikazu; Takano, Masashi; Kuwahara, Mika; Soyama, Hiroaki; Kato, Kento; Matuura, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Takahiro; Takasaki, Kazuki; Aoyama, Tadashi; Yoshikawa, Tomoyuki; Furuya, Kenichi

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of an irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT) and nedaplatin (N) combination therapy for recurrent and refractory endometrial carcinoma, administered based on UGT1A1 genotype. Between 2009 and 2017, 21 patients who received CPT-N therapy for recurrent endometrial carcinoma as second- or third-line chemotherapy at our hospital were identified. The CPT-N regimen included 40-70 mg/m 2 of CPT-11 on days 1, 8, and 15, and 50 mg/m 2 of nedaplatin on day 1, q4 weeks. The median patient age was 63 years. The number of prior chemotherapeutic regimens ranged from 1 to 2. Two patients had prior pelvic irradiation. The response rate [ratio of complete remission (CR) to partial remission (PR)] of CPT-N therapy was 3 of 21 (14.3%), and clinical benefit rate (CBR) [the combined percentages of CR, PR, and stable disease (SD)] was 9 of 21 (42.8%). Toxicities included grade 3 neutropenia [4 (19.0%) cases], grade 3 febrile neutropenia [2 (9.5%) cases], and grade 3 diarrhea [3 (14.3%) cases]; all resolved with conservative treatment. Patients with a wild-type UGT1A1 status received higher doses of CPT-11 (p = 0.048) and had similar RR and CBR compared to those with a UGT1A1*6 and *28 status. There were no significant differences in frequencies of hematological or non-hematological toxicities, regardless of UGT1A1 status. The CPT-N regimen for recurrent and refractory endometrial carcinoma had tolerable side effects and significant efficacy. This regimen is a viable treatment option for endometrial carcinoma.

  19. Estrogenic G protein-coupled receptor 30 signaling is involved in regulation of endometrial carcinoma by promoting proliferation, invasion potential, and interleukin-6 secretion via the MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Yin-Yan; Cai, Bin; Yang, Yi-Xia; Liu, Xue-Lian; Wan, Xiao-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The regulatory mechanism of endometrial carcinoma and the signal transduction pathways involved in hormone action are poorly defined. It has become apparent that the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 30 mediates the non-genomic signaling of 17beta-estradiol (E2). Here we show that GPR30 is highly expressed in endometrial cancer tissues and cancer cell lines and positively regulates cell proliferation and invasion. GPR30 expression was detected in 50 human endometrial carcinomas. The transcription level of GPR30 was significantly higher in the tissue of endometrial carcinoma than in normal endometrium (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical assays revealed that the positive expression rate of GPR30 protein in endometrial carcinoma tissue (35/50, 70%) was statistically higher than in normal endometrium tissue (8/30, 26.67%) (chi2 = 14.16, P = 0.0002). GPR30 overexpression was correlated with high-grade endometrial carcinoma. GPR30 expression was also found in two human endometrial cancer cell lines: RL95-2 (estrogen receptor positive) and KLE (estrogen receptor negative). The roles of GPR30 in proliferative and invasive responses to E2 and G1, a non-steroidal GPR30-specific agonist, in RL95-2 and KLE cell lines were then explored. We showed that E2 and G1 could initiate the MAPK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in both cell lines. What's more, E2 and G1 promoted KLE and RL95-2 proliferation and stimulated matrix metalloproteinase production and activity via the GPR30-mediated MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, as well as increased interleukin-6 secretion. These findings suggest that GPR30-mediated non-genomic signaling could play an important role in endometrial cancer.

  20. Differential Expression and Clinical Significance of DNA Methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B), Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) and Human MutL Homologs 1 (hMLH1) in Endometrial Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenting; Wang, Ying; Fang, Xinzhi; Zhou, Mei; Li, Yiqun; Dong, Ying; Wang, Ruozheng

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and the clinicopathologic significance of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and human MutL homologs 1 (hMLH1) in endometrial carcinomas between Han and Uygur women in Xinjiang. Material/Methods The expression of DNMT3B, PTEN, and hMLH1 in endometrial carcinomas were assessed by immunohistochemistry, followed by an analysis of their relationship to clinical-pathological features and prognosis. Results There were a 61.7% (95/154) overexpression of DNMT3B, 50.0% (77/154) loss of PTEN expression and 18.2% (28/154) loss of hMLH1 expression. The expression of DNMT3B and PTEN in endometrial carcinomas was statistically significantly different between Uygur women and Han women (p=0.001, p=0.010, respectively). DNMT3B expression was statistically significant based on the grade of endometrial carcinomas (p=0.031). PTEN loss was statistically significant between endometrioid carcinomas (ECs) and non endometrioid carcinomas (NECs) (p=0.040). DNMT3B expression was statistically significant in different myometrial invasion groups in Uygur women (p=0.010). Furthermore, the correlation of DNMT3B and PTEN expression was significant in endometrial carcinomas (p=0.021). PTEN expression was statistically significant in the overall survival (OS) rate of women with endometrial cancers (p=0.041). Conclusions Our findings suggest that PTEN and DNMT3B possess common regulation features as well as certain ethnic differences in expression between Han women and Uygur women. An interaction may exist in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma. DNMT3B was expressed differently in cases of myometrial invasion and PTEN was associated with OS, which suggested that these molecular markers may be useful in the evaluation of the biological behavior of endometrial carcinomas and may be useful indicators of prognosis in women with endometrial carcinomas. PMID:28220037

  1. A meta-analysis of long-term survival outcomes between surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation in patients with single hepatocellular carcinoma ≤ 2 cm (BCLC very early stage).

    PubMed

    Yin, Zi; Jin, Haosheng; Ma, Tingting; Zhou, Yu; Yu, Min; Jian, Zhixiang

    2018-04-30

    The optimal management choice in consideration of long-term overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for patients with BLCL very early stage is a matter of debate. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of liver resection (RES) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for single HCC 2 cm or less. The primary sources of the reviewed studies through December 2017, without restriction on the languages or regions, were Pubmed and Embase. The hazard ratio (HR) was used as a summary statistic for long-term outcomes. A total of 5 studies qualified for inclusion in this quantified meta-analysis with a total of 729 HCC patients of BCLC very early stage. Only postoperative 1-year OS was comparable in both RES and RFA groups. As for long-term outcomes of 3-year and 5-year OSs, RES was significantly better than RFA, the HRs were 0.64 (95%CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.05) and 0.63 (95%CI: 0.42, 0.95; P = 0.03) respectively. In terms of postoperative DFS, reduced tumor recurrence was observed in RES, and all the short- and long-terms outcomes were favored RES. RES offers better long-term oncologic outcomes compared with RFA in current clinical evidences. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Spontaneous uterine perforation due to clostridial gas gangrene associated with endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurashina, Ryuhei; Shimada, Hiromi; Matsushima, Takashi; Doi, Daisuke; Asakura, Hirobumi; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2010-06-01

    Few cases of clostridial gas gangrene associated with uterine malignancy have been reported. We report on a 46-year-old woman with clostridial sepsis. On the day of admission due to severe abdominal pain, peritonitis was diagnosed, and computed tomography showed free air in the abdomen. At emergency laparotomy, perforation of the necrotic uterine wall was observed. During hysterectomy, septic shock developed, and life-saving therapy was performed in the intensive care unit after surgery. Pathological examination of the necrotic uterine wall showed grade III endometrial adenocarcinoma of the uterine endometrium (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIa) with gas gangrene due to Clostridium perfringens. This report aims to alert gynecologists to the possibility that clostridial gas gangrene of the uterus can occur in patients with peritonitis and intra-abdominal free air. Early recognition and aggressive therapy can save patients' lives.

  3. Inhibition of Expression of the S100A8 Gene Encoding the S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A8 Promotes Apoptosis by Suppressing the Phosphorylation of Protein Kinase B (Akt) in Endometrial Carcinoma and HEC-1A Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Xing, Guangyang; Wu, Cailiang; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Min; Liu, Dajiang; Ge, Yan; Chen, Yao; Lei, Ting; Yang, Yongxiu

    2018-03-29

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and silencing of the S100A8 gene, which encodes the S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8), and apoptosis and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) in tissue samples of endometrial carcinoma and HEC-1A endometrial adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect expression of the S100A8 protein in 74 tissue samples of endometrial cancer and 22 normal endometrial tissue samples. A stable S100A8 gene knockdown cell line was constructed using lentiviral packing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transfected into HEC-1A cells. S100A8 mRNA and S100A8 protein levels were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. The effects of expression of the S100A8 gene by endometrial cancer cells was investigated by the MTT assay, cell cycle and apoptotic assays, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. RESULTS IHC showed high levels of expression of S100A8 protein in endometrial carcinoma tissues, and HEC-1A adenocarcinoma cells (in G1 and G2). Increased expression of S100A8 protein was found endometrial cancer tissues compared with normal endometrial tissues (79.7% vs. 4.5%). S100A8 gene knockdown reduced cell proliferation in the HEC-1A cells compared with control cells, induced cell apoptosis, inhibited the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), and induced the expression of pro-apoptotic genes, including the cytochrome C gene, CYCS, BAD, BAX, FOXO1, FOXO3, CASP9, and CASP3. CONCLUSIONS In endometrial carcinoma cells, down-regulation of the S100A8 gene induced cell apoptosis via inhibition of the phosphorylated or active form of protein kinase B (Akt).

  4. Inhibition of Expression of the S100A8 Gene Encoding the S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A8 Promotes Apoptosis by Suppressing the Phosphorylation of Protein Kinase B (Akt) in Endometrial Carcinoma and HEC-1A Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Xing, Guangyang; Wu, Cailiang; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Min; Liu, Dajiang; Ge, Yan; Chen, Yao; Lei, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and silencing of the S100A8 gene, which encodes the S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8), and apoptosis and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) in tissue samples of endometrial carcinoma and HEC-1A endometrial adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. Material/Methods Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect expression of the S100A8 protein in 74 tissue samples of endometrial cancer and 22 normal endometrial tissue samples. A stable S100A8 gene knockdown cell line was constructed using lentiviral packing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transfected into HEC-1A cells. S100A8 mRNA and S100A8 protein levels were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. The effects of expression of the S100A8 gene by endometrial cancer cells was investigated by the MTT assay, cell cycle and apoptotic assays, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. Results IHC showed high levels of expression of S100A8 protein in endometrial carcinoma tissues, and HEC-1A adenocarcinoma cells (in G1 and G2). Increased expression of S100A8 protein was found endometrial cancer tissues compared with normal endometrial tissues (79.7% vs. 4.5%). S100A8 gene knockdown reduced cell proliferation in the HEC-1A cells compared with control cells, induced cell apoptosis, inhibited the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), and induced the expression of pro-apoptotic genes, including the cytochrome C gene, CYCS, BAD, BAX, FOXO1, FOXO3, CASP9, and CASP3. Conclusions In endometrial carcinoma cells, down-regulation of the S100A8 gene induced cell apoptosis via inhibition of the phosphorylated or active form of protein kinase B (Akt). PMID:29595187

  5. [Primary management of endometrial carcinoma. Joint recommendations of the French society of gynecologic oncology (SFOG) and of the French college of obstetricians and gynecologists (CNGOF)].

    PubMed

    Querleu, D; Darai, E; Lecuru, F; Rafii, A; Chereau, E; Collinet, P; Crochet, P; Marret, H; Mery, E; Thomas, L; Villefranque, V; Floquet, A; Planchamp, F

    2017-12-01

    The management of endometrial carcinoma is constantly evolving. The SFOG and the CNGOF decided to jointly update the previous French recommendations (Institut national du cancer 2011) and to adapt to the French practice the 2015 recommendations elaborated at the time of joint European consensus conference with the participation of the three concerned European societies (ESGO, ESTRO, ESMO). A strict methodology was used. A steering committee was put together. A systematic review of the literature since 2011 has been carried out. A first draft of the recommendations has been elaborated, with emphasis on high level of evidence. An external review by users representing all the concerned discipines and all kinds of practice was completed. Three hundred and four comments were sent by 54 reviewers. The management of endometrial carcinoma requires a precise preoperative workup. A provisional estimate of the final stage is provided. This estimation impact the level of surgical staging. Surgery should use a minimal invasive approach. The final pathology is the key of the decision concerning adjuvant therapy, which involves surveillance, radiation therapy, brachytherapy, or chemotherapy. The management algorithms allow a fast, state of the art based, answer to the clinical questions raised by the management of endometrial cancer. They must be used only in the setting of a multidisciplinary team at all stages of the management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Post-operative peritoneal washing cytology in cases of stage IIIa endometrial carcinoma with positive peritoneal cytology].

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Hirai, Y; Hasumi, K

    1995-07-01

    According to the new FIGO staging of corpus cancer, the cases with positive peritoneal cytology alone belong in stage IIIa. The authors previously reported, however, good prognosis of IIIa cases with only positive peritoneal cytology. In order to assess the potential of malignant cells in the peritoneal cavity to metastasize, post-operative peritoneal washing cytology was undertaken. This study was conducted on a total of 115 consecutive patients with endometrial carcinoma who underwent primary surgical therapy at the Cancer Institute Hospital during the 25-month period from December, 1991 to December, 1993. Fifteen cases were included in stage IIIa with positive intraoperative peritoneal cytology alone. In 12 cases with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, a Silascon tube was indwelt in the abdominal cavity before closure of the abdomen. The peritoneal cavity was washed with 500 ml of physiological saline through the indwelt tube 14 days after the operation. The cytology of recovered washings was negative in all cases. Only two cases received postoperative chemotherapy owing to other prognostic factors. These 12 cases are alive with no evidence of disease after 12 to 36 months. The present study demonstrated that malignant cells in the peritoneal cavity appear to have a very low potential for implantation into the peritoneum.

  7. Simplified HCC-ART score for highly sensitive detection of small-sized and early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in the widely used Okuda, CLIP, and BCLC staging systems.

    PubMed

    Attallah, Abdelfattah M; Omran, Mohamed M; Attallah, Ahmed A; Abdelrazek, Mohamed A; Farid, Khaled; El-Dosoky, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Small-sized HCC can be effectively cured by surgery with good clinical outcomes. A highly sensitive HCC α-fetoprotein routine test (HCC-ART) for HCC diagnosis as well as a simplied form of the HCC-ART were reported in the British Journal of Cancer. Here, we verified and studied the applicability of the HCC-ART to the detection of early-stage HCC. 341 cirrhotic patients and 318 HCC patients were included in this study. For each, the HCC-ART score was calculated, and then the sensitivity, specificity, and results of an ROC curve analysis were compared between the HCC-ART and AFP when these biomarkers were used to detect small-sized HCC. Different HCC-ART cutoffs were set for the detection of different tumor sizes. The HCC-ART (AUC = 0.871, 70% sensitivity, 97% specificity) and the simplified HCC-ART (AUC = 0.934, 82% sensitivity, 100% specificity) were found to have high predictive power when attempting to separate cirrhotic patients from those with small-sized HCC. The simplified HCC-ART score was superior to AFP for determining stages according to the early Okuda (0.950 AUC, 84% sensitivity, 99% specificity), CLIP (0.945 AUC, 84% sensitivity, 99% specificity), and BCLC (1.000 AUC, 100% sensitivity, 99% specificity) staging systems. The simplified HCC-ART score was more strongly correlated than AFP and other staging systems with HCC tumor size (P < 0.0001; r = 0.8). The HCC-ART is superior to AFP for diagnosing early-stage HCC. Due to its advantages of minimal variability and a wide continuous scale for assessing HCC severity, the simplified HCC-ART has the potential to be more widely used than the original HCC-ART.

  8. Endometrial vs. cervical cancer: development and pilot testing of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system for predicting tumor origin of uterine carcinomas of indeterminate histology.

    PubMed

    Bourgioti, Charis; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Panourgias, Evangelia; Tzavara, Chara; Sarris, Kyrillos; Rodolakis, Alexandros; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela

    2015-10-01

    To report discriminant MRI features between cervical and endometrial carcinomas and to design an MRI- scoring system, with the potential to predict the origin of uterine cancer (cervix or endometrium) in histologically indeterminate cases. Dedicated pelvic MRIs of 77 patients with uterine tumors involving both cervix and corpus were retrospectively analyzed by two experts in female imaging. Seven MRI tumor characteristics were statistically tested for their discriminant ability for tumor origin compared to final histology: tumor location, perfusion pattern, rim enhancement, depth of myometrial invasion, cervical stromal integrity, intracavitary mass, and retained endometrial secretions. Kappa values were estimated to assess the levels of inter-rater reliability. On the basis of positive likelihood ratio values, an MRI-score was assigned. K value was excellent for most of the imaging criteria. Using ROC curve analysis, the estimated optimal cut-off for the MRI-scoring system was 4 with 96.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Using a ≥4 cut-off for cervical cancers and <4 for endometrial cancers, 97.4% of the patients were correctly classified. 2/58 patients with cervical cancer had MRI score <4 and none of the patients with endometrial cancer had MRI score >4. The area under curve of the MRI-scoring system was 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00). When the MRI-score was applied to 20/77 patients with indeterminate initial biopsy and to 5/26 surgically treated patients with erroneous pre-op histology, all cases were correctly classified. The produced MRI-scoring system may be a reliable problem-solving tool for the differential diagnosis of cervical vs. endometrial cancer in cases of equivocal histology.

