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Sample records for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  1. Xerostomia and quality of life after intensity-modulated radiotherapy vs. conventional radiotherapy for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Initial report on a randomized controlled clinical trial

    SciT

    Pow, Edmond; Kwong, Dora; McMillan, Anne S.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To compare directly the effect of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional radiotherapy (CRT) on salivary flow and quality of life (QoL) in patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: Fifty-one patients with T2, N0/N1, M0 NPC took part in a randomized controlled clinical study and received IMRT or CRT. Stimulated whole (SWS) and parotid (SPS) saliva flow were measured and Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 (SF-36), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core quetionnaire, and EORTC head-and-neck module (QLQ-H and N35) were completed at baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Results:more » Forty-six patients (88%) were in disease remission 12 months after radiotherapy. At 12 months postradiotherapy, 12 (50.0%) and 20 patients (83.3%) in the IMRT group had recovered at least 25% of preradiotherapy SWS and SPS flow respectively, compared with 1 (4.8%) and 2 patients (9.5%), respectively, in the CRT group. Global health scores showed continuous improvement in QoL after both treatments (p < 0.001). However, after 12 months subscale scores for role-physical, bodily pain, and physical function were significantly higher in the IMRT group, indicating a better condition (p < 0.05). Dry mouth and sticky saliva were problems in both groups 2 months after treatment. In the IMRT group, there was consistent improvement over time with xerostomia-related symptoms significantly less common than in the CRT group at 12 months postradiotherapy. Conclusions: IMRT was significantly better than CRT in terms of parotid sparing and improved QoL for early-stage disease. The findings support the case for assessment of health-related QoL in relation to head-and-neck cancer using a site-specific approach.« less

  2. Contrast-enhanced dynamic and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0 T to assess early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Liangping; Liu, Ying

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3.0 T. A total of 44 patients newly diagnosed with NPC were included in the present study. All patients underwent MR examination at 3.0 T using DCE-MRI and DWI. The volume transfer constant ( K trans ), flux rate constant between extravascular extracellular space and plasma ( K ep ), the volume of extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue ( V e ) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of tumours were investigated. Furthermore, the correlation between clinical stages and ADC value and K trans were analysed. The diagnostic accuracy of K trans and ADC were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curves. NPC stage correlated positively with K trans and negatively with ADC values. Additionally, tumour K trans negatively correlated with ADC value. The sensitivity and accuracy of combined K trans and ADC in distinguishing between stage II and stage III and stage III and IV were higher than the values of either measurement used separately. The present study suggested that K trans and ADC derived from DCE-MRI and DWI may be useful to detect stage early NPC accurately. K trans and ADC in combination were superior than either alone.

  3. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Sophia C; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Nancy

    2015-07-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is uncommon in the United States, with only 0.2 to 0.5 cases per 100,00 people; this is in contrast to southern China and Hong Kong, where the incidence is 25 to 50 per 100,000 people. There is a potential link between Epstein-Barr virus and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Radiotherapy alone as a single modality leads to similar 10-year survival rates in United States, Denmark, and Hong Kong (34%, 37%, and 43%, respectively). Multiple studies have shown an advantage to concurrent chemoradiation in the treatment of advanced disease. Radiation therapy remains the mainstay of salvage therapy, and modern techniques have allowed clinicians to achieve adequate local control without excessive toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma: early-stage management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Erstad, Derek J; Tanabe, Kenneth K

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death and is increasing in incidence. This review focuses on HCC surveillance and treatment of early-stage disease, which are essential to improving outcomes. Multiple societies have published HCC surveillance guidelines, but screening efforts have been limited by noncompliance and overall lack of testing for patients with undiagnosed chronic liver disease. Treatment of early-stage HCC has become increasingly complex due to expanding therapeutic options and better outcomes with established treatments. Surgical indications for HCC have broadened with improved preoperative liver testing, neoadjuvant therapy, portal vein embolization, and perioperative care. Advances in post-procedural monitoring have improved efficacies of transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation, and novel therapies involving delivery of radiochemicals are being studied in small trials. Finally, advances in liver transplantation have allowed for expanded indications beyond Milan criteria with non-inferior outcomes. More clinical trials evaluating new therapies and multimodal regimens are necessary to help clinicians design better treatment algorithms and improve outcomes. PMID:28721349

  5. The diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. H.; Du, Y.

    2016-06-01

    We have attempted to explore the intrinsic differences in the optical properties of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and normal tissue by optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT imaging of normal tissue provided three layers of epithelium, lamina propria, and the brighter interface of basement membrane; while carcinomas disrupted the layered construction embedded in signal-poor images. The morphologies were consistent with histological findings. Sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 100%, respectively. This pilot study demonstrates that NPC could be diagnosed by visualization, which implies that OCT might be potentially used to differentiate normal from NPC tissue in the early stage as an invasive biopsy.

  6. Primary and secondary hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciT

    Rosenthal, M.B.; Goldfine, I.D.

    1976-10-04

    We investigated the thyroid and pituitary functions of six of the seven patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had been previously treated with external radiation, and who were seen at the San Francisco Veterans Administration Hospital within a recent 18-month period. Two patients had primary hypothyroidism, and four had secondary hypothyroidism. These findings suggest that thyroid and pituitary abnormalities are frequent complications of both nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its treatment.

  7. Poor prognosis of uterine serous carcinoma compared with grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma in early stage patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Young; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Sohn, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Wha; Sung, Chang Ohk; Kim, Kyu-Rae

    2013-03-01

    Difference in prognosis between grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma (G3EC) of the endometrium and uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is controversial. In this study, we further evaluated the difference in prognosis, if any, between G3EC (n = 61) and USC (n = 47) on a total of 565 patients with endometrial cancer. In addition, meta-analysis was performed using data from seven previous publications (n = 8,637) and from the Asan Medical Center (n = 108). Regarding the cases from our institution, USC tended to occur in older patients (≥65 years) than G3EC (P = 0.011). Deep myometrial invasion (more than or equal to half) was more frequently identified in G3EC (36/61, 59.0 %) than in USC (17/47, 36.2 %) (P = 0.021). Between patients with early stage G3EC and USC (stages I and II), there were no significant differences in any clinicopathological parameter, but there was a significant difference in overall survival (P = 0.017) that was not found in advanced stage (P = 0.588). USC was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 6.125; P = 0.030) in early stage patients. In the meta-analysis on 5-year survival in patients with early stage cancers, which also included our study results, a higher relative risk (1.92, 95 % CI 1.62-2.27) was demonstrated in USC than in G3EC (P < 0.001). In conclusion, our study reveals that USC is associated with a poorer prognosis compared with G3EC, only in patients with early stage carcinoma, suggesting that different treatment strategies should be considered according to the histologic type in order to improve treatment outcome.

  8. Controversies in the Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Press, Joshua Z.; Gotlieb, Walter H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the publication of numerous studies, including some multicentered randomized controlled trials, there continues to be vigorous debate regarding the optimal management of early stage endometrial cancer, including the extent of surgery and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Resolving these questions has become increasingly important in view of the increase of endometrial cancer, related to the aging population and the alarming incidence of obesity. Furthermore, there are more surgical challenges encountered when operating on elderly patients or on patients with increased BMI and the associated comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and pulmonary dysfunction. This paper will focus on the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, the value of lymphadenectomy including sentinel lymph node mapping, and some of the current controversies surrounding adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. PMID:22685466

  9. Clusterin immunoexpression is associated with early stage endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah Ahmed; Butt, Nadeem Shafique; Anfinan, Nisrin; Sait, Khalid; Sait, Hesham; Bajouh, Osama; Khabaz, Mohamad Nidal

    2016-05-01

    Clusterin has anti-apoptotic, regeneration and migration stimulating effects on tumor cells. This study investigates the relation between clusterin expression and the clinicopathological parameters in endometrial carcinomas. Seventy one cases of previously diagnosed endometrial carcinoma (including 59 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 9 serous adenocarcinoma, 1 clear cell adenocarcinoma, and 2 malignant mixed Mullerian tumor) and 30 tissue samples of non-cancerous endometrium (including 16 proliferative endometrium, 10 secretory endometrium and 4 endometrial polyps) were employed for clusterin detection using tissue microarrays and immunostaining. A total number of 23 (32.4%) cases were positive for clusterin immunostaining. Brown granular cytoplasmic expression of clusterin was detected in 33.9% of endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 22.2% papillary serous endometrial carcinomas. Three (10%) control cases showed granular cytoplasmic expression. Positive clusterin immunostaining was found more frequent in well differentiated and stage I endometrial carcinomas, showing significant statistical association (p-value=0.036 and p-value=0.002 respectively). Significant difference in clusterin expression was observed between tumor cases and control group (P-Value=0.019), i.e., endometrial carcinoma cases are more than four times likely to show positive clusterin immunostaining (odds ratio 4.313 with 95% confidence interval 1.184-15.701). This study did not find relation between clusterin expression and disease recurrence, survival or any of the other clinicopathological parameters in endometrial tumors. The results of our study confirms the diagnostic values of clusterin in supporting the diagnosis of endometrioid carcinoma. When clusterin is expressed in endometrial tumors, it is associated with lower stage. The correlation of clusterin with tumor stage suggests involvement of this molecule in endometrial tumor progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Paraneoplastic Neurological Disorder in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sze Yin; Kongg, Min Han; Yunus, Mohd Razif Mohamad

    2017-03-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological disorder (PND) is a condition due to immune cross-reactivity between the tumour cells and the normal tissue, whereby the "onconeural" antibodies attack the normal host nervous system. It can present within weeks to months before or after the diagnosis of malignancies. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is associated with paraneoplastic syndrome, for example, dermatomyositis, and rarely with a neurological disorder. We report on a case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with probable PND. Otolaryngologists, oncologists and neurologists need to be aware of this condition in order to make an accurate diagnosis and to provide prompt treatment.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus infection and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Sai Wah; Tsang, Chi Man; Lo, Kwok Wai

    2017-10-19

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple types of human cancer, including lymphoid and epithelial cancers. The closest association with EBV infection is seen in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is endemic in the southern Chinese population. A strong association between NPC risk and the HLA locus at chromosome 6p has been identified, indicating a link between the presentation of EBV antigens to host immune cells and NPC risk. EBV infection in NPC is clonal in origin, strongly suggesting that NPC develops from the clonal expansion of a single EBV-infected cell. In epithelial cells, the default program of EBV infection is lytic replication. However, latent infection is the predominant mode of EBV infection in NPC. The establishment of latent EBV infection in pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelium is believed to be an early stage of NPC pathogenesis. Recent genomic study of NPC has identified multiple somatic mutations in the upstream negative regulators of NF-κB signalling. Dysregulated NF-κB signalling may contribute to the establishment of latent EBV infection in NPC. Stable EBV infection and the expression of latent EBV genes are postulated to drive the transformation of pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelial cells to cancer cells through multiple pathways.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma presented as cavernous sinus tumour.

    PubMed

    Moona, Mohammad Shafi; Mehdi, Itrat

    2011-12-01

    A 32 year Libyan male presented with the complaints of headache and diplopia. He was diagnosed with a cavernous sinus meningioma on the basis of MRI findings but no initial biopsy was taken. Depending on the radiologic diagnosis the patient was treated with gamma knife surgery twice, abroad. During follow up he developed left ear deafness and left cervical lymph adenopathy. An ENT evaluation with biopsy from the nasopharynx and cervical lymph node was taken. The histopathologic diagnosis of the resected tumour showed a nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis (poorly differentiated lympho-epithelial carcinoma). The cavernous sinus tumour which was initially treated as a meningioma was in fact metastasis from the nasopharyngeal carcinoma, making this an interesting and rare occurrence.

  13. Clinical and dosimetric implications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage glottic carcinoma

    SciT

    Ward, Matthew Christopher, E-mail: wardm3@ccf.org; Pham, Yvonne D.; Kotecha, Rupesh

    2016-04-01

    Conventional parallel-opposed radiotherapy (PORT) is the established standard technique for early-stage glottic carcinoma. However, case reports have reported the utility of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with or without image guidance (image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT) in select patients. The proposed advantages of IMRT/VMAT include sparing of the carotid artery, thyroid gland, and the remaining functional larynx, although these benefits remain unclear. The following case study presents a patient with multiple vascular comorbidities treated with VMAT for early-stage glottic carcinoma. A detailed explanation of the corresponding treatment details, dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis, and a review of the relevant literaturemore » are provided. Conventional PORT remains the standard of care for early-stage glottic carcinoma. IMRT or VMAT may be beneficial for select patients, although great care is necessary to avoid a geographical miss. Clinical data supporting the benefit of CRT are lacking. Therefore, these techniques should be used with caution and only in selected patients.« less

  14. [Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

    PubMed

    Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Individualized treatment in stage IVC nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chan, Oscar S H; Ngan, Roger K C

    2014-09-01

    The stage IVC nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a catch-all entity covering minute solitary metastasis to bulky disseminated disease. Prognosis varies greatly within this stage group. A subset of patients with oligometastases may benefit from aggressive local ablative therapy. Meanwhile, in multiple metastatic diseases, customizing conventional cytotoxics basing on individual tumor characteristics and previous chemotherapy responses can be a new direction to improve therapeutic results. Prognostic models built on clinical features and genomic profiles can be utilized to stratify different risk groups and tailor therapy schemes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiparametric Detection of Antibodies against Different EBV Antigens to Predict Risk for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in a High-Risk Population of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Chen, Shulin; Lu, Jie; Wang, Xueping; Li, Jianpei; Li, Linfang; Fu, Jihuan; Scheper, Thomas; Meyer, Wolfgang; Peng, Yu-Hui; Liu, Wanli

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to use the combined detection of multiple antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens to develop a model for screening and diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Samples of 300 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and 494 controls, including 294 healthy subjects (HC), 99 non-nasopharyngeal carcinoma cancer patients (NNPC), and 101 patients with benign nasopharyngeal lesions (BNL), were incubated with the EUROLINE Anti-EBV Profile 2, and band intensities were used to establish a risk prediction model. The nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk probability analysis based on the panel of VCAgp125 IgA, EBNA-1 IgA, EA-D IgA, EBNA-1 IgG, EAD IgG, and VCAp19 IgG displayed the best performance. When using 26.1% as the cutoff point in ROC analysis, the AUC value and sensitivity/specificity were 0.951 and 90.7%/86.2%, respectively, in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and all controls. In nasopharyngeal carcinoma and controls without the non-nasopharyngeal carcinoma and BNL groups, the AUC value and sensitivity/specificity were 0.957 and 90.7%/88.1%, respectively. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the EUROLINE Anti-EBV Profile 2 assay for both nasopharyngeal carcinoma and early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma were higher than that of mono-antibody detection by immune-enzymatic assay and real-time PCR (EBV DNA). In the VCA-IgA-negative group, 82.6% of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients showed high probability for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and the negative predictive value was 97.1%. In the VCA-IgA-positive group, 73.3% of healthy subjects showed low probability. The positive predictive value reached 98.2% in this group. The nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk probability value determined by the EUROLINE Anti-EBV Profile 2 might be a suitable tool for nasopharyngeal carcinoma screening. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 542-50. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lawrence S.; Dawson, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery 50 years ago, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been linked to the development of cancers originating from both lymphoid and epithelial cells. Approximately 95% of the world's population sustains an asymptomatic, life-long infection with EBV. The virus persists in the memory B-cell pool of normal healthy individuals, and any disruption of this interaction results in virus-associated B-cell tumors. The association of EBV with epithelial cell tumors, specifically nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and EBV-positive gastric carcinoma (EBV-GC), is less clear and is currently thought to be caused by the aberrant establishment of virus latency in epithelial cells that display premalignant genetic changes. Although the precise role of EBV in the carcinogenic process is currently poorly understood, the presence of the virus in all tumor cells provides opportunities for developing novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. The study of EBV and its role in carcinomas continues to provide insight into the carcinogenic process that is relevant to a broader understanding of tumor pathogenesis and to the development of targeted cancer therapies. PMID:25418193

  18. Results and survival after photodynamic therapy in early-stage esophageal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Mancini, Andrea; Dal Fante, Marco; Meroni, Emmanuele; Jasinskas, Algirdas

    1996-01-01

    From January 1985 to December 1994, 23 early stage carcinomas of the esophagus were treated by photodynamic therapy in 21 patients. The stage of the tumors was assessed by esophagoscopy with multiple biopsies, CT scan and, from June 1991, also by endoscopic ultrasonography: 7 lesions were classified as carcinoma in situ (Tis) and 16 as invasive (T1). The photosensitizers used for PDT were hematoporphyrin derivative 3 mg/kg in 4 patients and dihematoporphyrin ether 2 mg/kg in 17. Light irradiation was performed using an Argon-dye laser system at a wavelength of 630 nm with an average energy of 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. A complete response was achieved in 17/23 (74%) tumors, 15/21 (71%) patients. In the follow-up period from 6 to 78 months (median 36 months) 3 recurrences occurred 6, 12, and 14 months after PDT, respectively. Seven patients died due to concomitant diseases, not related to tumor progression. The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 75% and 37% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications included 1 case of sunburn and 2 cases of esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage.

  19. Prognostic factors for patients with early-stage uterine serous carcinoma without adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Tate, Keisei; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Mitsuya; Uehara, Takashi; Ikeda, Shun Ichi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Kato, Tomoyasu

    2018-05-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is an aggressive type 2 endometrial cancer. Data on prognostic factors for patients with early-stage USC without adjuvant therapy are limited. This study aims to assess the baseline recurrence risk of early-stage USC patients without adjuvant treatment and to identify prognostic factors and patients who need adjuvant therapy. Sixty-eight patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I-II USC between 1997 and 2016 were included. All the cases did not undergo adjuvant treatment as institutional practice. Clinicopathological features, recurrence patterns, and survival outcomes were analyzed to determine prognostic factors. FIGO stages IA, IB, and II were observed in 42, 7, and 19 cases, respectively. Median follow-up time was 60 months. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for all cases were 73.9% and 78.0%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, cervical stromal involvement and positive pelvic cytology were significant predictors of DFS and OS, and ≥1/2 myometrial invasion was also a significant predictor of OS. Of 68 patients, 38 patients had no cervical stromal invasion or positive pelvic cytology and showed 88.8% 5-year DFS and 93.6% 5-year OS. Cervical stromal invasion and positive pelvic cytology are prognostic factors for stage I-II USC. Patients with stage IA or IB USC showing negative pelvic cytology may have an extremely favorable prognosis and need not receive any adjuvant therapies. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  20. Modeling nasopharyngeal carcinoma in three dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Siva Sankar, Prabu; Che Mat, Mohd Firdaus; Muniandy, Kalaivani; Xiang, Benedict Lian Shi; Ling, Phang Su; Hoe, Susan Ling Ling; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Mohana-Kumaran, Nethia

    2017-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a type of cancer endemic in Asia, including Malaysia, Southern China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Treatment resistance, particularly in recurring cases, remains a challenge. Thus, studies to develop novel therapeutic agents are important. Potential therapeutic compounds may be effectively examined using two-dimensional (2D) cell culture models, three-dimensional (3D) spheroid models or in vivo animal models. The majority of drug assessments for cancers, including for NPC, are currently performed with 2D cell culture models. This model offers economical and high-throughput screening advantages. However, 2D cell culture models cannot recapitulate the architecture and the microenvironment of a tumor. In vivo models may recapitulate certain architectural and microenvironmental conditions of a tumor, however, these are not feasible for the screening of large numbers of compounds. By contrast, 3D spheroid models may be able to recapitulate a physiological microenvironment not observed in 2D cell culture models, in addition to avoiding the impediments of in vivo animal models. Thus, the 3D spheroid model offers a more representative model for the study of NPC growth, invasion and drug response, which may be cost-effective without forgoing quality. PMID:28454359

  1. Monoacylglycerol lipase promotes metastases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Rong; Lian, Yi-Fan; Peng, Li-Xia; Lei, Jin-Ju; Deng, Cheng-Cheng; Xu, Miao; Feng, Qi-Sheng; Chen, Li-Zhen; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a serine hydrolase that hydrolyzes monoacylglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol. It has recently been found to be involved in cancer progression through the free fatty acid or endocannabinoid network after studies on its function in the endocannabinoid system. Here, we determined a role for MAGL in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is known for its high metastatic potential. Among the different NPC cells we tested, MAGL was highly expressed in high metastatic NPC cells, whereas low metastatic potential NPC cells exhibited lower expression of MAGL. Overexpression of MAGL in low metastatic NPC cells enhanced their motile behavior and metastatic capacity in vivo. Conversely, knockdown of MAGL reduced the motility of highly metastatic cells, reducing their metastatic capacity in vivo. Growth rate was not influenced by MAGL in either high or low metastatic cells. MAGL expression was associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) proteins, such as E-cadherin, vimentin and Snail. It was also related to the sidepopulation (SP) of NPC cells. Our findings establish that MAGL promotes metastases in NPC through EMT, and it may serve as a target for the prevention of NPC metastases.

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of early-stage cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Diaz, John P; Gemignani, Mary L; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Park, Kay J; Murray, Melissa P; Chi, Dennis S; Sonoda, Yukio; Barakat, Richard R; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R

    2011-03-01

    We aimed to determine the sentinel lymph node detection rates, accuracy in predicting the status of lymph node metastasis, and if pathologic ultrastaging improves the detection of micrometastases and isolated tumor cells at the time of primary surgery for cervical cancer. A prospective, non-randomized study of women with early-stage (FIGO stage IA1 with lymphovascular space involvement--IIA) cervical carcinoma was conducted from June 2003 to August 2009. All patients underwent an intraoperative intracervical blue dye injection. Patients who underwent a preoperative lymphoscintigraphy received a 99m Tc sulfur colloid injection in addition. All patients underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification followed by a complete pelvic node and parametrial dissection. SLN were evaluated using our institutional protocol that included pathologic ultrastaging. SLN mapping was successful in 77 (95%) of 81 patients. A total of 316 SLN were identified, with a median of 3 SLN per patient (range, 0-10 SLN). The majority (85%) of SLN were located at three main sites: the external iliac (35%); internal iliac (30%); and obturator (20%). Positive lymph nodes (LN) were identified in 26 (32%) patients, including 21 patients with positive SLN. Fifteen of 21 patients (71%) had SLN metastasis detected on routine processing. SLN ultrastaging detected metastasis in an additional 6/21 patients (29%). Two patients had grossly positive LN at exploration, and mapping was abandoned. Three of 26 (12%) patients had successful SLN mapping; however, the SLN failed to identify the metastatic LN. Of these 3 false negative cases, 2 patients had a metastatic parametrial node as the only positive LN with multiple negative pelvic nodes including negative SLN. One patient with stage IA1 disease and lymphovascular invasion had unilateral SLN mapping and a metastatic common iliac LN identified on completion lymphadenectomy of the contralateral side that did not map. The 4 (5%) patients with unsuccessful

  3. Management of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Current Practice and Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anne W M; Ma, Brigette B Y; Ng, Wai Tong; Chan, Anthony T C

    2015-10-10

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma of the undifferentiated subtype is endemic to southern China, and patient prognosis has improved significantly over the past three decades because of advances in disease management, diagnostic imaging, radiotherapy technology, and broader application of systemic therapy. Despite the excellent local control with modern radiotherapy, distant failure remains a key challenge. Advances in molecular technology have helped to decipher the molecular pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma as well as its etiologic association with the Epstein-Barr virus. This in turn has led to the discovery of novel biomarkers and drug targets, rendering this cancer site a current focus for new drug development. This article reviews and appraises the key literature on the current management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and future directions in clinical research. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  4. Preliminary study of diagnostic spectroscopic imaging for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Buhong; Xie, Shusen; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Depin

    2003-12-01

    The optical biopsy system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on the technique of laser-induced exogenous fluorescence has been successful developed. Ar+ laser was selected as the excitation light source based on the measurement of the Emission-Excitation Matrix of Hematoporphyrin Monomethyl Ether. Tissue-simulating optical phantoms diluted with different concentration of HMME were used to simulated nasopharyngeal carcinoma lesions in the performance test for the drug-fluorescence optical biopsy system, especially for the comparison of fluorescence image contrast between the excitation wavelength of 488nm and 514.5nm, respectively. Experimental results show that the fluorescence image contrast of simulated nasopharyngeal carcinoma lesions excited by the light at the wavelength of 488nm is about three fold higher than that at 514.5nm, and the sensitivity and resolution of the fluorescence and reflection twilight image can satisfy the needs for clinical diagnosis and localization.

  5. Can Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Preserve Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients?

    SciT

    Pow, Edmond H.N., E-mail: ehnpow@hku.hk; Kwong, Dora L.W.; Sham, Jonathan S.T.

    Purpose: To investigate the changes in salivary function and oral health-related quality of life for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 57 patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma received IMRT. The parotid and whole saliva flow was measured, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire-C30, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire 35-item head-and-neck module, and Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires were completed at baseline and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months aftermore » IMRT. Results: Parotid saliva flow recovered fully after 1 year and maintained. Whole saliva flow recovered partially to 40% of baseline. A general trend of deterioration in most quality of life scales was observed after IMRT, followed by gradual recovery. Persistent oral-related symptoms were found 2 years after treatment. Conclusion: IMRT for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma could only partially preserve the whole salivary function and oral health-related quality of life.« less

  6. Quantitative Tissue Proteomics Analysis Reveals Versican as Potential Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Naboulsi, Wael; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Voss, Don Marvin; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-01-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors, and the treatment outcome of this disease is improved when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. This requires biomarkers allowing an accurate and early tumor diagnosis. To identify potential markers for such applications, we analyzed a patient cohort consisting of 50 patients (50 HCC and 50 adjacent nontumorous tissue samples as controls) using two independent proteomics approaches. We performed label-free discovery analysis on 19 HCC and corresponding tissue samples. The data were analyzed considering events known to take place in early events of HCC development, such as abnormal regulation of Wnt/b-catenin and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). 31 proteins were selected for verification experiments. For this analysis, the second set of the patient cohort (31 HCC and corresponding tissue samples) was analyzed using selected (multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM). We present the overexpression of ATP-dependent RNA helicase (DDX39), Fibulin-5 (FBLN5), myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), and Serpin H1 (SERPINH1) in HCC for the first time. We demonstrate Versican core protein (VCAN) to be significantly associated with well differentiated and low-stage HCC. We revealed for the first time the evidence of VCAN as a potential biomarker for early-HCC diagnosis.

  7. Facility Volume and Survival in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Emi J; Luu, Michael; David, John M; Kim, Sungjin; Mita, Alain; Scher, Kevin; Shiao, Stephen L; Tighiouart, Mourad; Lee, Nancy Y; Ho, Allen S; Zumsteg, Zachary S

    2018-02-01

    Definitive treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is challenging owing to its rarity, complicated regional anatomy, and the intensity of therapy. In contrast to other head and neck cancers, the effect of facility volume has not been well described for NPC. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with stage II-IVB NPC diagnosed from 2004 to 2014 and treated with definitive radiation. Patients with incomplete staging, unknown receipt or timing of treatment, unknown follow-up duration, incomplete socioeconomic information, or treatment outside the reporting facility were excluded. High-volume facilities (HVFs) were defined as the top 5% of facilities according to the annual facility volume. The present analysis included 3941 NPC patients treated at 804 facilities with a median follow-up duration of 59.4 months, including 1025 patients (26.0%) treated at HVFs. Treatment at HVFs was associated with significantly improved overall survival (OS) on multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.69-0.90; P=.001). In propensity score-matched cohorts, 5-year OS was 69.1% versus 63.3% at HVFs versus lower volume facilities (LVFs), respectively (P=.003). Similar results were seen when facility volume was analyzed as a continuous variable. The effect of facility volume on survival varied by academic status (P=.002 for interaction). At academic centers, the propensity score-matched cohorts had 5-year OS of 71.4% compared with 62.4% (P<.001) at HVFs and LVFs, respectively. In contrast, the 5-year OS was 63.5% versus 67.9% (P=.68) in propensity score-matched patients at nonacademic HVFs and LVFs. Treatment at HVFs was associated with improved OS for patients with NPC, with the effect exclusively seen at academic centers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stereotactic radiotherapy for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Leung, To-Wai; Wong, Victy Y W; Tung, Stewart Y

    2009-11-01

    To study the treatment outcome in patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Thirty patients with non-metastatic, locally recurrent NPC who were treated with curative intent between 1998 and 2002 were retrospectively analyzed. The International Union Against Cancer T-stage distribution at recurrence (rT) was as follows: rT1-14, rT2-7, rT3-3, and rT4-6. All patients were treated with SRT with a daily fractional dose of 2.5-4.5 Gy (median, 3 Gy) in 8-22 fractions (median, 18 fractions). Total equivalent dose (TED) was calculated by the linear-quadratic formula without a time factor correction. The 5-year actuarial overall survival rate, disease-specific survival rate, and local failure-free survival (LFFS) rate for the whole group were 40%, 41.4%, and 56.8%, respectively. The 3-year LFFS rates of rT1-2 and rT3-4 diseases were 65% and 66.7%, respectively. Seven of nine patients who received a TED <55 Gy recurred locally compared with 4 of 21 patients who received > or =55 Gy. Their corresponding 5-year LFFS rates were 22.2% and 75.8% (p = 0.005). The TED was the only factor significant in affecting the local control on univariate analyses. SRT is an effective treatment for locally recurrent NPC. TED > or =55 Gy should be given to secure a higher local control rate. The late complication rates were acceptable for patients with rT1-2 disease. For patients with rT3-4 disease, more works need to be done to further decrease the late complications.

  9. Nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma risk among immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2010-12-15

    Environmental exposures, particularly infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and tobacco, are known risk factors for oral cancer. Studies in migrants may provide valuable insight into the environmental and genetic etiology of cancer. We wanted to define nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma among immigrants in Sweden. The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database (FCD) was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas among the first-generation immigrants compared to the native Swedes. The FCD included 1969 and 691 cases of nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma in the male and female Swedes and 178 and 65 cases in immigrants, respectively. The median age at diagnosis (years) was 63 among Swedes and 55 among immigrants. The risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was significantly higher in male (SIR = 35.6) and female (24.6) Southeast Asians, male (12.4) and female (34.7) North Africans, male (4.9) and female (10.9) Asian Arabs and some other male Asians immigrants (6.2 to 6.7). Among immigrants from European countries, only the men from former Yugoslavian showed an elevated risk (2.7). Hypopharyngeal carcinoma risk was only increased among the male immigrants from the Indian Subcontinent (5.4). Early life infection with EBV in countries of origin and probably a minor contribution by tobacco smoking may be the main environmental exposures influencing nasopharyngeal carcinoma risks among immigrants to Sweden. The high rates of hypopharyngeal carcinoma among Indian immigrants may point to a continued using of smokeless tobacco. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  10. Radiation Segmentectomy versus Selective Chemoembolization in the Treatment of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Derek M; Titano, Joseph J; Korff, Ricki A; Fischman, Aaron M; Patel, Rahul S; Nowakowski, Francis S; Lookstein, Robert A; Kim, Edward

    2018-01-01

    To compare outcomes of radiation segmentectomy (RS) and segmental transarterial chemoembolization in treatment of unresectable, solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ≤ 3 cm. From January 2012 to January 2016, 534 and 877 patients were treated with radioembolization and transarterial chemoembolization, respectively. A cohort of 112 (radiation segmentectomy [RS], 55; chemoembolization, 57) locoregional therapy-naïve patients with solitary HCC ≤ 3 cm without vascular invasion or metastasis was retrospectively identified and stratified according to baseline patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and laboratory values. Propensity score matching (PSM) was conducted using a nearest neighbor algorithm (1:1). Outcomes analyzed included laboratory toxicities, imaging response, time to secondary therapy (TTST), and overall survival. Before PSM, complete response (CR) rate was 81.2% for RS and 49.1% for chemoembolization (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.3; P < .001). Median (95% CI) TTST after initial therapy was 246 days (135-250 d) in chemoembolization group and 700 days (308-812 d) in RS group (hazard ratio 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.92; P = .009). Overall survival before PSM was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .29). Overall CR rate after PSM was 92.1% in RS group and 52.6% in chemoembolization group (P = .005). Median (95% CI) TTST after matching was 161 days (76-350 d) in chemoembolization group and 812 days (363-812 d) in RS group (P = .001). Overall survival after matching was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .71). RS results in improved imaging response and longer TTST compared with transarterial chemoembolization in treatment of early-stage HCC. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Involved-Field, Low-Dose Chemoradiotherapy for Early-Stage Anal Carcinoma

    SciT

    Hatfield, Paul; Cooper, Rachel; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To report the results of patients with early-stage anal cancer treated using a low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy protocol. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and June 2006, 21 patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (30 Gy in 15 fractions within 3 weeks) and concurrent chemotherapy (bolus mitomycin-C 12 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 to a maximum of 20 mg followed by infusion 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/24 h on Days 1-4). Of the 21 patients, 18 underwent small-volume, involved-field radiotherapy and 3 were treated with anteroposterior-posteroanterior parallel-opposed pelvic fields. Of the 21 patients, 17 had had lesions that weremore » excised with close (<1 mm) or involved margins, 1 had had microinvasive disease on biopsy, and 3 had had macroscopic tumor <2 cm in diameter (T1). All were considered to have Stage N0 disease radiologically. Results: After a median follow-up of 42 months, only 1 patient (4.7%) had experienced local recurrence and has remained disease free after local excision. No distant recurrences or deaths occurred. Only 1 patient could not complete treatment (because of Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity). Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity occurred in only 2 patients (9.5%). No significant late toxicity was identified. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that for patients with anal carcinoma who have residual microscopic or very-small-volume disease, a policy of low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy produces excellent local control and disease-free survival, with low rates of acute and late toxicity.« less

  12. Elective neck irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, C J; Chen, H C; Huang, E Y; Lee, S P

    2000-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of elective neck irradiation (ENI) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and to analyze factors associated with ENI failure. A radiation port covering the side of a neck without gross nodal metastasis was qualified for evaluation of the effectiveness of ENI. From 1988 through 1992, a total of 261 patients with N0 (130 cases), N1 (91 cases), and N3 (40 cases) NPCs were studied. All patients were irradiated with 60Co teletherapy or 10 MV x-ray to a total dose of 46.8 Gy/26 fractions, followed by a boost treatment to the primary site to a total dose of 64.8 to 75.6 Gy/36-42 fractions. All ENI ports received irradiation to a dose of 46.8 to 60.8 Gy. The duration of follow-up was 6 to 10 years, with a median of 8.1 years. Factors associated with to the risk of ENI failure were analyzed. (1) The overall 5-year actuarial local control rate and actuarial survival rate were 74% and 63%, respectively. (2) Among the 261 cases in which ENI treatment was used, the treatment failed in 12 cases, accounting for a crude ENI failure rate of 5%. The overall 5- and 10-year cumulative risk of ENI failure was 5% and 7%, respectively. (3) Time from the start of treatment to ENI failure ranged from 9 to 66 months, with a median of 17 months. (4) Of the 12 patients for whom EMI failed, 11 (92%) had recurrence in the upper neck, and one in the lower neck. (5) Existence of prior failure at the primary site was the only factor significantly correlated with the risk of ENI failure (p < 0.001). The 5-year cumulative risk of ENI failure for patients with local failure vs. those without was 16% vs. 1% (p < 0.0001). Moderate-dose ENI was highly effective in the control of subclinical disease in the neck for NPC. ENI failure was closely associated with prior failure at the primary site, implying that local primary tumor failure may lead to an increased potential for metastasis to the neck.

  13. Comparison of outcomes in early stage uterine carcinosarcoma and uterine serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Desai, Neil B; Kollmeier, Marisa A; Makker, Vicky; Levine, Douglas A; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Alektiar, Kaled M

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether contemporary adjuvant management of early stage uterine carcinosarcoma (CS) produces equal outcomes as in uterine serous carcinoma (USC). We reviewed 172 women treated from 2000 to 2011 for stage I-II USC (n=112, 65%) or CS (n=60, 35%). Adjuvant therapy was initiated in 154 (90%) patients, with 111 patients receiving intravaginal radiotherapy (IVRT)/chemotherapy. Median follow up was 4.6 years for surviving patients. Characteristics for USC vs. CS did not differ significantly by age ≥60, pelvic or para-aortic node sampling, stage, lymphovascular invasion, chemotherapy use, RT use or omission of adjuvant therapy. Outcomes were better for USC vs. CS in 5-year actuarial rates of recurrence [17% (C.I. 10-25%) vs. 45% (C.I. 31-59%), p<0.001],disease-related mortality (DRM) [11% (5-17%) vs. 30% (16-44%), p=0.016], and all-cause mortality [12% (C.I. 6-18%) vs. 34% (C.I. 20-48%), p=0.007]. In multivariable analysis, CS histology remained a significant predictor of risk for recurrence [HR 3.1 (C.I. 1.7-5.7), p<0.001], DRM [HR 2.4 (C.I. 1.1-5.1), p=0.024], and all-cause mortality [HR 2.4 (C.I. 1.2-4.8), p=0.012]. On sub-group analysis of 111 patients (77 USC, 34 CS) able to receive IVRT/chemotherapy, CS no longer was associated significantly with increased recurrence (29% vs. 15%, p=0.18), DRM (22% vs. 10%, p=0.39), or all-cause mortality (22% vs. 10%, p=0.45). CS was associated with worse outcomes than USC. However, that difference was not maintained in patients able to receive IVRT and chemotherapy. While intriguing, this result may be due in part to selection against rapid early relapsing CS patients in this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Management of Early Stage, High-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma: Preoperative and Surgical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Gaetan

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed world. Most cases are diagnosed at an early stage and have low-grade histology, portending an overall excellent prognosis. There exists a subgroup of patients with early, high-risk disease, whose management remains controversial, as current data is clouded by inclusion of early stage tumors with different high-risk features for recurrence, unstandardized protocols for surgical staging, and an evolving staging system by which we are grouping these patients. Here, we present preoperative and intraoperative considerations that should be taken into account when planning surgical management for this population of patients. PMID:23878545

  15. Evaluation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat; Asnir, R. A.; Yudhistira, A.; Daulay, E. R.; Puspitasari, D.; Yulius, S.

    2018-03-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of head and neck cancer with a poor prognosis because of the position of the tumor adjacent to the skull base and vital structures. Degradation of extracellular matrix that will cause tumor cells to invade surrounding tissues, vascular or lymphatic vessels. One that plays a role in the extracellular matrix degradation process is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). MMP-9 plays a role in tumor invasion process, metastasis and induction of tumor tissue vascularization. To determine the expression of MMP-9 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a descriptive study was conducted by examining immunohistochemistry MMP-9 in 30 NPC tissues that had never received radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combination. Frequency distribution of NPC patient mostly in the age group 41-50 years old and 51-60 years were nine people (30.0%); men (73.3%) and non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (53.3%) histopathology type. The overexpression of MMP-9 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were mostly found in advance stage.

  16. Survival benefit of patients with early-stage ovarian carcinoma treated with paclitaxel chemotherapeutic regimens

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objective Adjuvant chemotherapy was introduced in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (OC). The benefit of standard chemotherapeutic regimens including taxane has not been established. Methods Patients with early-stage OC from the National Health Insurance Research database of Taiwan who received platinum plus cyclophosphamide (CP) or platinum plus paclitaxel (PT) for 3–6 cycles were recruited, and the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined. Results A total of 1,510 early-stage OC patients, including 841 who received CP regimen and 699 who received PT regimen, were included. The 2 groups had a similar estimated probability of 5-year DFS (PT vs. CP, 79.0% vs. 77.6%; p=0.410) and OS (84.6% vs. 84.3%; p=0.691). Patients >50 years of age who received the CP regimen had a lower 5-year DFS than the patients ≤50 years of age who received the CP (p<0.001) or PT regimens (p=0.001). Additionally, patients >50 years of age who received the CP regimen had a worse 5-year OS compared with the other 3 groups (p=0.019) (p=0.179 for patients >50 years of age in the PT group; p=0.002 for patients ≤50 years of age in the CP group; and p=0.061 for patients ≤50 years of age in the PT group). Patients with the CP or PT regimen for 3–5 cycles had a similar 5-year DFS and OS compared to 6 cycles (p>0.050). Conclusion Chemotherapeutic regimens with taxane could be recommended for early-stage OC patients >50 years of age. PMID:29185274

  17. Use Dose Bricks Concept to Implement Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treatment Planning

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Ming; Yu, Tsan-Jung; Yeh, Shyh-An; Chao, Pei-Ju; Huang, Chih-Jou

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. A “dose bricks” concept has been used to implement nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment plan; this method specializes particularly in the case with bell shape nasopharyngeal carcinoma case. Materials and Methods. Five noncoplanar fields were used to accomplish the dose bricks technique treatment plan. These five fields include (a) right superior anterior oblique (RSAO), (b) left superior anterior oblique (LSAO), (c) right anterior oblique (RAO), (d) left anterior oblique (LAO), and (e) superior inferior vertex (SIV). Nondivergence collimator central axis planes were used to create different abutting field edge while normal organs were blocked by multileaf collimators in this technique. Results. The resulting 92% isodose curves encompassed the CTV, while maximum dose was about 115%. Approximately 50% volume of parotid glands obtained 10–15% of total dose and 50% volume of brain obtained less than 20% of total dose. Spinal cord receives only 5% from the scatter dose. Conclusions. Compared with IMRT, the expenditure of planning time and costing, “dose bricks” may after all be accepted as an optional implementation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma conformal treatment plan; furthermore, this method also fits the need of other nonhead and neck lesions if organ sparing and noncoplanar technique can be executed. PMID:24967395

  18. Impact of Adjuvant External-Beam Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Uterine Papillary Serous and Clear Cell Carcinoma

    SciT

    Kim, Anne, E-mail: akim2@health-quest.org; Schreiber, David; Rineer, Justin

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in early-stage high- to intermediate-risk endometrioid adenocarcinoma is well established and has been shown to improve locoregional control. Its role in the management of early-stage clear cell carcinoma and uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) remains controversial. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database, we identified women with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage Sixth Edition. Stage IA-IIB clear cell carcinoma or UPSC who underwent hysterectomy with or without adjuvant RT between 1988 and 2003. We used Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis to compare overall survival (OS) for all patients. Results: Wemore » identified 1,333 women of whom 451 had clear cell carcinoma and 882 had UPSC. Of those patients, 775 underwent surgery alone and 558 received adjuvant RT as well. For Stages I-IIB disease, the median OS with surgery alone was 106 months, vs. 151 months with adjuvant RT (p = 0.006). On subgroup analysis, we saw the benefit from adjuvant RT only in Stage IB-C patients. For Stage IB disease, patients undergoing surgery alone had a median OS of 117 months, vs. median survival not reached with the addition of RT (p = 0.006). For Stage IC disease, surgery alone had a median OS of 35 months vs. 120 months with RT (p = 0.001). Although the apparent benefit of RT diminished when measured via multivariate analysis, the impact of RT on survival did show a trend toward significance (hazard ration 0.808, confidence interval 95% 0.651-1.002, p = 0.052) Conclusion: In FIGO Stage IB-C papillary serous and clear cell uterine carcinoma, adjuvant RT seems to play an important role in improving survival.« less

  19. Therapeutic implications of Epstein–Barr virus infection for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hutajulu, Susanna Hilda; Kurnianda, Johan; Tan, I Bing; Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly endemic in certain regions including the People’s Republic of China and Southeast Asia. Its etiology is unique and multifactorial, involving genetic background, epigenetic, and environment factors, including Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. The presence of EBV in all tumor cells, aberrant pattern of antibodies against EBV antigens in patient sera, and elevated viral DNA in patient circulation as well as nasopharyngeal site underline the role of EBV during NPC development. In NPC tumors, EBV expresses latency type II, where three EBV-encoded proteins, Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen 1, latent membrane protein 1 and 2 (LMP1, 2), are expressed along with BamH1-A rightward reading frame 1, Epstein–Barr virus-encoded small nuclear RNAs, and BamH1-A rightward transcripts. Among all encoded proteins, LMP1 plays a central role in the propagation of NPC. Standard treatment of NPC consists of radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for early stage, concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced tumors, and palliative systemic chemotherapy in metastatic disease. However, this standard care has limitations, allowing recurrences and disease progression in a certain proportion of cases. Although the pathophysiological link and molecular process of EBV-induced oncogenesis are not fully understood, therapeutic approaches targeting the virus may increase the cure rate and add clinical benefit. The promising results of early phase clinical trials on EBV-specific immunotherapy, epigenetic therapy, and treatment with viral lytic induction offer new options for treating NPC. PMID:25228810

  20. Cancer stem-like cells in Epstein-Barr virus-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wei-Man Lun, Samantha; Cheung, Siu-Tim; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2014-01-01

    Although the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has spread to all populations in the world, EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is prevalent only in South China and Southeast Asia. The role of EBV in the malignant transformation of nasopharyngeal epithelium is the main focus of current researches. Radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy have been successful in treating early stage NPC, but the recurrence rates remain high. Unfortunately, local relapse and metastasis are commonly unresponsive to conventional treatments. These recurrent and metastatic lesions are believed to arise from residual or surviving cells that have the properties of cancer stem cells. These cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have the ability to self-renew, differentiate, and sustain propagation. They are also chemo-resistant and can form spheres in anchorage-independent environments. This review summarizes recent researches on the CSCs in EBV-associated NPC, including the findings regarding cell surface markers, stem cell-related transcription factors, and various signaling pathways. In particular, the review focuses on the roles of EBV latent genes [latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A)], cellular microRNAs, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette chemodrug transporters in contributing to the properties of CSCs, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stem-like transition, and chemo-resistance. Novel therapeutics that enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy and inhibitors that suppress the properties of CSCs are also discussed. PMID:25223912

  1. Lgr5High/DCLK1High phenotype is more common in early stage and intestinal subtypes of gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Elham; Asadi Lari, Mohammad Hossein; Roudi, Raheleh; Korourian, Alireza; Madjd, Zahra

    2017-12-06

    Gastric carcinoma is the third most common malignancy and is one of the main causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumour cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, likely responsible for the initiation, recurrence, metastasis and chemo/radio-resistance. This study was conducted to evaluate the expression patterns and clinicopathologic significance of putative CSC markers, Lgr5 and DCLK1, in gastric carcinoma. The expression levels of Lgr5 and DCLK1 were examined in a well-defined series of gastric carcinoma tissues, including 75 (80%) from intestinal and 19 (20%) from diffuse subtypes, using tissue microarray (TMA). In addition, the correlation of the expression of these markers with clinicopathological factors was explored. Higher expressions of Lgr5 and DCLK1 were mainly detected in intestinal subtypes of gastric carcinomas compared to diffuse subtypes (P= 0.005 and P= 0.050, respectively). We also found a higher expression of Lgr5 and DCLK1 more frequently in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma cases (P< 0.001 and P= 0.007). The combined analysis demonstrated that the co-expression of Lgr5 and DCLK1 (Lgr5High/DCLK1High) was more common in intestinal subtypes (P= 0.025) and well-differentiated gastric carcinoma samples (P< 0.001). Interestingly, there was a significant correlation between Lgr5High/DCLK1High phenotype and early-stage gastric carcinoma specimens (P= 0.045). Our findings indicated that the Lgr5High/DCLK1High expression pattern may be considered as a signature phenotype for intestinal subtypes of gastric carcinoma.

  2. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and alpha-fetoprotein predict prognosis of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taro; Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Hayashi, Takehiro; Nio, Kouki; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Ohno, Naoki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Okada, Hikari; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Honda, Masao; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arii, Shigeki; Wang, XinWei; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often individually different even after surgery for early-stage tumors. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced recently to evaluate hepatic lesions with regard to vascularity and the activity of the organic anion transporter OATP1B3. Here we report that Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) in combination with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) status reflects the stem/maturational status of HCC with distinct biology and prognostic information. Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was observed in ∼15% of HCCs. This uptake correlated with low serum AFP levels, maintenance of hepatocyte function with the up-regulation of OATP1B3 and HNF4A expression, and good prognosis. By contrast, HCC showing reduced Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake with high serum AFP levels was associated with poor prognosis and the activation of the oncogene FOXM1. Knockdown of HNF4A in HCC cells showing Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake resulted in the increased expression of AFP and FOXM1 and the loss of OATP1B3 expression accompanied by morphological changes, enhanced tumorigenesis, and loss of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in vivo. HCC classification based on EOB-MRI and serum AFP levels predicted overall survival in a single-institution cohort (n=70), and its prognostic utility was validated independently in a multi-institution cohort of early-stage HCCs (n=109). This noninvasive classification system is molecularly based on the stem/maturation status of HCCs and can be incorporated into current staging practices to improve management algorithms, especially in the early stage of disease. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Alpha-fetoprotein Predict Prognosis of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Taro; Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Hayashi, Takehiro; Nio, Kouki; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Ohno, Naoki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Okada, Hikari; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Honda, Masao; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arii, Shigeki; Wang, Xin Wei; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often individually different even after surgery for early-stage tumors. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced recently to evaluate hepatic lesions with regard to vascularity and the activity of the organic anion transporter OATP1B3. Here, we report that Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) in combination with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) status reflects the stem/maturational status of HCC with distinct biology and prognostic information. Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was observed in approximately 15% of HCCs. This uptake correlated with low serum AFP levels, maintenance of hepatocyte function with the up-regulation of OATP1B3 and HNF4A expression, and good prognosis. By contrast, HCC showing reduced Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake with high serum AFP levels was associated with poor prognosis and the activation of the oncogene FOXM1. Knockdown of HNF4A in HCC cells showing Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake resulted in the increased expression of AFP and FOXM1 and the loss of OATP1B3 expression accompanied by morphological changes, enhanced tumorigenesis, and loss of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in vivo. HCC classification based on EOB-MRI and serum AFP levels predicted overall survival in a single-institution cohort (n = 70), and its prognostic utility was validated independently in a multi-institution cohort of early-stage HCCs (n = 109). Conclusion: This non-invasive classification system is molecularly based on the stem/maturation status of HCCs and can be incorporated into current staging practices to improve management algorithms, especially in the early stage of disease. PMID:24700365

  4. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical and radiographic findings in children

    SciT

    Bass, I.S.; Haller, J.O.; Berdon, W.E.

    1985-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in childhood occurs so infrequently that it is not suspected in affected children until the disease has been present for a long time and local spreading has occurred. The survival rates are therefore quite poor. Six children with NPC are described. A massive local lymph node spread simulating lymphoma was present in half of the patients; in the other half the disease was more subtle, presenting with epistaxis and CNS involvement. If an evaluation of the nasopharynx were part of the initial physical examination in children, the diagnosis of NPC would be made earlier and survival ratesmore » would improve.« less

  5. The effect of adjuvant radiation on survival in early stage clear cell ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hogen, Liat; Thomas, Gillian; Bernardini, Marcus; Bassiouny, Dina; Brar, Harinder; Gien, Lilian T; Rosen, Barry; Le, Lisa; Vicus, Danielle

    2016-11-01

    To assess the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) on survival in patients with stage I and II ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). Data collection and analysis of stage I and II OCCC patients treated at two tertiary centers in Toronto, between 1995 and 2014, was performed. Descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier survival probability estimates were completed. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves. 163 patients were eligible. 44 (27%) patients were treated with adjuvant RT: 37 of them received adjuvant chemotherapy (CT), and 7 had RT only. In the no-RT group, there were 119 patients: 83 patients received adjuvant CT and 36 had no adjuvant treatment. The 10year progression free survival (PFS) was 65% for patients treated with RT, and 59% no-RT patients. There were a total of 41 (25%) recurrences in the cohort: 12 (27.2%) patients in RT group and 29 (24.3%) in the no-RT group. On multivariable analysis, adjuvant RT was not significantly associated with an increased PFS (0.85 (0.44-1.63) p=0.63) or overall survival (OS) (0.84 (0.39-1.82) p=0.66). In the subset of 59 patients defined as high-risk: stage IC with positive cytology and/or surface involvement and stage II: RT was not found to be associated with a better PFS (HR 1.18 (95% CI: 0.55-2.54) or O S(HR 1.04 (95% CI: 0.40-2.69)). Adjuvant RT was not found to be associated with a survival benefit in patients with stage I and II ovarian clear cell carcinoma or in a high risk subset of patients including stage IC cytology positive/surface involvement and stage II patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of early-stage uterine papillary serous carcinoma at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 1992-2006.

    PubMed

    Tchabo, Nana E; McCloskey, Susan; Mashtare, Terry L; Andrews, Christopher; Singh, Anurag K; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Odunsi, Kunle; Lele, Shashikant; Jaggernauth, Wainwright

    2009-11-01

    Optimal management of early-stage uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) remains controversial. We reviewed our outcomes in this patient population. The Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) tumor registry identified all patients with Stages I and IIA UPSC treated between January 1992 and June 2006. The Fisher's exact test was used to compare recurrence rates by adjuvant therapy received. Overall survival (OS) estimates were made using the Kaplan-Meier method. Fifty-eight patients with Stage I or IIA UPSC underwent surgery. Thirty-four patients (59%) were surgically staged. Among 21 patients with Stage IA disease, 15 received adjuvant therapy. With a median follow-up of 44.7 months, only one recurrence was observed in a patient who received adjuvant brachytherapy. The 5-year OS was 66%. Among 37 patients with Stages IB-IIA, 30 patients received adjuvant therapy. With a median follow-up of 29 months, there were 7 recurrences. The 5-year OS was 60%. Although there were no significant differences in recurrence by adjuvant therapy received, a significant OS benefit was found in those who received radiation. There was no significant difference in OS distributions of those patients who received Carboplatin/Paclitaxel chemotherapy. Despite the limitations of our retrospective study, we have shown that even comprehensively staged early-stage UPSC patients are still at risk for recurrence despite adjuvant therapy received. Hence, all patients with this histologic diagnosis should be considered at high risk for recurrence and counseled appropriately regarding the risks and benefits of adjuvant therapy.

  7. Carotid-Sparing Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the True Vocal Cord

    SciT

    Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Amdur, Robert J., E-mail: amdurr@shands.ufl.ed; Morris, Christopher G.

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To compare radiation doses to carotid arteries among various radiotherapy techniques for treatment of early-stage squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the true vocal cords. Methods and Materials: Five patients were simulated using computed tomography (CT). Clinical and planning target volumes (PTV) were created for bilateral and unilateral stage T1 vocal cord cancers. Planning risk volumes for the carotid arteries and spinal cord were delineated. For each patient, three treatment plans were designed for bilateral and unilateral target volumes: opposed laterals (LATS), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), for a total of 30 plans. More than 95% ofmore » the PTV received the prescription dose (63Gy at 2.25 Gy per treatment). Results: Carotid dose was lowest with IMRT. With a bilateral vocal cord target, the median carotid dose was 10Gy with IMRT vs. 25 Gy with 3DCRT and 38 Gy with LATS (p < 0.05); with a unilateral target, the median carotid dose was 4 Gy with IMRT vs. 19 Gy with 3DCRT and 39 Gy with LATS (p < 0.05). The dosimetric tradeoff with IMRT is a small area of high dose in the PTV. The worst heterogeneity results were at a maximum point dose of 80 Gy (127%) in a unilateral target that was close to the carotid. Conclusions: There is no question that IMRT can reduce the dose to the carotid arteries in patients with early-stage vocal cord cancer. The question is whether the potential advantage of reducing the carotid dose outweighs the risk of tumor recurrence due to contouring errors and organ motion and the risk of complications from dose heterogeneity.« less

  8. VHL and HIF-1α: gene variations and prognosis in early-stage clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lessi, Francesca; Mazzanti, Chiara Maria; Tomei, Sara; Di Cristofano, Claudio; Minervini, Andrea; Menicagli, Michele; Apollo, Alessandro; Masieri, Lorenzo; Collecchi, Paola; Minervini, Riccardo; Carini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Generoso

    2014-03-01

    Von Hipple-Lindau gene (VHL) inactivation represents the most frequent abnormality in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression is regulated by O2 level. In normal O2 conditions, VHL binds HIF-1α and allows HIF-1α proteasomal degradation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been found located in the oxygen-dependent degradation domain at codon 582 (C1772T, rs11549465, Pro582Ser). In hypoxia, VHL/HIF-1α interaction is abolished and HIF-1α activates target genes in the nucleus. This study analyzes the impact of genetic alterations and protein expression of VHL and the C1772T SNP of HIF-1α gene (HIF-1α) on prognosis in early-stage ccRCC (pT1a, pT1b, and pT2). Mutational analysis of the entire VHL sequence and the genotyping of HIF-1α C1772T SNP were performed together with VHL promoter methylation analysis and loss of heterozygosis (LOH) analysis at (3p25) locus. Data obtained were correlated with VHL and HIF-1α protein expression and with tumor-specific survival (TSS). VHL mutations, methylation status, and LOH were detected in 51, 11, and 12% of cases, respectively. Our results support the association between biallelic alterations and/or VHL silencing with a worse TSS. Moreover, we found a significant association between the HIF-1α C1772C genotype and a worse TSS. The same association was found when testing the presence of HIF-1α protein in the nucleus. Our results highlight the role of VHL/HIF-1α pathway in RCC and support the molecular heterogeneity of early-stage ccRCC. More important, we show the involvement of HIF-1α C1772T SNP in ccRCC progression.

  9. Influence of the vocal cord mobility in salvage surgery after radiotherapy for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx.

    PubMed

    Gorphe, Philippe; Blanchard, Pierre; Temam, Stephane; Janot, François

    2015-10-01

    Disease relapses occur in up to 40% of cases after radiotherapy (RT) for early-stage glottic laryngeal neoplasms, and the foremost remaining treatment option is salvage total laryngectomy (STL). Our objectives were to review the outcomes of patients treated with salvage surgery after RT for early-stage carcinoma of the glottic larynx and to assess prognostic factors. We retrospectively analyzed 43 patients who underwent surgery. Overall and disease-free survival rates among subgroups were calculated and compared, stratified by preoperative stage, vocal cord mobility and postoperative histopathologic data. Recurrences occurred 22.7 months after the end of RT. Surgery was STL in 33 cases (76.8%). The main prognostic factors associated with survival rates were initial vocal cord mobility, vocal cord mobility at the diagnosis of recurrence, and changes in mobility. Vocal cord mobility is an important clinical criterion in treatment decision making for early-stage glottis carcinoma and remains important during follow-up.

  10. Oncologic outcomes of surgically treated early-stage oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kass, Jason I; Giraldez, Laureano; Gooding, William; Choby, Garret; Kim, Seungwon; Miles, Brett; Teng, Marita; Sikora, Andrew G; Johnson, Jonas T; Myers, Eugene N; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Genden, Eric M; Ferris, Robert L

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize oncologic outcomes in early (T1-T2, N0) and intermediate (T1-T2, N1) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after surgery. Patients with oropharyngeal SCC treated with surgery were identified from 2 academic institutions. Of 188 patients, 143 met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-six (60%) had T1 to T2 N0 and 57 (40%) had T1 to T2 N1 disease. Sixty-five patients (45%) underwent a robotic-assisted resection, whereas the remaining had transoral (n = 60; 42%), mandible-splitting (n = 11; 8%), or transhyoid approaches (n = 7; 5%). Human papillomavirus (HPV) status was known for 97 patients (68%), and 54 (55%) were HPV positive. Three-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-0.89). Since 2008, HPV infection was protective of recurrence (log-rank p = .0334). A single node did not increase the risk of recurrence (p = .467) or chance of a second primary (p = .175). Complete surgical resection is effective therapy for early and intermediate oropharyngeal SCC. HPV-negative patients were at increased risk for locoregional recurrence or second primary disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: First-1471, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Efficacy of the combination therapy in early stage of recurrent cholangio celluler carcinoma (CCC)].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shinichi; Hasuike, Yasunori; Fukuchi, Nariaki; Hayashi, Nobuyasu; Kida, Hiroyuki; Tsujie, Masaki; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Ebisui, Chikara; Sakita, Isao; Fujimoto, Takayoshi

    2005-10-01

    We report a case of cholangio celluler carcinoma (CCC) with a good quality of life, in spite of the recurrence of peritoneum and portal hepatic lymph nodes (PHLN), due to the combination therapy that consisted of hepatic arterial infusion, systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy and an insertion of a metallic stent into the bile duct. The patient was a 61-year-old man. Left hepatectomy was done due to multiple CCC. For the purpose of preventing the recurrence of CCC in residual liver, we performed an arterial infusion therapy. Ten months later, metastases to peritoneum and portal hepatic lymph nodes were found, so the resection of the peritoneum was performed, and cells in ascites were defined to be positive with cytology. After 2 years from the first operation, the size of portal hepatic lymph nodes had grown and both the billilbin and tumor marker levels had increased, so we started systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy and insertion of a metallic stent into the bile duct. The tumor marker level decreased in a short time. Consequently, we inserted a metallic stent into the bile duct and radiation therapy was performed. Until the patient's death due to peritonitis carcinomatosa, the recurrence in residual liver occurred only once in three years after the first operation, and portal hepatic lymph nodes did not grow for two years after the recurrence.

  12. [Expansion of secretory cells in the fallopian tubal epithelium in the early stages of the pathogenesis of ovarian serous carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Asaturova, A V; Ezhova, L S; Faizullina, N M; Adamyan, L V; Khabas, G N; Sannikova, M V

    to investigate the frequency of the types of fallopian tubal secretory cell expansion (SCE) in diseases of the reproductive organs and to determine the immunophenotype and biological role of the cells in the early stages of the pathogenesis of high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas (HGOSC). The investigation enrolled 287 patients with extraovarian diseases and ovarian serous tumors varying in grade, whose fallopian tubes were morphologically and immunohistochemically examined using p53, Ki-67, PAX2, Bcl-2, beta-catenin, and ALDH1 markers. The material was statistically processed applying the Mann-Whitney test and χ2 test. The rate of secretory cell proliferation (SCP) (more than 10 consecutive secretory cells) and that of secretory cell overgrowth (SCO) (more than 30 consecutive secretory cells) increase with age in all investigated reproductive system diseases. The rate of SCP in the corpus fimbriatum of the patients with HGOSC was 5.9 times higher than that in those with extraovarian disease (p<0.01); when comparing the same patient groups, that of SCO was 3.4 times higher (p<0.05). The immunohistochemical characteristics of the investigated lesions (in scores) were as follows: PAX2 was expressed in the intact epithelium (2.8), in SCP (1.3), in SCO (1.2), in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) (1.0), and in HGOSC (0.9); Bcl-2 was in the intact epithelium (2.2), in SCP (2.1), STIC (0.9), and in HGOSC (0.6), β-catenin was in the intact epithelium (0.5), in SCP (2.85), in SCO (2.95), in STIC (0.6), and in HGOSC (0.5); ALDH1 was in the intact epithelium (0.5), in SCP (2.91), in SCO (2.92), in STIC (1.2), and in HGOSC (0.6). There were statistically significant differences with a 95% confidence interval (p<0.05) for: 1) PAX2 between the intact epithelium and pathology (fallopian tube lesions and HGOSC); 2) Bcl-2 between the intact epithelium and SCE (SCP and SCO) and between SCE and HGOSC; 3) beta-catenin between the intact epithelium and SCE (SCP and SCO

  13. Unusual coexistence of extramedullary plasmacytoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Du, Ri-Chang; Li, Hai-Nan; Huang, Wei; Tian, Xiao-Ying; Li, Zhi

    2015-09-17

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an EBV-associated malignant tumor of nasopharynx. As extremely rare condition, the second primary cancer of nasopharynx can occur in NPC patients synchronously or subsequently. Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is a rare tumor and commonly originates in the head and neck region. However, there is no report to describe a collision tumor of NPC and EMP occurring in the same nasopharyngeal mass. We report here an unusual case of synchronous coexistence of NPC and EMP occurring in the nasopharynx of an old male patient. A 63-year-old male patient presented with a 3-month history of right-sided nasal obstruction and recently intermittent epistaxis without enlargement of cervical lymph nodes. The solitary mass of nasopharynx was found by radiological and nasopharyngeal examination. Histologically, the mass contained two separated portions and displayed typically histological features of NPC and EMP, respectively. In EMP portion, the tumor was composed of monomorphic plasmacytoid-appearing cells with immuno-positive to CD79a, CD138, CD38, MUM-1 and CD56, but lack immunoreactivity to pan-CK (AE1/AE3), CD20, CD21 and EBERs. In NPC portion, the tumor cells formed irregular-shaped islands with diffusely immuno-positive to pan-CK (AE1/AE3), EMA and EBERs, but lack expressions of lymphoplasmacytic markers. A diagnosis of simultaneous occurrence of EMP and NPC in nasopharynx was made. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis 18-month follow-up after radiotherapy. To our knowledge, it may be the first case of coexistence of EMP and NPC synchronously. In addition, the histological differential diagnosis and relevant potential mechanism of this unusual collision tumor were also discussed.

  14. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60-0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98, P=0.003; RR =0.84, 95% CI

  15. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60–0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0

  16. Recurrence of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma manifesting as a cerebellopontine angle mass.

    PubMed

    Kong, Min Han; Jeevanan, Jahendran; Jegan, Thanabalan

    2013-12-01

    As many as 31% of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma present with intracranial extension. Despite this high percentage, extension to the cerebellopontine angle is rare. The mechanism of tumor spread to the cerebellopontine angle is not completely understood. The most likely mechanism is direct extension to the skull base with involvement of the petrous apex and further extension posteriorly via the medial tentorial edge. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had been treated initially with chemoradiation and subsequently with stereotactic radiosurgery for residual tumor. One year later, she presented with an intracranial recurrence of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the cerebellopontine angle; the recurrence mimicked a benign tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor was ultimately diagnosed as an undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal origin. She was treated with palliative chemotherapy.

  17. Medical History, Medication Use, and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiling; Zhang, Zhe; Chang, Ellen T; Liu, Zhiwei; Liu, Qing; Cai, Yonglin; Chen, Guomin; Huang, Qi-Hong; Xie, Shang-Hang; Cao, Su-Mei; Shao, Jian-Yong; Jia, Wei-Hua; Zheng, Yuming; Liao, Jian; Chen, Yufeng; Lin, Longde; Ernberg, Ingemar; Huang, Guangwu; Zeng, Yi; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ye, Weimin

    2018-04-26

    Because persistent inflammation may render the nasopharyngeal mucosa susceptible to carcinogenesis, chronic ear/nose/throat (ENT) disease and its treatment might influence the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Existing evidence is, however, inconclusive and often based on methodologically suboptimal epidemiologic studies. In a population-based case-control study in southern China, we enrolled 2532 NPC cases and 2597 controls aged 20-74 years from 2010 to 2014. Odds ratios were estimated for associations between NPC risk and history of ENT and related medications. Any history of chronic ENT disease was associated with a 34% increased risk of NPC. Similarly, use of nasal drops or aspirin was associated with approximately doubled risk of NPC. However, in secondary analyses restricted to chronic ENT diseases and related medication use at least 5 years prior to diagnosis/interview, most results were statistically non-significant, except a history of uncured ENT diseases, untreated nasal polyps, and earlier age at first diagnosis of ENT disease and first or most recent aspirin use. Overall, these findings suggest that ENT disease and related drug use are most likely early indications rather than causes of NPC, although the possibility of a modestly increased NPC risk associated with these diseases and related drugs cannot be excluded.

  18. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma heterogeneity of DNA content identified on cytologic preparations.

    PubMed

    Maohuai, C; Chang, A R; Lo, D

    2001-06-01

    To evaluate tumor heterogeneity of DNA content in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) performed on cytologic specimens. Image cytometric analysis of DNA ploidy status of 40 NPCs was performed on nasopharyngeal brushing smears stained with the Feulgen method after hematoxylin eosin staining. If the DNA distribution pattern from the same tumor exhibited diploid, aneuploid or/and tetraploid peaks or some combination of these patterns, the presence of tumor heterogeneity of DNA content was identified. Thirty-four cases (85%) had a nondiploid DNA pattern among the 40 NPCs. Twenty-eight cases exhibited tumor heterogeneity of DNA content (70%). Of the 28 tumors, 13 (46%) had a combination of diploid and tetraploid patterns, 10 (37%) had a combination of diploid and aneuploid patterns, 3 cases (11%) had a combination of tetraploid and aneuploid patterns, and 2 cases had two aneuploid stem lines. The relationship between DNA ploidy pattern and tumor histologic and cytologic morphology was also examined. There is a high incidence of DNA content heterogeneity in NPC. The relevance of tumor heterogeneity to the biologic behavior of NPC awaits further study. DNA quantification with image cytometry on destained cytologic preparations is feasible and reliable.

  19. Omics-Based Identification of Biomarkers for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a head and neck cancer that is highly found in distinct geographic areas, such as Southeast Asia. The management of NPC remains burdensome as the prognosis is poor due to the late presentation of the disease and the complex nature of NPC pathogenesis. Therefore, it is necessary to find effective molecular markers for early detection and therapeutic measure of NPC. In this paper, the discovery of molecular biomarker for NPC through the emerging omics technologies including genomics, miRNA-omics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics will be extensively reviewed. These markers have been shown to play roles in various cellular pathways in NPC progression. The knowledge on their function will help us understand in more detail the complexity in tumor biology, leading to the better strategies for early detection, outcome prediction, detection of disease recurrence, and therapeutic approach. PMID:25999660

  20. Clinical presentation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Sarawak Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tiong, T S; Selva, K S

    2005-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in Malaysia. The clinical presentation in Sarawak has not been well documented. A retrospective review of 213 selected NPC cases was undertaken on the clinical records in Sarawak General Hospital, Sarawak, from June 1999 to June 2003. There were 116 patients in Kuching and 97 in Serian. There were twice as many males as females. The youngest patient was 16 and the oldest 88 years old with a mean age of 51 years. The four most common symptoms in order of frequencies were cervical lymphadenopathy, epistaxis, hearing loss and diplopia. 80.8% of the patients presented with cervical lymphadenopathy and about 85% of the patients presented in the advanced stages. Very small percentages of the patients were found to have single presenting symptoms of epistaxis (2.4%) and hearing loss (0.5%).

