Science.gov

Sample records for earn college credit

  1. Integrating Earning College Credit in High School into Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2015

    2015-01-01

    Earning college credit in high school matters to students and parents. Students who earn college credits by taking a college-level course while in high school are more likely to enter college and succeed. Through these experiences, students become familiar with college expectations, academic behaviors, and habits of mind; get a head start on…

  2. Does the Number of College Credits Earned in a Tech Prep and Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program Predict College Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a Tech Prep Program located in Northwest Ohio and determine the degree to which college credits earned in high school through the Tech Prep and PSEO Programs predict college success and if there were any significant gender/race differences in credits earned and college success as well as high school…

  3. Jump Start: International High School Students From Other Countries Earning Early U.S. College Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Jiayi; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes data from one of the larger credit-based college transition programs for international students, the U.S. Bound College Credit Program or USBC2 Program (a pseudonym), mainly offered to high school students around the globe who are planning on attending American colleges or universities. Upon successful program completion, these…

  4. Dualling Thomas: Maine College Helps Students Earn College Credit While in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Riley

    2016-01-01

    The Pathways Program allows juniors and seniors in high school who have a high school GPA of 3.0, a demonstrated capacity for college work, and a recommendation of the high school guidance counselor, to pursue their associate degrees at Thomas College in Waterville, Maine, while completing the requirements for their high school diploma at…

  5. Online Dual Credits: Measuring the Relationship between Grades Earned in Rural High School Dual Credit Courses and Grades Earned in Post High School College Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Joe L.

    2017-01-01

    The extensive body of research into the relationship between online dual credit coursework and the academic success in subsequent coursework for South Dakota students is not well known. South Dakota students are flocking toward the online dual credit option for a number of reasons--reduction in tuition, expedient degree attainment, and to…

  6. Valuable Learning or "Spinning Their Wheels"? Understanding Excess Credits Earned by Community College Associate Degree Completers. CCRC Working Paper No. 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Substantial numbers of students who earn an associate degree from a community college accumulate more college credits than are required. This is an important phenomenon for at least two related reasons. First, it raises the issue of efficiency: Are students getting their degrees in the most expeditious manner, both in terms of time out of the…

  7. Earned Income Credit Utilization by Welfare Recipients: A Case Study of Minnesota's Earned Income Credit Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirasuna, Donald P.; Stinson, Thomas F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines utilization of a state earned income credit by AFDC and TANF recipients. Although utilization percentages are increasing, we find that among TANF recipients in 1999, 45.7 percent of all households and 34.8 percent of eligible households did not receive the state earned income credit. Moreover, we find that utilization may…

  8. Using Data Mining to Explore Why Community College Transfer Students Earn Bachelor's Degrees with Excess Credits. CCRC Working Paper No. 100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, John; Jenkins, Davis; Kopko, Elizabeth; Ran, Florence Xiaotao

    2018-01-01

    Community college transfer students encounter challenges progressing toward a bachelor's degree, leading to widespread transfer credit loss. This in turn may lower students' chances of credential completion and increase the time and costs for students, their families, and taxpayers. In this study we review three definitions of credit transfer…

  9. The College Payoff: Education, Occupations, Lifetime Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.; Cheah, Ban

    2011-01-01

    A college degree pays off--but by just how much? In this report from the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, the authors examine just what a college degree is worth--and what else besides a degree might influence an individual's potential earnings. This report examines lifetime earnings for all education levels and…

  10. Converting Work into College Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Joseph A.

    1976-01-01

    The Cooperative Education Program conducted by the New Jersey Department of Labor and Industry and Thomas A. Edison College enables State labor department employees to work toward college degrees by attending free classes, taking college-level examinations for college credit, and converting work and life experiences into college credits.…

  11. Understanding Student Academic Performance Differences in College Based on Advanced Placement College Credits Earned in High School: A Comparison between Honors and Non-Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Aquino, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    Since their development in the early twentieth century Honors Programs and Colleges within Higher Education serve a variety of functions; from attracting academically talented students to an institution for the purposes of increasing the institutional profile to providing an opportunity for those students to achieve their potential. However, the…

  12. The Determination of Earnings Among College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaeth, Joe L.

    Differences in levels and determinants of earnings for men and women college graduates are examined. Perspectives from human capital theory, research on the socioeconomic achievement process, and research on segmented labor markets are used to design models of the determination of earnings. Data are taken from the National Opinion Research Center…

  13. Helping Working Families: The Earned Income Tax Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Saul D.; Seidman, Laurence S.

    The impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on working families was analyzed. The analysis established that the EITC is, on balance, a highly effective program that meets its primary objectives well. The following benefits of the EITC were identified: (1) it reduced the poverty rate in 1999 by an estimated 1.5 percentage points; (2) it is…

  14. College Success of Technical College Preparation and Dual Credit Program Students versus Non-Program Students: A Comparative Analysis at a Midwestern Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payton-Adams, Minnie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the impact of the number of college credits earned in Technical College Preparation (Tech Prep) and Dual Credit (College Now) programs as a predictor of continued success after high school, as measured by first-year college GPA at a Midwest Community College. This study looked at how the…

  15. 76 FR 10944 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Tuesday...

  16. 75 FR 33894 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  17. 76 FR 17995 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  18. 76 FR 32024 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  19. 75 FR 18955 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  20. 75 FR 11998 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee will be held Tuesday, April 20, 2010 from 8 a.m. to...

  1. 75 FR 25316 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  2. 75 FR 7540 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  3. 76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, October 24, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  4. 76 FR 45006 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, September 26, 2011, at 3 p.m...

  5. 76 FR 6188 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, March 28, 2011, at 2 p.m., Eastern...

  6. 76 FR 22171 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  7. 76 FR 63716 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, November 28, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  8. 76 FR 2197 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  9. Relationship of Tech Prep and Dual Credit to College Readiness and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JoHyun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of tech prep and dual credit to college readiness in reading, writing, and math and retention, measured as total college-level credit hours earned. A sample of 612 high school graduates who enrolled in a community college in two consortia, one in Florida (n = 339) and the other in Oregon…

  10. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of undergraduate credits earned from community colleges or online compared to traditional 4-year institutions

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, L.R.; Stewart, S.M.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, R.; Hellyer, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate’s coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee’s immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution). Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than traditional 4

  11. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of undergraduate credits earned from community colleges or online compared to traditional 4-year institutions.

    PubMed

    Kogan, L R; Stewart, S M; Schoenfeld-Tacher, R; Hellyer, P W

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate's coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee's immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution). Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than traditional 4-year

  12. 75 FR 55406 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, October 27, 2010, at 1:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  13. 75 FR 62632 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, November 24, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  14. 75 FR 4140 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION... Tax Credit Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, February 24, 2010, at 1 p...

  15. 75 FR 47349 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, September 22, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time...

  16. 76 FR 37199 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, August 22, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  17. 75 FR 39333 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, August 25, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  18. Exploring College Readiness: The Role of Dual Credit and SES on College Persistence and Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowett, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Texas' 2006 House Bill 1, which required all high schools in Texas to provide students with the opportunity to earn a minimum of 12 hours of college credit prior to their graduation beginning the fall of 2008, changed the high school experience. The goal of the bill was to smooth the transition from high school to higher education. By looking at…

  19. College Student Credit Card Usage and Debt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybka, Kathryn M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concerns related to credit card usage by college students. Offers information student affairs professionals can use to help college students make responsible choices. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)

  20. Can "Some College" Help Reduce Future Earnings Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitterman, Daniel P.; Moulton, Jeremy G.; Bono-Lunn, Dillan; Chrisco, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the policy debate over "college for all" versus "college for some" in the United States and analyzes the relationship between "some college" (as a formal education attainment category) and earnings. Our evidence confirms--using data from the American Community Survey (ACS), the Panel Study on…

  1. Health insurance tax credits, the earned income tax credit, and health insurance coverage of single mothers.

    PubMed

    Cebi, Merve; Woodbury, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 enacted a refundable tax credit for low-income working families who purchased health insurance coverage for their children. This health insurance tax credit (HITC) existed during tax years 1991, 1992, and 1993, and was then rescinded. A difference-in-differences estimator applied to Current Population Survey data suggests that adoption of the HITC, along with accompanying increases in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), was associated with a relative increase of about 4.7 percentage points in the private health insurance coverage of working single mothers with high school or less education. Also, a difference-in-difference-in-differences estimator, which attempts to net out the possible influence of the EITC increases but which requires strong assumptions, suggests that the HITC was responsible for about three-quarters (3.6 percentage points) of the total increase. The latter estimate implies a price elasticity of health insurance take-up of -0.42. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Gender and Racial Gaps in Earnings among Recent College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate graduates from 1993 (B&B 93/97/03), I explore factors that contribute to the gender and racial gap in earnings among recent college graduate. Results indicate that college major remains the most significant factor in accounting for the gender gap in pay. Female graduates are still left…

  3. 49 CFR 526.5 - Earning offsetting monetary credits in future model years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... UNDER THE AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.5 Earning offsetting monetary credits in future... for the class of automobiles which may fail to comply with a fuel economy standard and for any other classes of automobiles from which credits may be transferred, for the current model year and for each...

  4. 49 CFR 526.5 - Earning offsetting monetary credits in future model years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... UNDER THE AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.5 Earning offsetting monetary credits in future... for the class of automobiles which may fail to comply with a fuel economy standard and for any other classes of automobiles from which credits may be transferred, for the current model year and for each...

  5. 49 CFR 526.5 - Earning offsetting monetary credits in future model years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... UNDER THE AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.5 Earning offsetting monetary credits in future... for the class of automobiles which may fail to comply with a fuel economy standard and for any other classes of automobiles from which credits may be transferred, for the current model year and for each...

  6. 49 CFR 526.5 - Earning offsetting monetary credits in future model years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... UNDER THE AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.5 Earning offsetting monetary credits in future... for the class of automobiles which may fail to comply with a fuel economy standard and for any other classes of automobiles from which credits may be transferred, for the current model year and for each...

  7. 26 CFR 1.32-3 - Eligibility requirements after denial of the earned income credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... earned income credit. 1.32-3 Section 1.32-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.32-3 Eligibility requirements after denial of the... not comply with those requirements for any subsequent taxable year unless the Service again denies the...