  9. Dasatinib, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV or Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-04

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7

  10. The MicroRNA-200 Family Is Upregulated in Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Snowdon, Jaime; Zhang, Xiao; Childs, Tim; Tron, Victor A.; Feilotter, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs are dysregulated in cancer and may play essential roles in tumorigenesis. Additionally, miRNAs have been shown to have prognostic and diagnostic value in certain types of cancer. The objective of this study was to identify dysregulated miRNAs in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma (EEC) and the precursor lesion, complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH). Methodology We compared the expression profiles of 723 human miRNAs from 14 cases of EEC, 10 cases of CAH, and 10 normal proliferative endometria controls using Agilent Human miRNA arrays following RNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. The expression of 4 dysregulated miRNAs was validated using real time reverse transcription-PCR. Results Forty-three miRNAs were dysregulated in EEC and CAH compared to normal controls (p<0.05). The entire miR-200 family (miR-200a/b/c, miR-141, and miR-429) was up-regulated in cases of EEC. Conclusions This information contributes to the candidate miRNA expression profile that has been generated for EEC and shows that certain miRNAs are dysregulated in the precursor lesion, CAH. These miRNAs in particular may play important roles in tumorigenesis. Examination of miRNAs that are consistently dysregulated in various studies of EEC, like the miR-200 family, will aid in the understanding of the role that miRNAs play in tumorigenesis in this tumour type. PMID:21897839

  11. A phase 2 study of the oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, everolimus, in patients with recurrent endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Slomovitz, Brian M; Lu, Karen H; Johnston, Taren; Coleman, Robert L; Munsell, Mark; Broaddus, Russell R; Walker, Cheryl; Ramondetta, Lois M; Burke, Thomas W; Gershenson, David M; Wolf, Judith

    2010-12-01

    Dysregulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and the gene that encodes the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), PIK3CA, are the most common mutations in endometrial carcinoma (EC). Loss of PTEN or activation of PIK3CA results in constitutive activation of AKT, which leads to up-regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Everolimus is an oral rapamycin analog that acts by selectively inhibiting mTOR. A single-institution, open-labeled, phase 2 study of everolimus in patients with measurable recurrent EC who had failed at least 1 and no more than 2 prior chemotherapeutic regimens was performed. Everolimus was administered at a dose of 10 mg orally daily for 28-day cycles. Patients were treated until disease progression or toxicity. The primary endpoint was clinical benefit response (CBR), defined as a confirmed complete or partial response or prolonged stable disease (SD) (≥8 weeks). Inclusion was limited to patients with endometrioid histology. A total of 35 patients were enrolled (median age, 58 years; range, 38-81 years). A total of 81 cycles were administered. Twelve of 28 (43%) evaluable patients had not developed disease progression at the time of the first objective evaluation (8 weeks). All these patients had SD (median, 4.5 cycles; range, 2-10 cycles). Six of the 28 (21%) patients had a confirmed CBR at 20 weeks of therapy. Patients with CBR discontinued treatment because of toxicity (6 patients), disease progression (5 patients), and noncompliance (1 patient). Seven patients were unevaluable after receiving ≤1 cycle because of toxicity (5 patients) or noncompliance (2 patients). The most common drug-related toxicities were fatigue, anemia, pain, lymphopenia, and nausea. Everolimus demonstrated encouraging single-agent CBR in pretreated patients with recurrent endometrioid EC. Future studies will evaluate this agent in combination with hormonal and/or cytotoxic therapy. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer

  12. Quantitative evaluation of diffusion-kurtosis imaging for grading endometrial carcinoma: a comparative study with diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Li, Y; Lu, S-S; Zhang, Y-D; Wang, X-N; Luo, C-Y; Shi, H-B

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of histogram analysis of diffusion kurtosis magnetic resonance imaging (DKI) and standard diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in discriminating tumour grades of endometrial carcinoma (EC). Seventy-three patients with EC were included in this study. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value from standard DWI, apparent diffusion for Gaussian distribution (D app ), and apparent kurtosis coefficient (K app ) from DKI were acquired using a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. The measurement was based on an entire-tumour analysis. Histogram parameters (D app , K app , and ADC) were compared between high-grade (grade 3) and low-grade (grade 1 and 2) tumours. The diagnostic performance of imaging parameters for discriminating high- from low-grade tumours was analysed using a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the 10th percentile of D app , 90th percentile of K app and 10th percentile of ADC were higher than other parameters in distinguishing high-grade tumours from low-grade tumours (AUC=0.821, 0.891 and 0.801, respectively). The combination of 10th percentile of D app and 90th percentile of K app improved the AUC to 0.901, which was significantly higher than that of the 10th percentile of ADC (0.810, p=0.0314) in differentiating high- from low-grade EC. Entire-tumour volume histogram analysis of DKI and standard DWI were feasible for discriminating histological tumour grades of EC. DKI was relatively better than DWI in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade tumour in EC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Peritumoral granulomatous reaction in endometrial carcinoma: association with DNA mismatch repair protein deficiency, particularly loss of PMS2 expression.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Colin J R; Pearn, Amy; Pachter, Nicholas; Tan, Adeline

    2018-04-30

    The observation of peritumoral granulomatous reactions (PGRs) in two endometrial carcinomas (ECs) with a PMS2-deficient/MLH1-intact expression pattern led us to investigate whether PGRs in EC were specifically associated with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein deficiency, particularly PMS2 loss. Hysterectomy specimens from 22 MMR protein-intact and 54 MMR protein-deficient ECs were reviewed with specific attention to the presence of a PGR and a tumour-associated lymphoid reaction [including tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and stromal lymphoid infiltrates]. The MMR protein-deficient ECs included 22 cases with combined MLH1/PMS2 loss, 11 with combined MSH2/MSH6 loss, 11 with isolated MSH6 loss, and 10 with PMS2 loss but intact MLH1 staining (including the two 'index' cases). Overall, PGRs were identified in seven of 54 (13%) MMR protein-deficient ECs, five of which showed a PMS2-deficient/MLH1-intact immunophenotype; three of these patients had germline PMS2 mutations and one additional patient had a germline MSH6 mutation. None of the MMR protein-intact tumours showed a PGR. Although five of the seven PGR-positive ECs had a high-grade histological component, six were stage I. Most ECs with PGRs also showed TILs and stromal lymphoid reactions, similarly to MMR protein-deficient ECs in general. MMR protein-deficient ECs, particularly those with PMS2 loss, occasionally show PGRs in addition to stromal lymphoid infiltrates and TILs. Therefore, PGRs could be considered to constitute a histological prompt for consideration of Lynch syndrome. The potential prognostic significance of PGRs in EC requires further study. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Selected Immunohistochemical Panel Aids in Differential Diagnosis and Prognostic Stratification of Subtypes of High-grade Endometrial Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study at a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Orhun Çiğ; Onder, Semen; Topuz, Samet; Sozen, Hamdullah; Sen, Fatma; Ilhan, Ridvan; Yavuz, Ekrem

    This study aimed to investigate whether a selected immunohistochemical panel (estrogen receptor, p53, ARID1A, PPP2R1A, HNF-1β) could contribute to the diagnostic process of high-grade endometrial carcinomas (HG-ECs). We also aimed to analyze the correlation of these immunohistochemical results with several morphologic variables and survival data. After revising the diagnosis of 78 HG-ECs, immunohistochemical analysis was performed for each case. After immunohistochemical analysis, a specific diagnosis of prototypic HG-EC was established in most of the cases that were uncertain due to morphologic ambiguity. In the univariate analysis, older patient age, type II morphology, undifferentiated carcinoma and carcinosarcoma type of histology, altered p53 immunostaining, strong membranous staining of PPP2R1A, presence of lymphovascular invasion in serous carcinoma, and microcystic, elongated, and fragmented-type infiltration pattern in endometrioid carcinoma were significantly related to poor prognosis. In the multivariate analysis, only older patient age and carcinosarcoma or undifferentiated/dedifferentiated carcinoma type histology were found to be significantly poor prognostic factors (P=0.011), whereas advanced FIGO stage and type II histology were found to be correlated with poor prognosis, but did not reach statistical significance. We suggest that immunohistochemistry should be used in the differential diagnosis of HG-ECs, especially those with ambiguous morphology. Markers used in this study made a valuable contribution to the diagnostic process as well as prediction of prognosis.

  15. Usefulness of DWI in preoperative assessment of deep myometrial invasion in patients with endometrial carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis in order to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the preoperative assessment of deep myometrial invasion in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Methods Studies evaluating DWI for the detection of deep myometrial invasion in patients with endometrial carcinoma were systematically searched for in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library from January 1995 to January 2014. Methodologic quality was assessed by using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analytic methods were used to obtain pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The study also evaluated the clinical utility of DWI in preoperative assessment of deep myometrial invasion. Results Seven studies enrolling a total of 320 individuals met the study inclusion criteria. The summary area under the ROC curve was 0.91. There was no evidence of publication bias (P = 0.90, bias coefficient analysis). Sensitivity and specificity of DWI for detection of deep myometrial invasion across all studies were 0.90 and 0.89, respectively. Positive and negative likelihood ratios with DWI were 8 and 0.11 respectively. In patients with high pre-test probabilities, DWI enabled confirmation of deep myometrial invasion; in patients with low pre-test probabilities, DWI enabled exclusion of deep myometrial invasion. The worst case scenario (pre-test probability, 50%) post-test probabilities were 89% and 10% for positive and negative DWI results, respectively. Conclusion DWI has high sensitivity and specificity for detecting deep myometrial invasion and more importantly can reliably rule out deep myometrial invasion. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to add a DWI sequence to the standard MRI protocols in preoperative evaluation of endometrial cancer in order to detect deep

  16. Metabolic Tumor Volume on 18F-FDG PET/CT Improves Preoperative Identification of High-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Husby, Jenny A; Reitan, Bernt C; Biermann, Martin; Trovik, Jone; Bjørge, Line; Magnussen, Inger J; Salvesen, Øyvind O; Salvesen, Helga B; Haldorsen, Ingfrid S

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to prospectively explore the diagnostic value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging in endometrial carcinomas and to investigate whether (18)F-FDG PET-specific quantitative tumor parameters reflect clinical and histologic characteristics. Preoperative (18)F-FDG PET/CT was prospectively performed on 129 consecutive endometrial carcinoma patients. Two physicians who did not know the clinical findings or staging results independently reviewed the images, assessing primary tumor, cervical stroma involvement and metastatic spread, and determining maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively) for tumor, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). All parameters were analyzed in relation to histomorphologic and clinical tumor characteristics. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves for identification of deep myometrial invasion and lymph node metastases were generated, and MTV cutoffs for predicting deep myometrial invasion and lymph node metastases were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of lymph node metastases were 77%-85%, 91%-96%, and 89%-93%, respectively. SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV, and TLG were significantly related to deep myometrial invasion, presence of lymph node metastases, and high histologic grade (P < 0.015 for all) and independently predicted deep myometrial invasion (P < 0.015) and lymph node metastases (P < 0.025) after adjustment for preoperative histologic risk (based on subtype and grade) in endometrial biopsies. Optimal cutoffs for MTV in predicting deep myometrial invasion (20 mL) and the presence of lymph node metastases (30 mL) yielded odds ratios of 7.8 (P < 0.001) and 16.5 (P = 0.001), respectively. (18)F-FDG PET/CT represents a clinically valuable tool for preoperatively evaluating the presence of lymph node metastases in endometrial carcinoma patients. Applying MTV cutoffs for the prediction of deep myometrial

  17. Primary Surgery vs Radiotherapy for Early Stage Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mark A; Graboyes, Evan M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Neskey, David M; Kaczmar, John M; Schopper, Heather K; Sharma, Anand K; Morgan, Patrick F; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2018-04-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to determine the effect of primary surgery vs radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). In addition, this study attempts to identify factors associated with receiving primary RT. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013). Subjects and Methods Reviewing the NCDB from 2004 to 2013, patients with early stage I to II OCSCC were identified. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, Cox regression analysis, and propensity score matching were used to examine differences in OS between primary surgery and primary RT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with primary RT. Results Of the 20,779 patients included in the study, 95.4% (19,823 patients) underwent primary surgery and 4.6% (956 patients) underwent primary RT. After adjusting for covariates, primary RT was associated with an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.22). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with primary RT included age ≥70 years, black race, Medicaid or Medicare insurance, no insurance, oral cavity subsite other than tongue, clinical stage II disease, low-volume treatment facilities, and earlier treatment year. Conclusion Primary RT for early stage OCSCC is associated with increased mortality. Approximately 5% of patients receive primary RT; however, this percentage is decreasing. Patients at highest risk for receiving primary RT include those who are elderly, black, with public insurance, and treated at low-volume facilities.

  18. Re-establishment of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between human endometrial carcinomas by prostaglandin E(2).

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, Scott R; Kaufman, David G

    2012-12-01

    Reduced intercellular communication via gap junctions is correlated with carcinogenesis. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), between normal human endometrial epithelial cells is enhanced when endometrial stromal cells were present in culture. This enhancement of GJIC between normal epithelial cells also occurs when they are cultured in medium conditioned by stromal cells. This observation indicated that a soluble compound (or compounds) produced and secreted by stromal cells mediates GJIC in epithelial cells. Previous studies have shown that endometrial stromal cells release prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) under physiological conditions. When we evaluated the response of normal endometrial epithelial cells to various concentrations of PGE(2,) we found enhanced GJIC with 1nM PGE(2). This is a smaller increase in GJIC than that induced by medium conditioned by stromal cells. When the extracellular concentration of PGE(2) was measured after incubation with stromal cells, it was found to be similar to the concentrations showing maximal GJIC between the normal epithelial cells. When indomethacin was used to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by stromal cells, GJIC was reduced but not eliminated between normal endometrial epithelial cells. These observations suggest that although PGE(2) secreted by stromal cells is an important mediator of GJIC between the epithelial cells, it is not the sole mediator. Transformed endometrial epithelial cells did not demonstrate GJIC even in the presence of stromal cells. However, we were able to re-establish GJIC in transformed epithelial cells when we added PGE(2) to the cells. Our findings show that PGE(2) may serve as an intercellular mediator between stromal and epithelial cells that regulates GJIC in normal and malignant epithelial cells. This suggests that maintenance of GJIC by preserving or replacing PGE(2) secretion by endometrial stromal cells may have the potential to suppress

  19. Stromal Clues in Endometrial Carcinoma: Loss of Expression of β-Catenin, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Regulators, and Estrogen-Progesterone Receptor.

    PubMed

    Senol, Serkan; Sayar, Ilyas; Ceyran, Ayse B; Ibiloglu, Ibrahim; Akalin, Ibrahim; Firat, Ugur; Kosemetin, Duygu; Engin Zerk, Pinar; Aydin, Abdullah

    2016-05-01

    Epithelial-stroma interactions in the endometrium are known to be responsible for physiological functions and emergence of several pathologic lesions. Periglandular stromal cells act on endometrial cells in a paracrine manner through sex hormones. In this study, we immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators (SNAIL/SLUG, TWIST, ZEB1), adhesion molecules (β-catenin and E-cadhenin), estrogen (ER)-progesterone (PR) receptor and their correlation with each other in 30 benign, 148 hyperplastic (EH), and 101 endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma (EC) endometria. In the epithelial component, loss of expression in E-cadherin, ER and PR, and overexpression of TWIST and ZEB1 were significantly higher in EC than in EH (P<0.01). In the periglandular stromal component, β-catenin and SNAIL/SLUG expression were significantly higher in normal endometrium and simple without atypical EH compared with complex atypical EH and EC (P<0.01). In addition, periglandular stromal TWIST expression was significantly higher in EH group compared with EC (P<0.05). There was significantly negative correlation between β-catenin and ER, TWIST and ER, and TWIST and PR in hyperplastic and carcinomatous glandular epithelium, whereas there was a significantly positive correlation between β-catenin and SNAIL-SLUG, β-catenin and TWIST, β-catenin and ER, β-catenin and PR, SNAIL-SLUG and ER, SNAIL-SLUG and PR, TWIST and ER, TWIST and PR, in periglandular/cancer-associated stromal cells (P<0.01). In conclusion, the pattern of positive and negative correlations in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators (SNAIL-SLUG and TWIST), sex hormone receptors (ER and PR), and β-catenin between ECs and hyperplasia, as well as between epithelium and stroma herein, is suggestive of a significant role for these proteins and their underlying molecular processes in the development of endometrial carcinomas.

  20. Stromal Clues in Endometrial Carcinoma: Loss of Expression of β-Catenin, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Regulators, and Estrogen-Progesterone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ilyas; Ceyran, Ayse B.; Ibiloglu, Ibrahim; Akalin, Ibrahim; Firat, Ugur; Kosemetin, Duygu; Engin Zerk, Pinar; Aydin, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-stroma interactions in the endometrium are known to be responsible for physiological functions and emergence of several pathologic lesions. Periglandular stromal cells act on endometrial cells in a paracrine manner through sex hormones. In this study, we immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators (SNAIL/SLUG, TWIST, ZEB1), adhesion molecules (β-catenin and E-cadhenin), estrogen (ER)-progesterone (PR) receptor and their correlation with each other in 30 benign, 148 hyperplastic (EH), and 101 endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma (EC) endometria. In the epithelial component, loss of expression in E-cadherin, ER and PR, and overexpression of TWIST and ZEB1 were significantly higher in EC than in EH (P<0.01). In the periglandular stromal component, β-catenin and SNAIL/SLUG expression were significantly higher in normal endometrium and simple without atypical EH compared with complex atypical EH and EC (P<0.01). In addition, periglandular stromal TWIST expression was significantly higher in EH group compared with EC (P<0.05). There was significantly negative correlation between β-catenin and ER, TWIST and ER, and TWIST and PR in hyperplastic and carcinomatous glandular epithelium, whereas there was a significantly positive correlation between β-catenin and SNAIL-SLUG, β-catenin and TWIST, β-catenin and ER, β-catenin and PR, SNAIL-SLUG and ER, SNAIL-SLUG and PR, TWIST and ER, TWIST and PR, in periglandular/cancer-associated stromal cells (P<0.01). In conclusion, the pattern of positive and negative correlations in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators (SNAIL-SLUG and TWIST), sex hormone receptors (ER and PR), and β-catenin between ECs and hyperplasia, as well as between epithelium and stroma herein, is suggestive of a significant role for these proteins and their underlying molecular processes in the development of endometrial carcinomas. PMID:26367784

  1. Endometrial Carcinomas With Clear Cells: A Study of a Heterogeneous Group of Tumors Including Interobserver Variability, Mutation Analysis, and Immunohistochemistry With HNF-1β.