  1. Widespread expression of prostate apoptosis response-4 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeng-Woei; Hsiao, Wei-Ting; Lee, Kuei-Fang; Sheu, Lai-Fa; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Hsu, Lee-Ping; Su, Borcherng; Lee, Moon-Sing; Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Chung-Hsing

    2010-07-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) augments apoptosis in various tumors, either during apoptotic insult or by ectopic overexpression. However, investigation of Par-4 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is lacking. Specimens from patients with NPC, hypopharyngeal carcinoma (HPC), or oral cavity cancer were examined for Par-4 expression using immunohistochemistry. NPC cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining for Ki67, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and in situ terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively. Par-4 was ubiquitously expressed in NPC biopsies (96.2%, 25/26) and was significantly higher than in HPC (47.6%, 50/105, p < .0001) and oral cavity cancers (38.7%, 12/31, p < .0001). Remarkably, apoptosis of NPC cells was absent and Par-4 expression was associated with obvious expression of Bcl-2 and Ki67 in all patients tested with NPC. Immunohistochemistry results showed widespread expression of Par-4 in NPC and revealed sustainable proliferation of NPC cells regardless of Par-4 expression. .(c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Stereotactic body radiation therapy of early-stage non-small-cell lung carcinoma: Phase I study

    SciT

    McGarry, Ronald C.; Papiez, Lech; Williams, Mark

    Purpose: A Phase I dose escalation study of stereotactic body radiation therapy to assess toxicity and local control rates for patients with medically inoperable Stage I lung cancer. Methods and Materials: All patients had non-small-cell lung carcinoma, Stage T1a or T1b N0, M0. Patients were immobilized in a stereotactic body frame and treated in escalating doses of radiotherapy beginning at 24 Gy total (3 x 8 Gy fractions) using 7-10 beams. Cohorts were dose escalated by 6.0 Gy total with appropriate observation periods. Results: The maximum tolerated dose was not achieved in the T1 stratum (maximum dose = 60 Gy),more » but within the T2 stratum, the maximum tolerated dose was realized at 72 Gy for tumors larger than 5 cm. Dose-limiting toxicity included predominantly bronchitis, pericardial effusion, hypoxia, and pneumonitis. Local failure occurred in 4/19 T1 and 6/28 T2 patients. Nine local failures occurred at doses {<=}16 Gy and only 1 at higher doses. Local failures occurred between 3 and 31 months from treatment. Within the T1 group, 5 patients had distant or regional recurrence as an isolated event, whereas 3 patients had both distant and regional recurrence. Within the T2 group, 2 patients had solitary regional recurrences, and the 4 patients who failed distantly also failed regionally. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy seems to be a safe, effective means of treating early-stage lung cancer in medically inoperable patients. Excellent local control was achieved at higher dose cohorts with apparent dose-limiting toxicities in patients with larger tumors.« less

  3. Comparison of biological behavior between early-stage adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Fregnani, José H T G; Soares, Fernando A; Novik, Pablo R; Lopes, Ademar; Latorre, Maria R D O

    2008-02-01

    (1) To compare the anatomopathological variables and recurrence rates in patients with early-stage adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix; (2) to identify the independent risk factors for recurrence. This historical cohort study assessed 238 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix (IB and IIA), who underwent radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection between 1980 and 1999. Comparison of category variables between the two histological types was carried out using the Pearson's chi(2)-test or Fisher exact test. Disease-free survival rates for AC and SCC were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the curves were compared using the log-rank test. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the independent risk factors for recurrence. There were 35 cases of AC (14.7%) and 203 of SCC (85.3%). AC presented lower histological grade than did SCC (grade 1: 68.6% versus 9.4%; p<0.001), lower rate of lymphovascular space involvement (25.7% versus 53.7%; p=0.002), lower rate of invasion into the middle or deep thirds of the uterine cervix (40.0% versus 80.8%; p<0.001) and lower rate of lymph node metastasis (2.9% versus 16.3%; p=0.036). Although the recurrence rate was lower for AC than for SCC (11.4% versus 15.8%), this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.509). Multivariate analysis identified three independent risk factors for recurrence: presence of metastases in the pelvic lymph nodes, invasion of the deep third of the uterine cervix and absence of or slight inflammatory reaction in the cervix. When these variables were adjusted for the histological type and radiotherapy status, they remained in the model as independent risk factors. The AC group showed less aggressive histological behavior than did the SCC group, but no difference in the disease-free survival rates was noted.

  4. Improved Survival Endpoints With Adjuvant Radiation Treatment in Patients With High-Risk Early-Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    SciT

    Elshaikh, Mohamed A., E-mail: melshai1@hfhs.org; Vance, Sean; Suri, Jaipreet S.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the impact of adjuvant radiation treatment (RT) on recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with high-risk 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-II endometrial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We identified 382 patients with high-risk EC who underwent hysterectomy. RFS, DSS, and OS were calculated from the date of hysterectomy by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression modeling was used to explore the risks associated with various factors on survival endpoints. Results: The median follow-up time for the study cohort was 5.4 years. The median age was 71 years.more » All patients underwent hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, 93% had peritoneal cytology, and 85% underwent lymphadenectomy. Patients with endometrioid histology constituted 72% of the study cohort, serous in 16%, clear cell in 7%, and mixed histology in 4%. Twenty-three percent of patients had stage II disease. Adjuvant management included RT alone in 220 patients (57%), chemotherapy alone in 25 patients (7%), and chemoradiation therapy in 27 patients (7%); 110 patients (29%) were treated with close surveillance. The 5-year RFS, DSS, and OS were 76%, 88%, and 73%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT was a significant predictor of RFS (P<.001) DSS (P<.001), and OS (P=.017). Lymphovascular space involvement was a significant predictor of RFS and DSS (P<.001). High tumor grade was a significant predictor for RFS (P=.038) and DSS (P=.025). Involvement of the lower uterine segment was also a predictor of RFS (P=.049). Age at diagnosis and lymphovascular space involvement were significant predictors of OS: P<.001 and P=.002, respectively. Conclusion: In the treatment of patients with high-risk features, our study suggests that adjuvant RT significantly improves recurrence-free, disease-specific, and overall survival in patients with early-stage endometrial

  5. Exome Sequencing Identifies Potentially Druggable Mutations in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chow, Yock Ping; Tan, Lu Ping; Chai, San Jiun; Abdul Aziz, Norazlin; Choo, Siew Woh; Lim, Paul Vey Hong; Pathmanathan, Rajadurai; Mohd Kornain, Noor Kaslina; Lum, Chee Lun; Pua, Kin Choo; Yap, Yoke Yeow; Tan, Tee Yong; Teo, Soo Hwang; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Patel, Vyomesh

    2017-03-03

    In this study, we first performed whole exome sequencing of DNA from 10 untreated and clinically annotated fresh frozen nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies and matched bloods to identify somatically mutated genes that may be amenable to targeted therapeutic strategies. We identified a total of 323 mutations which were either non-synonymous (n = 238) or synonymous (n = 85). Furthermore, our analysis revealed genes in key cancer pathways (DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, immune response, lipid signaling) were mutated, of which those in the lipid-signaling pathway were the most enriched. We next extended our analysis on a prioritized sub-set of 37 mutated genes plus top 5 mutated cancer genes listed in COSMIC using a custom designed HaloPlex target enrichment panel with an additional 88 NPC samples. Our analysis identified 160 additional non-synonymous mutations in 37/42 genes in 66/88 samples. Of these, 99/160 mutations within potentially druggable pathways were further selected for validation. Sanger sequencing revealed that 77/99 variants were true positives, giving an accuracy of 78%. Taken together, our study indicated that ~72% (n = 71/98) of NPC samples harbored mutations in one of the four cancer pathways (EGFR-PI3K-Akt-mTOR, NOTCH, NF-κB, DNA repair) which may be potentially useful as predictive biomarkers of response to matched targeted therapies.

  6. The influence of human papillomavirus on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kano, Makoto; Kondo, Satoru; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Moriyama-Kita, Makiko; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Endo, Kazuhira; Murono, Shigeyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2017-06-01

    Although Japan is a non-endemic area with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the proportion of WHO type I NPC in Japan are different from that in non-endemic areas such as North America and Europe. Recently, it is said that not only Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) but also human papillomavirus (HPV) has an influence on NPC in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of HPV on NPC in Japan. Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens were available for 59 patients with NPC diagnosed between 1996 and 2015. We detected the virus status by p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV PCR, and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the overall survival by viral status. Among the 59 patients, 49 (83%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 2 (3%) were EBV-positive/HPV-positive, and 8 (16%) were EBV-negative/HPV-negative. All HPV-positive NPCs were co-infected with EBV. There were no significant differences between the overall survival in the three groups (p=0.111). In Japan, HPV was detected in a few patients with NPC, and we suggest that HPV has no influence on NPC carcinogenesis in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Symptom clusters in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma during radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenli; Chan, Carmen W H; Fan, Yuying; Leung, Doris Y P; Xia, Weixiong; He, Yan; Tang, Linquan

    2017-06-01

    Despite the improvement in radiotherapy (RT) technology, patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) still suffer from numerous distressing symptoms simultaneously during RT. The purpose of the study was to investigate the symptom clusters experienced by NPC patients during RT. First-treated Chinese NPC patients (n = 130) undergoing late-period RT (from week 4 till the end) were recruited for this cross-sectional study. They completed a sociodemographic and clinical data questionnaire, the Chinese version of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory - Head and Neck Module (MDASI-HN-C) and the Chinese version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Head and Neck Scale (FACT-H&N-C). Principal axis factor analysis with oblimin rotation, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson product-moment correlation were used to analyze the data. Four symptom clusters were identified, and labelled general, gastrointestinal, nutrition impact and social interaction impact. Of these 4 types, the nutrition impact symptom cluster was the most severe. Statistically positive correlations were found between severity of all 4 symptom clusters and symptom interference, as well as weight loss. Statistically negative correlations were detected between the cluster severity and the QOL total score and 3 out of 5 subscale scores. The four clusters identified reveal the symptom patterns experienced by NPC patients during RT. Future intervention studies on managing these symptom clusters are warranted, especially for the nutrition impact symptom cluster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exome Sequencing Identifies Potentially Druggable Mutations in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Yock Ping; Tan, Lu Ping; Chai, San Jiun; Abdul Aziz, Norazlin; Choo, Siew Woh; Lim, Paul Vey Hong; Pathmanathan, Rajadurai; Mohd Kornain, Noor Kaslina; Lum, Chee Lun; Pua, Kin Choo; Yap, Yoke Yeow; Tan, Tee Yong; Teo, Soo Hwang; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Patel, Vyomesh

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we first performed whole exome sequencing of DNA from 10 untreated and clinically annotated fresh frozen nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies and matched bloods to identify somatically mutated genes that may be amenable to targeted therapeutic strategies. We identified a total of 323 mutations which were either non-synonymous (n = 238) or synonymous (n = 85). Furthermore, our analysis revealed genes in key cancer pathways (DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, immune response, lipid signaling) were mutated, of which those in the lipid-signaling pathway were the most enriched. We next extended our analysis on a prioritized sub-set of 37 mutated genes plus top 5 mutated cancer genes listed in COSMIC using a custom designed HaloPlex target enrichment panel with an additional 88 NPC samples. Our analysis identified 160 additional non-synonymous mutations in 37/42 genes in 66/88 samples. Of these, 99/160 mutations within potentially druggable pathways were further selected for validation. Sanger sequencing revealed that 77/99 variants were true positives, giving an accuracy of 78%. Taken together, our study indicated that ~72% (n = 71/98) of NPC samples harbored mutations in one of the four cancer pathways (EGFR-PI3K-Akt-mTOR, NOTCH, NF-κB, DNA repair) which may be potentially useful as predictive biomarkers of response to matched targeted therapies. PMID:28256603

  9. CpG Methylation Signature Predicts Recurrence in Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results From a Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiliang; Peng, Baogang; Tang, Yunqiang; Qian, Yeben; Guo, Pi; Li, Mengfeng; Luo, Junhang; Chen, Bin; Tang, Hui; Lu, Canliang; Cai, Muyan; Ke, Zunfu; He, Wei; Zheng, Yun; Xie, Dan; Li, Binkui; Yuan, Yunfei

    2017-03-01

    Purpose Early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (E-HCC) is being diagnosed increasingly, and in one half of diagnosed patients, recurrence will develop. Thus, it is urgent to identify recurrence-related markers. We investigated the effectiveness of CpG methylation in predicting recurrence for patients with E-HCCs. Patients and Methods In total, 576 patients with E-HCC from four independent centers were sorted by three phases. In the discovery phase, 66 tumor samples were analyzed using the Illumina Methylation 450k Beadchip. Two algorithms, Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selector Operation and Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination, were used to select significant CpGs. In the training phase, penalized Cox regression was used to further narrow CpGs into 140 samples. In the validation phase, candidate CpGs were validated using an internal cohort (n = 141) and two external cohorts (n = 191 and n =104). Results After combining the 46 CpGs selected by the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selector Operation and the Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination algorithms, three CpGs corresponding to SCAN domain containing 3, Src homology 3-domain growth factor receptor-bound 2-like interacting protein 1, and peptidase inhibitor 3 were highlighted as candidate predictors in the training phase. On the basis of the three CpGs, a methylation signature for E-HCC (MSEH) was developed to classify patients into high- and low-risk recurrence groups in the training cohort ( P < .001). The performance of MSEH was validated in the internal cohort ( P < .001) and in the two external cohorts ( P < .001; P = .002). Furthermore, a nomogram comprising MSEH, tumor differentiation, cirrhosis, hepatitis B virus surface antigen, and antivirus therapy was generated to predict the 5-year recurrence-free survival in the training cohort, and it performed well in the three validation cohorts (concordance index: 0.725, 0.697, and 0.693, respectively). Conclusion MSEH, a three

  10. Long-term observation after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

    PubMed

    Chen, W Z; Zhou, D L; Luo, K S

    1989-02-01

    One thousand one hundred twenty-seven cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with routine radiotherapy from October 1969 to March 1976, of which 436 cases have survived for more than 5 years, 323 cases have survived for over 10 years. The follow-up rate was 98.4%. The present paper analyzes the factors involved in these 436 cases. All patients were treated with tele60Co unit, and in the neck some cases were treated with orthovoltage therapy. The total dose to the primary lesion was 60-75 Gy in 6-8 weeks and in a few cases over 80 Gy were needed, and 50 Gy were applied bilateral cervical lymphatic chain. In this series of cases the 10-year overall survival rate was 28.7%, with Stage I being 66.7%, Stage II 46.5%, Stage III 28.0%, and Stage IV 18.6%, respectively. Statistically, 68 cases died of cardiovascular and other diseases and should be eliminated for net survival calculations. Therefore, we could obtain an actual 10-year survival rate of 30.5%. However, it should be noted that most of these cases were advanced, with Stage III, IV accounting for 82.3%, thus at Stage I, II the 10-year survival rate was 48%, while at Stage III, IV rate was down to 24.5%, which was statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Local and cervical recurrence as well as distant spread of diseases, for these cases started from the fifth to the tenth year after radiotherapy, the mortality caused by the above-mentioned three sites together was 76.9%. According to these findings, we propose that follow-up after radiotherapy in NPC exceeds 10-years. Of the 323 NPC cases, 10 were nasopharyngeal local recurrence which were re-irradiated, accounting for 3.1%. This paper shows that the 3-year survival rate in the local recurrence which were re-irradiated was 34.5%, the 5-year survival rate was 14.8%, and the 10-year survival rate was 11.5%. The failure after re-irradiation was caused by local recurrence and metastasis with a mortality of 83.6%. These results emphasize that the success

  11. Radiotherapy-induced hypopituitarism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the tip of an iceberg.

    PubMed

    Ipekci, S H; Cakir, M; Kiyici, A; Koc, O; Artac, M

    2015-07-01

    Radiation-induced hypopituitarism is an important late complication of cranial radiotherapy in children and adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on pituitary function in adult nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Pituitary function was evaluated in 30 patients after cranial radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Somatotroph and corticotroph axes were assessed by insulin tolerance test while gonadotroph and thyroid axes were evaluated by basal pituitary and end organ hormone levels at 10-133 months after radiotherapy. At least one hormonal disorder was observed in 28 (93%) patients after radiotherapy. 26 (87%) patients had one or more anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies. The rates of pituitary hormone deficiencies were 77% for growth hormone, followed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (73%), thyroid-stimulating hormone (27%) and gonadotropins (7%). Hyperprolactinemia was present in 13 (43%) patients. Radiation-induced hypopituitarism is more common than expected in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Inactivation of parkin by promoter methylation correlated with lymph node metastasis and genomic instability in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Haifeng; Zhou, Zhen; Jiang, Bo; Yuan, Xiaoyang; Cao, Xiaolin; Huang, Guangwu; Li, Yong

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the inactivation of the parkin gene by promoter methylation and its relationship with genome instability in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Parkin was considered as a tumor suppressor gene in various types of cancers. However, its role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is unexplored. Genomic instabilities were detected in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues by the random amplified polymorphic DNA. The methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemical analysis were used to detect methylation and mRNA and protein expression of parkin in 54 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and 16 cases of normal nasopharyngeal epithelia tissues, and in 5 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines (CNE1, CNE2, TWO3, C666, and HONE1) and 1 normal nasopharyngeal epithelia cell line (NP69). mRNA expression of parkin in CNE1 and CNE2 was analyzed before and after methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. The relationship between promoter methylation and mRNA expression, demethylation and mRNA expression, and mRNA and protein expression of the gene and clinical factors and genomic instabilities were analyzed. The mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly reduced in 54 cases of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma compared with 16 cases of normal nasopharyngeal epithelia. Parkin-methylated cases showed significantly lower mRNA and protein expression levels compared with unmethylated cases. After 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment, parkin mRNA expression was restored in CNE1 and CNE2; 92.59% (50/54) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma demonstrated genomic instability. Parkin is frequently inactivated by promoter methylation, and its mRNA and protein expression correlate with lymph node metastasis and genomic instability. Parkin deficiency probably promotes tumorigenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  13. Identification of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from photoluminescence spectra of 3C-SiC nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Fen; Guo, Jun-Hong; Huang, Zhi-Chun; Gu, Jian-Sen; Feng, Li-Ren; Liu, Li-Zhe

    2017-09-01

    The identification of intracellular pH (pHi) during carcinogenesis progression plays a crucial role in the studies of biochemistry, cytology, and clinical medicine. In this work, 3C-SiC nanocrystals (NCs), which can effectively monitor the pH environment by using the linear relation between photoluminescence intensity and surface OH- and H+ concentration, are adapted as fluorescent probes for monitoring carcinogenesis progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Our results demonstrated that 3C-SiC NCs are compatible with living cells and have low cytotoxicity. The pHi measurements in different carcinogenesis environments indicate the validity and sensitivity of this technology in identifying nasopharyngeal carcinoma in application.

  14. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    SciT

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Department of Otolaryngology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan; Tumor Center, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan

    Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival ratemore » between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35-54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16-2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55-64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56-1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.« less

  15. Combined chemo-radiotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Perri, Francesco; Della Vittoria Scarpati, Giuseppina; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Longo, Francesco; Muto, Paolo; Schiavone, Concetta; Sandomenico, Fabio; Caponigro, Francesco

    2013-05-10

    To provide efficacy and safety data about the combined use of radiotherapy and chemo-radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We reviewed data of 40 patients with locally advanced NPC treated with induction chemotherapy followed by concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) (22/40 patients) or CCRT alone (18/40) from March 2006 to March 2012. Patients underwent fiberoscopy with biopsy of the primitive tumor, and computed tomography scan of head, neck, chest and abdomen with and without contrast. Cisplatin was used both as induction and as concomitant chemotherapy, while 3D conformal radiation therapy was delivered to the nasopharynx and relevant anatomic regions (total dose, 70 Gy). The treatment was performed using 6 MV photons of the linear accelerator administered in 2 Gy daily fraction for five days weekly. This retrospective analysis was approved by the review boards of the participating institutions. Patients gave their consent to treatment and to anonymous analysis of clinical data. Thirty-three patients were males and 7 were females. Median follow-up time was 58 mo (range, 1-92 mo). In the sub-group of twenty patients with a follow-up time longer than 36 mo, the 3-year survival and disease free survival rates were 85% and 75%, respectively. Overall response rate both in patients treated with induction chemotherapy followed by CCRT and in those treated with CCRT alone was 100%. Grade 3 neutropenia was the most frequent acute side-effect and it occurred in 20 patients. Grade 2 mucositis was seen in 29 patients, while grade 2 xerostomia was seen in 30 patients. Overall toxicity was manageable and it did not cause any significant treatment delay. In the whole sample population, long term toxicity included grade 2 xerostomia in 22 patients, grade 1 dysgeusia in 17 patients and grade 1 subcutaneous fibrosis in 30 patients. Both CCRT and induction chemotherapy followed by CCRT showed excellent activity in locally advanced NPC. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy

  16. Inhibitory effects of 3-bromopyruvate in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xue; Zhang, Mengxiao; Sun, Yiming; Zhao, Surong; Wei, Yingmei; Zhang, Xudong; Jiang, Chenchen; Liu, Hao

    2015-10-01

    Tumor cells depend on aerobic glycolysis for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, which is therefore targeted by therapeutic agents. The compound 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a strong alkylating agent and hexokinase inhibitor, inhibits tumor cell glycolysis and the production of ATP, causing apoptosis. 3-BrPA induces apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines HNE1 and CNE-2Z, which may be related to its molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3-BrPA on the viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis and other types of programmed cell death in NPC cells in vitro and in vivo. PI staining showed significant apoptosis in NPC cells accompanied by the overproduction of ROS and downregulation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) by 3-BrPA. However, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis by decreasing ROS and facilitating the recovery of MMP. We elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying 3-BrPA activity and found that it caused mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production, leading to necroptosis of NPC cells. We investigated the effects of the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, which inhibits apoptosis but promotes death domain receptor (DR)-induced NPC cell necrosis. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) inhibits necroptosis, apparently via a DR signaling pathway and thus abrogates the effects of z-VAD‑fmk. In addition, we demonstrated the effective attenuation of 3-BrPA-induced necrotic cell death by Nec-1. Finally, animal studies proved that 3-BrPA exhibited significant antitumor activity in nude mice. The present study is the first demonstration of 3-BrPA-induced non-apoptotic necroptosis and ROS generation in NPC cells and provides potential strategies for developing agents against apoptosis‑resistant cancers.

  17. Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis

    SciT

    Stenmark, Matthew H., E-mail: stenmark@med.umich.edu; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Schipper, Matthew

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nonendemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and assess the prognostic implications of viral status. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 62 patients with primary NPC diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed for EBV and high-risk HPV. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA. HPV status was assessed with p16 immunohistochemistry and multiplex polymerase chain reaction MassArray for determination of HPV type. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients as stratified by viralmore » status. Results: Of 61 evaluable tumors, 26 (43%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 18 (30%) were HPV-positive/EBV-negative, and 17 (28%) were EBV/HPV-negative. EBV and HPV infection was mutually exclusive. HPV positivity was significantly correlated with World Health Organization grade 2 tumors, older age, and smoking (all P<.001). The racial distribution of the study population was 74% white, 15% African American, and 11% Asian/Middle Eastern. Among HPV-positive patients, 94% were white. At a median follow-up time of 7 years, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than did EBV-positive tumors, including decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, P=.01; and HR 3.89, P=.002), progression-free survival (HR 2.55, P=.02; and HR 4.04, P<.001), and locoregional control (HR 4.01, P=.03; and HR 6.87, P=.001). Conclusion: In our Midwestern population, high-risk HPV infection may play an etiologic role in the development of nonendemic, EBV-negative NPC. Compared with EBV-positive NPC, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative NPC are associated with worse outcomes. A larger confirmatory study is needed to validate these findings.« less

  18. Analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk factors with Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Aussem, Alex; de Morais, Sérgio Rodrigues; Corbex, Marilys

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new graphical framework for extracting the relevant dietary, social and environmental risk factors that are associated with an increased risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) on a case-control epidemiologic study that consists of 1289 subjects and 150 risk factors. This framework builds on the use of Bayesian networks (BNs) for representing statistical dependencies between the random variables. We discuss a novel constraint-based procedure, called Hybrid Parents and Children (HPC), that builds recursively a local graph that includes all the relevant features statistically associated to the NPC, without having to find the whole BN first. The local graph is afterwards directed by the domain expert according to his knowledge. It provides a statistical profile of the recruited population, and meanwhile helps identify the risk factors associated to NPC. Extensive experiments on synthetic data sampled from known BNs show that the HPC outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms that appeared in the recent literature. From a biological perspective, the present study confirms that chemical products, pesticides and domestic fume intake from incomplete combustion of coal and wood are significantly associated with NPC risk. These results suggest that industrial workers are often exposed to noxious chemicals and poisonous substances that are used in the course of manufacturing. This study also supports previous findings that the consumption of a number of preserved food items, like house made proteins and sheep fat, are a major risk factor for NPC. BNs are valuable data mining tools for the analysis of epidemiologic data. They can explicitly combine both expert knowledge from the field and information inferred from the data. These techniques therefore merit consideration as valuable alternatives to traditional multivariate regression techniques in epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Primary Treatment Results of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, Maarten A.; Fles, Renske; Herdini, Camelia; Indrasari, Rai S.; Vincent, Andrew D.; Tjokronagoro, Maesadji; Stoker, Sharon; Kurnianda, Johan; Karakullukcu, Baris; Taroeno-Hariadi, Kartika W.; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Middeldorp, Jaap M.; Hariwiyanto, Bambang; Haryana, Sofia M.; Tan, I. Bing

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) is a major health problem in southern and eastern Asia. In Indonesia NPC is the most frequent cancer in the head and neck area. NPC is very sensitive to radiotherapy resulting in 3-year disease-free and overall survival of approximately 70% and 80%, respectively. Here we present routine treatment results in a prospective study on NPC in a top referral; university hospital in Indonesia. Methods All NPC patients presenting from September 2008 till January 2011 at the ear, nose and throat (ENT) department of the Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, were possible candidates. Patients were included if the biopsy was a histological proven NPC without distant metastasis and were assessed during counselling sessions prior to treatment, as being able to complete the entire treatment. Results In total 78 patients were included for treatment analysis. The median time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy is 120 days. Forty-eight (62%) patients eventually finished all fractions of radiotherapy. The median duration of the radiotherapy is 62 days for 66 Gy. Median overall survival is 21 months (95% CI 18–35) from day of diagnosis. Conclusion The results presented here reveal that currently the treatment of NPC at an Indonesian hospital is not sufficient and cannot be compared to the treatment results in literature. Main reasons for these poor treatment results are (1) a long waiting time prior to the start of radiotherapy, (2) the extended overall duration of radiotherapy and (3) the advanced stage of disease at presentation. PMID:23675501

  20. Olfactory Training in Improving Sense of Smell After Radiation Therapy in Patients With Paranasal Sinus or Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-11

    Stage 0 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage 0 Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage I Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage I Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage II Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage II Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IIA Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IIB Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage III Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVA Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVB Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVC Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVC Paranasal Sinus Cancer

  1. Long non-coding RNA ZNF674-1 acts as a cancer suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nie, Guo-Hui; Li, Zhao; Duan, Hong-Fang; Luo, Liang; Hu, Hong-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Fan; Zhang, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most frequently occurring carcinoma of the head and neck. The complexity of NPC makes it difficult for it to be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Certain long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are closely associated with the carcinogenesis of NPC. In the present study, the expression of lncRNA ZNF674-1 in NPC tissues and an NPC cell line was analyzed and was revealed to be downregulated compared with normal tissues and cells. When the expression of lncRNA ZNF674-1 was reduced in NPC cells, the proliferation, migration and invasion of these cells was promoted, whereas the apoptosis of these cells was decreased. On the contrary, when overexpressed, the expression of lncRNA ZNF674-1 inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of cells, but promoted cell apoptosis. The results of the present study reveal that the lncRNA ZNF67-1 may restrain the carcinogenesis of NPC, and may also serve as a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis and treatment of NPC.

  2. Differential diagnosis of primary nasopharyngeal lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma focusing on CT, MRI, and PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyu-Sup; Kang, Dae-Woon; Kim, Hak-Jin; Lee, Jong-Kil; Roh, Hwan-Jung

    2012-04-01

    No study has done a comparative analysis of radiologic imaging findings between primary nasopharyngeal lymphoma (PNL) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to analyze computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images and to evaluate the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max) of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT between PNL and NPC, knowing the imaging features that distinguish PNL from NPC. Cross-sectional study. University tertiary care facility. The authors analyzed the features on CT, MR imaging, and PET/CT of 16 patients diagnosed with PNL and 32 patients diagnosed with NPC histopathologically. Patients with PNL had a larger tumor volume and showed symmetry of tumor shape than did patients with NPC. Patients with PNL also had higher tumor homogeneity than NPC patients on CT, T2-weighted, and postcontrast MR images. All PNL patients showed a high degree of enhancement without invasion to the adjacent deep structure. The involvement of the Waldeyer ring was significantly higher in PNL patients. Cervical and retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy and PET/CT SUV max showed no significant difference between PNL and NPC. If the images present a bulky, symmetric nasopharyngeal mass with marked homogeneity, a high degree of enhancement, and a higher Waldeyer ring involvement combined with no invasion into the deep structure, PNL should be considered over NPC.

  3. Cytotoxic T Cell Adoptive Immunotherapy as a Treatment for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Pauline; Morrison, Leanne; Stevens, Natasha; Davis, Joanne E.; Corban, Monika; Hall, David; Panizza, Benedict; Coman, William B.; Coman, Scott; Moss, Denis J.

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We assess the safety and tolerability of adoptive transfer of autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for the EBV latent membrane protein (LMP) in a patient with recurrent NPC. After infusion, the majority of pulmonary lesions were no longer evident, although the primary tumor did not regress. PMID:24351754

  4. Cytotoxic T cell adoptive immunotherapy as a treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lutzky, Viviana P; Crooks, Pauline; Morrison, Leanne; Stevens, Natasha; Davis, Joanne E; Corban, Monika; Hall, David; Panizza, Benedict; Coman, William B; Coman, Scott; Moss, Denis J

    2014-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We assess the safety and tolerability of adoptive transfer of autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for the EBV latent membrane protein (LMP) in a patient with recurrent NPC. After infusion, the majority of pulmonary lesions were no longer evident, although the primary tumor did not regress.

  5. Elevated expression of CD93 promotes angiogenesis and tumor growth in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciT

    Bao, Lili; Tang, Mingming; Zhang, Qicheng

    2016-08-05

    CD93, also known as the complement component C1q receptor (C1qRp), has been reported to promote the progression of some cancer types. However, the expression and physiological significance of CD93 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain largely elusive. In this study, we first examined the expression of CD93 in NPC and experimentally manipulated its expression. We observed that vascular CD93 expression is elevated in NPC and is correlated with T classification, N classification, distant metastasis, clinical stage and poor prognosis (all P < 0.05). In addition, overexpression of CD93 promoted angiogenesis in vitro. What’s more, we found that CD93 was highly expressed in NPC tissuesmore » and cells, and the regulation of CD93 on cell proliferation was determined by cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay and cell cycle analyses. Our findings provide unique insight into the pathogenesis of NPC and underscore the need to explore novel therapeutic targets such as CD93 to improve NPC treatment. -- Highlights: •This is the first research about the relationship between CD93 and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. •We explored the prognostic significance of vascular CD93 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. •We researched on angiogenesis and cell proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and how CD93 affected them.« less

  6. RNA Related to That of a Murine Leukemia Virus in Burkitt's Tumors and Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kufe, D.; Hehlmann, R.; Spiegelman, S.

    1973-01-01

    RNA homologous to that of the Rauscher leukemia virus has been detected in Burkitt's lymphomas and nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Earlier excellent experimental evidence has linked these two human tumors with the Epstein-Barr virus, a DNA-containing agent. PMID:4346039

  7. [Sentinel node detection in early stage of cervical carcinoma using 99mTc-nanocolloid and blue dye].

    PubMed

    Sevcík, L; Klát, J; Gráf, P; Koliba, P; Curík, R; Kraft, O

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the feasibility of intraoperative sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) detection using gamma detection probe and blue dye in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy for treatment of early stage of cervical cancer. Prospective case observational study. In the period from May 2004 to February 2006 77 patients with early stage of cervical cancer who underwent a radical surgery were included into the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to the tumour volume. First group consists of patients FIGO IA2 and FIGO IB1 with tumour diameter less than 2 cm, second group tumours FIGO IB1 with tumour diameter more than 2 cm and third group stadium IB2. SLN was detected by blue dye and Tc99. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was done after Tc99 colloid injection, intraoperative detection was performed by visual observation and by hand-held gamma-detection probe. SLN were histologically and immunohistochemically analysed. A total number of 2764 lymph nodes with an average 36 and 202 SLN with an average 2.6 were identified. The SLN detection rate was 94.8% per patient and 85.1% for the side of dissection and depends on the tumor volume. SLN were identified in obturator area in 48%, in external iliac area in 15%, in common iliac and internal iliac both in 9%, in interiliac region in 8%, in praesacral region in 6% and in parametrial area in 5%. Metastatic disease was detected in 31 patients (40.2%), metastatic involvement of SLN only in 12 patients (15.6%). False negative rate was 2.6%, sensitivity and negative predictive value calculated by patient were 923% and 95.7%. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping using combination of technecium-99-labeled nanocolloid and blue dye are feasible, safe and accurate techniques to identified SLN in early stage of cervical cancer.

  8. Evaluation of the response of concurrent high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy with external beam radiotherapy in management of early stage carcinoma cervix.

    PubMed

    Patidar, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, H S; Walke, Rahul V; Hirapara, Pushpendra H; Jakhar, Shankar Lal; Bardia, M R

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate local disease control and early complications of concomitant brachytherapy with external beam-radiotherapy in early stage carcinoma cervix. Fifty patients of early stage carcinoma cervix (FIGO-IB/IIA) were randomly divided into study group concomitant external beam irradiation (EBRT) and HDR-ICBT (intra-cavitary brachytherapy, xrt = 50 Gy/25 Fr, HDR 5.2 Gy*5 Fr) and the control group EBRT followed by HDR-ICBT (xrt = 50 Gy/25 Fr, HDR 7.5 Gy*3 Fr). Acute reactions and local disease response were compared between treatment and at 6-month follow up. Median overall treatment times were 38 and 61 days in the study and the control groups, respectively. Acute skin reactions and diarrhea were more in the study but manageable. At the completion of the study, there were 80 and 68 % complete responses, 16 and 20 % partial responses, 0 and 8 % stable diseases in the study group and the control group, respectively. Response was better in the study group but statistically insignificant. Larger number of patients and longer follow up are required to arrive at concrete conclusion.

  9. Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like proteinase is present in early-stage mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma and related to the clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Listyarifah, Dyah; Nieminen, Mikko T; Mäkinen, Laura K; Haglund, Caj; Grenier, Daniel; Häyry, Valtteri; Nordström, Dan; Hernandez, Marcela; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Tervahartiala, Taina; Ainola, Mari; Sorsa, Timo; Hagström, Jaana

    2018-05-10

    Certain periodontopathogenic bacteria have been linked to cancers. Treponema denticola (Td) is associated with severe periodontitis. Chymotrypsin-like proteinase (CTLP), a major virulence factor of Td, can degrade various host proteins and peptides, and modulate inflammatory responses. However the role of Td in the tongue carcinogenesis remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Td-CTLP in early-stage mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma (MTSCC) and its relation to clinical and pathological characteristics. The immunopositivity of Td-CTLP was assessed in samples obtained from 60 MTSCC patients and associated with their clinicopathological data. Additionally, Td-CTLP expression was compared with immunoexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-8 and -9), toll-like receptors (TLR-2, -4, -7 and -9), c-Myc, Ki-67, Bmi-1, and Snail. Td-CTLP was present in 95% of MTSCC tumours of which many (40.4%) showed high immunopositivity. Td-CTLP positivity was significantly associated with invasion depth, tumour diameter, and the expression of TLR-7, TLR-9, and c-Myc. High Td-CTLP immunopositivity in patients under the age of 60 predicted early relapse. Our data indicate that Td and its CTLP are present in early-stage MTSCC carcinoma and may contribute to carcinogenesis, and therefore provide novel perspectives into intervention and therapeutic measures of MTSCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha in early-stage and in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maisa; Teixeira, Sarah R; Azevedo, Monarko N; Fraga, Ailton C; Gontijo, Antônio Pm; Vêncio, Eneida F

    2017-04-01

    To investigate hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression in distinct oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies and correlate with clinicopathological data. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 93 cases of OSCC. Clinical and histopathological data were reviewed from medical records. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha status was distinct according to tumor location, subtype and topography affect. In superficial oral squamous cell carcinomas, most tumor cells overexpressed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha, whereas hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha was restricted to the intratumoral region in conventional squamous cell carcinomas. All basaloid squamous cell carcinomas exhibited downregulation of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha. Interestingly, metastatic lymph nodes (91.7%, p = 0.001) and the intratumoral regions of corresponding primary tumors (58.3%, p = 0.142) showed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha-positive tumor cells. Overall survival was poor in patients with metastatic lymph nodes. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha has distinct expression patterns in different oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies, suggesting that low oxygen tension promotes the growth pattern of superficial and conventional squamous cell carcinoma, but not basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Indeed, a hypoxic environment may facilitate regional metastasis, making it a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker in primary tumors.

  11. MicroRNA-196a-5p is a potential prognostic marker of delayed lymph node metastasis in early-stage tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Tessho; Nishihara, Kazuhide; Umikawa, Masato; Arasaki, Akira; Nakasone, Toshiyuki; Nimura, Fumikazu; Matayoshi, Akira; Takei, Kimiko; Nakachi, Saori; Kariya, Ken-Ichi; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are expected to serve as prognostic tools for cancer. However, many miRs have been reported as prognostic markers of recurrence or metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We aimed to determine the prognostic markers in early-stage tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that miR-10a, 10b, 196a-5p, 196a-3p, and 196b were prognostic markers and we retrospectively performed miR expression analyses using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of surgical specimens. Total RNA was isolated from cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissue as control, and samples were collected by laser-capture microdissection. After cDNA synthesis, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed. Statistical analyses for patient clinicopathological characteristics, recurrence/metastasis, and survival rates were performed to discern their relationships with miR expression levels, and the 2−ΔΔCq method was used. miR-196a-5p levels were significantly upregulated in early-stage TSCC, particularly in the lymph node metastasis (LNM) group. The LNM-free survival rate in the low miR-196a-5p ΔΔCq value regulation group was found to be lower than that in the high ΔΔCq value regulation group (P=0.0079). Receiver operating characteristic analysis of ΔΔCq values revealed that miR-196a-5p had a P-value=0.0025, area under the curve=0.740, and a cut-off value=−0.875 for distinguishing LNM. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine LNM-related miRs in early-stage TSCC as well as miRs and ‘delayed LNM’ in head and neck cancer. miR-196a-5p upregulation may predict delayed LNM. Our data serve as a foundation for future studies to evaluate miR levels and facilitate the prediction of delayed LNM during early-stage TSCC, which prevent metastasis when combined with close follow-up and aggressive adjuvant therapy or elective neck dissection. Moreover, our data will serve as a foundation

  12. Transarterial chemoembolization for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma decrease local tumor control and overall survival compared to radiofrequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Hocquelet, Arnaud; Seror, Olivier; Blanc, Jean-Frédéric; Frulio, Nora; Salut, Cécile; Nault, Jean-Charles; Hervé Trillaud

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims To compare treatment failure and survival associated with ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for early-stage HCC in Child-Pugh A cirrhosis patients. Methods 122 cirrhotic patients (RFA: 61; TACE: 61) were well matched according to cirrhosis severity; tumor size and serum alpha-fetoprotein. TACE was performed in case of inconspicuous nodule on US or nodule with “at risk location”. Treatment failure was defined as local tumor progression (LTP) and primary treatment failure (failing to obtain complete response after two treatment session). Treatment failure and overall survival (OS) were compared after coarsened exact matching. Cox proportional model to assess independent predictive factors was performed. Results No significant difference was seen for baseline characteristics between the two groups. Mean tumor size was 3cm in both group with 41% HCC>3cm. Treatment failure rates after TACE was 42.6% (14 primary treatment failures and 12 LTP) and 9.8% after RFA (no primary treatment failure and 6 LTP) P < 0.001. TACE was the only predictive factor of treatment failure (Hazard ratio: 5.573). The 4-years OS after RFA and TACE were 54.1% and 31.5% (P = 0.042), respectively. Conclusion For Child-Pugh A patients with early-stage HCC, alternative treatment as supra-selective TACE to RFA regarded as too challenging using common US guidance decrease significantly the local tumor control and overall survival. Efforts to improve feasibility of RFA especially for inconspicuous target have to be made. PMID:27793027

  13. Radiation-induced temporo-mandibular joint disorder in post-radiotherapy nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vincent W C; Lam, Ying-Na

    2016-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in southern China, and its incidence in Hong Kong is relatively high. Radiotherapy is the mainstay treatment for NPC due to its relatively high radiosensitivity and deep-seated anatomical position, which is not readily accessible by surgery. Although the technique of radiotherapy in NPC has been advancing and offers promising treatment outcome, complications around the irradiation areas are inevitable and the quality of life of the post-radiotherapy patients is often compromised. Trismus, which is defined as the restricted mouth opening or jaw movement due to the disorder of temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ), is one of the possible late complications for radiotherapy of NPC and is found in 5-17% of the post-radiotherapy (post-RT) patients. Trismus at early stage may only affect the speech, but in severe cases nutritional intake and oral hygiene condition may deteriorate seriously. This article reviewed the possible causes of radiation-induced TMJ damage, the various assessments including imaging modalities and possible treatments. The conclusion is that the availability of simple, yet effective examinations for trismus is essential for delaying the progression and restoring TMJ functions. Although there is no absolutely effective treatment for trismus, many supportive, restorative and palliative management are possible under different clinical situations.

  14. Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese immigrants, compared with Chinese in China and South East Asia: review.

    PubMed

    Yu, W M; Hussain, S S M

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the literature and to compare published data on age-standardised incidence rates of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese people living in and outside China. Systematic review of incidence rate studies and statistical incidence data concerning nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese populations from 1960 to 2008. Sixteen papers were identified from the PubMed, Embase and Scopus electronic databases and from a hand search of the reference lists of the retrieved papers. Further searches for raw data on age-specific and age-standardised incidence rates of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were conducted. Textbooks on relevant subjects were referred to for background information. A total of 19 papers met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies included raw data on age-specific and age-standardised incidence rates of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese people. Twelve other studies reported on changes in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese populations in selected countries or regions. Studies on age-specific and age-standardised rates obtained data from individual registries. Studies on incidence rates obtained data from hospital records, cancer notifications (from all sections of the medical profession), pathology records and death certificates. The results showed a decline in age-standardised incidence rates of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese immigrant populations, compared with Chinese people in China. There was also a trend towards decreasing incidence the further the population had immigrated. Thus, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Singaporean Chinese was higher than that in Hawaiian Chinese, and that in Hawaiian Chinese was higher than that in Californian Chinese. This review found a decreasing trend in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese migrants living in countries with a low risk of the disease.

  15. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Indonesia: epidemiology, incidence, signs, and symptoms at presentation

    PubMed Central

    Adham, Marlinda; Kurniawan, Antonius N.; Muhtadi, Arina Ika; Roezin, Averdi; Hermani, Bambang; Gondhowiardjo, Soehartati; Tan, I Bing; Middeldorp, Jaap M.

    2012-01-01

    Among all head and neck (H&N) cancers, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) represents a distinct entity regarding epidemiology, clinical presentation, biological markers, carcinogenic risk factors, and prognostic factors. NPC is endemic in certain regions of the world, especially in Southeast Asia, and has a poor prognosis. In Indonesia, the recorded mean prevalence is 6.2/100 000, with 13 000 yearly new NPC cases, but otherwise little is documented on NPC in Indonesia. Here, we report on a group of 1121 NPC patients diagnosed and treated at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia between 1996 and 2005. We studied NPC incidence among all H&N cancer cases (n=6000) observed in that period, focusing on age and gender distribution, the ethnic background of patients, and the disease etiology. We also analyzed most prevalent signs and symptoms and staging of NPC patients at first presentation. In this study population, NPC was the most frequent H&N cancer (28.4%), with a male-to-female ratio of 2.4, and was endemic in the Javanese population. Interestingly, NPC appeared to affect patients at a relatively young age (20% juvenile cases) without a bimodal age distribution. Mostly, NPC initiated in the fossa of Rosenmuller and spreaded intracranially or locally as a mass in the head. Occasionally, NPC developed at the submucosal level spreading outside the anatomic limits of the nasopharynx. At presentation, NPC associated with hearing problems, serous otitis media, tinnitus, nasal obstruction, anosmia, bleeding, difficulty in swallowing and dysphonia, and even eye symptoms with diplopia and pain. The initial diagnosis is difficult to make because early signs and symptoms of NPC are not specific to the disease. Early-age Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection combined with frequent exposure to environmental carcinogenic co-factors is suggested to cause NPC development. Undifferentiated NPC is the most frequent histological type and is closely associated with EBV

  16. Mutation profiles in early-stage lung squamous cell carcinoma with clinical follow-up and correlation with markers of immune function.

    PubMed

    Choi, M; Kadara, H; Zhang, J; Parra, E R; Rodriguez-Canales, J; Gaffney, S G; Zhao, Z; Behrens, C; Fujimoto, J; Chow, C; Kim, K; Kalhor, N; Moran, C; Rimm, D; Swisher, S; Gibbons, D L; Heymach, J; Kaftan, E; Townsend, J P; Lynch, T J; Schlessinger, J; Lee, J; Lifton, R P; Herbst, R S; Wistuba, I I

    2017-01-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) accounts for 20–30% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). There are limited treatment strategies for LUSC in part due to our inadequate understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the disease. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and comprehensive immune profiling of a unique set of clinically annotated early-stage LUSCs to increase our understanding of the pathobiology of this malignancy. Matched pairs of surgically resected stage I-III LUSCs and normal lung tissues (n = 108) were analyzed by WES. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis-based profiling of 10 immune markers were done on a subset of LUSCs (n = 91). Associations among mutations, immune markers and clinicopathological variables were statistically examined using analysis of variance and Fisher’s exact test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for statistical analysis of clinical outcome. This early-stage LUSC cohort displayed an average of 209 exonic mutations per tumor. Fourteen genes exhibited significant enrichment for somatic mutation: TP53, MLL2, PIK3CA, NFE2L2, CDH8, KEAP1, PTEN, ADCY8, PTPRT, CALCR, GRM8, FBXW7, RB1 and CDKN2A. Among mutated genes associated with poor recurrence-free survival, MLL2 mutations predicted poor prognosis in both TP53 mutant and wild-type LUSCs. We also found that in treated patients, FBXW7 and KEAP1 mutations were associated with poor response to adjuvant therapy, particularly in TP53-mutant tumors. Analysis of mutations with immune markers revealed that ADCY8 and PIK3CA mutations were associated with markedly decreased tumoral PD-L1 expression, LUSCs with PIK3CA mutations exhibited elevated CD45ro levels and CDKN2A-mutant tumors displayed an up-regulated immune response. Our findings pinpoint mutated genes that may impact clinical outcome as well as personalized strategies for targeted immunotherapies in early-stage LUSC.

  17. Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinomas Not Feasible for Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation: Comparison of Transarterial Chemoembolization Alone and Combined Therapy with Transarterial Chemoembolization and Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciT

    Hyun, Dongho; Cho, Sung Ki, E-mail: chosk@skku.edu; Shin, Sung Wook

    2016-03-15

    PurposeTo report the results of combined therapy with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) considered infeasible for ultrasound (US)-guided RFA in comparison with those of TACE monotherapy.MethodsFrom January 2007 through December 2010, 91 patients with early or very early stage HCC infeasible for US-guided RFA received either TACE alone (TACE group; n = 54) or TACE immediately followed by RFA (TACE–RFA group; n = 37) as a first-line treatment. 1-month tumor response, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors.ResultsTACE–RFA group showed a bettermore » 1-month tumor response than TACE group (P < .001). The mean TTP was 29.7 ± 3.4 months (95 % confidence intervals [CIs] 23.0–36.5) in TACE group and 34.9 ± 2.8 months (95 % CIs 29.4–40.4) in TACE–RFA group. TACE–RFA group had a significantly longer TTP (P = .014). Cumulative 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates in the TACE and TACE–RFA groups were 91, 79, and 71 % and 100, 97, and 93 %, respectively (P = .008). Initial treatment of TACE was found to be the only significant risk factor for tumor progression and OS in multivariate analysis.ConclusionTACE–RFA combination therapy appears superior to TACE monotherapy in terms of 1-month tumor response, TTP, and OS when performed for early stage HCC infeasible for US-guided RFA.« less

  18. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma as a paradigm of cancer genetics

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Malcolm J.

    2011-01-01

    The unusual incidence patterns for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in China, Northeast India, Arctic Inuit, Peninsular and island Southeast Asia, Polynesian Islanders, and North Africans indicate a role for NPC risk genes in Chinese, Chinese-related, and not-obviously Chinese-related populations. Renewed interest in NPC genetic risk has been stimulated by a hypothesis that NPC population patterns originated in Bai-Yue / pre-Austronesian–speaking aborigines and were dispersed during the last glacial maximum by Sundaland submersion. Five articles in this issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer, first presented at a meeting on genetic aspects of NPC [National Cancer Center of Singapore (NCCS), February 20–21, 2010], are directed towards incidence patterns, to early detection of affected individuals within risk populations, and to the application of genetic technology advances to understanding the nature of high risk. Turnbull presents a general framework for understanding population migrations that underlie NPC and similar complex diseases, including other viral cancers. Trejaut et al. apply genetic markers to detail migration from East Asia through Taiwan to the populating of Island Polynesia. Migration dispersal in a westward direction took mongoloid peoples to modern day Northeast India adjacent to Western China (Xinjiang). NPC incidence in mongoloid Nagas ranks amongst the highest in the world, whereas elsewhere in India NPC is uncommon. Cao et al. detail incidence patterns in Southeast China that have occurred over recent decades. Finally, Ji et al. describe the utility of Epstein-Barr virus serostatus in early NPC detection. While genetic risk factors still remain largely unknown, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes have been a focus of attention since the discovery of an HLA association with NPC in 1973 and, two years later, that NPC susceptibility in highest-risk Cantonese involved the co-occurrence of multi-HLA locus combinations of HLA genes as chromosome

  19. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma as a paradigm of cancer genetics.

    PubMed

    Simons, Malcolm J

    2011-02-01

    The unusual incidence patterns for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in China, Northeast India, Arctic Inuit, Peninsular and island Southeast Asia, Polynesian Islanders, and North Africans indicate a role for NPC risk genes in Chinese, Chinese-related, and not-obviously Chinese-related populations. Renewed interest in NPC genetic risk has been stimulated by a hypothesis that NPC population patterns originated in Bai-Yue / pre-Austronesian-speaking aborigines and were dispersed during the last glacial maximum by Sundaland submersion. Five articles in this issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer, first presented at a meeting on genetic aspects of NPC [National Cancer Center of Singapore (NCCS), February 20-21, 2010], are directed towards incidence patterns, to early detection of affected individuals within risk populations, and to the application of genetic technology advances to understanding the nature of high risk. Turnbull presents a general framework for understanding population migrations that underlie NPC and similar complex diseases, including other viral cancers. Trejaut et al. apply genetic markers to detail migration from East Asia through Taiwan to the populating of Island Polynesia. Migration dispersal in a westward direction took mongoloid peoples to modern day Northeast India adjacent to Western China (Xinjiang). NPC incidence in mongoloid Nagas ranks amongst the highest in the world, whereas elsewhere in India NPC is uncommon. Cao et al. detail incidence patterns in Southeast China that have occurred over recent decades. Finally, Ji et al. describe the utility of Epstein-Barr virus serostatus in early NPC detection. While genetic risk factors still remain largely unknown, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes have been a focus of attention since the discovery of an HLA association with NPC in 1973 and, two years later, that NPC susceptibility in highest-risk Cantonese involved the co-occurrence of multi-HLA locus combinations of HLA genes as chromosome

  20. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) overexpression in clinical staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat; Asnir, R. A.; Yudhistira, A.; Daulay, E. R.; Muzakkir, M. M.; Yulius, S.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular biological research on nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been widely practiced, such as VEGF, EGFR, COX-2 expression and so on. MAPK plays a role in cell growth such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, primarily contributing to gene expression, where p38 MAPK pathway mostly associate with anti-apoptosis and cause cell transformation. The aim of this study is to determine the expression of p38 MAPK in clinical stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma so that the result can be helpful in prognosis and adjunctive therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The research design is descriptive. It was done in THT- KL Department of FK USU/RSUP Haji Adam Malik, Medan and Pathology Anatomical Department of FK USU. The study was conducted from December 2011 to May 2012. The Samples are all patients who diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in oncology division of Otorhinolaryngology Department. p38 MAPK overexpression was found in 21 samples (70%) from 30 nasopharyngeal carcinoma samples. The elevated of p38 MAPK expression most found on T4 by eight samples (38.1%), N3 lymph node group by nine samples (42.9%), stage IV of clinical staging is as many as 15 samples (71.4%). p38 MAPK most expressed in stage IV clinical staging of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  1. Nanogram per milliliter-level immunologic detection of alpha-fetoprotein with integrated rotating-resonance microcantilevers for early-stage diagnosis of heptocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjing; Li, Xinxin; Zhang, Zhixiang; Zuo, Guomin; Cheng, Zhenxing; Yu, Haitao

    2009-02-01

    Nanogram per milliliter-level ultra-low concentration detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which is an important marker for heptocellular carcinoma, is in favor of early-stage prognosis and disease diagnosis. On-the-spot rapid detection of such antigens as AFP highly requires innovative micro/nano techniques. To meet this requirement, an advanced resonant microcantilever is developed and used for screening the tumor marker at nanogram per milliliter level. The sensing principle of the resonant microcantilever is measuring frequency-shift versus specific-adsorbed mass. With both electromagnetic resonance-exciting and piezoresistive readout elements on-chip integrated, the microcantilever sensor is operated in a rotating resonance mode to improve sensitivity and resolution to specific mass adsorption. Prior to detection of AFP with previously immobilized anti-AFP antibody, the antigen-antibody specific-binding is confirmed with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay experiment. By implementing the specific reaction in liquid and reading out the sensor signal in lab air environment, the micromechanical sensor has achieved the sensitive scale between 2 and 20 ng/ml. To effectively depress cross-talk signal and improve resolution, the insensitive regions of the cantilever surface are pre-modified with 2-[methoxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] trimethoxysilane for nonspecific bio-adsorption minimization. Finally, a better AFP detecting limit than 2 ng/mL is experimentally achieved. The label-free resonant microcantilever sensor is promising in low-cost or even disposable early-stage prognosis and diagnosis of tumors.

  2. Suppression of E-cadherin function drives the early stages of Ras-induced squamous cell carcinoma through up-regulation of FAK and Src

    PubMed Central

    Alt-Holland, Addy; Sowalsky, Adam; Szwec-Levin, Yonit; Shamis, Yulia; Hatch, Harold; Feig, Larry A.; Garlick, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced stages of epithelial carcinogenesis involve the loss of intercellular adhesion, but it remains unclear how proteins that regulate alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are deregulated to promote the early stages of cancer development. To address this, a three-dimensional human tissue model that mimics the incipient stages of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) was used to study how E-cadherin suppression promotes tumor progression in Ras-expressing human keratinocytes. We found that E-cadherin suppression triggered elevated mRNA and protein expression levels of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), and increased FAK and Src activities above the level seen in Ras-expressing E-cadherin-competent keratinocytes. sh-RNA-mediated depletion of FAK and Src restored E-cadherin expression levels by increasing its stability in the membrane, and blocked tumor cell invasion in tissues. Surface transplantation of these tissues to mice resulted in reversion of the tumor phenotype to low-grade tumor islands in contrast to control tissues that manifested an aggressive, high-grade SCC. These findings suggest that the tumor-promoting effect of E-cadherin suppression, a common event in SCC development, is exacerbated by enhanced E-cadherin degradation induced by elevated FAK and Src activities. Furthermore, they imply that targeting FAK or Src in human epithelial cells with neoplastic potential may inhibit the early stages of SCC. PMID:21716326

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of narrow-band imaging nasoendoscopy compared to histopathology results in patients with suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adham, M.; Musa, Z.; Lisnawati; Suryati, I.

    2017-08-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a disease which is prevalent in developing countries like Indonesia. There were 164 new cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) oncology outpatient clinic of the Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital in 2014, and 142 cases in 2015. Unfortunately, almost all of these cases presented at an advanced stage. The success of nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment is largely determined by the stage when patients are diagnosed; it is critical to diagnose NPC as early as possible. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is an endoscopic instrument with a light system that can improve the visualization of blood vessels of mucosal epithelial malignant tumors. NBI is expected to help clinicians to assess whether a lesion is malignant or not; to do so, it is important to know the value of sensitivity and specificity. This study is a cross-sectional form of a diagnostic test which was performed in the outpatient clinic of the ENT Head and Neck Surgery Department for the Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, from January to June 2016, and involved 56 subjects. Patients with a nasopharyngeal mass discovered by physical examination or imaging, and a suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma were included as a subject. An NBI examination and biopsy was performed locally. Based on this research, NBI could be used as a screening tool for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with high sensitivity (100%), but with a low specificity result (6.7%).

  4. Minimally Invasive Surgical Staging in Early-stage Ovarian Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Borghi, Chiara; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Lopez, Carlos; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Scaffa, Cono; Indini, Alice; Ferrero, Simone; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    Few studies investigated the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (eEOC). In this context, we aimed to review the current evidence comparing laparoscopy and the laparotomic approach for staging procedures in eEOC. This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Overall, 3065 patients were included: 1450 undergoing laparoscopy and 1615 undergoing laparotomic staging. Patients undergoing laparoscopy experienced a longer (but not statistically significant) operative time (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 28.3 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.59 to 59.2), a lower estimated blood loss (WMD = -156.5 mL; 95% CI, -216.4 to -96.5), a shorter length of hospital stay (WMD = -3.7 days; 95% CI, -5.2 to -2.1), and a lower postoperative complication rate (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.81) than patients undergoing laparotomy. The upstaging (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.55-1.20) and cyst rupture (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.52-3.38) rates were similar between groups. Laparoscopic staging is associated with a shorter time to chemotherapy than laparotomic procedures (WMD = -5.16 days; 95% CI, -8.68 to -1.64). Survival outcomes were not influenced by the route of surgery. Pooled data suggested that the minimally invasive surgical approach is equivalent to laparotomy for the treatment of eEOC and may be superior in terms of perioperative outcomes. However, because of the low level of evidence of the included studies, further randomized trials are warranted. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with central nervous system metastases: Two case reports and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chunying; Ying, Hongmei; Lu, Xueguan; Hu, Chaosu

    2017-12-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) metastases are rarely seen in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Two NPC patients developed CNS metastases were collected in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. The medical records were reviewed to document patients' characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. In addition, we also provide an overview of the literature concerning this scenario. Both patients were staged T4N1M0 with pathologically confirmed CNS metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. After the completion of initial chemoradiotherapy, metastases to CNS including brain and/or spine occurred during follow-up. Surgical resection combined with palliative chemoradiation was offered to alleviate the symptoms. Although multiple treatment modalities were given, both patients succumbed to disease progression. The mechanism for CNS metastases is postulated through hematogenous route or cerebral spinal fluid spread. Good symptoms amelioration can be achieved with aggressive treatments such as surgery followed by palliative chemoradiation, but prognoses are ominous due to systematic disease dissemination.

  6. Assessment of quality of life of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with EORTC QLQ-C30 and H and N-35 modules

    SciT

    Cengiz, Mustafa; Ozyar, Enis; Esassolak, Mustafa

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: The current study reports on long-term quality of life (QoL) status after conventional radiotherapy in 187 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients from 14 centers in Turkey. Patients and Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, who were treated in 14 centers in Turkey with minimum 6 months of follow-up and were in complete remission, were asked to complete Turkish versions of EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire and the HN-35 module. Each center participated with the required clinical data that included age at diagnosis, gender, symptoms on admission, follow-up period, treatment modalities, radiotherapy dose, and AJCC 1997 tumor stage. Each patient's 33 QoLmore » scores, which included function, global health status, and symptoms, were calculated as instructed in EORTC QLQ-C30 scoring manual. All of the scales and single-item measures range from 0 to 100. A high score represents a higher response level. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U nonparametric tests were used for comparisons. Results: One hundred eighty-seven patients with median age of 46 years (range, 16-79 years) participated and completed the questionnaires. Median follow-up time was 3.4 years (range, 6 months-24 years). All patients have received external-beam radiotherapy. Beside external-beam radiotherapy, 59 patients underwent brachytherapy boost, 70 patients received concomitant chemotherapy, and 95 patients received adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Most of the patients in the analysis (75%) were in advanced stage (Stage III, n = 85 [45.4%]; Stage IV, n = 55 [29%]). Mean global health status was calculated as 73. Parameters that increased global health status were male gender, early-stage disease, and less than 4-year follow-up (p < 0.05). Functional parameters were better in males and in early-stage disease. Factors that yielded better symptom scores were short interval after treatment (10 scores), male gender (7 scores), and lower radiation dose (6 scores). Neoadjuvant or

  7. Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-23

    Nasopharyngeal Nonkeratinizing Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharynx Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma AJCC v7

  8. Prognostic aspects in the treatment of juvenile nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gioacchini, Federico Maria; Tulli, Michele; Kaleci, Shaniko; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Re, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    To systematically review and discuss the published data about treatments and outcomes for children and adolescents affected by nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In April 2015, an appropriate string was run on PubMed to retrieve all relevant articles. A cross-check was performed by two of the authors on abstracts and full-text articles found using the selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. A meta-analysis concerning the rate of reported disease-free survival and overall survival was performed. Fifteen studies were identified comprising a total of 865 subjects affected by nasopharyngeal carcinoma. According to the American Joint Committee for Cancer Staging system, the majority of tumors were classified as Stage IV (57.3 %). All included patients underwent radiotherapy, while 687 (79.4 %) received also some regimen of chemotherapy. On the basis of our statistical analysis, the mean (95 % CI) rate of disease-free survival was 66 % (95 % CI 56-76). The mean (95 % CI) rate of the overall survival resulted 68 % (95 % CI 58-78). On the basis of our analysis, it may be affirmed that the prognosis of juvenile nasopharyngeal carcinoma is still unsatisfactory. New reports on homogeneous populations are needed to better define the most influencing prognostic factors and to evaluate the introduction of possible alternative therapeutic protocols.

  9. Photodynamic effects of pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuan Shan; Leung, Albert Wing Nang

    2006-08-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common cancers, and exploring novel therapeutic modalities will improve the clinical outcomes. It has been confirmed that photodynamic therapy can efficiently deactivate malignant cells. The aim of the present study was to explore the photodynamic effects of pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester (MPPa) in CNE2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. CNE2 cells were subjected to photodynamic therapy with MPPa, in which the drug concentration was 0.25 to 4 microM and light energy 1 to 8 J/cm(2). Photodynamic toxicity was investigated 24 h after treatment. Apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC and propidum iodine staining and with nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258. The mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) was evaluated by Rhodamine 123 assay. There was no dark cytotoxicity of MPPa in the CNE2 cells at doses of 0.25-4 microM, and MPPa resulted in dose- and light-dependent phototoxicity. The apoptotic rate 8 h after PDT with MPPa (2 microM) increased to 16.43% under a light energy of 2 J/cm(2). Mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) collapsed when the CNE2 cells were exposed to 2 microM MPPa for 20 h and then 2 J/cm(2) irradiation. Photodynamic therapy with MPPa significantly enhanced apoptosis and the collapse of DeltaPsim. This can be developed for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  10. Chemoradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a 6-year experience in Tehran cancer institute.

    PubMed

    Kalaghchi, Bita; Kazemian, Ali; Hashem, Farnaz Amouzegar; Aghili, Mehdi; Farhan, Farshid; Haddad, Peiman

    2011-01-01

    To determine the addition of value of neoadjuvant, concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy to radiation in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with regard to the overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) within a six year period in Tehran cancer institute. Files of all patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy in a curative setting in Tehran cancer institute during the period of 1999-2005 were retrospectively reviewed.. A total of 103 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma had been treated during the study period with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy in our institute. There were 29 (28.2%) females and 74 (71.8%) males. The median age at the time of radiotherapy was 47 years old (range 9-75 years). The patients were followed 2 to 76 months with a median follow-up of 14 months. Time of first recurrence after treatment was 3-44 months with a median of 10 months.. Survival in 2 groups of patients treated with radiotherapy alone or chemoradiation did not have a significant difference (P>0.1). Two-year survival in patients treated with or without adjuvant chemotherapy and had local recurrence after treatment did not have significant difference (P>0.1). Two-year survival in patients with or without local recurrence after treatment did not have significant difference (P>0.1). A beneficial affect or a survival benefit of adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation was not observed in Iranian patients.

  11. Automated Ki-67 Quantification of Immunohistochemical Staining Image of Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Zhong, Jing; Hong, Jinsheng; Huang, Rongfang; Wang, Kaijun; Chen, Yunbin

    2016-08-26

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is one of the malignant neoplasm with high incidence in China and south-east Asia. Ki-67 protein is strictly associated with cell proliferation and malignant degree. Cells with higher Ki-67 expression are always sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the assessment of which is beneficial to NPC treatment. It is still challenging to automatically analyze immunohistochemical Ki-67 staining nasopharyngeal carcinoma images due to the uneven color distributions in different cell types. In order to solve the problem, an automated image processing pipeline based on clustering of local correlation features is proposed in this paper. Unlike traditional morphology-based methods, our algorithm segments cells by classifying image pixels on the basis of local pixel correlations from particularly selected color spaces, then characterizes cells with a set of grading criteria for the reference of pathological analysis. Experimental results showed high accuracy and robustness in nucleus segmentation despite image data variance. Quantitative indicators obtained in this essay provide a reliable evidence for the analysis of Ki-67 staining nasopharyngeal carcinoma microscopic images, which would be helpful in relevant histopathological researches.

  12. Evaluation and validation of the diagnostic value of the apparent diffusion coefficient for differentiating early-stage endometrial carcinomas from benign mimickers at 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Yumin; Zhou, Yongjin; Ye, Xinjian; Liu, Kun; Bai, Guanghui; Guo, Anna; Du, Meimei; Jiang, Lezhen; Wang, Jinhong; Yan, Zhihan

    2017-07-11

    Previous researchers obtained various apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) cutoff values to differentiate endometrial carcinoma from benign mimickers with 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Few studies have used 3T MRI or validated the effectiveness of these cutoff ADC values prospectively. This study was designed in two stages to obtain a cutoff ADC value at 3T MRI and to validate prospectively the role of the ADC value. First, we conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients to evaluate the diagnostic value of ADC by obtain a theoretical cutoff ADC value for differentiating between benign and malignant endometrial lesions. Student's t test revealed that ADC values for stage I endometrial carcinomas were significantly lower than those for benign lesions. The area under the curve value of the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.993, and the cutoff ADC value was 0.98 × 10-3 mm2/s. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of diagnosing stage I endometrial carcinoma were 100%, 97.1%, and 98.3%, respectively. Second, we conducted a prospective study of 26 patients to validate the use of the cutoff ADC value obtained in the study's first stage. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for differentiating malignant from benign endometrial lesions based on the cutoff ADC value obtained earlier were as follows: radiologist 1 attained 86.67%, 100.0%, and 92.31%, respectively; radiologist 2 attained 86.67%, 91.0%, and 88.5%, respectively. Our results suggest that ADC values could be a potential biomarker for use as a quantitative and qualitative tool for differentiating between early-stage endometrial carcinomas and benign mimickers.

  13. Evaluation and validation of the diagnostic value of the apparent diffusion coefficient for differentiating early-stage endometrial carcinomas from benign mimickers at 3T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yumin; Zhou, Yongjin; Ye, Xinjian; Liu, Kun; Bai, Guanghui; Guo, Anna; Du, Meimei; Jiang, Lezhen

    2017-01-01

    Previous researchers obtained various apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) cutoff values to differentiate endometrial carcinoma from benign mimickers with 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Few studies have used 3T MRI or validated the effectiveness of these cutoff ADC values prospectively. This study was designed in two stages to obtain a cutoff ADC value at 3T MRI and to validate prospectively the role of the ADC value. First, we conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients to evaluate the diagnostic value of ADC by obtain a theoretical cutoff ADC value for differentiating between benign and malignant endometrial lesions. Student's t test revealed that ADC values for stage I endometrial carcinomas were significantly lower than those for benign lesions. The area under the curve value of the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.993, and the cutoff ADC value was 0.98 × 10−3 mm2/s. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of diagnosing stage I endometrial carcinoma were 100%, 97.1%, and 98.3%, respectively. Second, we conducted a prospective study of 26 patients to validate the use of the cutoff ADC value obtained in the study's first stage. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for differentiating malignant from benign endometrial lesions based on the cutoff ADC value obtained earlier were as follows: radiologist 1 attained 86.67%, 100.0%, and 92.31%, respectively; radiologist 2 attained 86.67%, 91.0%, and 88.5%, respectively. Our results suggest that ADC values could be a potential biomarker for use as a quantitative and qualitative tool for differentiating between early-stage endometrial carcinomas and benign mimickers. PMID:28634318

  14. Deregulation of SYCP2 predicts early stage human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma: A prospective whole transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Liam; Sorgeloos, Frederic; Winder, David; Lechner, Matt; Marker, Alison; Malhotra, Shalini; Sudhoff, Holger; Jani, Piyush; Goon, Peter; Sterling, Jane

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to identify significant differences in gene expression profiles of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and to better understand the functional and biological effects of HPV infection in the premalignant pathway. Twenty-four consecutive patients with locally advanced primary OPSCC were included in a prospective clinical trial. Fresh tissue samples (tumor vs. matched normal epithelium) were subjected to whole transcriptome analysis and the results validated on the same cohort with RT-quantitative real-time PCR. In a separate retrospective cohort of 27 OPSCC patients, laser capture microdissection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue allowed RNA extraction from adjacent regions of normal epithelium, carcinoma in situ (premalignant) and invasive SCC tissue. The majority of patients showed evidence of high-risk HPV16 positivity (80.4%). Predictable fold changes of RNA expression in HPV-associated disease included multiple transcripts within the p53 oncogenic pathway (e.g. CDKN2A/CCND1). Other candidate transcripts found to have altered levels of expression in this study have not previously been established (SFRP1, CRCT1, DLG2, SYCP2, and CRNN). Of these, SYCP2 showed the most consistent fold change from baseline in premalignant tissue; aberrant expression of this protein may contribute to genetic instability during HPV-associated cancer development. If further corroborated, this data may contribute to the development of a non-invasive screening tool. This study is registered with the UK Clinical Research Network (ref.: 11945). © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Rare metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cai, Changjing; Shen, Hong; Liu, Wenqiang; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Ling; Li, Jindong; Shen, Liangfang; Zeng, Shan

    2017-11-01

    Thyroid metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare. Metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes hasn't been reported before. We want to share our experience about the treatment choice. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal nonkeratinizing carcinoma in August 2004. In March 2013 he underwent a thyroid carcinoma radical operation, and histological examination revealed metastasis to the thyroid gland from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. An 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan and biopsy showed metastatic abdominal lymph nodes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in April 2015. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes. The patient was treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and metastasis to the thyroid gland. The metastases to the abdominal lymph nodes received chemotherapy. After 6 cycles of chemotherapy with gemcitabine, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil for metastasis to the abdominal lymph nodes, the patient is currently asymptomatic with stable disease and improved quality of life. The treatment choice for metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma depends on the clinical disease extent, and surgery and/or chemo-radiation therapy must be drafted to the individual patient in order to improve the prognosis and quality of life.

  16. Exome capture sequencing reveals new insights into hepatitis B virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma at the early stage of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Lijuan; Xu, Hexiang; Liu, Xingxiang; Zhao, Yingren

    2013-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, is the third primary cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and formation of HCC remain obscure. In the present study, we performed exome sequencing using tumor and normal tissues from 3 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive BCLC stage A HCC patients. Bioinformatic analysis was performed to find candidate protein-altering somatic mutations. Eighty damaging mutations were validated and 59 genes were reported to be mutated in HBV-related HCCs for the first time here. Further analysis using whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of 88 HBV-related HCC patients from the European Genome-phenome Archive database showed that mutations in 33 of the 59 genes were also detected in other samples. Variants of two newly found genes, ZNF717 and PARP4, were detected in more than 10% of the WGS samples. Several other genes, such as FLNA and CNTN2, are also noteworthy. Thus, the exome sequencing analysis of three BCLC stage A patients provides new insights into the molecular events governing the early steps of HBV-induced HCC tumorigenesis.