  8. College Student Performance and Credit Card Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57…

  9. Transfer Credit Assessment for B.C. College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia in the 1997/98 Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reh-Bosch, Susan; Atkins, Lorraine

    This report assesses the transfer credit process for British Columbia (BC) college transfer applicants to the University of British Columbia (UBC). Results indicate that students are earning on average 49.7 credits from the BC college attended and are being granted an average of 42.2 credits when transferring to UBC. This translated into 84.9% of…

  10. The College Payoff: Education, Occupations, Lifetime Earnings. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.; Cheah, Ban

    2011-01-01

    Education and earnings interact in complex and often unexpected ways--but there are rules to the game. "The College Payoff," a new paper from the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, uses in-depth data analysis to identify, illuminate and elucidate those rules. This executive summary provides a glimpse of the education and…

  11. The Mid-1990s Earned Income Tax Credit Expansion: EITC and Welfare Caseloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Younghee

    2008-01-01

    Research and policy scholars have suggested that recent welfare caseload reductions have coincided with welfare reform efforts; however, few studies have incorporated the impacts of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) expansions in the 1990s. Using annual state-level administrative data, the author estimated the effects of the fully phased-in…

  12. Training Credits: The Implications for Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    By 1996, Training Credits (TCs) will be available to all 16- and 17-year-olds leaving full-time education or training in Britain. They are funded by the transfer of resources that would otherwise be paid to technical colleges for part-time provision for this age group and through resources allocated for the Youth Training program. The aim of TCs…

  13. The effects of Earned Income Tax Credit payment expansion on maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Averett, Susan; Wang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit is the largest antipoverty program in the USA. In 1993, the Earned Income Tax Credit benefit levels were changed significantly based on the number of children in the family such that families with two or more children experienced an exogenous expansion in their incomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we use a triple-difference plus fixed effects framework to examine the effect of this change on the probability of smoking among low-educated mothers. We find that the probability of smoking for White low-educated mothers of two or more children significantly decreased relative to those with only one child, and this result is robust to various specification tests. This result provides new evidence on the protective effect of income on health through changes in a health-related behavior and therefore has important policy implications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Pueblo Community College, Dual Credit Handbook, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Mary

    This Dual Credit Handbook from Pueblo Community College (CO) provides information and guidelines to assist instructors in meeting their assignment. These guidelines apply to dual credit courses offered to high school students during their regular school hours, for which students receive high school- and college-level credit simultaneously. This…

  15. 12 CFR 226.57 - Reporting and marketing rules for college student open-end credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 226.57 Reporting and marketing rules for college student open-end credit. (a) Definitions: (1) College student credit card. The term “college student credit card” as used in this section means a credit card issued under a credit...

  16. 12 CFR 226.57 - Reporting and marketing rules for college student open-end credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 226.57 Reporting and marketing rules for college student open-end credit. (a) Definitions: (1) College student credit card. The term “college student credit card” as used in this section means a credit card issued under a credit...

  17. 12 CFR 226.57 - Reporting and marketing rules for college student open-end credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 226.57 Reporting and marketing rules for college student open-end credit. (a) Definitions: (1) College student credit card. The term “college student credit card” as used in this section means a credit card issued under a credit...

  18. 12 CFR 226.57 - Reporting and marketing rules for college student open-end credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 226.57 Reporting and marketing rules for college student open-end credit. (a) Definitions: (1) College student credit card. The term “college student credit card” as used in this section means a credit card issued under a credit...

  19. An Investigation into Credit Card Debt among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dylan; Waterwall, Brian; Giardelli, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    It is no surprise that the amount of credit card debt and outstanding loan balances of college students is increasing every year. College students are heavily targeted by credit companies through the use of e-mail, campus booths, and standard mail. The reason for these solicitations is because of the soaring expense levels of college students and…

  20. 26 CFR 1.32-2 - Earned income credit for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... after December 31, 1978. 1.32-2 Section 1.32-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.32-2 Earned income credit for taxable... thereunder relating to joint returns of income tax by husband and wife). The requirements of the preceding...

  1. 40 CFR 63.7533 - Can I use efficiency credits earned from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the implementation plan for efficiency credits to the Administrator for review and approval no later... level adjusted by applying the efficiency credits earned, lb per million Btu steam output (or lb per MWh) for the affected boiler. Em = Emissions measured during the performance test, lb per million Btu steam...

  2. 40 CFR 63.7533 - Can I use efficiency credits earned from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the implementation plan for efficiency credits to the Administrator for review and approval no later... level adjusted by applying the efficiency credits earned, lb per million Btu steam output (or lb per MWh) for the affected boiler. Em = Emissions measured during the performance test, lb per million Btu steam...

  3. Bringing health and social policy together: the case of the earned income tax credit.

    PubMed

    Arno, Peter S; Sohler, Nancy; Viola, Deborah; Schechter, Clyde

    2009-07-01

    The principal objective of our research is to examine whether the earned income tax credit (EITC), a broad-based income support program that has been shown to increase employment and income among poor working families, also improves their health and access to care. A finding that the EITC has a positive impact on the health of the American public may help guide deliberations about its future at the federal, state, and local levels. The authors contend that a better understanding of the relationship between major socioeconomic policies such as the EITC and the public's health will inform the fields of health and social policy in the pursuit of improving population health.

  4. What social workers need to know about the earned income tax credit.

    PubMed

    Beverly, Sondra G

    2002-07-01

    Over the past decade, the federal earned income tax credit (EITC) has become the largest antipoverty program in the United States. For the 2002 tax year, working families with children can receive as much as $4,140 in EITC benefits. Although families may arrange to receive benefits throughout the year (through their paychecks), most receive a lump sum after filing federal income taxes. Research suggests that many families use the credit to purchase big-ticket items, to move, to pay for educational expenses, or to set aside savings. Thus, the credit may promote long-term household development as well as help families with basic expenses. Research also suggests that EITC encourages work among single-parent families, an outcome that is consistent with one goal of welfare reform. Social workers can be involved in outreach efforts that help low-income workers claim EITC benefits and inform them about advance-payment options. Social workers can also support efforts to increase EITC benefits for larger families and link tax refunds to saving programs.

  5. Bringing health and social policy together: The case of the earned income tax credit

    PubMed Central

    Arno, Peter S.; Sohler, Nancy; Viola, Deborah; Schechter, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of our research is to examine whether the earned income tax credit (EITC), a broad-based income support program that has been shown to increase employment and income among poor working families, also improves their health and access to care. A finding that the EITC has a positive impact on the health of the American public may help guide deliberations about its future at the federal, state, and local levels. The authors contend that a better understanding of the relationship between major socioeconomic policies such as the EITC and the public’s health will inform the fields of health and social policy in the pursuit of improving population health. PMID:19597453

  6. The Earnings of Community College Graduates in California. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I draw on longitudinal data for 1.1 million students in California to estimate the effects of community college credentials on students' earnings, as compared with students who are not awarded a credential. In contrast to much of the recent work on this subject, which assumed that the effects of credentials on students' earnings are…

  7. The Impact of Major-Job Mismatch on College Graduates' Early Career Earnings: Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Rong

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of the mismatch between a college major and job on college graduates' early career earnings using a sample from China. On average, a major-job mismatched college graduate is found to suffer from an income loss that is much lower than the penalty documented in previous studies. The income losses are also found to be…

  8. Community College Students Who Earned Baccalaureate Degrees in Maryland, 1981 to 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Mike; And Others

    Data are presented on the characteristics of community college transfer students who earned baccalaureate degrees in Maryland between 1981 and 1987. Tables and graphs cover the transfer status (i.e., native, community college transfer, four-year college transfer, or out-of-state transfer) of baccalaureate recipients, of graduates who were Maryland…

  9. From Hard Times to Better Times: College Majors, Unemployment, and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Cheah, Ban

    2015-01-01

    This third installment of "Hard Times" updates the previous analyses of college majors, unemployment, and earnings over the Great Recession. While there is wide variation by college majors, hard times have become better times for most college graduates, but the recovery is far from complete. Hard times are becoming better times for most…

  10. 26 CFR 1.6695-2 - Tax return preparer due diligence requirements for determining earned income credit eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return preparer due diligence requirements... the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6695-2 Tax return preparer due diligence requirements for determining earned income credit eligibility. (a) Penalty for failure to meet due diligence...

  11. An Overview of Classes Taken and Credits Earned by Beginning Postsecondary Students. WEB Tables. NCES 2013-151rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Alexandria Walton; Horn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    These Web Tables provide an overview of classes taken and credits earned by a nationwide sample of first-time beginning postsecondary students based on data from the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study (PETS) of the 2004/09 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study. PETS collected transcripts from all the postsecondary institutions…

  12. Using Wage Record Data To Track the Post-College Employment and Earnings of Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Jack

    The Post-Education Employment Tracking System (PEETS), operated by the Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges (CCC) in cooperation with the State of California's Employment Development Department (EDD), is an automated system for tracking the post-college employment rates and earnings of community college program completers and…

  13. Quantile Treatment Effects of College Quality on Earnings: Evidence from Administrative Data in Texas. NBER Working Paper No. 18068

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Rodney J.; Li, Jing; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses administrative data on schooling and earnings from Texas to estimate the effect of college quality on the distribution of earnings. We proxy college quality using the college sector from which students graduate and focus on identifying how graduating from UT-Austin, Texas A\\&M or a community college affects the distribution of…

  14. How Does Your College Rate? A Credit Rating Tool for Colleges Seeking Bond Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassin, Jan; White, Lee

    1995-01-01

    A credit-rating tool for colleges seeking bond financing is described, using The Colorado College experience as a case study. The process discussed gives college chief financial officers a better understanding of how the bond rating agencies evaluate institutions' credit-worthiness. Substantial data charts and graphs are use for illustration. (MSE)

  15. The Impact of College Student Money Attitudes on Credit Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Marguerite; Carpenter, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    Growing concern among academics, policymakers and educators to address credit abuse among college students prompts a need for greater understanding of the determinants of these negative behaviors. The present study investigates the impact of individuals' money attitudes on both negative and positive credit behaviors within a single empirical model…

  16. Colleges Woo Adults Who Have Some Credits but No Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    There are 11,000 or so people in Kentucky who came within a course or two of earning a college degree, but never did. Almost half a million more took a few college courses but then dropped out. Now educators are trying to lure back those erstwhile students to finish what they started. Over the next 12 years, Kentucky wants to double the number of…

  17. 12 CFR 1026.57 - Reporting and marketing rules for college student open-end credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Special Rules Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit.... (a) Definitions—(1) College student credit card. The term “college student credit card” as used in this section means a credit card issued under a credit card account under an open-end (not home-secured...

  18. 12 CFR 1026.57 - Reporting and marketing rules for college student open-end credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Special Rules Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit.... (a) Definitions—(1) College student credit card. The term “college student credit card” as used in this section means a credit card issued under a credit card account under an open-end (not home-secured...

  19. 12 CFR 1026.57 - Reporting and marketing rules for college student open-end credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Special Rules Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit.... (a) Definitions. (1) College student credit card. The term “college student credit card” as used in this section means a credit card issued under a credit card account under an open-end (not home-secured...

  20. Field of Study in College and Lifetime Earnings in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.; Sakamoto, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding about the relationship between education and lifetime earnings often neglects differences by field of study. Utilizing data that matches respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal earnings records based on administrative tax information, we investigate the trajectories of annual earnings following the same individuals over 20 years and then estimate the long-term effects of field of study on earnings for U.S. men and women. Our results provide new evidence revealing large lifetime earnings gaps across field of study. We show important differences in individuals’ earnings trajectories across the different stages of the work-life by field of study. In addition, the gaps in 40-year (i.e., ages 20 to 59) median lifetime earnings among college graduates by field of study are larger, in many instances, than the median gap between high school graduates and college graduates overall. Significant variation is also found among graduate degree holders. Our results uncover important similarities and differences between men and women with regard to the long-term earnings differentials associated with field of study. In general, these findings underscore field of study as a critical dimension of horizontal stratification in educational attainment. Other implications of the empirical findings are also discussed. PMID:28042177

  1. Materialism and credit card use by college students.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M B; Parente, D H; Palmer, T S

    2000-04-01

    Much has been written in the popular press on credit card use and spending patterns of American college students. The proliferation of credit cards and their ease of acquisition ensure that students today have more opportunities for making more credit purchases than any other generation of college students. Little is known about the relationship between students' attitudes towards materialism and their use of credit cards. A study was conducted at three college campuses in the northeastern part of the United States where a total of 1,022 students were surveyed. Students' attitudes toward use of credit and their credit card balances were evaluated relative to their scores on Richins and Dawson's Materialism Scale (1992). Our findings suggest no significant difference between those individuals scoring high versus low on the Materialism Scale in terms of the number of credit cards owned and the average balance owed. Individuals high on materialism, however, significantly differed in terms of their uses for credit cards and their general attitude toward their use.