    PubMed

    Han, Guangming; Soslow, Robert A; Wethington, Stephanie; Levine, Douglas A; Bogomolniy, Faina; Clement, Philip B; Köbel, Martin; Gilks, Blake; DeLair, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Endometrial clear cell carcinoma (CC) is an uncommon tumor and often carries a poor prognosis. It has histologic features that overlap with other endometrial carcinomas and is frequently misclassified. Accurate classification is crucial, however, to improve treatment options. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess diagnostic interobserver variability among 5 gynecologic pathologists for tumors originally diagnosed as CC or with a component of CC (n=44); (2) to determine the utility of immunohistochemical markers estrogen receptor and HNF-1β; and (3) to detect mutations in select genes. Clinical data and morphologic features were also recorded. Agreement among reviewers was only moderate: only 46% of the original CC remained classified as such. After reclassification, estrogen receptor was positive in 8% of CC, 67% of endometrioid carcinomas (EC), and 47% of serous carcinomas (SC). Sensitivities of HNF-1β in CC, SC, and EC were 62%, 27%, and 17%, respectively, whereas specificity for CC versus EC or SC was 78%. Mutations in PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN, KRAS, and NRAS were detected in 41% of 37 cases that had adequate material for study. At least 1 mutation was identified in 33% of CC, 67% of EC, and 33% of SC. This group of patients had poor outcomes: 72% of the patients with follow-up information had died of disease. In summary, this study suggests that the current pool of CC is a heterogeneous group of tumors from the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular point of views and that only a percentage of them represent true CC.

  2. Germline MLH1 Mutations Are Frequently Identified in Lynch Syndrome Patients With Colorectal and Endometrial Carcinoma Demonstrating Isolated Loss of PMS2 Immunohistochemical Expression.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Beth; Brand, Randall E; Thull, Darcy; Bahary, Nathan; Nikiforova, Marina N; Pai, Reetesh K

    2015-08-01

    Current guidelines on germline mutation testing for patients suspected of having Lynch syndrome are not entirely clear in patients with tumors demonstrating isolated loss of PMS2 immunohistochemical expression. We analyzed the clinical and pathologic features of patients with tumors demonstrating isolated loss of PMS2 expression in an attempt to (1) determine the frequency of germline MLH1 and PMS2 mutations and (2) correlate mismatch-repair protein immunohistochemistry and tumor histology with germline mutation results. A total of 3213 consecutive colorectal carcinomas and 215 consecutive endometrial carcinomas were prospectively analyzed for DNA mismatch-repair protein expression by immunohistochemistry. In total, 32 tumors from 31 patients demonstrated isolated loss of PMS2 immunohistochemical expression, including 16 colorectal carcinomas and 16 endometrial carcinomas. Microsatellite instability (MSI) polymerase chain reaction was performed in 29 tumors from 28 patients with the following results: 28 tumors demonstrated high-level MSI, and 1 tumor demonstrated low-level MSI. Twenty of 31 (65%) patients in the study group had tumors demonstrating histopathology associated with high-level MSI. Seventeen patients underwent germline mutation analysis with the following results: 24% with MLH1 mutations, 35% with PMS2 mutations, 12% with PMS2 variants of undetermined significance, and 29% with no mutations in either MLH1 or PMS2. Three of the 4 patients with MLH1 germline mutations had a mutation that results in decreased stability and quantity of the MLH1 protein that compromises the MLH1-PMS2 protein complex, helping to explain the presence of immunogenic but functionally inactive MLH1 protein within the tumor. The high frequency of MLH1 germline mutations identified in our study has important implications for testing strategies in patients suspected of having Lynch syndrome and indicates that patients with tumors demonstrating isolated loss of PMS2 expression

  3. Recurrent endometrial carcinoma: prognosis for patients with recurrence within 6 to 12 months is worse relative to those relapsing at 12 months or later.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Takahito; Ueda, Yutaka; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yokoyama, Takuhei; Miyoshi, Yukari; Kimura, Toshihiro; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Masami; Yamasaki, Masato; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated association of prognosis of endometrial carcinoma patients and treatment-free intervals (TFIs). We compared the effectiveness of second-line chemotherapy performed for patients with TFIs of 6-12 months and 12 or more months following a first-line chemotherapy based on taxane (paclitaxel) and carboplatin, with or without the anthracycline (TC). Progression-free and overall survivals were significantly shorter in patients with TFIs of 6-12 months than those with TFIs of 12 or more months. Among the patients who received similar second-line chemotherapy, response rates of 15 patients with TFIs of 12 or more months and 7 patients with TFIs of 6-12 months were 67% and 43%, respectively. Progression-free survival was significantly worse in those with TFIs of 6-12 months (median, 7 months) than those with TFIs of 12 or more months (median, 12 months). Our small retrospective analysis suggests that recurrent endometrial carcinomas with TFIs of 6-12 months can be regarded as being partially sensitive to TC-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proteins S100A8 and S100A9 are potential biomarkers for renal cell carcinoma in the early stages: results from a proteomic study integrated with bioinformatics analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limin; Jiang, Haowen; Xu, Gang; Wen, Hui; Gu, Bin; Liu, Jun; Mao, Shanghua; Na, Rong; Jing, Yan; Ding, Qiang; Zhang, Yuanfang

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the two members of the EF‑hand Ca2+ binding protein S100 family, S100A8 and S100A9, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), serum samples were collected from patients with RCC, transitional cell carcinoma in the kidney, benign renal masses and normal controls. The samples were analyzed by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification technology to identify the differential expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in the respective groups. Hierarchical clustering analysis was then conducted for the samples and the relevant selected gene. The cross‑platform analysis for the external validation was performed by means of The Cancer Genome Atlas database, containing the gene/microRNA expression pattern and clinical information of patients with RCC. Immunohistochemical staining was used to verify the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in the four groups. As a result, serum and mRNA expression levels of S100A8 and S100A9 were found to be upregulated in patients with RCC compared with the other three groups, which was consistent with the result of the upregulated expression of mRNA levels in RCC tissue. The overexpression of S100A8 and S100A9 in cancer cells was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, bioinformatics revealed that let‑7, a microRNA formerly identified as an inhibiting factor of RCC was downregulated in RCC, which contrasted with S100A8. It was also complementary to the sequence at the 3' untranslated region terminal of S100A8. Therefore, indicating that S100A8 and S100A9 may serve as biomarkers for the detection of RCC.

  5. Endometrial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Biopsy - endometrium Images Pelvic laparoscopy Female reproductive anatomy Endometrial biopsy Uterus Endometrial biopsy References Beard JM, Osborn J. Common office procedures. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  6. Endometrial cancer arising from atypical complex hyperplasia: The significance in an endometrial biopsy and a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Jung Mi; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Kim, Young Nam; Cho, En Bee; Cha, Ju Eun; Sung, Moon Su; Lee, Kyung Bok

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the features of endometrial hyperplasia with concurrent endometrial cancer that had been diagnosed by endometrial sampling. Further, we attempted to identify an accurate differential diagnostic method. Methods We retrospectively studied 125 patients who underwent a diagnostic endometrial biopsy or were diagnosed after the surgical treatment of other gynecological lesions, such as leiomyoma or polyps. Patients were diagnosed between January 2005 and December 2013 at Busan Paik Hospital. Clinical and histopathological characteristics were compared in patients who had atypical endometrial hyperplasia with and without concurrent endometrial cancer. Results The patients were grouped based on the final pathology reports. One hundred seventeen patients were diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia and eight patients were diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from atypical hyperplasia. Of the 26 patients who had been diagnosed with atypical endometrial hyperplasia by office-based endometrial biopsy, eight (30.8%) were subsequently diagnosed with endometrial cancer after they had undergone hysterectomy. The patients with endometrial cancer arising from endometrial hyperplasia were younger (39.1 vs. 47.2 years, P=0.0104) and more obese (body mass index 26.1±9.6 vs. 23.8±2.8 kg/m2, P=0.3560) than the patients with endometrial hyperplasia. The correlation rate between the pathology of the endometrial samples and the final diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia was 67.3%. Conclusion In patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, the detection of endometrial cancer before hysterectomy can decrease the risk of suboptimal treatment. The accuracy of endometrial sampling for the diagnosis of concurrent endometrial carcinoma was much lower than that for atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Therefore, concurrent endometrial carcinoma should be suspected and surgical intervention should be considered in young or obese patients who present with

  7. Fertility-sparing treatment of endometrial cancer precursors among young women: a reproductive point of view.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, E; Maniglio, P; Frega, A; Marci, R; Caserta, D; Moscarini, M

    2012-12-01

    Early-stage endometrial cancer and complex atypical hyperplasia are treated with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. An emerging issue among younger women affected is the possibility of a fertility-sparing treatment with progestative therapy and close follow-up. To assess the possibility of conceiving after a diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia among women younger than 40 years old, in term of delaying definitive treatment and achieving pregnancy. 15 women younger than 40 years old with complex CAH or early carcinoma of the endometrium and a wish to preserve fertility. Progestins were administered orally for at least a 12 weeks period. Endometrial biopsies were used at follow-up. In 11 women, a complete pathological remission of the disease was observed. 4 pregnancies were attained in 4 women. 3 showed progression and underwent definitive surgery at 18 months. 1 showed no response at 24 months and 3 cycles and was counseled to receive a hysterectomy. A conservative approach in patients younger than 40 years appears a valid option, and a progestative therapy trial should be attempted whether a valid consensus is attained. Considering the risk to find AEH at biopsies and eventually a carcinoma at hysterectomy (25% of cases) a careful management is strictly required.

  8. Development of a New Outcome Prediction Model in Early-stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Based on Histopathologic Parameters With Multivariate Analysis: The Aditi-Nuzhat Lymph-node Prediction Score (ANLPS) System.

    PubMed

    Arora, Aditi; Husain, Nuzhat; Bansal, Ankur; Neyaz, Azfar; Jaiswal, Ritika; Jain, Kavitha; Chaturvedi, Arun; Anand, Nidhi; Malhotra, Kiranpreet; Shukla, Saumya

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic parameters that predict lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to design a new assessment score on the basis of these parameters that could ultimately allow for changes in treatment decisions or aid clinicians in deciding whether there is a need for close follow-up or to perform early lymph node dissection. Histopathologic parameters of 336 cases of OSCC with stage cT1/T2 N0M0 disease were analyzed. The location of the tumor and the type of surgery used for the management of the tumor were recorded for all patients. The parameters, including T stage, grading of tumor, tumor budding, tumor thickness, depth of invasion, shape of tumor nest, lymphoid response at tumor-host interface and pattern of invasion, eosinophilic reaction, foreign-body giant cell reaction, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion, were examined. Ninety-two patients had metastasis in lymph nodes. On univariate and multivariate analysis, independent variables for predicting lymph node metastasis in descending order were depth of invasion (P=0.003), pattern of invasion (P=0.007), perineural invasion (P=0.014), grade (P=0.028), lymphovascular invasion (P=0.038), lymphoid response (P=0.037), and tumor budding (P=0.039). We designed a scoring system on the basis of these statistical results and tested it. Cases with scores ranging from 7 to 11, 12 to 16, and ≥17 points showed LN metastasis in 6.4%, 22.8%, and 77.1% of cases, respectively. The difference between these 3 groups in relation to nodal metastasis was very significant (P<0.0001). A patient at low risk for lymph node metastasis (score, 7 to 11) had a 5-year survival of 93%, moderate-risk patients (score, 12 to 16) had a 5-year survival of 67%, and high-risk patients (score, 17 to 21) had a 5-year survival of 39%. The risk of lymph node metastasis in OSCC is influenced by many histologic parameters that are not routinely analyzed in

  9. Prognostic value of biologic subtype and the 21-gene recurrence score relative to local recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiation for early stage breast carcinoma: results from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2197 study.

    PubMed

    Solin, Lawrence J; Gray, Robert; Goldstein, Lori J; Recht, Abram; Baehner, Frederick L; Shak, Steven; Badve, Sunil; Perez, Edith A; Shulman, Lawrence N; Martino, Silvana; Davidson, Nancy E; Sledge, George W; Sparano, Joseph A

    2012-07-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the significance of biologic subtype and 21-gene recurrence score relative to local recurrence and local-regional recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiation. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2197 was a prospective randomized clinical trial that compared two adjuvant systemic chemotherapy regimens for patients with operable breast carcinoma with 1-3 positive lymph nodes or negative lymph nodes with tumor size >1.0 cm. The study population was a subset of 388 patients with known 21-gene recurrence score and treated with breast conservation surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and definitive radiation treatment. Median follow-up was 9.7 years (range = 3.7-11.6 years). The 10-year rates of local recurrence and local-regional recurrence were 5.4 % and 6.6 %, respectively. Neither biologic subtype nor 21-gene Recurrence Score was associated with local recurrence or local-regional recurrence on univariate or multivariate analyses (all P ≥ 0.12). The 10-year rates of local recurrence were 4.9 % for hormone receptor positive, HER2-negative tumors, 6.0 % for triple negative tumors, and 6.4 % for HER2-positive tumors (P = 0.76), and the 10-year rates of local-regional recurrence were 6.3, 6.9, and 7.2 %, respectively (P = 0.79). For hormone receptor-positive tumors, the 10-year rates of local recurrence were 3.2, 2.9, and 10.1 % for low, intermediate, and high 21-gene recurrence score, respectively (P = 0.17), and the 10-year rates of local-regional recurrence were 3.8, 5.1, and 12.0 %, respectively (P = 0.12). For hormone receptor-positive tumors, the 21-gene recurrence score evaluated as a continuous variable was significant for local-regional recurrence (hazard ratio 2.66; P = 0.03). The 10-year rates of local recurrence and local-regional recurrence were reasonably low in all subsets of patients. Neither biologic subtype nor 21-gene recurrence score should preclude breast conservation treatment with radiation.

  10. Prognostic value of biologic subtype and the 21-gene recurrence score relative to local recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiation for early stage breast carcinoma: results from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2197 study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Robert; Goldstein, Lori J.; Recht, Abram; Baehner, Frederick L.; Shak, Steven; Badve, Sunil; Perez, Edith A.; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Martino, Silvana; Davidson, Nancy E.; Sledge, George W.; Sparano, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the significance of biologic subtype and 21-gene recurrence score relative to local recurrence and local–regional recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiation. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2197 was a prospective randomized clinical trial that compared two adjuvant systemic chemotherapy regimens for patients with operable breast carcinoma with 1–3 positive lymph nodes or negative lymph nodes with tumor size >1.0 cm. The study population was a subset of 388 patients with known 21-gene recurrence score and treated with breast conservation surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and definitive radiation treatment. Median follow-up was 9.7 years (range = 3.7–11.6 years). The 10-year rates of local recurrence and local–regional recurrence were 5.4 % and 6.6 %, respectively. Neither biologic subtype nor 21-gene Recurrence Score was associated with local recurrence or local–regional recurrence on univariate or multivariate analyses (all P ≥ 0.12). The 10-year rates of local recurrence were 4.9 % for hormone receptor positive, HER2-negative tumors, 6.0 % for triple negative tumors, and 6.4 % for HER2-positive tumors (P = 0.76), and the 10-year rates of local–regional recurrence were 6.3, 6.9, and 7.2 %, respectively (P = 0.79). For hormone receptor positive tumors, the 10-year rates of local recurrence were 3.2, 2.9, and 10.1 % for low, intermediate, and high 21-gene recurrence score, respectively (P = 0.17), and the 10-year rates of local–regional recurrence were 3.8, 5.1, and 12.0 %, respectively (P = 0.12). For hormone receptor- positive tumors, the 21-gene recurrence score evaluated as a continuous variable was significant for local–regional recurrence (hazard ratio 2.66; P = 0.03). The 10-year rates of local recurrence and local–regional recurrence were reasonably low in all subsets of patients. Neither biologic subtype nor 21-gene recurrence score should preclude breast conservation

  11. MicroRNA-372 inhibits endometrial carcinoma development by targeting the expression of the Ras homolog gene family member C (RhoC)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo-Liang; Sun, Kai-Xuan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Here we explore the role of microRNA-372 (miR-372) in tumorigenesis and development of endometrial adenocarcinoma (EC) and analyze the underlying mechanism. We found that miR-372 expression is much lower in EC than normal endometrial specimens. Cell function experiments demonstrated that miR-372 overexpression suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and led to a G1 phase arrest and promoted the apoptosis of endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro. The nude mouse xenograft assay demonstrated that miR-372 overexpression suppressed tumor growth. RT-PCR and Western blot assays detected the expression of known targets of miR-372 in other malignant tumors and found Cyclin A1 and Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2) was downregulated by miR-372. Bioinformatic predictions and dual-luciferase reporter assays found that RhoC was a possible target of miR-372. RT-PCR and Western blot assays demonstrated that miR-372 transfection reduced the expression of RhoC, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9, while it increased the expression of cleaved poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) and bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). The cell function experiments that transfected siRNA with RhoC showed the same trend as those which were transfected with miR-372. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time that miR-372 suppresses tumorigenesis and the development of EC; RhoC is a new and potentially important therapeutic target. PMID:26673619

  12. Comparison of a sentinel lymph node and a selective lymphadenectomy algorithm in patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma and limited myometrial invasion.