  17. The value of histological grading of biopsy and resection specimens in early stage oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Dik, Eric A; Ipenburg, Norbertus A; Kessler, Peter A; van Es, Robert J J; Willems, Stefan M

    2018-04-05

    In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) the differentiation grade of the tumor is determined on the biopsy and the resection specimen. The relation between tumor grade, nodal metastasis and survival is debatable. The aims of this study were to determine the correlation between differentiation grade of the biopsy and the resection specimen. Furthermore, we wanted to correlate tumor differentiation grade with nodal stage and survival. One-hundred and forty-five patients with OSCC staged as T1-2, N0 of the tongue, floor of mouth or cheek with primary resection of the tumor were examined. Biopsy and resection specimen were histologically re-assessed with regard to differentiation grade, as well as infiltrative, peri-neural and vascular invasive growth. This study showed a poor correlation between differentiation grade in the incisional biopsy and the resection specimen of the same tumor. No significant relation between differentiation grade of the resection specimen and nodal involvement, as well as overall and disease-specific survival was found. In early OSCC the differentiation grade determined by biopsy is of little predictive value for the grading of the resection specimen. Poor differentiation grade could not be related to the presence of nodal metastasis or survival and seems not to have any prognostic value concerning outcome. Treatment planning must be related to these findings. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of adjuvant treatment in early-stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: An international collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Eran; Na'ara, Shorook; Agarwal, Jaiprakash; Amit, Moran; Bachar, Gideon; Villaret, Andrea Bolzoni; Brandao, Jose; Cernea, Claudio R; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Clark, Jonathan; Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Fliss, Dan M; Jonnalagadda, Sashikanth; Kohler, Hugo F; Kowalski, Luiz P; Kreppel, Matthias; Liao, Chun-Ta; Patel, Snehal G; Patel, Raj P; Robbins, K Thomas; Shah, Jatin P; Shpitzer, Thomas; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Zöller, Joachim E; Gil, Ziv

    2018-05-14

    Up to half of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) have stage I to II disease. When adequate resection is attained, no further treatment is needed; however, re-resection or radiotherapy may be indicated for patients with positive or close margins. This multicenter study evaluated the outcomes and role of adjuvant treatment in patients with stage I to II OCSCC. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival, local-free survival, and disease-free survival rates were calculated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Of 1257 patients with T1-2N0M0 disease, 33 (2.6%) had positive margins, and 205 (16.3%) had close margins. The 5-year OS rate was 80% for patients with clear margins, 52% for patients with close margins, and 63% for patients with positive margins (P < .0001). In a multivariate analysis, age, depth of invasion, and margins were independent predictors of outcome. Close margins were associated with a >2-fold increase in the risk of recurrence (P < .0001). The multivariate analysis revealed that adjuvant treatment significantly improved the outcomes of patients with close/positive margins (P = .002 to .03). Patients with stage I to II OCSCC and positive/close margins have poor long-term outcomes. For this population, adjuvant treatment may be associated with improved survival. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  19. Salivary zinc finger protein 510 peptide as a novel biomarker for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma in early stages.

    PubMed

    Jou, Yu-Jen; Lin, Chia-Der; Lai, Chih-Ho; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Su-Hua; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chen, Shih-Yin; Kao, Jung-Yie; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2011-07-15

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis can mean adequate treatment and increase survival. This study uses ClinProt technique to identify salivary biomarkers for early diagnosis of OSCC. A total of 77 salivary samples from both OSCC patients (n=47) and healthy donors (n=30) were analyzed with MALDI-TOF MS technology. Salivary peptides from OSCC patients were separated, using C8-functionalized magnetic beads. Three signals (2918.57 Da, 5592.64 Da, and 4372.66 Da) distinguished OSCC patients from controls. Among them, unique peptide 2918.57 Da, identified as a 24-mer peptide of zinc finger protein 510 (ZNF510), was found in 0% of saliva from healthy individuals, versus 25.0% and 60% from OSCC patients with T1+T2 and T3+T4 stages, respectively (P<0.001). ELISA analysis with rabbit anti-ZNF510 peptide sera shows a starkly higher 24-mer ZNF510 peptide level in saliva from OSCC patients than that in controls (P<0.001). Also, in immunohistochemical analysis of oral tissues, a significantly higher level of ZNF510 was observed in OSCC tissues than in the OSCC free control tissues. Analysis of areas under receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves in OSCC early (T1+T2) and late stages (T3+T4) shows greater than 0.95. Identifying 24-mer ZNF510 peptide as OSCC-related salivary biomarkers via proteomic approach proved useful in adjunct diagnosis for early detection rather than specific diagnosis marker for progression of OSCC patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ARHGAP42 promotes cell migration and invasion involving PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qian; Lin, Xiao; Ding, Linxiaoxiao; Zeng, Yinduo; Pang, Danmei; Ouyang, Nengtai; Xiang, Yanqun; Yao, Herui

    2018-06-24

    Rho GTPase-activating protein 42 was identified as an inhibitor of RhoA to maintain normal blood pressure homeostasis. However, the effect of ARHGAP42 in promoting cell malignancy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is demonstrated in this study. Microarray and real-time quantitative PCR were used for a mRNA profiling of ARHGAP42 in nasopharyngeal primary and metastatic carcinoma tissues. Western blot and immunohistochemical staining were used for detecting the expression of ARHGAP42 protein in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and cell lines. The overexpression and silence experiments of ARHGAP42 were performed in NPC cell lines using siRNA and expressive plasmid for evaluating cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. Real-time quantitative PCR, western blot, and transwell test were employed for with the function of ARHGAP42 and its antisense lncRNA uc010rul. We confirmed the elevated expression of ARHGAP42 in metastatic NPC tissues of mRNA and protein for the first time. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that NPC patients with highly ARHGAP42 expression were significantly associated with shorter metastasis-free survival. Knockdown of ARHGAP42 resulted in significant inhibition of nasopharyngeal cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro, and the overexpression of ARHGAP42 showed the opposite effects. In addition, the silence of uc010rul resulted in ARHGAP42 expression decrease and significant inhibition of nasopharyngeal cancer cell migration and invasion. High expression of ARHGAP42 is associated with poor metastasis-free survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. ARHGAP42 promotes migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro; the antisense lncRNA may be involved in this effect. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Alpha-Tocopherol prevents esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by modulating PPARγ-Akt signaling pathway at the early stage of carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiannan; Lu, Ping; Feng, Yongquan; Geng, Xue; Zhang, Lishi; Jia, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    The poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) emphasizes the urgent need to better understand the carcinogenesis and develop prevention strategies. Previous studies have highlighted the potential of using Vitamin E (tocopherols) for cancer chemoprevention, but the preventive activity of α-Tocopherol against ESCC remains to be elucidated. Our data showed that early-stage supplementation with α-Tocopherol significantly prevented esophageal carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) in ESCC rat model. In the Het-1A cell model, α-Tocopherol markedly suppressed cell proliferation, promoted cell cycle G2-phase arrest and increased apoptosis. Gene microarray and proteins array analysis indicated that Akt signaling was a potential target for α-Tocopherol. We further demonstrated that α-Tocopherol increased the expression of PPARγ and its downstream tumor suppressor PTEN. Knockdown of PPARγ activated Akt signaling transduction, whereas this process was attenuated by the presence of α-Tocopherol and PPARγ agonist Rosiglitazone. In contrast, the effect of α-Tocopherol on Akt inhibition was not observed in established tumors, neither in cancerous cell lines which constitutively expressed higher levels of PPARγ. These results were closely correlated with the ineffectiveness of α-Tocopherol in the late stage of ESCC carcinogenesis. Taken together, our study suggested that α-Tocopherol may serve as a PPARγ agonist for the chemoprevention of esophageal cancer. PMID:29221176

  2. Habitual Consumption of Soy Products and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chinese Adults: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan-ting; Fan, Yu-ying; Xu, Chun-hua; Lin, Xiao-ling; Lu, Yun-kai; Zhang, Xing-lan; Zhang, Cai-xia; Chen, Yu-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Many studies have shown a negative association between the consumption of soy products and the risk of some cancers, but little is known about the effect of soy consumption on nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We assessed the association between the consumption of soy products on nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk in Chinese individuals. Methods This case-control study included 600 (448 males and 152 females) incident cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and an equal number of controls, matched according to gender, age (± 3 y) and household type to the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases. All subjects were recruited from hospitals in Guangzhou, China. A face-to-face interview was conducted with each study individual to collect general information and habitual dietary intake using a 78-item quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The median intakes of soy foods (in protein) were 0.5/0.5, 1.4/1.7, 2.7/3.3 and 6.1/7.7 (male/female) g/d in the quartiles 1 to 4. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed no significant association between the consumption of soy proteins or soy isoflavones and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) between extreme quartiles were 0.97 (0.66-1.45) for soy proteins and 0.97 (0.66-1.42) for total isoflavones. Null associations were also observed between intake of the individual isoflavones daidzein, genistein and glycitein and NPC risk, with adjusted odds ratios for the extreme quartiles ranging between 0.73 and 1.23. Conclusion Habitual consumption of soy products had no significant effect on the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese adults with a relatively low intake. PMID:24155974

  3. [Long-term efficacy of submandibular gland transfer for prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Yu, Lijiang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Xiuhong; Xiao, Fufu; Zeng, Guoxing; Lan, Xiaolin

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term efficacy of submandibular gland transfer for prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Sixty-five cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were randomly divided into study group of 32 patients and control group of 33 patents. The submandibular gland was transferred to submental region on 32 cases with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before receiving conventional radiotherapy and a block was used to cover the submental region. Before radiotherapy, two groups of submandibular gland function was detected by imaging of the submandibular gland. At 60 months after radiotherapy, submandibular gland function was detected by 99mTc radionuclide scanning, the questionnaire about the degree of xerostomia was investigated respectively. Five-year survival rate was counted. After following up for 60 months, submandibular gland uptake and secretion function in the study group was significantly higher than that in the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01) respectively. The incidence of moderate or severe xerostomia in the study group was significantly lower than that in the control group (15.4% vs 76.9%, P < 0.01). Five-year survival rate of the study group and control group was 81.3% and 78.8% respectively, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The long-term efficacy of submandibular gland transfer for prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma was well. It could improve the quality of life in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy, and did not affect the long-term efficacy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  4. Salvage surgery in the treatment of local recurrences of nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Salom, María Cecilia; López, Fernando; Pacheco, Esteban; Muñoz, Gabriela; García-Cabo, Patricia; Fernández, Laura; Suárez, Vanessa; Llorente, José Luis

    2018-04-03

    Chemoradiotherapy is the treatment of choice for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Local recurrences are one of the leading causes of death in these patients, and surgical salvage the treatment of choice. Our goal was to evaluate and compare the results of salvage surgery in the treatment of local recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinomas comparing endoscopic to open approaches. Twenty patients with local recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinomas underwent surgery: 12 patients underwent open surgery and 8 endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid nasopharyngectomy. One patient was classified as rT1; 3 as rT2;2 as rT3; and 6 as rT4 in the group of open approaches; in the endoscopic series, 2 patients were rT1, 5 rT2 and one rT3. In 3 patients (25%) operated by an open approach (one rT4, one rT3 and one rT2) a complete gross resection was not achieved. Gross total resection was achieved in patients operated by endoscopic surgery. The complication rate in the group operated by an open approach was 92% (5 minor complications, 5 moderate complications, and one serious complication) and in the group that underwent endoscopic surgery all patients had some complication (7 had minor complications and one patient developed a severe complication). Survival at 3 and 5 years was 53% and 42% with the open approach and 100% and 50% with the endoscopic approach, respectively. Endoscopic approaches decrease the morbidity associated with open approaches and allow for favourable oncological control. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and photodynamic activities of modified corrole derivatives on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi K.; Kong, Pak-Wing; Liu, Hai-Yang; Yeung, Lam-Lung; Koon, Ho-Kee; Mak, Nai-Ki

    2006-02-01

    Ten trans-A2B and A3-type corrole photosensitizers carrying functional groups were synthesized and screened for PDT activities. Photocytotoxicity was measured by the MTT cell reduction assay on a cultured human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line (HONE-1). Experimental results indicated that corroles containing a single hydroxyphenyl substituent (3, 4 and 5) exhibit the highest activity among the corrole derivatives investigated. Confocal microscopy revealed that the site of cellular localization of the photosensitizers is predominantly at mitochondria. Also, nuclear staining detected apoptotic cell death.

  6. [Inactivation of PMS2 gene by promoter methylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ni, H F; Jiang, B; Zhou, Z; Li, Y; Yuan, X Y; Cao, X L; Huang, G W

    2016-11-23

    Objective: To investigate the inactivation of PMS2 gene mediated by promoter methylation and its regulatory mechanism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Fifty-four NPC tissues, 16 normal nasopharyngeal epithelia (NNE), 5 NPC cell lines (CNE1, CNE2, TWO3, HNE1 and HONE1) and 1 normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line (NP69) were collected.Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was used to detect the PMS2 promoter methylation, semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied to determine its mRNA expression, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the protein expression of PMS2. The expressions of PMS2 mRNA in CNE1 and CNE2 cells before and after treated with methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine were analyzed by qRT-PCR. The impact of methylation and demethylation on the mRNA expression of PMS2, and the association of mRNA and protein expression of PMS2 with clinicopathological features of nasopharyngeal cancer were analyzed. Results: Methylation of PMS2 gene was detected in all of the five NPC cell lines, but not in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial NP69 cells. The methylation rate of PMS2 gene in NPC tissues was 63% (34/54), significantly higher than that of the normal nasopharyngeal epithelia (0/16, P <0.001). The expression levels of PMS2 mRNA and protein were significantly down-regulated in the 54 NPC tissues when compared with those in the 16 NNE tissues ( P <0.001), and were also significantly lower in the 34 methylated NPC tissues than those in the 20 unmethylated NPC tissues ( P <0.001). After treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, the expression of PMS2 mRNA was restored in the CNE1 and CNE2 cells.However, the expressions of PMS2 mRNA and protein were not significantly correlated with patients' age, gender, TNM stage, histopathologic type or lymph node metastasis ( P >0.05 for all). Conclusions: Promoter methylation-mediated inactivation of PMS2 gene participates in carcinogenesis and development of NPC. PMS2 may be

  7. Utility of PET-CT in detecting nodal metastasis in cN0 early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Seikaly, Hadi; Biron, Vincent L; Jeffery, Caroline C

    2018-05-01

    Management of the clinically node-negative neck (cN0) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) is challenging. Accurate imaging alternatives to elective neck dissections would help reduce surgical morbidity. While pooled studies suggest that imaging modalities have similar accuracy in predicting occult nodal disease, no study has examined the utility of PET-CT in this specific population of low-volume, clinically T1 and T2 OCSCC patients. A retrospective review of patients in the Alberta Cancer Registry who were diagnosed with cT1 or T2N0M0 OCSCC who underwent elective unilateral or bilateral neck dissections was performed. Pre-operative PET-CT and CT necks were reviewed for number of radiographically suspicious lymph nodes. Surgical pathology reports were reviewed to obtain the total number of nodes sampled and number of malignant nodes. Between 2009 and 2013, 148 patients were diagnosed with cT1 or T2N0M0 OCSCC. Of these, 96 patients underwent elective neck dissections. All patients underwent preoperative CT of the neck with 32 patients having undergone additional preoperative PET-CT. Based on finally surgical pathology, the overall rate of occult metastasis was 13.5% (13/96). The overall sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT in this cohort was 21.4% and 98.4%, respectively with a negative predictive value of 99.1%. Although sensitivity improved in patients with tumors ≥2 cm and depth ≥4 mm, specificity remained unchanged. In patients with cT1 and T2N0 OCSCC, PET-CT has high negative predictive value. These patients can be considered for treatment with single modality surgical resection and elective neck dissection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Branchial cleft cyst: An unusual site for the cervical metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Chang; Adel, Mohamad; Lee, Li-Yu; Chang, Kai-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Cancers found in the resected branchial cleft cyst are rare clinically but usually impose substantive diagnostic and treatment challenges for clinicians. A 31-year-old man presented with a lateral neck mass that was suspected to be an inflammatory branchial cleft cyst. After excision, the pathologic specimen revealed a benign cystic appearance with a focus of undifferentiated carcinoma. Serologic tests for Epstein-Barr virus were negative. A positron emission tomography scan and upper aerodigestive tract endoscopies were negative for any other suspicious lesion. The patient underwent random biopsies of the nasopharynx, tongue base, and hypopharynx and bil tonsillectomy. Pathologic examination of the nasopharyngeal biopsies showed the presence of undifferentiated carcinoma. The cancerous part of the branchial cleft cyst and this nasopharyngeal specimen were positive for the latent membrane protein-1 and EBV-encoded RNAs of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and confirmed our diagnosis. This is the first report of a NPC metastasizing to a branchial cleft cyst. Molecular diagnostic techniques facilitate the definite diagnosis that enabled us to refine treatment plans and offered the patient a favorable outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Rare earth elements contents and distribution characteristics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Lan, Xiaolin; Zhang, Lingzhen; Xiao, Fufu; Zhong, Zhaoming; Ye, Guilin; Li, Zong; Li, Shaojin

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the rare earth elements(REEs) contents and distribution characteristics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma( NPC) tissue in Gannan region. Thirty patients of NPC in Gannan region were included in this study. The REEs contents were measured by tandem mass spectrometer inductively coupled plasma(ICP-MS/MS) in 30 patients, and the REEs contents and distribution were analyzed. The average standard deviation value of REEs in lung cancer and normal lung tissues was the minimum mostly. Light REEs content was higher than the medium REEs, and medium REEs content was higher than the heavy REEs content. REEs contents changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma were variable obviously, the absolute value of Nd, Ce, Pr, Gd and other light rare earth elements were variable widely. The degree of changes on Yb, Tb, Ho and other heavy rare earth elements were variable widely, and there was presence of Eu, Ce negative anomaly(δEu=0. 385 5, δCe= 0. 523 4). The distribution characteristic of REEs contents in NPC patients is consistent with the parity distribution. With increasing atomic sequence, the content is decline wavy. Their distribution patterns were a lack of heavy REEs and enrichment of light REEs, and there was Eu , Ce negative anomaly.

  10. [Expression of c-kit in North African nasopharyngeal carcinomas: correlation with age and LMP1].

    PubMed

    Charfi, S; Khabir, A; Ayadi, L; Mseddi, M; Makni, H; Gorbel, A; Daoud, J; Frikha, M; Jlidi, R; Busson, P; Boudawara, T S

    2007-09-01

    To determine the level and prognostic significance of c-kit expression in the two age groups of North African nasopharyngeal carcinomas. A retrospective study of 99 NPC specimens from Tunisian patients was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical data were correlated with Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 expression and pathological, clinical and survival parameters. c-kit was detected in 79% of the cases for patients under 30 years of age (juvenile form) but in only 56% of specimens in patients over 30 years (P=0.039) and was significantly over-expressed for patients with lymph node involvement (P=0.015). LMP1 score was 5.78 (+/-1.84) for c-kit negative tumors compared to 8,23 (+/-2.39) for c-kit positive tumors (P=0.002). Multivariate analysis including age, lymph nodes involvement and LMP1 expression as co-variables, showed that only age (P=0.027) and LMP1 expression (P=0.005) were significantly correlated to the c-kit expression. c-kit is highly expressed in the juvenile form of North African nasopharyngeal carcinomas. There is a significant association between LMP1 and c-kit expression. The contrasted levels of C-kit expression in the two age groups strengthen the hypothesis that these clinical forms result from distinct oncogenic mechanisms.

  11. Apigenin enhances the antitumor effects of cetuximab in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by inhibiting EGFR signaling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Jian; Liu, Jing; Zhong, Lun-Kun; Wang, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a type of head and neck cancers with poor prognosis. Despite that platinum-based chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy have made great achievements for the treatment of NPC, the therapeutic reaction and toxicity varies dramatically among individuals. Apigenin (API), a naturally occurring plant flavone, is considered to have anti-cancer effect. Cetuximab (CET), a well known epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, is widely used in various cancers, especially head and neck cancers. The aim of our study was to measure the combination of API and CET for the treatment of NPC in vitro and in vivo. Results demonstrated that combining API and CET could better suppress the viability of the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines (HONE1 and CNE2) and inhibit the growth of NPC than API or CET used alone. Besides, the combination of API with CET produced greater pro-apoptosis effect. Moreover, the increased G2/M phase arrest caused by CET could be remarkably enhanced by adding API in HONE1 and CNE2 cells. Although, both API and CET could decrease the expressions of p-EGFR, p-Akt, p-STAT3 and Cyclin D1. Combining them produced greater inhibition effect. These results suggested that the combination of API and CET may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of NPC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: occupational exposures to particles, formaldehyde and heat.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R W; Imrey, P B; Lye, M S; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Sani, S

    2000-12-01

    During 1990-1992, 282 Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia with histologically confirmed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were interviewed about occupational history, diet, alcohol consumption, and tobacco use, as were an equal number of Malaysian Chinese population controls, pair-matched to cases by age and sex. Exposures to 20 kinds of workplace substances, solar and industrial heat, and cigarette smoke, were analysed by univariate and multivariate methods. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma was associated with occupational exposures to construction, metal and wood dusts; motor fuel and oil; paints and varnishes; certain other chemicals; industrial heat; solar heat from outdoor occupations; certain smokes; cigarette smoking; and childhood exposure to parental smoking. After adjustment for risk from diet and cigarette smoke, only wood dust (OR = 2.36; 95% CI : 1.33- 4.19), and industrial heat (OR = 2.21; 95% CI : 1.12-4.33) remained clearly associated. Wood dust remained statistically significant after further adjustment for social class. No significant crude or adjusted association was found between NPC and formaldehyde (adjusted OR = 0.71; 95% CI : 0.34-1.43). This study supports previous findings that some occupational inhalants are risk factors for NPC. The statistical effect of wood dust remained substantial after adjustment for diet, cigarette smoke, and social class. Intense industrial heat emerged as a previously unreported risk factor, statistically significant even after adjustment for diet and cigarette smoke. No association was found between NPC and formaldehyde.

  13. Identification of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma by serum protein profiling using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Su, Fang; Liang, Zhong-Guo; Li, Ling; Qu, Song; Liang, Xia; Wang, Qi; Liang, Shi-Xiong; Chen, Long

    2014-08-01

    As diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma at an early disease stage is important, we attempted to distinguish between patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and noncancer controls by using serum protein profiles. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and CM10 protein chip were used to detect the serum proteomic patterns of 65 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before radiotherapy and 93 noncancer controls. Proteomic spectra of serum samples from 50 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and 60 noncancer controls were used as a training set. The validity of the classification tree was then challenged with a blind test set which included another 15 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 33 noncancer controls. Biomarker Wizard 3.01 and Biomarker Pattern 5.01 were used in combination to analyze the data and to develop diagnostic models. 21 protein peaks were significantly different between nasopharyngeal carcinoma and controls. 4 mass peaks (M4182, M5343, M5913 and M8702 mass/charge ratio) were chosen automatically to construct a classification tree. The classification tree correctly determined 93.8 % (45/48) of the test samples with 93.3 % (14/15) of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma samples and 93.9 % (31/33) of the noncancer samples. Using a combination of serum protein profiles and Epstein-Barr viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin A antibody tests, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were increased to 100 and 97 %, respectively. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry could correctly distinguish nasopharyngeal carcinoma from noncancer individuals and showed great potential for the development of a screening test for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  14. miR-421 induces cell proliferation and apoptosis resistance in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma via downregulation of FOXO4

    SciT

    Chen, Liang; Department of Otolaryngology, Guangzhou General Hospital of PLA Guangzhou Command, Guangzhou 510010; Tang, Yanping

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •miR-421 is upregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. •miR-421 induces cell proliferation and apoptosis resistance. •FOXO4 is a direct and functional target of miR-421. -- Abstract: microRNAs have been demonstrated to play important roles in cancer development and progression. Hence, identifying functional microRNAs and better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms would provide new clues for the development of targeted cancer therapies. Herein, we reported that a microRNA, miR-421 played an oncogenic role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Upregulation of miR-421 induced, whereas inhibition of miR-421 repressed cell proliferation and apoptosis resistance. Furthermore, we found that upregulation of miR-421 inhibited forkhead box proteinmore » O4 (FOXO4) signaling pathway following downregulation of p21, p27, Bim and FASL expression by directly targeting FOXO4 3′UTR. Additionally, we demonstrated that FOXO4 expression is critical for miR-421-induced cell growth and apoptosis resistance. Taken together, our findings not only suggest that miR-421 promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis, but also uncover a novel regulatory mechanism for inactivation of FOXO4 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.« less

  15. [Inhibitive effect of matrine modification X on the growth of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cell xenografts in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Shi, Shujing; Tang, Anzhou; Yin, Shaolin; Wang, Lisheng; Xie, Mao; Yi, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the inhibitive effect of matrine modification X on the growth of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cell xenografts in nude mice. Tumor model was established by subcutaneous inoculation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell CNE2 into nude mice, which was used to evaluate the antitumor effect of matrine modification X in vivo. The expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase3 were detected by real-time PCR and western blot. The growth of xenografts in nude mice was significantly suppressed after application of matrine modification X in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition rates were 32.55% and 44.89% when treated at medium and high dose respectively. Real-time fluorescence quantitative-PCR and Western Blot results showed that the expression of Bax and Caspase3 increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The change of high dose group was obvious, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Matrine modification X could significantly inhibit the growth of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cell xenografts in nude mice, probably by inducing the apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, and the possible mechanism is related to regulating the expression level of Bax/Bcl-2 and Casepase3.

  16. Inhibition of Notch-1 pathway is involved in rottlerin-induced tumor suppressive function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yingying; Feng, Shaoyan; Wang, Lixia; Zhao, Zhe; Su, Jingna; Yin, Xuyuan; Zheng, Nana; Zhou, Xiuxia; Xia, Jun; Wang, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that rottlerin is a natural chemical drug to exert its anti-cancer activity. However, the molecular mechanisms of rottlerin-induced tumor suppressive function have not been fully elucidated. Notch signaling pathway has been characterized to play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. Therefore, regulation of Notch pathway could be beneficial for the treatment of human cancer. The aims of our current study were to explore whether rottlerin could suppress Notch-1 expression, which leads to inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. We performed several approaches, such as CTG, Flow cytometry, scratch healing assay, transwell and Western blotting. Our results showed that rottlerin treatment inhibited cell growth, migration and invasion, and triggered apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle to G1 phase. Moreover, the expression of Notch-1 was obvious decreased in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells after rottlerin treatment. Importantly, overexpression of Notch-1 promoted cell growth and invasion, whereas down-regulation of Notch-1 inhibited cell growth and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Notably, we found the over-expression of Notch-1 could abrogate the anti-cancer function induced by rottlerin. Strikingly, our study implied that Notch-1 could be a useful target of rottlerin for the prevention and treatment of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:28977931

  17. Radiotherapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma via the ATM and Smad pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Yi; Liu, Jin-Quan; Chen, Dong-Ping; Li, Zhou-Yu; Qi, Bin; He, Lu; Yu, Yi; Yin, Wen-Jin; Wang, Meng-Yao; Lin, Ling

    2017-09-02

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant neoplasm of the head and neck which is harmful to human's health. Radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of NPC and it induces immediate cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. However, the mechanism remains unknown. Evidences suggested the activation of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) pathway and Smad pathway are 2 of the important crucial mediators in the function of radiotherapy. In this study, we performed in vitro assays with human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells and in vivo assays with nude mice to investigate the role of the ATM and Smad pathways in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiotherapy. The results suggested that radiation induced activation of ATM pathway by inducing expression of p-ATM, p-CHK1, p-CHK2, p15 and inhibiting expression of p-Smad3. In addition, Caspase3 expression was increased while CDC25A was decreased, leading to cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, activation of Smad3 can inhibited the ATM pathway and attenuated the efficacy of radiation. In summary, we suggest that both ATM and Smad pathways contribute to the cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis during nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells treated with radiation.

  18. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Children: Comparison of Conventional and Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciT

    Laskar, Siddhartha; Bahl, Gaurav; Muckaden, MaryAnn

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in reducing the acute toxicities associated with conventional RT (CRT) in children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients and Methods: A total of 36 children with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma, treated at the Tata Memorial Hospital between June 2003 and December 2006, were included in this study. Of the 36 patients, 28 were boys and 8 were girls, with a median age of 14 years; 4 (11%) had Stage II and 10 (28%) Stage III disease at presentation. All patients had undifferentiated carcinoma and were treated with a combination of chemotherapy and RT. Ofmore » the 36 patients, 19 underwent IMRT and 17 underwent CRT. Results: After a median follow-up of 27 months, the 2-year locoregional control, disease-free, and overall survival rate was 76.5%, 60.6%, and 71.3%, respectively. A significant reduction in acute Grade 3 toxicities of the skin (p = 0.006), mucous membrane (p = 0.033), and pharynx (p = 0.035) was noted with the use of IMRT. The median time to the development of Grade 2 toxicity was delayed with IMRT (skin, 35 vs. 25 days, p = 0.016; mucous-membrane, 39 vs. 27 days, p = 0.002; and larynx, 50 vs. 28 days, p = 0.009). The duration of RT significantly influenced disease-free survival on multivariate analysis (RT duration >52 days, hazard ratio = 5.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.14-26.45, p = 0.034). The average mean dose to the first and second planning target volume was 71.8 Gy and 62.5 Gy with IMRT compared with 66.3 Gy (p = 0.001) and 64.4 Gy (p = 0.046) with CRT, respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that IMRT significantly reduces and delays the onset of acute toxicity, resulting in improved tolerance and treatment compliance for children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Also, IMRT provided superior target coverage and normal tissue sparing compared with CRT.« less

  19. Vorinostat and Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Cancer or Nasal Natural Killer T-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-20

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma AJCC v7

  20. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence in North Tunisia: negative trends in adults but not adolescents, 1994-2006.

    PubMed

    Wided, Ben Ayoub Hizem; Hamouda, Boussen; Hamadi, Hsairi; Mansour, Ben Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the second most common neoplasm of head and neck in Tunisia. The distribution is bimodal with a first period occurrence between 15 and 20 years old and a second peak at around 50 years of age. Undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharynx type III (UCNT) is the predominant histological type (93.4%). Data of cancer registry of North Tunisia confirmed that it is an intermediate risk area for NPC with overall ASRs of 3.6 and 1.6/100,000 respectively in males and females. This study aimed to present the evolution of incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma over a period of 12 years (1994-2006). Data of cancer registry of North Tunisia (NTCR), covering half of the Tunisian population, were used to determine evolution of NPC incidence, calculated by 5 year periods. The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was used as an estimate of the trend. To best summarize the behavior or the data trend across years, we used a join-point regression program. Between 1994 and 2006, we observed negative annual average change of standardized incidence in men and women (-3.3% and -2.7%) also for the standardized incidences which showed a rather important decline (26.4% in males and 22.3% in females). The truncated age standardized incidence rate of NPC in adults aged of 30 years old and more (N=1209) decreased by -0.4% per year from 1994 to 2006 over time in north Tunisia dropping from 6.09 to 4.14 person-years. However, the rate was relatively stable during this period among youths aged 0-29 years (N=233) in both sexes. NPC demonstrated a favorable evolution from 1994-2006 probably due to a improvement in socioeconomic conditions.

  1. Quality of Life Over Time in Women Diagnosed with Ductal Carcinoma In situ, Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer, and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Jeffe, DB; Pérez, M; Liu, Y; Collins, KK; Aft, RL; Schootman, M

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about quality-of-life (QOL) differences over time between incident ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and early-stage invasive breast cancer (EIBC) cases as compared with same-aged women without breast cancer (controls). We prospectively recruited and interviewed 1096 women (16.8% DCIS, 33.3% EIBC [25.7% Stage I, 7.6% Stage IIA], 49.9% controls; mean age 58; 23.7% non-white) a mean 6.7 weeks (T1), and 6.2 (T2), 12.3 (T3), and 24.4 months (T4) after surgery (patients) or screening mammogram (controls). We tested two hypotheses: (1) DCIS patients would report lower levels of QOL compared with controls but would report similar QOL compared with EIBC patients at baseline; and (2) DCIS patients’ QOL would improve during 2-year follow-up and approach levels similar to that of controls faster than EIBC patients. We tested Hypothesis 1 using separate general linear regression models for each of the eight subscales on the RAND 36-item Health Survey, controlling for variables associated with at least one subscale at T1. Both DCIS and EIBC patients reported lower QOL at T1 than controls on all subscales (each p < .05). We tested Hypothesis 2 using generalized estimating equations to examine change in each QOL subscale over time across the three diagnostic groups adjusting for covariates. By T3, physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, energy/fatigue, and general health each differed significantly by diagnostic group at P < 0.05, due to larger differences between EIBC patients and controls; but DCIS patients no longer differed significantly from controls on any of the QOL subscales. At T4, EIBC patients still reported worse physical functioning (P = 0.0001) and general health (P = 0.0017) than controls, possibly due to lingering treatment effects. DCIS patients’ QOL was similar to that of controls two years after diagnosis, but some aspects of EIBC patients’ QOL remained lower. PMID:22484800

  2. Real-time In vivo Diagnosis of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Using Rapid Fiber-Optic Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kan; Zheng, Wei; Lim, Chwee Ming; Huang, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    We report the utility of a simultaneous fingerprint (FP) (i.e., 800-1800 cm -1 ) and high-wavenumber (HW) (i.e., 2800-3600 cm -1 ) fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy developed for real-time in vivo diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) at endoscopy. A total of 3731 high-quality in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra (normal=1765; cancer=1966) were acquired in real-time from 204 tissue sites (normal=95; cancer=109) of 95 subjects (normal=57; cancer=38) undergoing endoscopic examination. FP/HW Raman spectra differ significantly between normal and cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues that could be attributed to changes of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and the bound water content in NPC. Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) together with leave-one subject-out, cross-validation (LOO-CV) were implemented to develop robust Raman diagnostic models. The simultaneous FP/HW Raman spectroscopy technique together with PCA-LDA and LOO-CV modeling provides a diagnostic accuracy of 93.1% (sensitivity of 93.6%; specificity of 92.6%) for nasopharyngeal cancer identification, which is superior to using either FP (accuracy of 89.2%; sensitivity of 89.9%; specificity of 88.4%) or HW (accuracy of 89.7%; sensitivity of 89.0%; specificity of 90.5%) Raman technique alone. Further receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis reconfirms the best performance of the simultaneous FP/HW Raman technique for in vivo diagnosis of NPC. This work demonstrates for the first time that simultaneous FP/HW fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy technique has great promise for enhancing real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis in the nasopharynx during endoscopic examination.

  3. A comprehensive dosimetric evaluation of using RapidArc volumetric‐modulated arc therapy for the treatment of early‐stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wicger; Leung, Lucullus H.T.; Yu, Peter K.N.; So, Ronald W.K.; Cheng, Ashley C.K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of using triple‐arc volumetric‐intensity modulated arc radiotherapy (RapidArc (RA)) for the treatment of early‐stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A comprehensive evaluation was performed including plan quality, integral doses, and peripheral doses. Twenty cases of stage I or II NPC were selected for this study. Nine‐field sliding window IMRT, double‐arc, and triple‐arc RA treatment plans were compared with respect to target coverage, dose conformity, critical organ sparing, and integral doses. Measurement of peripheral doses was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters in an anthropomorphic phantom. While similar conformity and target coverage were achieved by the three types of plans, triple‐arc RA produced better sparing of parotid glands and spinal cord than double‐arc RA or IMRT. Double‐arc RA plans produced slightly inferior parotid sparing and dose homogeneity than the other two delivery methods. The monitor units (MU) required for triple‐arc were about 50% less than those of IMRT plans, while there was no significant difference in the required MUs between triple‐arc and double‐arc RA plans. The peripheral dose in triple‐arc RA was found to be 50% less compared to IMRT near abdominal and pelvic region. Triple‐arc RA improves both the plan quality and treatment efficiency compared with IMRT for the treatment of early stage NPC. It has become the preferred choice of treatment delivery method for early stage NPC at our center. PACS numbers: 87.53.Bn, 87.55.D, 87.55.de, 87.55.dk, 87.56.ng PMID:23149781

  4. [Clinical efficacy of alternating chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    You, Xi; Yang, Yucheng

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effective of alternating Chemo-radiotherapy for locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Retrospective analysis 106 cases of patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma between November 2005 and March 2007. All patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy but 15 patients received radiotherapy(RT) alone. Inducing chemotherapy (IC) + RT + adju-vant chemotherapy (AC) regimen in 36 patients, IC+RT regimen was delivered in 25 patients and AC + RT regimen in 30 patients. 61 patients received 1 to 2 cycles of inducing chemotherapy and 66 patients received 3 to 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy after radiotherapy. Chemotherapy started on the first day after the end of the induction chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy begun after radiotherapy for a week. All patients were treated by radiotherapy using 60 Co r-ray, the nasophyarynx primary site was given a total does of 68 -74 Gy. The lymph nodes of the neck was given 60 to 70 Gy. The prophylactic irradiation does of the neck was 48-50 Gy. RESCULT: The median follow up time was 51 months. A total of 58 patients died, the overall survival rate was 45% in whole groups. The 5-year overall survival rates were 33%, 63%, 60% and 50% in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC + RT and RT+AC group, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rates were 13%, 56%, 48% and 40% in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC + RT and RT + AC group, respectively. The 5-year relapse-free survival rates were 13%, 53%, 48% and 50% in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC + RT and RT + AC group, respectively. The 5-year metastasis-free survival rates were 6%, 50%, 44% and 47% in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC+ RT and RT + AC group, respectively. There was significant difference in all groups (P < 0.05). The median time to relapses were 22 months, 29 months, 28 months and 25 months in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC + RT and RT + AC group, respectively. The median time to first distant metastasis were 10 months, 19 months, 15 months and 12 months in RT, IC

  5. Oral sex is a risk factor for human papillomavirus-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma in husbands of women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lee-Wen; Seow, Kok-Min

    2010-01-01

    Sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) is etiologically related to cervical carcinoma and a distinct subset of cancers of the nasopharyngeal tract. We report 2 patients with HPV-associated cervical cancer and synchronous diagnoses of HPV-related head and neck cancer of their husbands. These patients had active oral sex for more than 20 years. The first patient was a 64-year-old woman who had an abnormal Papanicolaou smear and was found to have squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix on cervical punched biopsy. Her husband was diagnosed with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma 1 year previously, and was treated with total laryngectomy and adjuvant radiation. HPV-16 DNA was detected in both their tumor specimens using polymerase chain reaction. The other patient was a 50-year-old female with cervical carcinoma treated surgically and with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. HPV-31 DNA was detected in her tumor specimen. Three years later, her husband presented with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, although not a tobacco or alcohol user. HPV-18 DNA was detected in his tumor specimen.These findings strongly suggest that HPV may play a major role in the carcinogenesis of urogenital and nasopharyngeal tumors and the transmission potential of orogenital sex. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. [A new applicator with regulatable air bag designed for intracavitary brachytherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Wei, Guang-Yu; Tan, Yi-Chang; Huang, Ze-Li; Li, Shao-En; Lu, Zhi-Qian

    2004-10-01

    Nasopharynx applicator used in intracavitary brachytherapy plays an important role in the radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), its quality affects the efficiency of treatment. This study was to design a new applicator for clinical use. An inexpensive, reusable, and flexible latex nasopharynx applicator was designed. An air bag was placed at 15 mm from the foreside of the applicator, clung to the tube. The edge of air bag is tangent to the axis of tube. When the bag was full of air, the tube would hunch reversely,close to nasopharyngeal vault. After introduced into nasopharynx through middle nasal meatus, the applicator could be fixed in suitable position by its rotation, and air bag regulation, and confirmed its position by simulation. A total of 221 patients with NPC were treated with external beam radiation therapy in our hospital, and boosted HDR brachytherapy using this new applicator. The response rate was 92.6% in the primary tumor group (200/216), and 100% in the recurrent tumor group (5/5). Mucosal necrosis in the posterior or anterior wall of nasopharynx occurred in 5 patients, 8 patients experienced nasal congestion and nasal synechia. This new nasopharynx applicator is easy to operate, painless, and well dosage-distributed. Mucosal necrosis is likely due to higher fractional dose.

  7. Inactivation of MSH3 by promoter methylation correlates with primary tumor stage in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Haifeng; Jiang, Bo; Zhou, Zhen; Yuan, Xiaoyang; Cao, Xiaolin; Huang, Guangwu; Li, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inactivation of the MutS homolog human 3 (MSH3) gene by promoter methylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methylation-specific PCR, semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunohistochemical analysis were used to detect methylation and the mRNA and protein expression levels of MSH3 in 54 cases of NPC tissues and 16 cases of normal nasopharyngeal epithelial (NNE) tissues. The association between promoter methylation and mRNA expression, and the mRNA and protein expression of the gene and clinical factors was analyzed. The promoter methylation of MSH3 was detected in 50% (27/54) of the primary tumors, but not in the 16 NNE tissues. The mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly decreased in the 54 cases of human NPC as compared to the 16 NNE tissues (P<0.05). The MSH3-methylated cases exhibited significantly lower mRNA and protein expression levels than the unmethylated cases (P<0.05). The MSH3 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly associated with the variable T stage (P<0.05); however, they did not correlate with the age and sex of the patients, or with the N stage, TNM classification or histopathological subtype (P>0.05). On the whole, MSH3 was frequently inactivated by promoter methylation and its mRNA and protein expression correlated with the primary tumor stage in NPC. PMID:28656302

  8. Effective inhibition of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo by targeting glycolysis with oxamate.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobing; Lu, Wenhua; Hu, Yumin; Wen, Shijun; Qian, Chaonan; Wu, Wenjing; Huang, Peng

    2013-11-01

    Elevated aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells (Warburg effect) has been observed in many tumor types including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which can often be detected clinically using FDG-PET. However, the role of glycolysis in supporting the growth of NPC cells and its therapeutic implications still remain to be investigated. In the present study, we showed that the LDH inhibitor oxamate significantly suppressed NPC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, yet exhibited minimum toxicity to normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells in vitro and was well tolerated in mice. Moreover, oxamate exhibited cytotoxic effect in NPC cells under hypoxia. Mechanistic study showed that oxamate significantly inhibited LDH activity, leading to a substantial decrease in glucose uptake and lactate production. Combination of oxamate with a mitochondrial respiratory complex I inhibitor resulted in a significant depletion of cellular ATP and a synergistic killing of cancer cells. Our results suggest that inhibition of glycolysis by oxamate is an effective therapeutic strategy for treatment of NPC and that combination of this compound with mitochondrial-targeted agents may improve the therapeutic activity.

  9. Expression of the Pokemon proto-oncogene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and tissues.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei; Liu, Fei; Tang, Feng-Zhu; Lan, Jiao; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Chen, Xing-Zhou; Ye, Hui-Lan; Cai, Yong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    To study the differentiated expression of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines and tissues, mRNA and protein expression levels of CNE1, CNE2, CNE3 and C666-1 were detected separately by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR and Western-blotting. The immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69 was used as a control. The Pokemon protein expression level in biopsy specimens from chronic rhinitis patients and undifferentiated non keratinizing NPC patients was determined by Western-blotting and arranged from high to low: C666-1>CNE1>CNE2> CNE3>NP69. The Pokemon mRNA expression level was also arranged from high to low: CNE1>CNE2>NP69>C666-1>CNE3. Pokemon expression of NP69 and C666-1 obviously varied from mRNA to protein. The Pokemon protein level of NPC biopsy specimens was obviously higher than in chronic rhinitis. The data suggest that high Pokemon protein expression is closely associated with undifferentiated non-keratinizing NPC and may provide useful information for NPC molecular target therapy.

  10. Integrin α9 gene promoter is hypermethylated and downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Fu; Moumad, Khalid; Pavlova, Tatiana V.; Kashuba, Vladimir; Almgren, Malin; Zabarovsky, Eugene R.; Ernberg, Ingemar

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) by promoter methylation can be an early event in the multi-step process of carcinogenesis. Human chromosome 3 contains clusters of TSGs involved in many cancer types including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the most common cancer in Southern China. Among ten candidate TSGs identified in chromosome 3 using NotI microarray, ITGA9 and WNT7A could be validated. 5′-aza-2′ deoxycytidine treatment restored the expression of ITGA9 and WNT7A in two NPC cell lines. Immunostaining showed strong expression of these genes in the membrane and cytoplasm of adjacent control nasopharyngeal epithelium cells, while they were weakly expressed in NPC tumor cells. The ITGA9 promoter showed marked differentially methylation between tumor and control tissue, whereas no differentially methylation could be detected for the WNT7A promoter. The expression level of ITGA9 in NPC tumors was downregulated 4.9-fold, compared to the expression in control. ITGA9 methylation was detected by methylation specific PCR (MSP) in 56% of EBV positive NPC- cases with 100% specificity. Taken together, this suggests that ITGA9 might be a TSG in NPC that is involved in tumor cell biology. The possibility of using ITGA9 methylation as a marker for early detection of NPC should further be explored. PMID:26372814

  11. Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Sufang; Li, Chao; Lin, Jinyong; Xu, Yuanji; Lu, Jun; Huang, Qingting; Zou, Changyan; Chen, Chao; Xiao, Nanyang; Lin, Duo; Chen, Rong; Pan, Jianji; Feng, Shangyuan

    2016-12-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was employed to detect deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) variations associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Significant SERS spectral differences between the DNA extracted from early NPC, advanced NPC, and normal nasopharyngeal tissue specimens were observed at 678, 729, 788, 1337, 1421, 1506, and 1573 cm-1, which reflects the genetic variations in NPC. Principal component analysis combined with discriminant function analysis for early NPC discrimination yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 86.8%, 92.3%, and 87.9% for early NPC, advanced NPC, and normal nasopharyngeal tissue DNA, respectively. In this exploratory study, we demonstrated the potential of SERS for early detection of NPC based on the DNA molecular study of biopsy tissues.

  12. Multidisciplinary Treatment Approach in a Patient with History of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Atacan; Ağralı, Ömer Birkan; Çalışkan, Zeynep Lale; Türkaydın, Dilek; Sertgöz, Atilla; Doğan, Başak

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy in NPC patients has side effects on the dentition, which affects quality of life dramatically. This case report presents multidisciplinary dental treatment approach in a 17-year-old male patient with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The adolescent patient applied to dental hospital 4 years after the radiotherapy with aesthetic and functional problems on dentition affecting psychological, social, and physical aspects of his life. The dentition of the patient demonstrated the severe destruction as a devastating side effect of radiotherapy. With a successful multidisciplinary approach, our patient's aesthetics, function, and self-confidence were obtained. Well-established procedures, which include preventative care and maintenance, can reduce the duration and expenses of the treatment and help in challenging the life-long complications of radiotherapy. PMID:24523971

  13. Progression of understanding for the role of Epstein-Barr virus and management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Yosuke; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Kondo, Satoru; Endo, Kazuhira; Sugimoto, Hisashi; Hatano, Miyako; Ueno, Takayoshi; Ishikawa, Kazuya; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2017-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is very common in southern China and Southeast Asia. In regions where NPC is endemic, undifferentiated subtypes constitute most cases and are invariably associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, whereas the differentiated subtype is more common in other parts of the world. Undifferentiated NPC is a unique malignancy with regard to its epidemiology, etiology, and clinical presentation. Clinically, NPC is highly invasive and metastatic, but sensitive to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). Overall prognosis has dramatically improved over the past three decades because of advances in management, including the improvement of RT technology, the broader application of chemotherapy, and more accurate disease staging. Despite the excellent local control with modern RT, distant failure remains a challenging problem. Advances in molecular technology have helped to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of NPC. This article reviews the contribution of EBV gene products to NPC pathogenesis and the current management of NPC.

  14. Sers Imaging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Markers Using an Antibody-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.-H.; Du, Y.; Feng, G.-K.; Du, Y.-B.; Zhou, Y.-Q.; Zeng, M.-S.

    2017-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags as an ultrasensitive nanoprobe is becoming popular for the detection of biomarkers. Herein, antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used to target LMP2A in an LMP2A-infected CNE2 cell line. SERS maps showed that the LMP2A was distributed around the cell, which was consistent with the results of immunofl uorescence staining in the previous report. This location could be due to the specific binding of the bioconjugated nanotags to the receptors on the cell surface. However, the CNE2 cell line without LMP2A-infected showed no detectable signal at 1044 cm-1. The results demonstrated the potential feasibility of AuNPs nanotags as highly sensitive probes conjugated at the subcellular level for detection and localization of cancer markers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

  15. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with headaches as the main symptom: A potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhou-Xue; Xiang, Li; Rong, Jin-Feng; He, Huai-Lin; Li, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate medical-related reasons for misdiagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (NPC) patients presenting with headaches alone or accompanied by other symptoms. Two-hundred and nineteen NPC cases describing headaches as one of the initial symptoms during primary treatment were selected for this prospective study. Medical records were carefully collected and all data were summarized for final analyses. Distributions of NPC stage in the patients were: Stage II, 1.4%; stage III, 46.6%; stage IVA, 36.1%; stage IVB, 7.7%; and stage IVC, 8.2%. The ratio of men to women was 2.42:1 (155/64 cases). The total misdiagnosis rate was 43.4%. Patients that only complained of headaches had the highest misdiagnosis rate of 86.4% (19/22 cases). The lowest misdiagnosis rate of 10.9% (5/46 cases) was observed in patients with both headaches and epistaxis. The misdiagnosis rate in rural hospitals was more than two times that in provincial hospitals. Neurosurgery departments had a 100% misdiagnosis rate. Frequently, headaches are the only prominent symptom of NPC. Due to the various clinical manifestations, NPC patients encounter a high misdiagnosis rate, which leads to unsatisfactory treatment outcomes. Improved awareness of the various nonspecific symptoms of NPC by nonspecialist physicians will be a pivotal step in decreasing the misdiagnosis rate. Mini Abstract: The misdiagnosis rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with headaches was 43.4%. Improved awareness of the various nonspecific symptoms of NPC is a pivotal step in decreasing the misdiagnosis rate.

  16. Risk factors for recurrent pneumonia in post-irradiated patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jie; Jiang, Rong-San; Yen, Ting-Ting; Liang, Kai-Li

    2017-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in eastern Asia. Chemoradiotherapy is the main treatment modality for NPC. Dysphagia and aspiration is not uncommon in post-irradiated NPC patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for recurrent pneumonia and the prognosis. A retrospective chart review was conducted from January 2004 to December 2014. NPC patients who had been hospitalized for pneumonia in the study hospital were enrolled. The diagnosis of pneumonia was based on radiological evidence of chest inflammation and clinical symptoms. Patients' characteristics including demographic data, the hospital course, and the outcome of pneumonia were collected and analyzed. A total of 113 NPC patients were enrolled in this study. Among them, 96 NPC patients had pneumonia after radiotherapy: 43 had pneumonia twice, and 18 had multiple episodes of pneumonia. Forty-nine patients had tube feeding. The 30-day mortality rate was 51%. The mortality rate was significantly associated with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (r = 0.328, p < 0.001). Older age, smoking, body weight loss, and lower cranial nerve (vagus or hypoglossal nerve palsy) were significant predictors of multiple episodes of pneumonia (r 2  = 0.687, p = 0.033, 0.034, 0.036, and 0.027, respectively). We concluded that old age, smoking, body weight loss, and lower cranial nerve palsies are predisposing factors for multiple episodes of pneumonia in post-irradiated NPC patients. Metastatic cancer status usually leads to a lethal outcome. Early interventions to manage dysphagia in high-risk patients are necessary. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  17. Transpalatal insertion of radioactive gold grain for the treatment of persistent and recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Choy, D; Sham, J S; Wei, W I; Ho, C M; Wu, P M

    1993-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of radioactive gold grain implant via the split palate approach in the control of locally recurrent or persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Forty-three patients, 10 for persistent NPC, 28 for first relapse in the nasopharynx, and five for second relapse in the nasopharynx, were treated. The diameter of the tumors at the time of gold grain implant ranged from 0.5 to 5 cm, the number of gold grains inserted varied from 4 to 14, the median number was seven. There was no significant difference in the control of the primary tumor for persistent disease (80% at 5 years), first relapse (61% at 5 years) and second relapse (80% at 3 years), p = 0.8845. The difference in survival between the three subgroups of patients, however, was highly significant (p = 0.0040). Thirty patients had CT evaluation before gold grain implant and the tumor was found confined to the nasopharynx in 21, in the remaining nine patients erosion of the sphenoid sinus or other parts of the base of skull was noted. The difference in the control between those patients with tumors confined to the nasopharynx and those patients with extranasopharyngeal extension of tumor almost reached statistical significance (81% and 44% respectively at 5 years, p = 0.0554). For the six patients who developed local recurrence after gold grain implant and were evaluable for the pattern of failure, the recurrent tumors were considered originating from another region of the nasopharynx in four, and in-field failure in the other two cases. Radioactive gold grain implant as salvage treatment provides satisfactory control of persistent and recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The local control was better when the tumor was localized to the nasopharynx, thus underlines the importance of close follow-up for early recognition of relapse and persistent tumor. However, such patients still suffered from high incidence of regional and distant failure, the pathophysiology and management of which require

  18. Evaluation of Sixth Edition of AJCC Staging System for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Proposed Improvement

    SciT

    Liu Mengzhong; Tang Linglong; Zong Jingfeng

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the 6th edition of the International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to search for ways to improve the system. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of data from 749 biopsy-proven nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. All patients had undergone contrast-enhanced computed tomography and had received radiotherapy as their primary treatment. Results: The T stage, N stage, and stage group were significant, independent predictors for disease-specific death. No significant differences were found between Stage T2a and T1 in local failure-free survival or between Stage N3a and N2 in distantmore » failure-free survival. Survival curves of the different T/N subsets showed a better segregation when T2a and N3a were downstaged to T1 and N2, respectively. The hazard ratio of disease-specific deaths for patients with T2N0 disease was similar to that of patients with T1N0 disease; the same result was found for the T3N0 and T4N0 subsets. Downstaging the T2N0 subset to Stage I, T3N0 to Stage II, and T4N0 to Stage III resulted in a more balanced patient distribution, better hazard consistency among subgroups, and improved hazard discrimination between overall stages. Conclusion: Using the 6th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system produced an acceptable distribution of patient numbers and segregation of survival curves among the different stage groups. The prognostic accuracy of the staging system could be improved by recategorization of the T, N, and group stage criteria.« less

  19. Investigation of Salivary Function and Oral Microbiota of Radiation Caries-Free People with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyang; Liu, Hongling; Liang, Xue; Zhang, Min; Wang, Renke; Peng, Guang; Li, Jiyao

    2015-01-01

    Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals. PMID:25860481

  20. Investigation of salivary function and oral microbiota of radiation caries-free people with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyang; Liu, Hongling; Liang, Xue; Zhang, Min; Wang, Renke; Peng, Guang; Li, Jiyao

    2015-01-01

    Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals.

  1. Asian Versus Non-Asian Outcomes in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A North American Population-based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Sarah N; Ho, Cheryl; Laskin, Janessa; Zhai, Yongliang; Mak, Paul; Wu, Jonn

    2016-12-01

    The effect of ethnicity on nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) outcomes is unclear. This retrospective analysis examines survival and the impact of concurrent chemoradiation (chemoRT) among Asian and non-Asian patients. Subjects included 380 consecutive patients with NPC treated at a Canadian institution from 2000 to 2009. Five-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between Asian (n=279) and non-Asian (n=101) subjects. Multivariable analysis was performed using Cox regression modeling. Two-variable interaction terms with concurrent chemoRT were used to examine whether concurrent chemoRT conferred different effects among subgroups. Asian subjects presented with earlier stage (P=0.005), were younger, had better performance status, and were less likely smokers (all P<0.001). Survival among Asian versus non-Asian subjects with stage I/II NPC were: PFS 68% versus 59% (P=0.04), DSS 87% versus 77% (P=0.08), and OS 84% versus 74% (P=0.003). Corresponding rates with stage III/IVA/IVB disease were PFS 49% versus 42% (P=0.12), DSS 72% versus 46% (P=0.001), and OS 70% versus 44% (P<0.001). On multivariable analysis, Asian ethnicity, age below 65 years, ECOG performance status 0-1, early stage, staging MRI use, and concurrent chemoRT were associated with improved DSS and OS (P<0.05). On testing interactions with concurrent chemoRT, Asian versus non-Asian ethnicity was significant (hazard ratio 3.9), suggesting that concurrent chemoRT conferred more benefit among non-Asian compared with Asian subjects. In this population-based study, Asian ethnicity was associated with improved DSS and OS. Concurrent chemoRT conferred more benefit among non-Asian compared with Asian subjects.

  2. [Dynamic observation on the short-term change of xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjie; Zhao, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    To dynamically analyze the change of xerostomia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy by DW MRI. Twenty-three nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients confirmed by pathology were enrolled. Male/Female: 19/4. The age was from 37 to 69 years. The patients were divided into two groups: G1, Dmean<26 Gy, G2, Dmean ≥ 26 Gy. All patients underwent salivary glands examination by DW MRI before IMRT, at the end of IMRT, 6 months and 12 months after IMRT, at the same time the ADC value of salivary glands were calculated. According to the RTOG/EORTC salivary gland injury grading standard and referring the subjective index, the degree of xerostomia was assessed. SPSS 13.0 and SAS 8.2 software were used to analyze the data. At the end of IMRT, the change tendency of ADC in parotid and submandibular glands value was different in patients with different degree of xerostomia (F = 11.52, P < 0.01). At the end of IMRT, a significant difference for degree of xerostomia could be found in patients within different irradiation dose groups (Z = -3.622, P < 0.01). Clinical stage, treatment mode and age had no significant effect on the degree of xerostomia for patients at the end of IMRT (Z value was -0.791, -0.949, 2.488, all P > 0.05). A significant difference of xerostomia degree in patients was found at the various follow-up time after IMRT (χ(2) = 19.59, P < 0.01). There is good correlation between the function of salivary gland and subjective rating of xerostomia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy. The degrees of salivary gland function and dry mouth in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma damage evaluate with illuminated dose increases. The function of salivary gland gradually restored and the degree of dry mouth gradually reduce with the extension of time after radiotherapy.

  3. Cannabis, tobacco and domestic fumes intake are associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Feng, B-J; Khyatti, M; Ben-Ayoub, W; Dahmoul, S; Ayad, M; Maachi, F; Bedadra, W; Abdoun, M; Mesli, S; Bakkali, H; Jalbout, M; Hamdi-Cherif, M; Boualga, K; Bouaouina, N; Chouchane, L; Benider, A; Ben-Ayed, F; Goldgar, D E; Corbex, M

    2009-10-06

    The lifestyle risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in North Africa are not known. From 2002 to 2005, we interviewed 636 patients and 615 controls from Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, frequency-matched by centre, age, sex, and childhood household type (urban/rural). Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of lifestyles with NPC risk, controlling for socioeconomic status and dietary risk factors. Cigarette smoking and snuff (tobacco powder with additives) intake were significantly associated with differentiated NPC but not with undifferentiated carcinoma (UCNT), which is the major histological type of NPC in these populations. As demonstrated by a stratified permutation test and by conditional logistic regression, marijuana smoking significantly elevated NPC risk independently of cigarette smoking, suggesting dissimilar carcinogenic mechanisms between cannabis and tobacco. Domestic cooking fumes intake by using kanoun (compact charcoal oven) during childhood increased NPC risk, whereas exposure during adulthood had less effect. Neither alcohol nor shisha (water pipe) was associated with risk. Tobacco, cannabis and domestic cooking fumes intake are risk factors for NPC in western North Africa.

  4. Cannabis, tobacco and domestic fumes intake are associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Feng, B-J; Khyatti, M; Ben-Ayoub, W; Dahmoul, S; Ayad, M; Maachi, F; Bedadra, W; Abdoun, M; Mesli, S; Bakkali, H; Jalbout, M; Hamdi-Cherif, M; Boualga, K; Bouaouina, N; Chouchane, L; Benider, A; Ben-Ayed, F; Goldgar, D E; Corbex, M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The lifestyle risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in North Africa are not known. Methods: From 2002 to 2005, we interviewed 636 patients and 615 controls from Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, frequency-matched by centre, age, sex, and childhood household type (urban/rural). Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of lifestyles with NPC risk, controlling for socioeconomic status and dietary risk factors. Results: Cigarette smoking and snuff (tobacco powder with additives) intake were significantly associated with differentiated NPC but not with undifferentiated carcinoma (UCNT), which is the major histological type of NPC in these populations. As demonstrated by a stratified permutation test and by conditional logistic regression, marijuana smoking significantly elevated NPC risk independently of cigarette smoking, suggesting dissimilar carcinogenic mechanisms between cannabis and tobacco. Domestic cooking fumes intake by using kanoun (compact charcoal oven) during childhood increased NPC risk, whereas exposure during adulthood had less effect. Neither alcohol nor shisha (water pipe) was associated with risk. Conclusion: Tobacco, cannabis and domestic cooking fumes intake are risk factors for NPC in western North Africa. PMID:19724280

  5. (68)Ga-DOTA (0)-Tyr (3)-octreotide positron emission tomography in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schartinger, Volker H; Dudás, József; Url, Christoph; Reinold, Susanne; Virgolini, Irene J; Kroiss, Alexander; Riechelmann, Herbert; Uprimny, Christian

    2015-01-01

    PET/CT with (68)Ga-labelled [DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotide ((68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT) is a routinely used imaging modality for neuroendocrine tumours expressing somatostatin receptors (SSTR). Recent studies have shown SSTR expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, albeit lower than in highly differentiated neuroendocrine tumours. We sought to determine whether nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a rare subtype of head and neck cancer, shows increased (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake indicating expression of SSTR. Five patients with untreated, histologically proven EBV-positive NPC were referred for (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT. Tracer uptake in tumour lesions was assessed visually and semiquantitatively measuring maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and tumour to background ratios. Increased tumour-specific uptake was detected in all five patients with a median SUVmax of 10.6 (range 3.6 - 17.1) in the primary tumour and 13.2 (range 6.1 - 14.5) in cervical lymph node metastases. (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT demonstrated tracer uptake in EBV-positive NPC comparable to that in highly differentiated neuroendocrine tumours. This observation is consistent with increased SSTR expression in EBV-positive NPC and may open new diagnostic and therapeutic windows in NPC.

  6. LASSO NTCP predictors for the incidence of xerostomia in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Liou, Ming-Hsiang; Huang, Yu-Jie; Chao, Pei-Ju; Ting, Hui-Min; Lee, Hsiao-Yi

    2014-01-01

    To predict the incidence of moderate-to-severe patient-reported xerostomia among head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Multivariable normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were developed by using quality of life questionnaire datasets from 152 patients with HNSCC and 84 patients with NPC. The primary endpoint was defined as moderate-to-severe xerostomia after IMRT. The numbers of predictive factors for a multivariable logistic regression model were determined using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) with bootstrapping technique. Four predictive models were achieved by LASSO with the smallest number of factors while preserving predictive value with higher AUC performance. For all models, the dosimetric factors for the mean dose given to the contralateral and ipsilateral parotid gland were selected as the most significant predictors. Followed by the different clinical and socio-economic factors being selected, namely age, financial status, T stage, and education for different models were chosen. The predicted incidence of xerostomia for HNSCC and NPC patients can be improved by using multivariable logistic regression models with LASSO technique. The predictive model developed in HNSCC cannot be generalized to NPC cohort treated with IMRT without validation and vice versa. PMID:25163814

  7. Dosimetric verification for primary focal hypermetabolism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yong; Wang, Jia-Yang; Li, Liang; Tang, Tian-You; Liu, Gui-Hong; Wang, Jian-She; Xu, Yu-Mei; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Long-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    To make sure the feasibility with (18F)FDG PET/CT to guided dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, by dosimetric verification before treatment. Chose 11 patients in III~IVA nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with functional image-guided IMRT and absolute and relative dosimetric verification by Varian 23EX LA, ionization chamber, 2DICA of I'mRT Matrixx and IBA detachable phantom. Drawing outline and making treatment plan were by different imaging techniques (CT and (18F)FDG PET/CT). The dose distributions of the various regional were realized by SMART. The absolute mean errors of interest area were 2.39%±0.66 using 0.6 cc ice chamber. Results using DTA method, the average relative dose measurements within our protocol (3%, 3 mm) were 87.64% at 300 MU/min in all filed. Dosimetric verification before IMRT is obligatory and necessary. Ionization chamber and 2DICA of I'mRT Matrixx was the effective dosimetric verification tool for primary focal hyper metabolism in functional image-guided dynamic IMRT for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Our preliminary evidence indicates that functional image-guided dynamic IMRT is feasible.

  8. Inactivation of MSH3 by promoter methylation correlates with primary tumor stage in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Haifeng; Jiang, Bo; Zhou, Zhen; Yuan, Xiaoyang; Cao, Xiaolin; Huang, Guangwu; Li, Yong

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inactivation of the MutS homolog human 3 (MSH3) gene by promoter methylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methylation‑specific PCR, semi‑quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunohistochemical analysis were used to detect methylation and the mRNA and protein expression levels of MSH3 in 54 cases of NPC tissues and 16 cases of normal nasopharyngeal epithelial (NNE) tissues. The association between promoter methylation and mRNA expression, and the mRNA and protein expression of the gene and clinical factors was analyzed. The promoter methylation of MSH3 was detected in 50% (27/54) of the primary tumors, but not in the 16 NNE tissues. The mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly decreased in the 54 cases of human NPC as compared to the 16 NNE tissues (P<0.05). The MSH3‑methylated cases exhibited significantly lower mRNA and protein expression levels than the unmethylated cases (P<0.05). The MSH3 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly associated with the variable T stage (P<0.05); however, they did not correlate with the age and sex of the patients, or with the N stage, TNM classification or histopathological subtype (P>0.05). On the whole, MSH3 was frequently inactivated by promoter methylation and its mRNA and protein expression correlated with the primary tumor stage in NPC.

  9. Emodin suppresses the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by targeting the chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lianshun; Yang, Yaping; Yin, Zizhang; Liu, Mei; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Lixin; Zhu, Linyan; Yang, Haifeng

    2017-06-01

    Emodin is a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from the Rheum palmatum. Recent studies demonstrated that emodin has anti-cancer activity in different kinds of human cancer cell lines. However, the underlying mechanism has not been very well studied. Our previous studies showed chloride channels is an important target of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, the purpose of this research was aimed to explore the role of chloride channels involving in the anti-cancer activity of emodin. The proliferation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of poorly differentiated human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE-2Z) and normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69-SV40T) were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT)and flow cytometry. The results indicated that emodin inhibited the CNE-2Z cell growth more significantly than NP69-SV40T cells and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CNE-2Z cells but not in NP69-SV40T cells. Chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylprop ylamino)-benzoate (NPPB) or tamoxifen both can prevent the apoptosis of CNE-2Z cells induced by emodin. Optical microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM) demonstrated that emodin can induce apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) and ultrastructure changes in CNE-2Z cell and inhibited by chloride channel blocker. These data could be a further evidence of chloride channel for preventing CNE-2Z cells from apoptosis induced by emodin. Whole cell patch clamp study also demonstrated that emodin can activate chloride channel in CNE-2Z cells but not in NP69-SV40T cells. Furthermore, the activated chloride currents can also be inhibited by chloride channel blockers indicating that chloride channel may be the potential target molecular of emodin exerting its anti-tumor efficiency in CNE-2Z cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Expression of C-fos in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the relationship with chemosensitivity and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y T; Zhao, F P; Miao, H B; Fu, S Z; Zhou, S; Zhang, X G; Qin, G

    2018-05-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of C-fos in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC), and analyze the relationship between the expression of C-fos and the clinical characteristics, chemosensitivity and prognosis. Method: Clinical and follow-up data of 75 NPC patients was analyzed retrospectively. The expression of C-fos was detected by immunohistochemical assay, and chemosensitivity was detected by ATP bioluminescent anticancer drug sensitivity detection technology. The relationship between them was studied. Result: The expression of C-fos in NPC was statistically higher than that in the control nasopharyngeal mucosa( P <0.001). It was found that C-fos had no statistical relationship with the gender, age, pathologic type, clinical stage of tumor classification, lymph node status, metastasis status and overall stage of NPC patients( P >0.05). NPC had different chemosensitivity with 8 anticancer drugs( P <0.001).There was a significant difference in chemosensitivity of paclitaxel between the high expression of C-fos group and the low expression of C-fos group( P =0.036). The rate of tumor progression was significantly higher in NPC patients with high expression of C-fos than in the low expression group( P =0.014).There was no significant difference in overall survival between the two groups( P =0.076). Conclusion: C-fos is highly expressed in NPC tissues, and the high expression of C-fos in NPC tissues may be related to tumor progression and resistance to paclitaxel. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  11. Comparison of CYFRA 21-1 and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) for detecting nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chih-Jaan; Liu, Feng-Yuan; Liang, Ji-An; Yang, Shih-Neng; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Kao, Cbia-Hung

    2002-01-01

    CYFRA 21-1 is a tumor marker that is useful for detecting squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung. Tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) is a tumor marker that indicates tumor proliferative rate rather than tumor burden. Our aim in this study was to compare the clinical value of CYFRA 21-1 and TPS in the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Serum levels of CYFRA 21-1 and TPS were measured in 60 patients with untreated NPC (including 36 differentiated SCC and 24 undifferentiated carcinomas) for comparison with each other. The cut-off values of CYFRA 21-1 and TPS, determined at the 95th percentile of the 43 healthy controls, were 2.50 ng/ml and 115.2 U/l, respectively. The results revealed that the mean serum values of CYFRA 21-1 (6.20 +/- 5.21 ng/ml) and TPS (153.9 +/- 17.3 U/l) in all 60 NPC patients were significantly higher than that in the 43 healthy controls (CYFRA 21-1 = 1.32 + 0.50 ng/ml, TPS = 85.0 +/- 16.0 U/l) (p value < 0.05). In addition, the detecting sensitivities of CYFRA 21-1 (60.0%) and TPS (58.3%) for all 60 NPC were not significantly different (p value > 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that both CYFRA 21-1 and TPS are potential tumor markers for the detection of NPC.