  2. Income and Child Maltreatment in Unmarried Families: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    PubMed

    Berger, Lawrence M; Font, Sarah A; Slack, Kristen S; Waldfogel, Jane

    2017-12-01

    This study estimates the associations of income with both (self-reported) child protective services (CPS) involvement and parenting behaviors that proxy for child abuse and neglect risk among unmarried families. Our primary strategy follows the instrumental variables (IV) approach employed by Dahl and Lochner (2012), which leverages variation between states and over time in the generosity of the total state and federal Earned Income Tax Credit for which a family is eligible to identify exogenous variation in family income. As a robustness check, we also estimate standard OLS regressions (linear probability models), reduced form OLS regressions, and OLS regressions with the inclusion of a control function (each with and without family-specific fixed effects). Our micro-level data are drawn from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth-cohort of relatively disadvantaged urban children who have been followed from birth to age nine. Results suggest that an exogenous increase in income is associated with reductions in behaviorally-approximated child neglect and CPS involvement, particularly among low-income single-mother families.

  3. Cost Effectiveness of the Earned Income Tax Credit as a Health Policy Investment.

    PubMed

    Muennig, Peter A; Mohit, Babak; Wu, Jinjing; Jia, Haomiao; Rosen, Zohn

    2016-12-01

    Lower-income Americans are suffering from declines in income, health, and longevity over time. Income and employment policies have been proposed as a potential non-medical solution to this problem. An interrupted time series analysis of state-level incremental supplements to the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program was performed using data from 1993 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys and state-level life expectancy. The cost effectiveness of state EITC supplements was estimated using a microsimulation model, which was run in 2015. Supplemental EITC programs increased health-related quality of life and longevity among the poor. The program costs about $7,786/quality-adjusted life-year gained (95% CI=$4,100, $13,400) for the average recipient. This ratio increases with larger family sizes, costing roughly $14,261 (95% CI=$8,735, $19,716) for a family of three. State supplements to EITC appear to be highly cost effective, but randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Poverty, Pregnancy, and Birth Outcomes: A Study of the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H

    2015-09-01

    Economic interventions are increasingly recognised as a mechanism to address perinatal health outcomes among disadvantaged groups. In the US, the earned income tax credit (EITC) is the largest poverty alleviation programme. Little is known about its effects on perinatal health among recipients and their children. We exploit quasi-random variation in the size of EITC payments to examine the effects of income on perinatal health. The study sample includes women surveyed in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 2985) and their children born during 1986-2000 (n = 4683). Outcome variables include utilisation of prenatal and postnatal care, use of alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy, term birth, birthweight, and breast-feeding status. We first examine the health effects of both household income and EITC payment size using multivariable linear regressions. We then employ instrumental variables analysis to estimate the causal effect of income on perinatal health, using EITC payment size as an instrument for household income. We find that EITC payment size is associated with better levels of several indicators of perinatal health. Instrumental variables analysis, however, does not reveal a causal association between household income and these health measures. Our findings suggest that associations between income and perinatal health may be confounded by unobserved characteristics, but that EITC income improves perinatal health. Future studies should continue to explore the impacts of economic interventions on perinatal health outcomes, and investigate how different forms of income transfers may have different impacts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Improving population health by reducing poverty: New York's Earned Income Tax Credit.

    PubMed

    Wicks-Lim, Jeannette; Arno, Peter S

    2017-12-01

    Despite the established relationship between adverse health outcomes and low socioeconomic status, researchers rarely test the link between health improvements and poverty-alleviating economic policies. New research, however, links individual-level health improvements to the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), a broad-based income support policy. We build on these findings by examining whether the EITC has ecological, neighborhood-level health effects. We use a difference-in-difference analysis to measure child health outcomes in 90 low- and middle- income neighborhoods before and after the expansion of New York State and New York City's EITC policy between 1997-2010. Our study takes advantage of the relatively exogenous source of income variation supplied by the EITC-legislative changes to EITC policy parameters. This feature minimizes the endogeneity problem in studying the relationship between income and health. Our estimates link a 15-percentage-point increase in EITC benefit rates to a 0.45 percentage-point reduction in the low birthweight rate. We do not observe any measurable link between EITC benefits and prenatal health or asthma-related pediatric hospitalization. The magnitude of the EITC's impact on low birthweight rates suggests ecological effects, and an additional channel through which anti-poverty measures can serve as public health interventions.

  6. Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986–2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = −0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = −0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, β = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development. PMID:27056961

  7. Black College Undergraduates, Enrollment, and Earned Degrees: Parity or Under Representation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank; Stent, Madelon D.

    1975-01-01

    In order to show how successful (or unsuccessful) blacks have been in gaining entrance into American colleges and universities, data on black college enrollment and earned degrees were compiled: the primary enrollment data source was a survey conducted by the Office for Civil Rights and the U.S. Office of Education. (Author/JM)

  8. Earnings Expectation and Graduate Employment: Evidence from Recent Chinese College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Po, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese college graduates have faced increasing labor market competition since the expansion of tertiary education. Given rigid market demand, graduates with realistic earnings expectations may experience a more efficient job search. Using the 2008 MYCOS College Graduate Employment Survey, this study finds that a 1000 yuan reduction in a…

  9. Does the earned income tax credit increase children's weight? The impact of policy-driven income on childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young

    2018-07-01

    I exploit substantial increases in the earned income tax credit to study how a policy-driven change in family income affects childhood obesity. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, my difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the probability of being obese increased by 3 percentage points among children whose families experienced a greater income shock. A further investigation suggests that a reduction in maternal time with children played a greater role in children's weight gain than income. The paper's finding shows that a program that is not designed for health purposes, such as earned income tax credit, can have unintended effects on health outcomes. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. How Money Matters: College, Motherhood, Earnings, and Wives' Housework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usdansky, Margaret L.; Parker, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Using new data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), the authors consider how educational and parental status influence the relationship between wives' relative earnings and the time they devote to housework in a climate of heightened gender egalitarianism and growing similarity between women's and men's time use. The authors capitalize on the…

  11. Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H

    2016-05-01

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986-2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, β = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Poverty, Pregnancy, and Birth Outcomes: A Study of the Earned Income Tax Credit

    PubMed Central

    Rehkopf, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Economic interventions are increasingly recognized as a mechanism to address perinatal health outcomes among disadvantaged groups. In the United States, the earned income tax credit (EITC) is the largest poverty alleviation program. Little is known about its effects on perinatal health among recipients and their children. We exploit quasi-random variation in the size of EITC payments over time to examine the effects of income on perinatal health. Methods The study sample includes women surveyed in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=2,985) and their children born during 1986–2000 (N=4,683). Outcome variables include utilization of prenatal and postnatal care, use of alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy, term birth, birthweight, and breast-feeding status. We examine the health effects of both household income and EITC payment size using multivariable linear regressions. We employ instrumental variables analysis to estimate the causal effect of income on perinatal health, using EITC payment size as an instrument for household income. Results We find that household income and EITC payment size are associated with improvements in several indicators of perinatal health. Instrumental variables analysis, however, does not reveal a causal association between household income and these health measures. Conclusions Our findings suggest that associations between income and perinatal health may be confounded by unobserved characteristics, but that EITC income improves perinatal health. Future studies should continue to explore the impacts of economic interventions on perinatal health outcomes, and investigate how different forms of income transfers may have different impacts. PMID:26212041

  13. The short-term impacts of Earned Income Tax Credit disbursement on health.

    PubMed

    Rehkopf, David H; Strully, Kate W; Dow, William H

    2014-12-01

    There are conflicting findings regarding long- and short-term effects of income on health. Whereas higher average income is associated with better health, there is evidence that health behaviours worsen in the short-term following income receipt.Prior studies revealing such negative short-term effects of income receipt focus on specific subpopulations and examine a limited set of health outcomes. The United States Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is an income supplement tied to work, and is the largest poverty reduction programme in the USA. We utilize the fact that EITC recipients typically receive large cash transfers in the months of February,March and April, in order to examine associated changes in health outcomes that can fluctuate on a monthly basis. We examine associations with 30 outcomes in the categories of diet, food security, health behaviours, cardiovascular biomarkers, metabolic biomarkers and infection and immunity among 6925 individuals from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Survey. Our research design approximates a natural experiment,since whether individuals were sampled during treatment or non-treatment months is independent of social, demographic and health characteristics that do not vary with time. There are both beneficial and detrimental short-term impacts of income receipt.Although there are detrimental impacts on metabolic factors among women, most other impacts are beneficial, including those for food security, smoking and trying to lose weight. The short-term impacts of EITC income receipt are not universally health promoting, but on balance there are more health benefits than detriments.

  14. The short-term impacts of Earned Income Tax Credit disbursement on health

    PubMed Central

    Rehkopf, David H; Strully, Kate W; Dow, William H

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are conflicting findings regarding long- and short-term effects of income on health. Whereas higher average income is associated with better health, there is evidence that health behaviours worsen in the short-term following income receipt. Prior studies revealing such negative short-term effects of income receipt focus on specific subpopulations and examine a limited set of health outcomes. Methods: The United States Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is an income supplement tied to work, and is the largest poverty reduction programme in the USA. We utilize the fact that EITC recipients typically receive large cash transfers in the months of February, March and April, in order to examine associated changes in health outcomes that can fluctuate on a monthly basis. We examine associations with 30 outcomes in the categories of diet, food security, health behaviours, cardiovascular biomarkers, metabolic biomarkers and infection and immunity among 6925 individuals from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Survey. Our research design approximates a natural experiment, since whether individuals were sampled during treatment or non-treatment months is independent of social, demographic and health characteristics that do not vary with time. Results: There are both beneficial and detrimental short-term impacts of income receipt. Although there are detrimental impacts on metabolic factors among women, most other impacts are beneficial, including those for food security, smoking and trying to lose weight. Conclusions: The short-term impacts of EITC income receipt are not universally health promoting, but on balance there are more health benefits than detriments. PMID:25172139

  15. Comparison of Affective Credit Attitude Scores and Credit Use of College Students at Two Points in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray

    2002-01-01

    A study of 120 college students' use of credit in 1997 and 1999 showed that, during that time, 60 students graduated; 41 had more credit cards in 1999 than 1997; 62 had fewer; and 32 were repaying student loans. Affective credit attitude scores for those with four or more credit cards and for students who had graduated were lower in 1999 than in…

  16. The Variable-Credit College Writing Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderBilt, Deborah; Nicolay, Theresa

    The introductory writing course, English 101, at St. John Fisher College in Rochester, New York, has gone through several stages in the last decade, changing from a course emphasizing writing in the rhetorical modes to an issue-oriented interdisciplinary course, to, at the present time, a course focusing on the writing process and on collaborative…

  17. College on Credit Has Kids Dropping Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Angela Provitera

    2006-01-01

    Starting college is indeed one of life's transitions that can be stressful. Many students are leaving home for the first time, leaving the support of family and friendship networks, and embarking on all kinds of challenges, including the stress of academic performance. Now financial distress plays an even bigger role than previously known. The…