    PubMed

    Zahl Eriksson, Ane Gerda; Ducie, Jen; Ali, Narisha; McGree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Bogani, Giorgio; Cliby, William A; Dowdy, Sean C; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Mariani, Andrea; Leitao, Mario M

    2016-03-01

    To assess clinicopathologic outcomes between two nodal assessment approaches in patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma and limited myoinvasion. Patients with endometrial cancer at two institutions were reviewed. At one institution, a complete pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy to the renal veins was performed in select cases deemed at risk for nodal metastasis due to grade 3 cancer and/or primary tumor diameter>2cm (LND cohort). This is a historic approach at this institution. At the other institution, a sentinel lymph node mapping algorithm was used per institutional protocol (SLN cohort). Low risk was defined as endometrioid adenocarcinoma with myometrial invasion <50%. Macrometastasis, micrometastasis, and isolated tumor cells were all considered node-positive. Of 1135 cases identified, 642 (57%) were managed with an SLN approach and 493 (43%) with an LND approach. Pelvic nodes (PLNs) were removed in 93% and 58% of patients, respectively (P<0.001); para-aortic nodes (PANs) were removed in 14.5% and 50% of patients, respectively (P<0.001). Median number of PLNs removed was 6 and 34, respectively; median number of PANs removed was 5 and 16, respectively (both P<0.001). Metastasis to PLNs was detected in 5.1% and 2.6% of patients, respectively (P=0.03), and to PANs in 0.8% and 1.0%, respectively (P=0.75). The 3-year disease-free survival rates were 94.9% (95% CI, 92.4-97.5) and 96.8% (95% CI, 95.2-98.5), respectively. Our findings support the use of either strategy for endometrial cancer staging, with no apparent detriment in adhering to the SLN algorithm. The clinical significance of disease detected on ultrastaging and the role of adjuvant therapy is yet to be determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of a Sentinel Lymph Node and a Selective Lymphadenectomy Algorithm in Patients with Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma and Limited Myometrial Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Ane Gerda Zahl; Ducie, Jen; Ali, Narisha; McGree, Michaela E.; Weaver, Amy L.; Bogani, Giorgio; Cliby, William A.; Dowdy, Sean C.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.; Mariani, Andrea; Leitao, Mario M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess clinicopathologic outcomes between two nodal assessment approaches in patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma and limited myoinvasion. Methods Patients with endometrial cancer at two institutions were reviewed. At one institution, a complete pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy to the renal veins was performed in select cases deemed at risk for nodal metastasis due to grade 3 cancer and/or primary tumor diameter >2 cm (LND cohort). This is a historic approach at this institution. At the other institution, a sentinel lymph node mapping algorithm was used per institutional protocol (SLN cohort). Low risk was defined as endometrioid adenocarcinoma with myometrial invasion <50%. Macrometastasis, micrometastasis, and isolated tumor cells were all considered node-positive. Results Of 1135 cases identified, 642 (57%) were managed with an SLN approach and 493 (43%) with an LND approach. Pelvic nodes (PLNs) were removed in 93% and 58% of patients, respectively (P<0.001); para-aortic nodes (PANs) were removed in 14.5% and 50% of patients, respectively (P<0.001). Median number of PLNs removed was 6 and 34, respectively; median number of PANs removed was 5 and 16, respectively (both P<0.001). Metastasis to PLNs was detected in 5.1% and 2.6% of patients, respectively (P=0.03), and to PANs in 0.8% and 1.0%, respectively (P=0.75). The 3-year disease-free survival rates were 94.9% (95%CI, 92.4–97.5) and 96.8% (95%CI, 95.2–98.5), respectively. Conclusions Our findings support the use of either strategy for endometrial cancer staging, with no apparent detriment to the SLN algorithm. The clinical significance of disease detected on ultrastaging and the role of adjuvant therapy is yet to be determined. PMID:26747778

  14. Cytokine stimulation of MUC4 expression in human female reproductive tissue carcinoma cell lines and endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Chapela, Patricia J; Broaddus, Russell R; Hawkins, Shannon M; Lessey, Bruce A; Carson, Daniel D

    2015-11-01

    MUC4, a transmembrane glycoprotein, interferes with cell adhesion, and promotes EGFR signaling in cancer. Studies in rat models have demonstrated steroid hormonal regulation of endometrial MUC4 expression. In this study, qRT-PCR screening of mouse tissues determined that Muc4 mRNA also was robustly expressed in mouse uteri. Previous studies from our labs have demonstrated MUC4 mRNA was expressed at levels <1% of MUC1 mRNA in human endometrium and endometriotic tissue. Multiple human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines were assayed for MUC4 mRNA expression revealing extremely low basal expression in the Ishikawa, RL-95-2, AN3CA, and KLE lines. Moderate to high expression was observed in HEC50 and HEC-1A cells. MUC4 mRNA expression was not affected by progesterone and/or estrogen treatment, but was greatly stimulated at both mRNA and protein levels by proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF-α), particularly when used in combination. In endometrial tissue, MUC4 mRNA levels did not change significantly between normal or cancerous samples; although, a subset of patients with grade 1 and 2 tumors displayed substantially higher expression. Likewise, immunostaining of human endometrial adenocarcinoma tissues revealed little to no staining in many patients (low MUC4), but strong staining in some patients (high MUC4) independent of cancer grade. In cases where staining was observed, it was heterogeneous with some cells displaying robust MUC4 expression and others displaying little or no staining. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that while MUC4 is highly expressed in the mouse uterus, it is not a major mucin in normal human endometrium. Rather, MUC4 is a potential marker of endometrial adenocarcinoma in a subset of patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Assessment of Myometrial Invasion in Premenopausal Grade 1 Endometrial Carcinoma: Is Magnetic Resonance Imaging a Reliable Tool in Selecting Patients for Fertility-Preserving Therapy?

    PubMed

    Sakane, Makoto; Hori, Masatoshi; Onishi, Hiromitsu; Tsuboyama, Takahiro; Ota, Takashi; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Ueda, Yutaka; Kimura, Toshihiro; Kimura, Tadashi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in premenopausal women with G1 endometrial carcinoma. Twenty-six patients underwent T2W, diffusion weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced 3-T MRI. The degree of myometrial invasion was pathologically classified into no invasion, shallow (3 mm or less), and more. Two radiologists assessed myometrial invasion on MRI. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, AUC, and interobserver agreement were analyzed. For assessing myometrial invasion, mean accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, negative predictive values, and AUC, respectively, were as follows: 63%, 42%, 85%, 79%, 47%, and 0.75. Mean interobserver agreement was fair (k = 0.36). Shallow invasions were underestimated as no invasion on MRI in all 6 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging produced false-negative result on half of patients. The misjudgments tended to happen in patients with shallow invasion.

  16. Metformin inhibits early stage diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    JO, WOORI; YU, EUN-SIL; CHANG, MINSUN; PARK, HYUN-KYU; CHOI, HYUN-JI; RYU, JAE-EUN; JANG, SUNGWOONG; LEE, HYO-JU; JANG, JA-JUNE; SON, WOO-CHAN

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effects of metformin have recently emerged despite its original use for type II diabetes. In the present study, the effects of metformin on the development and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated using the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat model of HCC. Tumor foci were characterized by gross examination and by histopathological characteristics, including proliferation, hepatic progenitor cell content and the expression of hepatocarcinoma-specific molecular markers. Potential target molecules of metformin were investigated to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of metformin on chemically induced liver tumorigenesis. The antitumor effects of metformin were increased by the reduction of surface nodules and decreased the incidence of altered hepatocellular foci, hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma. Also, decreased expression levels of glutathione S-transferase placental form, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cytokeratin 8 described the inhibitory effects of metformin on HCC. In the present study, Wistar rats receiving treatment with DEN were administered metformin for 16 weeks. In addition, metformin suppressed liver tumorigenesis via an AMPK-dependent pathway. These results suggested that metformin has promising effects on the early stage of HCC in rats. Therefore, metformin may be used for the prevention of HCC recurrence following primary chemotherapy for HCC and/or for high-risk patients, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. PMID:26548419

  17. Liquid biopsy for early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenhua; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Weizhe; Liang, Hengrui; Zeng, Haikang; He, Jianxing

    2018-04-01

    Liquid biopsy, which analyzes biological fluids especially blood specimen to detect and quantify circulating cancer biomarkers, have been rapidly introduced and represents a promising potency in clinical practice of lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Unlike conventional tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy is non-invasive, safe, simple in procedure, and is not influenced by manipulators' skills. Notably, some circulating cancer biomarkers are already detectable in disease with low-burden, making liquid biopsy feasible in detecting early stage lung cancer. In this review, we described a landscape of different liquid biopsy methods by highlighting the rationale and advantages, accessing the value of various circulating biomarkers and discussing their possible future development in the detection of early lung cancer.

  18. Prognostic Significance of Nodal Location and Ratio in Stage IIIC Endometrial Carcinoma Among a Multi-Institutional Academic Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Mayadev, Jyoti; Elshaikh, Mohamed A; Christie, Alana; Nagel, Christa; Kennedy, Vanessa; Khan, Nadia; Lea, Jayanthi; Ghanem, Ahmad; Miller, David; Xie, Xian-Jin; Folkert, Michael; Albuquerque, Kevin

    2018-04-20

    Stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma (EC) represents pathologically heterogenous patients with single/multiple pelvic (stage IIIC1) or paraaortic (stage IIIC2) lymph nodes (LNs). There is an increasing trend to offer adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) +/- radiation (RT) uniformly to these patients, regardless of substage. We investigate the prognostic significance of positive LN (pLN) number, ratio (%pLN), location (IIC1 vs. IIC2), and adjuvant treatment on patterns of failure and survival in a large collaborative multi-institutional series. Clinical data for stage III EC patients such as patient characteristics, surgery/pathologic details, adjuvant therapies (including CT, RT, and chemotherapy and radiation), and outcomes (including pelvic control [PC], disease-free survival [DFS], distant DFS, and overall survival [OS]) were collected from 3 academic institutions. Log-rank analyses, Cox regression univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Of the 264 patients queried for stage III disease, 237 (73%) had pLN, and complete LN sampling for analysis. The mean number of pLN in the combined data were 3.9, with 26.1% of all LN sampled positive; 121 patients (51%) staged IIIC1, and 116 patients (49%) staged IIIC2. There was a significant difference in number of pLN (P=0.0006) and total LN sampled by institution (range, 13 to 35; P=0.0004), without a difference in %pLN (P=0.35). Ninety-seven of 220 (44.1%) have ≥20% pLN. While controlling for substage and institution, a decrease in DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.1; P=0.007), and OS (HR, 1.1; P=0.01) was observed with every increase of 10% in the pLN ratio. There was a significant difference in DFS (HR, 1.8; P=0.003), PC (HR, 1.9; P=0.004), and distant DFS (HR, 1.6; P=0.03), as well as a trend for decreased OS (HR, 1.6; P=0.08) for substage IIIC2 versus IIIC1 disease; 5 years DFS 40% versus 45%, OS 50% versus 57%. Patients received no adjuvant therapy (10%), CT alone (27%), RT alone (16%), or chemotherapy and radiation (47

  19. [Effect of GPER on the activation of PI3K/Akt induced by 17β-estradiol in endometrial carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Cai; Guo, Rui-Xia; Ge, Xin; Qiao, Yu-Huan

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the expression of G protein-coupled ER (GPER) and ER in the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) induced by 17β-estradiol (17β-E(2))in endometrial carcinoma cells, Ishikawa and HEC-1A. Expressions of GPER, ERα and ERβ protein in Ishikawa and HEC-1A cells were detected by immunohistochemical SP method. Levels of GPER, ERα and ERβ were examined by western blot in Ishikawa and HEC-1A cells after treated with 1×10(-6) mol/L 17β-E(2) at different time (0, 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes). GPER was positive expressed in Ishikawa and HEC-1A cells. ERα and ERβ were both positive expressed in Ishikawa cells. While, ERα was weakly expressed and ERβ was almost negatively expressed in HEC-1A cells. Western blot analysis showed that 1×10(-6) mol/L 17β-E(2) treatment, the Ishikawa and HEC-1A cells GPER protein level for 15 minutes markedly increased (P < 0.05), which Ishikawa 30 minutes, when cells reached the highest level (0.192 ± 0.004), HEC-1A cells for 15 minutes and reached the highest level (0.184 ± 0.006); Ishikawa and HEC-1A cells, Akt, activation of 15 minutes from the treatment start was significantly increased (P < 0.05), which Ishikawa cells for 30 minutes and reached the highest level (0.666 ± 0.021), HEC-1A cells for 15 minutes and reached maximum (0.788 ± 0.035); Ishikawa and HEC-1A cells, ERα and ERβ protein expression did not change significantly (P > 0.05). GPER likely involved in non-nuclear activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in endometrial carcinoma cells, Ishikawa and HEC-1A.

  20. External Pelvic and Vaginal Irradiation Versus Vaginal Irradiation Alone as Postoperative Therapy in Medium-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma-A Prospective Randomized Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sorbe, Bengt, E-mail: bengt.sorbe@orebroll.se; Horvath, Gyoergy; Andersson, Hakan

    Purpose: To evaluate the value of adjuvant external beam pelvic radiotherapy as adjunct to vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in medium-risk endometrial carcinoma, with regard to locoregional tumor control, recurrences, survival, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Consecutive series of 527 evaluable patients were included in this randomized trial. Median follow-up for patients alive was 62 months. The primary study endpoints were locoregional recurrences and overall survival. Secondary endpoints were recurrence-free survival, recurrence-free interval, cancer-specific survival, and toxicity. Results: Five-year locoregional relapse rates were 1.5% after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus VBT and 5% after vaginal irradiation alone (p = 0.013), and 5-yearmore » overall survival rates were 89% and 90%, respectively (p = 0.548). Endometrial cancer-related death rates were 3.8% after EBRT plus VBT and 6.8% after VBT (p = 0.118). Pelvic recurrences (exclusively vaginal recurrence) were reduced by 93% by the addition of EBRT to VBT. Deep myometrial infiltration was a significant prognostic factor in this medium-risk group of endometrioid carcinomas but not International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade or DNA ploidy. Combined radiotherapy was well tolerated, with serious (Grade 3) late side effects of less than 2%. However, there was a significant difference in favor of VBT alone. Conclusions: Despite a significant locoregional control benefit with combined radiotherapy, no survival improvement was recorded, but increased late toxicity was noted in the intestine, bladder, and vagina. Combined RT should probably be reserved for high-risk cases with two or more high-risk factors. VBT alone should be the adjuvant treatment option for purely medium-risk cases.« less

  1. SU-F-T-29: The Important of Each Fraction Image-Guided Planning for Postoperative HDR-Brachytherapy in Endometrial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Piriyasang, D; Pattaranutaporn, P; Manokhoon, K

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Cylindrical applicators are often used for postoperative HDRbrachytherapy in endometrial carcinoma. It has been considered that dosimetric variation between fractions for this treatment is minimal and might not be necessary to perform treatment planning for every fractions. At our institute, it is traditional to perform treatment planning with CT simulation on the first fraction and uses this plan for the rest of treatment. This study was aim to evaluate the errors of critical structure doses between the fractions when simulation and planning were done for first fraction only. Methods: Treatment plans of 10 endometrial carcinoma patients who received postoperativemore » HDR-brachytherapy and underwent CT-simulation for every HDR-fractions at our department were retrospectively reviewed. All of these patients were treated with cylindrical applicator and prescribed dose 15Gy in 3 fractions to 0.5cm from vaginal surface. The treatment plan from the first fraction was used to simulate in second and third CT-simulation. Radiation dose for critical structures in term of Dose-to-2cc (D2cc) were evaluated and compared between planning CT. Results: The D2cc for bladder and rectum were evaluated. For bladder, the mean error of D2cc estimation for second and third fractions was 7.6% (0.1–20.1%, SD=5.7). And the mean error for D2cc of rectum was 8.5% (0.1–29.4%, SD=8.5). Conclusion: The critical structure doses could be significant difference between fractions which may affects treatment outcomes or toxicities. From our data, image-guided brachytherapy at least with CT-Simulation should be done for every treatment fractions.« less

  2. Complete Remission Following Pembrolizumab in a Woman with Mismatch Repair-Deficient Endometrial Cancer and a Germline BRCA1 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Don S; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Bregar, Amy; Sullivan, Laura; Filipi, Jennifer; DiTavi, Elizabeth; Miller, Lucy; Ellisen, Leif; Birrer, Michael; DelCarmen, Marcela

    2018-02-22

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the U.S. and, although the majority of cases present at an early stage and can be treated with curative intent, those who present with advanced disease, or develop metastatic or recurrent disease, have a poorer prognosis. A subset of endometrial cancers exhibit mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. It is now recognized that MMR-deficient cancers are particularly susceptible to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, and in a landmark judgement in 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to pembrolizumab for these tumors, the first tumor-agnostic approval of a drug. However, less is known about the sensitivity to PD-1 blockade among patients with known mutations in double-strand break DNA repair pathways involving homologous recombination, such as those in BRCA1 or BRCA2 . Here we report a case of a patient with an aggressive somatic MMR-deficient endometrial cancer and a germline BRCA1 who experienced a rapid complete remission to pembrolizumab. Endometrial cancers, and in particular endometrioid carcinomas, should undergo immunohistochemical testing for mismatch repair proteins.Uterine cancers with documented mismatch repair deficiency are candidates for treatment with programmed cell death protein 1 inhibition.Genomic testing of recurrent, advanced, or metastatic tumors may be useful to determine whether patients are candidates for precision therapies. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  3. LSD1 sustains estrogen-driven endometrial carcinoma cell proliferation through the PI3K/AKT pathway via di-demethylating H3K9 of cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunqin; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Shiyu; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Jiawen; Xu, Yuyao; Zhang, Zhenbo; Bao, Wei; Wu, Sufang

    2017-03-01

    A recent study reported that histone lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, KDM1A) is overexpressed in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) and associated with tumor progression as well as poor prognosis. However, the physiological function and mechanism of LSD1 in endometrial cancer (EC) remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that β-estradiol (E2) treatment increased LSD1 expression via the GPR30/PI3K/AKT pathway in endometrial cancer cells. Both siGPR30 and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 block this effect. RNAi-mediated silencing of LSD1 abolished estrogen-driven endometrial cancer cell (ECC) proliferation, and induced G1 cell arrest and apoptosis. Mechanistically, we find that LSD1 silencing results in PI3K/AKT signal inactivation, but without the elevation of PTEN expression as expected. This is because the inhibition of LSD1 induces dimethylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9m2) accumulation at the promoter region of cyclin D1. Interfering with cyclin D1 leads to PI3K/AKT signal suppression. Re-overexpression of cyclin D1 in LSD1-knockdown ECCs reverses the LSD1 inhibitory action. Our finding connects estrogen signaling with epigenetic regulation in EEC and provides novel experimental support for LSD1 as a potential target for endometrial cancer therapeutics.