  12. Comprehensive genomic profiling of different subtypes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma reveals similarities and differences to guide targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Ali, Siraj M; Yao, Ming; Yao, Jicheng; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Yuwei; Schrock, Alexa B; Chirn, Gung-Wei; Chen, Hui; Mu, Shuo; Gay, Laurie; Elvin, Julia A; Suh, James; Miller, Vincent A; Stephens, Philip J; Ross, Jeffrey S; Wang, Kai

    2017-09-15

    To date, no targeted therapy has been approved for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and this underscores the need for an in-depth understanding of clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs). Comprehensive genomic profiling was performed for 190 NPC patients, including 20 patients with nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma (NPAC), 62 patients with nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (NPSCC), and 108 patients with nasopharyngeal undifferentiated carcinoma (NPUC). The associations of genes and pathways with subtypes, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, and the tumor mutation burden (TMB) were statistically evaluated. Although the overall rates of genomic alterations were similar, the 3 NPC subtypes exhibited different mutational landscapes. Notably, mutations in a proven-treatable target gene, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), were significantly associated with NPUC but not with NPAC or NPSCC. The top 5 ranked CRGAs included CDKN2A (29%), IDH2 (16%), SMARCB1 (7%), PIK3CA (6%), and NF1 (5%) in NPUC; CDKN2A (27%), PIK3CA (23%), FBXW7 (11%), PTEN (11%), and EGFR (8%) in NPSCC; and CDKN2A (20%), KRAS (15%), CCND1 (10%), MAP3K1 (10%), and NOTCH1 (10%) in NPAC. The incidence of EBV infections significantly correlated with the subtypes and with TP53, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B. The TMB status correlated with the subtypes and with LRP1B, FBXW7, and PIK3CA mutations as well as DNA repair, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. These results indicate that different NPC subtypes harbor different CRGAs. Both EBV infections and the TMB are associated with the NPC subtypes as well as the alterations of individual genes and pathways. The high frequency of IDH2 mutations in NPUC may facilitate potential targeted therapy and will ultimately point to new therapeutic strategies. Cancer 2017;123:3628-37. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Statin treatment may lower the risk of postradiation epilepsy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xiaoming; Yin, Jing; Wang, Hongxuan; Zhang, Xiaoni; Peng, Ying

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of statins on preventing the risk of postradiation epilepsy. We performed a retrospective analysis of neurological nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with a history of radiotherapy. Patients with a history of epilepsy before radiation and those who received prophylactically antiepileptic treatment were excluded. The demographic and clinical data of these patients were collected through chart review. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test) to examine the effect of statins on epilepsy-free survival. Cox regression analysis was utilized to identify independent predictive variables. Our study included 532 patients (405 males and 127 females) with a mean follow-up of 28.1 months. During follow-up, 471 (88.5%) patients developed radiation-induced brain necrosis (RN). Within a mean latency of 24.1 months, 88 (16.5%) patients experienced epilepsy, of whom 27 (27 of 88, 30.7%) patients suffered from epilepsy before the diagnosis of RN. Thirty-six (36 of 88, 40.9%) cases of epilepsy occurred after RN onset, and in 22 cases (22 of 88, 25.0%) epilepsy was the first presentation of RN. Three patients suffered from epilepsy but did not have RN. Eighty-eight patients in our cohort were treated with statins because of hyperlipidemia or prevention of cardiocerebrovascular diseases, of whom six (6.8%) developed epilepsy, whereas in those without statin, the epileptic rate was 18.5%. Log-rank test found that there was a significant difference in epilepsy-free survival between patients who used statins and those who did not (p = 0.016). After adjusting for confounding variables, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that statin use could still significantly reduce the risk of epilepsy after radiation (hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.15-0.82, p = 0.015). However, for the patients who already suffered from RN, statin treatment did not lower the risk of post-RN epilepsy. Early statin use may reduce the risk of

  14. Identification and validation nucleolin as a target of curcumol in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wu, Jiacai; Li, Xumei; Liu, Haowei; Qin, Jianli; Bai, Zhun; Chi, Bixia; Chen, Xu

    2018-06-30

    Identification of the specific protein target(s) of a drug is a critical step in unraveling its mechanisms of action (MOA) in many natural products. Curcumol, isolated from well known Chinese medicinal plant Curcuma zedoary, has been shown to possess multiple biological activities. It can inhibit nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) proliferation and induce apoptosis, but its target protein(s) in NPC cells remains unclear. In this study, we employed a mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics approach reveal the possible protein targets of curcumol in NPC cells. Cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), molecular docking and cell-based assay was used to validate the binding interactions. Chemical proteomics capturing uncovered that NCL is a target of curcumol in NPC cells, Molecular docking showed that curcumol bound to NCL with an -7.8 kcal/mol binding free energy. Cell function analysis found that curcumol's treatment leads to a degradation of NCL in NPC cells, and it showed slight effects on NP69 cells. In conclusion, our results providing evidences that NCL is a target protein of curcumol. We revealed that the anti-cancer effects of curcumol in NPC cells are mediated, at least in part, by NCL inhibition. Many natural products showed high bioactivity, while their mechanisms of action (MOA) are very poor or completely missed. Understanding the MOA of natural drugs can thoroughly exploit their therapeutic potential and minimize their adverse side effects. Identification of the specific protein target(s) of a drug is a critical step in unraveling its MOA. Compound-centric chemical proteomics is a classic chemical proteomics approach which integrates chemical synthesis with cell biology and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify protein targets of natural products determine the drug mechanism of action, describe its toxicity, and figure out the possible cause of off-target. It is an affinity-based chemical proteomics method to identify small molecule-protein interactions

  15. Treatment results of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a 15-year single institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Bijan; Mahmoodi, Jalal; Omidvari, Shapour; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad

    2006-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant neoplasm of the head and neck that occurs most commonly in people in the South Eastern Asia but its condition in Iran is not much clear. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the treatment characteristics determining the outcome in patients with NPC. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the records of one hundred and seven patients with biopsy proven diagnosis of NPC who were referred to the radiation oncology department, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during the time period from January 1985 to December 2000. Eightyfive patients (79.4%) received 60-70Gy radiation (1.8- 2Gy/fraction, one fraction per day, and 5 fractions per week). Sixty-two patients (57.5%) received radiotherapy combined with adjuvant chemotherapy which consisted of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Eighty-six patients (80.4%) had WHO II-III histopathologic diagnosis. According to the AJCC 1997 staging system, 4 (3.6%), 3 (2.7%), 33 (30.8%) and 67 (62%) patients were in stages I, II, III and IV, respectively. With a median follow-up of 12 months, the 2-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 35% and 21%, respectively. According to the multivariate analysis for overall survival, patients under 40 years had a better prognosis (p=0.041). Node stage and stage of disease were significant prognostic factors (p=0.0001). On multivariate analysis for disease-free survival, age and node stage were significant prognostic factors. The patients who received more than 60Gy radiation had a better prognosis (p=0.02), however; sequential adjuvant chemotherapy had no impact on survival and response (p=0.6). Our experience confirmed earlier reports showing poor outcomes for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas. This study failed to demonstrate improvement in the outcome regarding overall and disease-free survival by adding sequential adjuvant chemotherapy after radiotherapy for patients with advanced NPC.

  16. Intravoxel water diffusion heterogeneity MR imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using stretched exponential diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Lai, Vincent; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lam, Ka On; Sze, Henry Chun Kin; Chan, Queenie; Khong, Pek Lan

    2015-06-01

    To determine the utility of stretched exponential diffusion model in characterisation of the water diffusion heterogeneity in different tumour stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty patients with newly diagnosed NPC were prospectively recruited. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed using five b values (0-2,500 s/mm(2)). Respective stretched exponential parameters (DDC, distributed diffusion coefficient; and alpha (α), water heterogeneity) were calculated. Patients were stratified into low and high tumour stage groups based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging for determination of the predictive powers of DDC and α using t test and ROC curve analyses. The mean ± standard deviation values were DDC = 0.692 ± 0.199 (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) for low stage group vs 0.794 ± 0.253 (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) for high stage group; α = 0.792 ± 0.145 for low stage group vs 0.698 ± 0.155 for high stage group. α was significantly lower in the high stage group while DDC was negatively correlated. DDC and α were both reliable independent predictors (p < 0.001), with α being more powerful. Optimal cut-off values were (sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio) DDC = 0.692 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (94.4 %, 64.3 %, 2.64, 0.09), α = 0.720 (72.2 %, 100 %, -, 0.28). The heterogeneity index α is robust and can potentially help in staging and grading prediction in NPC. • Stretched exponential diffusion models can help in tissue characterisation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma • α and distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) are negatively correlated • α is a robust heterogeneity index marker • α can potentially help in staging and grading prediction.

  17. A model to predict the risk of lethal nasopharyngeal necrosis after re-irradiation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Hui; Xia, Wei-Xiong; Shi, Jun-Li; Ma, Wen-Juan; Li, Yong; Ye, Yan-Fang; Liang, Hu; Ke, Liang-Ru; Lv, Xing; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Yan-Qun; Guo, Xiang

    2016-06-29

    For patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who undergo re-irradiation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), lethal nasopharyngeal necrosis (LNN) is a severe late adverse event. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for LNN and develop a model to predict LNN after radical re-irradiation with IMRT in patients with recurrent NPC. Patients who underwent radical re-irradiation with IMRT for locally recurrent NPC between March 2001 and December 2011 and who had no evidence of distant metastasis were included in this study. Clinical characteristics, including recurrent carcinoma conditions and dosimetric features, were evaluated as candidate risk factors for LNN. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors and construct the predictive scoring model. Among 228 patients enrolled in this study, 204 were at risk of developing LNN based on risk analysis. Of the 204 patients treated, 31 (15.2%) developed LNN. Logistic regression analysis showed that female sex (P = 0.008), necrosis before re-irradiation (P = 0.008), accumulated total prescription dose to the gross tumor volume (GTV) ≥145.5 Gy (P = 0.043), and recurrent tumor volume ≥25.38 cm(3) (P = 0.009) were independent risk factors for LNN. A model to predict LNN was then constructed that included these four independent risk factors. A model that includes sex, necrosis before re-irradiation, accumulated total prescription dose to GTV, and recurrent tumor volume can effectively predict the risk of developing LNN in NPC patients who undergo radical re-irradiation with IMRT.

  18. Clinical Study of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated by Helical Tomotherapy in China: 5-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lei; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Ma, Lin; Feng, Lin-Chun; Li, Fang; Zhou, Gui-Xia; Qu, Bao-Lin; Xu, Shou-Ping; Xie, Chuan-Bin; Yang, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the outcomes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods. Between September 2007 and August 2012, 190 newly diagnosed NPC patients were treated with HT. Thirty-one patients were treated with radiation therapy as single modality, 129 with additional cisplatin-based chemotherapy with or without anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy, and 30 with concurrent anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy. Results. Acute radiation related side effects were mainly grade 1 or 2. Grade 3 and greater toxicities were rarely noted. The median followup was 32 (3–38) months. The local relapse-free survival (LRFS), nodal relapse-free survival (NRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) were 96.1%, 98.2%, 92.0%, and 86.3%, respectively, at 3 years. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that age and T stage were independent predictors for 3-year OS. Conclusions. Helical tomotherapy for NPC patients achieved excellent 3-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival, with relatively minor acute and late toxicities. Age and T stage were the main prognosis factors. PMID:25114932

  19. Association between nasopharyngeal carcinoma and risk of optic neuropathy: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Yueh; Jen, Yee-Min; Su, Yuan-Chih; Chao, Hsing-Lung; Lin, Chun-Shu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Miao-Jung; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2018-04-16

    The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive factors of optic neuropathy among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The analysis included 16 297 patients with NPC and 65 187 controls. Each patient with NPC was randomly frequency-matched with 4 individuals without NPC by age, sex, and index year. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to measure the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of optic neuropathy development associated with NPC. The risk of optic neuropathy was significantly higher in the NPC cohort (adjusted HR [aHR] 3.42; 95% CI 2.85-4.09; P < .001). Independent risk factors for optic neuropathy among patients with NPC included stroke (aHR 1.7; 95% CI 1.07-2.7; P = .03) and receipt of chemotherapy (aHR 1.55; 95% CI 1.17-2.06; P = .002). The risk of optic neuropathy was significantly higher in patients with NPC than in the general population. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Enhanced aerobic glycolysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1.

    PubMed

    Sung, Wei-Wen; Chen, Peir-Rong; Liao, Ming-Hui; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2017-10-01

    Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a principal viral oncoprotein in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which acts through regulating tumorigenesis and metabolic reprogramming of cancers. In the presence of oxygen, we demonstrated that glucose consumption, lactate production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly increased upon LMP1 expression in NPC cells and in a LMP1 variant derived from NPC patients-transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells. The amounts of the α subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α), a key regulator of aerobic glycolysis, and its targets, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) and the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform, were also consistently elevated by LMP1. Moreover, in parallel with reductions in the oxygen consumption rate and mitochondrial membrane potential in cells, an augmented extracellular lactate concentration was observed due to LMP1 induction. In conclusion, our results proved facilitation of the Warburg effect by LMP1 through alteration of mitochondrial function in NPC cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. LMP1-mediated glycolysis induces myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ting-Ting; Ye, Shu-Biao; Liu, Yi-Na; He, Jia; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Zhang, Chuan-Xia; Cui, Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Shi; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are expanded in tumor microenvironments, including that of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The link between MDSC expansion and EBV infection in NPC is unclear. Here, we show that EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) promotes MDSC expansion in the tumor microenvironment by promoting extra-mitochondrial glycolysis in malignant cells, which is a scenario for immune escape initially suggested by the frequent, concomitant detection of abundant LMP1, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and CD33+ MDSCs in tumor sections. The full process has been reconstituted in vitro. LMP1 promotes the expression of multiple glycolytic genes, including GLUT1. This metabolic reprogramming results in increased expression of the Nod-like receptor family protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, COX-2 and P-p65 and, consequently, increased production of IL-1β, IL-6 and GM-CSF. Finally, these changes in the environment of malignant cells result in enhanced NPC-derived MDSC induction. One key step is the physical interaction of LMP1 with GLUT1 to stabilize the GLUT1 protein by blocking its K48-ubiquitination and p62-dependent autolysosomal degradation. This work indicates that LMP1-mediated glycolysis regulates IL-1β, IL-6 and GM-CSF production through the NLRP3 inflammasome, COX-2 and P-p65 signaling pathways to enhance tumor-associated MDSC expansion, which leads to tumor immunosuppression in NPC. PMID:28732079

  2. [Mechanism of apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells induced by polysaccharides extracts from Hedyotic diffusa].

    PubMed

    Jing Yan; Kang Min; Liu Jin; Li Jingyu; Tang Anzhou

    2015-04-01

    To explore the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of polysaccharides extracts from polysaccharides extracts from Hedyotic diffusa (PEHD) on Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC)cell line CNE2 cells in vitro. CNE2 cells treated with various concentrations of PEHD were detected by MTT assay at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. The apoptotic cells were analyzed by flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining. The expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 protein were examined by Western blotting method. The growth of CNE2 cells were suppressed after treatment with PEHD (P < 0.05), MTT assay showed that the highest cell inhibition rate reached to 76.5%, the inhibition in the doses from 2 to 6 mg/ml showed dose-and-time-dependent. The percent of apoptosis in 4 and 6 mg/ml PEHD treatment groups for 48 h were 31.32%, 46.28%, respectively, and significantly higher than that in control groups, 4.86% (P < 0.01). After the cells being treated with PEHD for 48 h, the expression of Bax and caspase-3 protein increased, and the expression of Bcl-2 protein decreased gradually. PEHD could inhibited the growth of CNE2 cells and was dose-and-time-dependent, the mechanism may involve induction of cell apoptosis, which was associated with the activation of Bax and caspase-3 protein and the down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression.

  3. SWATH-based proteomics identified carbonic anhydrase 2 as a potential diagnosis biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yanzhang; Mok, Tin Seak; Lin, Xiuxian; Zhang, Wanling; Cui, Yizhi; Guo, Jiahui; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a serious threat to public health, and the biomarker discovery is of urgent needs. The data-independent mode (DIA) based sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) mass spectrometry (MS) has been proved to be precise in protein quantitation and efficient for cancer biomarker researches. In this study, we performed the first SWATH-MS analysis comparing the NPC and normal tissues. Spike-in stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (super-SILAC) MS was used as a shotgun reference. We identified and quantified 1414 proteins across all SWATH-MS analyses. We found that SWATH-MS had a unique feature to preferentially detect proteins with smaller molecular weights than either super-SILAC MS or human proteome background. With SWATH-MS, 29 significant differentially express proteins (DEPs) were identified. Among them, carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) was selected for further validation per novelty, MS quality and other supporting rationale. With the tissue microarray analysis, we found that CA2 had an AUC of 0.94 in differentiating NPC from normal tissue samples. In conclusion, SWATH-MS has unique features in proteome analysis, and it leads to the identification of CA2 as a potentially new diagnostic biomarker for NPC. PMID:28117408

  4. Gaining Insights on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treatment Outcome Using Clinical Data Mining Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ghaibeh, A Ammar; Kasem, Asem; Ng, Xun Jin; Nair, Hema Latha Krishna; Hirose, Jun; Thiruchelvam, Vinesh

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) is attracting a lot of research attention in the medical informatics domain. Hospitals and medical institutes started to use data mining techniques to gain new insights from the massive amounts of data that can be made available through EHRs. Researchers in the medical field have often used descriptive statistics and classical statistical methods to prove assumed medical hypotheses. However, discovering new insights from large amounts of data solely based on experts' observations is difficult. Using data mining techniques and visualizations, practitioners can find hidden knowledge, identify interesting patterns, or formulate new hypotheses to be further investigated. This paper describes a work in progress on using data mining methods to analyze clinical data of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) cancer patients. NPC is the fifth most common cancer among Malaysians, and the data analyzed in this study was collected from three states in Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur, Sabah and Sarawak), and is considered to be the largest up-to-date dataset of its kind. This research is addressing the issue of cancer recurrence after the completion of radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment. We describe the procedure, problems, and insights gained during the process.

  5. Neurosurgical interventions for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a single institution experience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a frequent head and neck cancer in southern China and Southeast Asia. The majority of NPC patients are managed by radiation oncologists, medical oncologists and head and neck surgeons. Actually, neurosurgical interventions are warranted under specific circumstances. In this article, we described our experience as neurosurgeons in the management of NPC patients. Methods Medical records of NPC patients who received neurosurgical procedure at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were reviewed. Results Twenty-seven patients were identified. Among 27 cases, neurosurgical procedures were performed in 18 (66.7%) with radiation-induced temporal necrosis, 2 (7.4%) with radiation-induced sarcoma, 4 (14.8%) with synchronous NPC with primary brain tumors, 2 (7.4%) with recurrent NPC involving skull base, and 1 (3.7%) with metachronous skull eosinophilic granuloma, respectively. The diagnosis is challenging in specific cases and initial misdiagnoses were found in 6 (22.2%) patients. Conclusions For NPC patients with intracranial or skull lesions, the initial diagnosis can be occasionally difficult because of the presence or a history of NPC and related treatment. Unawareness of these entities can result in misdiagnosis and subsequent improper treatment. Neurosurgical interventions are necessary for the diagnosis and treatment for these patients. PMID:24034781

  6. Milk consumption in relation to incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 48 countries/regions.

    PubMed

    Mai, Zhi-Ming; Lo, Ching-Man; Xu, Jun; Chan, King-Pan; Wong, Chit-Ming; Lung, Maria Li; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-12-21

    Decreasing trends of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) incidence have been consistently reported in endemic populations but the etiology of NPC remains unclear. The objective of our study was to assess the international and local (Hong Kong) correlations of milk and dairy products per capita consumption with NPC incidence. We conducted an ecological study in 48 countries/regions. Age standardized incidence rates of NPC were obtained from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. Dairy product consumption and Human Development Index were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the United Nations Development Programme. Spearman correlation, multivariate analysis and time-lagged analysis were performed. The negative correlations between milk consumption and decreased age standardized incidence rates of NPC were observed in the 48 countries/regions adjusting for Human Development Index in endemic countries/regions. In Hong Kong, multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other potential confounders, including salted fish, cigarette, vegetable consumption and socioeconomic status, showed consistently negative and significant correlations between milk consumption and NPC incidence (The strongest coefficient (β) was observed at 10-year lag in males [β = -0.439; P < 0.01] and in females [β = -0.258; P < 0.01]). Our study showed the correlations on milk consumption per capita and against lower risk of NPC in 48 countries/regions and in Hong Kong. These hypothesis-generating results could support further studies on individual exposures and the disease.

  7. Excavation of attractor modules for nasopharyngeal carcinoma via integrating systemic module inference with attract method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, T; Jiang, C-Y; Shu, J-H; Xu, Y-J

    2017-07-10

    The molecular mechanism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is poorly understood and effective therapeutic approaches are needed. This research aimed to excavate the attractor modules involved in the progression of NPC and provide further understanding of the underlying mechanism of NPC. Based on the gene expression data of NPC, two specific protein-protein interaction networks for NPC and control conditions were re-weighted using Pearson correlation coefficient. Then, a systematic tracking of candidate modules was conducted on the re-weighted networks via cliques algorithm, and a total of 19 and 38 modules were separately identified from NPC and control networks, respectively. Among them, 8 pairs of modules with similar gene composition were selected, and 2 attractor modules were identified via the attract method. Functional analysis indicated that these two attractor modules participate in one common bioprocess of cell division. Based on the strategy of integrating systemic module inference with the attract method, we successfully identified 2 attractor modules. These attractor modules might play important roles in the molecular pathogenesis of NPC via affecting the bioprocess of cell division in a conjunct way. Further research is needed to explore the correlations between cell division and NPC.

  8. Evaluation and Integration of Genetic Signature for Prediction Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Cheryl A.; Li, Ji; Guan, Li; Tang, Minzhong; Liao, Jian; Deng, Hong; de Thé, Guy; Zeng, Yi; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors, as well as environmental factors, play a role in development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with NPC. To confirm these genetic associations with NPC, two independent case-control studies from Southern China comprising 1166 NPC cases and 2340 controls were conducted. Seven SNPs in ITGA9 at 3p21.3 and 9 SNPs within the 6p21.3 HLA region were genotyped. To explore the potential clinical application of these genetic markers in NPC, we further evaluate the predictive/diagnostic role of significant SNPs by calculating the area under the curve (AUC). Results. The reported associations between ITGA9 variants and NPC were not replicated. Multiple loci of GABBR1, HLA-F, HLA-A, and HCG9 were statistically significant in both cohorts (P combined range from 5.96 × 10−17 to 0.02). We show for the first time that these factors influence NPC development independent of environmental risk factors. This study also indicated that the SNP alone cannot serve as a predictive/diagnostic marker for NPC. Integrating the most significant SNP with IgA antibodies status to EBV, which is presently used as screening/diagnostic marker for NPC in Chinese populations, did not improve the AUC estimate for diagnosis of NPC. PMID:25180181

  9. Evaluation and integration of genetic signature for prediction risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuchan; Winkler, Cheryl A; Li, Ji; Guan, Li; Tang, Minzhong; Liao, Jian; Deng, Hong; de Thé, Guy; Zeng, Yi; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors, as well as environmental factors, play a role in development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with NPC. To confirm these genetic associations with NPC, two independent case-control studies from Southern China comprising 1166 NPC cases and 2340 controls were conducted. Seven SNPs in ITGA9 at 3p21.3 and 9 SNPs within the 6p21.3 HLA region were genotyped. To explore the potential clinical application of these genetic markers in NPC, we further evaluate the predictive/diagnostic role of significant SNPs by calculating the area under the curve (AUC). The reported associations between ITGA9 variants and NPC were not replicated. Multiple loci of GABBR1, HLA-F, HLA-A, and HCG9 were statistically significant in both cohorts (P(combined) range from 5.96 × 10(-17) to 0.02). We show for the first time that these factors influence NPC development independent of environmental risk factors. This study also indicated that the SNP alone cannot serve as a predictive/diagnostic marker for NPC. Integrating the most significant SNP with IgA antibodies status to EBV, which is presently used as screening/diagnostic marker for NPC in Chinese populations, did not improve the AUC estimate for diagnosis of NPC.

  10. Noninvasive detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on saliva proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xueliang; Lin, Duo; Ge, Xiaosong; Qiu, Sufang; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2017-10-01

    The present study evaluated the capability of saliva analysis combining membrane protein purification with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for noninvasive detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A rapid and convenient protein purification method based on cellulose acetate membrane was developed. A total of 659 high-quality SERS spectra were acquired from purified proteins extracted from the saliva samples of 170 patients with pathologically confirmed NPC and 71 healthy volunteers. Spectral analysis of those saliva protein SERS spectra revealed specific changes in some biochemical compositions, which were possibly associated with NPC transformation. Furthermore, principal component analysis combined with linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) was utilized to analyze and classify the saliva protein SERS spectra from NPC and healthy subjects. Diagnostic sensitivity of 70.7%, specificity of 70.3%, and diagnostic accuracy of 70.5% could be achieved by PCA-LDA for NPC identification. These results show that this assay based on saliva protein SERS analysis holds promising potential for developing a rapid, noninvasive, and convenient clinical tool for NPC screening.

  11. Grave's disease induced by radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-An; Li, Xuezhen; Zou, Wen; Zhou, Yan

    2013-07-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A number of thyroid dysfunctions are induced by damage resulting from the relatively high doses of radiation administered to the thyroid and pituitary gland during radiotherapy. Hypothyroidism constitutes the most frequent type of thyroid dysfunction induced by NPC radiotherapy, while hyperthyroidism, particularly Grave's disease, is extremely rare. The present study describes the case of a 40-year-old male who presented with Grave's disease 2 years after receiving radiotherapy for the treatment of NPC. The patient exhibited swelling of the eyes, an increased appetite, decreased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, increased levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) demonstrated by the examination of thyroid function and enlargement of the bilateral intraocular rectus revealed by CT scan. The patient's symptoms were ameliorated following treatment with propylthiouracil and propranolol for 1 month, and the levels of T3 and T4 were restored to normal. The pathophysiological mechanism of radiotherapy-induced hyperthyroidism has yet to be elucidated. Hyperthyroidism is often neglected as several of its clinical manifestations are similar to other complications observed during and following cancer treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor thyroid function following head and neck radiotherapy.

  12. Epstein-Barr virus infection and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the other side of the coin.

    PubMed

    Perri, Francesco; Della Vittoria Scarpati, Giuseppina; Giuliano, Mario; D'Aniello, Carmine; Gnoni, Antonio; Cavaliere, Carla; Licchetta, Antonella; Pisconti, Salvatore

    2015-11-01

    Oncogenic viruses may have a significant impact on the therapeutic management of several malignancies besides their well-known role in tumor pathogenesis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induces neoplastic transformation of epithelial cells of the nasopharynx by various molecular mechanisms mostly involving activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes. EBV infection can also induce the expression of several immunogenic peptides on the plasma membrane of the infected cells. Importantly, these virus-related antigens may be used as targets for antitumor immunotherapy-based treatment strategies. Two different immunotherapy strategies, namely adoptive and active immunotherapy, have been developed and strongly improved in the recent years. Furthermore, EBV infection may influence the use of targeted therapies for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) considering that the presence of EBV can induce important modifications in cell signaling. As an example, latent membrane protein type 1 is a viral transmembrane protein mainly involved in the cancerogenesis process, which can also mediate overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in NPC cells, rendering them more sensitive to anti-EGFR therapy. Finally, EBV may induce epigenetic changes in the infected cells, such as DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, that can sustain tumor growth and can thus be considered potential targets for novel therapies. In conclusion, EBV infection can modify important biological features of NPC cells, rendering them more vulnerable to both immunotherapy and targeted therapy.

  13. Changes in c-Kit expression levels during the course of radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Bicheng; Xu, Jing; Shui, Yongjie; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Ren, Xiaoqiu; Chen, Xiaozhong; Shen, Li; Wei, Qichun

    2016-10-01

    In the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, distant metastasis is currently the main cause of treatment failure for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Additional therapeutic strategies are required to control the metastasis and improve survival. One strategy is targeted therapy, for example against c-Kit. In the current study, the frequency of c-Kit expression was determined immunohistochemically in 106 NPC patients. c-Kit expression changes during the course of radiation therapy were detected in 41 cases via weekly biopsy. Twelve cases (11.3%) had c-Kit expression scores of 3 + and 16 (15.1%) had scores of 2 + . Thus, c-Kit overexpression (2 + or 3 + ) was observed in 28 (26.4%) patients. There were 35 (33.0%) and 43 (40.6%) patients with c-Kit expression scores of 1 + and 0, respectively. Furthermore, a trend of decreased c-Kit expression was observed after commencing radiotherapy according to the 41 NPC patients who were biopsied weekly. Therefore, c-Kit overexpression was identified to be common in NPC, and evaluating c-Kit as a therapeutic target for metastatic NPC via c-Kit overexpression subsequent to first line treatment may be of interest. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate a trend of decreased c-Kit expression during the course of radiotherapy.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup Confers Genetic Susceptibility to Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chaoshanese from Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sheng-Ping; Du, Ju-Ping; Li, De-Rui; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown association of mtDNA background with cancer development. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region variation of 201 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and of 201 normal controls from Chaoshan Han Chinese to discern mtDNA haplogroup effect on the disease onset. Binary logistic regression analysis with adjustment for gender and age revealed that the haplogroup R9 (P = 0.011, OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.16–3.16), particularly its sub-haplogroup F1 (P = 0.015, OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.18–5.00), were associated significantly with increased NPC risk. These haplogroups were further confirmed to confer high NPC risk in males and/or individuals ≥40 years of age, but not in females or in subjects <40 years old. Our results indicated that mtDNA background confers genetic susceptibility to NPC in Chaoshan Han Chinese, and R9, particularly its sub-haplogroup F1, is a risk factor for NPC. PMID:24498198

  15. Conventional and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinomas from the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, S; Khabir, A; Keryer, C; Perrot, C; Drira, M; Ghorbel, A; Jlidi, R; Bernheim, A; Valent, A; Busson, P

    2005-03-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) occurs with a high incidence in Southeast Asia and to a lesser extent in the Mediterranean area, especially in Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco. Cellular gene alterations combined with latent Epstein-Barr virus infection are thought to be essential for NPC oncogenesis. To date, chromosome analysis with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been reported exclusively for NPCs from Southeast Asia. Although NPCs from the Mediterranean area have several distinct clinical and epidemiological features, CGH investigations have been lacking. Chromosome analysis was therefore undertaken on a series of NPC xenografts and biopsies derived from patients of Mediterranean origin. Four xenografts were investigated with a combination of conventional CGH, array-based CGH, and comparative expressed sequence hybridization. In addition, 23 fresh NPC biopsies were analyzed with conventional CGH. Data obtained from xenografts and fresh biopsies were consistent, except that amplification of genes at 18p was observed only in xenografts derived from metastatic tissues. Frequent gains associated with gene overexpression were detected at 1q25 approximately qter (64%) and 12p13 (50%). Losses were noticed mainly at 11q14 approximately q23 (50%), 13q12 approximately q31 (50%), 14q24 approximately q31 (43%), and 3p13 approximately p23 (43%). Comparison with previous reports suggests that Mediterranean NPCs have higher frequencies of gains at 1q and losses at 13q than their Asian counterparts.

  16. Contrasted frequencies of p53 accumulation in the two age groups of North African nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Khabir, A; Sellami, A; Sakka, M; Ghorbel, A M; Daoud, J; Frikha, M; Drira, M M; Busson, P; Jlidi, R

    2000-10-01

    EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) from Southeast Asia and North Africa have many common clinical and biological characteristics. However, they differ with regard to their age distribution. In Asia, NPC mainly affects patients in the 4th or 5th decade of their life, whereas in North Africa an additional peak of incidence is found between the ages of 10 and 20. The p53 gene is rarely mutated in NPC. However, several groups have reported a consistent accumulation of p53 in Asian NPCs. To determine whether p53 was also accumulated in North African NPCs, we investigated its expression, by immunohistochemistry, in a series of 90 Tunisian biopsies. Bc12 and CD95, two proteins involved in the regulation of cell survival and apoptosis, were investigated in the same study. We found accumulation of p53 in 81% of the cases for patients over 30 years of age, but in only 38% of specimens for younger patients (P = 0.00013). There was a trend toward a higher frequency of Bc12 detection in patients over 30, but it was not statistically significant. CD95 expression was detected in all biopsies, generally at a high level, even at advanced stages of the disease. The changing frequency of p53 accumulation, below and over 30, suggests that NPC cells often achieve malignant transformation through different pathways in both age groups.

  17. MiR-593 mediates curcumin-induced radiosensitization of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via MDR1.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haoning; Shao, Meng; Huang, Shaohui; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jie; Wang, Zhiyuan; Diao, Jianxin; Liu, Yuanliang; Tong, L I; Fan, Qin

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin (Cur) exhibits radiosensitization effects to a variety of malignant tumors. The present study investigates the radiosensitizing effect of Cur on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells and whether its mechanism is associated with microRNA-593 (miR-593) and multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1). A clonogenic assay was performed to measure the radiosensitizing effect. The expression of miR-593 and MDR1 was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or western blot assay. A transplanted tumor model was established to identify the radiosensitizing effect in vivo . A luciferase-based reporter was constructed to evaluate the effect of direct binding of miR-593 to the putative target site on the 3' UTR of MDR1. The clonogenic assay showed that Cur enhanced the radiosensitivity of cells. Cur (100 mg/kg) combined with 4 Gy irradiation inhibited the growth of a transplanted tumor model in vivo , resulting in the higher inhibition ratio compared with the radiotherapy-alone group. These results demonstrated that Cur had a radiosensitizing effect on NPC cells in vivo and in vitro ; Cur-mediated upregulation of miR-593 resulted in reduced MDR1 expression, which may promote radiosensitivity of NPC cells.

  18. Phase I study of icotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor combined with IMRT in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Wang, Wei; Yang, Peinong; Zhou, Chao; Yang, Weifang; Wu, Bo; Lu, Hongsheng; Yang, Haihua

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a new target for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) therapy. This prospective phase I study sought to determine the safety and recommended phase II dose of icotinib, a novel highly selective oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with NPC. Eligible patients with NPC received escalating doses of icotinib during IMRT. We treated six patients at a particular dose level until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined. The starting dose was 125 mg, once-daily and the dose was escalated to another level 125 mg, twice- and thrice- daily, until dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) occurred in two or more patients at a dose level. Expression and mutation analysis of EGFR were performed in all cases. A total of twelve patients were enrolled. Three patients experienced DLT (250 mg/day cohort) and MTD was 125 mg/day. Mucositis toxicity appears to be the major DLT. While EGFR expression in tumor tissue was detected in 75% (9/12) patients, EGFR mutation was detected in 16.67% (1/6) patients in 125 mg/day cohort, and 50% (3/6) in 250 mg/day cohort. The combination of icotinib (125 mg/day) and IMRT in patients with locally NPC had an acceptable safety profile and was well tolerated.

  19. Trismus, xerostomia and nutrition status in nasopharyngeal carcinoma survivors treated with radiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-J; Chen, S-C; Wang, C-P; Fang, Y-Y; Lee, Y-H; Lou, P-J; Ko, J-Y; Chiang, C-C; Lai, Y-H

    2016-05-01

    The aims of the study were to: (1) examine levels of trismus, xerostomia and nutritional status; (2) compare levels of trismus, xerostomia and nutritional status in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving different types of radiation modalities; and (3) identify factors related to NPC survivors' risk status for malnutrition and existing malnutrition. A cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was conducted. NPC survivors were recruited from otolaryngology/oncology outpatient clinics in a medical centre in Northern Taiwan. Study measures included (1) Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire, (2) Xerostomia Questionnaire, (3) Mini Nutrition Assessment, (4) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - Depression subscale, and (5) Symptom Severity Scale. A total of 110 subjects were recruited. Those receiving intensity-modulated radiation therapy had less trismus and xerostomia than patients receiving two-dimensional radiation therapy. Patients with female gender, advanced stage, completion of treatments within 1 year, higher levels of depression, more severe trismus and higher symptom severity tended to have malnutrition or were at risk of malnutrition. Trismus and xerostomia are long-term problems in some NPC survivors and may contribute to malnutrition. To better manage a patient's trismus and xerostomia and to enhance nutritional status, clinicians should develop a patient-specific care programme based on careful assessment and targeted measures to improve oral function and insure adequate nutritional intake. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of nasopharyngeal carcinoma mortality in China, 1973-2005.

    PubMed

    Xia, Changfa; Yu, Xue Qin; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Wang, Jinfeng; Liao, Yilan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zuo, Tingting; Yang, Zhixun; Chen, Wanqing

    2017-08-10

    We fitted generalized linear models using data from three national retrospective surveys on cause of death in China to explore the spatial and temporal patterns of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mortality over the period 1973 to 2005. The results suggest that there was a significant decrease in NPC mortality in China over time (p < 0.0001), the mortality rate ratio (RR) for the two later time periods were 0.59 (95% CI: 0.55-0.64) for 1990-1992 and 0.42 (95% CI: 0.39-0.45) for 2004-2005 compared to that of 1973-1975. Residents living in the South China areas have an elevated risk of mortality from NPC compared to those living in North China across all three time periods, with the RR being 4.96 (95% CI: 4.31-5.70) in 1973-1975, 12.83 (95% CI: 10.73-15.34) in 1990-1992 and 15.20 (95% CI: 12.34-18.72) in 2004-2005. Although NPC mortality in most areas of China has reduced to very low levels, the widening geographical disparities in NPC mortality are still noteworthy. It may be necessary to target public health policies to address the widening geographical disparities in NPC mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiomic machine-learning classifiers for prognostic biomarkers of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; He, Xin; Ouyang, Fusheng; Gu, Dongsheng; Dong, Yuhao; Zhang, Lu; Mo, Xiaokai; Huang, Wenhui; Tian, Jie; Zhang, Shuixing

    2017-09-10

    We aimed to identify optimal machine-learning methods for radiomics-based prediction of local failure and distant failure in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We enrolled 110 patients with advanced NPC. A total of 970 radiomic features were extracted from MRI images for each patient. Six feature selection methods and nine classification methods were evaluated in terms of their performance. We applied the 10-fold cross-validation as the criterion for feature selection and classification. We repeated each combination for 50 times to obtain the mean area under the curve (AUC) and test error. We observed that the combination methods Random Forest (RF) + RF (AUC, 0.8464 ± 0.0069; test error, 0.3135 ± 0.0088) had the highest prognostic performance, followed by RF + Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost) (AUC, 0.8204 ± 0.0095; test error, 0.3384 ± 0.0097), and Sure Independence Screening (SIS) + Linear Support Vector Machines (LSVM) (AUC, 0.7883 ± 0.0096; test error, 0.3985 ± 0.0100). Our radiomics study identified optimal machine-learning methods for the radiomics-based prediction of local failure and distant failure in advanced NPC, which could enhance the applications of radiomics in precision oncology and clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diet, living conditions and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Tunisia--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jeannel, D; Hubert, A; de Vathaire, F; Ellouz, R; Camoun, M; Ben Salem, M; Sancho-Garnier, H; de-Thé, G

    1990-09-15

    We conducted a case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Tunisia, on diet, dietary patterns and life style, the characteristics of which had been defined by an anthropological study. Eighty incident cases, diagnosed in Tunisia between November 1986 and November 1987, were each matched for sex, age and place of residence to 2 controls. The subjects were asked for dietary data referring to the year preceding the diagnosis of NPC and, with help of their families, during childhood and after weaning. After adjustment for an empirical living conditions score, the following food items were found to be associated with an increased risk for NPC: preserved spiced meat (quaddid), basic stewing preparation (mixture of red and black pepper, garlic, oil, caraway and coriander), and harissa (red pepper, olive oil, garlic, caraway, salt) taken with bread as a snack during childhood and youth. Moreover, subjects who had been directly weaned from mother's milk on to an adult diet were found to be at higher risk for NPC.

  3. New Insights from Elucidating the Role of LMP1 in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shair, Kathy H. Y.; Reddy, Akhil

    2018-01-01

    Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncogenic protein that has no intrinsic enzymatic activity or sequence homology to cellular or viral proteins. The oncogenic potential of LMP1 has been ascribed to pleiotropic signaling properties initiated through protein-protein interactions in cytosolic membrane compartments, but the effects of LMP1 extend to nuclear and extracellular processes. Although LMP1 is one of the latent genes required for EBV-immortalization of B cells, the biology of LMP1 in the pathogenesis of the epithelial cancer nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is more complex. NPC is prevalent in specific regions of the world with high incidence in southeast China. The epidemiology and time interval from seroconversion to NPC onset in adults would suggest the involvement of multiple risk factors that complement the establishment of a latent and persistent EBV infection. The contribution of LMP1 to EBV pathogenesis in polarized epithelia has only recently begun to be elucidated. Furthermore, the LMP1 gene has emerged as one of the most divergent sequences in the EBV genome. This review will discuss the significance of recent advances in NPC research from elucidating LMP1 function in epithelial cells and lessons that could be learned from mining LMP1 sequence diversity. PMID:29561768

  4. A clinical study of 407 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Hong Kong

    SciT

    Teo, P.; Tsao, S.Y.; Shiu, W.

    Four hundred and seven cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively; 403/407 were evaluable for recurrence and survival. Parapharyngeal boost significantly decreased local recurrences in parapharyngeal diseases without base of skull involvement (T2p), but not with base of skull involvement (T3p). Enhanced local control of T2p with boost was significant without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Tumors localized within the nasopharynx (T1) and tumors with nasal involvement (T2n) suffering from local persistences after external radiation therapy were treated with an intracavitary afterloading method. They had survival and recurrence rates comparable to complete responders to external radiation therapy. Patients with bulky cervical nodes (maximalmore » diameter greater than or equal to 4 cm, N1-N3), treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II and 5-fluorouracil, had a regional failure rate, distant metastasis rate, actuarial survival rate, and disease-free survival rate comparable to those with smaller nodes treated with external radiation therapy alone. A simple modification of the Ho's classification by regrouping the T-stages into 'early T-stages' and 'advanced T-stages' and by combining the N1 and the N2 has greatly increased the power of the system in predicting local recurrence and distant metastasis, respectively. There was an overall improvement of the actuarial survival rate and disease-free survival rate over the historical control, and its significance is discussed.« less

  5. Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract induces cytotoxicity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells: Raman spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiwei; Li, Zuanfang; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Huang, Hao; Shi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity induced by Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells was investigated by Raman spectroscopy (RS). The average Raman spectra of cell groups treated with HCT (0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 μg ml-1) for 24 h were measured separately. Compared to the control group, the intensities of the selected bands (1002, 1338, and 1448 cm-1) related to protein, DNA, and lipid in the treatment groups decreased obviously as the concentration of HCT increased. Both cell groups treated with 250 and 500 μg ml-1 of HCT could be differentiated from the control group by principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminate analysis (LDA) with a diagnostic accuracy of 100%, suggesting that cytotoxicity occurred and that 250 μg ml-1 was the proper dose for treatment. Simultaneously, the Raman spectra of cells treated with different treatment times with 250 μg ml-1 of HCT were obtained. We can get that treatment with HCT decreased cell viability in a dose and time-dependent fashion. The results indicated that the RS combined with PCA-LDA can be used for pharmacokinetics studies of HCT in NPC cells, which could also provide useful data for clinical dosage optimization for HCT.

  6. Clinical Utility of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Testing in the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kelly Y; Le, Quynh-Thu; Yom, Sue S; Ng, Raymond H W; Chan, K C Allen; Bratman, Scott V; Welch, John J; Divi, Rao L; Petryshyn, Raymond A; Conley, Barbara A

    2017-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA analysis has been shown to be useful for early detection, prognostication, and monitoring of treatment response of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and the recent literature provides growing evidence of the clinical utility of EBV DNA testing, particularly to inform treatment decisions for NPC patients. Despite the fact that NPC is a rare disease, the NRG Oncology cooperative group has successfully activated a phase 2/3 randomized clinical trial for NPC with international partners and in that process has discovered that the development of a harmonized EBV DNA test is absolutely critical for integration into clinical trials and for future deployment in clinical and central laboratories. In November 2015, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened a workshop of international experts in the treatment of NPC and EBV testing to provide a forum for discussing the state of EBV DNA testing and its clinical utility, and to stimulate consideration of future studies and clinical practice guidelines for EBV DNA. This review provides a summary of that discussion. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Identifying FGA peptides as nasopharyngeal carcinoma-associated biomarkers by magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ya-Lan; Li, Yan; Gao, Jin; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Tu, Zi-Wei; Li, Guo; Xu, Bing-Qing; Niu, Dao-Li; Jiang, Chang-Bin; Yi, Wei; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Jing; Wang, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Qiao-Dan; Bai, Li; Zhang, Chun; Zhang, Jing-Yu; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Xia, Yun-Fei

    2012-07-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment is known to improve prognosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The study determined the specific peptide profiles by comparing the serum differences between NPC patients and healthy controls, and provided the basis for the diagnostic model and identification of specific biomarkers of NPC. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) can be used to detect the molecular mass of peptides. Mass spectra of peptides were generated after extracting and purification of 40 NPC samples in the training set, 21 in the single center validation set and 99 in the multicenter validation set using weak cationic-exchanger magnetic beads. The spectra were analyzed statistically using FlexAnalysis™ and ClinProt™ bioinformatics software. The four most significant peaks were selected out to train a genetic algorithm model to diagnose NPC. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 100% in the training set, 90.5% and 88.9% in the single center validation set, 91.9% and 83.3% in the multicenter validation set, and the false positive rate (FPR) and false negative rate (FNR) were obviously lower in the NPC group (FPR, 16.7%; FNR, 8.1%) than in the other cancer group (FPR, 39%; FNR, 61%), respectively. So, the diagnostic model including four peptides can be suitable for NPC but not for other cancers. FGA peptide fragments identified may serve as tumor-associated biomarkers for NPC. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Apatinib inhibits VEGFR-2 and angiogenesis in an in vivo murine model of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiu-Xia; Han, Yun-Wei; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Hu, Jie; Fan, Juan; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Xu, Shan; Wan, Qiang

    2017-08-08

    Angiogenesis is initiated by the activation of the vascular epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by the vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) ligand. Overexpression of VEGFR-2 increases the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). Apatinib (YN968D1) is a highly-selective inhibitor of VEGFR-2, but its effects on NPC have not been hitherto investigated. In the present study, CNE-2 NPC cells were xenografted into 132 nude mice, which were treated with one of 6 drug regimens of apatinib administered alone or in combination with cisplatin (DDP). The impact of treatment regimens on the growth, microvascularization, apoptosis, and metabolic response of tumors, as well as mouse survival was determined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (VEGFR-2 and CD31), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL), micro 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging and survival curves. Administration of apatinib alone inhibited tumor growth, reduced microvascular density, and facilitated the apoptosis of tumors. Tumors treated simultaneously with apatinib and cisplatin exhibited significantly-increased inhibition of tumor growth, prolonged survival time, decreased expression of VEGFR-2, reduced microvascular density, and frequency of apoptosis over standalone and sequential administration therapy. Tumors treated simultaneously with apatinib and cisplatin had the lowest uptake of FDG. Taken together, the simultaneous administration of apatinib and cisplatin improves the therapeutic efficacy over standalone treatments, which also led to improved efficacy over sequential administration regimens. VEGFR-2 is an important predictive marker for efficacy of apatinib treatment of NPC.

  9. Changes of saliva microbiota in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients under chemoradiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Teng, Fei; Huang, Shi; Lin, Zhengmei; Yuan, Xiao; Zeng, Xiaowei; Yang, Fang

    2014-02-01

    A growing body of evidence has implicated human oral microbiota in the aetiology of oral and systemic diseases. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an epithelial-originated malignancy, has a complex aetiology not yet fully understood. Chemoradiation therapy of NPC can affect oral microbiota and is usually accompanied by plaque accumulation. Thus, the study aimed to understand the diversity, divergence and development of the oral microbiota in NPC patients and their associated treatment, which might provide useful insights into disease aetiology and treatment side effects. A longitudinal study was designed that included three Chinese adults with NPC. Saliva samples were collected at three time points: prior to the chemoradiation treatment (carcinoma baseline, or CB), 7 months post-treatment (carcinoma-after-therapy phase 1 or CA1) and 12 months post-treatment (carcinoma-after-therapy phase 2 or CA2). Pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) V1-V3 hypervariable region was employed to characterise the microbiota. Saliva samples of three healthy subjects from our former study were employed as healthy controls. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA), Metastats and random forest prediction models were used to reveal the key microbial members associated with NPC and its treatment programme. (1) In total, 412 bacterial species from at least 107 genera and 13 phyla were found in the saliva samples of the NPC patients. (2) PCoA revealed that not only were the microbiota from NPC patients distinct from those of healthy controls (p<0.001) but also that separation was found on the saliva microbiota between pre- and post-therapy (p<0.001) in the NPC samples. (3) At the genus level and the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level, Streptococcus was found with lower abundance in NPC samples. (4) Chemoradiation therapy did not incur similar changes in microbiota structure among the three NPC patients; the microbiota in one of them stayed largely steady, while those in the

  10. Integrated pathway analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma implicates the axonemal dynein complex in the Malaysian cohort.

    PubMed

    Chin, Yoon-Ming; Tan, Lu Ping; Abdul Aziz, Norazlin; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kubo, Michiaki; Mohd Kornain, Noor Kaslina; Tan, Geok Wee; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Krishnan, Gopala; Pua, Kin-Choo; Yap, Yoke-Yeow; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lim, Paul Vey-Hong; Nakamura, Yusuke; Lum, Chee Lun; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2016-10-15

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial squamous cell carcinoma on the mucosal lining of the nasopharynx. The etiology of NPC remains elusive despite many reported studies. Most studies employ a single platform approach, neglecting the cumulative influence of both the genome and transcriptome toward NPC development. We aim to employ an integrated pathway approach to identify dysregulated pathways linked to NPC. Our approach combines imputation NPC GWAS data from a Malaysian cohort as well as published expression data GSE12452 from both NPC and non-NPC nasopharynx tissues. Pathway association for GWAS data was performed using MAGENTA while for expression data, GSA-SNP was used with gene p values derived from differential expression values from GEO2R. Our study identified NPC association in the gene ontology (GO) axonemal dynein complex pathway (pGWAS-GSEA  = 1.98 × 10(-2) ; pExpr-GSEA  = 1.27 × 10(-24) ; pBonf-Combined  = 4.15 × 10(-21) ). This association was replicated in a separate cohort using gene expression data from NPC and non-NPC nasopharynx tissues (pAmpliSeq-GSEA  = 6.56 × 10(-4) ). Loss of function in the axonemal dynein complex causes impaired cilia function, leading to poor mucociliary clearance and subsequently upper or lower respiratory tract infection, the former of which includes the nasopharynx. Our approach illustrates the potential use of integrated pathway analysis in detecting gene sets involved in the development of NPC in the Malaysian cohort. © 2016 UICC.

  11. Inhibition of EGF expression and NF-κB activity by treatment with quercetin leads to suppression of angiogenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-Yan; Dai, Zhi-Rao; Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Rong-Guan; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2018-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of quercetin on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) angiogenesis. The real-time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed to analyze the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines prior to and after the quercetin treatment. Effect of quercetin on the rate of cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. It was observed that quercetin treatment at a concentration of 10 mg/mL reduced the rate of NPC039 cell viability to 36% compared to control after 24 h. The expression of VEGF and activity of NF-κB was also markedly reduced. The ability of tube formation in HUVECs was inhibited significantly on exposure to quercetin compared to the untreated cells. Therefore, quercetin plays an important role in the inhibition of NPC039 nasopharyngeal carcinoma and can be of therapeutic importance.

  12. [Effect of intensity modulated radiation therapy on oral mucosa and immune function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Lusi; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Zhenhe; Luo, Weijun; Xu, Tao; Lü, Zhiqian; Li, Shao'en

    2018-05-28

    To study the potential effects of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on clinical efficacy, oral mucosa reaction and immunological foundation; and to explore the effect of immunological changes on clinical efficacy and oral mucosa reaction in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
 Methods: A total of 200 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, who came from First Department of Nasopharyngeal Radiotherapy, the First People's Hospital of Foshan from October 2008 to November 2011, were selected. The patients were treated with nasopharyngeal radiotherapy, and divided into an observation group and a control group (n=100 in each group). The control group underwent common conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy treatment, while the observation group underwent IMRT. The 5-year survival rates and recurrence rates were recorded at follow-up. After the radiotherapy, the oral mucosa in the patients were evaluated by the classification standard of acute radioactive mucositis by American Radiotherapy Oncology Group (RTOG), and the number of T lymphocyte subsets before and after treatment was detected.
 Results: There were significant difference in non-regional-recurrence survival rate, disease-free survival rate, local recurrence rate between the above 2 groups (all P<0.05), but no significant difference in the distant metastasis-free survival rate (P>0.05). The acute oral mucosa reactions of grade 1, 2, 3, 4 in the control group were 8.00%, 20.00%, 12.00%, 7.00%, respectively, and those were 7.00%, 22.00%, 15.00%, 1.00% respectively. There was no significant difference in the acute response of oral mucosa in grade 1, 2 and 3 in the 2 groups (all P>0.05), but there was significant difference in the grade 4 (P<0.05). There were significantly difference in CD8+, CD4+/ CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte subsets before and after treatment in the above 2 groups (all P<0.01); there were also significantly difference after treatment between the observation group and the

  13. Irregular vascular pattern by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and high serum Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein level predict poor outcome after successful radiofrequency ablation in patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takada, Hitomi; Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Yasui, Yutaka; Nakakuki, Natsuko; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Shoko; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Itakura, Jun; Takahashi, Yuka; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2016-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is considered the most effective treatment for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients unsuitable for resection. However, poor outcome after RFA has occasionally been reported worldwide. To predict such an outcome, we investigated imaging findings using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid and serum tumor markers before RFA. This study included 176 early-stage HCC patients who had initially achieved successful RFA. Patients were examined using CEUS; their levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin before RFA were measured. Sonazoid provided parenchyma-specific contrast imaging and facilitated tumor vascular architecture imaging through maximum intensity projection (MIP). Kaplan-Meier analysis examined cumulative rates of local tumor progression, intrasubsegmental recurrence, and survival; factors associated with these were determined with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Local tumor progression (n = 15), intrasubsegmental recurrence (n = 46), and death (n = 18) were observed. Irregular pattern in MIP classification and serum AFP-L3 level (>10%) before RFA were identified as independent risk factors for local tumor progression and intrasubsegmental recurrence. These two factors were independently associated with poor survival after RFA (irregular pattern in MIP: hazard ratio, (HR) = 8.26; 95% confidence interval, (CI) = 2.24-30.3; P = 0.002 and AFP-L3 > 10%: HR = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.09-7.94; P = 0.033). Irregular MIP pattern by CEUS and high level of serum AFP-L3 were independent risk factors for poor outcome after successful RFA. The Patients with these findings should be considered as special high-risk group in early-stage HCC. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma with Cystic Cervical Metastasis Masquerading as Branchial Cleft Cyst: A Potential Pitfall in Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Sai-Guan, Lum; Min-Han, Kong; Kah-Wai, Ngan; Mohamad-Yunus, Mohd-Razif

    2017-03-01

    Most metastatic lymph nodes from head and neck malignancy are solid. Cystic nodes are found in 33% - 61% of carcinomas arise from Waldeyer's ring, of which only 1.8% - 8% originate are from the nasopharynx. Some cystic cervical metastases were initially presumed to be branchial cleft cyst. This case report aims to highlight the unusual presentation of cystic cervical metastasis secondary to nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a young adult. The histopathology, radiological features and management strategy were discussed. A 36-year-old man presented with a solitary cystic cervical swelling, initially diagnosed as branchial cleft cyst. Fine needle aspiration yielded 18 ml of straw-coloured fluid. During cytological examination no atypical cells were observed. Computed tomography of the neck showed a heterogeneous mass with multiseptation medial to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Histopathological examination of the mass, post excision, revealed a metastatic lymph node. A suspicious mucosal lesion at the nasopharynx was detected after repeated thorough head and neck examinations and the biopsy result confirmed undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cystic cervical metastasis may occur in young patients under 40 years. The primary tumour may not be obvious during initial presentation because it mimicks benign branchial cleft cyst clinically. Retrospective review of the computed tomography images revealed features that were not characteristic of simple branchial cleft cyst. The inadequacy of assessment and interpretation had lead to the error in diagnosis and subsequent management. Metastatic head and neck lesion must be considered in a young adult with a cystic neck mass.

  15. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with continuous infusion of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, with or without leucovorin, for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, E; Cruz, J J; Rodríguez, C A; Gómez-Bernal, A; Martín, G; Sánchez, P; Nieto, A; Soria, P; Vega, M J; Muñoz, A; Pardal, J L

    1996-01-01

    Cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy has been extensively tested in nasopharyngeal carcinoma for the improvement of local and systemic control and survival of this disease. In this study, we report the results of the treatment with induction chemotherapy in 40 patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the nasopharynx (LANPC) with four courses of cisplatin (P) 25 mg/m2 per day and 5-fluorouracil (F) 1000 mg/m2 per day both in a 4-days continuous infusion, with or without leucovorin (L) 250 mg/m2 per day in 2-hour infusion at the beginning of daily administration of PF, followed by sequential radiotherapy. All except one were in stage IV. The overall response after induction chemotherapy was 93%, with 55% CR and 38% PR. Definitive overall response after radiotherapy was 98%, with 80% CR and 18% PR. At a maximum follow up of 11 years, the overall survival rate is 55%. Induction chemotherapy with continuous infusion of PF with or without leucovorin followed by radiotherapy is a highly active regimen for the treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma with response and survival rates comparable to other combinations of sequential or simultaneous chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  16. Patterns of failure and survival in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Maklad, Ahmed Marzouk; Bayoumi, Yasser; Senosy Hassan, Mohamed Abdalazez; Elawadi, AbuSaleh A; AlHussain, Hussain; Elyamany, Ashraf; Aldhahri, Saleh F; Al-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; AlQahtani, Mubarak; Tunio, Mutahir A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the patterns of failure (locoregional and distant metastasis), associated factors, and treatment outcomes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with chemotherapy. From April 2006 to December 2011, 68 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were treated with IMRT and chemotherapy at our hospital. Median radiation doses delivered to gross tumor volume and positive neck nodes were 66-70 Gy, 63 Gy to clinical target volume, and 50.4-56 Gy to clinically negative neck. The clinical toxicities, patterns of failures, locoregional control, distant metastasis control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were observed. The median follow-up time was 52.2 months (range: 11-87 months). Epstein-Barr virus infection was positive in 63.2% of patients. Overall disease failure developed in 21 patients, of whom 85.8% belonged to stage III/IV disease. Among these, there were seven locoregional recurrences, three regional recurrences with distant metastases, and eleven distant metastases. The median interval from the date of diagnosis to failure was 26.5 months (range: 16-50 months). Six of ten (60%) locoregional recurrences were treated with reirradiation ± concurrent chemotherapy. The 5-year locoregional control, distant metastasis control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates of whole cohort were 81.1%, 74.3%, 60.1%, and 73.4%, respectively. Cox regression analyses revealed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy, age, and Epstein-Barr virus were independent predictors for disease-free survival. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by IMRT with or without chemotherapy improves the long-term survival of Saudi patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Distant metastasis was the main pattern of treatment failure. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, age, and Epstein-Barr virus status before IMRT were important independent prognostic factors.

  17. Patterns of failure and survival in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Maklad, Ahmed Marzouk; Bayoumi, Yasser; Senosy Hassan, Mohamed Abdalazez; Elawadi, AbuSaleh A; AlHussain, Hussain; Elyamany, Ashraf; Aldhahri, Saleh F; Al-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; AlQahtani, Mubarak; Tunio, Mutahir A

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the patterns of failure (locoregional and distant metastasis), associated factors, and treatment outcomes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with chemotherapy. Patients and methods From April 2006 to December 2011, 68 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were treated with IMRT and chemotherapy at our hospital. Median radiation doses delivered to gross tumor volume and positive neck nodes were 66–70 Gy, 63 Gy to clinical target volume, and 50.4–56 Gy to clinically negative neck. The clinical toxicities, patterns of failures, locoregional control, distant metastasis control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were observed. Results The median follow-up time was 52.2 months (range: 11–87 months). Epstein–Barr virus infection was positive in 63.2% of patients. Overall disease failure developed in 21 patients, of whom 85.8% belonged to stage III/IV disease. Among these, there were seven locoregional recurrences, three regional recurrences with distant metastases, and eleven distant metastases. The median interval from the date of diagnosis to failure was 26.5 months (range: 16–50 months). Six of ten (60%) locoregional recurrences were treated with reirradiation ± concurrent chemotherapy. The 5-year locoregional control, distant metastasis control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates of whole cohort were 81.1%, 74.3%, 60.1%, and 73.4%, respectively. Cox regression analyses revealed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy, age, and Epstein–Barr virus were independent predictors for disease-free survival. Conclusion Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by IMRT with or without chemotherapy improves the long-term survival of Saudi patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Distant metastasis was the main pattern of treatment failure. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, age, and Epstein–Barr virus status before IMRT were important independent prognostic factors

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging and 1H-MRS study on radiation-induced brain injury after nasopharyngeal carcinoma radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-Z; Qiu, S-J; Lv, X-F; Wang, Y-Y; Liang, Y; Xiong, W-F; Ouyang, Z-B

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the metabolic characteristics of the temporal lobes following radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). DTI and (1)H-MRS were performed in 48 patients after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and in 24 healthy, age-matched controls. All patients and controls had normal findings on conventional MRI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), three eigenvalues λ1, λ2, λ3, N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA)/choline (Cho), NAA/creatinine (Cr), and Cho/Cr were measured in both temporal lobes. Patients were divided into three groups according to time after completion of radiotherapy: group 1, less than 6 months; group 2, 6-12 months; group 3, more than 12 months. Mean values for each parameter were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean FA in group 1 was significantly lower compared to group 3 and the control group (p < 0.05). Group-wise comparisons of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values among all the groups were not significantly different. Eigenvalue λ1 was significantly lower in groups 1 and 3 compared to the control group (p < 0.05). NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were significantly lower in each group compared to the control group (p < 0.01 for both). The decrease in NAA/Cho was greatest in group 1. There were no significant between-group differences regarding Cho/Cr. A combination of DTI and (1)H-MRS can be used to detect radiation-induced brain injury, in patients treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Closure of laryngotracheal cavity and tracheostomy for intractable aspiration secondary to radiation encephalopathy or radiation damage of cranial nerve after radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shenhong; Su, Zhengzhong; He, Xiaoguang; Li, Min; Li, Tianying

    2006-09-01

    Closure of the laryngotracheal cavity and tracheostomy is especially suitable for intractable aspiration secondary to radiation encephalopathy or damage of cranial nerve after radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). To investigate the clinical value, technique, indications and contraindications of closure of the laryngotracheal cavity and tracheostomy for intractable aspiration secondary to radiation encephalopathy (REP) or radiation damage of cranial nerve after radiotherapy of NPC. Thirty patients, suffering from intractable aspiration secondary to radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, were treated with closure of the laryngotracheal cavity and tracheostomy and were observed for at least 1 year. Intractable aspiration and dyspnea were completely eradicated in all patients. The quality of their life was greatly improved.

  20. Circulating human papillomavirus DNA detected using droplet digital PCR in the serum of patients diagnosed with early stage human papillomavirus-associated invasive carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Becette, Véronique; Campitelli, Maura; Calméjane, Marie-Ange; Lappartient, Emmanuelle; Ruff, Evelyne; Saada, Stéphanie; Holmes, Allyson; Bellet, Dominique; Sastre-Garau, Xavier

    2016-10-01

    Specific human papillomavirus genotypes are associated with most ano-genital carcinomas and a large subset of oro-pharyngeal carcinomas. Human papillomavirus DNA is thus a tumour marker that can be detected in the blood of patients for clinical monitoring. However, data concerning circulating human papillomavirus DNA in cervical cancer patients has provided little clinical value, due to insufficient sensitivity of the assays used for the detection of small sized tumours. Here we took advantage of the sensitive droplet digital PCR method to identify circulating human papillomavirus DNA in patients with human papillomavirus-associated carcinomas. A series of 70 serum specimens, taken at the time of diagnosis, between 2002 and 2013, were retrospectively analyzed in patients with human papillomavirus-16 or human papillomavirus-18-associated carcinomas, composed of 47 cases from the uterine cervix, 15 from the anal canal and 8 from the oro-pharynx. As negative controls, 18 serum samples from women with human papillomavirus-16-associated high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were also analyzed. Serum samples were stored at -80°C (27 cases) or at -20°C (43 cases). DNA was isolated from 200 µl of serum or plasma and droplet digital PCR was performed using human papillomavirus-16 E7 and human papillomavirus-18 E7 specific primers. Circulating human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 61/70 (87%) serum samples from patients with carcinoma and in no serum from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The positivity rate increased to 93% when using only serum stored at -80°C. Importantly, the two patients with microinvasive carcinomas in this series were positive. Quantitative evaluation showed that circulating viral DNA levels in cervical cancer patients were related to the clinical stage and tumour size, ranging from 55 ± 85 copies/ml (stage I) to 1774 ± 3676 copies/ml (stage IV). Circulating human papillomavirus DNA is present in patients with

  1. Circulating human papillomavirus DNA detected using droplet digital PCR in the serum of patients diagnosed with early stage human papillomavirus‐associated invasive carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Becette, Véronique; Campitelli, Maura; Calméjane, Marie‐Ange; Lappartient, Emmanuelle; Ruff, Evelyne; Saada, Stéphanie; Holmes, Allyson; Bellet, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Specific human papillomavirus genotypes are associated with most ano‐genital carcinomas and a large subset of oro‐pharyngeal carcinomas. Human papillomavirus DNA is thus a tumour marker that can be detected in the blood of patients for clinical monitoring. However, data concerning circulating human papillomavirus DNA in cervical cancer patients has provided little clinical value, due to insufficient sensitivity of the assays used for the detection of small sized tumours. Here we took advantage of the sensitive droplet digital PCR method to identify circulating human papillomavirus DNA in patients with human papillomavirus‐associated carcinomas. A series of 70 serum specimens, taken at the time of diagnosis, between 2002 and 2013, were retrospectively analyzed in patients with human papillomavirus‐16 or human papillomavirus‐18‐associated carcinomas, composed of 47 cases from the uterine cervix, 15 from the anal canal and 8 from the oro‐pharynx. As negative controls, 18 serum samples from women with human papillomavirus‐16‐associated high‐grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were also analyzed. Serum samples were stored at −80°C (27 cases) or at −20°C (43 cases). DNA was isolated from 200 µl of serum or plasma and droplet digital PCR was performed using human papillomavirus‐16 E7 and human papillomavirus‐18 E7 specific primers. Circulating human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 61/70 (87%) serum samples from patients with carcinoma and in no serum from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The positivity rate increased to 93% when using only serum stored at −80°C. Importantly, the two patients with microinvasive carcinomas in this series were positive. Quantitative evaluation showed that circulating viral DNA levels in cervical cancer patients were related to the clinical stage and tumour size, ranging from 55 ± 85 copies/ml (stage I) to 1774 ± 3676 copies/ml (stage IV). Circulating human

  2. Reporting Quality of Randomized, Controlled Trials Evaluating Combined Chemoradiotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciT

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Fei

    Purpose: To comprehensively assess the reporting quality of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and to identify significant predictors of quality. Methods and Materials: Two investigators searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for RCTs published between January 1988 and December 2015 that assessed the effect of combined chemoradiotherapy for NPC. The overall quality of each report was assessed using a 28-point overall quality score (OQS) based on the 2010 Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. To provide baseline data for further evaluation, we also investigated the reporting quality of certain important issues in detail, including key methodologic items (allocationmore » concealment, blinding, intention-to-treat principle), endpoints, follow-up, subgroup analyses, and adverse events. Results: We retrieved 24 relevant RCTs including 6591 patients. Median 2010 OQS was 15.5 (range, 10-24). Half of the items in the 2010 OQS were poorly reported in at least 40% of trials. Multivariable regression models revealed that publication after 2010 and high impact factor were significant predictors of improved 2010 OQS. Additionally, many issues that we consider significant were not reported adequately. Conclusions: Despite publication of the CONSORT statement more than a decade ago, overall reporting quality for RCTs in NPC was unsatisfactory. Additionally, substantial selectivity and heterogeneity exists in reporting of certain crucial issues. This survey provides the first prompt for NPC trial investigators to improve reporting quality according to the CONSORT statement; increased scrutiny and diligence by editors and peer reviewers is also required.« less

  3. Birth order and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in multiplex families from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiwei; Coghill, Anna E; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Yu, Kelly J; Niwa, Shelley; Brotzman, Michelle; Ye, Weimin; Chen, Chien-Jen; Hildesheim, Allan

    2016-12-01

    A small proportion of individuals infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) develop nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Timing of initial exposure could alter immunological responses to primary EBV infection and explain variation in cancer risk later in life. We measured early life family structure as a proxy for the timing of primary EBV infection to examine whether earlier age at infection alters NPC risk. We utilized data from 480 NPC cases and 1,291 unaffected siblings from Taiwanese NPC multiplex families (≥ 2 family members with NPC, N = 2,921). Information on birth order within the family was derived from questionnaires. We utilized logistic regression models to examine the association between birth order and NPC, accounting for correlations between relatives. Within these high-risk families, older siblings had an elevated risk of NPC. Compared with being a first-born child, the risk (95% CIs) of NPC associated with a birth order of two, three, four and five or more was 1.00 (0.71, 1.40), 0.88 (0.62, 1.24), 0.74 (0.53, 1.05) and 0.60 (0.43, 0.82), respectively (P for trend = 0.002). We observed no associations between NPC risk and the number of younger siblings or cumulative infant-years exposure. These associations were not modified by underlying genetic predisposition or family size. We observed that early life family structure was important for NPC risk in NPC multiplex families, with older siblings having a greater risk of disease. Future studies focusing on more direct measures of the immune response to EBV in early childhood could elucidate the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 UICC.