  18. African Americans: College Majors and Earnings. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Fasules, Megan L.; Porter, Andrea; Landis-Santos Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Access to college for African Americans has increased, but African Americans are highly concentrated in lower-paying majors. The college major, which has critical economic consequences throughout life, reflects personal choices but also reflects the fact that African-American students are concentrated in open-access four-year institutions that…

  19. Academic Credit at Marymount Manhattan College for Student Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Eileen

    The report describes a 2-year project at Marymount Manhattan College (New York) to develop and implement a community service program which provides student participants with tuition credits. Students served in either a shelter for homeless women or with a tutorial program for adults preparing for the high-school equivalency examination. The report…

  20. Measuring the Accountability of CTE Programs: Factors that Influence Postcollege Earnings among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Kenneth J.; Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos; Friedel, Janice N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study specific factors were examined to determine their ability to influence fifth-year earnings of community college students in the Manufacturing/Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) career cluster and the Arts/Audiovisual/Technology/ Communication career cluster. State and national data sets from Iowa's Management…

  1. Alternative Methods for the Awarding of College Credit: Credit by Examination for Articulated High School Courses. Adopted Spring 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Colleges have long had mechanisms for awarding students credit for prior learning, from evaluating transcripts to establishing standards for the units and course credit to be associated with designated scores on nationally and internationally recognized curricula and exams. While the processes for awarding credit via these traditional mechanisms…

  2. Maxed out: The Relationship between Credit Card Debt, Credit Card Distress and Grade Point Averages for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Temple Day

    2011-01-01

    Few students leave college with a plan for paying off their debt. Starting a career inundated with student loans and credit card debt burdens is a reality many college students face today. In the wake of graduation coming to terms with the consequences of credit card debt is stressful for many students. This dissertation observes the relationship…

  3. Estimating the Return to College Selectivity over the Career Using Administrative Earnings Data. NBER Working Paper No. 17159

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Stacy; Krueger, Alan B.

    2011-01-01

    We estimate the monetary return to attending a highly selective college using the College and Beyond (C&B) Survey linked to Detailed Earnings Records from the Social Security Administration (SSA). This paper extends earlier work by Dale and Krueger (2002) that examined the relationship between the college that students attended in 1976 and the…

  4. Students Earning Zero Credits. Data Notes. Volume 3, Number 5, September/October 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue; Topper, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Nearly one-quarter of students in community colleges leave school during the first year of enrollment for reasons other than transfer or credential completion. Generally, nontraditional community college students drop out within their first year at higher rates than do traditional students. Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges…

  5. 26 CFR 31.3507-1 - Advance payments of earned income credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... credit advance payment certificate and the payroll periods for which the certificate is effective, see... amount of an employee is determined, with respect to any payroll period, on the basis of the employee's... the Commissioner of Internal Revenue and then in effect for the payroll period. See, however...

  6. College Level Aviation Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Betty J.

    This document describes a college-level curriculum for airplane pilots that is expected to be available at Muskegon (Michigan) College of Business and Technology in fall 1990. The curriculum offers associate or bachelor degree, college credit for earned flight ratings, private license, transfer credit for other aviation college programs, the…

  7. Credit Card Usage and Debt among College and University Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Tamara

    Since the late 1990s, lawmakers, college officials, consumer advocacy groups, and higher education practitioners have become increasingly concerned about the rising use of credit cards among college students. Some recent studies have provided information about credit card use among college students. These studies include: (1) a study conducted by…

  8. Dual Credit in Oregon: An Analysis of Students Taking Dual Credit in High School in 2005-06 with Subsequent Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jonathan; North, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A dual credit course is a college/university level course that is taught at a high school, by a high school teacher, in partnership with a community college (CCWD) or Oregon University System (OUS) institution. Successful completion of a dual credit course counts as credit for both high school and college. In 2005-06, about 12,000 students took…

  9. Adult Part-Time Students and the C.I.C. Universities. A Study of Credit and Degree Earning Opportunities for Adults at Eleven Midwestern Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Robert F.

    As a sequel to a 1971-72 study, this report for 1975-76 provides an updated inventory of the programs and policies of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) universities through which adult part-time students may earn credit and bachelor's or master's degrees, notes significant changes since the first report, and offers suggestions for…

  10. Effect of the Earned Income Tax Credit on Hospital Admissions for Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma, 1995-2013.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Schmidt, Brian; Luo, Feijun; Xu, Likang; Ports, Katie A; Lee, Rosalyn D

    Policies that increase household income, such as the earned income tax credit (EITC), have shown reductions on risk factors for child maltreatment (ie, poverty, maternal stress, depression), but evidence is lacking on whether the EITC actually reduces child maltreatment. We examined whether states' EITCs are associated with state rates of hospital admissions for abusive head trauma among children aged <2 years. We conducted difference-in-difference analyses (ie, pre- and postdifferences in intervention vs control groups) of annual rates of states' hospital admissions attributed to abusive head trauma among children aged <2 years (ie, using aggregate data). We conducted analyses in 14 states with, and 13 states without, an EITC from 1995 to 2013, differentiating refundable EITCs (ie, tax filer gets money even if taxes are not owed) from nonrefundable EITCs (ie, tax filer gets credit only for any tax owed), controlling for state rates of child poverty, unemployment, high school graduation, and percentage of non-Latino white people. A refundable EITC was associated with a decrease of 3.1 abusive head trauma admissions per 100 000 population in children aged <2 years after controlling for confounders ( P = .08), but a nonrefundable EITC was not associated with a decrease ( P = .49). Tax refunds ranged from $108 to $1014 and $165 to $1648 for a single parent working full-time at minimum wage with 1 child or 2 children, respectively. Our findings with others suggest that policies such as the EITC that increase household income may prevent serious abusive head trauma.

  11. Factors Associated with Success in College Calculus II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosasco, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Students are entering college having earned credit for college Calculus 1 based on their scores on the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus AB exam. Despite being granted credit for college Calculus 1, it is unclear whether these students are adequately prepared for college Calculus 2. College calculus classes are often taught from a…

  12. Early College Puts Youth on a College Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Early colleges are intended to serve students from populations typically underrepresented in college and to prepare those students with the academic skills and dispositions to succeed in college. Another important attribute of early colleges is that they help students earn college credit during their high school years. Many such early colleges are…

  13. The Early Impact of Postsecondary Career and Technical Education: Do Workers Earn More In Occupations Related to Their College Major?: Appendices A and B. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelblum, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between college major, occupation, and early-career annual earnings for the years 2008 to 2010 using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 (NLSY97). I provide estimates of the effect of college major on earnings for those with bachelor's degrees, associate degrees, and some college but no…

  14. The Early Impact of Postsecondary Career and Technical Education: Do Workers Earn More in Occupations Related to Their College Major? A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelblum, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between college major, occupation, and early-career annual earnings for the years 2008 to 2010 using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 (NLSY97). I provide estimates of the effect of college major on earnings for those with bachelor's degrees, associate degrees, and some college but no…

  15. Predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores, college attendance, and earnings

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    I studied predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores in fourth through eighth grade and outcomes later in life such as college attendance and earnings. For example, predict the fraction of a classroom attending college at age 20 given the test score for a different classroom in the same school with the same teacher and given the test score for a classroom in the same school with a different teacher. I would like to have predictive effects that condition on averages over many classrooms, with and without the same teacher. I set up a factor model that, under certain assumptions, makes this feasible. Administrative school district data in combination with tax data were used to calculate estimates and do inference. PMID:24101492

  16. Predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores, college attendance, and earnings.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Gary E

    2013-10-22

    I studied predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores in fourth through eighth grade and outcomes later in life such as college attendance and earnings. For example, predict the fraction of a classroom attending college at age 20 given the test score for a different classroom in the same school with the same teacher and given the test score for a classroom in the same school with a different teacher. I would like to have predictive effects that condition on averages over many classrooms, with and without the same teacher. I set up a factor model that, under certain assumptions, makes this feasible. Administrative school district data in combination with tax data were used to calculate estimates and do inference.

  17. Mississippi Community College Student Transitioning Factors from Noncredit to Credit Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Wayne A.

    2017-01-01

    Most research about college students concentrates on credit students, with relatively little research focusing on noncredit students and why some transition from noncredit courses into credit classes. This dissertation research examined factors that may contribute to students transitioning from noncredit courses into credit classes at Mississippi…

  18. An Analysis of the Use of Education Tax Credits at Four Public Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Benjamin Rue

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the use of education tax credits at four community colleges using data from the Federal Quality Assurance Program in 1998, the first year of the HOPE Scholarship and Lifetime Learning Tax Credit (LLTC). Preliminary estimates indicated that the two tax credits were expected to primarily benefit middle-income tax filers with…

  19. High-Risk Health and Credit Behavior among 18- to 25-Year-Old College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Troy; Moore, Monique

    2007-01-01

    The number of students accumulating credit card debt--and the amount of debt itself--on college campuses is increasing. If high-risk credit and health behavior are associated, health behavior interventions might apply to high-risk credit behavior. Objective: The authors' purpose was to examine these possible associations. Participants and Methods:…

  20. American Opportunity Credit: Key to Education for Lower and Middle Income College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Robin; Tiggeman, Theresa; Edmond, Tracie

    2011-01-01

    The Tax Relief Act of 1997 created an important tax provision which helped taxpayers offset the cost of higher education. This provision was in the form of education tax credits. Because a tax credit is a dollar for dollar reduction in tax liability, these education credits were designed to reduce the amount of tax due for college students or…

  1. Redefining Full-Time in College: Evidence on 15-Credit Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klempin, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Because federal financial aid guidelines stipulate that students must be enrolled in a minimum of 12 credits per semester in order to receive the full amount of aid, many colleges and universities define full-time enrollment as 12 credits per semester. Yet, if a student takes only 12 credits each fall and spring term, it is impossible to complete…

  2. Consumer Finance: College Students and Credit Cards. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Davi M.

    In response to a request from the House of Representatives, employees of the General Accounting Office conducted structured interviews with about 100 officials at 12 universities and colleges around the United States about several issues related to college students and credit cards. They also reviewed three studies of credit card use by college…

  3. A Cognitive Analysis of Credit Card Acquisition and College Student Financial Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Blair; Turrisi, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Examines cognitions relevant to credit card decision making in college-aged participants (N=304). Assesses measures of beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral alternatives toward acquiring a credit card. Identifies a multivariate model predicting college student financial development of the attitudes and behavioral tendencies of acquiring a new card.…

  4. Usage of Credit Cards Received through College Student-Marketing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; Staten, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides benchmark measures of college student credit card usage by utilizing a pooled sample of over 300,000 recently opened credit card accounts. The analysis compares behavior over 12 months of account history for three groups of accounts: those opened by young adults through college student marketing programs; those opened through…

  5. The Experiences of Older Adult Dislocated Workers in Community College Non-Credit Workforce Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stelfanie Sherrell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of older adult dislocated workers who participated in community college non-credit workforce training programs. The research questions guiding the study were: (a) what are the experiences of older adult dislocated workers who attend community college non-credit workforce…

  6. Transfer Credit Evaluations at New York State Colleges: Comparative Case Studies of Process Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Alexander Paul

    2012-01-01

    For the nearly one third of students who transfer from 1 college to another, transfer credit represents time and money. Unfortunately, many colleges provide degree-specific transfer credit evaluations only after students financially commit to attend the institution. The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyze, and compare early and late…