  4. Effect of mTOR Inhibitors in Nude Mice with Endometrial Carcinoma and Variable PTEN Expression Status

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Pedro; Meng, Li-rong

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity to rapamycin of endometrial cancer cells with different phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) expression to understand the mechanism of resistance to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in the treatment of endometrial cancer. Material/Methods Twenty specific pathogen-free female BALB/c mice received transplants of either HEC-1A (PTEN-positive) or Ishikawa (PTEN-negative) cells. Mice in the treatment group were injected intraperitoneally once a week for 4 consecutive weeks. The control group was injected weekly with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) for 4 consecutive weeks. Tumor volume, tumor mass, growth curves, and inhibition rate were measured, after which the mice were killed. Results Both tumor growth rate and size were slower in the treatment group than in the control group for all mice that received transplants of either HEC-1A or Ishikawa cells. The tumor inhibition rates in the treatment group were 48.1% and 67.1% in mice transplanted with HEC-1A and Ishikawa cells, respectively. Conclusions The inhibitory effects of rapamycin were enhanced in PTEN-negative Ishikawa tumor cells compared with PTEN-positive HEC-1A cells, which could explain the reduced effect of rapalogues in some endometrial cancer patients and help to understand the mechanism of resistance to this drug. PMID:25266877

  5. Improved survival of baby boomer women with early-stage uterine cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Study.

    PubMed

    Elshaikh, Mohamed A; Ruterbusch, Julie; Cote, Michele L; Cattaneo, Richard; Munkarah, Adnan R

    2013-11-01

    To study the prognostic impact of baby boomer (BB) generation on survival end-points of patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma (EC). Data were obtained from the SEER registry between 1988-2009. Inclusion criteria included women who underwent hysterectomy for stage I-II EC. Patients were divided into two birth cohorts: BB (women born between 1946 and 1964) and pre-boomers (PB) (born between 1926 and 1945). A total of 30,956 patients were analyzed. Considering that women in the PB group were older than those of the BB generation, the statistical analysis was limited to women 50-59 years of age at the time of diagnosis (n=11,473). Baby boomers had a significantly higher percentage of endometrioid histology (p<0.0001), higher percentage of African American women (p<0.0001), lower tumor grade (p<0.0001), higher number of dissected lymph nodes (LN) (p<0.0001), and less utilization of adjuvant radiation therapy (p=0.0003). Overall survival was improved in women in the BB generation compared to the PB generation (p=0.0003) with a trend for improved uterine cancer-specific survival (p=0.0752). On multivariate analysis, birth cohort (BB vs. PB) was not a significant predictor of survival end-points. Factors predictive of survival included: tumor grade, FIGO stage, African-American race, and increased number of dissected LN. Our study suggests that the survival of BB women between 50-60 years of age is better compared to women in the PB generation. As more BB patients are diagnosed with EC, further research is warranted.

  6. Anti-tumor activity of olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, in cultured endometrial carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background PTEN inactivation is the most frequent genetic aberration in endometrial cancer. One of the phosphatase-independent roles of PTEN is associated with homologous recombination (HR) in nucleus. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) plays key roles in the repair of DNA single-strand breaks, and a PARP inhibitor induces synthetic lethality in cancer cells with HR deficiency. We examined the anti-tumor activity of olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, and its correlation between the sensitivity and status of PTEN in endometrial cancer cell lines. Methods The response to olaparib was evaluated using a clonogenic assay with SF50 values (concentration to inhibit cell survival to 50%) in 16 endometrial cancer cell lines. The effects of PTEN on the sensitivity to olaparib and ionizing radiation (IR) exposure were compared between parental HEC-6 (PTEN-null) and HEC-6 PTEN + (stably expressing wild-type PTEN) cells by clonogenic assay, foci formation of RAD51 and γH2AX, and induction of cleaved PARP. The effects of siRNA to PTEN were analyzed in cells with wild-type PTEN. Results The SF50 values were 100 nM or less in four (25%: sensitive) cell lines; whereas, SF50 values were 1,000 nM or more in four (25%: resistant) cell lines. PTEN mutations were not associated with sensitivity to olaparib (Mutant [n = 12]: 746 ± 838 nM; Wild-type [n = 4]: 215 ± 85 nM, p = 0.26 by Student’s t test). RAD51 expression was observed broadly and was not associated with PTEN status in the 16 cell lines. The number of colonies in the clonogenic assay, the foci formation of RAD51 and γH2AX, and the induction of apoptosis were not affected by PTEN introduction in the HEC-6 PTEN + cells. The expression level of nuclear PTEN was not elevated within 24 h following IR in the HEC-6-PTEN + cells. In addition, knocking down PTEN by siRNA did not alter the sensitivity to olaparib in 2 cell lines with wild-type PTEN. Conclusions Our results suggest that olaparib, a PARP

  7. The early stages of duplicate gene evolution

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Richard C.; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Gene duplications are one of the primary driving forces in the evolution of genomes and genetic systems. Gene duplicates account for 8–20% of the genes in eukaryotic genomes, and the rates of gene duplication are estimated at between 0.2% and 2% per gene per million years. Duplicate genes are believed to be a major mechanism for the establishment of new gene functions and the generation of evolutionary novelty, yet very little is known about the early stages of the evolution of duplicated gene pairs. It is unclear, for example, to what extent selection, rather than neutral genetic drift, drives the fixation and early evolution of duplicate loci. Analysis of recently duplicated genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome reveals significantly reduced species-wide levels of nucleotide polymorphisms in the progenitor and/or duplicate gene copies, suggesting that selective sweeps accompany the initial stages of the evolution of these duplicated gene pairs. Our results support recent theoretical work that indicates that fates of duplicate gene pairs may be determined in the initial phases of duplicate gene evolution and that positive selection plays a prominent role in the evolutionary dynamics of the very early histories of duplicate nuclear genes. PMID:14671323

  8. Virtual exploration of early stage atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Andy L; González Ballester, Miguel A; Noailly, Jérôme

    2016-12-15

    Biological mechanisms contributing to atherogenesis are multiple and complex. The early stage of atherosclerosis (AS) is characterized by the accumulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) droplets, leading to the creation of foam cells (FC). To address the difficulty to explore the dynamics of interactions that controls this process, this study aimed to develop a model of agents and infer on the most influential cell- and molecule-related parameters. FC started to accumulate after six to eight months of simulated hypercholesterolemia. A sensitivity analysis revealed the strong influence of LDL oxidation rate on the risk of FC creation, which was exploited to model the antioxidant effect of statins. Combined with an empirical simulation of the drug ability to decrease the level of LDL, the virtual statins treatment led to reductions of oxidized LDL levels similar to reductions measured in vivo. An Open source software was used to develop the agent-based model of early AS. Two different concentrations of LDL agents were imposed in the intima layer to simulate healthy and hypercholesterolemia groups of 'virtual patients'. The interactions programmed between molecules and cells were based on experiments and models reported in the literature. A factorial sensitivity analysis explored the respective effects of the less documented model parameters as (i) agent migration speed, (ii) LDL oxidation rate and (iii) concentration of autoantibody agents. Finally, the response of the model to known perturbations was assessed by introducing statins agents, able to reduce the oxidation rate of LDL agents and the LDL boundary concentrations. jerome.noailly@upf.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Comparison of a sentinel lymph node mapping algorithm and comprehensive lymphadenectomy in the detection of stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma at higher risk for nodal disease.

    PubMed

    Ducie, Jennifer A; Eriksson, Ane Gerda Zahl; Ali, Narisha; McGree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Bogani, Giorgio; Cliby, William A; Dowdy, Sean C; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N; Soslow, Robert A; Keeney, Gary L; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Mariani, Andrea; Leitao, Mario M

    2017-12-01

    To determine if a sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping algorithm will detect metastatic nodal disease in patients with intermediate-/high-risk endometrial carcinoma. Patients were identified and surgically staged at two collaborating institutions. The historical cohort (2004-2008) at one institution included patients undergoing complete pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy to the renal veins (LND cohort). At the second institution an SLN mapping algorithm, including pathologic ultra-staging, was performed (2006-2013) (SLN cohort). Intermediate-risk was defined as endometrioid histology (any grade), ≥50% myometrial invasion; high-risk as serous or clear cell histology (any myometrial invasion). Patients with gross peritoneal disease were excluded. Isolated tumor cells, micro-metastases, and macro-metastases were considered node-positive. We identified 210 patients in the LND cohort, 202 in the SLN cohort. Nodal assessment was performed for most patients. In the intermediate-risk group, stage IIIC disease was diagnosed in 30/107 (28.0%) (LND), 29/82 (35.4%) (SLN) (P=0.28). In the high-risk group, stage IIIC disease was diagnosed in 20/103 (19.4%) (LND), 26 (21.7%) (SLN) (P=0.68). Paraaortic lymph node (LN) assessment was performed significantly more often in intermediate-/high-risk groups in the LND cohort (P<0.001). In the intermediate-risk group, paraaortic LN metastases were detected in 20/96 (20.8%) (LND) vs. 3/28 (10.7%) (SLN) (P=0.23). In the high-risk group, paraaortic LN metastases were detected in 13/82 (15.9%) (LND) and 10/56 (17.9%) (SLN) (%, P=0.76). SLN mapping algorithm provides similar detection rates of stage IIIC endometrial cancer. The SLN algorithm does not compromise overall detection compared to standard LND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Final validation of the ProMisE molecular classifier for endometrial carcinoma in a large population-based case series.

    PubMed

    Kommoss, S; McConechy, M K; Kommoss, F; Leung, S; Bunz, A; Magrill, J; Britton, H; Kommoss, F; Grevenkamp, F; Karnezis, A; Yang, W; Lum, A; Krämer, B; Taran, F; Staebler, A; Lax, S; Brucker, S Y; Huntsman, D G; Gilks, C B; McAlpine, J N; Talhouk, A

    2018-05-01

    We have previously developed and confirmed a pragmatic molecular classifier for endometrial cancers; ProMisE (Proactive Molecular Risk Classifier for Endometrial Cancer). Inspired by the Cancer Genome Atlas, ProMisE identifies four prognostically distinct molecular subtypes and can be applied to diagnostic specimens (biopsy/curettings) enabling earlier informed decision-making. We have strictly adhered to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for the development of genomic biomarkers, and herein present the final validation step of a locked-down classifier before clinical application. We assessed a retrospective cohort of women from the Tübingen University Women's Hospital treated for endometrial carcinoma between 2003 and 2013. Primary outcomes of overall, disease-specific, and progression-free survival were evaluated for clinical, pathological, and molecular features. Complete clinical and molecular data were evaluable from 452 women. Patient age ranged from 29 to 93 (median 65) years, and 87.8% cases were endometrioid histotype. Grade distribution included 282 (62.4%) G1, 75 (16.6%) G2, and 95 (21.0%) G3 tumors. 276 (61.1%) patients had stage IA disease, with the remaining stage IB [89 (19.7%)], stage II [26 (5.8%)], and stage III/IV [61 (13.5%)]. ProMisE molecular classification yielded 127 (28.1%) MMR-D, 42 (9.3%) POLE, 55 (12.2%) p53abn, and 228 (50.4%) p53wt. ProMisE was a prognostic marker for progression-free (P = 0.001) and disease-specific (P = 0.03) survival even after adjusting for known risk factors. Concordance between diagnostic and surgical specimens was highly favorable; accuracy 0.91, κ 0.88. We have developed, confirmed, and now validated a pragmatic molecular classification tool (ProMisE) that provides consistent categorization of tumors and identifies four distinct prognostic molecular subtypes. ProMisE can be applied to diagnostic samples and thus could be used to inform surgical procedure(s) and/or need for adjuvant therapy

  11. A microengineered pathophysiological model of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonseok; Hyun, Eunjeh; Seo, Jeongyun; Blundell, Cassidy; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Eunhee; Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Aree; Moon, Woo Kyung; Huh, Dongeun

    2015-08-21

    A mounting body of evidence in cancer research suggests that the local microenvironment of tumor cells has a profound influence on cancer progression and metastasis. In vitro studies on the tumor microenvironment and its pharmacological modulation, however, are often hampered by the technical challenges associated with creating physiological cell culture environments that integrate cancer cells with the key components of their native niche such as neighboring cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic complex microarchitecture of cancerous tissue. Using early-stage breast cancer as a model disease, here we describe a biomimetic microengineering strategy to reconstitute three-dimensional (3D) structural organization and microenvironment of breast tumors in human cell-based in vitro models. Specifically, we developed a microsystem that enabled co-culture of breast tumor spheroids with human mammary ductal epithelial cells and mammary fibroblasts in a compartmentalized 3D microfluidic device to replicate microarchitecture of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We also explored the potential of this breast cancer-on-a-chip system as a drug screening platform by evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of an anticancer drug (paclitaxel). Our microengineered disease model represents the first critical step towards recapitulating pathophysiological complexity of breast cancer, and may serve as an enabling tool to systematically examine the contribution of the breast cancer microenvironment to the progression of DCIS to an invasive form of the disease.

  12. Heterogenous MSH6 loss is a result of microsatellite instability within MSH6 and occurs in sporadic and hereditary colorectal and endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rondell P; Kerr, Sarah E; Butz, Malinda L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Halling, Kevin C; Smyrk, Thomas C; Dina, Michelle A; Waugh, Victoria M; Rumilla, Kandelaria M

    2015-10-01

    Mismatch-repair (MMR) immunohistochemistry is used to detect tumor MMR deficiency associated with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI). Rare tumors show heterogenous loss of mutS homolog 6 (MSH6) with immunohistochemistry, defined by areas of retained staining and separate areas of complete loss of staining. To investigate the clinical interpretation of this phenomenon, we identified 22 cases of heterogenous MSH6 loss interpreted at Mayo Clinic from January 2001 through December 2012 and reviewed histologic features, MSH6 and other MMR immunohistochemistry, and accompanying MSI testing results (n=20). Heterogenous MSH6 loss was seen in colorectal carcinoma (n=18), endometrial carcinoma (n=3), and sebaceous neoplasm (n=1). In the 18 colorectal carcinoma cases, it accompanied complete loss of mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) or PMS2, or both. Heterogenous MSH6 loss was characterized by MSI and MSH6 C8 tract instability in treatment-naive cases and showed mucinous or signet-ring zones in one quarter of cases. Two cases status post neoadjuvant chemoradiation showed heterogenous MSH6 loss but were microsatellite and C8 tract stable. C8 tracts were unstable in 2 of 4 MSH6-associated Lynch syndrome (LS) tumors, but all 4 showed complete MSH6 loss on immunohistochemistry. Further, 12 such MSH6-associated LS cases showed complete MSH6 loss. In conclusion, heterogenous MSH6 loss is uncommon, usually caused by instability in MSH6 exon 5 polycytosine tract, and not associated with germline MSH6 mutation. Although heterogenous MSH6 loss provides evidence against germline MSH6 mutation, patients whose tumors exhibit this immunolabeling pattern may have LS due to a defect in a different MMR gene.