  4. Chemoradiotherapy enhanced the efficacy of radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Jian; Wu, Ping; Tang, Yaoyun; Liu, Sulai; Xie, Chubo; Luo, Shi; Zeng, Junfeng; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Suping

    2017-01-01

    Object A Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to estimate the overall survival (OS) and complete response (CR) performance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who have been given the treatment of radiotherapy, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C), adjuvant chemotherapy (A), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N), concurrent chemoradiotherapy with adjuvant chemotherapy (C+A), concurrent chemoradiotherapy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (C+N) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy with adjuvant chemotherapy (N+A). Methods Literature search was conducted in electronic databases. Hazard ratios (HRs) accompanied their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) or 95% credible intervals (95%CrIs) were applied to measure the relative survival benefit between two comparators. Meanwhile odd ratios (ORs) with their 95% CIs or CrIs were given to present CR data from individual studies. RESULTS Totally 52 qualified studies with 10,081 patients were included in this NMA. In conventional meta-analysis (MA), patients with N+C exhibited an average increase of 9% in the 3-year OS in relation to those with C+A. As for the NMA results, five therapies were associated with a significantly reduced HR when compared with the control group when concerning 5-year OS. C, C+A and N+A also presented a decreased HR compared with A. There was continuity among 1-year, 3-year and 5-year OS status. Cluster analysis suggested that the three chemoradiotherapy appeared to be divided into the most compete group which is located in the upper right corner of the cluster plot. Conclusion In view of survival rate and complete response, the NMA results revealed that C, C+A and C+N showed excellent efficacy. As a result, these 3 therapies were supposed to be considered as the first-line treatment according to this NMA. PMID:28418901

  5. Identification of Genes with Allelic Imbalance on 6p Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Southern Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Alissa Michelle Go; Fan, Yan-Hui; Li, Miao-Xin; Bei, Jin-Xin; Jia, Wei-Hua; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Chan, Danny; Cheung, Kenneth M. C.; Sham, Pak; Chua, Daniel; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Song, You-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy of epithelial origin. The etiology of NPC is complex and includes multiple genetic and environmental factors. We employed case-control analysis to study the association of chromosome 6p regions with NPC. In total, 360 subjects and 360 healthy controls were included, and 233 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on 6p were examined. Significant single-marker associations were found for SNPs rs2267633 (p = 4.49×10−5), rs2076483 (most significant, p = 3.36×10−5), and rs29230 (p = 1.43×10−4). The highly associated genes were the gamma-amino butyric acid B receptor 1 (GABBR1), human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A), and HLA complex group 9 (HCG9). Haplotypic associations were found for haplotypes AAA (located within GABBR1, p-value  = 6.46×10−5) and TT (located within HLA-A, p = 0.0014). Further investigation of the homozygous genotype frequencies between cases and controls suggested that micro-deletion regions occur in GABBR1 and neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 9 (NEDD9). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using 11 pairs of NPC biopsy samples confirmed the significant decline in GABBR1 and NEDD9 mRNA expression in the cancer tissues compared to the adjacent non-tumor tissue (p<0.05). Our study demonstrates that multiple chromosome 6p susceptibility loci contribute to the risk of NPC, possibly though GABBR1 and NEDD9 loss of function. PMID:21283797

  6. Hypofractionated Dose-Painting Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Chemotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Prospective Trial

    SciT

    Bakst, Richard L.; Lee, Nancy; Pfister, David G.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dose-painting intensity-modulated radiation therapy (DP-IMRT) with a hypofractionated regimen to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with concomitant toxicity reduction. Methods and Materials: From October 2002 through April 2007, 25 newly diagnosed NPC patients were enrolled in a prospective trial. DP-IMRT was prescribed to deliver 70.2 Gy using 2.34-Gy fractions to the gross tumor volume for the primary and nodal sites while simultaneously delivering 54 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to regions at risk of microscopic disease. Patients received concurrent and adjuvant platin-based chemotherapy similar to the Intergroup 0099 trial. Results: Patient and disease characteristics are asmore » follows: median age, 46; 44% Asian; 68% male; 76% World Health Organization III; 20% T1, 52% T2, 16% T3, 12% T4; 20% N0, 36% N1, 36% N2, 8% N3. With median follow-up of 33 months, 3-year local control was 91%, regional control was 91%, freedom from distant metastases was 91%, and overall survival was 89%. The average mean dose to each cochlea was 43 Gy. With median audiogram follow-up of 14 months, only one patient had clinically significant (Grade 3) hearing loss. Twelve percent of patients developed temporal lobe necrosis; one patient required surgical resection. Conclusions: Preliminary findings using a hypofractionated DP-IMRT regimen demonstrated that local control, freedom from distant metastases, and overall survival compared favorably with other series of IMRT and chemotherapy. The highly conformal boost to the tumor bed resulted low rates of severe ototoxicity (Grade 3-4). However, the incidence of in-field brain radiation necrosis indicates that 2.34 Gy per fraction is not safe in this setting.« less

  7. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone inhibits the proliferation and motility of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    TENG, LOONG HUNG; AHMAD, MUNIRAH; NG, WAYNE TIONG WENG; SABARATNAM, SUBATHRA; RASAN, MARIA ITHAYA; PARHAR, ISHWAR; KHOO, ALAN SOO BENG

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), or its analogues have been demonstrated to exhibit anti-proliferative effects on tumour cells in ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer through GnRH-receptors (GnRH-R). However, the role of GnRH in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains to be elucidated. In order to investigate the effects of GnRH in NPC, the present study examined the expression of the GnRH-R transcript in NPC and investigated the phenotypic changes in HK1 cells, a recurrent NPC-derived cell line, upon receiving GnRH treatment. Firstly, the GnRH-R transcript was demonstrated in the NPC cell lines and four snap frozen biopsies using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of GnRH-R in two of the eight (25%) NPC specimens. Treatment with GnRH induced a rapid increase in intracellular ionised calcium concentration in the NPC cells. GnRH and its agonists, triptorelin and leuprolide, exerted anti-proliferative effects on the NPC cells, as determined using an MTS assay. GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study. Time-lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH-treated cells. In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells. The consequences of alterations in the levels of GnRH on the progression of NPC require further examination. PMID:26151677

  8. Identification of Four-Jointed Box 1 (FJX1)-Specific Peptides for Immunotherapy of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chai, San Jiun; Yap, Yoke Yeow; Foo, Yoke Ching; Yap, Lee Fah; Ponniah, Sathibalan; Teo, Soo Hwang; Cheong, Sok Ching; Patel, Vyomesh; Lim, Kue Peng

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly prevalent in South East Asia and China. The poor outcome is due to late presentation, recurrence, distant metastasis and limited therapeutic options. For improved treatment outcome, immunotherapeutic approaches focusing on dendritic and autologous cytotoxic T-cell based therapies have been developed, but cost and infrastructure remain barriers for implementing these in low-resource settings. As our prior observations had found that four-jointed box 1 (FJX1), a tumor antigen, is overexpressed in NPCs, we investigated if short 9-20 amino acid sequence specific peptides matching to FJX1 requiring only intramuscular immunization to train host immune systems would be a better treatment option for this disease. Thus, we designed 8 FJX1-specific peptides and implemented an assay system to first, assess the binding of these peptides to HLA-A2 molecules on T2 cells. After, ELISPOT assays were used to determine the peptides immunogenicity and ability to induce potential cytotoxicity activity towards cancer cells. Also, T-cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the potential of MHC class II peptides to stimulate the expansion of isolated T-cells. Our results demonstrate that these peptides are immunogenic and peptide stimulated T-cells were able to induce peptide-specific cytolytic activity specifically against FJX1-expressing cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrated that the MHC class II peptides were capable of inducing T-cell proliferation. Our results suggest that these peptides are capable of inducing specific cytotoxic cytokines secretion against FJX1-expressing cancer cells and serve as a potential vaccine-based therapy for NPC patients.

  9. Identification of Four-Jointed Box 1 (FJX1)-Specific Peptides for Immunotherapy of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chai, San Jiun; Yap, Yoke Yeow; Foo, Yoke Ching; Yap, Lee Fah; Ponniah, Sathibalan; Teo, Soo Hwang; Cheong, Sok Ching; Patel, Vyomesh; Lim, Kue Peng

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly prevalent in South East Asia and China. The poor outcome is due to late presentation, recurrence, distant metastasis and limited therapeutic options. For improved treatment outcome, immunotherapeutic approaches focusing on dendritic and autologous cytotoxic T-cell based therapies have been developed, but cost and infrastructure remain barriers for implementing these in low-resource settings. As our prior observations had found that four-jointed box 1 (FJX1), a tumor antigen, is overexpressed in NPCs, we investigated if short 9–20 amino acid sequence specific peptides matching to FJX1 requiring only intramuscular immunization to train host immune systems would be a better treatment option for this disease. Thus, we designed 8 FJX1-specific peptides and implemented an assay system to first, assess the binding of these peptides to HLA-A2 molecules on T2 cells. After, ELISPOT assays were used to determine the peptides immunogenicity and ability to induce potential cytotoxicity activity towards cancer cells. Also, T-cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the potential of MHC class II peptides to stimulate the expansion of isolated T-cells. Our results demonstrate that these peptides are immunogenic and peptide stimulated T-cells were able to induce peptide-specific cytolytic activity specifically against FJX1-expressing cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrated that the MHC class II peptides were capable of inducing T-cell proliferation. Our results suggest that these peptides are capable of inducing specific cytotoxic cytokines secretion against FJX1-expressing cancer cells and serve as a potential vaccine-based therapy for NPC patients. PMID:26536470

  10. Effect of beam arrangement on oral cavity dose in external beam radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciT

    Wu, Vincent W.C.; Yang Zhining; Zhang Wuzhe

    This study compared the oral cavity dose between the routine 7-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beam arrangement and 2 other 7-beam IMRT with the conventional radiotherapy beam arrangements in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten NPC patients treated by the 7-beam routine IMRT technique (IMRT-7R) between April 2009 and June 2009 were recruited. Using the same computed tomography data, target information, and dose constraints for all the contoured structures, 2 IMRT plans with alternative beam arrangements (IMRT-7M and IMRT-7P) by avoiding the anterior facial beam and 1 conventional radiotherapy plan (CONRT) were computed using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. Dose-volumemore » histograms were generated for the planning target volumes (PTVs) and oral cavity from which the dose parameters and the conformity index of the PTV were recorded for dosimetric comparisons among the plans with different beam arrangements. The dose distributions to the PTVs were similar among the 3 IMRT beam arrangements, whereas the differences were significant between IMRT-7R and CONRT plans. For the oral cavity dose, the 3 IMRT beam arrangements did not show significant difference. Compared with IMRT-7R, CONRT plan showed a significantly lower mean dose, V30 and V-40, whereas the V-60 was significantly higher. The 2 suggested alternative beam arrangements did not significantly reduce the oral cavity dose. The impact of varying the beam angles in IMRT of NPC did not give noticeable effect on the target and oral cavity. Compared with IMRT, the 2-D conventional radiotherapy irradiated a greater high-dose volume in the oral cavity.« less

  11. International guideline for the delineation of the clinical target volumes (CTV) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anne W; Ng, Wai Tong; Pan, Jian Ji; Poh, Sharon S; Ahn, Yong Chan; AlHussain, Hussain; Corry, June; Grau, Cai; Grégoire, Vincent; Harrington, Kevin J; Hu, Chao Su; Kwong, Dora L; Langendijk, Johannes A; Le, Quynh Thu; Lee, Nancy Y; Lin, Jin Ching; Lu, Tai Xiang; Mendenhall, William M; O'Sullivan, Brian; Ozyar, Enis; Peters, Lester J; Rosenthal, David I; Soong, Yoke Lim; Tao, Yungan; Yom, Sue S; Wee, Joseph T

    2018-01-01

    Target delineation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) often proves challenging because of the notoriously narrow therapeutic margin. High doses are needed to achieve optimal levels of tumour control, and dosimetric inadequacy remains one of the most important independent factors affecting treatment outcome. A review of the available literature addressing the natural behaviour of NPC and correlation between clinical and pathological aspects of the disease was conducted. Existing international guidelines as well as published protocols specified by clinical trials on contouring of clinical target volumes (CTV) were compared. This information was then summarized into a preliminary draft guideline which was then circulated to international experts in the field for exchange of opinions and subsequent voting on areas with the greatest controversies. Common areas of uncertainty and variation in practices among experts experienced in radiation therapy for NPC were elucidated. Iterative revisions were made based on extensive discussion and final voting on controversial areas by the expert panel, to formulate the recommendations on contouring of CTV based on optimal geometric expansion and anatomical editing for those structures with substantial risk of microscopic infiltration. Through this comprehensive review of available evidence and best practices at major institutions, as well as interactive exchange of vast experience by international experts, this set of consensus guidelines has been developed to provide a practical reference for appropriate contouring to ensure optimal target coverage. However, the final decision on the treatment volumes should be based on full consideration of individual patients' factors and facilities of an individual centre (including the quality of imaging methods and the precision of treatment delivery). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Berberine sensitizes nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells to radiation through inhibition of Sp1 and EMT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Kang, Min; Wen, Qin; Qin, Yu-Tao; Wei, Zhu-Xin; Xiao, Jing-Jian; Wang, Ren-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a tumor of epithelial origin with radiotherapy as its standard treatment. However, radioresistance remains a critical issue in the treatment of NPC. This study aimed to investigate the effect of berberine on the proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, radioresistance of NPC cells and whether specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is a functional target of berberine. Our results showed that treatment with berberine reduced the proliferation and viability of CNE-2 cells in a dose- and time‑dependent manner. Berberine induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. In CNE-2 cells exposed to gamma‑ray irradiation, berberine reduced cell viability at various concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 µmol/l). Berberine significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of Sp1 in the CNE-2 cells. Mithramycin A, a selective Sp1 inhibitor, enhanced the radiosensitivity and the rate of apoptosis in the CNE-2 cells. Berberine inhibited transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced tumor invasion and suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, as evidenced by increased E-cadherin and decreased vimentin proteins. Sp1 may be required for the TGF-β1-induced invasion and EMT by berberine. In conclusion, berberine demonstrated the ability to suppress proliferation, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhance radiosensitivity of the CNE-2 NPC cells. Sp1 may be a target of berberine which is decreased during the radiosensitization of berberine.

  13. CD44+ Cancer Stem-Like Cells in EBV-Associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lun, Samantha Wei-Man; Cheung, Siu Tim; Cheung, Phyllis Fung Yi; To, Ka-Fai; Woo, John Kong-Sang; Choy, Kwong-Wai; Chow, Chit; Cheung, Chartia Ching-Mei; Chung, Grace Tin-Yun; Cheng, Alice Suk-Hang; Ko, Chun-Wai; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Busson, Pierre; Ng, Margaret Heung-Ling; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a unique EBV-associated epithelial malignancy, showing highly invasive and metastatic phenotype. Despite increasing evidence demonstrating the critical role of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in the maintenance and progression of tumors in a variety of malignancies, the existence and properties of CSC in EBV-associated NPC are largely unknown. Our study aims to elucidate the presence and role of CSCs in the pathogenesis of this malignant disease. Sphere-forming cells were isolated from an EBV-positive NPC cell line C666-1 and its tumor-initiating properties were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays. In these spheroids, up-regulation of multiple stem cell markers were found. By flow cytometry, we demonstrated that both CD44 and SOX2 were overexpressed in a majority of sphere-forming C666-1 cells. The CD44+SOX2+ cells was detected in a minor population in EBV-positive xenografts and primary tumors and considered as potential CSC in NPC. Notably, the isolated CD44+ NPC cells were resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and with higher spheroid formation efficiency, showing CSC properties. On the other hand, microarray analysis has revealed a number of differentially expressed genes involved in transcription regulation (e.g. FOXN4, GLI1), immune response (CCR7, IL8) and transmembrane transport (e.g. ABCC3, ABCC11) in the spheroids. Among these genes, increased expression of CCR7 in CD44+ CSCs was confirmed in NPC xenografts and primary tumors. Importantly, blocking of CCR7 abolished the sphere-forming ability of C666-1 in vitro. Expression of CCR7 was associated with recurrent disease and distant metastasis. The current study defined the specific properties of a CSC subpopulation in EBV-associated NPC. Our findings provided new insights into developing effective therapies targeting on CSCs, thereby potentiating treatment efficacy for NPC patients. PMID:23285037

  14. A retrospective study of 606 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with or without oropharyngeal candidiasis during radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wei-Xiong; Yang, Jing; Yu, Ya-Hui; Liang, Hu; Huang, Xin-Jun; Liu, Guo-Ying; Li, Wang-Zhong; Xiang, Yan-Qun; Guo, Xiang; Lv, Xing

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the clinical characteristics, treatment-related toxicities and survival in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with or without oropharyngealcandidiasis (OPC) during radiotherapy. Methods The current study was conducted with NPC patients undergoing radiotherapy at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between June 2011 and May 2012. A clinical diagnosis of candidiasis was determined on the basis of a positive potassium hydroxide (KOH) test and the presence of pseudomembranous (white) form of candidal overgrowth. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to test the association of OPC and related survival rates. Results Compared with the non-OPC group, the OPC group had significantly increased occurrence rates of grade 3–4 mucositis (14.5% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.049), anaemia (11.3% vs. 4.4%, P = 0.020), hepatotoxicity (4.8% vs. 1.1%, P = 0.021) and critical weight loss (85.5% vs. 56.6%, P<0.001) during radiotherapy. The OPC group had a significantly lower disease-free survival (DFS) (70.9% vs. 82.6%, P = 0.012), mainly as a result of a reduction in locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS) (87.0%vs. 94.9%, P = 0.025). After stratification by T stage, the 5-year DFS in T3-4 patients were 82.0% and 68.8% in non-OPC and OPC groups, respectively (P = 0.022). Multivariate analyses indicated that OPC was a prognostic factor for LRFS and DFS. Conclusions OPC during radiotherapy may worsen the nutritional status of NPC patients according to weight loss and anaemia, leading to a negative impact on 5-year locoregional relapse-free survival and disease-specific survival. Further investigations are needed to explore whether prevention and treatment of OPC during radiotherapy will be useful. PMID:28797119

  15. Adulthood consumption of preserved and nonpreserved vegetables and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gallicchio, Lisa; Matanoski, Genevieve; Tao, Xuguang Grant; Chen, Liwei; Lam, Tram K; Boyd, Kristina; Robinson, Karen A; Balick, Lyssa; Mickelson, Stephanie; Caulfield, Laura E; Herman, James G; Guallar, Eliseo; Alberg, Anthony J

    2006-09-01

    The incidence rates of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are dramatically higher in certain regions of Asia compared to the rest of the world. Few risk factors for NPC are known; however, in contrast to the hypothesized health benefits of nonpreserved vegetables, it is thought that preserved vegetable intake may play a role in contributing to the higher incidence of NPC in high-risk regions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to systematically review the epidemiologic evidence on the associations between adulthood intake of preserved and nonpreserved vegetables and NPC risk. A search of the epidemiological literature from 1966 to 2004 was performed using several bibliographic databases, including PubMed and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database System. There were no language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted to obtain pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the highest-versus-lowest categories of preserved and nonpreserved vegetable intake. A total of 16 case-control studies were identified in the search. Results showed that highest-versus-lowest preserved vegetable intake was associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of NPC (Random Effects Odds Ratio (RE OR) 2.04; 95% Confidence Limits (CL) 1.43, 2.92). Conversely, high nonpreserved vegetable intake was associated with 36% decrease in the risk of NPC (RE OR 0.64; 95% CL 0.48, 0.85). Findings for both preserved and nonpreserved vegetables were consistent across vegetable type and by country of study. Further research in high-risk areas to gain insight into the risk associated with preserved vegetables and protection associated with nonpreserved vegetables may advance understanding of NPC and yield clues for prevention. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Predictive factors of tumor control and survival after radiosurgery for local failures of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chua, Daniel T T; Sham, Jonathan S T; Hung, Kwan-Ngai; Leung, Lucullus H T; Au, Gordon K H

    2006-12-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery has been employed as a salvage treatment of local failures of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). To identify patients that would benefit from radiosurgery, we reviewed our data with emphasis on factors that predicted treatment outcome. A total of 48 patients with local failures of NPC were treated by stereotactic radiosurgery between March 1996 and February 2005. Radiosurgery was administered using a modified linear accelerator with single or multiple isocenters to deliver a median dose of 12.5 Gy to the target periphery. Median follow-up was 54 months. Five-year local failure-free probability after radiosurgery was 47.2% and 5-year overall survival rate was 46.9%. Neuroendocrine complications occurred in 27% of patients but there were no treatment-related deaths. Time interval from primary radiotherapy, retreatment T stage, prior local failures and tumor volume were significant predictive factors of local control and/or survival whereas age was of marginal significance in predicting survival. A radiosurgery prognostic scoring system was designed based on these predictive factors. Five-year local failure-free probabilities in patients with good, intermediate and poor prognostic scores were 100%, 42.5%, and 9.6%. The corresponding five-year overall survival rates were 100%, 51.1%, and 0%. Important factors that predicted tumor control and survival after radiosurgery were identified. Patients with good prognostic score should be treated by radiosurgery in view of the excellent results. Patients with intermediate prognostic score may also be treated by radiosurgery but those with poor prognostic score should receive other salvage treatments.

  17. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in the Salvage of Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciT

    Qiu Sufang; Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, National University Health System, National University of Singapore; Lin Shaojun

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Local recurrences of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) may be salvaged by reirradiation with conventional techniques, but with significant morbidity. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing doses to normal tissue. The aim of this study was to address the efficacy and toxicity profile of IMRT for a cohort of patients with locally recurrent NPC. Methods and Materials: Between August 2003 and June 2009, 70 patients with radiologic or pathologically proven locally recurrent NPC were treated with IMRT. The median time to recurrence was 30 months after the completion of conventional radiation to definitive dose. Fifty-seven percentmore » of the tumors were classified asrT3-4. The minimum planned doses were 59.4 to 60 Gy in 1.8- to 2-Gy fractions per day to the gross disease with margins, with or without chemotherapy. Results: The median dose to the recurrent tumor was 70 Gy (range, 50-77.4 Gy). Sixty-five patients received the planned radiation therapy; 5 patients received between 50 and 60 Gy because of acute side effects. With a median follow-up time of 25 months, the rates of 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 65.8%, 65.8%, and 67.4%, respectively. Moderate to severe late toxicities were noted in 25 patients (35.7%). Eleven patients (15.7%) had posterior nasal space ulceration, 17 (24.3%) experienced cranial nerve palsies, 12 (17.1%) had trismus, and 12 (17.1%) experienced deafness. Extended disease-free interval (relative risk 2.049) and advanced T classification (relative risk 3.895) at presentation were adverse prognostic factors. Conclusion: Reirradiation with IMRT provides reasonable long-term control in patients with locally recurrent NPC.« less

  18. HLA-A SNPs and amino acid variants are associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chin, Yoon-Ming; Mushiroda, Taisei; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Krishnan, Gopala; Yap, Lee-Fah; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lim, Paul Vey-Hong; Yap, Yoke-Yeow; Pua, Kin-Choo; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Sam, Choon-Kook; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2015-02-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) arises from the mucosal epithelium of the nasopharynx and is constantly associated with Epstein-Barr virus type 1 (EBV-1) infection. We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 575,247 autosomal SNPs in 184 NPC patients and 236 healthy controls of Malaysian Chinese ethnicity. Potential association signals were replicated in a separate cohort of 260 NPC patients and 245 healthy controls. We confirmed the association of HLA-A to NPC with the strongest signal detected in rs3869062 (p = 1.73 × 10(-9)). HLA-A fine mapping revealed associations in the amino acid variants as well as its corresponding SNPs in the antigen peptide binding groove (p(HLA-A-aa-site-99) = 3.79 × 10(-8), p(rs1136697) = 3.79 × 10(-8)) and T-cell receptor binding site (p(HLA-A-aa-site-145) = 1.41 × 10(-4), p(rs1059520) = 1.41 × 10(-4)) of the HLA-A. We also detected strong association signals in the 5'-UTR region with predicted active promoter states (p(rs41545520) = 7.91 × 10(-8)). SNP rs41545520 is a potential binding site for repressor ATF3, with increased binding affinity for rs41545520-G correlated with reduced HLA-A expression. Multivariate logistic regression diminished the effects of HLA-A amino acid variants and SNPs, indicating a correlation with the effects of HLA-A*11:01, and to a lesser extent HLA-A*02:07. We report the strong genetic influence of HLA-A on NPC susceptibility in the Malaysian Chinese. © 2014 UICC.

  19. Incidence and dosimetric parameters for brainstem necrosis following intensity modulated radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-Chan; Chen, Fo-Ping; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Zhu, Jin-Han; Hu, Jiang; Kang, De-Hua; Wu, Chen-Fei; Lin, Li; Wang, Xiao-Ju; Ma, Jun; Sun, Ying

    2017-10-01

    To clarify the incidence of brainstem toxicity and perform a dose-volume analysis for the brainstem after long-term follow-up of a large cohort of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who underwent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). All patients with NPC treated with IMRT at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between April 2009 and March 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 1544 patients with follow-up >12months and detailed treatment plan data were included. Radiotherapy was administered using the simultaneous integrated boost technique in 2.0-2.48Gy per fractions/28-33 fractions. Brainstem necrosis was defined as lesions with high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, with or without enhancement after administration of contrast in follow-up MRI. After median follow-up of 79.7months (range, 12.2-85.6months), 2/1544 (0.13%) patients developed brainstem necrosis after intervals of 12.3 and 18.5months. Actuarial incidence of brainstem necrosis was 0.07%, 0.13%, 0.13% and 0.13% after 1, 2, 3 and 5years, respectively. Overall, 384 (24.9%), 153 (9.9%), 67 (4.3%), 39 (2.5%), 78 (5.1%), and 114 (7.4%) patients had excessive doses of D max ≥64Gy, D1cc>59Gy, D2cc>59Gy, aV50>5.9cc, aV55>2.7cc and aV60>0.9cc respectively, of whom only two developed brainstem necrosis. Brainstem necrosis is rare in NPC. The definitive criteria based on conventional radiotherapy cannot accurately predict the occurrence of brainstem necrosis after IMRT, thus more flexible definitive criteria with strict restrictions need to be defined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical techniques in radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Alfotih, Gobran Taha Ahmed; Zheng, Mei Guang; Cai, Wang Qing; Xu, Xin Ke; Hu, Zhen; Li, Fang Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Radiation induced brain injury ranges from acute reversible edema to late, irreversible radiation necrosis. Radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis is associated with permanent neurological deficits and occasionally progresses to death. We present our experience with surgery on radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis (RTLN) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with special consideration of clinical presentation, surgical technique, and outcomes. This retrospective study includes 12 patients with RTLN treated by the senior author between January 2010 and December 2014. Patients initially sought medical treatment due to headache; other symptoms were hearing loss, visual deterioration, seizure, hemiparesis, vertigo, memory loss and agnosia. A temporal approach through a linear incision was performed for all cases. RTLN was found in one side in 7 patients, and bilaterally in 5. 4 patients underwent resection of necrotic tissue bilaterally and 8 patients on one side. No death occurred in this series of cases. There were no post-operative complications, except 1 patient who developed aseptic meningitis. All 12 patients were free from headache. No seizure occurred in patients with preoperative epilepsy. Other symptoms such as hemiparesis and vertigo improved in all patients. Memory loss, agnosia and hearing loss did not change post-operatively in all cases. The follow-up MR images demonstrated no recurrence of necrotic lesions in all 12 patients. Neurosurgical intervention through a temporal approach with linear incision is warranted in patients with radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis with significant symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure, minimum space occupying effect on imaging, or neurological deterioration despite conservative management. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. A retrospective study of 606 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with or without oropharyngeal candidiasis during radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wen-Ze; Ke, Liang-Ru; Xia, Wei-Xiong; Yang, Jing; Yu, Ya-Hui; Liang, Hu; Huang, Xin-Jun; Liu, Guo-Ying; Li, Wang-Zhong; Xiang, Yan-Qun; Guo, Xiang; Lv, Xing

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics, treatment-related toxicities and survival in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with or without oropharyngealcandidiasis (OPC) during radiotherapy. The current study was conducted with NPC patients undergoing radiotherapy at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between June 2011 and May 2012. A clinical diagnosis of candidiasis was determined on the basis of a positive potassium hydroxide (KOH) test and the presence of pseudomembranous (white) form of candidal overgrowth. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to test the association of OPC and related survival rates. Compared with the non-OPC group, the OPC group had significantly increased occurrence rates of grade 3-4 mucositis (14.5% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.049), anaemia (11.3% vs. 4.4%, P = 0.020), hepatotoxicity (4.8% vs. 1.1%, P = 0.021) and critical weight loss (85.5% vs. 56.6%, P<0.001) during radiotherapy. The OPC group had a significantly lower disease-free survival (DFS) (70.9% vs. 82.6%, P = 0.012), mainly as a result of a reduction in locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS) (87.0%vs. 94.9%, P = 0.025). After stratification by T stage, the 5-year DFS in T3-4 patients were 82.0% and 68.8% in non-OPC and OPC groups, respectively (P = 0.022). Multivariate analyses indicated that OPC was a prognostic factor for LRFS and DFS. OPC during radiotherapy may worsen the nutritional status of NPC patients according to weight loss and anaemia, leading to a negative impact on 5-year locoregional relapse-free survival and disease-specific survival. Further investigations are needed to explore whether prevention and treatment of OPC during radiotherapy will be useful.

  2. Correlation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with rare earth elements and the Epstein-Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Zeng, Xiangfu; Liu, Lianbin; Lan, Xiaolin; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Hongxue; Li, Rong; Luo, Keqing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Maohua; Li, Shaojin

    2018-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were measured to investigate connections with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, clinical stages, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. There were 30 patients with NPC who met the criteria for inclusion in the present study. The EBV copy number, as well as the concentration and distribution of REE, was analyzed. EBV was detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, with the concentrations of REE in NPC tissues measured using inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry. The mean values were used when comparing concentrations of REE in NPC tissues as the standard deviation of this parameter was the lowest. Light REE had the highest concentrations, followed by medium, and then heavy REE. The concentrations of REE decreased with increasing tumor size and with the presence of lymph node metastasis. The concentrations of REE gradually increased between stage II and IVa, but markedly decreased thereafter. The elements that exhibited the greatest decreases were terbium, holmium and ytterbium. Furthermore, the concentrations of REE in NPC were not associated with sex (r=0.301, P=0.106) or age (r=−0.011, P=0.955), and were negatively associated with EBV (r=−0.744, P<0.001). By contrast, the EBV copy number increased alongside advancements in clinical stage. Changes in the concentrations of REE in NPC were more prominent for medium and heavy elements. Additionally, alterations in the concentrations of heavy REE may affect the occurrence and development of NPC. PMID:29541176

  3. Correlation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with rare earth elements and the Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Zeng, Xiangfu; Liu, Lianbin; Lan, Xiaolin; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Hongxue; Li, Rong; Luo, Keqing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Maohua; Li, Shaojin

    2018-04-01

    The concentration and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were measured to investigate connections with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, clinical stages, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. There were 30 patients with NPC who met the criteria for inclusion in the present study. The EBV copy number, as well as the concentration and distribution of REE, was analyzed. EBV was detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, with the concentrations of REE in NPC tissues measured using inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry. The mean values were used when comparing concentrations of REE in NPC tissues as the standard deviation of this parameter was the lowest. Light REE had the highest concentrations, followed by medium, and then heavy REE. The concentrations of REE decreased with increasing tumor size and with the presence of lymph node metastasis. The concentrations of REE gradually increased between stage II and IVa, but markedly decreased thereafter. The elements that exhibited the greatest decreases were terbium, holmium and ytterbium. Furthermore, the concentrations of REE in NPC were not associated with sex (r=0.301, P=0.106) or age (r=-0.011, P=0.955), and were negatively associated with EBV (r=-0.744, P<0.001). By contrast, the EBV copy number increased alongside advancements in clinical stage. Changes in the concentrations of REE in NPC were more prominent for medium and heavy elements. Additionally, alterations in the concentrations of heavy REE may affect the occurrence and development of NPC.

  4. Radiation-induced functional connectivity alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiongmin; Wu, Donglin; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Hu, Dewen; Qiu, Shijun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The study aims to investigate the radiation-induced brain functional alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who received radiotherapy (RT) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and statistic scale. The fMRI data of 35 NPC patients with RT and 24 demographically matched untreated NPC patients were acquired. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was also measured to evaluate their global cognition performance. Multivariate pattern analysis was performed to find the significantly altered functional connections between these 2 groups, while the linear correlation level was detected between the altered functional connections and the MoCA scores. Forty-five notably altered functional connections were found, which were mainly located between 3 brain networks, the cerebellum, sensorimotor, and cingulo-opercular. With strictly false discovery rate correction, 5 altered functional connections were shown to have significant linear correlations with the MoCA scores, that is, the connections between the vermis and hippocampus, cerebellum lobule VI and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus and dorsal frontal cortex, cuneus and middle occipital lobe, and insula and cuneus. Besides, the connectivity between the vermis and hippocampus was also significantly correlated with the attention score, 1 of the 7 subscores of the MoCA. The present study provides new insights into the radiation-induced functional connectivity impairments in NPC patients. The results showed that the RT may induce the cognitive impairments, especially the attention alterations. The 45 altered functional connections, especially the 5 altered functional connections that were significantly correlated to the MoCA scores, may serve as the potential biomarkers of the RT-induced brain functional impairments and provide valuable targets for further functional recovery treatment. PMID:27442663

  5. Radiation-induced functional connectivity alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiongmin; Wu, Donglin; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Hu, Dewen; Qiu, Shijun

    2016-07-01

    The study aims to investigate the radiation-induced brain functional alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who received radiotherapy (RT) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and statistic scale.The fMRI data of 35 NPC patients with RT and 24 demographically matched untreated NPC patients were acquired. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was also measured to evaluate their global cognition performance. Multivariate pattern analysis was performed to find the significantly altered functional connections between these 2 groups, while the linear correlation level was detected between the altered functional connections and the MoCA scores.Forty-five notably altered functional connections were found, which were mainly located between 3 brain networks, the cerebellum, sensorimotor, and cingulo-opercular. With strictly false discovery rate correction, 5 altered functional connections were shown to have significant linear correlations with the MoCA scores, that is, the connections between the vermis and hippocampus, cerebellum lobule VI and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus and dorsal frontal cortex, cuneus and middle occipital lobe, and insula and cuneus. Besides, the connectivity between the vermis and hippocampus was also significantly correlated with the attention score, 1 of the 7 subscores of the MoCA.The present study provides new insights into the radiation-induced functional connectivity impairments in NPC patients. The results showed that the RT may induce the cognitive impairments, especially the attention alterations. The 45 altered functional connections, especially the 5 altered functional connections that were significantly correlated to the MoCA scores, may serve as the potential biomarkers of the RT-induced brain functional impairments and provide valuable targets for further functional recovery treatment.

  6. [North African and Southeast Asian nasopharyngeal carcinomas: between the resemblance and the dissemblance].

    PubMed

    Ayadi, W; Khabir, A; Hadhri-Guiga, B; Fki, L; Toumi, N; Siala, W; Charfi, S; Fendri, A; Makni, H; Boudawara, T; Ghorbel, A; Gargouri, A; Jlidi, R; Gargouri, R; Busson, P; Drira, M; Daoud, J; Frikha, M; Hammami, A; Karray-Hakim, H

    2010-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an unusual head and neck cancer because of its unequal geographical distribution and its consistent association with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This malignant tumor poses a serious public health problem in many countries, especially in Southeast Asia and North Africa where the recorded incidence are highest. During the past decade, a growing number of studies were undertaken to define the molecular basis of NPC. However, the analysis of several clinical and biological parameters of North African and Southeast Asian NPCs has shown notable differences, suggesting that they could result from a distinct combination of etiological factors. One intriguing characteristic of North African NPC, concerns its bimodal age distribution with a secondary peak of incidence in the range of 15-25 years, not observed in Asian NPC. In this juvenile form of NPC, immuno-histochemistry assay has shown that the two key proteins controlling the apoptotic-survival balance p53 and Bcl-2 are less frequently expressed whereas the transmembrane tyrosine-kinase receptor c-kit and the main EBV oncoprotein LMP1 were more abundant. In addition, the EBV serological alterations are less informative for the diagnosis of the juvenile compared to the adult form. In addition, most North African NPCs contain EBV strains with genetic polymorphisms distinct from those described in the Southeast Asia series (predominance of F, D, H1-H2, XhoI+ and f, C, H, XhoI- respectively). In contrast, studies relating on tumor chromosomal alterations or aberrant promoter methylation result in data very similar to those obtained from the Southeast Asia series, supporting the concept of a common molecular basis for all NPC regardless of patient geographic origin.

  7. CXCR6 and CCR5 localize T lymphocyte subsets in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Parsonage, Greg; Machado, Lee Richard; Hui, Jan Wai-Ying; McLarnon, Andrew; Schmaler, Tilo; Balasothy, Meenarani; To, Ka-Fai; Vlantis, Alexander C; van Hasselt, Charles A; Lo, Kwok-Wai; Wong, Wai-Lap; Hui, Edwin Pun; Chan, Anthony Tak Cheung; Lee, Steven P

    2012-03-01

    The substantial T lymphocyte infiltrate found in cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been implicated in the promotion of both tumor growth and immune escape. Conversely, because malignant NPC cells harbor the Epstein-Barr virus, this tumor is a candidate for virus-specific T cell-based therapies. Preventing the accumulation of tumor-promoting T cells or enhancing the recruitment of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells offers therapeutic potential. However, the mechanisms involved in T cell recruitment to this tumor are poorly understood. Comparing memory T cell subsets that have naturally infiltrated NPC tissue with their counterparts from matched blood revealed enrichment of CD8(+), CD4(+), and regulatory T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR6 in tumor tissue. CD8(+) and (nonregulatory) CD4(+) T cells also were more frequently CCR5(+) in tumor than in blood. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that both receptors were functional. CXCL16 and CCL4, unique chemokine ligands for CXCR6 and CCR5, respectively, were expressed by the malignant cells in tumor tissue from the majority of NPC cases, as was another CCR5 ligand, CCL5. The strongest expression of CXCL16 was found on tumor-infiltrating cells. CCL4 was detected on the tumor vasculature in a majority of cases. These findings suggest that CXCR6 and CCR5 play important roles in T cell recruitment and/or retention in NPC and have implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of this tumor. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Active immunotherapy with anti-idiotypic antibody for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

    PubMed

    Li, Guancheng; Xie, Lu; Zhou, Guohua; Zhu, Jiangao; Hu, Jinyue; Sun, Qubing

    2002-12-01

    Two anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies (Ab2), designated 2H4 and 5D3, against two antitumor antibodies Ab1 (FC2 and HNL5) that recognize nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) associated antigen were generated. They could substitute NPC antigen to induce humoral and cellular immune response against NPC cells in syngeneic mice. Nineteen patients with NPC at stage IV were chosen for active immunotherapy. They were treated with aluminum hydroxide-precipitated Ab2 2H4 or 5D3 accompanying radiotherapy. None of the immunization of anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody (mAb) was associated with toxicity or allergies reactions. Nine patients with radiotherapy alone served as control. Both anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab3) and anti-NPC antibodies (Ab1') were increased and human anti-mouse Ig antibodies (HAMA) occurred in nineteen patients of the experimental group; whereas the levels of Ab1' did not rise in the control group. Serum IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha levels were increased in most patients in the experimental group, while in the control group, there were no differences of Ab1' and cytokine level between pretherapy and posttherapy. In addition, IL-2 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of NPC patients was closely related to serum IL-2 (r = +0.8829) by in situ hybridization. Therefore, mouse anti-idiotypic antibodies 2H4 and 5D3 are safe for active immunotherapy and might enhance humoral and/or cellular immunity of NPC patients receiving radiotherapy.

  9. Identification of a functional variant in SPLUNC1 associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma susceptibility among Malaysian Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yew, Poh-Yin; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kiyotani, Kazuma; Govindasamy, Gopala Krishnan; Yap, Lee-Fah; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lim, Paul Vey-Hong; Govindaraju, Selvaratnam; Ratnavelu, Kananathan; Sam, Choon-Kook; Yap, Yoke-Yeow; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Pua, Kin-Choo; Nakamura, Yusuke; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2012-10-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a multifactorial and polygenic disease with high incidence in Asian countries. Epstein-Barr virus infection, environmental and genetic factors are believed to be involved in the tumorigenesis of NPC. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LPLUNC1 and SPLUNC1 genes with NPC was investigated by performing a two-stage case control association study in a Malaysian Chinese population. The initial screening consisted of 81 NPC patients and 147 healthy controls while the replication study consisted of 366 NPC patients and 340 healthy controls. The combined analysis showed that a SNP (rs2752903) of SPLUNC1 was significantly associated with the risk of NPC (combined P = 0.00032, odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval = 1.25-2.11). In the subsequent dense fine mapping of SPLUNC1 locus, 36 SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2752903 (r(2) ≥ 0.85) were associated with NPC susceptibility. Screening of these variants by electrophoretic mobility shift and luciferase reporter assays showed that rs1407019 located in intron 3 (r(2)  = 0.994 with rs2752903) caused allelic difference in the binding of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor and affected luciferase activity. This SNP may consequently alter the expression of SPLUNC1 in the epithelial cells. In summary, our study suggested that rs1407019 in intronic enhancer of SPLUNC1 is associated with NPC susceptibility in which its A allele confers an increased risk of NPC in the Malaysian Chinese population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Patterns of failure after the reduced volume approach for elective nodal irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Seol, Ki Ho; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure after radiotherapy (RT) with the reduced volume approach for elective neck nodal irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty-six NPC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the reduced volume approach for ENI were reviewed. The ENI included retropharyngeal and level II lymph nodes, and only encompassed the echelon inferior to the involved level to eliminate the entire neck irradiation. Patients received either moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated RT for a total of 72.6 Gy (49.5 Gy to elective nodal areas) or a conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal RT for a total of 68.4-72 Gy (39.6-45 Gy to elective nodal areas). Patterns of failure, locoregional control, and survival were analyzed. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3 to 80 months). The out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI was none. Three patients developed neck recurrences (one in-field recurrence in the 72.6 Gy irradiated nodal area and two in the elective irradiated region of 39.6 Gy). Overall disease failure at any site developed in 11 patients (19.6%). Among these, there were six local failures (10.7%), three regional failures (5.4%), and five distant metastases (8.9%). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 87.1%, and the distant failure-free rate was 90.4%; disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years was 80% and 86.8%, respectively. No patient developed nodal failure in the omitted ENI site. Our investigation has demonstrated that the reduced volume approach for ENI appears to be a safe treatment approach in NPC.

  11. Patterns of failure after the reduced volume approach for elective nodal irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Ki Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure after radiotherapy (RT) with the reduced volume approach for elective neck nodal irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and Methods Fifty-six NPC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the reduced volume approach for ENI were reviewed. The ENI included retropharyngeal and level II lymph nodes, and only encompassed the echelon inferior to the involved level to eliminate the entire neck irradiation. Patients received either moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated RT for a total of 72.6 Gy (49.5 Gy to elective nodal areas) or a conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal RT for a total of 68.4–72 Gy (39.6–45 Gy to elective nodal areas). Patterns of failure, locoregional control, and survival were analyzed. Results The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3 to 80 months). The out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI was none. Three patients developed neck recurrences (one in-field recurrence in the 72.6 Gy irradiated nodal area and two in the elective irradiated region of 39.6 Gy). Overall disease failure at any site developed in 11 patients (19.6%). Among these, there were six local failures (10.7%), three regional failures (5.4%), and five distant metastases (8.9%). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 87.1%, and the distant failure-free rate was 90.4%; disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years was 80% and 86.8%, respectively. Conclusion No patient developed nodal failure in the omitted ENI site. Our investigation has demonstrated that the reduced volume approach for ENI appears to be a safe treatment approach in NPC. PMID:27104162

  12. Comparative methylome analysis in solid tumors reveals aberrant methylation at chromosome 6p in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Ko, Josephine Mun Yee; Cheng, Yue; Zheng, Hong; Ngan, Roger Kai Cheong; Ng, Wai Tong; Lee, Anne Wing Mui; Yau, Chun Chung; Lee, Victor Ho Fu; Lung, Maria Li

    2015-07-01

    Altered patterns of DNA methylation are key features of cancer. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has the highest incidence in Southern China. Aberrant methylation at the promoter region of tumor suppressors is frequently reported in NPC; however, genome-wide methylation changes have not been comprehensively investigated. Therefore, we systematically analyzed methylome data in 25 primary NPC tumors and nontumor counterparts using a high-throughput approach with the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Comparatively, we examined the methylome data of 11 types of solid tumors collected by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). In NPC, the hypermethylation pattern was more dominant than hypomethylation and the majority of de novo methylated loci were within or close to CpG islands in tumors. The comparative methylome analysis reveals hypermethylation at chromosome 6p21.3 frequently occurred in NPC (false discovery rate; FDR=1.33 × 10(-9) ), but was less obvious in other types of solid tumors except for prostate and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive gastric cancer (FDR<10(-3) ). Bisulfite pyrosequencing results further confirmed the aberrant methylation at 6p in an additional patient cohort. Evident enrichment of the repressive mark H3K27me3 and active mark H3K4me3 derived from human embryonic stem cells were found at these regions, indicating both DNA methylation and histone modification function together, leading to epigenetic deregulation in NPC. Our study highlights the importance of epigenetic deregulation in NPC. Polycomb Complex 2 (PRC2), responsible for H3K27 trimethylation, is a promising therapeutic target. A key genomic region on 6p with aberrant methylation was identified. This region contains several important genes having potential use as biomarkers for NPC detection. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Glutamate Decarboxylase 1 Overexpression as a Poor Prognostic Factor in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Chao, Tung-Bo; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Tian, Yu-Feng; Chen, Tzu-Ju; Lee, Sung-Wei; He, Hong-Lin; Chang, I-Wei; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Lin, Ching-Yih; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background : Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) which serves as a rate-limiting enzyme involving in the production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), exists in the GABAergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Little is known about the relevance of GAD1 to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Through data mining on a data set derived from a published transcriptome database, this study first identified GAD1 as a differentially upregulated gene in NPC. We aimed to evaluate GAD1 expression and its prognostic effect on patients with early and locoregionally advanced NPC. Methods : We evaluated GAD1 immunohistochemistry and performed an H-score analysis on biopsy specimens from 124 patients with nonmetastasized NPC receiving treatment. GAD1 overexpression was defined as an H score higher than the median value. The findings of such an analysis are correlated with clinicopathological behaviors and survival rates, namely disease-specific survival (DSS), distant-metastasis-free survival (DMeFS), and local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rates. Results : GAD1 overexpression was significantly associated with an increase in the primary tumor status ( p < 0.001) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages III-IV ( p = 0.002) and was a univariate predictor of adverse outcomes of DSS ( p = 0.002), DMeFS ( p < 0.0001), and LRFS ( p = 0.001). In the multivariate comparison, in addition to advanced AJCC stages III-IV, GAD1 overexpression remained an independent prognosticator of short DSS ( p = 0.004, hazard ratio = 2.234), DMeFS ( p < 0.001, hazard ratio = 4.218), and LRFS ( p = 0.013, hazard ratio = 2.441) rates. Conclusions : Our data reveal that GAD1 overexpression was correlated with advanced disease status and may thus be a critical prognostic indicator of poor outcomes in NPC and a potential therapeutic target to facilitate the development of effective treatment modalities.

  14. A prospective study: current problems in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in yogyakarta, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Sharon D; Wildeman, Maarten A; Fles, Renske; Indrasari, Sagung R; Herdini, Camelia; Wildeman, Pieter L; van Diessen, Judi N A; Tjokronagoro, Maesadji; Tan, I Bing

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence in Indonesia. Previous study in Yogyakarta revealed a complete response of 29% and a median overall survival of less than 2 years. These poor treatment outcome are influenced by the long diagnose-to-treatment interval to radiotherapy (DTI) and the extended overall treatment time of radiotherapy (OTT). This study reveals insight why the OTT and DTI are prolonged. All patients treated with curative intent radiotherapy for NPC between July 2011 until October 2012 were included. During radiotherapy a daily diary was kept, containing information on DTI, missed radiotherapy days, the reason for missing and length of OTT. Sixty-eight patients were included. The median DTI was 106 days (95% CI: 98-170). Fifty-nine patients (87%) finished the treatment. The median OTT for radiotherapy was 57 days (95% CI: 57-65). The main reason for missing days was an inoperative radiotherapy machine (36%). Other reasons were patient's poor condition (21%), public holidays (14%), adjustment of the radiation field (7%), power blackout (3%), inoperative treatment planning system (2%) and patient related reasons (9%). Patient's insurance type was correlated to DTI in disadvantage for poor people. Yogyakarta has a lack of sufficient radiotherapy units which causes a delay of 3-4 months, besides the OTT is extended by 10-12 days. This influences treatment outcome to a great extend. The best solution would be creating sufficient radiotherapy units and better management in health care for poor patients. The growing economy in Indonesia will expectantly in time enable these solutions, but in the meantime solutions are needed. Solutions can consist of radiation outside office hours, better maintenance of the facilities and more effort from patient, doctor and nurse to finish treatment in time. These results are valuable when improving cancer care in low and middle income countries.

  15. Evaluation of the dosimetric impact of applying flattening filter-free beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage upper thoracic carcinoma of oesophagus

    SciT

    Zhang, Wuzhe; Lin, Zhixiong; Yang, Zhining

    2015-06-15

    Flattening filter-free (FFF) radiation beams have recently become clinically available on modern linear accelerators in radiation therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the dosimetric impact of using FFF beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for early-stage upper thoracic oesophageal cancer. Eleven patients with primary stage upper thoracic oesophageal cancer were recruited. For each patient, two IMRT plans were computed using conventional beams (Con-P) and FFF beams (FFF-P), respectively. Both plans employed a five-beam arrangement and were prescribed with 64 Gy to (planning target volume) PTV1 and 54 Gy to PTV2 in 32 fractions using 6 MV photons. The dose parameters ofmore » the target volumes and organs at risks (OARs), and treatment parameters including the monitor units (MU) and treatment time (TT) for Con-P and FFF-P were recorded and compared. The mean D{sub 5} of PTV1 and PTV2 were higher in FFF-P than Con-P by 0.4 Gy and 0.3 Gy, respectively. For the OARs, all the dose parameters did not show significant difference between the two plans except the mean V{sub 5} and V{sub 10} of the lung in which the FFF-P was lower (46.7% vs. 47.3% and 39.1% vs. 39.6%, respectively). FFF-P required 54% more MU but 18.4% less irradiation time when compared to Con-P. The target volume and OARs dose distributions between the two plans were comparable. However, FFF-P was more effective in sparing the lung from low dose and reduced the mean TT compared with Con-P. Long-term clinical studies are suggested to evaluate the radiobiological effects of FFF beams.« less

  16. Unique variations of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded BARF1 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Fu; Luo, Bing

    2012-06-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BamHI-A rightward frame 1 (BARF1) gene is frequently expressed in EBV-associated epithelial malignancies and involves in oncogenicity and immunomodulation. To characterize the variations of BARF1 gene in different populations, the sequences of BARF1 gene in Northern Chinese nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) and healthy donors were analyzed. The correlation of BARF1 variation with polymorphisms of BamHI F fragment (type F and f variants) and EBV-coded viral interleukin-10 (vIL-10) gene (B95-8 and SPM patterns) was also explored. Two major subtypes of BARF1 gene, designated as B95-8 and V29A, were identified. B95-8 subtype had identical amino acid sequence to B95-8 and was the dominant subtype among the EBV isolates from Northern China. V29A subtype, with one consistent amino acid change at residue 29 (V→A) and several nucleotide changes, showed higher frequency in NPC cases (25.3%, 20/79) than in EBVaGC cases (0/45) or healthy donors (4.3%, 2/46) (NPC vs. EBVaGC: P=0.0001; NPC vs. healthy donor: P=0.004). A preferential linkage between BamHI F and BARF1/vIL-10 polymorphisms was found. Type f isolates was specially correlated with the V29A/SPM genotype in NPC isolates and type f/V29A/SPM was preferentially found in NPC. BARF1/c-fms homology domain, transforming domain and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes of BARF1 were highly conserved in most isolates, suggesting the important role of BARF1 in virus infection and the potential usefulness in EBV-targeting immunotherapy of EBV-associated tumors. The relatively higher prevalence of type f/V29A/SPM strains in NPC may also suggest the association between these variations in multiple viral genes and NPC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-Term Outcomes of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in 148 Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Suying; Chang, Hui; Sun, Xiaofei; Zhen, Zijun; Sun, Feifei; Zhu, Jia; Wang, Juan; Huang, Junting; Liao, Ru; Guo, Xiaofang; Lu, Lixia; Gao, Yuanhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the survival and long-term morbidities of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in children and adolescents. We retrospectively reviewed children and adolescents with NPC treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from February 1991 to October 2010, where the prognostic factors and long-term effects of therapy were analyzed. A total of 148 patients were identified. The median age was 15 years old (range, 5–18 years) and the male to female ratio was 3.6:1. Most of the tumor histopathology was undifferentiated nonkeratinizing carcinoma (97.3%). The number of patients staged with IVa, IVb, IVc, III, and II were 45 (30.4%), 12 (8.1%), 5 (3.4%), 70 (47.3%), and 16 (10.8%), respectively. For the whole series with a median follow-up of 81 months (range, 6–282 months), the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) ratios were 79.3% and 69.7%, respectively. We observed significant differences in the 5-year OS (81.1% vs 25.0%, P = 0.002) and the DFS rates (72.2% vs 0.0%, P = 0.000) between patients with stage II to IVb disease and stage IVc disease. For patients with stage II, III, IVa, and IVb disease, we found a high radiation dose (dose > 66 Gy to the primary lesion) would not significantly improve the survival compared to the sub-high radiation dose group (dose = 60–66 Gy to the primary lesion), even considering the type of radiation therapy technologies. However, the incidences of sequelae (grades I–IV) in patients with high radiation dose were apparently higher than those in patients with low radiation dose. Considering the late sequelae, a dose of 60 to 66 Gy to the primary lesions seems to be enough for children and adolescents with NPC. PMID:27124036

  18. KAI1 overexpression promotes apoptosis and inhibits proliferation, cell cycle, migration, and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zheng; Wang, Yili; Yang, Jing; Zhong, Jinghua; Liu, Xia; Xu, Mingjun

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the effect of KAI1 overexpression on the biological behavior of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor with a high rate of incidence in China. Currently, there are no ideal therapeutic options for patients with NPC, but a targeted therapy would have great potential for treating it. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic targets to provide new options for treating NPC. The KAI1 gene was originally identified as a metastasis suppressor gene for advanced human cancer. In NPC cell lines and tissues, the expression of KAI1 decreased as the metastatic potential of cells increased, but its potential as a therapeutic target has not been elucidated. Non-transformed nasopharyngeal epithelium cell NP69 and NPC cell line C666-1 were cultured and KAI1 expression in these cells was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. After the transfection of KAI1-pCDNA3.1 to NP69 and C666-1, the KAI1 expression in these cells was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot, the proliferation was performed by MTS, the cell cycle and apoptosis were performed by flow cytometry, the migration and invasion were examined by transwell. Our results showed that KAI1 was significantly upregulated in C666-1 cells compared to that in NP69 cells. In addition, KAI1 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation, cell cycle, migration, and invasion, and promoted apoptosis of C666-1 cells, but had no significant effect on NP69 cells. Our findings suggest that KAI1 overexpression promotes apoptosis and inhibits proliferation, cell cycle, migration, and invasion in NPC cells. We hypothesize that KAI1 overexpression could be a potential therapeutic target for NPC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bevacizumab, Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage III, Stage IVA, or Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-04

    Stage II Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma AJCC v7

  20. Ternary copper(II) complex: NCI60 screening, toxicity studies, and evaluation of efficacy in xenograft models of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Munirah; Suhaimi, Shazlan-Noor; Chu, Tai-Lin; Abdul Aziz, Norazlin; Mohd Kornain, Noor-Kaslina; Samiulla, D S; Lo, Kwok-Wai; Ng, Chew-Hee; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng

    2018-01-01

    Copper(II) ternary complex, [Cu(phen)(C-dmg)(H2O)]NO3 was evaluated against a panel of cell lines, tested for in vivo efficacy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft models as well as for toxicity in NOD scid gamma mice. The Cu(II) complex displayed broad spectrum cytotoxicity against multiple cancer types, including lung, colon, central nervous system, melanoma, ovarian, and prostate cancer cell lines in the NCI-60 panel. The Cu(II) complex did not cause significant induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and 1A enzymes but moderately inhibited CYP isoforms 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2B6, 2C8 and 3A4. The complex significantly inhibited tumor growth in nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft bearing mice models at doses which were well tolerated without causing significant or permanent toxic side effects. However, higher doses which resulted in better inhibition of tumor growth also resulted in toxicity.

  1. Comparison of SPECT/CT, MRI and CT in diagnosis of skull base bone invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-xu; Han, Peng-hui; Zhang, Guo-qian; Wang, Rui-hao; Ge, Yong-bin; Ren, Zhi-gang; Li, Jian-sheng; Fu, Wen-hai

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is crucial for correct staging, assessing treatment response and contouring the tumor target in radiotherapy planning, as well as improving the patient's prognosis. To compare the diagnostic efficacy of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) for the detection of skull base invasion in NPC. Sixty untreated patients with histologically proven NPC underwent SPECT/CT imaging, contrast-enhanced MRI and CT. Of the 60 patients, 30 had skull base invasion confirmed by the final results of contrast-enhanced MRI, CT and six-month follow-up imaging (MRI and CT). The diagnostic efficacy of the three imaging modalities in detecting skull base invasion was evaluated. The rates of positive findings of skull base invasion for SPECT/CT, MRI and CT were 53.3%, 48.3% and 33.3%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 93.3%, 86.7% and 90.0% for SPECT/CT fusion imaging, 96.7%, 100.0% and 98.3% for contrast-enhanced MRI, and 66.7%, 100.0% and 83.3% for contrast-enhanced CT. MRI showed the best performance for the diagnosis of skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, followed closely by SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT had poorer specificity than that of both MRI and CT, while CT had the lowest sensitivity.

  2. Apoptosis and expression of cytokines triggered by pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, K M; Sun, X; Koon, H K; Leung, W N; Fung, M C; Wong, R N S; Lung, Maria L; Chang, C K; Mak, N K

    2006-12-01

    The photodynamic properties of pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester (MPPa), a semi-synthetic photosensitizer derived from chlorophyll a, were evaluated in a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE-1 cell line. MPPa was non-toxic to the HONE-1. At the concentrations of 0.5-2μM, MPPa-mediated a drug dose-dependent photocytotoxicity in the HONE-1 cells. Confocal microscopy revealed a subcellular localization of MPPa in mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus. MPPa PDT-induced apoptosis was associated with the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, the up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (calnexin, Grp 94 and Grp78), and the activation of caspases-3 and -9. The photocytotoxicity was reduced by the corresponding specific caspase inhibitors. MPPa PDT-treated HONE-1 cells also up-regulated the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and beta-chemokines (MIP-1β, MPIF-1, and MPIF-2). These results suggest that the MPPa may be developed as a chlorophyll-based photosensitizer for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  3. Monte Carlo evaluation of Acuros XB dose calculation Algorithm for intensity modulated radiation therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Peter C. Y.; Lee, C. C.; Chao, T. C.; Tung, C. J.

    2017-11-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is an effective treatment modality for the nasopharyngeal carcinoma. One important aspect of this cancer treatment is the need to have an accurate dose algorithm dealing with the complex air/bone/tissue interface in the head-neck region to achieve the cure without radiation-induced toxicities. The Acuros XB algorithm explicitly solves the linear Boltzmann transport equation in voxelized volumes to account for the tissue heterogeneities such as lungs, bone, air, and soft tissues in the treatment field receiving radiotherapy. With the single beam setup in phantoms, this algorithm has already been demonstrated to achieve the comparable accuracy with Monte Carlo simulations. In the present study, five nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with the intensity-modulated radiation therapy were examined for their dose distributions calculated using the Acuros XB in the planning target volume and the organ-at-risk. Corresponding results of Monte Carlo simulations were computed from the electronic portal image data and the BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code. Analysis of dose distributions in terms of the clinical indices indicated that the Acuros XB was in comparable accuracy with Monte Carlo simulations and better than the anisotropic analytical algorithm for dose calculations in real patients.

  4. Step-by-step full mouth rehabilitation of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient with tooth and implant-supported prostheses: A clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Alikhasi, Marzieh; Kazemi, Mahmood; Nokar, Saeed; Khojasteh, Arash; Sheikhzadeh, Sedigheh

    2011-01-01

    This clinical report presents a 46-year-old man diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma with the chief complaint of masticatory and speech deficiency because of radiation therapy. After a period of controlling post radiation caries, the patient was rehabilitated with tooth and implant supported metal ceramic restorations following surgical and endodontic intervention. PMID:22090777

  5. Cranial nerve involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: response to radiotherapy and its clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Cheng; Mayr, Nina A; Yuh, William T C; Wang, Jian Z; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the cranial nerve (CN) palsy associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we studied factors that influenced the neurologic outcome of radiotherapy (RT), and the patterns and time course of neurologic recovery of CN palsy. Between July 1987 and July 1989, 93 patients who presented with CN palsy at the time of diagnosis of NPC were studied. All patients underwent external-beam RT with either cobalt-60 or 6-MV photon beams to a dose of 69 to 84 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. The time course and pattern of neurologic recovery (complete, partial, or none) from CN palsy were evaluated. Age, sex, stage, histology, incidence and distribution of types of CNs involved, duration of CN palsy, and time course of tumor response during RT were correlated with the patterns and the time course of neurologic CN recovery by univariate and multivariate analyses. The cases of CN palsy most commonly involved CN V (38%), CN VI (26%), and CN XII (11%), which accounted for the majority of the cases (75%). The time course of CN recovery was variable and protracted. Most patients showed significant improvement upon completion of RT (51%, 19%, and 30% complete, partial, and no recovery, respectively) and further improvement 6 months after RT (58%, 17%, and 25%, respectively). Cranial nerves V, VI, and XII accounted for 75% of cases with no recovery. Recovery was best for CNs II, IX, and XI and the sympathetic nerve (100%, 87%, 100%, and 100%, respectively) and worst for CNs IV, VII, and XII (67%, 60%, and 40%, respectively, with no recovery). Neurologic CN recovery correlated significantly with the pretherapy duration (<3 months versus > or =3 months) of CN palsy (88% versus 62%; p = .002, multivariate analysis), the time course of clinical tumor regression, and neurologic symptom improvement during RT. Age, sex, T stage, N stage, histology, anterior versus posterior CN palsies, and base of skull involvement were not significant. According to our limited data, most patients with CN

  6. Histogram analysis of diffusion kurtosis imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Correlation between quantitative parameters and clinical stage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Quan; Ma, Gao; Wang, Yan-Jun; Hu, Hao; Su, Guo-Yi; Shi, Hai-Bin; Wu, Fei-Yun

    2017-07-18

    To evaluate the correlation between histogram parameters derived from diffusion-kurtosis (DK) imaging and the clinical stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). High T-stage (T3/4) NPC showed significantly higher Kapp-mean (P = 0.018), Kapp-median (P = 0.029) and Kapp-90th (P = 0.003) than low T-stage (T1/2) NPC. High N-stage NPC (N2/3) showed significantly lower Dapp-mean (P = 0.002), Dapp-median (P = 0.002) and Dapp-10th (P < 0.001) than low N-stage NPC (N0/1). High AJCC-stage NPC (III/IV) showed significantly lower Dapp-10th (P = 0.038) than low AJCC-stage NPC (I/II). ROC analyses indicated that Kapp-90th was optimal for predicting high T-stage (AUC, 0.759; sensitivity, 0.842; specificity, 0.607), while Dapp-10th was best for predicting high N- and AJCC-stage (N-stage, AUC, 0.841; sensitivity, 0.875; specificity, 0.807; AJCC-stage, AUC, 0.671; sensitivity, 0.800; specificity, 0.588). DK imaging data of forty-seven consecutive NPC patients were retrospectively analyzed. Apparent diffusion for Gaussian distribution (Dapp) and apparent kurtosis coefficient (Kapp) were generated using diffusion-kurtosis model. Histogram parameters, including mean, median, 10th, 90th percentiles, skewness and kurtosis of Dapp and Kapp were calculated. Patients were divided into low and high T, N and clinical stage based on American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Differences of histogram parameters between low and high T, N and AJCC stages were compared using t test. Multiple receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine and compare the value of significant parameters in predicting high T, N and AJCC stage, respectively. DK imaging-derived parameters correlated well with clinical stage of NPC, therefore could serve as an adjunctive imaging technique for evaluating NPC.

  7. Structural MRI research in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma following radiotherapy: A DTI and VBM study.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xi; Fang, Peng; Lin, Huan; An, Jie; Tan, Xin; Zhang, Chi; Wu, Donglin; Shen, Wen; Qiu, Shijun

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the microstructural characteristics of the brain lobes following radiotherapy (RT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) at distinct times. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and 3D-T1-weighted imaging was performed in 70 age- and sex-matched subjects, 24 of whom were pre-treatment patients. The patients were divided into three groups, according to the time following completion of RT. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and gray matter (GM) volume were determined. The DTI data were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics and the GM volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Compared with the pre-RT group, the mean FA values in the left parietal lobe white matter (WM) and right cerebellum decreased significantly in the post-RT 0-6 month group (P<0.05). In addition, the mean FA values in the right parietal lobe WM decreased significantly in the post-RT 6-12 month group (P<0.05), compared with the pre-RT group. The FA level in the right temporal lobe remained significantly decreased, compared with that in the pre-RT group (P<0.05) for 1 year after RT. Furthermore, compared with pre-RT group, the GM volume in the bilateral frontal lobe, right occipital lobe, left parietal lobe, right temporal lobe and left cerebellum decreased significantly in the post-RT 0-6 month group (P<0.05), and in the bilateral temporal lobe, parietal lobe, right frontal lobe and left cerebellum, the GM volume decreased significantly in the post-RT 6-12 month group (P<0.05). The GM volume in the right temporal lobe, bilateral frontal lobe and bilateral cerebellum remained significantly decreased compared with that in the pre-RT group (P<0.05) for 1 year after RT. A combination of DTI and VBM may be used to determine radiation-induced brain injury in patients treated for NPC.

  8. Clinical Outcomes of 174 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients With Radiation-Induced Temporal Lobe Necrosis

    SciT

    Lam, Tai-Chung, E-mail: lamtaichung@gmail.com; Wong, Frank C.S.; Leung, To-Wai

    Purpose: To retrospectively study the clinical outcomes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis (TLN) treated with steroids, surgery, or observation only. Methods and Patients: We performed a retrospective analysis of 174 consecutive patients diagnosed with TLN between 1990 and 2008. Before 1998, symptomatic patients were treated with oral steroids, while asymptomatic patients were treated conservatively. After 1998, most symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with a large volume of necrosis were treated by intravenously pulsed-steroid therapy with a standardized protocol. We examined factors affecting grade 4 complication-free survival and overall survival. Outcomes of the three treatment groups, those receivingmore » conservative treatment, those receiving oral steroid, and those receiving intravenous pulse steroid, were compared. Results: The mean follow-up time was 115 months. Rates of grade 4 complication-free survival at 2 years and at 5 years after diagnosis of TLN were 72.2% and 54.1%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 57.5% and 35.4%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that being symptomatic at diagnosis (relative risk [RR], 4.5; p = 0.0001), re-irradiation of the nasopharynx (NP) (RR, 1.56; p = 0.008), salvage brachytherapy to the NP (RR, 1.75; p = 0.012), and a short latency period before the diagnosis of TLN (RR, 0.96, p < 0.0001) were independent prognosticators of poor grade 4 complication-free survival. Patients with all four factors had a 100% risk of developing grade 4 complications within 5 years; whereas if no factor was present, the risk was 12.5%. Intravenous pulse steroid therapy was associated with a higher clinical response rate compared with conventional steroid therapy (p < 0.0001); however, it did not affect complication-free survival in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: TLN patients with good prognosticators could be observed without active treatment

  9. Long-Term Results of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Advanced N2-3 Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Chen, Meng; Wu, Jing; Xu, Jian-Hua; Qian, Pu-Dong; Guo, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Xue-Song; Zhu, Huan-Feng; Gu, Jia-Jia; Wu, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Ye-wei; He, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Background N-stage is related to distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of different nedaplatin-based chemotherapy regimens in advanced N2-3 stage NPC patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patients and Methods Between April 2005 and December 2009, a total of 128 patients with N2-3 advanced NPC were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated with IMRT concurrent with 2 cycles of chemotherapy consisting of either nedaplatin plus paclitaxel (NP group, n = 67) or nedaplatin plus fluorouracil and paclitaxel (NFP group, n = 61). Two to four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were then administered every 21 days following concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Results With a median follow-up of 60 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) for all patients were 81.4%, 71.5%, 87.8% and 82.0%, respectively. No significant difference in PFS (66.6% vs. 76.7%, P = 0.212) and LRRFS rates (89.0% vs. 86.3%, P = 0.664) was observed between the NP and NFP groups. The 5-year OS (75.4% vs. 88.5%, P = 0.046) and DMFS (75.1% vs. 89.0%, P = 0.042) rate were superior in the NFP group compared with the NP group. The NFP group had a higher incidence of grade 3–4 acute toxicities including bone marrow suppression (leukopenia: χ2 = 3.935, P = 0.047; anemia: χ2 = 9.760, P = 0.002; thrombocytopenia: χ2 = 8.821, P = 0.003), and both liver and renal dysfunction (χ2 = 5.206, P = 0.023) compared with the NP group. Late toxicities were moderate and no difference was observed between the two groups. Conclusion IMRT concurrent with nedaplatin-based chemotherapy is an advocated regimen for patients with advanced N2-3 stage NPC. Patients with advanced N2-3 stage may be better candidates for the NFP regimen although this regimen was associated with a high acute

  10. (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide: A novel molecular biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khor, Lih Kin; Loi, Hoi Yin; Sinha, Arvind Kumar; Tong, Kian Ti; Goh, Boon Cher; Loh, Kwok Seng; Lu, Suat-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Increased somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression in patients with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been demonstrated with receptor autoradiography, (111) In-Octreotide scintigraphy, and (68) Ga-DOTA-TOC positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. We sought to compare and correlate the uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and DOTA-NOC in undifferentiated NPC to ascertain the possible role of (68) Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT as a new imaging biomarker and to assess whether targeted peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is a feasible treatment option. After obtaining approval from our institutional review board, 4 patients with biopsy proven nonkeratinizing undifferentiated NPC who had just undergone routine staging/restaging (18) F-FDG PET/CT imaging were prospectively and consecutively recruited for (68) Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT imaging. Of these 4 patients, 3 were newly diagnosed with untreated NPC, whereas 1 patient was diagnosed with a case of recurrent NPC with previous treatment. These patients subsequently underwent (68) Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT within 10 days from the (18) F-FDG PET/CT to ensure lesion comparability. Tracer uptake in tumor lesions were assessed visually and semiquantitatively by measuring maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax). There were 12 FDG-avid lesions of which 7 showed avid uptake of DOTA-NOC greater than liver uptake, whereas 5 showed low uptake of DOTA-NOC less than liver uptake. Subset analysis of the FDG-avid lesions at the primary and recurrent sites showed that all the FDG-avid primary tumors in the nasopharynx showed avid uptake of DOTA-NOC. On the contrary, the case of recurrent NPC showed avid FDG uptake but low DOTA-NOC uptake. Subset analysis of the suspicious FDG-avid cervical lymph nodes showed that 50% of them demonstrated avid DOTA-NOC uptake greater than liver uptake, whereas the remaining demonstrated low-grade DOTA-NOC uptake less than liver uptake. The 2 subcentimeter cervical lymph nodes that showed low

  11. Prognostic value of pre-treatment 18F-FDG PET uptake for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aktan, Meryem; Kanyilmaz, Gul; Yavuz, Berrin Benli; Koc, Mehmet; Eryılmaz, Mehmet Akif; Adli, Mustafa

    2017-11-25

    To evaluate the prognostic value of maximal standardized uptake values (SUV max ) from serial fluor-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty-two patients with NPC who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan before radiotherapy with/without chemotherapy were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-seven patients (52%) were applied 3-D conformal radiotherapy and 25 patients (48%) applied intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Fourteen (27%) patients were given neoadjuvant chemotherapy and forty-four (84.6%) patients were given concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Median follow-up time was 34 months (range 5.6-66.4 months). Forty-four (84.6%) patients were alive at last follow-up and eight (15.4%) had died. The best cut-off value of the SUV max for the primary tumor site (SUV max -PT) was 13 and 9 for the lymph nodes (SUV max -LN). Patients with SUV max -PT ≥ 13.0 and SUV max -LN ≥ 9 had a significantly higher risk for the development of the distant metastases (p = 0.044 and p = 0.038). DFS was affected in patients with SUV max -PT ≥ 13 (log rank χ 2  = 2.54, p = 0.017) and was significantly lower in patients with SUV max -LN ≥ 9 for the lymph nodes (log rank χ 2  = 5.81, p = 0.013). OS was not affected by SUV levels. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model of DFS included age (≥ 40), SUV max -LN (< 9), T stage (T1-2) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy are significantly better prognosis for the DFS. 18 F-FDG PET/CT uptake before treatment, as determined by SUV max , may be a valuable tool to evaluate prognosis in NPC patients.