  7. The Effect of Earning an Associate Degree on Community College Transfer Students' Performance and Success at Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli; Chuang, Yating; McCready, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: As the cost of postsecondary education continues to rise, more students begin their postsecondary careers at a community college with the ultimate goal of upward transfer. However, there is limited evidence regarding how earning an associate degree prior to transfer shape transfer students' eventual success at baccalaureate…

  8. Focusing on Women in STEM: A Longitudinal Examination of Gender-Based Earning Gap of College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations from the aspect of earning differentials. Using a national data source that tracked college graduates' work experiences over a ten-year time frame post-bachelor's degree, this study examines longitudinally the…

  9. A Case Study of Barriers Encountered by Punjabi/Sikh Males in Earning a 4 Year College Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brar, Gurpreet

    2017-01-01

    Post-secondary education has been correlated to an individual's self-esteem and quality of life. With this commodity being accessible in a variety of formats, there continue to be discrepancies in attainment for males and females. Current research has documented that the number of females who are earning a college degree has surpassed that of…

  10. Evaluation of Achieving a College Education Plus: A Credit-Based Transition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Gaye; Fowler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This ex post facto study evaluated Achieving a College Education (ACE) Plus program, a credit-based transition program between a high school district and a community college. Achieving a College Education Plus is an early outreach program. It is designed to aid at-risk students in graduating from high school and making a smooth transition to…

  11. Credit Card Attitudes and Behaviors of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, S.-H.; Grable, J. E.; Bagwell, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    At a southwestern public university, 242 students responded to a questionnaire about their credit-card use and attitudes. The results revealed that about 70 percent of the students held one or more credit cards, and about 10 percent had five or more credit cards. Twenty-two percent never kept copies of their charge slips, and only 49 percent paid…

  12. Experiences of Earned Success: Community College Students' Shifts in College Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickerstaff, Susan; Barragan, Melissa; Rucks-Ahidiana, Zawadi

    2017-01-01

    Confidence and related constructs such as self-efficacy have been previously identified as important to college student persistence and performance (e.g., Cox, 2009; Wood & Turner, 2011), but existing research gives little indication of how confidence is shaped by students' day-to-day interactions in class and on campus. Using data from nearly…

  13. The Way to Wealth and the Way to Leisure: The Impact of College Education on Graduates' Earnings and Hours of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang

    2008-01-01

    This study extends the analysis of the economic return of college education up to 10 years after college education and further examines the impact of college education on graduates' hours of work. The results suggest that variation in hours of work explains a portion of earnings differentials among college graduates. Graduates from high-quality…

  14. Budgeting for Climate Neutrality, Colleges Consider Energy Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    More and more colleges are grappling with issues on budgeting for climate neutrality. Around 40 percent of colleges' greenhouse-gas emissions come from purchased electricity. Through the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment, which originated in 2007, hundreds of colleges have vowed to buy energy from green sources. In…

  15. (Un)Intended Consequences: The First-Year College Experience of Female Students with Dual Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Allen, Taryn Ozuna

    2016-01-01

    Using Merton's (1957) anticipatory socialization theory, this qualitative study explored how participation in dual credit in high school helped introduce 12 female students to the academic and social aspects of college to ease their first-year transitions. These students, who entered one Texas university with between 15 and 78 dual credits,…

  16. Dual Credit Student Enrollment: Does It Contribute to Academic Performance at the Community College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roscoe A.

    2017-01-01

    This research compares the academic performance of two groups of students at the community college level of higher education. These two groups are dual credit students and non-dual credit students. The academic records of these students were examined from the years 2010-2014. Students in both groups had completed their formal high school education…

  17. For Work-Force Training, a Plan to Give College Credit Where It's Due

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    After nearly three years of planning, Ohio's higher-education officials are finalizing an ambitious program to grant college credit for some technical courses offered at the state's adult-education centers. The program, called the Career-Technical Credit Transfer, is the latest in a string of state efforts to more closely link work-force training…

  18. Relationships between College Students' Credit Card Debt, Undesirable Academic Behaviors and Cognitions, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Bryant, Sarah K.; Overymyer-Day, Leslie E.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of credit card debt by college students has long been a topic of concern. This study explores relationships among debt, undesirable academic behaviors and cognitions, and academic performance, through surveys of 338 students in a public university, replicating two past measures of credit card debt and creating new measures of…

  19. 26 CFR 1.960-4 - Additional foreign tax credit in year of receipt of previously taxed earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional foreign tax credit in year of... Foreign Corporations § 1.960-4 Additional foreign tax credit in year of receipt of previously taxed... inclusion either chose to claim a foreign tax credit as provided in section 901 or did not pay or accrue any...

  20. Dual Credit, College Type, and Enhanced Degree Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenberger, Bob; Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed data for the Illinois high school class of 2003 to determine the impact of dual credit participation on postsecondary attainment. We matched 8,095 dual credit participants to an equal number of nonparticipants within the same high school at the point of postsecondary enrollment using propensity scores calculated through…

  1. The organization and administration of community college non-credit workforce education and training cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozachyn, Karen P.

    Community colleges are struggling financially due to underfunding. Recent state budget cuts coupled with the elimination of federal stimulus money has exacerbated the issue as these funding streams had contributed to operating costs (Moltz, 2011). In response to these budget cuts, community colleges are challenged to improve, increase, and develop revenue producing programs. These factors heighten the need for community colleges to examine their non-credit workforce organizations. The community college units charged with delivering non-credit workforce education and training programs are historically ancillary to the academic divisions that deliver certificate, technical degree, and transfer degree programs. The perceptions of these units are that they are the community college's 'step child' (Grubb, Bradway, and Bell, 2002). This case study examined the organization and administration of community college non-credit workforce education and training units, utilizing observation, interviews, and document analysis. Observational data focused on the physical campus and the unit. Interviews were conducted onsite with decision-making personnel of the division units that deliver non-credit workforce education and training within each community college. Document analysis included college catalogues, program guides, marketing material, and website information. The study was grounded in the review of literature associated with the evolution of the community college, as well as the development of workforce education and training including funding, organizational structure and models, management philosophies, and effectiveness. The findings of the study report that all five units were self-contained and were organized and operated uniquely within the organization. Effectiveness was measured differently by each institution. However, two common benchmarks were revenue and student evaluations. Another outcome of this study is the perceived lack of college-wide alignment between

  2. Exploring Credit Mobility and Major-Specific Pathways: A Policy Analysis and Student Perspective on Community College to University Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodara, Michelle; Martinez-Wenzl, Mary; Stevens, David; Mazzeo, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Problems with credit mobility, or the transfer of credits from a sending to a receiving institution, may be one reason why community college transfer students have low rates of bachelor's degree completion. This study investigates different policy approaches to credit mobility and how college staff and students experience transfer at…

  3. College and Academic Self-Efficacy as Antecedents for High School Dual-Credit Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmun, Cliff D.

    2013-01-01

    Do high school students who are predisposed to enroll in dual-credit courses already possess high levels of motivation or college and academic self-efficacy? Students in this study reported being academically motivated, but they did not report high levels of confidence in their ability to perform certain college-associated tasks. Of 52 items…

  4. Attitudes towards credit and finances among college students in China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Norvilitis, Jill M; Mao, Yingmei

    2013-01-01

    Although there is growing concern about the issue of credit card debt among college students in China, little research has examined attitudes to money and debt among that group. The present study compared financial self-confidence, perceived financial wellbeing, attitudes to debt, and parent education about money and debt in 410 college students from the US and China. Although college students in China reported fewer credit cards and less debt, they also reported lower levels of financial self-confidence and financial wellbeing. In both cultures, delay of gratification and parental education predicted both self-confidence and financial wellbeing.

  5. Expanding wallets and waistlines: the impact of family income on the BMI of women and men eligible for the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    PubMed

    Schmeiser, Maximilian D

    2009-11-01

    The rising rate of obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is now one of the most serious public health challenges facing the US. However, the underlying causes for this increase are unclear. This paper examines the effect of family income changes on body mass index (BMI) and obesity using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort. It does so by using exogenous variation in family income in a sample of low-income women and men. This exogenous variation is obtained from the correlation of their family income with the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program benefits. Income is found to significantly raise the BMI and probability of being obese for women with EITC-eligible earnings, and have no appreciable effect for men with EITC-eligible earnings. The results imply that the increase in real family income from 1990 to 2002 explains between 10 and 21% of the increase in sample women's BMI and between 23 and 29% of their increased obesity prevalence. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Field of Study in College and Lifetime Earnings in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.; Sakamoto, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding about the relationship between education and lifetime earnings often neglects differences by field of study. Utilizing data that match respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal earnings records based on administrative tax information, we investigate the trajectories of annual earnings…

  7. Vocational Certificates and College Degrees. ERIC Digest No. 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    Many studies have verified that education beyond high school results in higher earnings. The highest earnings benefits depend upon certification or degree achievement. Not obtaining a degree results in some penalty: individuals who have some college credit but no degree earn less than associate degree holders. Professional and vocational…

  8. Hidalgo Sets Sail: A School District Supports All Students in Earning College Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodine, Thad R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Hidalgo Independent School District made an ambitious commitment. In partnership with nearby University of Texas-Pan American, the University of Texas System, the Communities Foundation of Texas/Texas High School Project, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the district promised that all of its students, not just a select…

  9. The Implementation of Dual Credit Programs in Six Nonurban Kentucky School Districts. REL 2016-136

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piontek, Mary E.; Kannapel, Patricia J.; Flory, Michael; Stewart, Molly S.

    2016-01-01

    A key strategy of the Kentucky Department of Education's and Council on Postsecondary Education's College and Career Readiness Delivery plan is to provide opportunities for high school students to earn college credit. Districts across Kentucky are implementing dual credit programs, but there is little sharing of information about the…

  10. Advocates of College-Savings Plans Hope to Cash In on Credit Crunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that advocates of state-sponsored college-savings plans seek to use the current credit crunch as a wake-up call for parents and policy makers to shift away from the growing use of loans by families to cover college costs. In the long run, savings are the best way for most families to avoid the burdensome costs of private…

  11. Effects of state-level Earned Income Tax Credit laws in the U.S. on maternal health behaviors and infant health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Sara; Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Lenhart, Otto; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of state-level Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) laws in the U.S. on maternal health behaviors and infant health outcomes. Using multi-state, multi-year difference-in-differences analyses, we estimated effects of state EITC generosity on maternal health behaviors, birth weight and gestation weeks. We find little difference in maternal health behaviors associated with state-level EITC. In contrast, results for key infant health outcomes of birth weight and gestation weeks show small improvements in states with EITCs, with larger effects seen among states with more generous EITCs. Our results provide evidence for important health benefits of state-level EITC policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-risk health and credit behavior among 18- to 25-year-old college students.

    PubMed

    Adams, Troy; Moore, Monique

    2007-01-01

    The number of students accumulating credit card debt--and the amount of debt itself--on college campuses is increasing. If high-risk credit and health behavior are associated, health behavior interventions might apply to high-risk credit behavior. The authors' purpose was to examine these possible associations. They used a retrospective design with existing data from a sample of 45,213 US college students and several ordinal regression models, which corresponded with high priority college health issues. Students with high-risk credit behavior were more likely to have driven after drinking, used amphetamines in the previous 30 days, felt functionally impaired by depression in the previous 12 months, had a higher body mass index (BMI), or had a lower grade-point average (GPA). They were less likely to have participated in vigorous physical activity, used condoms for oral or vaginal sex in the prior 30 days, or used marijuana. The findings support the notion that high-risk health and credit behaviors are associated. Further research could clarify the nature of this relation.