  13. The Emerging Genomic Landscape of Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Le Gallo, Matthieu; Bell, Daphne W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Endometrial cancer is responsible for ~74,000 deaths amongst women worldwide each year. It is a heterogeneous disease that consists of multiple different histological subtypes. In the United States, the majority of deaths from endometrial carcinoma are attributed to the serous and endometrioid subtypes. An understanding of the fundamental genomic alterations that drive serous and endometrioid endometrial carcinomas lays the foundation for the identification of molecular markers that could improve the clinical management of patients presenting with these tumors. CONTENT Herein we review the current state of knowledge of the somatic genomic alterations that are present in serous and endometrioid endometrial tumors. We present this knowledge in a historical context – reviewing the genomic alterations that have been identified over the past two decades or more, from studies of individual genes and proteins, followed by a review of very recent studies that have conducted comprehensive, systematic surveys of genomic, exomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, and proteomic alterations in serous and endometrioid endometrial carcinomas. SUMMARY The recent mapping of the genomic landscape of serous and endometrioid endometrial carcinomas has resulted in the first comprehensive molecular classification of these tumors and has distinguished four molecular subgroups: a POLE ultramutated subgroup, a hypermutated/microsatellite unstable subgroup, a copy number low/microsatellite stable subgroup, and a copy number high subgroup. This molecular classification may ultimately serve to refine the diagnosis and treatment of women with endometrioid and serous endometrial tumors. PMID:24170611

  14. Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, and Bevacizumab or Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, and Temsirolimus or Ixabepilone, Carboplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III, Stage IV, or Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-29

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  15. Selective lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer: Retrospective analysis of morbidity and survival data at a tertiary care centre

    PubMed Central

    Chishti, Uzma; Aziz, Aliya B.; Akhtar, Munazza; Sheikh, Sana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare perioperative morbidity and survival data between patients with early-stage endometrial cancer who did or did not undergo selective lymphadenectomy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 180 patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma treated between 1999 and 2008 was performed in Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Results: Data from 180 patients were analysed. The selective lymphadenectomy group contained 108 women (60%) and the no lymphadenectomy group contained 72 women (40%). The median number of lymph nodes removed was 9. The mean age and extent of disease, as assessed by staging, tumour size, myometrial invasion, and lymphovascular invasion were comparable between groups. Upstaging of the disease to stage 3 and 4 occurred in 11% of patients in the lymphadenectomy group. There were no significant differences in the medical or surgical complications between groups. At a median follow-up of 26 months, both groups had comparable survival (lymphadenectomy versus no lymphadenectomy: 34 versus 32 months). Similar survival was noted for patients who underwent the removal of more or less than 5 pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusion: Selective lymphadenectomy offers the advantage of improved surgical staging but no therapeutic benefit in terms of overall survival. PMID:26430436

  16. miR-200a/miR-141 and miR-205 upregulation might be associated with hormone receptor status and prognosis in endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Si, Jing-Wen; Li, Wen-Ting; Liang, Li; Zhao, Jian; Zhou, Mei; Li, Dong; Li, Ting

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinicopathological significance of miR-200a/miR-141 and miR-205 expression in endometrioid carcinomas (ECs) versus nonendometrioid carcinomas (NECs) and to assess their correlation with hormone receptor status. miR-200a/miR-141 and miR-205 expression in 154 endometrial cancers was determined by qRT-PCR. The status of estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) was assessed using immunohistochemistry. miR-200a/miR-141 and miR-205 increased significantly in ECs and in NECs. The expression level of miR-200a was significantly higher in NECs than in ECs (P=0.025). Furthermore, there was a trend that NECs with worse clinicopathological variables had a higher miR-200a expression, while an inverse trend existed in ECs. miR-205 upregulation occurred frequently in NECs without lymph node metastases (P=0.030), whereas such association was not present in ECs. Interestingly, In ECs, miR-200a/miR-141 upregulation occurred frequently in the hormone receptor positive subgroups than the negative subgroups (P<0.05). Similarly, the expression level of miR-205 was higher in the hormone receptor positive subgroups and the association between miR-205 and PR reached statistical significance (P=0.024). In contrast, in NECs, a negative correlation was found between miR-200a/miR-141 and ER or PR status. Meanwhile, in ECs, miR-200a upregulation correlated with prolonged survival in the ER positive subgroup (P=0.046), whereas an inverse trend existed in the ER negative subgroup. Our findings suggest that miR-200a/miR-141 and miR-205 increased significantly in ECs and in NECs. However, they might behave differently in ECs versus NECs. miR-200a/miR-141 and miR-205 might be associated with hormone receptor status in endometrial cancer and may possess prognostic impacts.

  17. Stimuli-disassembling gold nanoclusters for diagnosis of early stage oral cancer by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Ingato, Dominique; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping; Kwon, Young Jik

    2018-01-01

    A key design consideration in developing contrast agents is obtaining distinct, multiple signal changes in diseased tissue. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been developed as contrast agents due to their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This study aims to demonstrate that stimuli-responsive plasmonic Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) can be used as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting early-stage cancer. Au NPs were clustered via acid-cleavable linkers to synthesize Au NCs that disassemble under mildly acidic conditions into individual Au NPs, simultaneously diminishing SPR effect (quantified by scattering intensity) and increasing Brownian motion (quantified by Doppler variance). The acid-triggered morphological and accompanying optico-physical property changes of the acid-disassembling Au NCs were confirmed by TEM, DLS, UV/Vis, and OCT. Stimuli-responsive Au NCs were applied in a hamster check pouch model carrying early-stage squamous carcinoma tissue. The tissue was visualized by OCT imaging, which showed reduced scattering intensity and increased Doppler variance in the dysplastic tissue. This study demonstrates the promise of diagnosing early-stage cancer using molecularly programmable, inorganic nanomaterial-based contrast agents that are capable of generating multiple, stimuli-triggered diagnostic signals in early-stage cancer.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Lymphadenectomy for the management of endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    May, Katie; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O; Kehoe, Sean; Morrison, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynaecological cancer in western Europe and North America. Lymph node metastases can be found in approximately 10% of women who clinically have cancer confined to the womb prior to surgery and removal of all pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes (lymphadenectomy) is widely advocated. Pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy is part of the FIGO staging system for endometrial cancer. This recommendation is based on non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) data that suggested improvement in survival following pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. However, treatment of pelvic lymph nodes may not confer a direct therapeutic benefit, other than allocating women to poorer prognosis groups. Furthermore, a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs of routine adjuvant radiotherapy to treat possible lymph node metastases in women with early-stage endometrial cancer, did not find a survival advantage. Surgical removal of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes has serious potential short and long-term sequelae and most women will not have positive lymph nodes. It is therefore important to establish the clinical value of a treatment with known morbidity. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of lymphadenectomy for the management of endometrial cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 2, 2009. Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group Trials Register, MEDLINE (1966 to June 2009), Embase (1966 to June 2009). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria RCTs and quasi-RCTs that compared lymphadenectomy with no lymphadenectomy, in adult women diagnosed with endometrial cancer. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) for overall and progression

  19. EF5 in Finding Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Who Are Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Cervical, Endometrial, or Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  20. Discovery and validation of methylation markers for endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Killian, J. Keith; Sampson, Joshua; Guido, Richard; Glass, Andrew; Adams, Lisa; Luhn, Patricia; Brinton, Louise A.; Rush, Brenda; d’Ambrosio, Lori; Gunja, Munira; Yang, Hannah P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Lacey, James V.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Podratz, Karl; Meltzer, Paul; Shridhar, Viji; Sherman, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The prognosis of endometrial cancer is strongly associated with stage at diagnosis, suggesting that early detection may reduce mortality. Women who are diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma often have a lengthy history of vaginal bleeding, which offers an opportunity for early diagnosis and curative treatment. We performed DNA methylation profiling on population-based endometrial cancers to identify early detection biomarkers and replicated top candidates in two independent studies. We compared DNA methylation values of 1500 probes representing 807 genes in 148 population-based endometrial carcinoma samples and 23 benign endometrial tissues. Markers were replicated in another set of 69 carcinomas and 40 benign tissues profiled on the same platform. Further replication was conducted in The Cancer Genome Atlas and in prospectively collected endometrial brushings from women with and without endometrial carcinomas. We identified 114 CpG sites showing methylation differences with p-values of ≤10−7 between endometrial carcinoma and normal endometrium. Eight genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL2, HS3ST2, HTR1B, MME, NPY, and SOX1) were selected for further replication. Age-adjusted odds ratios for endometrial cancer ranged from 3.44 (95%-CI: 1.33–8.91) for ASCL2 to 18.61 (95%-CI: 5.50–62.97) for HTR1B. An area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 was achieved for discriminating carcinoma from benign endometrium. Replication in The Cancer Genome Atlas and in endometrial brushings from an independent study confirmed the candidate markers. This study demonstrates that methylation markers may be used to evaluate women with abnormal vaginal bleeding to distinguish women with endometrial carcinoma from the majority of women without malignancy. PMID:24623538

  1. Genotype-Dependent Efficacy of a Dual PI3K/mTOR Inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235, and an mTOR Inhibitor, RAD001, in Endometrial Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Keiko; Oda, Katsutoshi; Kashiyama, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Sone, Kenbun; Miyamoto, Yuichiro; Hiraike, Haruko; Tanikawa, Michihiro; Miyasaka, Aki; Koso, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Yoko; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Kawana, Kei; Kuramoto, Hiroyuki; McCormick, Frank; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Yano, Tetsu; Kozuma, Shiro; Taketani, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    The PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway is frequently activated in endometrial cancer through various PI3K/AKT-activating genetic alterations. We examined the antitumor effect of NVP-BEZ235—a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor—and RAD001—an mTOR inhibitor—in 13 endometrial cancer cell lines, all of which possess one or more alterations in PTEN, PIK3CA, and K-Ras. We also combined these compounds with a MAPK pathway inhibitor (PD98059 or UO126) in cell lines with K-Ras alterations (mutations or amplification). PTEN mutant cell lines without K-Ras alterations (n = 9) were more sensitive to both RAD001 and NVP-BEZ235 than were cell lines with K-Ras alterations (n = 4). Dose-dependent growth suppression was more drastically induced by NVP-BEZ235 than by RAD001 in the sensitive cell lines. G1 arrest was induced by NVP-BEZ235 in a dose-dependent manner. We observed in vivo antitumor activity of both RAD001 and NVP-BEZ235 in nude mice. The presence of a MEK inhibitor, PD98059 or UO126, sensitized the K-Ras mutant cells to NVP-BEZ235. Robust growth suppression by NVP-BEZ235 suggests that a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor is a promising therapeutic for endometrial carcinomas. Our data suggest that mutational statuses of PTEN and K-Ras might be useful predictors of sensitivity to NVP-BEZ235 in certain endometrial carcinomas. PMID:22662154

  2. The treatment of carcinoma of the cervix and poor-risk endometrial carcinoma using the Cathetron at the Middlesex Hospital: experience since 1979.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, E K; Spittle, M F

    1986-03-01

    This study reports on 5 years experience of the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix and poor-risk carcinoma of the body of the uterus using a combination of external beam radiotherapy and high-dose-rate intracavitary 60Co-brachytherapy using the Cathetron since 1979 at the Middlesex Hospital, London. Despite a reduction in external beam dose of 20% since 1979, survival rates for both diseases remain unchanged and also compare favourably with those of other centres; they are 70.02% for carcinoma of the cervix of all stages except Ia, and 81.17% for 'poor-risk' carcinoma of body of uterus of all stages. The complication rates were acceptable. Analysis of the results of treatment by stage of disease in those patients with carcinoma of the cervix revealed that, except for Stage I cases, the results were comparable with those reported in the literature. The reason for the poor results in Stage I was found to be due to the high proportion of patients of 35 years of age and under with Stage I disease who fared significantly worse than older patients.

  3. Endometrial cancer - reduce to the minimum. A new paradigm for adjuvant treatments?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Up to now, the role of adjuvant radiation therapy and the extent of lymph node dissection for early stage endometrial cancer are controversial. In order to clarify the current position of the given adjuvant treatment options, a systematic review was performed. Materials and methods Both, Pubmed and ISI Web of Knowledge database were searched using the following keywords and MESH headings: "Endometrial cancer", "Endometrial Neoplasms", "Endometrial Neoplasms/radiotherapy", "External beam radiation therapy", "Brachytherapy" and adequate combinations. Conclusion Recent data from randomized trials indicate that external beam radiation therapy - particularly in combination with extended lymph node dissection - or radical lymph node dissection increases toxicity without any improvement of overall survival rates. Thus, reduced surgical aggressiveness and limitation of radiotherapy to vaginal-vault-brachytherapy only is sufficient for most cases of early stage endometrial cancer. PMID:22118369

  4. Development of an early-stage toll revenue estimation model.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    With agencies and states increasingly considering tolls as a means to finance transportation infrastructure, : there is an increasing need to quickly assess the feasibility of potential tolling projects. In the early stages : of a project when an age...

  5. Characteristics of Early Stages of Corrosion Fatigue in Aircraft Skin

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-02-01

    SRI International is conducting research to characterize and quantitatively describe the early stages of corrosion fatigue in the fuselage skin of commercial aircraft. Specific objectives are to gain an improved deterministic understanding of the tra...

  6. Endometrial cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... aggressive, and grade 3 is the most aggressive. Aggressive means that the cancer grows and spreads quickly. Treatment Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy , and chemotherapy . Surgery to remove the uterus ( hysterectomy ) may be done in women with early stage 1 cancer. The doctor may ...

  7. Abrupt loss of MLH1 and PMS2 expression in endometrial carcinoma: molecular and morphologic analysis of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Pai, Rish K; Plesec, Thomas P; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W; Yang, Bin; Marquard, Jessica; Shadrach, Bonnie; Roma, Andres R

    2015-07-01

    Given that endometrial cancer (EC) is often the sentinel cancer for female Lynch syndrome patients, we have successfully implemented universal screening of ECs and have previously shown that this is the preferred method to identify these patients. However, during the course of universal screening of EC, we encountered 6 cases with an unusual pattern of mismatch-repair protein immunohistochemistry that has not been previously described in this setting. In these 6 cases, there was an abrupt loss of MLH1 and PMS2 expression in a portion of the tumor. In 3 cases, marked histologic differences were identified between the areas of the tumor with retained expression and areas with loss of expression. In 2 cases, the areas with loss of expression were of higher grade (1 demonstrated solid growth and the other demonstrated increased nuclear atypia with diffuse p53 expression). In 4 tumors, histologic features associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) were present, including increased intraepithelial lymphocytes. The areas with loss of and retained MLH1/PMS2 expression were separately microdissected and assessed for MSI and MLH1 promoter methylation. The areas with loss of MLH1 and PMS2 more commonly demonstrated MSI compared with the areas with intact expression (83% vs. 33%). MLH1 promoter methylation analysis demonstrated heterogenous hypermethylation, as all areas with loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression had more extensive methylation of MLH1 compared with those areas with retained expression. In summary, we describe the histologic and molecular features of 6 cases of EC with abrupt loss of MLH1 and PMS2 expression and demonstrate that heterogenous methylation of the MLH1 promoter results in this distinct and unusual pattern of immunohistochemical expression.

  8. Phase II study of the PI3K inhibitor BKM120 in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma: a stratified type I–type II study from the GINECO group

    PubMed Central

    Heudel, P-E; Fabbro, M; Roemer-Becuwe, C; Kaminsky, M C; Arnaud, A; Joly, F; Roche-Forestier, S; Meunier, J; Foa, C; You, B; Priou, F; Tazi, Y; Floquet, A; Selle, F; Berton-Rigaud, D; Lesoin, A; Kalbacher, E; Lortholary, A; Favier, L; Treilleux, I; Ray-Coquard, I

    2017-01-01

    Backround: Patients with metastatic endometrial carcinoma have a poor prognosis and PIK3CA mutations and amplifications are common in these cancers. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the pure PI3K inhibitor BKM120 in advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma. Methods: This phase II, multicentre, single-arm, double strata (histological low grade (LG) or high grade (HG)) open-label study enrolled patients with histologically confirmed advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma who had received not more than one prior chemotherapy regimen. Patients received initially BKM120 100 mg tablets once daily. Primary end points were proportion of patients free of progression at 2 months (HG strata) or at 3 months (LG strata), objective response rate (ORR), and safety. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled, of whom 16 patients had received BKM120 at 100 mg. Because of high toxicities (cutaneous rash (54%), depressive events (47%), and anxiety (40%), the IDMC has proposed to stop recruitment at 100 mg and to continue the clinical trial with a lower dose of 60 mg per day. In addition, 24 patients (median age 67 years old) were newly enrolled (14 in the LG strata and 10 in the HG strata). Rate of nonprogression at 2 months in the HG strata was 70% and at 3 months was 60% in the LG strata. Median progression-free survival (PFS) for all patients is 4.5 months (CI 95% 2.8–6.1), and the median PFS for LG strata is 8.3 months compared with 3.8 months for the HG strata. No response was reported. At 60 mg per day, the most commonly reported treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were hyperglycaemia (58%), cognitive (31%), digestive (28%), hepatic liver functions (26%), and rash (23%). The most commonly reported treatment-related grade ⩾3 AEs were HTA (17%), hyperglycaemia (17%), and increased alanine aminotransferase (24%). Five patients (21%) stopped BKM120 for toxicity. Conclusions: The BKM120 was associated with an unfavourable safety profile and

  9. Implementation of laparoscopic hysterectomy for endometrial cancer over the past decade.

    PubMed

    Wollinga, Tim; Ezendam, Nicole P M; Eggink, Florine A; Smink, Marieke; van Hamont, Dennis; Pijlman, Brenda; Boss, Erik; Robbe, Elisabeth J; Ngo, Huy; Boll, Dorry; Mom, Constantijne H; van der Aa, Maaike A; Kruitwagen, Roy F L P; Nijman, Hans W; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) for the treatment of early-stage endometrial carcinoma/cancer (EC) has demonstrated to be safe in several randomized controlled trials. Yet, data on implementation of LH in clinical practice are limited. In the present study, implementation of LH for EC was evaluated in a large oncology network in the Netherlands. Retrospectively, a total of 556 EC patients with FIGO stage I-II were registered in the selected years. The proportion of LH gradually increased from 11% in 2006 to 85% in 2015. LH was more often performed in patients with low-grade EC and was not related to the studied patient characteristics. The introduction of TLH was frequently preceded by LAVH. Patients treated in teaching hospitals were more likely to undergo a LH compared to patients in non-teaching hospitals. The conversion rate was 7.7%, and the overall complication rates between LH and AH were comparable, but less postoperative complications in LH. Implementation of laparoscopic hysterectomy for early-stage EC increased from 11 to 85% in 10 years. Implementation of TLH was often preceded by LAVH and was faster in teaching hospitals.