  12. Synergistic Effect of Combination Topotecan and Chronomodulated Radiation Therapy on Xenografted Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciT

    Zhang, YanLing; Chen, Xin; Ren, PeiRong

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the in vivo chronomodulated radiosensitizing effect of topotecan (TPT) on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and its possible mechanisms. Methods and Materials: Xenografted BALB/c (nu/nu) NPC mice were synchronized with an alternation of 12 hours of light from 0 to 12 hours after light onset (HALO) and 12 hours of darkness to establish a unified biological rhythm. Chronomodulated radiosensitization of TPT was investigated by analysis of tumor regrowth delay (TGD), pimonidazole hydrochloride, histone H2AX phosphorylation, (γ-H2AX) topoisomerase I (Top I), cell cycle, and apoptosis after treatment with (1) TPT (10 mg/kg) alone; (2) radiation therapy alone (RT); andmore » (3) TPT+RT at 3, 9, 15, and 21 HALO. The tumor-loaded mice without any treatment were used as controls. Results: The TPT+RT combination was more effective than TPT or RT as single agents. The TPT+RT combination at 15 HALO was best (TGD = 58.0 ± 3.6 days), and TPT+RT at 3 HALO was worst (TGD = 35.0 ± 1.5 days) among the 4 TPT+RT groups (P<.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a significantly increased histone H2AX phosphorylation expression and decreased pimonidazole hydrochloride expression in the TPT+RT group at the same time point. The results suggested that the level of tumor hypoxia and DNA damage varied in a time-dependent manner. The expression of Top I in the TPT+RT group was also significantly different from the control tumors at 15 HALO (P<.05). Cell apoptosis index was increased and the proportion of cells in S phase was decreased (P<.05) with the highest value in 15 HALO and the lowest in 3 HALO. Conclusions: This study suggested that TPT combined with chronoradiotherapy could enhance the radiosensitivity of xenografted NPC. The TPT+RT group at 15 HALO had the best therapeutic effect. The chronomodulated radiosensitization mechanisms of TPT might be related to circadian rhythm of tumor hypoxia, cell cycle redistribution, DNA damage, and expression of

  13. EBV‐encoded miRNAs target ATM‐mediated response in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lung, Raymond W‐M; Hau, Pok‐Man; Yu, Ken H‐O; Yip, Kevin Y; Tong, Joanna H‐M; Chak, Wing‐Po; Chan, Anthony W‐H; Lam, Ka‐Hei; Lo, Angela Kwok‐Fung; Tin, Edith K‐Y; Chau, Shuk‐Ling; Pang, Jesse C‐S; Kwan, Johnny S‐H; Busson, Pierre; Young, Lawrence S; Yap, Lee‐Fah; Tsao, Sai‐Wah

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive epithelial malignancy that is prevalent in southern China and Southeast Asia. It is consistently associated with latent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. In NPC, miR‐BARTs, the EBV‐encoded miRNAs derived from BamH1‐A rightward transcripts, are abundantly expressed and contribute to cancer development by targeting various cellular and viral genes. In this study, we establish a comprehensive transcriptional profile of EBV‐encoded miRNAs in a panel of NPC patient‐derived xenografts and an EBV‐positive NPC cell line by small RNA sequencing. Among the 40 miR‐BARTs, predominant expression of 22 miRNAs was consistently detected in these tumors. Among the abundantly expressed EBV‐miRNAs, BART5‐5p, BART7‐3p, BART9‐3p, and BART14‐3p could negatively regulate the expression of a key DNA double‐strand break (DSB) repair gene, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), by binding to multiple sites on its 3'‐UTR. Notably, the expression of these four miR‐BARTs represented more than 10% of all EBV‐encoded miRNAs in tumor cells, while downregulation of ATM expression was commonly detected in all of our tested sequenced samples. In addition, downregulation of ATM was also observed in primary NPC tissues in both qRT‐PCR (16 NP and 45 NPC cases) and immunohistochemical staining (35 NP and 46 NPC cases) analysis. Modulation of ATM expression by BART5‐5p, BART7‐3p, BART9‐3p, and BART14‐3p was demonstrated in the transient transfection assays. These findings suggest that EBV uses miRNA machinery as a key mechanism to control the ATM signaling pathway in NPC cells. By suppressing these endogenous miR‐BARTs in EBV‐positive NPC cells, we further demonstrated the novel function of miR‐BARTs in inhibiting Zta‐induced lytic reactivation. These findings imply that the four viral miRNAs work co‐operatively to modulate ATM activity in response to DNA damage and to maintain viral latency

  14. EBV-encoded miRNAs target ATM-mediated response in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lung, Raymond W-M; Hau, Pok-Man; Yu, Ken H-O; Yip, Kevin Y; Tong, Joanna H-M; Chak, Wing-Po; Chan, Anthony W-H; Lam, Ka-Hei; Lo, Angela Kwok-Fung; Tin, Edith K-Y; Chau, Shuk-Ling; Pang, Jesse C-S; Kwan, Johnny S-H; Busson, Pierre; Young, Lawrence S; Yap, Lee-Fah; Tsao, Sai-Wah; To, Ka-Fai; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2018-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive epithelial malignancy that is prevalent in southern China and Southeast Asia. It is consistently associated with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In NPC, miR-BARTs, the EBV-encoded miRNAs derived from BamH1-A rightward transcripts, are abundantly expressed and contribute to cancer development by targeting various cellular and viral genes. In this study, we establish a comprehensive transcriptional profile of EBV-encoded miRNAs in a panel of NPC patient-derived xenografts and an EBV-positive NPC cell line by small RNA sequencing. Among the 40 miR-BARTs, predominant expression of 22 miRNAs was consistently detected in these tumors. Among the abundantly expressed EBV-miRNAs, BART5-5p, BART7-3p, BART9-3p, and BART14-3p could negatively regulate the expression of a key DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair gene, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), by binding to multiple sites on its 3'-UTR. Notably, the expression of these four miR-BARTs represented more than 10% of all EBV-encoded miRNAs in tumor cells, while downregulation of ATM expression was commonly detected in all of our tested sequenced samples. In addition, downregulation of ATM was also observed in primary NPC tissues in both qRT-PCR (16 NP and 45 NPC cases) and immunohistochemical staining (35 NP and 46 NPC cases) analysis. Modulation of ATM expression by BART5-5p, BART7-3p, BART9-3p, and BART14-3p was demonstrated in the transient transfection assays. These findings suggest that EBV uses miRNA machinery as a key mechanism to control the ATM signaling pathway in NPC cells. By suppressing these endogenous miR-BARTs in EBV-positive NPC cells, we further demonstrated the novel function of miR-BARTs in inhibiting Zta-induced lytic reactivation. These findings imply that the four viral miRNAs work co-operatively to modulate ATM activity in response to DNA damage and to maintain viral latency, contributing to the tumorigenesis of NPC. © 2017 The Authors

  15. XIAP Limits Autophagic Degradation of Sox2 and Is A Therapeutic Target in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jiao; Yu, Yan; Li, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Deng, Rong; Huang, Xiang; Wang, Guang-Feng; Zhang, Meng-Xia; Yang, Qi; Ravichandran, Senthilkumar; Feng, Gong-Kan; Xu, Xue-Lian; Yang, Chen-Lu; Qiu, Miao-Zhen; Jiao, Lin; Yang, Dajun; Zhu, Xiao-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most frequent head and neck tumor in South China. The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in NPC contributes to tumor maintenance and therapeutic resistance, while the ability of CSCs to escape from the apoptosis pathway may render them the resistant property to the therapies. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins family proteins (IAPs), which are overexpressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma stem cells, may play an important role in maintaining nasopharyngeal cancer stem cell properties. Here, we develop a novel CSC-targeting strategy to treat NPC through inhibiting IAPs. Methods: Human NPC S-18 and S-26 cell lines were used as the model system in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) assay was used to detect nasopharyngeal SP cells and CD44+ cells. The characteristics of CSCs were defined by sphere suspension culture, colony formation assay and cell migration. The role of XIAP on the regulation of Sox2 protein stability and ERK1-mediated phosphorylation of Sox2 signaling pathway were analyzed using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, phosphorylation mass spectrometry, siRNA silencing and plasmid overexpression. The correlation between XIAP and Sox2 in NPC biopsies and their role in prognosis was performed by immunohistochemistry. APG-1387 or chemotherapies-induced cell death and apoptosis in S-18 and S-26 were determined by WST, immunoblotting and flow cytometry assay. Results: IAPs, especially X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP), were elevated in CSCs of NPC, and these proteins were critically involved in the maintenance of CSCs properties by enhancing the stability of Sox2. Mechanistically, ERK1 kinase promoted autophagic degradation of Sox2 via phosphorylation of Sox2 at Ser251 and further SUMOylation of Sox2 at Lys245 in non-CSCs. However, XIAP blocked autophagic degradation of Sox2 by inhibiting ERK1 activation in CSCs. Additionally, XIAP was positively correlated with Sox2

  16. Prognostic value of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Xie, Guozhu; Liao, Guixiang; Wang, Baiyao; Yan, Miaohong; Li, Hui; Yuan, Yawei

    2017-05-16

    The prognostic role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) parameters is still controversial in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. We sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the prognostic value of maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) on event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Fifteen studies comprising 1,938 patients were included in this study. The combined hazard ratios (HRs) for EFS were 2.63 (95%CI 1.71-4.05) for SUVmax, 2.55 (95%CI 1.49-4.35) for MTV, and 3.32 (95%CI 1.23-8.95) for TLG. The pooled HRs for OS were 2.07 (95%CI 1.54-2.79) for SUVmax, 3.86 (95%CI 1.85-8.06) for MTV, and 2.60 (95%CI 1.55-4.34) for TLG. The prognostic role of SUVmax, MTV and TLG remained similar in the sub-group analyses. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies which associated 18F-FDG PET/CT to clinical survival outcomes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. The summarized HRs for EFS and OS were estimated by using fixed- or random-effect models according to heterogeneity between trials. The present meta-analysis confirms that high values of SUVmax, MTV and TLG predicted a higher risk of adverse events or death in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, despite clinically heterogeneous nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and the various methods adopted between these studies.

  17. High sensitivity of gold nanoparticles co-doped with Gd2O3 mesoporous silica nanocomposite to nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Songjin; Tian, Xiumei; Liu, Chufeng; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Wenyong; Shao, Yuanzhi; Li, Li

    2016-10-01

    Nanoprobes for combined optical and magnetic resonance imaging have tremendous potential in early cancer diagnosis. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) co-doped with Gd2O3 mesoporous silica nanocomposite (Au/Gd@MCM-41) can produce pronounced contrast enhancement for T1 weighted image in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we show the remarkably high sensitivity of Au/Gd@MCM-41 to the human poorly differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line (CNE-2) using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). The upconversion luminescences from CNE-2 and the normal nasopharyngeal (NP) cells (NP69) after uptake of Au/Gd@MCM-41 show the characteristic of two-photon-induced-radiative recombination of the AuNPs. The presence of the Gd3+ ion induces a much shorter luminescence lifetime in CNE-2 cells. The interaction between AuNPs and Gd3+ ion clearly enhances the optical sensitivity of Au/Gd@MCM-41 to CNE-2. Furthermore, the difference in the autofluorescence between CNE-2 and NP69 cells can be efficiently demonstrated by the emission lifetimes of Au/Gd@MCM-41 through the Forster energy transfers from the endogenous fluorophores to AuNPs. The results suggest that Au/Gd@MCM-41 may impart high optical resolution for the FLIM imaging that differentiates normal and high-grade precancers.

  18. Construction of a pathological risk model of occult lymph node metastases for prognostication by semi-automated image analysis of tumor budding in early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Nicklas Juel; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Kiss, Katalin; Charabi, Birgitte; Specht, Lena; von Buchwald, Christian

    2017-01-01

    It is challenging to identify at diagnosis those patients with early oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), who have a poor prognosis and those that have a high risk of harboring occult lymph node metastases. The aim of this study was to develop a standardized and objective digital scoring method to evaluate the predictive value of tumor budding. We developed a semi-automated image-analysis algorithm, Digital Tumor Bud Count (DTBC), to evaluate tumor budding. The algorithm was tested in 222 consecutive patients with early-stage OSCC and major endpoints were overall (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). We subsequently constructed and cross-validated a binary logistic regression model and evaluated its clinical utility by decision curve analysis. A high DTBC was an independent predictor of both poor OS and PFS in a multivariate Cox regression model. The logistic regression model was able to identify patients with occult lymph node metastases with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.78–0.89, P <0.001) and a 10-fold cross-validated AUC of 0.79. Compared to other known histopathological risk factors, the DTBC had a higher diagnostic accuracy. The proposed, novel risk model could be used as a guide to identify patients who would benefit from an up-front neck dissection. PMID:28212555

  19. Higher incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in some regions in the world confers for interplay between genetic factors and external stimuli.

    PubMed

    Roy Chattopadhyay, Nabanita; Das, Piyanki; Chatterjee, Koustav; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2017-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare variety of head and neck cancers. The risk factors include three major causes: genetic factors, viral infection, and environmental and dietary factors. The types of NPC show strong ethnic and geographic variations. The keratinizing and non-keratinizing types are prevalent in the lower incidence regions like North America and Europe; whereas the undifferentiated type is mostly found in the regions with higher incidences like China, North Africa, Arctic, and Nagaland of North-East India. These suggest a possible major role of the internal genetic factors for generation and promotion of this disease. Viral infections might accelerate the process of carcinogenesis by helping in cellular proliferation and loss of apoptosis. Diet and other environmental factors promote these neoplastic processes and further progression of the disease occurs.

  20. Correlation Between Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen Level and the Clinicopathological Features of Early-Stage Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and the Predictive Value of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen Combined With Computed Tomography Scan for Lymph Node Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dianbo; Wang, Danbo; Wang, Shuo; Tian, Ye; Long, Zaiqiu; Ren, Xuemei

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) and the clinicopathological features of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The value of SCC-Ag and computed tomography (CT) for predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) was evaluated. A total of 197 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB to IIA cervical squamous cell carcinoma who underwent radical surgery were enrolled in this study. The SCC-Ag was measured, and CT scans were used for the preoperative assessment of lymph node status. Increased preoperative SCC-Ag levels were associated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P = 0.001), tumor diameter of greater than 4 cm (P < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.001), LNM (P < 0.001), and greater than one half stromal infiltration (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified LNM (P < 0.001, odds ratio [OR] = 4.399), tumor diameter of greater than >4 cm (P = 0.001, OR = 4.019), and greater than one half stromal infiltration (P = 0.002, OR = 3.680) as independent factors affecting SCC-Ag greater than or equal to 2.35 ng/mL. In the analysis of LNM, SCC-Ag greater than or equal to 2.35 ng/mL (P < 0.001, OR = 4.825) was an independent factor for LNM. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of SCC-Ag was 0.763 for all patients, and 0.805 and 0.530 for IB1 + IIA1 and IB2 + IIA2 patients, respectively; 2.35 ng/mL was the optimum cutoff for predicting LNM. The combination of CT and SCC-Ag showed a sensitivity and specificity of 82.9% and 66% in parallel tests, and 29.8% and 93.3% in serial tests, respectively. The increase of SCC-Ag level in the preoperative phase means that there may be a pathological risk factor for postoperative outcomes. The SCC-Ag (≥2.35 ng/mL) may be a useful marker for predicting LNM of cervical cancer, especially in stages IB1 and IIA1, and the combination of SCC-Ag and CT may help identify patients

  1. Effusanin E suppresses nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth by inhibiting NF-κB and COX-2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Qiu, Huijuan; Shi, Dingbo; Wang, Jingshu; Tian, Yun; Lin, Lianzhu; Deng, Wuguo

    2014-01-01

    Rabdosia serra is well known for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, but no information has been available for the active compounds derived from this plant in inhibiting human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell growth. In this study, we isolated and purified a natural diterpenoid from Rabdosia serra and identified its chemical structure as effusanin E and elucidated its underlying mechanism of action in inhibiting NPC cell growth. Effusanin E significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. Effusanin E also induced the cleavage of PARP, caspase-3 and -9 proteins and inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB proteins. Moreover, effusanin E abrogated the binding of NF-κB to the COX-2 promoter, thereby inhibiting the expression and promoter activity of COX-2. Pretreatment with a COX-2 or NF-κB-selective inhibitor (celecoxib or ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) had an additive effect on the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation, while pretreatment with an activator of NF-κB/COX-2 (lipopolysaccharides) abrogated the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Effusanin E also significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model without obvious toxicity, furthermore, the expression of p50 NF-κB and COX-2 were down-regulated in the tumors of nude mice. These data suggest that effusanin E suppresses p50/p65 proteins to down-regulate COX-2 expression, thereby inhibiting NPC cell growth. Our findings provide new insights into exploring effusanin E as a potential therapeutic compound for the treatment of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  2. Effects of Home Nursing Intervention on the Quality of Life of Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma after Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ru-Chun; Meng, Ai-Feng; Zhou, Weng-Lin; Yu, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Xin-En; Ji, Ai-Jun; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of home nursing intervention on the quality of life in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy and chemotherapy are unclear. According to the characteristics of nursing home patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, we should continuously improve the nursing plan and improve the quality of life of patients at home. We selected 180 patients at home with NPC after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The patients were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (90 patients each). The experimental group featured intervention with an NPC home nursing plan, while the control group was given routine discharge and outpatient review. Nursing intervention for patients was mainly achieved by regular telephone follow-up and home visits. We use the quality of life scale (QOL-C30), anxiety scale (SAS) and depression scale (SDS) to evaluate these patients before intervention, and during follow-up at 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Overall health and quality of life were significantly different between the groups (p<0.05), Emotional function score was significantly higher after intervention (p<0.05), as were cognitive function and social function scores after 3 months of intervention (p<0.05). Scores of fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, appetite and constipation were also significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05). Rates of anxiety and depression after 3 months of intervention were 11.1%, 22.2% and 34.4%, 53.3%, the differences being significant (p<0.05). NPC home nursing plan could effectively improve overall quality of life, cognitive function, social function (after 3 months) of patients, but improvement regarding body function is not suggested. Fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, appetite, constipation were clearly improved. We should further pursue a personalized, comprehensive measurements for nursing interventions and try to improve the quality of life of NPC patients at home.

  3. The current status of clinical trials focusing on nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A comprehensive analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov database.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yu-Pei; Li, Wen-Fei; Tang, Ling-Long; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Clinical Trials have emerged as the main force in driving the development of medicine. However, little is known about the current status of clinical trials regarding nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed at providing a comprehensive landscape of NPC-related trials on the basis of ClinicalTrials.gov database. We used the keyword "nasopharyngeal carcinoma" to search the ClinicalTrials.gov database and assessed the characteristics of these trials. Up to December 30, 2016, 462 eligible trials in total were identified, of which 222 (48.0%) recruited only NPC (NPC trials) and the other 240 (52.0%) recruited both NPC and other cancers (multiple cancer trials). Moreover, 47 (10.2%) were Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related trials and 267 (57.8%) focused on metastatic/recurrent disease. Compared with NPC trials, the multiple cancer trials had a higher percentage of phase 1 (26.7% vs. 6.7%, P < 0.001) studies and more patients with metastatic/recurrent disease (72.5% vs. 41.9%, P < 0.001). Notably, non-EBV trials had more phase 2 or 3 (78.4% vs. 48.8%, P < 0.001) and interventional studies (89.5% vs. 70.7%, P = 0.002) than EBV trials. Obviously, more phase 2/3 or 3 trials were conducted in patients with non-metastatic/recurrent disease (29.4% vs. 4.9%, P < 0.001); however, metastatic/recurrent trials were more likely to be anticancer (94.6% vs. 63.6%, P < 0.001). The role of plasma EBV DNA in clinical trials is underestimated, and high-level randomized clinical trials should be performed for patients with metastatic/recurrent disease.

  4. Targeting CPT1A-mediated fatty acid oxidation sensitizes nasopharyngeal carcinoma to radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zheqiong; Xiao, Lanbo; Tang, Min; Bai, Fang; Li, Jiangjiang; Li, Liling; Shi, Feng; Li, Namei; Li, Yueshuo; Du, Qianqian; Lu, Jingchen; Weng, Xinxian; Yi, Wei; Zhang, Hanwen; Fan, Jia; Zhou, Jian; Gao, Qiang; Onuchic, José N.; Bode, Ann M.; Luo, Xiangjian; Cao, Ya

    2018-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a particularly high prevalence in southern China, southeastern Asia and northern Africa. Radiation resistance remains a serious obstacle to successful treatment in NPC. This study aimed to explore the metabolic feature of radiation-resistant NPC cells and identify new molecular-targeted agents to improve the therapeutic effects of radiotherapy in NPC. Methods: Radiation-responsive and radiation-resistant NPC cells were used as the model system in vitro and in vivo. Metabolomics approach was used to illustrate the global metabolic changes. 13C isotopomer tracing experiment and Seahorse XF analysis were undertaken to determine the activity of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). qRT-PCR was performed to evaluate the expression of essential FAO genes including CPT1A. NPC tumor tissue microarray was used to investigate the prognostic role of CPT1A. Either RNA interference or pharmacological blockade by Etomoxir were used to inhibit CPT1A. Radiation resistance was evaluated by colony formation assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis and neutral lipid content were measured by flow cytometry analysis using JC-1, Annexin V and LipidTOX Red probe respectively. Molecular markers of mitochondrial apoptosis were detected by western blot. Xenografts were treated with Etomoxir, radiation, or a combination of Etomoxir and radiation. Mitochondrial apoptosis and lipid droplets content of tumor tissues were detected by cleaved caspase 9 and Oil Red O staining respectively. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry approach was used to identify CPT1A-binding proteins. The interaction of CPT1A and Rab14 were detected by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence and in situ proximity ligation analysis. Fragment docking and direct coupling combined computational protein-protein interaction prediction method were used to predict the binding interface. Fatty acid trafficking was measured by pulse-chase assay using BODIPY C16 and Mito

  5. Clinical observation of 73 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated by helical tomotherapy: the China experience.

    PubMed

    Ren, G; Du, L; Ma, L; Feng, L-C; Zhou, G-X; Qu, B-L; Xu, S-P; Xie, C-B; Ou, G-M; Li, F; Zhang, X-X; Yang, J

    2011-06-01

    The preliminary short-term clinical outcome of 73 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with helical tomotherapy at our cancer institute has been evaluated. Between September 2007 and September 2009, 73 newly diagnosed NPC patients were treated with helical tomotherapy. The distributions of clinical stages according to the UICC 2002 Staging System were: 6, 27, 24, and 16 for Stage I, IIa-b, III, and IVa-b, respectively. The prescription dose was 70-74 Gy/33F to planning gross tumor volume containing the primary tumor and positive lymph nodes, with 60-62.7 Gy/33F to high risk planning target volume, while delivering 52-56 Gy/33F to low risk planning target volume. Twenty-four patients were treated with radiation therapy as single modality, 25 with concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy with or without anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy, and 24 with concurrent anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy. Setup errors were analyzed. Side-effects were evaluated with the established RTOG/EORTC criteria. Average beam-on-time was 468.8 sec/F (396.7-696.1 sec). The setup errors in the lateral, longitudinal and vertical directions were 0.00 ± 1.79 mm, -0.55± 2.17 mm and 0.38 ± 1.43 mm, corresponding to 3.80 mm, 4.20 mm, and 2.46 mm as the CTV-PTV margin in these directions. The grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 acute skin toxicity was 2.7%, 76.7%, 13.8% and 6.8%; the grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 acute mucositis was 1.4%, 32.9%, 60.2% and 5.5%; and the grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 acute xerostomia was 4.0%, 45.3%, 50.7% and 0, respectively. Only 5 patients suffered from grade 3 or 4 leucopenia. Xerostomia resolved with passing of time and no grade 2 or more xerostomia was noted one year after radiation therapy. Concurrent chemotherapy significantly increased incidence of severe acute toxicities. One month after radiation therapy the remission rates of primary tumor and positive lymph nodes were 91.8% and 98.1%, respectively. The median follow-up was 14.8 months. The one-year relapse

  6. Early stages of soldering reactions

    SciT

    Lord, R.A.; Umantsev, A.

    2005-09-15

    An experiment on the early stages of intermetallic compound layer growth during soldering and its theoretical analysis were conducted with the intent to study the controlling factors of the process. An experimental technique based on fast dipping and pulling of a copper coupon in liquid solder followed by optical microscopy allowed the authors to study the temporal behavior of the sample on a single micrograph. The technique should be of value for different areas of metallurgy because many experiments on crystallization may be described as the growth of a layer of intermediate phase. Comparison of the experimental results with themore » theoretical calculations allowed one to identify the kinetics of dissolution as the rate-controlling mechanism on the early stages and measure the kinetic coefficient of dissolution. A popular model of intermetallic compound layer structure coarsening is discussed.« less

  7. Phase 2 Sequential and Concurrent Chemoradiation for Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-09

    Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  8. On the trails of markers and proxies: the socio-cognitive technologies of human movement, knowledge assemblage, and their relevance to the etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, David

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria, pigs, rats, pots, plants, words, bones, stones, earrings, diseases, and genetic indicators of all varieties are markers and proxies for the complexity of interweaving trails and stories integral to understanding human movement and knowledge assemblage in Southeast Asia and around the world. Understanding human movement and knowledge assemblage is central to comprehending the genetic basis of disease, especially of a cancer like nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The problem is that the markers and trails, taken in isolation, do not all tell the same story. Human movement and knowledge assemblage are in constant interaction in an adaptive process of co-production with genes, terrain, climate, sea level changes, kinship relations, diet, materials, food and transport technologies, social and cognitive technologies, and knowledge strategies and transmission. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the outcome of an adaptive process involving physical, social, and genetic components. PMID:21272440

  9. [Nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma, a rare but highly challenging disease with unmet therapeutic needs: A case-report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Afani, L; Errihani, H; Benchafai, I; Lalami, Y

    2016-07-01

    Nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare tumour. Compared with others nasopharyngeal tumours, it is characterised by slow evolution but it is locally aggressive and has a high tendency to recurrences. Due to the rarity of cases, no consensus exists about treatment approaches. We report the case of 45-year-old-man with a locally advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma. The patient received concurrent chemoradiation and had a good objective response. After one year, he developed a paucisymptomatic lung metastasis. The follow-up showed local recurrence after 3 years. One cycle of chemotherapy was given but poorly supported. Carbon ion radiotherapy was proposed. The aim of this work is to review the literature concerning this rare malignancy and discusses treatment approaches in initial situations and during recurrences. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. What Is the Best Treatment of Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma? An Individual Patient Data Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ribassin-Majed, Laureen; Marguet, Sophie; Lee, Anne W.M.; Ng, Wai Tong; Ma, Jun; Chan, Anthony T.C.; Huang, Pei-Yu; Zhu, Guopei; Chua, Daniel T.T.; Chen, Yong; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Kwong, Dora L.W.; Cheah, Shie-Lee; Moon, James; Tung, Yuk; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Fountzilas, George; Bourhis, Jean; Pignon, Jean Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The role of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) or induction chemotherapy (IC) in the treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma is controversial. The individual patient data from the Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy in Nasopharynx Carcinoma database were used to compare all available treatments. Methods All randomized trials of radiotherapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy in nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were considered. Overall, 20 trials and 5,144 patients were included. Treatments were grouped into seven categories: RT alone (RT), IC followed by RT (IC-RT), RT followed by AC (RT-AC), IC followed by RT followed by AC (IC-RT-AC), concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT), IC followed by CRT (IC-CRT), and CRT followed by AC (CRT-AC). P-score was used to rank the treatments. Fixed- and random-effects frequentist network meta-analysis models were applied. Results The three treatments with the highest probability of benefit on overall survival (OS) were CRT-AC, followed by CRT and IC-CRT, with respective hazard ratios (HRs [95% CIs]) compared with RT alone of 0.65 (0.56 to 0.75), 0.77 (0.64 to 0.92), and 0.81 (0.63 to 1.04). HRs (95% CIs) of CRT-AC compared with CRT for OS, progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional control, and distant control (DC) were, respectively, 0.85 (0.68 to 1.05), 0.81 (0.66 to 0.98), 0.70 (0.48 to 1.02), and 0.87 (0.61 to 1.25). IC-CRT ranked second for PFS and the best for DC. CRT never ranked first. HRs of CRT compared with IC-CRT for OS, PFS, locoregional control, and DC were, respectively, 0.95 (0.72 to 1.25), 1.13 (0.88 to 1.46), 1.05 (0.70 to 1.59), and 1.55 (0.94 to 2.56). Regimens with more chemotherapy were associated with increased risk of acute toxicity. Conclusion The addition of AC to CRT achieved the highest survival benefit and consistent improvement for all end points. The addition of IC to CRT achieved the highest effect on DC. PMID:27918720

  11. Central nervous system leukemia in a patient with concurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma and acute myeloid leukaemia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Qing; Mai, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Si-Ben; Lou, Yin-Jun; Yan, Sen-Xiang; Jin, Jie; Xu, Wei-Lai

    2017-12-01

    Concurrent case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been reported. Here, we report a case of NPC, who was concurrently suffered from AML one mother after the NPC diagnosis. The patient was a 45-year-old male who presented with a mass on his right side neck. The patient was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus negative type-2 non-keratinizing carcinoma with clivus involvement and unilateral metastasis to the cervical lymph node. He was treated with one cycle of cisplatin and 69.76 Gy of concurrent external-beam radiation. Three months after completion of chemo-radiotherapy, the patient was diagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia, which achieved complete remission after one course induction chemotherapy. Two months later, however, the patient was diagnosed as central nervous system leukemia. He ultimately died of relapsed leukemia. The overall survival of the patient was 10 months. The co-occurrence of NPC and AML is rare and prognosis is poor. Radiotherapy in NPC can disrupt the blood-brain barrier, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of central nervous system leukemia. Early alert and prevention of central nervous system leukemia following radiotherapy in NPC patient is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  13. Gallic Acid Inhibited Matrix Invasion and AP-1/ETS-1-Mediated MMP-1 Transcription in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    S. Pang, Jong-Hwei; Yen, Jia-Hau; Wu, Hsiao-Ting; Huang, Sheng-Teng

    2017-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid found in natural herbal plants. Gallic acid has been reported to inhibit the migration and invasive capability of various cancers. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of invasion responsible for cancer metastasis via gallic acid. The present study was intended to investigate the anti-invasive effect of gallic acid on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC-BM1) and its related mechanism. Gallic acid inhibited the invasion of NPC-BM1 cells dose- and time-dependently without significant cytotoxic effect. Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) as the most down-regulated gene in NPC-BM1 cells by gallic acid. The cytosolic and secreted MMP-1 levels were both found to be inhibited by gallic acid as demonstrated by western blot analysis and ELISA respectively. The mRNA expression and transcription of MMP-1 gene was also down-regulated as determined by RT/real-time PCR and promoter activity assay. The expression of two major transcription binding factors in the MMP-1 promoter, AP-1 and ETS-1, were demonstrated to be reduced by gallic acid in NPC-BM1 cells. The effect of gallic acid was associated with the inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, gallic acid enhanced the gene expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) which further suppressed the MMP-1 activity. These findings may be useful to develop a novel chemotherapeutic agent to inhibit the metastasis of nasopharyngeal cancer. PMID:28672814

  14. Gallic Acid Inhibited Matrix Invasion and AP-1/ETS-1-Mediated MMP-1 Transcription in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Yen, Jia-Hau; Wu, Hsiao-Ting; Huang, Sheng-Teng

    2017-06-24

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid found in natural herbal plants. Gallic acid has been reported to inhibit the migration and invasive capability of various cancers. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of invasion responsible for cancer metastasis via gallic acid. The present study was intended to investigate the anti-invasive effect of gallic acid on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC-BM1) and its related mechanism. Gallic acid inhibited the invasion of NPC-BM1 cells dose- and time-dependently without significant cytotoxic effect. Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) as the most down-regulated gene in NPC-BM1 cells by gallic acid. The cytosolic and secreted MMP-1 levels were both found to be inhibited by gallic acid as demonstrated by western blot analysis and ELISA respectively. The mRNA expression and transcription of MMP-1 gene was also down-regulated as determined by RT/real-time PCR and promoter activity assay. The expression of two major transcription binding factors in the MMP-1 promoter, AP-1 and ETS-1, were demonstrated to be reduced by gallic acid in NPC-BM1 cells. The effect of gallic acid was associated with the inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, gallic acid enhanced the gene expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) which further suppressed the MMP-1 activity. These findings may be useful to develop a novel chemotherapeutic agent to inhibit the metastasis of nasopharyngeal cancer.

  15. Locoregional control after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with an anatomy-based target definition.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ariji, Takaki; Kameoka, Satoru; Ueda, Takashi; Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishio, Teiji; Arahira, Satoko; Motegi, Atsushi; Zenda, Sadamoto; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Tahara, Makoto; Hayashi, Ryuichi

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate locoregional control after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer using a target definition along with anatomical boundaries. Forty patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell or non-keratinizing carcinoma of the nasopharynx who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy between April 2006 and November 2009 were reviewed. There were 10 females and 30 males with a median age of 48 years (range, 17-74 years). More than half of the patients had T3/4 (n = 21) and/or N2/3 (n = 24) disease. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was administered as 70 Gy/33 fractions with or without concomitant chemotherapy. The clinical target volume was contoured along with muscular fascia or periosteum, and the prescribed radiotherapy dose was determined for each anatomical compartment and lymph node level in the head and neck. One local recurrence was observed at Meckel's cave on the periphery of the high-risk clinical target volume receiving a total dose of <63 Gy. Otherwise, six locoregional failures were observed within irradiated volume receiving 70 Gy. Local and nodal control rates at 3 years were 91 and 89%, respectively. Adverse events were acceptable, and 25 (81%) of 31 patients who were alive without recurrence at 2 years had xerostomia of ≤Grade 1. The overall survival rate at 3 years was 87%. Target definition along with anatomically defined boundaries was feasible without compromise of the therapeutic ratio. It is worth testing this method further to minimize the unnecessary irradiated volume and to standardize the target definition in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer.

  16. Similar BCL-X but different BCL-2 levels in the two age groups of north African nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Khabir, Abdelmajid; Ghorbel, Abdelmoneem; Daoud, Jamel; Frikha, Mounir; Drira, Mohamed Mokhtar; Laplanche, Agnès; Busson, Pierre; Jlidi, Rachid

    2003-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) are consistently associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). As Bcl-2 and Bcl-X are co-expressed in EBV-transformed B-lymphocytes, we attempted to determine their status in malignant NPC cells. A retrospective series of 100 NPC specimens from untreated Tunisian patients was investigated by immuno-histochemistry. Twenty seven of the patients were below 30 years old and therefore classified in the "juvenile" form of north African NPCs. Bcl-2 and Bcl-X expression was assessed semi-quantitatively using a score based on the percentage of positive cells and staining intensity. Intense Bcl-X expression was detected in malignant cells of 100% biopsy samples with similar scores for patients below 30 years or those aged 30 or over. Bcl-2 was detected in 89% biopsies but its expression differed considerably between the samples. The average Bcl-2 score was much lower for patients under 30 years (4.4+/-1.5 compared to 6.5+/-2 for older patients; P<10(-6)). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that no other clinical parameter, except the primary tumor size, was correlated to the Bcl-2 score. Bcl-X and Bcl-2 are co-expressed in 89% of NPCs whereas their expression is mutually exclusive in other head and neck carcinomas (particularly squamous cell carcinomas, SCC). The constantly high expression of Bcl-X is consistent with it being induced by the EBV protein Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), as recently reported in a murine model. The contrasted levels of Bcl-2 expression in the two age groups strengthen the hypothesis that these clinical forms result from distinct oncogenic mechanisms.

  17. Clinical observation of submandibular gland transfer for the prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prospective randomized controlled study of 32 cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of submandibular gland transfer for the prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods Using the randomized controlled clinical research method, 65 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were randomly divided into an experimental group consisting of 32 patients and a control group consisting of 33 patients. The submandibular glands were averted to the submental region in 32 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before they received conventional radiotherapy; a lead block was used to shield the submental region during therapy. Prior to radiotherapy, the function of the submandibular glands was assessed using imaging. Submandibular gland function was measured using 99mTc radionuclide scanning at 60 months after radiotherapy. The data in the questionnaire regarding the degree of xerostomia were investigated and saliva secretion was measured at 3, 6, 12, and 60 months after radiotherapy. In addition, the 5-year survival rate was calculated. Results After follow-up for 3, 6, and 12 months, the incidence of moderate to severe xerostomia was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. The average amount of saliva produced by the experimental and control groups was 1.60 g and 0.68 g, respectively (P < 0.001). After follow-up for 60 months, the uptake and secretion functions of the submandibular glands in the experimental group were found to be significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of moderate or severe xerostomia was significantly lower than in the control group (15.4% and 76.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). The 5-year survival rates of the experimental group and the control group were 81.3% and 78.8%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.806). Conclusions After a 5 year follow-up period involving 32

  18. Clinical observation of submandibular gland transfer for the prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prospective randomized controlled study of 32 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Liu, Folin; Lan, Xiaolin; Yu, Lijiang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Xiuhong; Xiao, Fufu; Li, Shaojin

    2014-02-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of submandibular gland transfer for the prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Using the randomized controlled clinical research method, 65 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were randomly divided into an experimental group consisting of 32 patients and a control group consisting of 33 patients. The submandibular glands were averted to the submental region in 32 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before they received conventional radiotherapy; a lead block was used to shield the submental region during therapy. Prior to radiotherapy, the function of the submandibular glands was assessed using imaging. Submandibular gland function was measured using 99mTc radionuclide scanning at 60 months after radiotherapy. The data in the questionnaire regarding the degree of xerostomia were investigated and saliva secretion was measured at 3, 6, 12, and 60 months after radiotherapy. In addition, the 5-year survival rate was calculated. After follow-up for 3, 6, and 12 months, the incidence of moderate to severe xerostomia was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. The average amount of saliva produced by the experimental and control groups was 1.60 g and 0.68 g, respectively (P<0.001). After follow-up for 60 months, the uptake and secretion functions of the submandibular glands in the experimental group were found to be significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). The incidence of moderate or severe xerostomia was significantly lower than in the control group (15.4% and 76.9%, respectively; P<0.001). The 5-year survival rates of the experimental group and the control group were 81.3% and 78.8%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.806). After a 5 year follow-up period involving 32 patients who had their submandibular glands transferred for the prevention of

  19. The effects of Chinese calligraphy handwriting and relaxation training in Chinese Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Ling; Li, Huan-Huan; Hong, Ming-Huang; Kao, Henry S R

    2010-05-01

    Chinese calligraphy handwriting is the practice of traditional Chinese brush writing, researches found calligraphy had therapeutic effects on certain diseases, some authors argued that calligraphy might have relaxation effect. This study was to compare the effects of calligraphy handwriting with those of progressive muscle relaxation and imagery training in Chinese Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma patients. This study was a randomized controlled trial. Two hundred and eighty-seven Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma patients were approached, ninety (31%) patients were recruited and randomized to one of the three treatment groups: progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery training group, Calligraphy handwriting group, or a Control group. Seventy-nine (87.8%) completed all of the outcome measures. The primary treatment outcome was the changes of physiological arousal parameters measured by pre- and post-treatment differences of heart rate, blood pressure and respiration rate. The secondary outcomes included: modified Chinese version of Symptom Distress Scale, Profile of Mood State-Short Form, and Karnofsky Performance Status measured at baseline, during treatment (after the 2-week intervention), post-treatment (after the 4-week intervention) and after a 2-week follow-up. Effectiveness was tested by repeated measure ANOVA analyses. Cancer centre of a major university hospital in Guangdong, China. Results showed that both of calligraphy and relaxation training demonstrated slow-down effects on physiological arousal parameters. Moreover, calligraphy practice gradually lowered participants' systolic blood pressure (simple main effect of time at pre-treatment measure, p=.007) and respiration rate (p=.000) at pre- and post-treatment measures as the intervention proceeded, though with a smaller effect size as compared to relaxation. Both of calligraphy and relaxation training had certain symptom relief and mood improvement effects in NPC patients. Relaxation was effective in relieving

  20. Acute oral mucositis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy: association with genetic polymorphism in DNA DSB repair genes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing-Hua; Dai, Xiao-Fang; Yan, Guo-Li; Jin, Min; Liu, Cui-Wei; Yang, Kun-Yu; Wu, Gang; Ma, C-M Charlie

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between polymorphic variants of DNA repair genes with the susceptibility of acute oral mucositis (OM) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with radiotherapy. The study population consisted of 120 NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Among them 70 patients also received concurrent chemotherapy. Genotypes in DNA repair genes Ku70 c.-1310C>G (rs2267437), Ku70 c.1781G> T (rs132788), Ku80 c.2099-2408G> A (rs3835), Ku80 c.*841G> A (rs2440) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) c.2888 + 713C> T (rs2213178) were determined by polymerase chain reaction combined with the restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Mucositis was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) for Adverse Events v.3.0 scale. The population was divided into the CTC0-2 group (CTC toxicity grade 0, 1 and 2) and the CTC3 + group (CTC toxicity grade 3 and above). Odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the multivariate logistic regression analysis. A significant difference in Ku70 c.1781G> T genotype distribution was observed between the CTC0-2 and CTC3 + groups for the 120 patients analyzed. The GG carriers were at higher risks for severe OM (CTC3+) compared with the TT homozygotes (OR = 3.000, 95% CI = 1.287-6.994, p = 0.011). No association was found between Ku70 (c.-1310C> G), Ku80 (c.2099-2408G> A, c.*841G> A), DNA-PKcs (c.2888 + 713 C > T) and the development of severe oral mucositis. Stratification analyses for the 50 patients treated with radiation alone further confirmed the association between the variant genotype of GG and severe OM (OR = 5.128, 95% CI = 1.183-22.238, p = 0.029). Concurrent radiochemotherapy increased the risk of severe OM for both the TT homozygotes and GG genotypes. Our study suggests that the Ku70 c.1781G> T polymorphism may be a susceptibility factor for radiation-induced oral mucositis

  1. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Cancer.gov

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  2. [Phase II clinical trial of two different modes of administration of the induction chemotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bi, Ting; Jin, Feng; Wu, Weili; Long, Jinhua; Li, Yuanyuan; Gong, Xiuyun; Luo, Xiuling; Li, Zhuoling; He, Qianyong; Qu, Bo

    2015-09-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects, toxic side effects and influence on the immune function in patients treated with TPF [docetaxel (DOC) + cisplatin (DDP) + 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)] induction chronochemotherapy and conventional chemotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal (NPC). Seventy patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated in our department at their first visit from April 2013 to December 2013. They were divided randomly into two groups: the chronochemotherapy group (38 patients) and conventional chemotherapy group (32 patients). All of the patients were treated with TPF regimen with 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy in a 21-28-days/cycle. The chronochemotherapy group: DOC: 75 mg/m2, i. v. gtt, d1 (03: 30-04: 30); DDP: 75 mg/m2, 10 am-10 pm, c.i.v, d1-d5; 5-Fu: 750 mg·m(-2)·d(-1), 10 pm-10 am, c. i.v., d1-d5, both chemotherapies were administered by intravenous infusion using an automatic electric pump. The conventional chemotherapy group: Both DOC and DDP were administered intravenously at a dose of 75 mg/m2 on d1. 5-Fu was given at a dose of 750 mg/m2 for 24 hours from d1-d5 with continuous infusion in a total of 120 hours. In this procedure, prescribing the conventional intravenous infusion, intensity modulated radiation therapy was used after the induction chemotherapy. The prescribed nasopharyngeal lesion dose (GTVnx) was 69.96 Gy/33 fractions for the T1-T2 nasopharygeal cancer, while 73.92 Gy/33 fractions nasopharynx lesion dose (GTVnx) for the T3-T4 nasopharyngeal cancer. The planning target volume (PTV) of positive lymph node (PTVnd) dose was 69.96 Gy/33 fractions. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy: cisplatin 100 mg/m2, i. v. gtt. d1-d2, and there were two cycles in total and 21 days each cycle. Sixty-six patients were evaluable for the response assessment. There were 36 patients in the chronochemotherapy group and 30 patients in the conventional chemotherapy group. After the induction chemotherapy, no CR case was found in

  3. Metastasis-suppressing NID2, an epigenetically-silenced gene, in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chai, Annie Wai Yeeng; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Dai, Wei; Ko, Josephine Mun Yee; Ip, Joseph Chok Yan; Chan, Kwok Wah; Kwong, Dora Lai-Wan; Ng, Wai Tong; Lee, Anne Wing Mui; Ngan, Roger Kai Cheong; Yau, Chun Chung; Tung, Stewart Yuk; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lam, Alfred King-Yin; Pillai, Suja; Law, Simon; Lung, Maria Li

    2016-11-29

    Nidogen-2 (NID2) is a key component of the basement membrane that stabilizes the extracellular matrix (ECM) network. The aim of the study is to analyze the functional roles of NID2 in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We performed genome-wide methylation profiling of NPC and ESCC and validated our findings using the methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) assay. Results showed that promoter methylation of NID2 was significantly higher in NPC and ESCC samples than in their adjacent non-cancer counterparts. Consistently, down-regulation of NID2 was observed in the clinical samples and cell lines of both NPC and ESCC. Re-expression of NID2 suppresses clonogenic survival and migration abilities of transduced NPC and ESCC cells. We showed that NID2 significantly inhibits liver metastasis. Mechanistic studies of signaling pathways also confirm that NID2 suppresses the EGFR/Akt and integrin/FAK/PLCγ metastasis-related pathways. This study provides novel insights into the crucial tumor metastasis suppression roles of NID2 in cancers.

  4. Metastasis-suppressing NID2, an epigenetically-silenced gene, in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Annie Wai Yeeng; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Dai, Wei; Ko, Josephine Mun Yee; Ip, Joseph Chok Yan; Chan, Kwok Wah; Kwong, Dora Lai-Wan; Ng, Wai Tong; Lee, Anne Wing Mui; Ngan, Roger Kai Cheong; Yau, Chun Chung; Tung, Stewart Yuk; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lam, Alfred King-Yin; Pillai, Suja; Law, Simon; Lung, Maria Li

    2016-01-01

    Nidogen-2 (NID2) is a key component of the basement membrane that stabilizes the extracellular matrix (ECM) network. The aim of the study is to analyze the functional roles of NID2 in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We performed genome-wide methylation profiling of NPC and ESCC and validated our findings using the methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) assay. Results showed that promoter methylation of NID2 was significantly higher in NPC and ESCC samples than in their adjacent non-cancer counterparts. Consistently, down-regulation of NID2 was observed in the clinical samples and cell lines of both NPC and ESCC. Re-expression of NID2 suppresses clonogenic survival and migration abilities of transduced NPC and ESCC cells. We showed that NID2 significantly inhibits liver metastasis. Mechanistic studies of signaling pathways also confirm that NID2 suppresses the EGFR/Akt and integrin/FAK/PLCγ metastasis-related pathways. This study provides novel insights into the crucial tumor metastasis suppression roles of NID2 in cancers. PMID:27793011

  5. [Morphometric and stereologic nuclear values obtained from the study of a population suffering from nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Pérez Plasencia, D; Flores Corral, T; Urrutia Avisrror, M; Santa Cruz Ruiz, S; Benito González, J; Mateos Pérez, M M; Gómez González, J L

    2002-01-01

    Computer nuclear morphometry and stereology are attractive methods because its objectivity and cheapness allowing histologic diagnosis when identifying minimal variations respectively the normality and also detect negligible disparities between anormal cells which could escape to the assessment of the pathologist. We present the data gained from several morphogenic and stereologic parameters resulting of measurements of tumoral cells procured from 40 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomata. Middle values have been: nuclear area 27.70 microns 2; nuclear perimeter 20.80 microns; nuclear factor of form 0.81 microns; nuclear outline index 4.01; nuclear orientation angle 87.29 degrees; nuclear ellipsiticity 704.14; nuclear regularity 61.83; middle lineal length 4.30, middle linear distance 107.94; and nuclear volume 118.80 microns 3. Our series is the largest studied till now of all found in the literature. Comparison our data with those of previous publications.

  6. A novel Smac mimetic APG-1387 demonstrates potent antitumor activity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Feng, Lin; Han, Hui-Qiong; Yuan, Jing; Qi, Xue-Kang; Lian, Yi-Fan; Kuang, Bo-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Deng, Cheng-Cheng; Zhang, Hao-Jiong; Yao, You-Yuan; Xu, Miao; He, Gui-Ping; Zhao, Bing-Chun; Gao, Ling; Feng, Qi-Sheng; Chen, Li-Zhen; Yang, Lu; Yang, Dajun; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2016-10-10

    Despite advances in the development of radiation against nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the management of advanced NPC remains a challenge. Smac mimetics are designed to neutralize inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, thus reactivating the apoptotic program in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of a novel bivalent Smac mimetic APG-1387 in NPC. In vitro, APG-1387 in combination with TNF-α potently decreased NPC cell viability by inducing apoptosis in majority of NPC cell lines. The in vitro antitumor effect was RIPK1-dependent, whereas it was independent on IAPs, USP11, or EBV. Of note, the inhibition of NF-κB or AKT pathway rendered resistant NPC cells responsive to the treatment of APG-1387/TNF-α. In vivo, APG-1387 displayed antitumor activity as a single agent at well-tolerated doses, even in an in vitro resistant cell line. In summary, our results demonstrate that APG-1387 exerts a potent antitumor effect on NPC. These findings support clinical evaluation of APG-1387 as a potential treatment for advanced NPC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Influence of CT contrast agent on dose calculation of intensity modulated radiation therapy plan for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, F K-H; Chan, C C-L; Law, C-K

    2009-02-01

    Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) has been used for delineation of treatment target in radiotherapy. The different Hounsfield unit due to the injected contrast agent may affect radiation dose calculation. We investigated this effect on intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Dose distributions of 15 IMRT plans were recalculated on CECT. Dose statistics for organs at risk (OAR) and treatment targets were recorded for the plain CT-calculated and CECT-calculated plans. Statistical significance of the differences was evaluated. Correlations were also tested, among magnitude of calculated dose difference, tumor size and level of enhancement contrast. Differences in nodal mean/median dose were statistically significant, but small (approximately 0.15 Gy for a 66 Gy prescription). In the vicinity of the carotid arteries, the difference in calculated dose was also statistically significant, but only with a mean of approximately 0.2 Gy. We did not observe any significant correlation between the difference in the calculated dose and the tumor size or level of enhancement. The results implied that the calculated dose difference was clinically insignificant and may be acceptable for IMRT planning.

  8. MET inhibitor PHA-665752 suppresses the hepatocyte growth factor-induced cell proliferation and radioresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    SciT

    Liu, Tongxin; Li, Qi; Sun, Quanquan

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • We demonstrated that irradiation induced MET overexpression and activation. • The aberrant MET signal mediated by HGF induced proliferation and radioresistance of NPC cells. • MET inhibitor PHA-665752 effectively suppressed HGF induced cell proliferation and radioresistance in NPC cells. • PHA-665752 suppressed the three downstream pathway of HGF/MET signal in a dose-dependent manner. - Abstract: Although ionizing radiation (IR) has provided considerable improvements in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), in subsets of patients, radioresistance is still a major problem in the treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that irradiation induced MET overexpression and activation, and the aberrant MET signal mediatedmore » by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced radioresistance. We also found that MET inhibitor PHA-665752 effectively suppressed HGF induced cell proliferation and radioresistance in NPC cells. Further investigation indicated that PHA-665752 suppressed the phosphorylation of the Akt, ERK1/2, and STAT3 proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Our data indicated that the combination of IR with a MET inhibitor, such as PHA-665752, might be a promising therapeutic strategy for NPC.« less

  9. Potential surrogate endpoints for overall survival in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an analysis of a phase III randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Na; Liang, Shao-Bo; Zong, Jing-Feng; Chen, Lei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Tang, Ling-Long; Li, Wen-Fei; Liu, Xu; Guo, Ying; Lin, Ai-Hua; Liu, Meng-Zhong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard endpoint in trials of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is overall survival (OS). Using data from a phase III randomized trial, we evaluated whether progression-free survival (PFS), failure-free survival (FFS), distant failure-free survival (D-FFS) or locoregional failure-free survival (LR-FFS) could be reliable surrogate endpoints for OS. Between July 2002 and September 2005, 316 eligible patients with stage III-IVB NPC were randomly assigned to receive either radiotherapy alone or chemoradiotherapy. 2- and 3-year PFS, FFS, D-FFS, and LR-FFS were tested as surrogate endpoints for 5-year OS using Prentice’s four criteria. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the strength of the associations. After a median follow-up time of 5.8 years, 2- and 3-year D-FFS and LR-FFS were not significantly different between treatment arms, in rejection of Prentice’s second criterion. Being consistent with all Prentice’s criteria, 2- and 3-year PFS and FFS were valid surrogate endpoints for 5-year OS; the rank correlation coefficient was highest (0.84) between 3-year PFS and 5-year OS. In conclusion, PFS and FFS at 2 and 3 years may be candidate surrogate endpoints for OS at 5 years; 3-year PFS may be more appropriate for early assessment of long-term survival. PMID:26219568

  10. Potential surrogate endpoints for overall survival in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an analysis of a phase III randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Na; Liang, Shao-Bo; Zong, Jing-Feng; Chen, Lei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Tang, Ling-Long; Li, Wen-Fei; Liu, Xu; Guo, Ying; Lin, Ai-Hua; Liu, Meng-Zhong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2015-07-29

    The gold standard endpoint in trials of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is overall survival (OS). Using data from a phase III randomized trial, we evaluated whether progression-free survival (PFS), failure-free survival (FFS), distant failure-free survival (D-FFS) or locoregional failure-free survival (LR-FFS) could be reliable surrogate endpoints for OS. Between July 2002 and September 2005, 316 eligible patients with stage III-IVB NPC were randomly assigned to receive either radiotherapy alone or chemoradiotherapy. 2- and 3-year PFS, FFS, D-FFS, and LR-FFS were tested as surrogate endpoints for 5-year OS using Prentice's four criteria. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the strength of the associations. After a median follow-up time of 5.8 years, 2- and 3-year D-FFS and LR-FFS were not significantly different between treatment arms, in rejection of Prentice's second criterion. Being consistent with all Prentice's criteria, 2- and 3-year PFS and FFS were valid surrogate endpoints for 5-year OS; the rank correlation coefficient was highest (0.84) between 3-year PFS and 5-year OS. In conclusion, PFS and FFS at 2 and 3 years may be candidate surrogate endpoints for OS at 5 years; 3-year PFS may be more appropriate for early assessment of long-term survival.

  11. Treatment of stage IV(A-B) nasopharyngeal carcinoma by induction-concurrent chemoradiotherapy and accelerated fractionation

    SciT

    Lee, Anne W.M.; Yau, T.K.; Wong, Dominique H.M.

    Purpose: To explore a more effective strategy for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma with extensive locoregional disease. Methods and Materials: Between October 1998 and January 2003, 49 patients with Stage IV(A-B) disease infiltrating or abutting neurologic structures were treated with induction-concurrent chemotherapy and accelerated radiotherapy (RT). A combination of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil was used in the induction phase and single-agent cisplatin in the concurrent phase. All patients were irradiated with conformal techniques at 2 Gy/fraction, six daily fractions weekly, to a total dose of 70 Gy. Results: Although 92% of patients had one or more acute toxicities Grade 3 or worse, 96%more » completed the whole course of RT, and 92% had five or more cycles of chemotherapy. The great majority of toxicities were uneventful, but 1 patient died of neutropenic sepsis. With a median follow-up of 3.1 years, 20 patients had failure at one or more sites and 15 patients died. The 3-year locoregional and distant failure-free rate was 77% and 75%, respectively, and the overall survival rate was 71%. At last follow-up, 27% of patients had developed late Grade 3 or worse toxicity (24% were hearing impairments), but none had radiation-induced neurologic damage. Conclusion: The current strategy achieved encouraging results for this poor prognostic group, and confirmation of the therapeutic gain by a prospective randomized trial is warranted.« less

  12. Human leukocyte class I antigen alleles A2 and A11 are not associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lee, L K; Tan, E L; Gopala, K; Sam, C K

    2007-07-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the second most common cancer among Malaysian Chinese males. We determined the frequencies of 17 human leukocyte antigens (HLA), HLA-A and HLA-B, alleles in 88 Malaysian Chinese with NPC. Using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers, the frequencies of 17 HLA-A and HLA-B alleles were analysed. They were A1, A2, A11, A31, A32, A33, B8, B13, B27, B38, B39, B44, B46, B55, B58, B61 and B71. Three of the 17 alleles were detected in NPC patients. They were A1 (0.6 percent), A2 (56.3 percent) and A11 (43.2 percent). Three of the 17 alleles were detected in age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. They were A2 (50.0 percent), A11 (50.0 percent) and B27 (4.7 percent). The A2 and A11 alleles were evenly distributed in both groups, while A1 was only found in one NPC patient and B27 exclusively in healthy individuals. We conclude that A1 is very rare, and A2, A11, A31, A32, A33, B8, B13, B38, B39, B44, B46, B55, B58, B61 and B71 alleles have no associations with the occurrence of NPC in Malaysia, while allele B27 is negatively associated.

  13. Choline and betaine intakes are associated with reduced risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in adults: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, F-f; Xu, C-h; Liu, Y-t; Fan, Y-y; Lin, X-l; Lu, Y-k; Zhang, C-x; Chen, Y-m

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intakes of choline and betaine have been inversely related to the risk of various neoplasms, but scant data exist on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between consumption of choline and betaine and risk of NPC. Methods: We conducted a case–control study with 600 incident NPC patients and 600 controls 1 : 1 matched by age, sex and household type in Guangdong, China. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire through face-to-face interview. Results: Intakes of total choline, betaine and choline+betaine were inversely related to NPC after adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors (all P-trend <0.001). Adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for quartile 4 (vs quartile 1) were 0.42 (0.29, 0.61) for total choline, 0.50 (0.35, 0.72) for betaine and 0.44 (0.30, 0.64) for betaine+total choline. Regarding various sources of choline, lower NPC risk was associated with greater intakes of choline from phosphatidylcholine, free choline, glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine, but not sphingomyelin. Conclusion: These findings are consistent with a beneficial effect of choline and betaine intakes on carcinogenesis. PMID:24169354

  14. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA enhances endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Lele; Liu, Hao; Ma, Linyan; Zhang, Xudng; Jiang, Zhiwen; Jiang, Chenchen

    2013-10-01

    Radiotherapy and adjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy are the mainstream treatments for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which effectively improve the outcome and reduce tumor recurrence. However, the resistance mechanism(s) involved in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, which is the main barrier in NPC treatment, remains undefined. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement for the identification of new therapeutic strategies or adjuvant drugs. In the present study, the effects of autophagy inhibitors on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced autophagy was investigated. Combining 3-methyladenine (3-MA) with cisplatin (DDP), ionizing radiation (IR), 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) or tunicamycin (TM) resulted in enhanced cell death, as revealed by MTT and colony formation assays. Flow cytometry results demonstrated that the sensitivity of NPC cells to DDP- and IR-induced apoptosis was not significant. DDP, IR, 2-DG and TM induced ER stress and autophagy. Using fluorescence microscopy, 3-MA was identified to increase the apoptotic cell death induced by DDP, IR, 2-DG or TM. In addition, 3-MA inhibited the increased autophagy induced by DDP, IR, 2-DG or TM, as demonstrated by western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry results. Results of the present study indicate that autophagy acts as a protective mechanism response to the apoptosis induced by DDP, IR, 2-DG or TM.

  15. EphA2 silencing in nasopharyngeal carcinoma leads to decreased proliferation, invasion and increased sensitization to paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    TAN, PINGQING; LIU, YONG; YU, CHANGYUN; SU, ZHONGWU; LI, GUO; ZHOU, XIAOJUAN; HUANG, DONGHAI; ZHANG, XIN; QIU, YUANZHENG; TIAN, YONGQUAN

    2012-01-01

    EphA2 is frequently overexpressed and functionally altered in a variety of human cancers. However, its roles in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. To investigate the roles of EphA2 in the development and progression of NPC, we initially evaluated the expression pattern of EphA2 protein in NPC tissues using western blotting and CCK-8 assay. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and invasion assay were conducted to observe the effects of EphA2 inhibition in vivo. Our results demonstrated that EphA2 was overexpressed in NPC specimens and the expression of EphA2 was significantly associated with T classification, advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, human NPC 5-8F cells were infected with lentiviral vector-mediated EphA2-specific shRNA, which resulted in the significant inhibition of cell growth, invasion of 5-8F cells and markedly enhanced the sensitivity of 5-8F cells to the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel in vitro. Collectively, our results demonstrate that EphA2 is involved in malignant cell behavior and is a potential therapeutic target in human NPC. PMID:23741245

  16. Expression of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Bian, Li-Juan; Li, Yang; Liang, Ying-Jie; Liang, Hui-Zhen

    2009-01-01

    We aimed at determining whether the expression of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is involved in the progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and correlated with latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1), matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP9), and angiogenesis of tumor. PAR-2, LMP-1, and MMP9 expressions were detected in 57 biopsies of primary NPC by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was determined using EBER in situ hybridization, and intratumoral microvessels were highlighted by staining endothelial cells for anti-CD34. The correlations with immunostainings and clinicopathological factors, as well as the follow-up data of patients, were analyzed statistically. Strong expression of PAR-2 in 61.4% (35/57) of the biopsies was correlated with extensive lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of NPC. The patients with PAR-2/LMP-1 or PAR-2/MMP9 dual high-expression tumors had a significant worse prognosis than those with single protein high expression and dual low or negative expression tumors (P=0.013 and 0.004, respectively). Angiogenesis in the tumor is related to overall survival of NPC patients (P=0.001), and exhibits strong PAR-2 expression or LMP-1 expression in tumors associated with increased intratumoral microvessel density (P=0.026 and 0.006, respectively). PAR-2 is a possible mediator cooperating with LMP-1 and MMP9 to influence the progression of NPC by inducing angiogenesis and promoting lymph node metastasis.

  17. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy degrades the quality of life of patients with stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma as compared to radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin-Bin; Huang, Shi-Ting; Chen, Kai-Hua; Jiang, Yan-Ming; Ma, Jia-Lin; Qu, Song; Li, Ling; Chen, Long; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of life (QoL) of stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). In a cross-sectional study, these patients were treated with RT (n = 55) or CCRT (n = 51) between June 2008 and June 2013. For all subjects, disease-free survival was more than 3 years. QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) questions and the Head and Neck 35 (EORTC QLQ-H&N35) questions. RT had better outcomes than CCRT for global QoL, functional scales, symptom scales of fatigue and insomnia, financial problems, and weight gain. Survivors receiving 1 cycle of concurrent chemotherapy had worse QoL outcomes than survivors receiving 2 cycles of concurrent chemotherapy. Patients receiving 3 cycles of concurrent chemotherapy had the best QoL outcomes. Thus, CCRT adversely affects the QoL of patients with stage II NPC as compared to radiotherapy. PMID:28152511

  18. Choline and betaine intakes are associated with reduced risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in adults: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, F-f; Xu, C-h; Liu, Y-t; Fan, Y-y; Lin, X-l; Lu, Y-k; Zhang, C-x; Chen, Y-m

    2014-02-04

    Intakes of choline and betaine have been inversely related to the risk of various neoplasms, but scant data exist on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between consumption of choline and betaine and risk of NPC. We conducted a case-control study with 600 incident NPC patients and 600 controls 1 : 1 matched by age, sex and household type in Guangdong, China. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire through face-to-face interview. Intakes of total choline, betaine and choline+betaine were inversely related to NPC after adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors (all P-trend <0.001). Adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for quartile 4 (vs quartile 1) were 0.42 (0.29, 0.61) for total choline, 0.50 (0.35, 0.72) for betaine and 0.44 (0.30, 0.64) for betaine+total choline. Regarding various sources of choline, lower NPC risk was associated with greater intakes of choline from phosphatidylcholine, free choline, glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine, but not sphingomyelin. These findings are consistent with a beneficial effect of choline and betaine intakes on carcinogenesis.

  19. A pooled analysis of the IL-10-1082 A/G polymorphism and the nasopharyngeal carcinoma susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liping; Li, Shan; Lu, Yu; Zhang, Xiaolian; Zhao, Jiangyang; Qin, Xue

    2016-04-01

    It has been reported that IL-10-1082 A/G polymorphism might influence the transcription and secretion of IL10 and tumor development. While many studies have been conducted to investigate the association between IL-10-1082 A/G polymorphism and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in various populations, the results of these studies are still controversial. We aimed to explore this relationship through a cumulative meta-analysis. A search of the literature was performed using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE databases. The odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess this possible association. Six studies were included in the study. The meta-analysis reveals a significant effect in the allelic model (G vs. A: OR 1.516, 95 % CI 1.077-2.133, P heterogeneity = 0.003), dominant model (AG + GG vs. AA: OR = 1.770, 95 % CI 1.415-2.212, P heterogeneity = 0.169), and co-dominant model (AG vs. AA: OR = 1.747, 95 % CI 1.377-2.216, P heterogeneity = 0.491). Similarly, in the stratified analyses, significant effects were reported in studies of Asian populations. Our meta-analysis results suggest that the IL-10-1082 A/G variant is associated with increased risk of NPC in Asian populations.

  20. Grave’s disease induced by radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    MA, JIN-AN; LI, XUEZHEN; ZOU, WEN; ZHOU, YAN

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A number of thyroid dysfunctions are induced by damage resulting from the relatively high doses of radiation administered to the thyroid and pituitary gland during radiotherapy. Hypothyroidism constitutes the most frequent type of thyroid dysfunction induced by NPC radiotherapy, while hyperthyroidism, particularly Grave’s disease, is extremely rare. The present study describes the case of a 40-year-old male who presented with Grave’s disease 2 years after receiving radiotherapy for the treatment of NPC. The patient exhibited swelling of the eyes, an increased appetite, decreased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, increased levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) demonstrated by the examination of thyroid function and enlargement of the bilateral intraocular rectus revealed by CT scan. The patient’s symptoms were ameliorated following treatment with propylthiouracil and propranolol for 1 month, and the levels of T3 and T4 were restored to normal. The pathophysiological mechanism of radiotherapy-induced hyperthyroidism has yet to be elucidated. Hyperthyroidism is often neglected as several of its clinical manifestations are similar to other complications observed during and following cancer treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor thyroid function following head and neck radiotherapy. PMID:23946792

  1. Evaluation of the Dosimetric Feasibility of Hippocampal Sparing Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Hua; Denniston, Kyle A.; Li, Sicong; Tan, Wenyong; Wang, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric feasibility of using hippocampus (HPC) sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials/Methods Eight cases of either T3 or T4 NPC were selected for this study. Standard IMRT treatment plans were constructed using the volume and dose constraints for the targets and organs at risk (OAR) per Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0615 protocol. Experimental plans were constructed using the same criteria, with the addition of the HPC as an OAR. The two dose-volume histograms for each case were compared for the targets and OARs. Results All plans achieved the protocol dose criteria. The homogeneity index, conformity index, and coverage index for the planning target volumes (PTVs) were not significantly compromised by the avoidance of the HPC. The doses to all OARs, excluding the HPC, were similar. Both the dose (Dmax, D2%, D40%, Dmean, Dmedian, D98% and Dmin) and volume (V5, V10, V15, V20, V30, V40 and V50) parameters for the HPC were significantly lower in the HPC sparing plans (p<0.05), except for Dmin (P = 0.06) and V5 (P = 0.12). Conclusions IMRT for patients with locally advanced NPC exposes the HPC to a significant radiation dose. HPC sparing IMRT planning significantly decreases this dose, with minimal impact on the therapeutic targets and other OARs. PMID:24587184

  2. Xerostomia, salivary characteristics and gland volumes following intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a two-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Sim, Cpc; Soong, Y L; Pang, Epp; Lim, C; Walker, G D; Manton, D J; Reynolds, E C; Wee, Jts

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate changes in xerostomia status, salivary characteristics and gland volumes 2 years following radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Xerostomia scores, salivary flow rates, pH and buffering capacity were measured at pre-radiotherapy, mid-radiotherapy, 2 weeks, 3 months and 2 years post-radiotherapy. Salivary gland volumes and their correlation with radiation dose were also assessed. Mean radiation dose to oral cavity, parotid and submandibular glands (SMG) was 44.5, 65.0 and 38.6 Gy respectively. Parotid and SMG volumes decreased 33% at 3 months post-radiotherapy; volumes at 2 years post-radiotherapy were 84% and 51% of pre-radiotherapy levels, respectively. Correlations were observed between parotid gland volume per cent reduction and its radiation dose and between resting salivary flow rate reduction and post-radiotherapy/pre-radiotherapy SMG volume ratio. Salivary flow rates and resting saliva pH remained significantly low at 2 years post-radiotherapy (both flow rates, P = 0.001; resting saliva pH, P = 0.005). Similarly, xerostomia scores remained significantly higher compared with pre-radiotherapy levels. Submandibular gland volumetric shrinkage persisted 2 years after radiotherapy. Xerostomia scores remained significantly higher, and salivary flow rates and resting saliva pH remained significantly lower, suggesting that study participants were still at risk for hyposalivation-related oral diseases. © 2018 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Prevertebral space effusion caused by the breaking of swollen lymphonodi retropharynici in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lian-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-06-01

    A 20-year-old male presented to hospital with blood in the mucus, which had occurred for 6 months, and was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Due to passive smoking, the patient developed a constant and violent cough, pain behind the right ear and swelling of the retropharynx. The results of a computed tomography scan, which was performed during re-examination of the patient, revealed that the right lymphonodi retropharynici had decreased in size and the hypodense shadow of the prevertebral space had become clear. Therefore, the retropharyngeal pressure was suspected to be increased due to the violent cough. Consequently, the increased pressure may have caused the swollen lymph nodes on the right side of the pharynx to break, which allowed the necrotic liquid to seep into the prevertebral space and result in effusion. Subsequent to 5 days of treatment with methylprednisolone (40 mg ivgtt qd, d1-5), the results from the cone bean computed tomography examination, which had been performed prior to radiotherapy, indicated that the retropharyngeal swelling had improved and the prevertebral space had returned to normal. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first reported case of effusion in the prevertebral space caused by the breaking of swollen lymphonodi retropharynici in NPC. The present study acts as a reminder of the possible delays in the treatments for head and neck tumor patients that demonstrate swollen retropharyngeal lymph nodes due to the occurrence of effusion in the prevertebral space.

  4. Modulation of the tumor microenvironment by Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Kondo, Satoru; Endo, Kazuhira; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Aga, Mitsuharu; Kobayashi, Eiji; Hirai, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Hisashi; Hatano, Miyako; Ueno, Takayoshi; Ishikawa, Kazuya; Wakisaka, Naohiro

    2018-02-01

    Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a primary oncogene encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus, and various portions of LMP1 are detected in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tumor cells. LMP1 has been extensively studied since the discovery of its transforming property in 1985. LMP1 promotes cancer cell growth during NPC development and facilitates the interaction of cancer cells with surrounding stromal cells for invasion, angiogenesis, and immune modulation. LMP1 is detected in 100% of pre-invasive NPC tumors and in approximately 50% of advanced NPC tumors. Moreover, a small population of LMP1-expressing cells in advanced NPC tumor tissue is proposed to orchestrate NPC tumor tissue maintenance and development through cancer stem cells and progenitor cells. Recent studies suggest that LMP1 activity shifts according to tumor development stage, but it still has a pivotal role during all stages of NPC development. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  5. Establishment and Analysis of the 3-dimensional (3D) Spheroids Generated from the Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Line HK1.

    PubMed

    Muniandy, Kalaivani; Sankar, Prabu Siva; Xiang, Benedict Lian Shi; Soo-Beng, Alan Khoo; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Mohana-Kumaran, Nethia

    2016-11-01

    Spheroids have been shown to recapitulate the tumour in vivo with properties such as the tumour microenvironment, concentration gradients, and tumour phenotype. As such, it can serve as a platform for determining the growth and invasion behaviour pattern of the cancer cells as well as be utilised for drug sensitivity assays; capable of exhibiting results that are closer to what is observed in vivo compared to two-dimensional (2D) cell culture assays. This study focused on establishing a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model using the Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) cell line, HK1 and analysing its growth and invasion phenotypes. The spheroids will also serve as a model to elucidate their sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic drug, Flavopiridol. The liquid overlay method was employed to generate the spheroids which was embedded in bovine collagen I matrix for growth and invasion phenotypes observation. The HK1 cells formed compact spheroids within 72 hours. Our observation from the 3 days experiments revealed that the spheroids gradually grew and invaded into the collagen matrix, showing that the HK1 spheroids are capable of growth and invasion. Progressing from these experiments, the HK1 spheroids were employed to perform a drug sensitivity assay using the chemotherapeutic drug, Flavopiridol. The drug had a dose-dependent inhibition on spheroid growth and invasion.