  13. Awarding College Credit for MOOCSs: The Role of the American Council on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Emerging alongside the open educational resources movement of the past decade, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been widely heralded as advancing cause of providing increased access to higher education. The article explores the implications of the recommendation by the American Council on Education (ACE) to offer college credit for a…

  14. Effect of Personal Financial Knowledge on College Students' Credit Card Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Cliff A.; Sharpe, Deanna L.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of survey data collected from 6,520 students at a large Midwestern University affirmed that financial knowledge is a significant factor in the credit card decisions of college students but not entirely in expected ways. Results of a double hurdle analysis indicated that students with relatively higher levels of financial knowledge were…

  15. Noncredit and Credit Divisions in Community Colleges: The Dilemma of Multiple Organizational Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palter Gill, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of effective linkages between credit and noncredit divisions, significant barriers interfere with and detract from these units working well together. Community college leaders are challenged to manage these multiple and sometimes competing organizational identities in a complex and rapidly-changing educational landscape.…

  16. Volunteering for College? Potential Implications of Financial Aid Tax Credits Rewarding Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.

    2014-01-01

    President Obama has proposed a financial aid policy whereby students who complete 100 hours of community service would receive a tax credit of US$4,000 for college. After lawmakers cut this proposal from previous legislation, the administration was tasked with studying the feasibility of implementation. However, the implications of the policy for…

  17. Persistence to Graduation of Four-Year University Native Students Compared to Community College Associate Degree Transfer Students by Academic Field and College Entrance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive causal-comparative study was to examine persistence to graduation of student cohorts with 60+ credit hours earned who are native to the university and transfer students coming into Tennessee Technological University with 60+ credit hours previously earned at a community college. Data were obtained for each student…

  18. Post-College Schooling, Overeducation, and Hourly Earnings in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubb, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Using 1990 US census data, examines the relationship between overeducation and earnings focusing on individuals with postcollege schooling. Finds that being overeducated increases the wages of men working at a job requiring a bachelor's degree. Compares results with findings in Canada and the United Kingdom. Suggests that overeducation contributes…

  19. College Student Engagement and Early Career Earnings: Differences by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Academic Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Shouping; Wolniak, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the 2001 cohort of applicants to the Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program, the authors examined scaled measures of academic and social engagement in relation to labor market earnings to test whether the economic value of student engagement among high-achieving students of color differs by student characteristics.…

  20. Career Patterns, Employment and Earnings of Graduates of 11 ACM Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Patricia; Rossmann, Jack

    A study was conducted of 11 private liberal arts colleges, all members of the Associated Colleges of the Midwest, to relate the career experiences of four graduating classes to their college experiences. The study was conducted as part of the National Project 1, Better Information for Student Choice, supported by the Fund for the Improvement of…

  1. Does a Higher Income Have Positive Health Effects? Using the Earned Income Tax Credit to Explore the Income-Health Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Context The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Methods Because health status may affect income, this article uses an “instrumental variable” strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). Findings I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. Conclusions These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. PMID:22188352

  2. Does a higher income have positive health effects? Using the earned income tax credit to explore the income-health gradient.

    PubMed

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-12-01

    The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Because health status may affect income, this article uses an "instrumental variable" strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  3. Gaining Insights from a Case Study of High School Student Performance in Dual-Credit College Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacob; Hopkins, Robert; Shockley, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This report describes student performance in a state-level initiative that provided first-year college coursework in chemistry to high school students. Upon successful completion of the coursework, students received both high school and college credit. In this initiative, high school teachers team taught college-level chemistry courses in…

  4. Review and Evaluation of the College Level Examination Program for Introductory Macroeconomics for Providing Credit by Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichheld, Charles A., III

    At Cuyahoga Community College (CCC), the College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) for Introductory Macroeconomics Test was evaluated to determine if it was an effective tool for providing credit by examination for the college's Principles of Economics course. Though students at the present time (1991) can take the CLEP to obtain up to 45 credits…

  5. Self-control and credit-card use among college students.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Phylis M; Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the relationship between self-control and credit-card use with a convenience sample of 165 traditional-age college students of whom 69 (42%) were women. Students' self-control was measured on Grasmick, et al.'s Self-control Scale, which has six subscales, one of which is Impulsivity. Comparisons were made between those students who paid their cards off each month, called convenience users, and those who carried a monthly balance forward on scores on total self-control and impulsivity, and number of credit cards possessed. A significant difference in self-control scores was found between these two groups and also for mean impulsivity scores. Significantly fewer credit cards were possessed by students who paid their cards off each month than by those who carried a monthly balance.

  6. Examining the Earnings Trajectories of Community College Students Using a Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Xu, Di

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers have become increasingly concerned with measuring--and holding colleges accountable for--students' labor market outcomes. In this article we introduce a piecewise growth curve approach to analyzing community college students' labor market outcomes, and we discuss how this approach differs from two popular econometric approaches:…

  7. What They Earned in 1995-96: The Data on Private-College Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lively, Kit

    1997-01-01

    Data on 1995-96 private college faculty and administrator compensation, based on tax returns of 477 colleges, reveals half the presidents received raises outpacing inflation. Fifty received no raise. Overall, the highest paid were medical faculty, although 47 coaches and athletic directors were among the highest paid at their institutions.…

  8. 26 CFR 1.960-1 - Foreign tax credit with respect to taxes paid on earnings and profits of controlled foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on earnings and profits of controlled foreign corporations. 1.960-1 Section 1.960-1 Internal Revenue... earnings and profits of controlled foreign corporations. (a) Scope of regulations under section 960. This... to a first-, second-, or third-tier corporation's earnings and profits. Section 1.960-2 prescribes...

  9. Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from Michigan. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley; Dynarski, Susan; Jacob, Brian; Kreisman, Daniel; Sosa, Alfredo; Wiederspan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relative labor market gains experienced by first-time college students who enrolled in five community colleges in Michigan in 2003 and 2004. We track credentials, credits, earnings, and employment for these students through 2011. We compare labor market outcomes of those who earned a credential (associate degree or certificate) to…

  10. Gainfully Employed? Assessing the Employment and Earnings of For-Profit College Students Using Administrative Data. NBER Working Paper No. 22287. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cellini, Stephanie Riegg; Turner, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    We draw on population-level administrative data from the U.S. Department of Education and the Internal Revenue Service to quantify the impact of for-profit college attendance on the employment and earnings of over one million students. Using a matched comparison group difference-in-differences design, we find that certificate-seeking students in…

  11. After Admission: From College Access to College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Deil-Amen, Regina; Person, Ann E.

    2009-01-01

    Enrollment at America's community colleges has exploded in recent years, with five times as many entering students today as in 1965. However, most community college students do not graduate; many earn no credits and may leave school with no more advantages in the labor market than if they had never attended. Experts disagree over the reason for…

  12. Advancing College Opportunity: An Impact Evaluation of the Growth of Dual Credit in Stark and Wayne Counties, Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochford, Joseph A.; O'Neill, Adrienne; Gelb, Adele

    2009-01-01

    This impact evaluation looks at three years of growth for "high school-based dual credit" courses exclusive of Canton's Early College High School in Stark and Wayne Counties. As "high school based dual credit" is increasingly implemented in low wealth and urban districts, accompanied by an increase in high school teachers…

  13. Procedures for Nontraditional Credit by Proficiency Examination in the Basic Speech Course at John Wood Community College, Quincy, Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Daniel T.

    The procedures by which students at John Wood Community College (JWCC) can demonstrate communication abilities and receive credit for Introduction to Speech are detailed. The student desiring credit for the course, initiates the procedure by discussing it with a JWCC staff member who may refer the student to the Dean of Academic Affairs or the…

  14. The Role of the Community College in Baccalaureate Attainment at a Private Liberal Arts College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejda, Brent D.

    1999-01-01

    The different roles that community colleges play in baccalaureate attainment are defined. Data is presented on 577 baccalaureate graduates who used credits earned at a community college toward their four-year degree. The findings support the contention that aggregate data masks community college contributions to baccalaureate education. Contains…

  15. Gender Segregation in Fields of Study at Community Colleges and Implications for Future Earnings. Fact Sheet #C395

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moughari, Layla; Gunn-Wright, Rhiana; Gault, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary education yields myriad benefits, including increased earnings potential, higher lifetime wages, and access to quality jobs. But postsecondary degrees are not all equal in the benefits they bring to students, and women tend to obtain degrees in fields with lower earnings. Women with associate degrees earn approximately 75 percent of…

  16. Motivational and Persistence Factors for Military Spouses Earning a College Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Projections estimated that nontraditional student enrollment in post-secondary education would increase by 19% as compared to traditional student enrollments of 10% from 2006 through 2017. Adult students were less likely to complete a college degree compared to traditional students, and drop-outs cost taxpayers billions of dollars in lost taxes.…

  17. Go to Community College, Earn a Bachelor's Degree: Florida Likes that Combination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In early 2000, Florida's workforce wasn't keeping pace with demand. The state decided that a then-novel credential, a bachelor's degree from a community college, was the solution. The plan is working. The new bachelor's degrees initially focused on education, health care, and information technology. Even as the job market has shrunk, demand has…

  18. The Impacts of Tuition Rate Changes on College Undergraduate Headcounts and Credit Hours Over Time--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chressanthis, George A.

    1986-01-01

    Using 1964-1983 enrollment data for a small Michigan state college, this paper charts tuition rate change impacts on college undergraduate headcounts and credit hours over time. Results indicate that student behavior follows the law of demand, varies with class standing, corroborates human capital investment models, and invalidates uniform tuition…

  19. Differences in Student Success as a Function of Dual Credit Enrollment for Texas Community College Students: A Multiyear Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Dorothy B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this journal-ready dissertation was to examine dual credit enrollment with respect to student demographic characteristics and to student success of Texas community college students. The first purpose was to describe the demographic characteristics with respect to gender and ethnicity/race of Texas community college students…

  20. In-House Course Work for Salary Step Credits: The Program at McLennan Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Ann; Schormann, Randall

    On-campus credit courses for the professional development of community college faculty have proven to be a highly effective means of improving the quality of instruction at McLennan Community College (Waco, Texas). If carefully designed, implemented, and evaluated, these courses can provide an appropriate alternative to faculty enrollment in…

  1. A Study of Continuing Education Course Credit Strategy. Office of College & Community Research, Vol. XV, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakshis, Robert; Saracco, Bonnie

    In October, 1979, a survey of students enrolled in noncredit Data Processing (DP) and Secretarial Science (SS) courses at Triton Community College was conducted to determine if conversion of noncredit adult education courses to regular college credit status would result in a substantial loss of students. Responses were obtained from 474 SS…

  2. WWC Review of the Report "Early College, Early Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Early College High Schools partner with colleges and universities to provide students with an opportunity to earn an Associate's degree or college credits toward a Bachelor's degree at no or low cost to students. In a recent study, researchers found that attending Early College High Schools improved some high school and postsecondary outcomes for…

  3. Determining the Essential Components of State and Institution Dual Credit Program Policy in New Mexico: A Delphi Study with High School and College Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Gregory Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Delphi study was to determine the essential components of dual credit in New Mexico. Dual credit experts from colleges and high schools in New Mexico were asked to participate in a three-round Delphi study to determine what the future policy of dual credit should be, and why it should be that way. Definitions of dual credit may…

  4. Access and Diversity in the Running Start Program: A Comparison of Washington's Running Start Program to Other State Level Dual Enrollment Programs Hosted on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990, high school students in Washington have had the choice of earning college credit through the Running Start program. Running start is a dual enrollment and dual credit program that allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college courses at any of Washington's 34 community and technical colleges, Central Washington…

  5. Estimating the Returns to Community College Schooling for Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Louis; LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel G.