  10. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Metformin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage III, IV, or Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-07

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7

  11. Unraveling Mixed Hydrate Formation: Microscopic Insights into Early Stage Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kyle Wm; Zhang, Zhengcai; Kusalik, Peter G

    2016-12-29

    The molecular-level details of mixed hydrate nucleation remain unclear despite the broad implications of this process for a variety of scientific domains. Through analysis of mixed hydrate nucleation in a prototypical CH 4 /H 2 S/H 2 O system, we demonstrate that high-level kinetic similarities between mixed hydrate systems and corresponding pure hydrate systems are not a reliable basis for estimating the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Moreover, we show that solution compositions prior to and during nucleation are not necessarily effective proxies for the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Rather, microscopic details, (e.g., guest-host interactions and previously neglected cage types) apparently play key roles in determining early stage behavior of mixed hydrates. This work thus provides key foundational concepts and insights for understanding mixed hydrate nucleation.

  12. Spiritual Diversity and Living with Early-Stage Dementia.

    PubMed

    McGee, Jocelyn Shealy; Zhao, Holly Carlson; Myers, Dennis R; Seela Eaton, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Attention to spiritual diversity is necessary for the provision of culturally informed clinical care for people with early-stage dementia and their family members. In this article, an evidence-based theoretical framework for conceptualizing spiritual diversity is described in detail (Pargament, 2011). The framework is then applied to two clinical case studies of people living with early-stage dementia to elucidate the multilayered components of spiritual diversity in this population. The case studies were selected from a larger mixed-methods study on spirituality, positive psychological factors, health, and well-being in people living with early-stage dementia and their family members. To our knowledge this is the first systematic attempt to apply a theoretical framework for understanding spiritual diversity in this population. Implications for clinical practice are provided.

  13. Sentinel lymph node detection following the hysteroscopic peritumoural injection of 99mTc-labelled albumin nanocolloid in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Maccauro, Marco; Lucignani, Giovanni; Aliberti, Gianluca; Villano, Carlo; Castellani, Maria Rita; Solima, Eugenio; Bombardieri, Emilio

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in endometrial cancer patients with a dual-tracer procedure after hysteroscopic peritumoural injection. Twenty-six women with previously untreated endometrial adenocarcinoma underwent the hysteroscopic injection of 111 MBq 99mTc-Nanocoll and blue dye administered subendometrially around the lesion. On the same day, all 26 patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy, followed 3-4 h later by hysterotomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Para-aortic lymphadenectomy was also performed in cases of either serous or papillary carcinoma (n=7/26). All SLNs were removed and examined with haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical techniques. The procedure was well tolerated by patients, only two experiencing transient vagal symptoms. The sensitivity of this technique for correct identification of SLNs was 100%. Lymph node metastases were found in 4 out of the 26 patients (15%), bilaterally in the external iliac region (n=1), unilaterally in the external iliac region (n=1), unilaterally in the common iliac region (n=1) and unilaterally in the para-aortic region (n=1). In all four cases, nodal metastases were located within SLNs detected by lymphoscintigraphy. Only 10 of the 26 patients (38%) had significant blue dye staining. All blue-stained SLNs were radioactive. In patients with endometrial cancer, it is feasible to use lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy to define the topographic distribution of the lymphatic network and also to accurately detect lumbo-aortic and pelvic metastases within SLNs. In the majority of patients with early stage endometrial cancer, this procedure may avoid unnecessary radical pelvic lymphadenectomy. It may also guide para-aortic lymph node dissection on the basis of the SLN status.

  14. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  15. Early stages of the evolution of life: a cybernetic approach.

    PubMed

    Melkikh, Alexey V; Seleznev, Vladimir D

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  16. SEOM clinical guidelines in early-stage breast cancer 2015.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Saenz, J A; Bermejo, B; Estevez, L G; Palomo, A G; Gonzalez-Farre, X; Margeli, M; Pernas, S; Servitja, S; Rodriguez, C A; Ciruelos, E

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is a major public health problem. Despite remarkable advances in early diagnosis and treatment, one in three women may have metastases since diagnosis. Better understanding of prognostic and predictive factors allows us to select the most appropriate adjuvant therapy in each patient. In these guidelines, we summarize current evidence for the medical management of early-stage breast cancer.

  17. Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial carcinoma with MLH1 germline mutation and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Takanori; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Sugimoto, Nao; Kaneko, Keika; Fujimoto, Etsuko; Okazawa-Sakai, Mika; Okame, Shinichi; Shiroyama, Yuko; Yokoyama, Takashi; Teramoto, Norihiro; Ohsumi, Shozo; Saito, Shinya; Imai, Kazuho; Sugano, Kokichi

    2018-05-21

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. Analysis for microsatellite instability (MSI) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of protein expressions of disease-associated genes is used to screen for Lynch syndrome in endometrial cancer patients. When losses of both MLH1 and PMS2 proteins are observed by IHC, MLH1 promoter methylation analysis is conducted to distinguish Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial cancer from sporadic cancer. Here we report a woman who developed endometrial cancer at the age of 49 years. She had a family history of colorectal cancer (first-degree relative aged 52 years) and stomach cancer (second-degree relative with the age of onset unknown). No other family history was present, and she failed to meet the Amsterdam II criteria for the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome. Losses of MLH1 and PMS2, but not MSH2 and MSH6, proteins were observed by IHC in endometrial cancer tissues. Because MLH1 promoter hypermethylation was detected in endometrial cancer tissue samples, the epigenetic silencing of MLH1 was suspected as the cause of the protein loss. However, because of the early onset of endometrial cancer and the positive family history, a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome was also suspected. Therefore, we provided her with genetic counseling. After obtaining her consent, MLH1 promoter methylation testing and genetic testing of peripheral blood were performed. MLH1 promoter methylation was not observed in peripheral blood. However, genetic testing revealed a large deletion of exon 5 in MLH1; thus, we diagnosed the presence of Lynch syndrome. Both MLH1 germline mutation and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation may be observed in endometrial cancer. Therefore, even if MLH1 promoter hypermethylation is detected, a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome cannot be excluded.

  18. Three or four fractions of 4-5 Gy per week in postoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy for endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rovirosa, Angeles; Ascaso, Carlos; Sánchez-Reyes, Alberto; Herreros, Antonio; Abellana, Rosa; Pahisa, Jaume; Lejarcegui, Jose Antonio; Biete, Albert

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) using a schedule of three or four fractions per week, when possible, in 89 patients on local control and toxicity in postoperative treatment of endometrial carcinoma. The effect of the overall HDRBT treatment time (OTT) on toxicity was also evaluated. Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie Obstétrique Stage: 24 IB, 45 IC, 4 IIA, 6 IIB, 4 IIIA, 2 IIIB, and 4 IIIC. Radiotherapy: Group 1-67 of 89 patients received external beam irradiation (EBI; 44-50 Gy) plus HDRBT (3 fractions of 4-6 Gy); Group 2-22 of 89 patients received HDRBT alone (6 fractions of 4-5 Gy). OTT: Group 1-HDRBT was completed in a median of 5 days in 32 patients and in >5 days in 35; Group 2-HDRBT was completed in <15 days in 11 patients and in ≥16 days in 11. Toxicity was evaluated using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scores and the bioequivalent dose (BED) study was performed in vaginal mucosa surface. Statistics included Student's t test, chi-square test, and receiving operator curves. With a mean follow-up of 31 months (range, 6-70), 1 of 89 patients had vaginal relapse. Early toxicity appeared in 8 of 89 (9%) patients and was resolved. Late toxicity appeared in 13/89 (14%): vaginal nine Grade 1, three Grade 2, one Grade 4; bladder two Grade 2; rectal three Grade 1, one Grade 2. No differences were found in relation to OTT in Groups 1 and 2. Mean BED was 88.48 Gy in Group 1 and 165.28 Gy in Group 2. Cases with Grade 2 late vaginal toxicity received >75 Gy after EBI and >165 Gy in Group 2. Three fractions of 4-5 Gy in 3-5 days after EBI or 6 fractions in <15 days in patients receiving HDRBT alone was a safe treatment in relation to toxicity and local control. Vaginal surface BED less than 75 Gy after EBI and less than 160 Gy in HDRBT alone may be safe to avoid G2 toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Three or Four Fractions of 4-5 Gy per Week in Postoperative High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rovirosa, Angeles, E-mail: rovirosa@clinic.ub.es; Ascaso, Carlos; Sanchez-Reyes, Alberto

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) using a schedule of three or four fractions per week, when possible, in 89 patients on local control and toxicity in postoperative treatment of endometrial carcinoma. The effect of the overall HDRBT treatment time (OTT) on toxicity was also evaluated. Patients and Methods: Federation Internationale de Gynecologie Obstetrique Stage: 24 IB, 45 IC, 4 IIA, 6 IIB, 4 IIIA, 2 IIIB, and 4 IIIC. Radiotherapy: Group 1-67 of 89 patients received external beam irradiation (EBI; 44-50 Gy) plus HDRBT (3 fractions of 4-6 Gy); Group 2-22 of 89 patients received HDRBTmore » alone (6 fractions of 4-5 Gy). OTT: Group 1-HDRBT was completed in a median of 5 days in 32 patients and in >5 days in 35; Group 2-HDRBT was completed in <15 days in 11 patients and in {>=}16 days in 11. Toxicity was evaluated using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scores and the bioequivalent dose (BED) study was performed in vaginal mucosa surface. Statistics included Student's t test, chi-square test, and receiving operator curves. Results: With a mean follow-up of 31 months (range, 6-70), 1 of 89 patients had vaginal relapse. Early toxicity appeared in 8 of 89 (9%) patients and was resolved. Late toxicity appeared in 13/89 (14%): vaginal nine Grade 1, three Grade 2, one Grade 4; bladder two Grade 2; rectal three Grade 1, one Grade 2. No differences were found in relation to OTT in Groups 1 and 2. Mean BED was 88.48 Gy in Group 1 and 165.28 Gy in Group 2. Cases with Grade 2 late vaginal toxicity received >75 Gy after EBI and >165 Gy in Group 2. Conclusions: Three fractions of 4-5 Gy in 3-5 days after EBI or 6 fractions in <15 days in patients receiving HDRBT alone was a safe treatment in relation to toxicity and local control. Vaginal surface BED less than 75 Gy after EBI and less than 160 Gy in HDRBT alone may be safe to avoid G2 toxicity.« less

  20. 76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage... Webinars regarding its proposed Early Stage Small Business Investment Companies (Early Stage SBIC) rule. The proposed Early Stage SBIC rule defines a new sub-category of small business investment companies...

  1. Folding of Polymer Chains in Early Stage of Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shichen; Miyoshi, Toshikazu

    Understanding the structural formation of long polymer chains in the early stage of crystallization is one of the long-standing problems in polymer science. Using solid state NMR, we investigated chain trajectory of isotactic polypropylene in the mesomorphic nano-domains formed via rapid and deep quenching. Comparison of experimental and simulated 13C-13C Double Quantum (DQ) buildup curves demonstrated that instead of random re-entry models and solidification models, individual chains in the mesomorphic form iPP adopt adjacent reentry sequences with an average folding number of = 3-4 (assuming an adjacent re-entry fraction of of 100%) during mesomorphic formation process via nucleation and growth in the early stage. This work was financially supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant DMR-1105829 and 1408855) and startup funds from the UA.

  2. Signatures of unfolding in the early stages of protein denaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.; Kozak, John J.

    2012-04-01

    A comparative study of the early stages of unfolding of five proteins: cyt c, c-b 562, cyt c‧, azurin, and lysozyme is reported. From crystallographic data, helical regions and intervening non-helical (or 'turning') regions are identified in each. Exploiting a previously introduced geometrical model, the paper describes quantitatively the stepwise extension of a polypeptide chain subject to the geometrical constraint that the spatial relationship among the residues of each triplet is fixed by native-state crystallographic data. Despite differences among the above-cited proteins, remarkable universality of behavior is found in the early stages of unfolding. At the very earliest stages, internal residues in each helical region have a common unfolding history; the terminal residues, however, are extraordinarily sensitive to structural perturbations. Residues in non-helical sections of the polypeptide unfold after residues in the internal helical regions, but with increasing steric perturbation playing a dominant role in advancing denaturation.

  3. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Markus; Molls, Christoph; Luers, Jan C; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens P; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors in therapy and prognosis for patients with parotid gland cancer. Nevertheless, the extent of the primary tumor resection and the necessity of a neck dissection still is a common issue. Since little is known about lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymph node metastases in T1 and T2 carcinomas and its impact on local control and survival. We retrospectively analyzed 70 patients with early-stage (T1 and T2) primary parotid gland cancer. All patients were treated with parotidectomy and an ipsilateral neck dissection from 1987 to 2009. Clinicopathological and survival parameters were calculated. The median follow-up time was 51.7 months. A positive pathological lymph node stage (pN+) was found in 21.4% of patients with a significant correlation to the clinical lymph node stage (cN) (p = 0.061). There were no differences in the clinical and histopathological data between pN- and pN+ patients. In 73.3% of pN+ patients, the metastases were located intraparotideal. The incidence of occult metastases (pN+/cN-) was 17.2%. Of all patients with occult metastases, 30.0% had extraparotideal lymphatic spread. A positive lymph node stage significantly indicated a poorer 5-year overall as well as 5-year disease-free survival rate compared to pN- patients (p = 0.048; p = 0.011). We propose total parotidectomy in combination with at least a level II-III selective neck dissection in any case of early-stage parotid gland cancer.

  4. Dyslipidogenic microangiopathy in guinea pigs at early stages of atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bersenev, A V; Klimenko, E D; Kobozeva, L P; Michunskaya, A B; Onishchenko, N A; Pozdnyakov, O M

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of dyslipidemia on lipid metabolism, state of microcirculatory system, and morphological alterations in the aorta and liver of guinea pigs at the early stages of experimental atherogenesis. The important role of microcirculatory disorders in the development of regional pathology and atherosclerosis is confirmed. The proposed alimentary model can be used in the development of novel methods for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  5. Minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy for pediatric early stage congenital cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Chul Ho; Jung, Eun Kyung; Sung, Chung Man; Kim, Seung Beom; Kim, Young Yoon; Seong, Jong Yuap; Kang, Sung Hoon; Cho, Yong Beom

    2016-11-01

    Recently, minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy (MITM), which is a useful surgical technique for early stage congenital cholesteatoma (CC) in children, was introduced. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the short-term surgical results of MITM in pediatric early stage CC. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 24 patients who underwent MITM between January 2013 and October 2015. The patients' ages ranged from 1 to 16 years (mean, 2.6 years). There were 17 male and 7 female patients. The right side (n = 13) was affected twice as often as the left side (n = 11). The most common site was the anterosuperior quadrant (15 cases). The diameter of the CC on axial computed tomography images ranged from 2.8 to 5.7 mm (mean, 3.9 mm). CCs were graded according to Potsic's system: 18 cases were classified as stage I, 3 case as stage II, and 3 cases as stage III. AllCCs except 1 were closed type. In21 patients, the tympanic membrane closed naturally without recurrence. Three patients showed small persistent dry perforation. Natural closure occurred in these patients, who were treated with paper patches. MITM is a simple, effective technique for removing an early stage CC from the middle ear, and it can minimize operative time, length of hospitalization, and postoperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Osteopontin Promotes Invasion, Migration and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Carcinoma Cell HEC-1A Through AKT and ERK1/2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghua; Xie, Yunpeng; Cui, Dan; Ma, Yanni; Sui, Linlin; Zhu, Chenyang; Kong, Hui; Kong, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an Extracellular Matrix (ECM) molecule and is involved in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including cell adhesion, angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. OPN is a well-known multifunctional factor involved in various aspects of cancer progression, including endometrial cancer. In this study, we examined the significance of OPN in endometrial cancer. The proliferation, migration and invasion ability of HEC-1A cells were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Wound scratch assay and transwell. Western blots were employed to detect the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors in HEC-1A cells treated with rhOPN. rhOPN promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion in HEC-1A cells. rhOPN influenced EMT-related factors and MMP-2 expression in HEC-1A cells. rhOPN promoted HEC-1A cells migration, invasion and EMT through protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and Extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2) signaling pathway. These results may open up a novel therapeutic strategy for endometrial cancer: namely, rhOPN have important roles in controlling growth of endometrial of cancer cells and suggest a novel target pathway for treatment of this cancer. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Endometrial microbiome.

    PubMed

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2017-06-01

    There have been great improvements in assisted reproduction in the recent decade; however, there are still a significant number of chromosomally normal blastocysts that fail to produce live births. The human microbiome is the totality of the microbes and their genomes that exist in and on the host. The understanding of its impact on health and human disease, particularly in human reproduction, is evolving. New technologies have empowered metagenomic sample analysis that allows for more fully characterizing the reproductive tract microbiome. With these technologies, we have determined not only that sites previously thought to be sterile in fact have robust microbiomes, but also have better characterized the normal and abnormal vaginal and endometrial microbiome. The understanding of the microbiome in health and human disease, in particular in relation to human reproduction, is in its infancy. As the reproductive tract dysbiosis are better characterized and understood, we may be better equipped to manipulate it more expertly.