  6. The apoptotic effect of Zoledronic acid on the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via ROS mediated chloride channel activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Gao, Hong; Yang, Xiaoya; Liang, Xiechou; Tan, Qiuchan; Chen, Zhanru; Zhao, Chan; Gu, Zhuoyu; Yu, Meisheng; Zheng, Yanfang; Huang, Yanqing; Zhu, Linyan; Jacob, Tim J C; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Lixin

    2018-06-08

    Zoledronic acid (ZA), a third-generation bisphosphonate, has been applied for treatment of bone metastases caused by malignant tumors. Recent studies have found its anti-cancer effects on various tumor cells. One of the mechanisms of anti-cancer effects of ZA is induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of ZA-induced apoptosis in tumor cells have not been clarified clearly. In this study, we investigated the roles of chloride channels in ZA-induced apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cells. Apoptosis and chloride current were induced by ZA and suppressed by chloride channel blockers. After the knockdown of ClC-3 expression by ClC-3 siRNA, ZA-induced chloride current and apoptosis were significantly suppressed, indicating that the chloride channel participated in ZA-induced apoptosis may be ClC-3. When reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (L-NAC), ZA-induced apoptosis and chloride current were blocked accordingly, suggesting that ZA induces apoptosis through promoting ROS production and subsequently activating chloride channel. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ren; Wu, Vincent W C; He, Binghui; Gao, Xiaoying; Xu, Zhenxi; Wang, Dandan; Yang, Zhining; Li, Mei; Lin, Zhixiong

    2018-05-18

    The objectives of this study were to build a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of radiation-induced hypothyroidism (RHT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients and to compare it with other four published NTCP models to evaluate its efficacy. Medical notes of 174 NPC patients after radiotherapy were reviewed. Biochemical hypothyroidism was defined as an elevated level of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) value with a normal or decreased level of serum free thyroxine (fT4) after radiotherapy. Logistic regression with leave-one-out cross-validation was performed to establish the NTCP model. Model performance was evaluated and compared by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in our NPC cohort. With a median follow-up of 24 months, 39 (22.4%) patients developed biochemical hypothyroidism. Gender, chemotherapy, the percentage thyroid volume receiving more than 50 Gy (V 50 ), and the maximum dose of the pituitary (P max ) were identified as the most predictive factors for RHT. A NTCP model based on these four parameters were developed. The model comparison was made in our NPC cohort and our NTCP model performed better in RHT prediction than the other four models. This study developed a four-variable NTCP model for biochemical hypothyroidism in NPC patients post-radiotherapy. Our NTCP model for RHT presents a high prediction capability. This is a retrospective study without registration.

  8. Risk of hypothyroidism among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with radiation therapy: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Yueh; Lin, Chun-Shu; Chao, Hsing-Lung; Huang, Wen-Yen; Su, Yu-Fu; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Tsai, I-Ju; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the incidence and risk of hypothyroidism among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiation therapy (RT). We identified 14,893 NPC patients and 16,105 other head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with RT without thyroidectomy from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. Each NPC patient was randomly frequency-matched with four individuals without NPC by age, sex, and index year. Competing-risk regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of hypothyroidism requiring thyroxin associated with NPC after RT. The risk of developing hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the NPC cohort than in the matched cohort (adjusted HR=14.35, 95% CI=11.85-17.37) and the HNC cohort (adjusted HR=2.06, 95% CI=1.69-2.52). Independent risk factors for hypothyroidism among NPC patients included younger age, female sex, higher urbanization level, autoimmune disease, and receipt of chemotherapy. The risk of hypothyroidism requiring thyroxin was significantly higher in NPC patients after RT than in the general Taiwanese population and HNC patients. Regular clinical and serum thyroid function tests are essential among NPC survivors after RT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. miR-491-5p suppresses cell growth and invasion by targeting Notch3 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Qiang; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Hui; Xu, Lin-Gen

    2016-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have critical roles in the progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a highly invasive and metastatic cancer that is widely prevalent in Southern China. miR-491-5p has been implicated in multiple types of cancer; however, its biological role and underlying mechanism in NPC have not been fully explored. In the present study, we found that miR-491-5p was downregulated in NPC tissues and cell lines compared with the corresponding normal counterparts. Overexpression of miR-491-5p significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Using miRNA target prediction algorithms and reporter assays, we showed that miR-491-5p suppressed Notch3 expression both at the mRNA and protein level through directly targeting the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Notch3 mRNA. Overexpression of Notch3 significantly reversed the tumor-suppressive effects of miR‑491-5p. Taken together, the present study reveals a mechanistic link between miR-491-5p and Notch3 in the pathogenesis of NPC and that miR-491-5p has potential as a therapeutic target for NPC.

  10. Construction of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma 2D/MS repository with Open Source XML database--Xindice.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Li, Maoyu; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Jianling; Chen, Zhuchu

    2006-01-11

    Many proteomics initiatives require integration of all information with uniformcriteria from collection of samples and data display to publication of experimental results. The integration and exchanging of these data of different formats and structure imposes a great challenge to us. The XML technology presents a promise in handling this task due to its simplicity and flexibility. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common cancers in southern China and Southeast Asia, which has marked geographic and racial differences in incidence. Although there are some cancer proteome databases now, there is still no NPC proteome database. The raw NPC proteome experiment data were captured into one XML document with Human Proteome Markup Language (HUP-ML) editor and imported into native XML database Xindice. The 2D/MS repository of NPC proteome was constructed with Apache, PHP and Xindice to provide access to the database via Internet. On our website, two methods, keyword query and click query, were provided at the same time to access the entries of the NPC proteome database. Our 2D/MS repository can be used to share the raw NPC proteomics data that are generated from gel-based proteomics experiments. The database, as well as the PHP source codes for constructing users' own proteome repository, can be accessed at http://www.xyproteomics.org/.

  11. Low BRMS1 expression promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis in vitro and in vivo and is associated with poor patient survival

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is a metastasis suppressor gene. This study aimed to investigate the impact of BRMS1 on metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to evaluate the prognostic significance of BRMS1 in NPC patients. Methods BRMS1 expression was examined in NPC cell lines using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. NPC cells stably expressing BRMS1 were used to perform wound healing and invasion assays in vitro and a murine xenograft assay in vivo. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in 274 paraffin-embedded NPC specimens divided into a training set (n = 120) and a testing set (n = 154). Results BRMS1 expression was down-regulated in NPC cell lines. Overexpression of BRMS1 significantly reversed the metastatic phenotype of NPC cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, low BRMS1 expression was associated with poor distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS, P < 0.001) and poor overall survival (OS, P < 0.001) in the training set; these results were validated in the testing set and overall patient population. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that low BRMS1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for DMFS and OS in NPC. Conclusions Low expression of the metastasis suppressor BRMS1 may be an independent prognostic factor for poor prognosis in NPC patients. PMID:22931099

  12. MicroRNA-132 sensitizes nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells to cisplatin through regulation of forkhead box A1 protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Ling; Zhao, Yi-Gang; Chen, Bin; Li, Xiao-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Chemoresistance in cancer is one of the major hindrances in cisplatin (DPP) treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The mechanism of such resistance remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to clarify the mechanism of DDP resistance and attempted to reduce chemoresistance. Here, we found that miR-132, as a tumor suppressor, was poorly expressed in a cisplatin resistant CNE2 cell line (CNE2/DPP) accompanied with a decreased expression of miR-132 and an increased expression of FOXA1 compared with the parental cells CNE2. Exogenous overexpression of miR-132 in CNE2/DPP could sensitize their reaction to the treatment of cisplatin. In addition, FOXA1 knockdown in CNE2/DPP cells increased the chemosensitivity to DPP, suggesting the dependence of FOXA1 regulation in miR-132 activity. Moreover, miR-132 can restore cisplatin treatment response in cisplatin-resistant xenografts in vivo, while FOXA1 protein levels were decreased. In summary, our results provide novel mechanistic insights into the role of miR-132/FOXA1 signaling in the cisplatin resistance of NPC cells. Targeting of miR-132 is a potential therapeutic approach for NPC.

  13. The effect of EBV on WIF1, NLK, and APC gene methylation and expression in gastric carcinoma and nasopharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Wen; Liu, Jincheng; Wang, Jiayi; Luo, Bing

    2017-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important DNA tumor virus that is associated with approximately 10% of gastric carcinomas and 99% of nasopharyngeal cancers (NPC). DNA methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most studied epigenetic mechanisms that can prompt disease susceptibility. This study aimed to detect the effect of EBV on Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), Nemo-like kinase (NLK), and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene methylation, and expression in gastric carcinoma and NPC. The WIF1, NLK, and APC gene mRNA expression levels were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in four EBV-positive cell lines and four EBV-negative cell lines. Bisulfite genomic sequencing or methylation-specific PCR was used to detect the methylation status of the WIF1, NLK, and APC promoters. All cell lines were treated with 5-azacytidine (5-aza-dC), miR-BART19-3p mimics or an inhibitor, and analyzed by flow cytometry and MTT cell proliferation assays. The WIF1, NLK, and APC promoters were hypermethylated in all eight cell lines. 5-Aza-dC displayed a growth inhibitory effect on cells . After transfection with miR-BART19-3p mimics, the expression of WIF1, and APC decreased, and the cellular proliferation rate increased. After transfection with the miR-BART19-3p inhibitor, the expression levels were higher, and the cell growth was inhibited. In the NPC and GC cell lines, the promoters of WIF1, NLK, and APC are highly methylated, and the expression of these three genes is regulated by miR-BART19-3p. The activity of the Wnt pathway in EBV-associated tumors may be enhanced by miR-BART19-3p. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Various 30 and 69 bp deletion variants of the Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 may arise by homologous recombination in nasopharyngeal carcinoma of Tunisian patients.

    PubMed

    Hadhri-Guiga, Boutheina; Khabir, Abdel-Majid; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja; Ghorbel, Abdel-Monem; Drira, Mohamed; Daoud, Jamel; Frikha, Mounir; Jlidi, Rachid; Gargouri, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) occurs with a striking geographic distribution, it is endemic in certain areas of Southeast Asia and North Africa. NPC is tightly linked to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), however, only a small subset of EBV genes are expressed, among them the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). LMP1 is considered as the main EBV oncoprotein and its 30 bp deleted-variant has been reported to be more prevalent in biopsies of NPC. We have assessed the 30 bp deletion and the XhoI polymorphisms of the BNLF1 gene in 30 peripheral bloods of NPC patients and 62 nasopharyngeal biopsies, 42 being confirmed as undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 20 are normal nasopharyngeal epithelium cells. Our results show that 100% of individuals retained the XhoI restriction site. A rare NPC variant, having a 69 bp deletion in the C-terminus region of the BNLF1 gene, covering the 30 bp deletion, was found in two NPC biopsies. The deleted 30 and 69 bp deleted-variants are significantly (p = 0.006) more frequent in NPC (71.42%) than in control biopsies (52%). In peripheral blood of NPC patients, the deleted-variants (47%) are also lower than in tumor tissues (p = 0.0004), suggesting that the deletion could be associated with a risk of tumor genesis. Direct repeats, located at the extremities of the 30 and 69 bp deletions, should be involved in this process. We propose that other deletions could be found since another similar direct repeat is present at the vicinity of the former ones.

  15. Early stages of zeolite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep

    Zeolites are crystalline nonporous aluminosilicates with important applications in separation, purification, and adsorption of liquid and gaseous molecules. However, an ability to tailor the zeolite microstructure, such as particle size/shape and pore-size, to make it benign for specific application requires control over nucleation and particle growth processes. But, the nucleation and crystallization mechanisms of zeolites are not fully understood. In this context, the synthesis of an all-silica zeolite with MFI-type framework has been studied extensively as a model system. Throughout chapters 2, 4 and 5, MFI growth process has been investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Of fundamental importance is the role of nanoparticles (~5 nm), which are present in the precursor sol, in MFI nucleation and crystallization. Formation of amorphous aggregates and their internal restructuring are concluded as essential steps in MFI nucleation. Early stage zeolite particles have disordered and less crystalline regions within, which indicates the role of structurally distributed population of nanoparticles in growth. Faceting occurs after the depletion of nanoparticles. The chapter 6 presents growth studies in silica sols prepared by using a dimer of tertaprpylammonium (TPA) and reports that MFI nucleation and crystallization are delayed with a more pronounced delay in crystal growth.

  16. RERG suppresses cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis through ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weilin; Ma, Ning; Wang, Shumin; Mo, Yingxi; Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Guangwu; Midorikawa, Kaoru; Hiraku, Yusuke; Oikawa, Shinji; Murata, Mariko; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-28

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy of the head and neck that is prevalent in Southeast Asia and southern China. Recent studies in epigenetics suggest that DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in the onset and progression of cancer. Combining the methyl-DNA binding domain capture technique and cDNA microarray analysis, we identified a unique hypermethylated gene, RERG (Ras-like estrogen-regulated growth inhibitor), that was down-regulated in NPC tissues. RERG is a tumor suppressor gene that was first reported in breast cancer. However, the functions of RERG are largely unknown in other tumor types. RERG expression was assessed in human subjects (NPC primary tissues and non-cancer tissues) and cell lines (NPC cell lines and an immortalized epithelial cell line NP460). Further, we investigated the methylation rate of RERG in both human subject and cell lines. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza) or combined with trichostatin A (TSA) were treated to three NPC cell lines (HK1, C666-1 and HK1_EBV). In addition, the role of RERG in NPC cells and its underlying mechanisms were explored by overexpression of RERG in NPC cell lines. RERG was significantly down-regulated in NPC cancer nests compared to normal nasopharyngeal epithelium cells. Furthermore, the RERG promoter was frequently methylated in NPC tissues and cell lines. The RERG methylation rate yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.897 (95%CI: 0.818-0.976). The down-regulation of RERG was restored in NPC cells treated with Aza and TSA. In addition, ectopic expression of RERG in NPC cell lines resulted in a significant suppression of cell proliferation, clonogenicity, migration and invasion. RERG-overexpressing cells showed significantly slower growth and less angiogenesis in tumor xenografts in nude mice. RERG suppressed the ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway and inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis with down-regulation of MMPs and IL8 in tumors of nude mouse

  17. The distinctive profile of risk factors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in comparison with other head and neck cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Abdulamir, AS; Hafidh, RR; Abdulmuhaimen, N; Abubakar, F; Abbas, KA

    2008-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and other head and neck cancer (HNCA) types show a great epidemiological variation in different regions of the world. NPC has multifactorial etiology and many interacting risk factors are involved in NPC development mainly Epstein Barr virus (EBV). There is a need to scrutinize the complicated network of risk factors affecting NPC and how far they are different from that of other HNCA types. Methods 122 HNCA patients and 100 control subjects were studied in the region of the Middle East. Three types of HNCA were involved in our study, NPC, carcinoma of larynx (CL), and hypopharyngeal carcinoma (HPC). The risk factors studied were the level of EBV serum IgG and IgA antibodies measured by ELISA, age, sex, smoking, alcohol intake, histology, and family history of the disease. Results EBV serum level of IgG and IgA antibodies was higher in NPC than CL, HPC, and control groups (p < 0.01). NPC was associated with lymphoepithelioma (LE) tumors, males, regular alcohol intake, and regular smoking while CL and HPC were not (p < 0.05). CL and HPC were associated with SCC tumors (p < 0.05). Furthermore, NPC, unlike CL and HPC groups, was not affected by the positive family history of HNCA (p > 0.05). The serum levels of EBV IgG and IgA antibodies were higher in LE tumors, regular smokers, younger patients, and negative family history groups of NPC patients than SCC tumors, non-regular smokers, older patients and positive family history groups respectively (p < 0.05) while this was not found in the regular alcoholics (p > 0.05). Conclusion It was concluded that risk factors of NPC deviate much from that of other HNCA. EBV, smoking, alcohol intake, LE tumors, male patient, and age > 54 years were hot risk factors of NPC while SCC and positive family history of the disease were not. Earlier incidence, smoking, LE tumors, and negative family history of the disease in NPC patients were associated much clearly with EBV. It is proposed that

  18. Development and validation of a gene expression-based signature to predict distant metastasis in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin-Ran; Li, Ying-Qin; Liang, Shao-Bo; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fang; Ge, Wen-Xiu; Tang, Ling-Long; Mao, Yan-Ping; He, Qing-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Yuan; Wen, Xin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Sun, Ying; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zeng, Jing; Li, Li; Liu, Li-Zhi; Liu, Na; Ma, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Gene expression patterns can be used as prognostic biomarkers in various types of cancers. We aimed to identify a gene expression pattern for individual distant metastatic risk assessment in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In this multicentre, retrospective, cohort analysis, we included 937 patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma from three Chinese hospitals: the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China), the Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University (Guilin, China), and the First People's Hospital of Foshan (Foshan, China). Using microarray analysis, we profiled mRNA gene expression between 24 paired locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumours from patients at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center with or without distant metastasis after radical treatment. Differentially expressed genes were examined using digital expression profiling in a training cohort (Guangzhou training cohort; n=410) to build a gene classifier using a penalised regression model. We validated the prognostic accuracy of this gene classifier in an internal validation cohort (Guangzhou internal validation cohort, n=204) and two external independent cohorts (Guilin cohort, n=165; Foshan cohort, n=158). The primary endpoint was distant metastasis-free survival. Secondary endpoints were disease-free survival and overall survival. We identified 137 differentially expressed genes between metastatic and non-metastatic locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues. A distant metastasis gene signature for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (DMGN) that consisted of 13 genes was generated to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups in the training cohort. Patients with high-risk scores in the training cohort had shorter distant metastasis-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 4·93, 95% CI 2·99-8·16; p<0·0001), disease-free survival (HR 3·51, 2·43-5·07; p<0·0001), and overall

  19. The time frame of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 gene to disappear in nasopharyngeal swabs after initiation of primary radiotherapy is an independently significant prognostic factor predicting local control for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciT

    Lin, S.-Y.; Chang, K.-P.; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan

    Purpose: The presence of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene in nasopharyngeal swabs indicates the presence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mucosal tumor cells. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the time taken for LMP-1 to disappear after initiation of primary radiotherapy (RT) was inversely associated with NPC local control. Methods and Materials: During July 1999 and October 2002, there were 127 nondisseminated NPC patients receiving serial examinations of nasopharyngeal swabbing with detection of LMP-1 during the RT course. The time for LMP-1 regression was defined as the number of days after initiation of RT for LMP-1 results tomore » turn negative. The primary outcome was local control, which was represented by freedom from local recurrence. Results: The time for LMP-1 regression showed a statistically significant influence on NPC local control both univariately (p < 0.0001) and multivariately (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, the administration of chemotherapy conferred a significantly more favorable local control (p = 0.03). Advanced T status ({>=} T2b), overall treatment time of external photon radiotherapy longer than 55 days, and older age showed trends toward being poor prognosticators. The time for LMP-1 regression was very heterogeneous. According to the quartiles of the time for LMP-1 regression, we defined the pattern of LMP-1 regression as late regression if it required 40 days or more. Kaplan-Meier plots indicated that the patients with late regression had a significantly worse local control than those with intermediate or early regression (p 0.0129). Conclusion: Among the potential prognostic factors examined in this study, the time for LMP-1 regression was the most independently significant factor that was inversely associated with NPC local control.« less

  20. [In vitro study of joint intervention of E-cad and Bmi-1 mediated by transcription activator-like effector nuclease in nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Luo, Tingting; Yan, Aifen; Liu, Lian; Jiang, Hong; Feng, Cuilan; Liu, Guannan; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dongsheng; Zhou, Tianhong

    2018-03-28

    To explore the effect of intervention of E-cadherin (E-cad) and B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (Bmi-1) mediated by transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) on the biological behaviors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
 Methods: Multi-locus gene targeting vectors pUC-DS1-CMV-E-cad-2A-Neo-DS2 and pUC-DS1-Bmi-1 shRNA-Zeo-DS2 were constructed, and the E-cad and Bmi-1 targeting vectors were transferred with TALEN plasmids to CNE-2 cells individually or simultaneously. The integration of target genes were detected by PCR, the expressions of E-cad and Bmi-1 were detected by Western blot. The changes of cell proliferation were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. The cell migration and invasion were detected by Transwell assay.
 Results: The E-cad and Bmi-1 shRNA expression elements were successfully integrated into the genome of CNE-2 cells, the protein expression level of E-cad was up-regulated, and the protein expression level of Bmi-1 was down-regulated. The intervention of E-cad and Bmi-1 didn't affect the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of CNE-2 cells, but it significantly inhibited the migration and invasion ability of CNE-2 cells. Furthermore, the intervention of E-cad and Bmi-1 together significantly inhibited the migration ability of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells compared with the intervention of E-cad or Bmi-1 alone (all P<0.01).
 Conclusion: The joint intervention of E-cad and Bmi-1 mediated by TALEN can effectively inhibit the migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro, which may lay the preliminary experimental basis for gene therapy of human cancer.

  1. SU-E-T-302: Dosimetric Comparison Between Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy and Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciT

    Lu, J-Y; Huang, B-T; Zhang, J-Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) technique with fixed-gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: CT datasets of eleven nasopharyngeal-carcinoma patients were included. Dual-arc VMAT and seven-field IMRT plans were created for each case, and were then compared in terms of conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) of the planning target volume (PTV), organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, monitor unit (MU) and delivery time. Results: The D98% (near-minimal dose) of PTV in the VMAT plans was slightly lower than that of the IMRT plans (P < 0.05), while the CI was higher than that of themore » IMRT plans (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the HI between the two plans (P > 0.05). Compared with the IMRT plans, the VMAT plans demonstrated lower Dmean (mean dose) of the bilateral temporal lobes and the whole surrounding normal tissue (P < 0.05), but slightly higher Dmean of brainstem (P < 0.05). In terms of the other OARs, no significant differences were found (P > 0.05). The MUs of the VMAT plans (672 ± 112) was significantly lower than that of the IMRT plans (917 ± 206), by 25 ± 13% (P < 0.05). The average delivery time of the VMAT plans (2.3 ± 0.1 min) was less than that of the IMRT plans (5.1 ± 0.4 min), by 54 ± 3%. Conclusion: For locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the VMAT technique could achieve equivalent or superior dose distribution of the target and better protect the bilateral temporal lobes, compared with the IMRT technique. Moreover, it could reduce the MU and delivery time effectively.« less

  2. Involvement of Difference in Decrease of Hemoglobin Level in Poor Prognosis of Stage I and II Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Implication in Outcome of Radiotherapy

    SciT

    Gao Jin; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou; Department of Radiation Oncology, Anhui provincial hospital, Hefei

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the difference in its decrease during treatment on outcome of radiotherapy (RT) alone for patients with Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 572 patients with Stage I-II nasopharyngeal carcinoma with RT alone between January 2001 and December 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. Patient characteristics, tumor variables, and Hb level, including pre-RT Hb, mid-RT Hb, and dynamic change of Hb between pre- and post- RT and its difference in decrease ( White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb) were subjected to univariate and multivariable analysis to identify factors that predict disease-specificmore » survival (DSS), local regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and metastases-free survival (MFS). Results: The 5-year DSS was poorer in the Hb continuous decrease group than in the Hb noncontinuous decrease group (84% vs. 89%; p = 0.008). There was poorer 5-year DSS in patients with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of >11.5 g/L than in those with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of {<=}11.5 g/L (82% vs. 89%; p = 0.001), and poorer LRFS (79% vs. 83%; p = 0.035). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that Hb decrease difference with greater than 11.5 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for DSS and LRFS. Conclusions: The difference in decrease of Hb level during the course of radiation treatment appeared as a poor prognostic factor in Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.« less

  3. XRCC3 polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing radiation-induced late xerostomia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with intensity modulation radiated therapy.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Song, Tao; Yu, Wei; Zhao, Ruping; Wang, Yong; Xie, Ruifei; Chen, Tian; Wu, Bo; Wu, Shixiu

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of radiation-induced late xerostomia varies greatly in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA repair and fibroblast proliferation may be correlated with such variability. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the association between the risk of developing radiation-induced late xerostomia and four genetic polymorphisms: TGFβ1 C-509T, TGFβ1 T869C, XRCC3 722C>T and ATM 5557G>A in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with Intensity Modulation Radiated Therapy. The severity of late xerostomia was assessed using a patient self-reported validated xerostomia questionnaire. Polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction methods were performed to determine individual genetic polymorphism. The development of radiation-induced xerostomia associated with genetic polymorphisms was modeled using Cox proportional hazards, accounting for equivalent uniform dose. A total of 43 (41.7%) patients experienced radiation-induced late xerostomia. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses showed a higher risk of late xerostomia for patients with XRCC3 722 TT/CT alleles. In multivariate analysis adjusted for clinical and dosimetric factors, XRCC3 722C>T polymorphisms remained a significant factor for higher risk of late xerostomia. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrated an association between genetic polymorphisms and the risk of radiation-induced late xerostomia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with Intensity Modulation Radiated Therapy. Our findings suggest that the polymorphisms in XRCC3 are significantly associated with the risk of developing radiation-induced late xerostomia.

  4. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Prognosis of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Patients with and without a History of Radiation for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Li; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yong; Shen, Jing-Xian; Liu, Qing; Liu, Meng-Zhong; Xi, Mian

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies reported an association between an increased risk of tongue cancer and radiation treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study compared the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) in patients with and without a history of radiotherapy for NPC. From 1965 to 2009, a total of 73 patients were diagnosed with TSCC with a history of radiotherapy for NPC. The patients were matched in a 1:3 ratio with patients with sporadic TSCC according to age, sex, and year of the TSCC diagnosis. The primary endpoint was the overall survival. The median interval from NPC to TSCC was 82 months. The NPC survivors were more likely to be diagnosed with a more advanced T classification, less likely to have lymph node involvement, and more likely to have the tumor located in the dorsum of the tongue than sporadic TSCC. Regarding the histologic characteristics, the NPC survivors were more likely to have a weak lymphocytic host response, low tumor budding, and low risk of a worse pattern of invasion. The sporadic TSCC patients had a better overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.690; p=0.033) than the NPC survivors. In competing risks analysis, the cumulative incidence functions for the competing event (documented non-tongue cancer death) were significantly higher in the NPC survivors (Gray's test, p=0.001). TSCC patients with a history of radiotherapy for NPC appear to have particular clinicopathologic features, a poorer survival, and are more likely to die from non-tongue cancer causes than those with sporadic TSCC.

  5. A prospective protocol for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children and adolescents: the Italian Rare Tumors in Pediatric Age (TREP) project.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Michela; Bisogno, Gianni; Gandola, Lorenza; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Basso, Eleonora; Indolfi, Paolo; D'Angelo, Paolo; Favini, Francesca; Collini, Paola; Potepan, Paolo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2012-05-15

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is very rare in childhood. It differs from its adult counterpart in the prevalence of the nonkeratinizing, undifferentiated subtype and by an advanced clinical stage at onset and better chances of survival. The risk of long-term treatment-related toxicity also may be a more important issue in younger individuals. A prospective chemoradiotherapy protocol for pediatric NPC was started in Italy in 2000 within the framework of the Rare Tumors in Pediatric Age (TREP) project. Three courses of cisplatin/5-fluorouracil induction chemotherapy were followed by radiotherapy (doses up to 65 grays) with concomitant cisplatin. Forty-six patients (ages 9-17 years) were considered eligible for the study over a 10-year period. The ratio of observed to expected cases based on epidemiological data was approximately 1 for both children and adolescents. All but 1 patient had lymph node involvement, and 5 patients had distant metastases. The rate of response to primary chemotherapy was 90%. The 5-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 80.9% and 79.3%, respectively (median follow-up, 62 months). The only statistically significant prognostic variable was the presence or absence of distant metastases. A 65% incidence of late sequelae was reported. This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of a prospective protocol even for such rare tumors as pediatric NPC. The use of lower radiotherapy doses than those used in adults did not affect locoregional failure rates. Long-term follow-up will be needed to obtain more information on both survival and treatment sequelae. The next objective will be to establish broader, international prospective cooperation schemes. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  6. Effect of edaravone on radiation-induced brain necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yamei; Rong, Xiaoming; Hu, Weihan; Li, Guoqian; Yang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Jianhua; Xu, Pengfei; Luo, Jinjun

    2014-11-01

    Excessive generation of free radicals plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced brain injury. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, on radiation-induced brain necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eligible patients were randomized 1:1 to the control group and the edaravone group (intravenous 30 mg twice per day for 2 weeks). Both groups received intravenous conventional steroid therapy and were monitored by brain MRI and LENT/SOMA scales prior to the entry of the trial and at 3-months after completing the trial. The primary end point was a 3-month response rate of the proportional changes determined by MRI. The trial is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01865201. Between 2009 and 2012, we enrolled 154 patients. Of whom 137 were eligible for analysis. The volumes of necrosis estimated on T(2)-weighted image showed that 55.6 % edaravone-treated patients (40 out of 72) showed edema decreases ≥25 %, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (35.4 %, 23 out of 65, p = 0.025). Forty-four patients treated with edaravone (61.1 %) reported improvement in neurologic symptoms and signs evaluated by LENT/SOMA scales, while the rate was 38.5 % in the control group (p = 0.006). MRI of the edaravone group showed a significant decrease in area of T(1)-weighted contrast enhancement (1.67 ± 4.69 cm(2), p = 0.004) and the T(2)-weighted edema (5.08 ± 10.32 cm(2), p = 0.000). Moreover, compared with those in control group, patients with edaravone exhibited significantly better radiological improvement measured by T(2)-weighted image (p = 0.042). Administration of edaravone, in adjunct to steroid regimen, might provide a better outcome in patients with radiation-induced brain necrosis.

  7. Dosimetric Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Stereotactic Radiotherapy With Other Stereotactic Techniques for Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciT

    Kung, Shiris Wai Sum; Wu, Vincent Wing Cheung; Kam, Michael Koon Ming, E-mail: kamkm@yahoo.co

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients can be salvaged by reirradiation with a substantial degree of radiation-related complications. Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is widely used in this regard because of its rapid dose falloff and high geometric precision. The aim of this study was to examine whether the newly developed intensity-modulated stereotactic radiotherapy (IMSRT) has any dosimetric advantages over three other stereotactic techniques, including circular arc (CARC), static conformal beam (SmMLC), and dynamic conformal arc (mARC), in treating locally recurrent NPC. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography images of 32 patients with locally recurrent NPC, previously treated with SRT, were retrievedmore » from the stereotactic planning system for contouring and computing treatment plans. Treatment planning of each patient was performed for the four treatment techniques: CARC, SmMLC, mARC, and IMSRT. The conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) of the planning target volume (PTV) and doses to the organs at risk (OARs) and normal tissue were compared. Results: All four techniques delivered adequate doses to the PTV. IMSRT, SmMLC, and mARC delivered reasonably conformal and homogenous dose to the PTV (CI <1.47, HI <0.53), but not for CARC (p < 0.05). IMSRT presented with the smallest CI (1.37) and HI (0.40). Among the four techniques, IMSRT spared the greatest number of OARs, namely brainstem, temporal lobes, optic chiasm, and optic nerve, and had the smallest normal tissue volume in the low-dose region. Conclusion: Based on the dosimetric comparison, IMSRT was optimal for locally recurrent NPC by delivering a conformal and homogenous dose to the PTV while sparing OARs.« less

  8. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Clinical correlation of dose to the pharyngo-esophageal axis and dysphagia

    SciT

    Fua, Tsien F.; Corry, June; Milner, Alvin D.

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to quantify the dose delivered to the pharyngo-esophageal axis using different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques for treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to correlate this with acute swallowing toxicity. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 28 patients treated with IMRT between February 2002 and August 2005: 20 with whole field IMRT (WF-IMRT) and 8 with IMRT fields junctioned with an anterior neck field with central shielding (j-IMRT). Dose to the pharyngo-esophageal axis was measured using dose-volume histograms. Acute swallowing toxicity was assessed by review of dysphagia grade during treatment and enteralmore » feeding requirements. Results: The mean pharyngo-esophageal dose was 55.2 Gy in the WF-IMRT group and 27.2 Gy in the j-IMRT group, p < 0.001. Ninety-five percent (19/20) of the WF-IMRT group developed Grade 3 dysphagia compared with 62.5% (5/8) of the j-IMRT group, p = 0.06. Feeding tube duration was a median of 38 days for the WF-IMRT group compared with 6 days for the j-IMRT group, p = 0.04. Conclusions: Clinical vigilance must be maintained when introducing new technology to ensure that unanticipated adverse effects do not result. Although newer planning systems can reduce the dose to the pharyngo-esophageal axis with WF-IMRT, the j-IMRT technique is preferred at least in patients with no gross disease in the lower neck.« less

  9. Wogonin induces cross-regulation between autophagy and apoptosis via a variety of Akt pathway in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chow, Shu-Er; Chen, Yu-Wen; Liang, Chi-Ang; Huang, Yao-Kuan; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2012-11-01

    Autophagy as well as apoptosis is an emerging target for cancer therapy. Wogonin, a flavonoid compound derived from the traditional Chinese medicine of Huang-Qin, has anticancer activity in many cancer cells including human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the involvement of autophagy in the wogonin-induced apoptosis of NPC cells was still uninvestigated. In this study, we found wogonin-induced autophagy had interference on the process of apoptosis. Wogonin-induced autophagy formation evidenced by LC3 I/II cleavage, acridine orange (AO)-stained vacuoles and the autophagosome/autolysosome images of TEM analysis. Activation of autophagy with rapamycin resulted in increased wogonin-mediated autophagy via inhibition of mTOR/P70S6K pathway. The functional relevance of autophagy in the antitumor activity was investigated by annexin V-positive stained cells and PARP cleavage. Induction of autophagy by rapamycin ameliorated the wogonin-mediated apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or bafilomycin A1 increased the apoptotic effect. Interestingly, this study also found, in addition the mTOR/P70S6K pathway, wogonin also inhibited Raf/ERK pathway, a variety of Akt pathways. Inactivation of PI(3) K/Akt by their inhibitors significantly induced apoptosis and markedly sensitized the NPC cells to wogonin-induced apoptosis. This anticancer effect of Akt was further confirmed by SH6, a specific inhibitor of Akt. Importantly, inactivation of its downstream molecule ERK by PD98059, a MEK inhibitor, also induced apoptosis. This study indicated wogonin-induced both autophagy and apoptosis through a variety of Akt pathways and suggested modulation of autophagy might provide profoundly the potential therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Berberine suppresses tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by inhibiting STAT3 activation induced by tumor associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Chi Man; Cheung, Yuk Chun; Lui, Vivian Wai-Yan; Yip, Yim Ling; Zhang, Guitao; Lin, Victor Weitao; Cheung, Kenneth Chat-Pan; Feng, Yibin; Tsao, Sai Wah

    2013-12-31

    Cortidis rhizoma (Huanglian) and its major therapeutic component, berberine, have drawn extensive attention in recent years for their anti-cancer properties. Growth inhibitory effects of berberine on multiple types of human cancer cells have been reported. Berberine inhibits invasion, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cancer cells. The anti-inflammatory property of berberine, involving inhibition of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) activation, has also been documented. In this study, we have examined the effects of berberine on tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells and their relationship to STAT3 signaling using both in vivo and in vitro models. Berberine effectively inhibited the tumorigenicity and growth of an EBV-positive NPC cell line (C666-1) in athymic nude mice. Inhibition of tumorigenic growth of NPC cells in vivo was correlated with effective inhibition of STAT3 activation in NPC cells inside the tumor xenografts grown in nude mice. In vitro, berberine inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in NPC cells. Inhibition of STAT3 activation by berberine induced growth inhibition and apoptotic response in NPC cells. Tumor-associated fibroblasts were found to secret IL-6 and the conditioned medium harvested from the fibroblasts also induced STAT3 activation in NPC cells. Furthermore, STAT3 activation by conditioned medium of tumor-associated fibroblasts could be blocked by berberine or antibodies against IL-6 and IL-6R. Our observation that berberine effectively inhibited activation of STAT3 induced by tumor-associated fibroblasts suggests a role of berberine in modulating the effects of tumor stroma on the growth of NPC cells. The effective inhibition of STAT3 activation in NPC cells by berberine supports its potential use in the treatment of NPC.

  11. Prognosticators and risk grouping in patients with lung metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a more accurate and appropriate assessment of prognosis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xun; Luo, Rong-Zhen; He, Li-Ru; Li, Yong; Lin, Wen-Qian; Chen, You-Fang; Wen, Zhe-Sheng

    2011-08-26

    Lung metastases arising from nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) have a relatively favourable prognosis. The purpose of this study was to identify the prognostic factors and to establish a risk grouping in patients with lung metastases from NPC. A total of 198 patients who developed lung metastases from NPC after primary therapy were retrospectively recruited from January 1982 to December 2000. Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical variables were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Actuarial survival rates were plotted against time using the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank testing was used to compare the differences between the curves. The median overall survival (OS) period and the lung metastasis survival (LMS) period were 51.5 and 20.9 months, respectively. After univariate and multivariate analyses of the clinical variables, age, T classification, N classification, site of metastases, secondary metastases and disease-free interval (DFI) correlated with OS, whereas age, VCA-IgA titre, number of metastases and secondary metastases were related to LMS. The prognoses of the low- (score 0-1), intermediate- (score 2-3) and high-risk (score 4-8) subsets based on these factors were significantly different. The 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rates of the low-, intermediate- and high-risk subsets, respectively (P < 0.001) were as follows: 77.3%, 60% and 59%; 52.3%, 30% and 27.8%; and 20.5%, 7% and 0%. In this study, clinical variables provided prognostic indicators of survival in NPC patients with lung metastases. Risk subsets would help in a more accurate assessment of a patient's prognosis in the clinical setting and could facilitate the establishment of patient-tailored medical strategies and supports.

  12. Intensive chemotherapy plus recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor support for distant metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wang, C H; Wang, H M; Chen, J S; Chang, W J; Lai, G M

    1997-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been shown to be highly responsive to chemotherapy. The major limiting toxicity was myelotoxicity. Recently, the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in reducing chemotherapy-induced neutropenic sepsis has been well established. In this study, we tested whether recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) could effectively support the bone marrow function in both previously untreated and pretreated metastatic NPC patients receiving intensive chemotherapy. Twelve patients with distant metastatic disease, 5 newly diagnosed (group A) and 7 pretreated patients (group B), were enrolled to receive BEC (bleomycin, epirubicin and cisplatin), followed by rhG-CSF support (50 microg/m2 s.c. daily for 10 days) every 4 weeks for two cycles. Four patients in group A completed the treatment as scheduled while only 2 patients in group B did. After the first treatment cycle, 6 patients (50%) had grade III-IV myelosuppression. Five of the patients were from group B. The mean values of the white cell count nadir were 2,680 (range 1,200-3,700) in group A and 1,343 (range 400-2,900) in group B (p = 0.0386). Neutropenia-associated fever occurred in 7 patients, 6 of whom had received previous treatment. There were 2 deaths due to toxicity, and both patients had liver metastases within 6 months following radiation. After 24 months of follow-up, only 1 patient is still alive. Our preliminary results suggest that in previously treated metastatic NPC patients, bone marrow suppression is still the major limiting toxic side effect of aggressive chemotherapy, especially for those patients with liver recurrences within 6 months after irradiation and despite rhG-CSF support.

  13. Comprehensive Pathway-Based Association Study of DNA Repair Gene Variants and the Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hai-De; Shugart, Yin Yao; Bei, Jin-Xin; Pan, Qing-Hua; Chen, Lina; Feng, Qi-Sheng; Chen, Li-Zhen; Huang, Wei; Liu, Jian Jun; Jorgensen, Timothy J.; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2011-01-01

    DNA repair plays a central role in protecting against environmental carcinogenesis, and genetic variants of DNA repair genes have been reported to be associated with several human malignancies. To assess whether DNA gene variants were associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk, a candidate gene association study was conducted among the Cantonese population within the Guangdong Province, China --the ethnic group with the highest risk for NPC. A two-stage study design was utilized. In the discovery stage, 676 tagging SNPs covering 88 DNA repair genes were genotyped in a matched case-control study (cases/controls = 755/755). Eleven SNPs with Ptrend <0.01 were identified. Seven of these SNPs were located within three genes, RAD51L1, BRCA2 and TP53BP1. In the validation stage, these 11 SNPs were genotyped in a separate Cantonese population (cases/controls = 1,568/1,297). Two of the SNPs (rs927220 and rs11158728) – both in RAD51L1 – remained strongly associated with NPC. The SNP rs927220 had a significant Pcombined of 5.55 × 10−5, with OR = 1.20 (95%CI = 1.10 to 1.30), Bonferroni corrected P = 0.0381. The other SNP (rs11158728), which is in strong LD with rs927220 (r2 = 0.7), had a significant Pcombined of 2.0 × 10−4, Bonferroni corrected P = 0.1372. Gene-environment interaction analysis suggested that the exposures of salted-fish consumption and cigarette smoking had potential interactions with DNA repair gene variations, but need to be further investigated. Our findings support the notion that DNA repair genes, in particular RAD51L1, play a role in NPC etiology and development. PMID:21368091

  14. Sibship size, birth order and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and infectious mononucleosis: a nationwide study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiwei; Fang, Fang; Chang, Ellen T; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ye, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    The aetiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains enigmatic in endemic and non-endemic areas. Early-life infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may predispose to NPC development, whereas delayed primary infection with EBV may cause infectious mononucleosis (IM). We used Swedish population and health registers to investigate whether potential indicators of early EBV infection, such as birth order, sibship size, maternal age and paternal age, are related to the subsequent risks for NPC and IM. We conducted two nested case-control studies, one for each health outcome, based on 251 NPC case patients, 11 314 IM case patients and five population control subjects per case matched by birth year and sex. We used conditional logistic regression modelling to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NPC and IM. The multivariate-adjusted ORs of developing NPC increased with number of siblings; the ORs associated with having one, two and three or more siblings, compared with none, were 1.59 (95% CI = 0.97, 2.62), 1.94 (95% CI = 1.17, 3.22), and 2.03 (95% CI = 1.23, 3.35), respectively (Ptrend = 0.006). This increased risk of NPC was explained mainly by having older rather than younger siblings. In contrast, lower risks of IM were observed among individuals with an increasing number of older siblings, younger siblings and total siblings. Early-life social environment, possibly related to EBV infection, contributes to NPC pathogenesis in non-endemic areas. This hypothesis is further supported by the clearly contrasting findings between NPC and IM. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  15. Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis can evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict late xerostomia degree in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Guo, Tingting; Zheng, Huanhuan; Pan, Xia; Chu, Chen; Dou, Xin; Li, Ming; Liu, Song; Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Baorui; Chen, Weibo; He, Jian; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    We investigated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict xerostomia degrees in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving radiotherapy. The imaging of bilateral parotid glands in NPC patients was conducted 2 weeks before radiotherapy (time point 1), one month after radiotherapy (time point 2), and four months after radiotherapy (time point 3). From time point 1 to 2, parotid volume, skewness, and kurtosis decreased (P < 0.001, = 0.001, and < 0.001, respectively), but all other ADC histogram parameters increased (all P < 0.001, except P = 0.006 for standard deviation [SD]). From time point 2 to 3, parotid volume continued to decrease (P = 0.022), and SD, 75th and 90th percentiles continued to increase (P = 0.024, 0.010, and 0.006, respectively). Early change rates of parotid ADCmean, ADCmin, kurtosis, and 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th percentiles (from time point 1 to 2) correlated with late parotid atrophy rate (from time point 1 to 3) (all P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed correlations among parotid volume, time point, and ADC histogram parameters. Early mean change rates for bilateral parotid SD and ADCmax could predict late xerostomia degrees at seven months after radiotherapy (three months after time point 3) with AUC of 0.781 and 0.818 (P = 0.014, 0.005, respectively). ADC histogram parameters were reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.830 - 0.999). ADC histogram analysis could be used to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage noninvasively, and predict late xerostomia degrees of NPC patients treated with radiotherapy. PMID:29050274

  16. Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis can evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict late xerostomia degree in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Guo, Tingting; Zheng, Huanhuan; Pan, Xia; Chu, Chen; Dou, Xin; Li, Ming; Liu, Song; Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Baorui; Chen, Weibo; He, Jian; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-09-19

    We investigated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict xerostomia degrees in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving radiotherapy. The imaging of bilateral parotid glands in NPC patients was conducted 2 weeks before radiotherapy (time point 1), one month after radiotherapy (time point 2), and four months after radiotherapy (time point 3). From time point 1 to 2, parotid volume, skewness, and kurtosis decreased ( P < 0.001, = 0.001, and < 0.001, respectively), but all other ADC histogram parameters increased (all P < 0.001, except P = 0.006 for standard deviation [SD]). From time point 2 to 3, parotid volume continued to decrease ( P = 0.022), and SD, 75 th and 90 th percentiles continued to increase ( P = 0.024, 0.010, and 0.006, respectively). Early change rates of parotid ADC mean , ADC min , kurtosis, and 25 th , 50 th , 75 th , 90 th percentiles (from time point 1 to 2) correlated with late parotid atrophy rate (from time point 1 to 3) (all P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed correlations among parotid volume, time point, and ADC histogram parameters. Early mean change rates for bilateral parotid SD and ADC max could predict late xerostomia degrees at seven months after radiotherapy (three months after time point 3) with AUC of 0.781 and 0.818 ( P = 0.014, 0.005, respectively). ADC histogram parameters were reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.830 - 0.999). ADC histogram analysis could be used to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage noninvasively, and predict late xerostomia degrees of NPC patients treated with radiotherapy.

  17. MicroRNA-130a-3p suppresses cell viability, proliferation and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by inhibiting CXCL12.

    PubMed

    Qu, Rongfeng; Sun, Yan; Li, Yarong; Hu, Chunmei; Shi, Guang; Tang, Yan; Guo, Dongrui

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has remained high worldwide, posing a serious health problem. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of about 20-23 nucleotides small non-coding molecules, which play a significant role in NPC. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanisms of miR-130a-3p in inhibiting viability, proliferation, migration and invasion of NPC cells by suppressing CXCL12 . The relative expression of miR-130a-3p and CXCL12 mRNA expression in tissues and cells was measured by qRT-PCR. NPC cell line CNE-2Z was transfected with miR-130a-3p mimics, CXCL12 siRNA, cDNA- CXCL12 and negative control. Western Blot was performed to detect CXCL12 expression. The MTT assay was performed to study cell viability. The colony formation assay was done to test cell growth. Flow cytometry was conducted to analyze cell cycle and apoptosis. The Transwell assay was used to investigate cell migration and invasion. The results found that the up-regulation of miR-130a-3p or down-regulation of CXCL12 could inhibit viability, proliferation, migration and invasion of CNE-2Z cells. Luciferase-reporting system assay was performed to investigate miR-130a-3p could bind to the 3'UTR region of CXCL12 and the overexpression of miR-130a-3p could suppress CXCL12 expression. Collectively, our finding suggested demonstrated that miR-130a-3p could prohibit the progression of NPC by suppressing CXCL12 , which might serve as potential therapeutic targets for NPC.

  18. Synergistic effect of p53 on TSA-induced stanniocalcin 1 expression in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, CNE2.

    PubMed

    Ching, L Y; Yeung, Bonnie H Y; Wong, Chris K C

    2012-06-01

    Human stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) has recently been identified as a putative protein factor involved in cellular apoptosis. The use of histone deacetylase inhibitor (i.e. trichostatin A (TSA)) and doxorubicin (Dox) is one of the common treatment methods to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. A study on TSA and Dox-mediated apoptosis may shed light on the regulation and function of STC1 in cancer treatment. In this study, TSA and Dox cotreatment in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE2) elicited synergistic effects on STC1 gene expression and cellular apoptosis. An activation of p53 (TP53) transcriptional activity in Dox- or Dox+TSA-treated cells was revealed by the increased expression levels of p53 mRNA/protein as well as p53-driven luciferase activities. To elucidate the possible involvement of p53 in STC1 gene transcription, a vector expressing wild-type or dominant negative (DN) p53 was transiently transfected into the cells. Both STC1 promoter luciferase constructs and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays did not support the direct role of p53 in STC1 gene transactivation. However, the synergistic effects of p53 on the induction of NF-κB phosphorylation and the recruitment of acetylated histone H3 in STC1 promoter were observed in TSA-cotreated cells. The overexpression of exogenous STC1 sensitized apoptosis in Dox-treated cells. Taken together, this study provides data to show the cross talk of NF-κB, p53, and histone protein in the regulation of STC1 expression and function.

  19. Induction Chemotherapy plus Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Endemic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Individual Patient Data Pooled Analysis of Four Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Tang, Ling-Long; Yang, Qi; Poh, Sharon-Shuxian; Hui, Edwin P; Chan, Anthony T C; Ong, Whee-Sze; Tan, Terence; Wee, Joseph; Li, Wen-Fei; Chen, Lei; Ma, Brigette B Y; Tong, Macy; Tan, Sze-Huey; Cheah, Shie-Lee; Fong, Kam-Weng; Sommat, Kiattisa; Soong, Yoke Lim; Guo, Ying; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Hong, Ming-Huang; Cao, Su-Mei; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Ma, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Purpose: Because of the uneven geographic distribution and small number of randomized trials available, the value of additional induction chemotherapy (IC) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains controversial. This study performed an individual patient data (IPD) pooled analysis to better assess the precise role of IC + CCRT in locoregionally advanced NPC. Experimental Design: Four randomized trials in endemic areas were identified, representing 1,193 patients; updated IPD were obtained. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were the primary and secondary endpoints, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 5.0 years. The HR for PFS was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-0.86; P = 0.0009; 9.3% absolute benefit at 5 years] in favor of IC + CCRT versus CCRT alone. IC + CCRT also improved OS (HR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57-0.99; P = 0.04) and reduced distant failure (HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.90; P = 0.008). IC + CCRT had a tendency to improve locoregional control compared with CCRT alone (HR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.48-1.01; P = 0.06). There was no heterogeneity between trials in any analysis. No interactions between patient characteristics and treatment effects on PFS or OS were found. After adding two supplementary trials to provide a more comprehensive overview, the conclusions remained valid and were strengthened. In a supplementary Bayesian network analysis, no statistically significant differences in survival between different IC regimens were detected. Conclusions: This IPD pooled analysis demonstrates the superiority of additional IC over CCRT alone in locoregionally advanced NPC, with the survival benefit mainly associated with improved distant control. Clin Cancer Res; 24(8); 1824-33. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Berberine suppresses tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by inhibiting STAT3 activation induced by tumor associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cortidis rhizoma (Huanglian) and its major therapeutic component, berberine, have drawn extensive attention in recent years for their anti-cancer properties. Growth inhibitory effects of berberine on multiple types of human cancer cells have been reported. Berberine inhibits invasion, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cancer cells. The anti-inflammatory property of berberine, involving inhibition of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) activation, has also been documented. Methods In this study, we have examined the effects of berberine on tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells and their relationship to STAT3 signaling using both in vivo and in vitro models. Results Berberine effectively inhibited the tumorigenicity and growth of an EBV-positive NPC cell line (C666-1) in athymic nude mice. Inhibition of tumorigenic growth of NPC cells in vivo was correlated with effective inhibition of STAT3 activation in NPC cells inside the tumor xenografts grown in nude mice. In vitro, berberine inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in NPC cells. Inhibition of STAT3 activation by berberine induced growth inhibition and apoptotic response in NPC cells. Tumor-associated fibroblasts were found to secret IL-6 and the conditioned medium harvested from the fibroblasts also induced STAT3 activation in NPC cells. Furthermore, STAT3 activation by conditioned medium of tumor-associated fibroblasts could be blocked by berberine or antibodies against IL-6 and IL-6R. Conclusions Our observation that berberine effectively inhibited activation of STAT3 induced by tumor-associated fibroblasts suggests a role of berberine in modulating the effects of tumor stroma on the growth of NPC cells. The effective inhibition of STAT3 activation in NPC cells by berberine supports its potential use in the treatment of NPC. PMID:24380387

  1. The impact of comorbidity on overall survival in elderly nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: a National Cancer Data Base analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Chen, Wei; Haque, Waqar; Verma, Vivek; Xing, Yan; Teh, Bin S; Brian Butler, Edward

    2018-04-01

    The number of elderly patients with cancer is increasing. Medical comorbidities are more common in this population. Little is known regarding the prognostic relevance of comorbidities in elderly patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), we queried patients age >65 years diagnosed with NPC and treated with definitive radiation between 2004 and 2012 to examine the association between comorbidity and survival outcomes. Comorbidity was assessed with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). The influence of comorbidity on overall survival (OS) was evaluated. Cox proportional hazards model was used to study the impact of comorbidity on OS. A total of 1137 patients met the specified criteria. Median follow-up was 61.2 months. Five-year OS was 50.4%. Comorbidities were present in 22.4% of patients, with 17.6% of patients having a CCI score of 1% and 4.8% having a CCI score of ≥2. Patients with a CCI score of 0 had significantly higher 5-year OS than patients with a CCI score of 1 or ≥2 (53.1% vs. 42.2% vs. 32.9%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, CCI was a statistically significant independent prognostic factor for the risk of death of all causes for patients with a CCI score of 1 (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.242; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002-1.539) or CCI score of ≥2 (HR: 1.625; 95% CI: 1.157-2.283) when compared to patients with a CCI score of 0. Comorbidity as measured by CCI is a strong independent prognostic factor for OS in elderly patients with NPC and lends support to the inclusion of comorbidity assessment due to its prognostic value when treating elderly patients with NPC. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of non-viral risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a high-risk population of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiuchan; Johnson, Randall C.; Deng, Hong; Liao, Jian; Guan, Li; Nelson, George W.; Tang, Mingzhong; Zheng, Yuming; de The, Guy; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Zeng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the role of environmental and genetic influences on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in populations at high risk of NPC, we have performed a case-control study in Guangxi Province of Southern China in 2004-2005. NPC cases (n=1049) were compared to 785 NPC-free matched controls who were seropositive for IgA antibodies (IgA) to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsid antigen (VCA)—a predictive marker for NPC in Chinese populations. A questionnaire was used to capture exposure and NPC family history data. Risk factors associated with NPC in a multivariant analysis model were the following: 1) a first, second or third degree relative with NPC [Attributable risk (AR)= 6%, Odds ratio (OR) = 3.1, 95%CI = 2.0-4.9, p < 0.001]; 2) consumption of salted fish 3 or more than 3 times per month (AR=3%, OR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.1-3.5, p = 0.035); 3) exposure to domestic wood cooking fires for more than 10 years (AR=69%, OR = 5.8, 95%CI = 2.5-13.6, p < 0.001); and 4) exposure to occupational solvents for 10 or less years (AR=4%, OR = 2.6, 95%CI = 1.4-4.8, p = 0.002). Consumption of preserved meats or a history of tobacco smoking were not associated with NPC (P>0.05). We also assessed the contribution of EBV/IgA/VCA antibody serostatus to NPC risk—32.2% of NPC can be explained by IgA+ status. However, family history and environmental risk factors cumulatively explained only 2.7% of NPC development in NPC high risk population. These findings should have important public health implications for NPC risk reduction in endemic regions. PMID:19296536

  3. Comparison of the prognostic impact of serum anti-EBV antibody and plasma EBV DNA assays in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciT

    Twu, C.-W.; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung; Wang, W.-Y.

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been proven as an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated cancer. Serum anti-EBV antibodies and plasma EBV DNA have been investigated as surrogate markers for NPC. A comparison of the prognostic impacts of both assays has never been reported. Methods and Materials: Paired serum and plasma samples from 114 previously untreated NPC patients were collected and subjected to an immunofluorescence assay for immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antibodies against the viral capsid antigen (VCA) and a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for EBV DNA measurement. The effects of both assays on patient prognosis were thoroughly investigated. Results: Relapsedmore » patients had significantly higher pretreatment EBV DNA concentration than patients without relapse (p 0.0006). No associations of VCA-IgA (p = 0.9669) or VCA-IgG (p = 0.6125) were observed between patients with and without relapse. The 4-year overall survival (60.3% vs. 93.1%, p < 0.0001) and relapse-free survival rates (54.4% vs. 77.9%, p = 0.0009) were significantly lower in patients with higher pretreatment EBV DNA load than in those with lower EBV DNA load. Patients with persistently detectable EBV DNA after treatment had significantly worse 4-year overall (30.8% vs. 84.6%, p < 0.0001) and relapse-free survival rates (15.4% vs. 74.0%, p < 0.0001) than those with undetectable EBV DNA. The VCA-IgA and VCA-IgG titer could not predict survivals (all p > 0.1). Cox multivariate analyses also showed the same results. Conclusion: Plasma EBV DNA is superior to serum EBV VCA antibodies in prognostic predictions for NPC.« less

  4. The Principal Genetic Determinants for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in China Involve the HLA Class I Antigen Recognition Groove

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Minzhong; Lautenberger, James A.; Gao, Xiaojiang; Sezgin, Efe; Hendrickson, Sher L.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; David, Victor A.; Guan, Li; Mcintosh, Carl E.; Guo, Xiuchan; Zheng, Yuming; Liao, Jian; Deng, Hong; Malasky, Michael; Kessing, Bailey; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Carrington, Mary; dé The, Guy; Zeng, Yi; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy facilitated by Epstein-Barr Virus infection. Here we resolve the major genetic influences for NPC incidence using a genome-wide association study (GWAS), independent cohort replication, and high-resolution molecular HLA class I gene typing including 4,055 study participants from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Guangdong province of southern China. We detect and replicate strong association signals involving SNPs, HLA alleles, and amino acid (aa) variants across the major histocompatibility complex-HLA-A, HLA –B, and HLA -C class I genes (PHLA-A-aa-site-62 = 7.4×10−29; P HLA-B-aa-site-116 = 6.5×10−19; P HLA-C-aa-site-156 = 6.8×10−8 respectively). Over 250 NPC-HLA associated variants within HLA were analyzed in concert to resolve separate and largely independent HLA-A, -B, and -C gene influences. Multivariate logistical regression analysis collapsed significant associations in adjacent genes spanning 500 kb (OR2H1, GABBR1, HLA-F, and HCG9) as proxies for peptide binding motifs carried by HLA- A*11:01. A similar analysis resolved an independent association signal driven by HLA-B*13:01, B*38:02, and B*55:02 alleles together. NPC resistance alleles carrying the strongly associated amino acid variants implicate specific class I peptide recognition motifs in HLA-A and -B peptide binding groove as conferring strong genetic influence on the development of NPC in China. PMID:23209447

  5. Experimental Study of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy Using Transferred Human Sodium/Iodide Symporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xing; Shi, Changzheng; Gong, Jian; Guo, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Xu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to design a method of radionuclide for imaging and therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using the transferred human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. Methods A stable NPC cell line expressing hNIS was established (CNE-2-hNIS). After 131I treatment, we detected proliferation and apoptosis of NPC cells, both in vitro and vivo. In vivo, the radioactivity of different organs of nude mice was counted and 99mTc imaging using SPECT was performed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value changes of tumor xenografts were observed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) within 6–24 days of 131I treatment. The correlation of ADC changes with apoptosis and proliferation was investigated. Post-treatment expression levels of P53, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, and Survivin proteins were detected by western blotting. Results 131I uptake was higher in CNE-2-hNIS than in CNE-2 cells. The proliferation and apoptosis rate decreased and increased respectively both in vitro and vivo in the experimental group after 131I treatment. The experimental group tumors accumulated 99mTc in vivo, leading to a good visualization by SPECT. DW-MRI showed that ADC values increased in the experimental group 6 days after treatment, while ADC values were positively and negatively correlated with the apoptotic and Ki-67 proliferation indices, respectively. After treatment, CNE-2-hNIS cells up-regulated the expression of P53 and Survivin proteins and activated Caspase-3, and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 proteins. Conclusions The radionuclide imaging and therapy technique for NPC hNIS-transfected cell lines can provide a new therapy strategy for monitoring and treatment of NPC. PMID:25615643

  6. Cognitive Function Before and After Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Prospective Study

    SciT

    Hsiao, Kuan-Yin; Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Yeh, Shyh-An, E-mail: yehsa@hotmail.co

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of radiation therapy (RT) on neurocognitive function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with NPC treated with intensity-modulated RT were included. Dose-volume histograms of the temporal lobes were obtained in every patient. Neurocognitive tests were administered individually to each patient 1 day before initiation of RT and at least 12 months after completion of RT. Cognitive functioning status was evaluated as change in scores over time. Results: Among the total of 30 patients, 23 patients (76.7%) had significantly lower post-RT cognitive functioning scores compared with their pre-RT scores (p =more » 0.033). The cognitive functioning scores had significantly declined in the domains of short-term memory, language abilities, and list-generating fluency (p = 0.020, 0.023, and 0.001, respectively). Compared with patients with a mean dose to the temporal lobes of 36 Gy or less, patients with a mean dose of greater than 36 Gy had a significantly greater reduction in cognitive functioning scores (p = 0.017). Patients in whom V60 of the temporal lobes (i.e., the percentage of the temporal lobe volume that had received >60 Gy) was greater than 10% also had a greater reduction in cognitive functioning scores than those in whom V60 was 10% or less (p = 0.039). Conclusions: The results of our study indicated that RT could have deleterious effects on cognitive function in patients with NPC. Efforts should be made to reduce the radiation dose and irradiated volume of temporal lobes without compromising the coverage of target volume.« less

  7. EBV latent membrane protein 1 abundance correlates with patient age but not with metastatic behavior in north African nasopharyngeal carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Khabir, Abdelmajid; Karray, Hela; Rodriguez, Sandrine; Rosé, Mathieu; Daoud, Jamel; Frikha, Mounir; Boudawara, Tahia; Middeldorp, Jaap; Jlidi, Rachid; Busson, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Background Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas are rare in a majority of countries but they occur at a high incidence in South China and to a lesser extent in North Africa. They are constantly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) regardless of patient geographic origin. In North Africa, the distribution of NPC cases according to patient age is bi-modal with a large group of patients being around 50 years old (80%) and a smaller group below 25 years old. We and others have previously shown that the juvenile form of NPC has distinct biological characteristics including a low amount of p53 and Bcl2 in the tumor tissue and a low level of anti-EBV IgG and IgA in the peripheral blood. Results To get more insight on potential oncogenic mechanisms specific of these two forms, LMP1 abundance was assessed in 82 NPC patients of both groups, using immuno-histochemistry and semi-quantitative evaluation of tissue staining. Serum levels of anti-EBV antibodies were simultaneously assessed. For LMP1 staining, we used the S12 antibody which has proven to be more sensitive than the common anti-LMP1 CS1-4 for analysis of tissue sections. In all NPC biopsies, at least a small fraction of cells was positively stained by S12. LMP1 abundance was strongly correlated to patient age, with higher amounts of the viral protein detected in specimens of the juvenile form. In contrast, LMP1 abundance was not correlated to the presence of lymph node or visceral metastases, nor to the risk of metastatic recurrence. It was also independent of the level of circulating anti-EBV antibodies. Conclusion The high amount of LMP1 recorded in tumors from young patients confirms that the juvenile form of NPC has specific features regarding not only cellular but also viral gene expression. PMID:15842731

  8. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in childhood and adolescence: analysis of a series of 32 patients treated with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Daoud, J; Toumi, N; Bouaziz, M; Ghorbel, A; Jlidi, R; Drira, M M; Frikha, M

    2003-11-01

    Standard therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in children has generally followed the guidelines established for adults. We report here, the treatment outcomes in 32 children and adolescents with NPC and we discuss treatment approaches. Between 1993 and 1997, 32 NPC patients aged

  9. Comparison of three different serological techniques for primary diagnosis and monitoring of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in two age groups from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Karray, H; Ayadi, W; Fki, L; Hammami, A; Daoud, J; Drira, M M; Frikha, M; Jlidi, R; Middeldorp, J M

    2005-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Tunisia is characterized by its bimodal age distribution involving juvenile patients of 10-24 years and adult patients of 40-60 years. Three serological techniques were compared for primary diagnosis (N = 117) and post-treatment monitoring (N = 21) of NPC patients separated in two age groups. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was used as the "gold standard" for detection of IgG and IgA antibodies reactive with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early (EA) and viral capsid (VCA) antigens. Results were compared with ELISA measuring IgG and IgA antibody reactivity to defined EBNA1, EA, and VCA antigens. Immunoblot was used to reveal the molecular diversity underlying the anti-EBV IgG and IgA antibody responses. The results indicate that young NPC patients have significantly more restricted anti-EBV IgG and IgA antibody responses with aberrant IgG VCA/EA levels in 78% compared to 91.7% in elder patients. IgA VCA/EA was detected in 50% of young patients versus 89.4% for the elder group (P < 0.001). Immunoblot revealed a reduced overall diversity of EBV antigen recognition for both IgG and IgA in young patients. A good concordance was observed between ELISA and IFA for primary NPC diagnosis with 81-91% overall agreement. Even better agreement (95-100%) was found for antibody changes during follow-up monitoring, showing declining reactivity in patients in remission and increasing reactivity in patients with persistent disease or relapse. ELISA for IgA anti-VCA-p18 and immunoblot proved most sensitive for predicting tumor relapse. VCA-p18 IgA ELISA seems suitable for routine diagnosis and early detection of NPC complication. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. EBV latent membrane protein 1 abundance correlates with patient age but not with metastatic behavior in north African nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Khabir, Abdelmajid; Karray, Hela; Rodriguez, Sandrine; Rosé, Mathieu; Daoud, Jamel; Frikha, Mounir; Boudawara, Tahia; Middeldorp, Jaap; Jlidi, Rachid; Busson, Pierre

    2005-04-20

    Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas are rare in a majority of countries but they occur at a high incidence in South China and to a lesser extent in North Africa. They are constantly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) regardless of patient geographic origin. In North Africa, the distribution of NPC cases according to patient age is bi-modal with a large group of patients being around 50 years old (80%) and a smaller group below 25 years old. We and others have previously shown that the juvenile form of NPC has distinct biological characteristics including a low amount of p53 and Bcl2 in the tumor tissue and a low level of anti-EBV IgG and IgA in the peripheral blood. To get more insight on potential oncogenic mechanisms specific of these two forms, LMP1 abundance was assessed in 82 NPC patients of both groups, using immuno-histochemistry and semi-quantitative evaluation of tissue staining. Serum levels of anti-EBV antibodies were simultaneously assessed. For LMP1 staining, we used the S12 antibody which has proven to be more sensitive than the common anti-LMP1 CS1-4 for analysis of tissue sections. In all NPC biopsies, at least a small fraction of cells was positively stained by S12. LMP1 abundance was strongly correlated to patient age, with higher amounts of the viral protein detected in specimens of the juvenile form. In contrast, LMP1 abundance was not correlated to the presence of lymph node or visceral metastases, nor to the risk of metastatic recurrence. It was also independent of the level of circulating anti-EBV antibodies. The high amount of LMP1 recorded in tumors from young patients confirms that the juvenile form of NPC has specific features regarding not only cellular but also viral gene expression.