    This study examines the earnings histories of displaced workers in the state of Washington. The study sample included approximately 97,000 workers who had three or more years of job tenure when they were permanently laid off from their jobs between 1990 and 1994. About 16,000 of the workers in the sample earned some community college credit by…

  6. Comparing Enrollment, Characteristics, and Academic Outcomes of Students in Developmental Courses and Those in Credit-Bearing Courses at Northern Marianas College. REL 2017-269

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Phillip; Scanlan, Spencer; Carreon, Daisy

    2017-01-01

    Many students graduate from high school academically unprepared for college. When such students enroll in college as first-time freshmen, they are commonly placed in non-credit-bearing developmental English and math courses to develop the skills necessary to complete freshman-level credit-bearing courses. Understanding students' college readiness…

  7. 26 CFR 1.960-1 - Foreign tax credit with respect to taxes paid on earnings and profits of controlled foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-, second-, or third-tier corporation's earnings and profits. Section 1.960-2 prescribes rules for applying section 902 to dividends paid by a third-, second-, or first-tier corporation from earnings and profits...) Second-tier corporation. In the case of amounts included in the gross income of the taxpayer under...

  8. The Influence of Dual Enrollment on Academic Performance and College Readiness: Differences by Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    I examine the influence of dual enrollment, a program that allows students to take college courses and earn college credits while in high school, on academic performance and college readiness. Advocates consider dual enrollment as a way to transition high school students into college, and they further claim that these programs benefit students…

  9. Measuring Five Preconditions of Success for African American Male Students in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Kimberly Ozella

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare five preconditions for success of African American male community college students at community colleges by determining if there is a relationship between a) GPA and credits earned, utilizing Wood and Harris' (2012; 2016) Community College Survey of Men (CCSM, 2014) and Community College Success…

  10. Relationship of credit attitude and debt to self-esteem and locus of control in college-age consumers.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Mansfield, Phylis M; Parente, Diane H

    2004-06-01

    College-age consumers are one of the groups most highly targeted by credit card marketers. While some college students use their credit cards wisely, others are unable to control their spending. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in attitude toward credit cards and the psychological factors of self-esteem and locus of control among college students who possess one or more credit cards. Attitude was operationalized to include three underlying components: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. We separated credit users into subcategories based on amount of installment debt. Convenience users were defined as those consumers who paid the credit-card balance in full each month. Installment users were classified as consumers who carried a balance month-to-month. Convenience users were compared to mild and heavy installment users to assess significance of differences in attitudinal and psychological factors. There were no significant differences in the psychological factors across the credit-card user groups. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference on each of the attitude components (knowledge/beliefs, affect, and behavior) across user groups; convenience users, mild installment, and heavy installment users.

  11. Early Colleges at Scale: Impacts on Secondary and Postsecondary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauen, Douglas L.; Fuller, Sarah; Barrett, Nathan; Janda, Ludmila

    2017-01-01

    We examine the impacts of early college high schools, small schools of choice located on college campuses. These schools provide a no-cost opportunity for students to earn college credit--or a 2-year degree--while in high school. Using rich administrative data on multiple cohorts of students and quasiexperimental methods informed by the…

  12. College-Bound Digest, 1982-83: A Series of Thought-Provoking, Educational Articles for College-Bound Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Communications, Inc., Lake Forest, IL.

    Fourteen articles are directed to college-bound students regarding student financial aid information, the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), advanced placement and credit by examination, college selection, types of colleges, choosing a major, and earning power after graduation. Techniques and publications that may help students gather accurate…

  13. Increasing Earnings Inequality in Faculty Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, James

    This study examined earnings inequality for college and university faculty, using data from the National Study of Postsecondary Faculty to examine whether earnings for this group increased from the late 1980s to the late 1990s. The study was the first to decompose faculty earnings inequality into the proportion of the earnings inequality that is…

  14. Credit card debt, stress and key health risk behaviors among college students.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Melissa C; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed

    2008-01-01

    To examine cross-sectional associations between credit card debt, stress, and health risk behaviors among college students, focusing particularly on weight-related behaviors. Random-sample, mailed survey. Undergraduate and graduate students (n = 3206) attending a large public university. Self-reported health indicators (e.g., weight, height, physical activity, diet, weight control, stress, credit card debt). More than 23% of students reported credit card debt > or = $1000. Using Poisson regression to predict relative risks (RR) of health behaviors, debt of at least $1000 was associated with nearly every risk indicator tested, including overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, excess television viewing, infrequent breakfast consumption, fast food consumption, unhealthy weight control, body dissatisfaction, binge drinking, substance use, and violence. For example, adjusted RR [ARR] ranged from 1.09 (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.17) for insufficient vigorous activity to 2.17 (CI: 0.68-2.82) for using drugs other than marijuana in the past 30 days. Poor stress management was also a robust indicator of health risk. University student lifestyles may be characterized by a variety of coexisting risk factors. These findings indicate that both debt and stress were associated with wide-ranging adverse health indicators. Intervention strategies targeting at-risk student populations need to be tailored to work within the context of the many challenges of college life, which may serve as barriers to healthy lifestyles. Increased health promotion efforts targeting stress, financial management, and weight-related health behaviors may be needed to enhance wellness among young adults.

  15. Do Community Characteristics Relate to Young Adult College Students' Credit Card Debt? The Hypothesized Role of Collective Institutional Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Friedline, Terri; West, Stacia; Rosell, Nehemiah; Serido, Joyce; Shim, Soyeon

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the extent of emergent, outstanding credit card debt among young adult college students and investigates whether any associations existed between this credit card debt and the characteristics of the communities in which these students grew up or lived. Using data (N = 748) from a longitudinal survey and merging community characteristics measured at the zip code level, we confirmed that a community's unemployment rate, average total debt, average credit score, and number of bank branch offices were associated with a young adult college student's acquisition and accumulation of credit card debt. For example, a community's higher unemployment rate and lower number of bank branches were associated with a young adult college student's greater accumulated debt. Community characteristics had the strongest associations with credit card debt, especially after controlling for individual characteristics (i.e., a young adult college student's race and financial independence) and familial characteristics (i.e., their parents' income and parents' discussions of financial matters while growing up at home). The findings may help to understand the unique roles that communities play in shaping children and young adults' financial capability, and how communities can be better capacitated to support the financial goals of their residents. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  16. Spousal Mobility and Earnings

    PubMed Central

    MCKINNISH, TERRA

    2008-01-01

    An important finding in the literature on migration has been that the earnings of married women typically decrease with a move, while the earnings of married men often increase with a move, suggesting that married women are more likely to act as the “trailing spouse.” This article considers a related but largely unexplored question: what is the effect of having an occupation that is associated with frequent migration on the migration decisions of a household and on the earnings of the spouse? Further, how do these effects differ between men and women? The Public Use Microdata Sample from the 2000 U.S. decennial census is used to calculate migration rates by occupation and education. The analysis estimates the effects of these occupational mobility measures on the migration of couples and the earnings of married individuals. I find that migration rates in both the husband’s and wife’s occupations affect the household migration decision, but mobility in the husband’s occupation matters considerably more. For couples in which the husband has a college degree (regardless of the wife’s educational level), a husband’s mobility has a large, significant negative effect on his wife’s earnings, whereas a wife’s mobility has no effect on her husband’s earnings. This negative effect does not exist for college-educated wives married to non-college-educated husbands. PMID:19110900

  17. Early College Can Boost College Success Rates for Low-Income, First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndiaye, Mamadou; Wolfe, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Early college high school models are designed to encourage and assist traditionally underrepresented groups of students- low income, Latino, and African-American- to persist in and graduate from high school while earning college credit. Some of the models target high school dropouts, with the aim of helping them acquire the education and training…

  18. Ensuring College Success: Scaffolding Experiences for Students and Faculty in an Early College School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Anne; Vogt, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Early college is a bold approach that blends high school and college in a rigorous yet supportive program to help young people simultaneously earn a diploma and tuition-free credit toward a postsecondary degree. Designed for students underrepresented in higher education, these innovative small public schools focus on the preparation of low-income…

  19. A Comprehensive Review of Credit Instructional Programs Offered by Pasadena City Colleges, 1981-1982. Volume I. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvell Education Managment Planning, Inc., Los Angeles, CA.

    The first part of a report on a comprehensive review of the credit instructional programs offered by Pasadena City College (PCC), this volume provides a description of the evaluation procedures used, and a discussion of general issues that are major considerations for program improvement. Section I introduces the program review in terms of its…

  20. Child Care Support for Student Parents in Community College Is Crucial for Success, but Supply and Funding Are Inadequate. Fact Sheet #C375

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Of the over 6 million students earning college credit at community colleges, 1.7 million (27 percent) are parents. Of those, about 1 million (16 percent) are single parents, more than twice the proportion at 4-year institutions. Three-quarters of single parents in college are women. One study of student parents attending community college found…

  1. Earning College Credits in High School: Options, Participation, and Outcomes for Oregon Students. REL 2017-216

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Ashley; Hodara, Michelle; Luke, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Oregon's postsecondary attainment goal for 2025, adopted in 2011, calls for 40 percent of Oregon adults to have a bachelor's degree or higher, 40 percent to have an associate's degree or postsecondary certificate, and the remaining 20 percent to have a high school diploma or equivalent (S. 253, Or. 2011). As in other states a central strategy for…

  2. Credit-Based Systems as Vehicles for Change in Universities and Colleges. Managing Innovation and Change in Universities and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Robert; Layer, Geoff

    This book discusses organizational, management and professional dimensions of change as credit-based systems are introduced in higher education institutions in the United Kingdom. Credit-based systems are taken to mean the flexible academic structures based around the parallel but interrelated concepts of credit and modularity. They are being…

  3. Transition to Community College: The Journey of Adult Basic Education English Learners from Non-Credit to Credit Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csepelyi, Tunde

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the transition of a group of adult English language learners from an Adult Basic Education program to a community college. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of the driving forces of Adult Basic Education English language learners who had successfully transitioned from a non-credit…

  4. Students Shaping Dialogue at College Events: Ideas for Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Opportunities for intellectual exchanges outside of class are plentiful on college and university campuses, but these events are not fully integrated into the academic life of the college. Too often undergraduate students are motivated only by the prospect of earning extra credit to attend a campus event. This paper presents several ideas for…

  5. College Major and the Gender Earnings Gap: A Multi-Country Examination of Postgraduate Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of degree choice on the distribution of occupational benefits in terms of income, and their contribution to the gender earnings gap, among young European higher education graduates. The results reveal that the field of study, which is the result of a personal choice, appears to influence the distribution of…

  6. Dual-Credit in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Credit-based transition programs provide high school students with opportunities to jump start their college education. The Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) offers college credit through dual-credit programs. While KCTCS dual-credit offerings have been successful in helping high school students start their college education…

  7. College and Career Readiness: Course Taking Of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Secondary School Students.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Katherine; Newman, Lynn A; Shaver, Debra M; Marschark, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students frequently enter college and the workplace relatively unprepared for success in math, science, and reading. Based on data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), the present study focused on DHH students' college and career readiness by investigating their opportunities in secondary school to acquire college and career skills. DHH students earned more credits overall than hearing peers; both groups earned a similar number of credits in academic courses. However, DHH students took more vocational and nonacademic courses and fewer courses in science, social science, and foreign languages. There was evidence that DHH students' academic courses in math lacked the rigor of those taken by hearing peers, as DHH students earned more credits in basic math and fewer credits in midlevel math courses, and even fewer in advanced math courses, than hearing peers.