  8. A novel solution configuration on liquid-based endometrial cytology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Han, Lu; Tuo, Xiaoqian; Hou, Huilian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Zan; Wang, Qing; Li, Yan; Sun, Chao; Xue, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Objective Early detection and diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma and precancerous change would undoubtedly become the most alluring part for researchers. With the emergence of endometrial brush samplers, a new upsurge in endometrial cytology is in the making. But endometrial specimens obtained by the endometrial brush samplers require special preservation solution. The objective of this study is to develop a new kind of endometrial-cell preservation solution and to test the availability compared with a patented liquid-based cell preservation solution. Methods In this controlled study, we had 5 endometrial cases collected with Li Brush from the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University (09/2016 to 12/2016). The samples of each case were collected 2 times separately and perserved in different perservation solutions. One was a kind of novel endometrial cell preservation solution and the other was a kind of patented liquid-based cell (LBC) preservation solution. The endometrial cells were smeared on slides by using the ZP-C automated slide preparation system and stained with Papanicolaou stain. A semi-quantitative scoring system was used to analyze the quality of slides. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test on the SPSS program (SPSS 18.0). In all LBC preparations, endometrial cells from the novel endometrial cells preservation solution had more cell quantity, less red blood cell fragments, and the background was cleaner compared with control group. Although the novel endometrial-cell preservation solution showed cellularity and absence of blood and debris expressed by no statistically significant differences (p = 0.063 and 0.102 respectively). The preservation period of the two kinds of liquids was equivalent. Conclusions The novel endometrial-cell preservation solution is superior to the liquid-base cell preservation solution for cervical cells, with clear background, diagnostic cells and low cost. PMID:29401497

  9. [Influence of pertussis toxin on GPER-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling induced by 17β-estradiol in endometrial carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui-xia; Lei, Jia; Wang, Xin-yan; Ge, Xin; Hu, Dong-mei; Ma, Xiu-ying; Li, Liu-xia; Qiao, Yu-huan

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the influence of pertussis toxin (PTX) on G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling activated by 17β-estradiol (17β-E2) in endometrial carcinoma cells. Expressions of GPER protein were detected by immunohistochemical SP method in Ishikawa and HEC-1A cells. Changes of levels of GPER, ERα and ERβ protein and the activation of Akt protein were observed by western blot in the two cells after they were treated by PTX for 30 minutes at different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 µg/ml), and then co-stimulated with with 1×10(-6) mol/L 17β-E2 respectively at different time (Ishikawa 30 minutes, HEC-1A 15 minutes). (1) Immunohistochemical SP method showed that GPER was positive stained in cell cytoplasm of Ishikawa and HEC-1A cell. (2) After co-treated with PTX at different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 µg/ml) and 10(-6) mol/L 17β-E2, in Ishikawa cell, the ratio of p-Akt/Akt was 0.74 ± 0.54, 0.34 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.03, 0.07 ± 0.15, the gray values of GPER was 0.872 ± 0.490, 0.395 ± 0.054, 0.145 ± 0.014, 0.034 ± 0.008, and with increasing concentration of PTX, the ratio of p-Akt/Akt and the expression of GPER decreased gradually (P < 0.05), which was most obviously when the concentration was 1.0 µg/ml (F = 63.729, P = 0.0001; F = 160.284, P = 0.0001); ERα and ERβ protein had no significant change among different groups (P > 0.05). In HEC-1A cell, the ratio of p-Akt/Akt was 0.73 ± 0.09, 0.26 ± 0.14, 0.11 ± 0.03, 0, the Gray values of GPER is 0.927 ± 0.134, 0.485 ± 0.022, 0.194 ± 0.004, 0, and with increasing concentration of PTX, the ratio of p-Akt/Akt and the expression of GPER decreased gradually (P < 0.05), which were also completely inhibited when the concentration was 1 µg/ml (F = 1039.321, P = 0.0001; F = 109.646, P = 0.0001), ERα protein had no significant differences (P > 0.05) among different groups. ERβ was negatively expressed

  10. [Regulation of [12Asp]K-ras4B on transcriptional activity of estrogen receptor in endometrial carcinoma HEC-1A cell lines].

    PubMed

    Gui, Li-ming; Wei, Li-hui; Xu, Ming-xu; Wang, Jian-liu; Zhong, Ying-cheng; Li, Xiao-ping; Tu, Zheng; Sun, Peng-ming; Ma, Da-long

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effect of mutant-type [(12)Asp]K-ras4B gene on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta and their transcriptional activity as a transcription factor in endometrial carcinoma HEC-1A cell line. (1) Effect of [(12)Asp]K-ras4B on the expression of ER alpha and beta were determined using Western blot assay. (2) Eukaryotic expression plasmid pGL3-luciferase-ERE containing luciferase report gene and estrogen receptor element (ERE) was constructed, and co-transfected into NIH3T3 and HEC-1A cell lines with pEGFP-N1 to examine the effect of [(12)Asp]K-ras4B on ER transcription that is regulated by estradiol. In addition, they were transfected into pSV5-HER0 (containing full length wide type ERalpha cDNA) and pCMV-rafS621A (inhibiting raf kinase) plasmids to test the effect of [(12)Asp]K-ras4B/raf signal pathway on transcriptional activity of ER proteins. (1) Protein level of ERs expressed in pcDI transfected control cells was low while it was increased for 3.6-fold (97 +/- 25, 349 +/- 67, P < 0.01) and 1.9-fold (128 +/- 37, 349 +/- 30, P < 0.05) in ERalpha and ERbeta, respectively, in pcDI-[(12)Asp]K-ras4B NIH3T3 cells after transfection. (2) In pcDI-[(12)Asp]K-ras4B NIH3T3 cells, the ratios for ERalpha and and ERbeta levels before transfection of rafS621A plasmids to that after the transfection, were 2.4:1 (724 +/- 45, 310 +/- 46, P < 0.05) and 1.8:1 (493 +/- 20, 284 +/- 20, P < 0.01), respectively; In HEC-1A cells, these ratios were 2.1:1 (566 +/- 22, 279 +/- 30, P < 0.01) and 2.4:1 (405 +/- 33, 165 +/- 15, P < 0.01), respectively. (3) In low serum (2%) culture condition, estradiol (E(2)) stimulated luciferase activity with an increase of 13-fold (130 +/- 42, 1681 +/- 242, P < 0.01) in pcDI-[(12)Asp] K-ras4B NIH3T3 cells, 19-fold (141 +/- 39, 2644 +/- 331, P < 0.001) in HEC-1A cells, respectively, when compared with those in the absence of E(2). (4) In pSV5-HER0 transfected pcDI-[(12)Asp] K-ras4B NIH3T3 cells and HEC-1A cells, compared to

  11. Endoscopic methods in the treatment of early-stage esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with early esophageal cancer restricted to the mucosa may be offered endoscopic therapy, which is similarly effective, less invasive and less expensive than esophagectomy. Selection of appropriate relevant treatment and therapy methods should be performed at a specialized center with adequate facilities. The selection of an endoscopic treatment method for high-grade dysplasia and early-stage esophageal adenocarcinoma requires that tumor infiltration is restricted to the mucosa and that there is no neighboring lymph node metastasis. In squamous cell carcinoma, this treatment method is accepted in cases of tumors invading only up to the lamina propria of mucosa (m2). Tumors treated with the endoscopic method should be well or moderately differentiated and should not invade lymphatic or blood vessels. When selecting endoscopic treatments for these lesions, a combination of endoscopic resection and endoscopic ablation methods should be considered. PMID:25097676

  12. Management of low-risk early-stage cervical cancer: Should conization, simple trachelectomy, or simple hysterectomy replace radical surgery as the new standard of care?

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Pedro T.; Pareja, Rene; Rendón, Gabriel J.; Millan, Carlos; Frumovitz, Michael; Schmeler, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    The standard treatment for women with early-stage cervical cancer (IA2-IB1) remains radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. In select patients interested in future fertility, the option of radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is also considered a viable option. The possibility of less radical surgery may be appropriate not only for patients desiring to preserve fertility but also for all patients with low-risk early-stage cervical cancer. Recently, a number of studies have explored less radical surgical options for early-stage cervical cancer, including simple hysterectomy, simple trachelectomy, and cervical conization with or without sentinel lymph node biopsy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Such options may be available for patients with low-risk early-stage cervical cancer. Criteria that define this low-risk group include: squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous carcinoma, tumor size <2 cm, stromal invasion <10mm, and no lymph-vascular space invasion. In this report, we provide a review of the existing literature on the conservative management of cervical cancer and describe ongoing multi-institutional trials evaluating the role of conservative surgery in selected patients with early-stage cervical cancer. PMID:24041877

  13. Radiation therapy in early-stage invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ray; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar

    2011-06-01

    The treatment of breast cancer involves a multi-disciplinary approach with radiation therapy playing a key role. Breast-conserving surgery has been an option for women with early-stage breast cancer for over two decades now. Multiple randomized trials now have demonstrated the efficacy of breast-conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy. With the advancements in breast imaging and the successful campaign for early detection of breast cancer, more women today are found to have early-stage small breast cancers. Patient factors (breast size, tumor location, history of prior radiation therapy, preexisting conditions such as collagen vascular disease, age, having prosthetically augmented breasts), pathological factors (margin status, tumor size, presence of extensive intraductal component requiring multiple surgical excisions), as well as patient preference are all taken into consideration prior to surgical management of breast cancer. Whole-breast fractionated radiation therapy between 5 and 7 weeks is considered as the standard of care treatment following breast-conserving surgery. However, new radiation treatment strategies have been developed in recent years to provide alternatives to the conventional 5-7 week whole-breast radiation therapy for some patients. Accelerated partial breast radiation therapy (APBI) was introduced because the frequency of breast recurrences outside of the surgical cavity has been shown to be low. This technique allows treatments to be delivered quicker (usually 1 week, twice daily) to a limited volume. Often times, this treatment involves the use of a brachytherapy applicator to be placed into the surgical cavity following breast-conserving surgery. Accelerated hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation may be another faster way to deliver radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery. This journal article reviews the role of radiation therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer addressing patient selection in breast

  14. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected bymore » antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These

  15. Multimodal imaging findings in 'hyper-early' stage MEWDS.

    PubMed

    Cahuzac, Armelle; Wolff, Benjamin; Mathis, Thibaud; Errera, Marie-Hélène; Sahel, José-Alain; Mauget-Faÿsse, Martine

    2017-10-01

    To describe a new stage of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS), occurring at a very early phase of the disease. Retrospective analysis of clinical, angiographic and tomographic findings in four patients with 'hyper-early' stage MEWDS. In four patients seen within 1 week of the onset of symptoms, fundus analysis revealed macular granity and the classic yellow-white dots, some having no corresponding hyperautofluorescent pattern. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed central foveal disruption of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) and interdigitation layer with a hyper-reflective dome-shaped lesion. In two patients, fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed an intermediate hypofluorescent perimacular halo, whereas late indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) showed a hyperfluorescent halo as well as the classic MEWDS features. After a few days, the EZ disruption appeared complete on OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in all patients. Visual acuity, OCT and FAF findings had fully recovered within 3 months. We have shown a new feature of MEWDS on FAF, OCT, FA and ICGA, corresponding to a very early stage of the disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Temsirolimus With or Without Megestrol Acetate and Tamoxifen Citrate in Treating Patients With Advanced, Persistent, or Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-11

    Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC1 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC2 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  17. Efficacy of systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC trial): a randomised study.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, H; Swart, A M C; Qian, Q; Amos, C; Parmar, M K B

    2009-01-10

    Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is the standard surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy has been used to establish whether there is extra-uterine disease and as a therapeutic procedure; however, randomised trials need to be done to assess therapeutic efficacy. The ASTEC surgical trial investigated whether pelvic lymphadenectomy could improve survival of women with endometrial cancer. From 85 centres in four countries, 1408 women with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma thought preoperatively to be confined to the corpus were randomly allocated by a minimisation method to standard surgery (hysterectomy and BSO, peritoneal washings, and palpation of para-aortic nodes; n=704) or standard surgery plus lymphadenectomy (n=704). The primary outcome measure was overall survival. To control for postsurgical treatment, women with early-stage disease at intermediate or high risk of recurrence were randomised (independent of lymph-node status) into the ASTEC radiotherapy trial. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 16571884. After a median follow-up of 37 months (IQR 24-58), 191 women (88 standard surgery group, 103 lymphadenectomy group) had died, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.16 (95% CI 0.87-1.54; p=0.31) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year overall survival of 1% (95% CI -4 to 6). 251 women died or had recurrent disease (107 standard surgery group, 144 lymphadenectomy group), with an HR of 1.35 (1.06-1.73; p=0.017) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year recurrence-free survival of 6% (1-12). With adjustment for baseline characteristics and pathology details, the HR for overall survival was 1.04 (0.74-1.45; p=0.83) and for recurrence-free survival was 1.25 (0.93-1.66; p=0.14). Our results show no evidence of benefit in terms of overall or recurrence-free survival for pelvic lymphadenectomy in women with early

  18. Efficacy of systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC trial): a randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is the standard surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy has been used to establish whether there is extra-uterine disease and as a therapeutic procedure; however, randomised trials need to be done to assess therapeutic efficacy. The ASTEC surgical trial investigated whether pelvic lymphadenectomy could improve survival of women with endometrial cancer. Methods From 85 centres in four countries, 1408 women with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma thought preoperatively to be confined to the corpus were randomly allocated by a minimisation method to standard surgery (hysterectomy and BSO, peritoneal washings, and palpation of para-aortic nodes; n=704) or standard surgery plus lymphadenectomy (n=704). The primary outcome measure was overall survival. To control for postsurgical treatment, women with early-stage disease at intermediate or high risk of recurrence were randomised (independent of lymph-node status) into the ASTEC radiotherapy trial. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 16571884. Findings After a median follow-up of 37 months (IQR 24–58), 191 women (88 standard surgery group, 103 lymphadenectomy group) had died, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·16 (95% CI 0·87–1·54; p=0·31) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year overall survival of 1% (95% CI −4 to 6). 251 women died or had recurrent disease (107 standard surgery group, 144 lymphadenectomy group), with an HR of 1·35 (1·06–1·73; p=0·017) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year recurrence-free survival of 6% (1–12). With adjustment for baseline characteristics and pathology details, the HR for overall survival was 1·04 (0·74–1·45; p=0·83) and for recurrence-free survival was 1·25 (0·93–1·66; p=0·14). Interpretation Our results show no evidence of benefit in terms of overall

  19. Early stage response problem for post-disaster incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Shin, Youngchul; Lee, Gyu M.; Moon, Ilkyeong

    2018-07-01

    Research on evacuation plans for reducing damages and casualties has been conducted to advise defenders against threats. However, despite the attention given to the research in the past, emergency response management, designed to neutralize hazards, has been undermined since planners frequently fail to apprehend the complexities and contexts of the emergency situation. Therefore, this study considers a response problem with unique characteristics for the duration of the emergency. An early stage response problem is identified to find the optimal routing and scheduling plan for responders to prevent further hazards. Due to the complexity of the proposed mathematical model, two algorithms are developed. Data from a high-rise building, called Central City in Seoul, Korea, are used to evaluate the algorithms. Results show that the proposed algorithms can procure near-optimal solutions within a reasonable time.

  20. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity.

  1. Frustration Sculpts the Early Stages of Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Di Silvio, Eva; Brunori, Maurizio; Gianni, Stefano

    2015-09-07

    The funneled energy landscape theory implies that protein structures are minimally frustrated. Yet, because of the divergent demands between folding and function, regions of frustrated patterns are present at the active site of proteins. To understand the effects of such local frustration in dictating the energy landscape of proteins, here we compare the folding mechanisms of the two alternative spliced forms of a PDZ domain (PDZ2 and PDZ2as) that share a nearly identical sequence and structure, while displaying different frustration patterns. The analysis, based on the kinetic characterization of a large number of site-directed mutants, reveals that although the late stages for folding are very robust and biased by native topology, the early stages are more malleable and dominated by local frustration. The results are briefly discussed in the context of the energy-landscape theory. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Combined With a Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System or Letrozole for Fertility-Preserving Treatment of Endometrial Carcinoma and Complex Atypical Hyperplasia in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huimei; Cao, Dongyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Shen, Keng; Lang, Jinghe

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) combined with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or an aromatase inhibitor (letrozole) in young women with well-differentiated early endometrial carcinoma (EC) and complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH). We performed a retrospective analysis including the clinical characteristics of 29 patients younger than 45 years with early well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus (EC) or CAH who were treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, from January 2012 to April 2016. Eighteen patients were treated with the combination of intramuscular injections of GnRHa every 4 weeks with the levonorgestrel intrauterine hormonal system (Mirena® Bayer Health Care Pharmaceutical Inc, Wayne, NY) was inserted. Eleven patients were treated with the combination of intramuscular injections of GnRHa every 4 weeks with oral letrozole 2.5 mg daily. The patients underwent follow-up with endometrial sampling by hysteroscopy and curettage for endometrial response every 3 months. After a median follow-up of 18.7 months (range, 5.6-54.9 months), 15 women (88.2%) in the EC group and 12 women (100%) in the CAH group had complete response (CR) after GnRHa combination treatment. Among the women who achieved CR, 1 woman (8.3%) with CAH and 1 woman (5.9%) with EC had recurrence after CR, and they finally underwent a hysterectomy. Time to CR was similar in the 2 groups (4.5 ± 1.9 months in the CAH group vs 5.0 ± 2.9 months in the EC group). Ten women (34.5%) had CR after the first 3 months, 8 women (27.6%) had CR after 6 months, and 9 women (31.0%) had CR after 9 months. Both GnRHa with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and GnRHa with letrozole are alternative treatments for women with CAH and EC who desire fertility preservation. A larger multicenter trial of the fertility-preserving treatment is