  11. Beneficial effects of anti-EGFR agents, Cetuximab or Nimotuzumab, in combination with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei; You, Rui; Liu, You-Ping; Zhang, Yi-Nuan; Zhang, Hao-Jiong; Zou, Xiong; Yang, Qi; Li, Chao-Feng; Hua, Yi-Jun; Yu, Tao; Cao, Jing-Yu; Li, Ji-Bin; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Guo, Ling; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Qian, Chao-Nan; Ma, Jun; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Chen, Ming-Yuan

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) plus Cetuximab (CTX) or Nimotuzumab (NTZ) compared to those receiving induction chemotherapy (IC) plus CCRT. From January 2008 to December 2013, 715 eligible patients were enrolled in the study. Using propensity scores to adjust for gender, age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), tumor stage, node stage, and clinical stage, a well-balanced cohort was created by matching each patient who received CTX/NTZ plus CCRT (137 patients) with two patients who underwent IC plus CCRT (274 patients). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and other outcome variables included disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS). The median follow-up was 57.0 months and 55.0 months for the CTX/NTZ plus CCRT group and IC plus CCRT group, respectively. No significant differences were found between the CTX/NTZ plus CCRT group and the IC plus CCRT group in 3-year OS (95.5% vs. 94.7%, P = 0.083), 3-year DFS (93.3% vs. 86.1%, P = 0.104), 3-year DMFS (96.2% vs. 92.5%, P = 0.243) and 3-year LRRFS (97.0% vs. 95.1%, P = 0.297). Patients undergoing IC plus CCRT suffered from severe hematologic toxicity and diarrhea compared with those treated with CTX/NTZ plus CCRT. The combination of CTX/NTZ with CCRT is comparable to IC plus CCRT treatment in survival outcomes for locoregionally advanced NPC patients but has a better safety profile than IC plus CCRT treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sham-controlled, randomized, feasibility trial of acupuncture for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhiqiang; Garcia, M. Kay; Hu, Chaosu; Chiang, Joseph; Chambers, Mark; Rosenthal, David I.; Peng, Huiting; Wu, Caijun; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Genming; Liu, Luming; Spelman, Amy; Palmer, J. Lynn; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background Xerostomia (dry mouth) after head/neck radiation is a common problem among cancer patients. Quality of life (QOL) is impaired, and available treatments are of little benefit. This trial determined the feasibility of conducting a sham-controlled trial of acupuncture and whether acupuncture could prevent xerostomia among head/neck patients undergoing radiotherapy. Methods A sham controlled, feasibility trial was conducted at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma undergoing radiotherapy. To determine feasibility of a sham procedure, 23 patients were randomized to real acupuncture (N = 11) or to sham acupuncture (N = 12). Patients were treated 3 times/week during their course of radiotherapy. Subjective measures were the Xerostomia Questionnaire (XQ) and MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for Head and Neck Cancer (MDASI-HN). Objective measures were unstimulated whole salivary flow rates (UWSFR) and stimulated salivary flow rates (SSFR). Patients were followed for 1 month after radiotherapy. Results XQ scores for acupuncture were significantly lower than sham controls starting in week 3 and lasted through the 1-month follow-up (all P’s < 0.001 except for week 3, which was 0.006), with clinically significant differences as follows: week 6 – RR 0.28 [95% CI, 0.10, 0.79]; week 11- RR 0.17 [95% CI, 0.03, 1.07]. Similar findings were seen for MDASI-HN scores and MDASI-Intrusion scores. Group differences for UWSFR and SSFR were not found. Conclusions In this small pilot study, true acupuncture given concurrently with radiotherapy significantly reduced xerostomia symptoms and improved QOL when compared with sham acupuncture. Large-scale, multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are now needed. PMID:22285177

  13. Randomized controlled trial of acupuncture for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhiqiang; Garcia, M. Kay; Hu, Chaosu; Chiang, Joseph; Chambers, Mark; Rosenthal, David I.; Peng, Huiting; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Genming; Liu, Luming; Spelman, Amy; Palmer, J. Lynn; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Background Xerostomia (dry mouth) after head/neck radiation is a common problem among cancer patients and available treatments are of little benefit. The objective of this trial was to determine if acupuncture can prevent xerostomia among head/neck patients undergoing radiotherapy. Methods A randomized, controlled trial among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was conducted comparing acupuncture to standard care. Participants were treated at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China. Forty patients were randomized to acupuncture treatment and 46 to standard care. Patients were treated 3 times/week on the same days they received radiotherapy. Subjective measures included the Xerostomia Questionnaire (XQ) and MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for Head/Neck (MDASI-HN). Objective measures were unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary flow rates (UWSFR; SSFR). Patients were followed for 6 months after the end of radiotherapy. Results XQ scores for acupuncture were statistically significantly lower than controls starting in week 3 through the 6-months(P=0.003 at week3, all other P’s < 0.0001), with clinically significant differences as follows: week 11- RR 0.63 [95% CI, 0.45, 0.87]; 6 months - RR 0.38 [95% CI, 0.19, 0.76]. Similar findings were seen for MDASI-HN scores. Group differences emerged as early as 3 weeks into treatment for saliva (UWSFR, P = 0.0004), with greater saliva flow in the acupuncture group at week 7 (UWSFR, P < 0.0001; SSFR, P = 0.002) and 11 (UWSFR, P < 0.02; SSFR, P < 0.03) and at 6 months (SSFR, P < 0.003). Conclusions Acupuncture given concurrently with radiotherapy significantly reduced xerostomia and improved QOL. PMID:22072272

  14. Dosimetric Predictors of Hypothyroidism After Radical Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy for Non-metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, V; Chan, Sum-Yin; Choi, Cheuk-Wai; Kwong, D; Lam, Ka-On; Tong, Chi-Chung; Sze, Chun-Kin; Ng, S; Leung, To-Wai; Lee, A

    2016-08-01

    To investigate dosimetric predictors of hypothyroidism after radical intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients with non-metastatic NPC treated with radical IMRT from 2008 to 2013 were reviewed. Serum thyroid function tests before and after IMRT were regularly monitored. Univariable and multivariable analyses were carried out for predictors of biochemical and clinical hypothyroidism. In total, 149 patients were recruited. After a median follow-up duration of 3.1 years, 33 (22.1%) and 21 (14.1%) patients developed biochemical and clinical hypothyroidism, respectively. Eight (24.2%) patients who had biochemical hypothyroidism developed clinical hypothyroidism later. Univariable and multivariable analyses revealed that the volume of the thyroid (P=0.002, multivariable), VS60 (the absolute thyroid volume spared from 60 Gy or less) (P<0.001, multivariable) and VS45 (P<0.001, multivariable) of the thyroid were significant predictors of biochemical hypothyroidism. The freedom from biochemical hypothyroidism was longer for those whose VS60 ≥ 10 cm(3) (mean 90.9 versus 62.6 months; P<0.001) and VS45 ≥ 5 cm(3) (mean 91.9 versus 65.2 months; P=0.001). Similarly multivariable analyses revealed that VS60 (P=0.001) and VS45 (P=0.003) were significant predictors of clinical hypothyroidism. The freedom from clinical hypothyroidism was longer for those whose VS60 ≥ 10 cm(3) (91.5 versus 73.3 months; P=0.002) and VS45 ≥ 5 cm(3) (91.5 versus 75.9 months; P=0.007). VS60 and VS45 of the thyroid should be considered important dose constraints against hypothyroidism without compromising target coverage during IMRT optimisation for NPC. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Active and Passive Smoking and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ellen T.; Liu, Zhiwei; Hildesheim, Allan; Liu, Qing; Cai, Yonglin; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Guomin; Xie, Shang-Hang; Cao, Su-Mei; Shao, Jian-Yong; Jia, Wei-Hua; Zheng, Yuming; Liao, Jian; Chen, Yufeng; Lin, Longde; Ernberg, Ingemar; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Huang, Guangwu; Zeng, Yi; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Ye, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The magnitude and patterns of associations between smoking and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in high-incidence regions remain uncertain. Associations with active and passive tobacco smoking were estimated using multivariate logistic regression in a population-based case-control study of 2,530 NPC cases and 2,595 controls in Guangdong and Guangxi, southern China, in 2010–2014. Among men, risk of NPC was significantly higher in current smokers compared with never smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.53) but not in former smokers (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.17). Risk increased with smoking intensity (per 10 cigarettes/day, OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16), smoking duration (per 10 years, OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.16), and cumulative smoking (per 10 pack-years, OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12). Risk decreased with later age at smoking initiation (per year, OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98) but not greater time since smoking cessation. Exposures to passive smoking during childhood (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.48) and from a spouse during adulthood (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.63) were independently associated with increased NPC risk in never-smoking men and women, but exposure-response trends were not observed. In conclusion, active and passive tobacco smoking are associated with modestly increased risk of NPC in southern China; risk is highest among long-term smokers. PMID:28459936

  16. Physiological β-catenin signaling controls self-renewal networks and generation of stem-like cells from nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yue; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Ko, Josephine Mun Yee; Phoon, Yee Peng; Chiu, Pui Man; Lo, Paulisally Hau Yi; Waterman, Marian L; Lung, Maria Li

    2013-09-27

    A few reports suggested that low levels of Wnt signaling might drive cell reprogramming, but these studies could not establish a clear relationship between Wnt signaling and self-renewal networks. There are ongoing debates as to whether and how the Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in the control of pluripotency gene networks. Additionally, whether physiological β-catenin signaling generates stem-like cells through interactions with other pathways is as yet unclear. The nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells have low expression of β-catenin and wild-type expression of p53, which provided a possibility to study regulatory mechanism of stemness networks induced by physiological levels of Wnt signaling in these cells. Introduction of increased β-catenin signaling, haploid expression of β-catenin under control by its natural regulators in transferred chromosome 3, resulted in activation of Wnt/β-catenin networks and dedifferentiation in HONE1 hybrid cell lines, but not in esophageal carcinoma SLMT1 hybrid cells that had high levels of endogenous β-catenin expression. HONE1 hybrid cells displayed stem cell-like properties, including enhancement of CD24(+) and CD44(+) populations and generation of spheres that were not observed in parental HONE1 cells. Signaling cascades were detected in HONE1 hybrid cells, including activation of p53- and RB1-mediated tumor suppressor pathways, up-regulation of Nanog-, Oct4-, Sox2-, and Klf4-mediated pluripotency networks, and altered E-cadherin expression in both in vitro and in vivo assays. qPCR array analyses further revealed interactions of physiological Wnt/β-catenin signaling with other pathways such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, TGF-β, Activin, BMPR, FGFR2, and LIFR- and IL6ST-mediated cell self-renewal networks. Using β-catenin shRNA inhibitory assays, a dominant role for β-catenin in these cellular network activities was observed. The expression of cell surface markers such as CD9, CD24, CD44, CD90, and CD133

  17. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cranial nerve palsy: The importance of MRI for radiotherapy

    SciT

    Chang, Joseph T.-C.; Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Lin, C.-Y.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate various prognostic factors and the impact of imaging modalities on tumor control in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) with cranial nerve (China) palsy. Material and Methods: Between September 1979 and December 2000, 330 NPC patients with CN palsy received radical radiotherapy (RT) by the conventional opposing technique at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linkou. Imaging methods used varied over that period, and included conventional tomography (Tm) for 47 patients, computerized tomography (CT) for 195 patients, and magnetic resonance image (MRI) for 88 patients. Upper CN (II-VI) palsy was found in 268 patients, lower CN (IX-XII) in 13, and 49more » patients had both. The most commonly involved CN were V or VI or both (23%, 12%, and 16%, respectively). All patients had good performance status (World Health Organization <2). The median external RT dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 63-77.5 Gy). Brachytherapy was also given to 156 patients in addition to external RT, delivered by the remote after-loading, high-dose-rate technique. A total of 139 patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy, in 115 received as neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and in 24 concomitant with RT. Recovery from CN palsy occurred in 171 patients during or after radiotherapy. Patients who died without a specific cause identified were regarded as having died with persistent disease. Results: The 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year overall survival was 47.1%, 34.4%, and 22.2%. The 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were 50.4%, 37.8%, and 25.9%. The 5-year DSS for patients staged with MRI, CT, and Tm were 46.9%, 36.7%, and 21.9%, respectively (p = 0.016). The difference between MRI and CT was significant (p = 0.015). The 3-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 53%, respectively. The 5-year local control was 68.2% if excluding patients who died without a specific cause. Patients who had an MRI had a significantly better tumor control rate than

  18. Effect of MLC leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciT

    Bai, Sen; Li, Guangjun; Wang, Maojie

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To compare dosimetric differences between the simulating plans and the clinical plans with evaluation parameters, 6 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected for simulation of systematic and random MLC leaf position errors, collimator rotation angle errors, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors. There was a high sensitivity to dose distribution for systematic MLC leaf position errors in response to field size. When the systematic MLC position errors weremore » 0.5, 1, and 2 mm, respectively, the maximum values of the mean dose deviation, observed in parotid glands, were 4.63%, 8.69%, and 18.32%, respectively. The dosimetric effect was comparatively small for systematic MLC shift errors. For random MLC errors up to 2 mm and collimator and gantry rotation angle errors up to 0.5°, the dosimetric effect was negligible. We suggest that quality control be regularly conducted for MLC leaves, so as to ensure that systematic MLC leaf position errors are within 0.5 mm. Because the dosimetric effect of 0.5° collimator and gantry rotation angle errors is negligible, it can be concluded that setting a proper threshold for allowed errors of collimator and gantry rotation angle may increase treatment efficacy and reduce treatment time.« less

  19. Rubus idaeus Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells by Suppression of MMP-2 through Modulation of the ERK1/2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Chung-Han; Huang, Cheng-Chen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Yang, Shun-Fa; Ho, Yu-Ting; Lin, Chiao-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is characterized by a high incidence of metastasis in the neck lymph nodes, resulting in a poor prognosis and posing challenges for treatment. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antimetastatic properties of Rubus idaeus extract (RIE) on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. HONE-1, NPC-39 and NPC-BM cells were subjected to RIE treatment, and effects on the migration and invasion of tumor cells were analyzed. The results showed that RIE suppressed the migration and invasion of NPC cells. Gelatin zymography assay, Western blotting and real-time PCR showed that matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) enzyme activity, protein expression and mRNA levels were down-regulated by RIE treatment. To identify the signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase proteins were examined, which showed that phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was inhibited after the treatment of RIE. In summary, our data showed that RIE inhibited the migration and invasion of NPC cells by suppressing the expression of MMP-2 by down-regulating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, suggesting that Rubus idaeus may serve as chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agent for NPC.

  20. Efficacy and safety of concurrent chemoradiation with weekly cisplatin ± low-dose celecoxib in locally advanced undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a phase II-III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Razmjou-Ghalaei, Sasan; Shafizad, Amin; Ashouri-Taziani, Yaghoub; Khademi, Bijan; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Ansari, Mansour; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study that aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of concurrent chemoradiation with weekly cisplatin ± celecoxib 100 mg twice daily in locally advanced undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed locally advanced (T3-T4, and/or N2-N3, M0) undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, no prior therapy, Karnofsky performance status ≥ 70, and normal organ function. The patients were assigned to receive 7 weeks concurrent chemoradiation (70 Gy) with weekly cisplatin 30 mg/m 2 with either celecoxib 100 mg twice daily, (study group, n = 26) or placebo (control group, n = 27) followed by adjuvant combined chemotherapy with cisplatin 70 mg/m 2 on day 1 plus 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m 2 /d with 8-h infusion on days 1-3, 3-weekly for 3 cycles. Overall clinical response rate was 100% in both groups. Complete and partial clinical response rates were 64% and 36% in the study group and 44% and 56% in the control group, respectively (P > 0.25). The addition of celecoxib to concurrent chemoradiation was associated with improved 2-year locoregional control rate from 84% to 100% (P = 0.039). The addition of celecoxib 100 mg twice daily to concurrent chemoradiation improved 2-year locoregional control rate.

  1. [Influence and mechanism of PinX1 gene on the chemotherapy sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in response to Cisplatin].

    PubMed

    Shen, Congxiang; Liu, Yanhui; Wen, Zhong; Yang, Keke; Li, Guanxue; Zhang, Shenhua; Zhang, Xinyu

    2015-06-23

    To explore the influence and mechanism of PinX1 gene on the chemotherapy sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in response to Cisplatin. Transfected nasopharyngeal carcinoma 5-8F cell lines with pCDH-CMV-PinX1-copGFP vector constructed by lentivirus to generate Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cells containing PinX1 gene, using Lenti-Ctrl-5-8F cell (blank vector without PinX1 gene was used to transfect 5-8F cell lines) and 5-8F cell as controls. Expression of PinX1 gene, telomerase activity, the inhibition of cancer cells proliferation, combined anticancer effect with Cisplatin and the expression of lung resistance protein (LRP) and Bcl-2 were detected with fluorescent quantitation polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry, thiazolyl blue (MTT) method, areole test, Western blot and drug sensitivity test, respectively, in four groups (Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cell + Cisplatin, Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cell, Cisplatin and 5-8F cell) so as to explore the influence and mechanism of PinX1 gene on the chemotherapy sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in response to Cisplatin. The telomerase activity in Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cell (0.146 ± 0.004) was lower than those in the other two control cells (Lenti-Ctrl-5-8F cell: 0.967 ± 0.016, 5-8F cell: 1.000 ± 0.034, both P < 0.01). The cancer cell biological activity could be intensively inhibited by 16 µg/ml Cisplatin after lower level telomerase activity induced by PinX1 gene. Proliferation index (PI) (%) in Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cell + Cisplatin (14.39 ± 3.66) was also less than the other groups (Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cell, Cisplatin and 5-8F cell groups, 32.97 ± 3.00, 31.18 ± 4.24 and 47.19 ± 4.19, all P < 0.01). And same time, the expressions of LRP (0.64 ± 0.14) and Bcl-2 (0.57 ± 0.12) protein in Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cells were obviously reduced than those in other two group cells (Lenti-Ctrl-5-8F cell: 0.84 ± 0.19 and 0.81 ± 0.16; 5-8F cell: 0.83 ± 0.35 and 0.78 ± 0.27; all P < 0.01). PinX1 gene can enhance the chemotherapy sensitivity

  2. Nasopharyngeal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - nasopharyngeal; Swab for respiratory viruses; Swab for staph carriage ... test identifies viruses and bacteria that cause upper respiratory tract symptoms. These include: Bordetella pertussis Neisseria meningitidis ...

  3. The synergistic effect of chemical carcinogens enhances Epstein-Barr virus reactivation and tumor progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chih-Yeu; Huang, Sheng-Yen; Wu, Chung-Chun; Hsu, Hui-Yu; Chou, Sheng-Ping; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Yao; Takada, Kenzo; Chen, Jen-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies imply a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). N-nitroso compounds, phorbols, and butyrates are chemicals found in food and herb samples collected from NPC high-risk areas. These chemicals have been reported to be risk factors contributing to the development of NPC, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have demonstrated previously that low dose N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 0.1 µg/ml) had a synergistic effect with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate (SB) in enhancing EBV reactivation and genome instability in NPC cells harboring EBV. Considering that residents in NPC high-risk areas may contact regularly with these chemical carcinogens, it is vital to elucidate the relation between chemicals and EBV and their contributions to the carcinogenesis of NPC. In this study, we constructed a cell culture model to show that genome instability, alterations of cancer hallmark gene expression, and tumorigenicity were increased after recurrent EBV reactivation in NPC cells following combined treatment of TPA/SB and MNNG. NPC cells latently infected with EBV, NA, and the corresponding EBV-negative cell, NPC-TW01, were periodically treated with MNNG, TPA/SB, or TPA/SB combined with MNNG. With chemically-induced recurrent reactivation of EBV, the degree of genome instability was significantly enhanced in NA cells treated with a combination of TPA/SB and MNNG than those treated individually. The Matrigel invasiveness, as well as the tumorigenicity in mouse, was also enhanced in NA cells after recurrent EBV reactivation. Expression profile analysis by microarray indicates that many carcinogenesis-related genes were altered after recurrent EBV reactivation, and several aberrations observed in cell lines correspond to alterations in NPC lesions. These results indicate that cooperation between chemical carcinogens can

  4. The Synergistic Effect of Chemical Carcinogens Enhances Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation and Tumor Progression of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chih-Yeu; Huang, Sheng-Yen; Wu, Chung-Chun; Hsu, Hui-Yu; Chou, Sheng-Ping; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Yao; Takada, Kenzo; Chen, Jen-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies imply a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). N-nitroso compounds, phorbols, and butyrates are chemicals found in food and herb samples collected from NPC high-risk areas. These chemicals have been reported to be risk factors contributing to the development of NPC, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have demonstrated previously that low dose N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 0.1 µg/ml) had a synergistic effect with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate (SB) in enhancing EBV reactivation and genome instability in NPC cells harboring EBV. Considering that residents in NPC high-risk areas may contact regularly with these chemical carcinogens, it is vital to elucidate the relation between chemicals and EBV and their contributions to the carcinogenesis of NPC. In this study, we constructed a cell culture model to show that genome instability, alterations of cancer hallmark gene expression, and tumorigenicity were increased after recurrent EBV reactivation in NPC cells following combined treatment of TPA/SB and MNNG. NPC cells latently infected with EBV, NA, and the corresponding EBV-negative cell, NPC-TW01, were periodically treated with MNNG, TPA/SB, or TPA/SB combined with MNNG. With chemically-induced recurrent reactivation of EBV, the degree of genome instability was significantly enhanced in NA cells treated with a combination of TPA/SB and MNNG than those treated individually. The Matrigel invasiveness, as well as the tumorigenicity in mouse, was also enhanced in NA cells after recurrent EBV reactivation. Expression profile analysis by microarray indicates that many carcinogenesis-related genes were altered after recurrent EBV reactivation, and several aberrations observed in cell lines correspond to alterations in NPC lesions. These results indicate that cooperation between chemical carcinogens can

  5. Prognostic value of nutritional risk screening 2002 scale in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A large-scale cohort study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Chen, Bin-Bin; Tang, Ling-Long; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Fei; Zhang, Yuan; Mao, Yan-Ping; Sun, Ying; Liu, Li-Zhi; Tian, Li; Guo, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the value of the nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002) scale in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We conducted a large-scale study to address this issue. We employed a big-data intelligence database platform at our center and identified 3232 eligible patients treated between 2009 and 2013. Of the 3232 (12.9% of 24 986) eligible patients, 469 (14.5%), 13 (0.4%), 953 (29.5%), 1762 (54.5%) and 35 (1.1%) had NRS2002 scores of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Survival outcomes were comparable between patients with NRS2002 <3 and ≥3 (original scale). However, patients with NRS2002 ≤3 vs >3 (regrouping scale) had significantly different 5-year disease-free survival (DFS; 82.7% vs 75.0%, P < .001), overall survival (OS; 88.8% vs 84.1%, P = .001), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; 90.2% vs 85.9%, P = .001) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS; 91.6% vs 87.2%, P = .001). Therefore, we proposed a revised NRS2002 scale, and found that it provides a better risk stratification than the original or regrouping scales for predicting DFS (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.530 vs 0.554 vs 0.577; P < .05), OS (AUC = 0.534 vs 0.563 vs 0.582; P < .05), DMFS (AUC = 0.531 vs 0.567 vs 0.590; P < .05) and LRRFS (AUC = 0.529 vs 0.542 vs 0.564; P < .05 except scale A vs B). Our proposed NRS2002 scale represents a simple, clinically useful tool for nutritional risk screening in NPC. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Relationship between pretreatment level of plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA, tumor burden, and metabolic activity in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciT

    Ma, Brigette; King, Ann; Lo, Y.M. Dennis

    Purpose: Plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA (pEBV DNA) is an important prognostic marker in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study tested the hypotheses that pEBV DNA reflects tumor burden and metabolic activity by evaluating its relationship with tumor volume and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake in NPC. Methods and Materials: Pre-treatment pEBV DNA analysis, {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and neck were performed in 57 patients. Net volume (cm{sup 3}) of the primary tumor (T{sub vol}) and regional nodes (N{sub vol}) were quantified on MRI. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was expressed asmore » the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) at the primary tumor (T{sub suv}) and regional nodes (N{sub suv}). Lesions with SUV{sub max} {>=} 2.5 were considered malignant. Relationship between SUV{sub max}, natural logarithm (log) of pEBV DNA, and square root (sq) of MRI volumes was analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. A linear regression model was constructed to test for any interaction between variables and disease stage. Results: Log-pEBV DNA showed significant correlation with sq-T{sub vol} (r = 0.393), sq-N{sub vol} (r = 0.452), total tumor volume (sq-Total{sub vol} = T{sub vol} + N{sub vol}, r = 0.554), T{sub suv} (r = 0.276), N{sub suv} (r = 0.434), and total SUV{sub max} (Total{sub suv} = T{sub suv} + N{sub suv}, r = 0.457). Likewise, sq-T{sub vol} was correlated to T{sub suv} (r 0.426), and sq-N{sub vol} with N{sub suv} (r = 0.651). Regression analysis showed that only log-pEBV DNA was significantly associated with sq-Total{sub vol} (p < 0.001; parameter estimate = 8.844; 95% confidence interval = 3.986-13.703), whereas Sq-T{sub vol} was significantly associated with T{sub suv} (p = 0.002; parameter estimate = 3.923; 95% confidence interval = 1.498-6.348). Conclusion: This study supports the hypothesis that cell-free plasma EBV DNA is a marker of tumor

  7. Temporal Cerebral Microbleeds Are Associated With Radiation Necrosis and Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients Treated for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciT

    Shen, Qingyu; Department of Neurology, Zengcheng People's Hospital, Guangzhou; Lin, Focai

    Purpose: Radiation therapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) may be complicated with radiation-induced brain necrosis (RN), resulting in deteriorated cognitive function. However, the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. This study attempts to elucidate the association between cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and radiation necrosis and cognitive dysfunction in NPC patients treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study included 106 NPC patients who were exposed to radiation therapy (78 patients with RN and 28 without RN). Sixty-six patients without discernable intracranial pathology were included as the control group. CMBs were confirmed using susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Cognitivemore » function was accessed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Patients with a total score below 26 were defined as cognitively dysfunction. Results: Seventy-seven patients (98.7%) in the RN group and 12 patients (42.9%) in the non-RN group had at least 1 CMB. In contrast, only 14 patients (21.2%) in the control group had CMBs. In patients with a history of radiation therapy, CMBs most commonly presented in temporal lobes (76.4%) followed by cerebellum (23.7%). Patients with RN had more temporal CMBs than those in the non-RN group (37.7 ± 51.9 vs 3.8 ± 12.6, respectively; P<.001). The number of temporal lobe CMBs was predictive for larger volume of brain necrosis (P<.001) in multivariate linear regression analysis. Although cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 55.1% of RN patients, only 7.1% of non-RN patients sustained cognitive impairment (P<.001). After adjusting for age, sex, education, period after radiation therapy, CMBs in other lobes, and RN volume, the number of temporal CMBs remained an independent risk factor for cognitive dysfunction (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.04; P=.003). Conclusions: CMBs is a common radiological manifestation in NPC patients

  8. A longitudinal study on the radiation-induced thyroid gland changes after external beam radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhixiong; Wu, Vincent Wing-Cheung; Lin, Jing; Feng, Huiting; Chen, Longhua

    2011-01-01

    Radiation-induced thyroid disorders have been reported in radiotherapy of head and neck cancers. This study evaluated the radiation-induced damages to thyroid gland in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Forty-five patients with NPC treated by radiotherapy underwent baseline thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine [fT4], and thyrotropin [TSH]) examination and CT scan before radiotherapy. The volume of the thyroid gland was calculated by delineating the structure in the corresponding CT slices using the radiotherapy treatment planning system. The thyroid doses were estimated using the treatment planning system. Subsequent CT scans were conducted at 6, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy, whereas the hormone levels were assessed at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy. Trend lines of the volume and hormone level changes against time were plotted. The relationship between the dose and the change of thyroid volume and hormone levels were evaluated using the Pearson correlation test. An average of 20% thyroid volume reduction in the first 6 months and a further 8% shrinkage at 12 months after radiotherapy were observed. The volume reduction was dependent on the mean thyroid doses at 6, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy (r = -0.399, -0.472, and -0.417, respectively). Serum free triiodothyronine and fT4 levels showed mild changes of <2.5% at 6 months, started to drop by 8.8% and 11.3%, respectively, at 12 months, and became stable at 18 months. The mean serum TSH level increased mildly at 6 months after radiotherapy and more steeply after 18 months. At 18 months after radiotherapy, 12 patients had primary hypothyroidism with an elevated serum TSH, in which 4 of them also presented with low serum fT4. There was a significant difference (p = 0.014) in the mean thyroid doses between patients with hypothyroidism and normal thyroid function. Radiotherapy for patients with NPC caused radiation-induced changes of the thyroid gland. The

  9. Study of single nucleotide polymorphisms of tumour necrosis factors and HSP genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in North East India.

    PubMed

    Lakhanpal, Meena; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwor; Rahman, Tashnin; Sharma, Jagnnath; Singh, M Madhumangal; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Verma, Saurabh; Pandrangi, Santhi Latha; Singh, Y Mohan; Wajid, Saima; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial tumour with a distinctive racial and geographical distribution. High incidence of NPC has been reported from China, Southeast Asia, and northeast (NE) region of India. The immune mechanism plays incredibly role in pathogenesis of NPC. Tumour necrosis factors (TNFs) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) constitute significant components of innate as well as adaptive host immunity. Multi-analytical approaches including logistic regression (LR), classification and regression tree (CART) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) were applied in 120 NPC cases and 100 controls to explore high order interactions among TNF-α (-308 G>A), TNF β (+252 A>G), HSP 70-1 (+190 G>C), HSP 70-hom (+2437 T>C) genes and environmental risk factors. TNF β was identified as the primary etiological factor by all three analytical approaches. Individual analysis of results showed protective effect of TNF β GG genotype (adjusted odds ratio (OR2) = 0.27, 95 % CI = 0.125-0.611, P = 0.001), HSP 70 (+2437) CC genotype (OR2 = 0.17, 95 % CI = 0.0430.69, P = 0.013), while AG genotype of TNF β was found significantly associated with risk of NPC (OR2 = 1.97, 95 % CI = 1.019-3.83, P = 0.04). Analysis of environmental factors demonstrated association of alcohol consumption, living in mud houses and use of firewood for cooking as major risk factors for NPC. Individual haplotype association analysis showed significant risk associated with GTGA haplotype (OR = 68.61, 95 % CI = 2.47-190.37, P = 0.013) while a protective effect with CCAA and GCGA haplotypes (OR = 0.19, 95 % CI = 0.05-0.75, P = 0.019; OR = 0.01 95 % CI = 0.05-0.30, P = 0.007). The multi-analytical approaches applied in this study helped in identification of distinct gene-gene and gene-environment interactions significant in risk assessment of NPC.

  10. An elective radiation dose of 46 Gy is feasible in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Tsung-Min; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao; Lin, Chien-Yu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Ng, Shu-Hang; Wang, Hung-Ming; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to compare the treatment outcome of different radiation doses of elective neck irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). In total, 504 patients with nondisseminated NPC who underwent magnetic resonance imaging before radical IMRT between 2000 and 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into 2 groups based on the ENI dose: low ENI when the ENI dose was 46 Gy (n = 446) and high ENI when the ENI doses were 50 to 60 Gy (n = 58). All the patients in both the groups received a median dose of 72 Gy to the gross tumor and involved nodes. The fraction size was 2 Gy per fraction. Matching was performed between low ENI and high ENI in a 2:1 ratio, and the matching criteria were N-stage, T-stage, treatment modality, pathology classification, sex, and age. The median follow-up for all patients was 63.5 months. In all patients, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS), local control (LC), regional control (RC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) for low ENI and high ENI patients were 69.0% and 63.2% (P = 0.331), 89.0% and 83.9% (P = 0.235), 90.1% and 85.2% (P = 0.246), 86.8% and 76.6% (P = 0.056), 77.5% and 80.8% (P = 0.926), and 84.4% and 82.5% (P = 0.237), respectively. In the matched-pair analysis, the 5-year PFS, LC, RC, DMFS, OS, and CSS for matched low ENI and high ENI patients were 74.1% and 63.2% (P = 0.134), 92.0% and 83.9% (P = 0.152), 90.1% and 85.2% (P = 0.356), 86.2% and 76.6% (P = 0.125), 87.0% and 80.8% (P = 0.102), and 88.6% and 82.5% (P = 0.080), respectively. In the multivariable analysis for all patients, the ENI group was not a significant factor for PFS, LC, RC, DMFS, OS, and CSS. A low ENI dose of 46 Gy in 23 fractions is feasible in NPC patients treated with IMRT, and this concept should be validated in

  11. Chromosome 3p12.3-p14.2 and 3q26.2-q26.32 are genomic markers for prognosis of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Lee, Chia-Huei; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Tsao, George S W; Wu, Chung-Chun; Fang, Chih-Yeu; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Hua, Chun-Hung; Chen, Chi-Long; Chen, Jen-Yang

    2009-10-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is an epithelial malignancy with a remarkable racial and geographic distribution. Previous cytogenetic studies have shown nasopharyngeal carcinoma to be characterized by gross genomic aberrations. However, identification of susceptible gene loci in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been poorly discussed. A genome-wide survey of gene copy number changes was initiated with two nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines by array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis. These alterations were confirmed by a parallel analysis with the data from the gene expression microarray and were validated by quantitative PCR. Clinical association of the defined target genes was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization on 48 metastatic tumors. A high percentage of genes were consistently altered in dosage and expression levels with gain on 3q26.2-q26.32 and losses on 3p12.3-p14.2 and 9p21.3-p23. Six candidate genes, GPR160 (3q26.2-q27), SKIL (3q26), ADAMTS9 (3p14.2-p14.3), LRIG1 (3p14), MPDZ (9p22-p24), and ADFP (9p22.1) were validated by quantitative PCR. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies revealed amplification of GPR160 (in 25% of cases) and SKIL (33%); and deletion of ADAMTS9 (30%), LRIG1 (35%), MPDZ (15%), and ADFP (15%). Clinical association analyses indicated a poor survival rate with genetic alterations at the defined 3p deletion (P = 0.0012) and the 3q amplification regions (P = 0.0114). The combined microarray technologies suggested novel candidate oncogenes, amplification of GPR160 and SKIL at 3q26.2-q26.32, and deletion of tumor suppressor genes ADAMTS9 and LRIG1 at 3p12.3-p14.2. Altered expression of these genes may be responsible for malignant progression and could be used as potential markers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  12. A meta-analysis of long-term survival outcomes between surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation in patients with single hepatocellular carcinoma ≤ 2 cm (BCLC very early stage).

    PubMed

    Yin, Zi; Jin, Haosheng; Ma, Tingting; Zhou, Yu; Yu, Min; Jian, Zhixiang

    2018-04-30

    The optimal management choice in consideration of long-term overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for patients with BLCL very early stage is a matter of debate. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of liver resection (RES) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for single HCC 2 cm or less. The primary sources of the reviewed studies through December 2017, without restriction on the languages or regions, were Pubmed and Embase. The hazard ratio (HR) was used as a summary statistic for long-term outcomes. A total of 5 studies qualified for inclusion in this quantified meta-analysis with a total of 729 HCC patients of BCLC very early stage. Only postoperative 1-year OS was comparable in both RES and RFA groups. As for long-term outcomes of 3-year and 5-year OSs, RES was significantly better than RFA, the HRs were 0.64 (95%CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.05) and 0.63 (95%CI: 0.42, 0.95; P = 0.03) respectively. In terms of postoperative DFS, reduced tumor recurrence was observed in RES, and all the short- and long-terms outcomes were favored RES. RES offers better long-term oncologic outcomes compared with RFA in current clinical evidences. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. FDG-PET, CT, MRI for diagnosis of local residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which one is the best? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wen; Yan, Wei-Li; Ye, Ming; Bai, Yong-Rui; Huang, Gang

    2007-12-01

    To perform a systematic review to compare FDG-PET, CT, and MRI imaging for diagnosis of local residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the CBMdisc databases and some other databases were searched for relevant original articles published from January 1990 to June 2007. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Articles were reported in English or Chinese; FDG-PET, CT, or MRI was used to detect local residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma; histopathologic analysis and/or close clinical and imaging follow-up for at least 6 months were the reference standard. Two reviewers independently extracted data. A software called "Meta-DiSc" was used to obtain pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves, and the Q* index. Twenty-one articles fulfilled all inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity estimates for PET (95%) were significantly higher than CT (76%) (P<0.001) and MRI (78%) (P<0.001). The pooled specificity estimates for PET (90%) were significantly higher than CT (59%) (P<0.001) and MRI (76%) (P<0.001). The pooled DOR estimates for PET (96.51) were significantly higher than CT (7.01) (P<0.001) and MRI (8.68) (P<0.001). SROC curve for FDG-PET showed better diagnostic accuracy than CT and MRI. The Q* index for PET (0.92) was significantly higher than CT (0.72) (P<0.001) and MRI (0.76) (P<0.01). For PET, the sensitivity and diagnostic OR for using qualitative analysis were significantly higher than using both qualitative and quantitative analyses (P<0.01). For CT, the sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic OR, and the Q* index for dual-section helical and multi-section helical were all significantly higher than nonhelical and single-section helical (P<0.01). And the sensitivity for 'section thickness <5 mm' was significantly lower than ' =5 mm' (P<0.01), while the specificity was significantly higher (P<0.01). For MRI, there were no significant differences found

  14. Simplified HCC-ART score for highly sensitive detection of small-sized and early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in the widely used Okuda, CLIP, and BCLC staging systems.

    PubMed

    Attallah, Abdelfattah M; Omran, Mohamed M; Attallah, Ahmed A; Abdelrazek, Mohamed A; Farid, Khaled; El-Dosoky, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Small-sized HCC can be effectively cured by surgery with good clinical outcomes. A highly sensitive HCC α-fetoprotein routine test (HCC-ART) for HCC diagnosis as well as a simplied form of the HCC-ART were reported in the British Journal of Cancer. Here, we verified and studied the applicability of the HCC-ART to the detection of early-stage HCC. 341 cirrhotic patients and 318 HCC patients were included in this study. For each, the HCC-ART score was calculated, and then the sensitivity, specificity, and results of an ROC curve analysis were compared between the HCC-ART and AFP when these biomarkers were used to detect small-sized HCC. Different HCC-ART cutoffs were set for the detection of different tumor sizes. The HCC-ART (AUC = 0.871, 70% sensitivity, 97% specificity) and the simplified HCC-ART (AUC = 0.934, 82% sensitivity, 100% specificity) were found to have high predictive power when attempting to separate cirrhotic patients from those with small-sized HCC. The simplified HCC-ART score was superior to AFP for determining stages according to the early Okuda (0.950 AUC, 84% sensitivity, 99% specificity), CLIP (0.945 AUC, 84% sensitivity, 99% specificity), and BCLC (1.000 AUC, 100% sensitivity, 99% specificity) staging systems. The simplified HCC-ART score was more strongly correlated than AFP and other staging systems with HCC tumor size (P < 0.0001; r = 0.8). The HCC-ART is superior to AFP for diagnosing early-stage HCC. Due to its advantages of minimal variability and a wide continuous scale for assessing HCC severity, the simplified HCC-ART has the potential to be more widely used than the original HCC-ART.

  15. The antiviral agent cidofovir [(S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonyl-methoxypropyl)cytosine] has pronounced activity against nasopharyngeal carcinoma grown in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Neyts, J; Sadler, R; De Clercq, E; Raab-Traub, N; Pagano, J S

    1998-02-01

    The effect of the antiviral agent (S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl) cytosine (cidofovir) on the EBV-associated tumor nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was evaluated in NPC xenografts in athymic mice. Intratumoral injection arrested tumor growth within 1 week, and by 4 weeks, tumors regressed to 8-75% (39 +/- 33%) of the original size, whereas control tumors injected with PBS grew to 282 +/- 25% of the original size. Ganciclovir slowed but did not arrest or cause regression of tumor growth. A striking antitumor effect was also produced by systemic administration; at 4 weeks, tumors were 79 +/- 49% of the original size, compared with 635 +/- 91% for the controls. Widespread apoptosis was detected after treatment for 2-6 days in C15 as well as two other NPC xenografts, C17 and C18; the latter NPCs have mutations in the p53 gene. These data indicate that cidofovir induces rapid cell death through apoptosis in EBV-transformed epithelial cells.

  16. Tetrandrine Induces Apoptosis in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma NPC-TW 039 Cells by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ca2+/Calpain Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuo-Ching; Lin, Ya-Jing; Hsiao, Yung-Ting; Lin, Meng-Liang; Yang, Jiun-Long; Huang, Yi-Ping; Chu, Yung-Lin; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-11-01

    Tetrandrine is an alkaloid extracted from a traditional China medicine plant, and is considered part of food therapy as well. In addition, it has been widely reported to induce apoptotic cell death in many human cancer cells. However, the mechanism of Tetrandrine on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC) is still questioned. In our study, we examined whether Tetrandrine can induce apoptosis of NPC-TW 039 cells. We found that cell morphology was changed after treatment with different concentrations of Tetrandrine. Further, we indicated that the NPC-TW 039 cells viability decreased in a Tetrandrine dose-dependent manner. We also found that tetrandrine induced cell cycle arrest in G 0 /G 1 phase. Tetrandrine induced DNA condensation by DAPI staining as well. In addition, we found that Tetrandrine induced Ca 2+ release in the cytosol. At the same time, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurred. Then we used western blotting to examine the protein expression which is associated with mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways and caspase-dependent pathways. To further examine whether Ca 2+ was released or not with Tetrandrine induced-apoptosis, we used the chelator of Ca 2+ and showed that cell viability increased. At the same time, caspase-3 expression was decreased. Furthermore, confocal microscopy examination revealed that Tetrandrine induced expression of ER stress-related proteins GADD153 and GRP78. Our results indicate that Tetrandrine induces apoptosis through calcium-mediated ER stress and caspase pathway in NPC-TW 039 cells. In conclusion, Tetrandrine may could be used for treatment of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in future. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Re-Evaluation of 6th Edition of AJCC Staging System for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Proposed Improvement Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciT

    Mao Yanping; Xie Fangyun; Liu Lizhi

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To use magnetic resonance imaging to re-evaluate and improve the 6th edition of the International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of the data from 924 biopsy-proven nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging examinations and received radiotherapy as their primary treatment. Results: The T classification, N classification, and stage group were independent predictors. No significant differences in the local failure hazards between adjacent T categories were observed between Stage T2b and T1, Stage T2b and T2a, and Stage T2b andmore » T3. Although the disease failure hazards for Stage T1 were similar to those for Stage T2a, those for Stage T2b were similar to those for Stage T3. Survival curves of the different T/N subsets showed a better segregation when Stage T2a was downstaged to T1, T2b and T3 were incorporated into T2, and the nodal greatest dimension was rejected. The disease failure hazard for T3N0-N1 subsets were similar to those of the T1-T2N1 subsets belonging to Stage II; the same result was found for the T4N0-N2 subsets in the sixth American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. However, the staging system we propose shows more consistent hazards within the same stage group and better survival discrimination among T categories, N categories, and overall stages. Conclusion: Using the 6th American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system produces an acceptable distribution of patient numbers and segregation of survival curves among the different stage groups. The prognostic accuracy of the staging system could be improved by recategorizing the T, N, and group stage criteria.« less

  18. Therapeutic targeting of regulatory T cells enhances tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses in Epstein–Barr virus associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciT

    Fogg, Mark; Murphy, John R.; Lorch, Jochen

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple malignancies including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In nasopharynx cancer, CD8+ T cells specific for EBV Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and Latent Membrane Protein 2 (LMP2) are important components of anti-tumor immunity since both are consistently expressed in NPC. We have previously shown that EBNA-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses were suppressed in NPC patients compared to healthy controls. We now find that CD8+ T cell responses specific for LMP2 are also abnormal in NPC patients, and both EBNA-1- and LMP2-specific responses are suppressed by regulatory T cells (Treg). EBNA-1 and LMP2-specific CD8+ T cell responses, asmore » well as immune control of EBV-infected cells in vitro, could be restored by the depletion of Tregs and by use of a clinically approved drug targeting Tregs. Thus, in vivo modulation of Tregs may be an effective means of enhancing these anti-tumor immune responses in NPC patients. - Highlights: • Viral proteins are tumor antigens in Epstein–Barr virus associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. • CD8+ T cell responses against EBV proteins EBNA-1 and LMP2 are suppressed in NPC patients. • T regulatory cells are responsible for suppressing EBV immunity in NPC patients. • Depletion of Tregs with Ontak can rescue EBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in NPC patients. • This clinically approved drug may be effective for enhancing anti-tumor immunity in NPC patients.« less

  19. Phase I/II Trial Evaluating Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Salvaging Treatment of Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lin; Hu, Jiyi; Guan, Xiyin; Gao, Jing; Lu, Rong; Lu, Jiade J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is the mainstay strategy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Intensity-modulated X-ray therapy (IMXT) alone is the current standard for stage I and II NPC. For stage III and IV A/B diseases, concurrent chemotherapy should be provided in addition to IMXT. However, optimal treatment for locally recurrent NPC after previous definitive dose of radiotherapy is lacking. Various techniques including brachytherapy, IMXT, stereotactic radiosurgery or radiotherapy (SRS or SBRT) have been used in the management of locally recurrent NPC. Due to the inherent limitation of these techniques, i.e., limited range of irradiation or over-irradiation to surrounding normal tissues, moderate efficacy has been observed at the cost of severe toxicities. Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) offers potential physical and biological advantages over photon and proton radiotherapy. Due to the inverted dose profile of particle beams and their greater energy deposition within the Bragg peak, precise dose delivery to the target volume(s) without exposing the surrounding organs at risk to extra doses is possible. In addition, CIRT provides an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) as compared to photon and proton radiotherapy. Such advantages may translate to improved outcomes after irradiation in terms of disease control in radio-resistant and previously treated, recurrent malignancies. It is therefore reasonable to postulate that recurrent NPC after high-dose radiotherapy could be more resistant to re-irradiation using photons. Reports on the treatment of radio-resistant malignancies in the head and neck region such as melanoma, sarcoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) have demonstrated superior local control rates from CIRT as compared to photon irradiation. Thus patients with recurrent NPC are likely to benefit from the enhanced biological effectiveness of carbon ions. As effective retreatment strategy is lacking for locally recurrent NPC, carbon ion

  20. Image-based Multilevel Subdivision of M1 Category in TNM Staging System for Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lujun; Li, Wang; Wang, Siyang; Xie, Guofeng; Zeng, Qi; Chen, Chen; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Ming; Shu, Wanhong; Pan, Changchuan; Xia, Yunfei; Wu, Peihong

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To establish an image-based M1 category subdivision system for personalized prognosis prediction and treatment planning in patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and Methods A total of 1172 patients with metachronous metastasic NPC were retrospectively enrolled (the dataset is from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center for derivation, and the combined datasets are from Guangzhou Medical University Cancer Center and the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University for validation). The Ethics Committee of the three centers approved this study. A general subdivision system of the M1 category was established on the basis of the most influential metastatic features for overall survival (OS). The following multilevel subdivision system for precise subdivision of the M1 category was designed: M [number of locations]-Location [number of lesions], with B indicating bone, L indicating the lung, H indicating the liver, and N indicating a node. The correlation of the M1 subdivisions with OS was determined with Cox regression. The best treatment response was assessed with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1 guidelines and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria. Results Multivariate analysis in the derivation cohort showed that the number of metastatic lesions (multiple or single), the number of metastatic locations (multiple or single), liver involvement, and bone involvement were independent prognostic factors for OS. In general, subdividing the cohort by the number of metastatic lesions and the number of metastatic locations resulted in three subcategories of differential OS: M1a, a single lesion in a single organ or location; M1b, multiple lesions in a single organ or location; and M1c, metastases in multiple locations (for M1b vs M1a, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.71, 3.05; for M1c vs M1a, HR = 3.65, 95% CI: 2.75, 4.85); these subdivisions were externally validated

  1. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) 30-bp deletion and Xho I-loss is associated with type III nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    See, Hui Shien; Yap, Yoke Yeow; Yip, Wai Kien; Seow, Heng Fong

    2008-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a human epithelial tumour with high prevalence amongst Chinese in Southern China and South East Asia and is associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The viral genome harbours an oncogene, namely, the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) gene and known variants such as the 30-bp deletion and loss of XhoI restriction site have been found. Less is known about the relationship between these variants and the population characteristics and histological type. Methods In this study, the EBV LMP1 gene variants from 42 NPC and 10 non-malignant archived formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, as well as plasma from another 35 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were determined by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS programme. Results LMP1 30-bp deletion was detected in 19/34 (55.9%) of NPC tissues, 7/29 (24.1%) of plasma but absent in non-malignant tissues (8/8). Coexistence of variants with and without 30bp deletion was found only in 5/29 (17.2%) plasma samples but not in NPC tissues. The loss of XhoI restriction site in LMP1 gene was found in 34/39 (87.2%) of the NPC tissues and 11/30 (36.7%) of plasma samples. None of the non-malignant nasopharyngeal tissues (8/8) harbour XhoI-loss variants. LMP1 30-bp deletion was detected in 16/18 Chinese versus 3/15 Malays and 13/16 type III (undifferentiated carcinoma) versus 1/6 type I (keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma). XhoI-loss was found in 19/19 Chinese versus 14/19 Malays and 18/18 type III (undifferentiated) versus 2/5 type I (keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma). Statistical analysis showed that these variants were associated with ethnic race (30-bp deletion, p < 0.05; XhoI-loss, p = 0.046) and histological type of NPC (30-bp deletion, p = 0.011; XhoI-loss, p = 0.006). Nineteen out of 32 NPC tissues (19/32; 59.4%) and 6/24 (25%) of plasma samples showed the coexistence of both the 30-bp deletion and the loss of Xho

  2. Localized nasopharyngeal amyloidosis mimicking malignancy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Seung; Kwon, Sam Hyun

    2017-07-01

    Nasopharyngeal amyloidosis is a benign, slowly progressive disease that is characterized by extracellular eosinophilic deposition. We report a rare case of localized nasopharyngeal amyloidosis. The initial chief complaint of this patient was frequent epistaxis and right aural fullness. The initial diagnosis was nasopharyngeal tumor. There is no universally effective medical treatment for nasopharyngeal amyloidosis but surgery can be an option. We performed careful observation with regular follow-up by nasopharyngoscopy and radiologic study. The patient reported no further complaints at 1-year follow-up and the lesion from nasopharyngeal amyloidosis was still present. Although it is rare, nasopharyngeal amyloidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of epistaxis, nasal obstruction, and otitis media with effusion, which are the main symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In the absence of systemic disease, localized nasopharyngeal amyloidosis may be treated conservatively.

  3. Apoptosis and TRAF-1 cleavage in Epstein-Barr virus-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells treated with doxorubicin combined with a farnesyl-transferase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Vicat, Jean Michel; Ardila-Osorio, Hector; Khabir, Abdelmajid; Brezak, Marie Christine; Viossat, Isabelle; Kasprzyk, Philip; Jlidi, Rachid; Opolon, Paule; Ooka, Tadamassa; Prevost, Grégoire; Huang, Dolly P; Busson, Pierre

    2003-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are much more sensitive to chemotherapy than other head and neck carcinomas. Spectacular regressions are frequently observed after induction chemotherapy. However, these favorable responses are difficult to predict and often of short duration. So far there have been only few experiments to investigate the mechanisms which underline the cytotoxic effects of anti-neoplastic drugs against NPC cells. In addition, these studies were performed almost entirely on EBV-negative cell lines therefore not truly representative of NPC cells. For the first time, we have used two EBV-positive NPC tumor lines derived from a North African (C15) and a Chinese (C666-1) patient as in vitro targets for a panel of anti-neoplastic agents. Doxorubicin, taxol and in a lesser extent cis-platinum efficiently inhibited NPC cell proliferation at clinically relevant concentrations, but all three agents failed to induce apoptosis. However, massive apoptosis of C15 cells was achieved when doxorubicin (1 microM) was combined with a farnesyl-transferase inhibitor, BIM 2001 (5 microM). Moreover, this apoptotic process was associated with a caspase-dependent early cleavage of the TNF-receptor associated factor 1 (TRAF-1) molecule, a signaling adaptor which is specifically expressed in latently EBV-infected cells. TRAF-1 cleavage might become a useful indicator of chemo-induced apoptosis in EBV-associated NPCs.

  4. Primary Surgery vs Radiotherapy for Early Stage Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mark A; Graboyes, Evan M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Neskey, David M; Kaczmar, John M; Schopper, Heather K; Sharma, Anand K; Morgan, Patrick F; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2018-04-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to determine the effect of primary surgery vs radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). In addition, this study attempts to identify factors associated with receiving primary RT. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013). Subjects and Methods Reviewing the NCDB from 2004 to 2013, patients with early stage I to II OCSCC were identified. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, Cox regression analysis, and propensity score matching were used to examine differences in OS between primary surgery and primary RT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with primary RT. Results Of the 20,779 patients included in the study, 95.4% (19,823 patients) underwent primary surgery and 4.6% (956 patients) underwent primary RT. After adjusting for covariates, primary RT was associated with an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.22). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with primary RT included age ≥70 years, black race, Medicaid or Medicare insurance, no insurance, oral cavity subsite other than tongue, clinical stage II disease, low-volume treatment facilities, and earlier treatment year. Conclusion Primary RT for early stage OCSCC is associated with increased mortality. Approximately 5% of patients receive primary RT; however, this percentage is decreasing. Patients at highest risk for receiving primary RT include those who are elderly, black, with public insurance, and treated at low-volume facilities.

  5. EGCG Inhibits Proliferation, Invasiveness and Tumor Growth by Up-Regulation of Adhesion Molecules, Suppression of Gelatinases Activity, and Induction of Apoptosis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chih-Yeu; Wu, Chung-Chun; Hsu, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Hsin-Ying; Huang, Sheng-Yen; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Yao; Tsao, George Sai-Wah; Chen, Chi-Long; Chen, Jen-Yang

    2015-01-01

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major green tea polyphenol, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells. Epidemiological studies have shown that drinking green tea can reduce the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), yet the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, the inhibitory effect of EGCG was tested on a set of Epstein Barr virus-negative and -positive NPC cell lines. Treatment with EGCG inhibited the proliferation of NPC cells but did not affect the growth of a non-malignant nasopharyngeal cell line, NP460hTert. Moreover, EGCG treated cells had reduced migration and invasive properties. The expression of the cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin and β-catenin was found to be up-regulated by EGCG treatment, while the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were found to be mediated by suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and AP-1 and Sp1 transactivation. Spheroid formation by NPC cells in suspension was significantly inhibited by EGCG. Oral administration of EGCG was capable of suppressing tumor growth in xenografted mice bearing NPC tumors. Treatment with EGCG was found to elevate the expression of p53 and p21, and eventually led to apoptosis of NPC cells via caspase 3 activation. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and β-catenin was also suppressed by EGCG treatment. These results indicate that EGCG can inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness, and induce apoptosis, of NPC cells, making it a promising agent for chemoprevention or adjuvant therapy of NPC. PMID:25625511

  6. Proteins S100A8 and S100A9 are potential biomarkers for renal cell carcinoma in the early stages: results from a proteomic study integrated with bioinformatics analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limin; Jiang, Haowen; Xu, Gang; Wen, Hui; Gu, Bin; Liu, Jun; Mao, Shanghua; Na, Rong; Jing, Yan; Ding, Qiang; Zhang, Yuanfang

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the two members of the EF‑hand Ca2+ binding protein S100 family, S100A8 and S100A9, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), serum samples were collected from patients with RCC, transitional cell carcinoma in the kidney, benign renal masses and normal controls. The samples were analyzed by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification technology to identify the differential expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in the respective groups. Hierarchical clustering analysis was then conducted for the samples and the relevant selected gene. The cross‑platform analysis for the external validation was performed by means of The Cancer Genome Atlas database, containing the gene/microRNA expression pattern and clinical information of patients with RCC. Immunohistochemical staining was used to verify the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in the four groups. As a result, serum and mRNA expression levels of S100A8 and S100A9 were found to be upregulated in patients with RCC compared with the other three groups, which was consistent with the result of the upregulated expression of mRNA levels in RCC tissue. The overexpression of S100A8 and S100A9 in cancer cells was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, bioinformatics revealed that let‑7, a microRNA formerly identified as an inhibiting factor of RCC was downregulated in RCC, which contrasted with S100A8. It was also complementary to the sequence at the 3' untranslated region terminal of S100A8. Therefore, indicating that S100A8 and S100A9 may serve as biomarkers for the detection of RCC.

  7. Conserved mutation of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded BamHI-A Rightward Frame-1 (BARF1) gene in Indonesian nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background BamHI-A rightward frame-1 (BARF1) is a carcinoma-specific Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded oncogene. Here we describe the BARF1 sequence diversity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), other EBV-related diseases and Indonesian healthy EBV carriers in relation to EBV genotype, viral load and serology markers. Nasopharyngeal brushings from 56 NPC cases, blood or tissue from 15 other EBV-related disorders, spontaneous B cell lines (LCL) from 5 Indonesian healthy individuals and several prototype EBV isolates were analysed by PCR-direct sequencing. Results Most NPC isolates revealed specific BARF1 nucleotide changes compared to prototype B95-8 virus. At the protein level these mutations resulted in 3 main substitutions (V29A, W72G, H130R), which are not considered to cause gross tertiary structure alterations in the hexameric BARF1 protein. At least one amino acid conversion was detected in 80.3% of NPC samples compared to 33.3% of non-NPC samples (p < 0.001) and 40.0% of healthy LCLs (p = 0.074). NPC isolates also showed more frequent codon mutation than non-NPC samples. EBV strain typing revealed most isolates as EBV type 1. The viral load of either NPC or non-NPC samples was high, but only in non- NPC group it related to a particular BARF1 variant. Serology on NPC sera using IgA/EBNA-1 ELISA, IgA/VCA-p18 ELISA and immunoblot score showed no relation with BARF1 sequence diversity (p = 0.802, 0.382 and 0.058, respectively). NPC patients had variable antibody reactivity against purified hexameric NPC-derived BARF1 irrespective of the endogenous BARF1 sequence. Conclusion The sequence variation of BARF1 observed in Indonesian NPC patients and controls may reflect a natural selection of EBV strains unlikely to be predisposing to carcinogenesis. The conserved nature of BARF1 may reflect an important role in EBV (epithelial) persistence. PMID:20849661

  8. Conserved mutation of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded BamHI-A Rightward Frame-1 (BARF1) gene in Indonesian nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hutajulu, Susanna H; Hoebe, Eveline K; Verkuijlen, Sandra Awm; Fachiroh, Jajah; Hariwijanto, Bambang; Haryana, Sofia M; Stevens, Servi Jc; Greijer, Astrid E; Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2010-09-19

    BamHI-A rightward frame-1 (BARF1) is a carcinoma-specific Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded oncogene. Here we describe the BARF1 sequence diversity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), other EBV-related diseases and Indonesian healthy EBV carriers in relation to EBV genotype, viral load and serology markers. Nasopharyngeal brushings from 56 NPC cases, blood or tissue from 15 other EBV-related disorders, spontaneous B cell lines (LCL) from 5 Indonesian healthy individuals and several prototype EBV isolates were analysed by PCR-direct sequencing. Most NPC isolates revealed specific BARF1 nucleotide changes compared to prototype B95-8 virus. At the protein level these mutations resulted in 3 main substitutions (V29A, W72G, H130R), which are not considered to cause gross tertiary structure alterations in the hexameric BARF1 protein. At least one amino acid conversion was detected in 80.3% of NPC samples compared to 33.3% of non-NPC samples (p < 0.001) and 40.0% of healthy LCLs (p = 0.074). NPC isolates also showed more frequent codon mutation than non-NPC samples. EBV strain typing revealed most isolates as EBV type 1. The viral load of either NPC or non-NPC samples was high, but only in non- NPC group it related to a particular BARF1 variant. Serology on NPC sera using IgA/EBNA-1 ELISA, IgA/VCA-p18 ELISA and immunoblot score showed no relation with BARF1 sequence diversity (p = 0.802, 0.382 and 0.058, respectively). NPC patients had variable antibody reactivity against purified hexameric NPC-derived BARF1 irrespective of the endogenous BARF1 sequence. The sequence variation of BARF1 observed in Indonesian NPC patients and controls may reflect a natural selection of EBV strains unlikely to be predisposing to carcinogenesis. The conserved nature of BARF1 may reflect an important role in EBV (epithelial) persistence.

  9. Development of a New Outcome Prediction Model in Early-stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Based on Histopathologic Parameters With Multivariate Analysis: The Aditi-Nuzhat Lymph-node Prediction Score (ANLPS) System.

    PubMed

    Arora, Aditi; Husain, Nuzhat; Bansal, Ankur; Neyaz, Azfar; Jaiswal, Ritika; Jain, Kavitha; Chaturvedi, Arun; Anand, Nidhi; Malhotra, Kiranpreet; Shukla, Saumya

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic parameters that predict lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to design a new assessment score on the basis of these parameters that could ultimately allow for changes in treatment decisions or aid clinicians in deciding whether there is a need for close follow-up or to perform early lymph node dissection. Histopathologic parameters of 336 cases of OSCC with stage cT1/T2 N0M0 disease were analyzed. The location of the tumor and the type of surgery used for the management of the tumor were recorded for all patients. The parameters, including T stage, grading of tumor, tumor budding, tumor thickness, depth of invasion, shape of tumor nest, lymphoid response at tumor-host interface and pattern of invasion, eosinophilic reaction, foreign-body giant cell reaction, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion, were examined. Ninety-two patients had metastasis in lymph nodes. On univariate and multivariate analysis, independent variables for predicting lymph node metastasis in descending order were depth of invasion (P=0.003), pattern of invasion (P=0.007), perineural invasion (P=0.014), grade (P=0.028), lymphovascular invasion (P=0.038), lymphoid response (P=0.037), and tumor budding (P=0.039). We designed a scoring system on the basis of these statistical results and tested it. Cases with scores ranging from 7 to 11, 12 to 16, and ≥17 points showed LN metastasis in 6.4%, 22.8%, and 77.1% of cases, respectively. The difference between these 3 groups in relation to nodal metastasis was very significant (P<0.0001). A patient at low risk for lymph node metastasis (score, 7 to 11) had a 5-year survival of 93%, moderate-risk patients (score, 12 to 16) had a 5-year survival of 67%, and high-risk patients (score, 17 to 21) had a 5-year survival of 39%. The risk of lymph node metastasis in OSCC is influenced by many histologic parameters that are not routinely analyzed in

  10. Prognostic value of biologic subtype and the 21-gene recurrence score relative to local recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiation for early stage breast carcinoma: results from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2197 study.

    PubMed

    Solin, Lawrence J; Gray, Robert; Goldstein, Lori J; Recht, Abram; Baehner, Frederick L; Shak, Steven; Badve, Sunil; Perez, Edith A; Shulman, Lawrence N; Martino, Silvana; Davidson, Nancy E; Sledge, George W; Sparano, Joseph A

    2012-07-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the significance of biologic subtype and 21-gene recurrence score relative to local recurrence and local-regional recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiation. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2197 was a prospective randomized clinical trial that compared two adjuvant systemic chemotherapy regimens for patients with operable breast carcinoma with 1-3 positive lymph nodes or negative lymph nodes with tumor size >1.0 cm. The study population was a subset of 388 patients with known 21-gene recurrence score and treated with breast conservation surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and definitive radiation treatment. Median follow-up was 9.7 years (range = 3.7-11.6 years). The 10-year rates of local recurrence and local-regional recurrence were 5.4 % and 6.6 %, respectively. Neither biologic subtype nor 21-gene Recurrence Score was associated with local recurrence or local-regional recurrence on univariate or multivariate analyses (all P ≥ 0.12). The 10-year rates of local recurrence were 4.9 % for hormone receptor positive, HER2-negative tumors, 6.0 % for triple negative tumors, and 6.4 % for HER2-positive tumors (P = 0.76), and the 10-year rates of local-regional recurrence were 6.3, 6.9, and 7.2 %, respectively (P = 0.79). For hormone receptor-positive tumors, the 10-year rates of local recurrence were 3.2, 2.9, and 10.1 % for low, intermediate, and high 21-gene recurrence score, respectively (P = 0.17), and the 10-year rates of local-regional recurrence were 3.8, 5.1, and 12.0 %, respectively (P = 0.12). For hormone receptor-positive tumors, the 21-gene recurrence score evaluated as a continuous variable was significant for local-regional recurrence (hazard ratio 2.66; P = 0.03). The 10-year rates of local recurrence and local-regional recurrence were reasonably low in all subsets of patients. Neither biologic subtype nor 21-gene recurrence score should preclude breast conservation treatment with radiation.

  11. Prognostic value of biologic subtype and the 21-gene recurrence score relative to local recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiation for early stage breast carcinoma: results from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2197 study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Robert; Goldstein, Lori J.; Recht, Abram; Baehner, Frederick L.; Shak, Steven; Badve, Sunil; Perez, Edith A.; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Martino, Silvana; Davidson, Nancy E.; Sledge, George W.; Sparano, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the significance of biologic subtype and 21-gene recurrence score relative to local recurrence and local–regional recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiation. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2197 was a prospective randomized clinical trial that compared two adjuvant systemic chemotherapy regimens for patients with operable breast carcinoma with 1–3 positive lymph nodes or negative lymph nodes with tumor size >1.0 cm. The study population was a subset of 388 patients with known 21-gene recurrence score and treated with breast conservation surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and definitive radiation treatment. Median follow-up was 9.7 years (range = 3.7–11.6 years). The 10-year rates of local recurrence and local–regional recurrence were 5.4 % and 6.6 %, respectively. Neither biologic subtype nor 21-gene Recurrence Score was associated with local recurrence or local–regional recurrence on univariate or multivariate analyses (all P ≥ 0.12). The 10-year rates of local recurrence were 4.9 % for hormone receptor positive, HER2-negative tumors, 6.0 % for triple negative tumors, and 6.4 % for HER2-positive tumors (P = 0.76), and the 10-year rates of local–regional recurrence were 6.3, 6.9, and 7.2 %, respectively (P = 0.79). For hormone receptor positive tumors, the 10-year rates of local recurrence were 3.2, 2.9, and 10.1 % for low, intermediate, and high 21-gene recurrence score, respectively (P = 0.17), and the 10-year rates of local–regional recurrence were 3.8, 5.1, and 12.0 %, respectively (P = 0.12). For hormone receptor- positive tumors, the 21-gene recurrence score evaluated as a continuous variable was significant for local–regional recurrence (hazard ratio 2.66; P = 0.03). The 10-year rates of local recurrence and local–regional recurrence were reasonably low in all subsets of patients. Neither biologic subtype nor 21-gene recurrence score should preclude breast conservation

  12. Therapeutic targeting of regulatory T cells enhances tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses in Epstein–Barr virus associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Mark; Murphy, John R.; Lorch, Jochen; Posner, Marshall; Wang, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple malignancies including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In nasopharynx cancer, CD8+ T cells specific for EBV Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and Latent Membrane Protein 2 (LMP2) are important components of anti-tumor immunity since both are consistently expressed in NPC. We have previously shown that EBNA-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses were suppressed in NPC patients compared to healthy controls. We now find that CD8+ T cell responses specific for LMP2 are also abnormal in NPC patients, and both EBNA-1- and LMP2-specific responses are suppressed by regulatory T cells (Treg). EBNA-1 and LMP2-specific CD8+ T cell responses, as well as immune control of EBV-infected cells in vitro, could be restored by the depletion of Tregs and by use of a clinically approved drug targeting Tregs. Thus, in vivo modulation of Tregs may be an effective means of enhancing these anti-tumor immune responses in NPC patients. PMID:23601786

  13. Lasiodin inhibits proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by simultaneous modulation of the Apaf-1/caspase, AKT/MAPK and COX-2/NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lianzhu; Deng, Wuguo; Tian, Yun; Chen, Wangbing; Wang, Jingshu; Fu, Lingyi; Shi, Dingbo; Zhao, Mouming; Luo, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Rabdosia serra has been widely used for the treatment of the various human diseases. However, the antiproliferative effects and underlying mechanisms of the compounds in this herb remain largely unknown. In this study, an antiproliferative compound against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells from Rabdosia serra was purified and identified as lasiodin (a diterpenoid). The treatment with lasiodin inhibited cell viability and migration. Lasiodin also mediated the cell morphology change and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. The treatment with lasiodin induced the Apaf-1 expression, triggered the cytochrome-C release, and stimulated the PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9 cleavages, thereby activating the apoptotic pathways. The treatment with lasiodin also significantly inhibited the phosphorylations of the AKT, ERK1/2, p38 and JNK proteins. The pretreatment with the AKT or MAPK-selective inhibitors considerably blocked the lasiodin-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, the treatment with lasiodin inhibited the COX-2 expression, abrogated NF-κB binding to the COX-2 promoter, and promoted the NF-κB translocation from cell nuclei to cytosol. The pretreatment with a COX-2-selective inhibitor abrogated the lasiodin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. These results indicated that lasiodin simultaneously activated the Apaf-1/caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways and suppressed the AKT/MAPK and COX-2/NF-κB signaling pathways. This study also suggested that lasiodin could be a promising natural compound for the prevention and treatment of NPC.

  14. Test-retest reliability of a computer-assisted self-administered questionnaire on early life exposure in a nasopharyngeal carcinoma case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mai, Zhi-Ming; Lin, Jia-Huang; Chiang, Shing-Chun; Ngan, Roger Kai-Cheong; Kwong, Dora Lai-Wan; Ng, Wai-Tong; Ng, Alice Wan-Ying; Yuen, Kam-Tong; Ip, Kai-Ming; Chan, Yap-Hang; Lee, Anne Wing-Mui; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lung, Maria Li; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2018-05-04

    We evaluated the reliability of early life nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) aetiology factors in the questionnaire of an NPC case-control study in Hong Kong during 2014-2017. 140 subjects aged 18+ completed the same computer-assisted questionnaire twice, separated by at least 2 weeks. The questionnaire included most known NPC aetiology factors and the present analysis focused on early life exposure. Test-retest reliability of all the 285 questionnaire items was assessed in all subjects and in 5 subgroups defined by cases/controls, sex, time between 1 st and 2 nd questionnaire (2-29/≥30 weeks), education (secondary or less/postsecondary), and age (25-44/45-59/60+ years) at the first questionnaire. The reliability of items on dietary habits, body figure, skin tone and sun exposure in early life periods (age 6-12 and 13-18) was moderate-to-almost perfect, and most other items had fair-to-substantial reliability in all life periods (age 6-12, 13-18 and 19-30, and 10 years ago). Differences in reliability by strata of the 5 subgroups were only observed in a few items. This study is the first to report the reliability of an NPC questionnaire, and make the questionnaire available online. Overall, our questionnaire had acceptable reliability, suggesting that previous NPC study results on the same risk factors would have similar reliability.

  15. Capsaicin Induces Autophagy and Apoptosis in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells by Downregulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Tsai; Wang, Hung-Chen; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Cho, Chung-Lung; Yang, Ming-Yu; Chien, Chih-Yen

    2017-06-23

    Capsaicin is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for different human cancers. In Southeast China, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has the highest incidence of all cancers, but final treatment outcomes are unsatisfactory. However, there is a lack of information regarding the anticancer activity of capsaicin in NPC cells, and its effects on the signaling transduction pathways related to apoptosis and autophagy remain unclear. In the present study, the precise mechanisms by which capsaicin exerts anti-proliferative effects, cell cycle arrest, autophagy and apoptosis were investigated in NPC-TW01 cells. Exposure to capsaicin inhibited cancer cell growth and increased G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Western blotting and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to measure capsaicin-induced autophagy via involvement of the class III PI3K/Beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. Capsaicin induced autophagy by increasing levels of the autophagy markers LC3-II and Atg5, enhancing p62 and Fap-1 degradation and increasing caspase-3 activity to induce apoptosis, suggesting a correlation of blocking the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway with the above-mentioned anticancer activities. Taken together, these data confirm that capsaicin inhibited the growth of human NPC cells and induced autophagy, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent for cancer.

  16. Identification of surrogate endpoints in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Zhang, Wen-Na; Tang, Ling-Long; Mao, Yan-Ping; Liu, Xu; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Shao, Jian-Yong; Jia, Wei-Hua; Kang, Tie-Bang; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2015-11-24

    In the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the efficacy of additional neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is currently being investigated in ongoing trials. Overall survival (OS) is the gold standard endpoint in NPC trials. We performed this analysis to identify surrogate endpoints for OS, which could shorten follow-up duration and speed up assessment of treatment effects. We retrospectively analysed 208 matched-pair patients with locoregionally advanced NPC receiving NACT+CCRT or CCRT. Progression-free survival (PFS), failure-free survival (FFS), distant failure-free survival (D-FFS) and locoregional failure-free survival (LR-FFS) at 2 and 3 years were assessed as surrogates for 5-year OS according to Prentice's criteria. The strength of the associations were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. No significant differences were observed between treatment arms for any surrogate endpoint at 2 years, which rejected Prentice's second criterion. In contrast, 3-year LR-FFS, PFS, FFS and D-FFS were consistent with all four of Prentice's criteria; the rank correlation coefficient (0.730) between 3-year PFS and 5-year OS was highest. 3-year PFS, FFS and D-FFS could be valid surrogate endpoints for 5-year OS; 3-year PFS may be the most accurate.

  17. Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Sun, Ying; Chen, Lei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Tang, Ling-Long; Li, Wen-Fei; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Wen-Na; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Guo, Rui; Lin, Ai-Hua; Ma, Jun

    2015-08-01

    We used a literature-based meta-analysis to assess whether failure-free survival (FFS) or progression-free survival (PFS) could be reliable surrogate endpoints for overall survival (OS) in trials of combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We identified randomised trials that evaluated combined chemoradiotherapy strategies, and reported FFS or PFS and OS in NPC. We analysed the treatment effects on FFS or PFS, and OS. We used the coefficient of determination (R(2)), and the surrogate threshold effect (STE) to assess the trial-level correlation. Twenty-one trials (5212 patients), with sixteen treatment-control comparisons for FFS, and nine for PFS, were analysed. FFS was strongly correlated with OS (R(2)=0.88, STE=0.84), as was PFS (R(2)=0.90, STE=0.88). Moreover, FFS and PFS at 3 years were still strongly correlated with 5-year OS (R(2)=0.80, STE=0.83; R(2)=0.85, STE=0.84). Both FFS and PFS could be valid surrogate endpoints for OS in trials of combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for NPC; PFS may be a more acceptable surrogate endpoint compared with FFS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carotid artery stiffness evaluated early by wave intensity in normal left ventricular function in post-radiotherapy patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Runlan; Tan, Bijun; Qian, Jing; Duan, Yanfang; Wang, Nan; Li, Guangsen

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to assess carotid elasticity early in normal left ventricular function in post-radiotherapy patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by wave intensity. Sixty-seven post-radiotherapy patients all with normal left ventricular function were classified into group NPC1 and group NPC2 based on their carotid intima-media thickness. Thirty age- and sex-matched NPC patients without any history of irradiation and chemotherapy were included as a control group. Carotid parameters, including stiffness constant (β), pressure-strain elastic modulus (Ep), arterial compliance (AC), stiffness constant pulse wave velocity (PWVβ), and wave intensity pulse wave velocity (PWVWI) were measured. There were no significant differences in conventional echocardiographic variables among the three groups. In comparison with the control group, β, Ep, PWVβ, and PWVWI were significantly increased, while AC was significantly decreased in the NPC1 and NPC2 groups, and there were differences between the NPC1 group and NPC2 group (all P < 0.05). This study suggested that carotid artery stiffness increased with reduced carotid compliance in post-RT with NPC.

  19. Purification and characterization of a glucosamine-binding antifungal lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Chinese pinto beans with antiproliferative activity towards nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ang, Andrew Si Wo; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Dan, Xiuli; Chan, Yau Sang; Pan, Wenliang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2014-01-01

    A lectin has successfully been isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Chinese pinto bean using affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration in succession, with a 15.4-fold purification. Investigation of its characteristics revealed that Chinese pinto bean lectin (CPBL) was a 58-kDa dimeric glucosamine-binding protein. Its Mg(2+)-dependent hemagglutinating activity was stable at pH 7-8 and at or below 60 °C. When the purified lectin was tested against six fungal species including Phyllosticta citriasiana, Magnaporthe grisea, Bipolans maydis, Valsa mali, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Setosphaeria turcica, only the mycelial growth of V. mali was reduced by 30.6 % by the lectin at 30 μM. The lectin did not exert any discernible antiproliferative effects on breast cancer MCF-7 cells, but was able to suppress proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE-1 cells, with an IC50