  8. Balancing Participation across Students in Large College Classes via Randomized Participation Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCleary, Daniel F.; Aspiranti, Kathleen B.; Foster, Lisa N.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Gaylon, Charles E.; Yaw, Jared S.; Forbes, Bethany N.; Williams, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the effects of randomized credit on the percentage of students participating at four predefined levels. Students recorded their comments on specially designed record cards, and days were randomly selected for participation credit. This arrangement balanced participation across students while cutting instructor time for recording…

  9. Dual Credit Enrollment and GPA by Ethnicity and Gender at Texas 2-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which differences were present in dual credit course enrollment. Specifically examined were whether differences were present in the first semester GPA and at the end of the first two semesters for students who enrolled in dual credit courses while in high school from…

  10. A Different Kind of Leader for a Different Kind of School? A Study of Two Early College High Schools in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, William H., III

    2016-01-01

    Early College High Schools (ECHS) allow students to combine high school and college curriculum and graduate with a high school diploma and transferable college credit, with students in many cases earning associate's degrees. ECHS schools have a tendency to focus on students that have been underserved in the education system. Currently there is a…

  11. Examining the Earnings Trajectories of Community College Students Using a Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Approach. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Xu, Di

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers have become increasingly concerned with measuring--and holding colleges accountable for--students' labor market outcomes. In this paper we introduce a piecewise growth curve approach to analyzing community college students' labor market outcomes, and we discuss how this approach differs from Mincerian and fixed-effects approaches. Our…

  12. Postbaccalaureate Reverse Transfer Students in Iowa: An Expanded Look at Community College Students with Previous Degrees Earned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Janice Nahra; Friesleben, Kelly L.

    2017-01-01

    Postbaccalaureate reverse transfer students (PRTSs) are students that enroll at a community college after completion of at least a bachelor's degree. This study expanded the definition of PRTSs by including students that had completed an associate's degree prior to enrolling at a community college. This report is an exploratory, descriptive study…

  13. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  14. Underserved Students Who Earn Credit through Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) Have Higher Degree Completion Rates and Shorter Time-to-Degree. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) released a report on a multi-institutional study on prior learning assessment (PLA) and adult student outcomes. The study examined data from 62,475 adult students at 48 colleges and universities, following the students' academic progress over the course of seven years. The data from…

  15. 9.5 college credit fiber optic training program for under- and unemployed women: a private/public/continuing education partnership designed to promote women in fiber optics as a workforce initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroup, Margaret H.; Valentin, Marjorie R.; Seebeck, Randall G.; Williams, Joseph; Jeffers, Deborah; Markoja, Robert

    2002-05-01

    Three Rivers Community College, in conjunction with CiDRA Corporation a fiber-optic telecommunication company and Middlesex Community College, offered a 12 week, 9.5 college credit Fiber Optics training program for 14 unemployed and underemployed women in central Connecticut. Classes were held at the Meriden Center of Middlesex Community College, with some laboratory activities held at CiDRA's headquarters in Wallingford. Connecticut photonics related manufacturing companies project a need to hire anywhere from 100 to 1000 new photonics workers over the next several years. Despite this incredible demand, Three Rivers Community College is the only community college to offer an associate degree program in Photonics Engineering Technology in Connecticut, and one of only two colleges in new England. Funded in part by monies targeting Non-Traditional Occupations for women through the Connecticut Department of Labor, this accelerated program enabled participants to learn industry basics, be interview ready, and earn valuable credit towards an associate degree. The goal of the training program is to provide these former waitresses, truck drivers, certified nurse aides and medical technicians an opportunity to enter the higher-paying field of fiber-optic technology. The course, designed with curriculum assistance from Connecticut companies, will provide education and training needed to qualify for an entry-level position in fiber-optic manufacturing. In addition to free tuition students enrolled in the program received all supplies needed for the course including textbooks, a scientific calculator and an optics experiment kit. Students also practiced fiber termination and splicing skills and were eligible to take the Fiber Optic Association Certification Test at the conclusion of the program. The cost for the test was also paid by the grant. Students met regularly with female employees of CiDRA who served as mentors for the 12- week program. Math and science tutoring was

  16. 12 CFR 704.19 - Wholesale corporate credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Earnings retention requirement. A wholesale corporate credit union must increase retained earnings if the prior month-end retained earnings ratio is less than 1 percent. (1) Its retained earnings must increase... month-end retained earnings ratio is less than 1 percent and the core capital ratio is less than 3...

  17. Transfer Credits and Transfer Students at the University Colleges of British Columbia: A Study of the Baccalaureate Graduates of 1998-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Roderick

    2005-01-01

    This report examines transfer credits and transfer students among more than 5,000 baccalaureate graduates at the five university colleges of British Columbia in the calendar years 1998 through 2001. It is intended to complement the reports that BCCAT has commissioned from the universities on how the college-to-university transfer system works in…

  18. Completing the Remedial Sequence and College-Level Credit-Bearing Math: Comparing Binary, Cumulative, and Continuation Ratio Logistic Regression Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is the most common subject area of remedial need and the majority of remedial math students never pass a college-level credit-bearing math class. The majorities of studies that investigate this phenomenon are conducted at community colleges and use some type of regression model; however, none have used a continuation ratio model. The…

  19. Granting Credit for College Proficiency and Regents External Degree Examinations in New York State: A Summary of Institutional Policies, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Independent Study and Programs Development.

    A guide is presented for students on the policies and practices of public and private New York colleges and universities in regard to granting credit, course waiver, or advanced standing to those who pass the College Proficiency Examinations (CPEs) and the Regents External Degree Examinations (REDEs). A chart indicates, for each institution and…

  20. Persistence of College Students in the South Korean Academic Credit Bank System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yughi; Yun, Kyongsuk

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the role of career decision-making self-efficacy, academic satisfaction, and institutional support in predicting Korean students' intent to persist in the Academic Credit Bank System.

  1. Occupational Education and College-Parallel Programs of the Two-Year College: Transfer and Credit Articulation Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan D.

    A review is provided of current developments, problems, and issues in the areas of articulation and transfer between two- and four-year colleges. First, a discussion is provided of the nature of the two-year college and its curriculum, with particular emphasis on general education and on the effects of a commuting student body on the curriculum.…

  2. Voice from the Field: Examining the Role of Foreign Language Teaching in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurisevic, Dallas R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing number of students enrolling in community colleges in the United States. Many of these students are looking to transfer credits earned from the community college to four-year institutions, while others are simply looking to enter into the skilled workforce. With the increase in general enrollment and the demand for more…

  3. Student Success Courses in the Community College: Early Enrollment and Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sung-Woo; Karp, Melinda Mechur

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Virginia Community College System and building upon prior Florida-based research, this study examines whether student success course enrollment, as well as student and institutional characteristics, has positive associations with shorter-term student outcomes, including earning any college credits within the first year and…

  4. Student Success Courses and Educational Outcomes at Virginia Community Colleges. CCRC Working Paper No. 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sung-Woo; Karp, Melinda Mechur

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Virginia Community College System and building upon prior Florida-based research, this study examines whether student success course enrollment has positive associations with shorter term student outcomes, including earning any college credits within the first year and persisting into the second year. The present study finds…

  5. Community College Pathways: A Descriptive Report of Summative Assessments and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strother, Scott; Sowers, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Carnegie's Community College Pathways (CCP) offers two pathways, Statway® and Quantway®, that reduce the amount of time required to complete developmental mathematics and earn college-level mathematics credit. The Pathways aim to improve student success in mathematics while maintaining rigorous content, pedagogy, and learning outcomes. It is…

  6. Gateway to College: Lessons from Implementing a Rigorous Academic Program for At-Risk Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Jacklyn Altuna; Bayes, Brian; Martinez, John

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the implementation of Gateway to College, a program whose mission is to serve students who have dropped out of high school, or who are at risk of dropping out of high school, by allowing them to earn a high school diploma and credits toward a postsecondary degree. Gateway to College is uniquely ambitious in providing…

  7. The College Ladder: Linking Secondary and Postsecondary Education for Success for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Jennifer Brown; Brand, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    This compendium identifies and describes schools, programs, and policies that link secondary and postsecondary education to help students earn college credit or take college-level courses while in high school. It raises issues for practitioners and policymakers to consider as these program grow and target a wider range of students. This compendium…

  8. The Labor Market Returns to Sub-Baccalaureate College: A Review. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Bailey, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews recent evidence on the labor market returns to credit accumulation, certificates, and associate degrees from community colleges. Evidence is collated from estimates of earnings gaps across college students using large-scale, statewide administrative datasets from eight states. Six of these states were partners of the Center for…

  9. High School-College Sequenced Curriculum in Early Childhood Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Cynthia; Lawrence, Terri

    This report describes a curriculum that enables students from Hartford Public High School to take a course which is relevant to the Early Childhood Program at Greater Hartford Community College. Successful completion of the course enables students to earn three college credits and meet high school graduation requirements. Objectives of the project…

  10. In-Course Instructor-Guided Service Learning in a Community College General Psychology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.; Weston, Melissa B.

    2012-01-01

    Students enrolled in two general psychology classes at El Centro College (ECC) of the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) were offered the opportunity to earn extra credit by performing up to 20 hours of service learning. Benefits of service learning were observed in student development, including exploration of career possibilities,…

  11. 17 CFR 256.216 - Unappropriated retained earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retained earnings. This account shall include the balance, either debit or credit, arising from earnings... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unappropriated retained earnings. 256.216 Section 256.216 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  12. 17 CFR 256.215 - Appropriated retained earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appropriated retained earnings... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.215 Appropriated retained earnings. This account shall include the amount of retained earnings which has been appropriated or set...

  13. A Preliminary Assessment of the Cost and Benefit of the North Carolina's Early College High School Model and Its Impact on Postsecondary Enrollment and Earned College Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unlu, Fatih; Edmunds, Julie; Fesler, Lily; Glennie, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The changing nature of the U.S. economy has fostered concerns that too few students are successfully completing postsecondary education (Achieve, 2004). Three quarters of those who enter high school graduate within four years, with approximately 70 percent of those graduates enrolling immediately in some form of postsecondary education (Ross et…

  14. Earning for Prior Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The concept that "time is money" applies to the life outlook of community college students as much as anyone. Their success in completing a degree or certificate is often an equation that weighs their financial resources against how long they will need to finish. Prior learning assessments (PLA), which award academic credit for students'…

  15. Earning and Learning: Exploring the Meaning of Work in the Experiences of First-Generation Latino College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuñez, Anne-Marie; Sansone, Vanessa A.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines how working influences students' college experiences, extending the predominantly quantitative research in this area. Findings based on interviews with Latino first-generation students who work reveal three themes. First, these students bring a familial orientation that motivates them to increase occupational…

  16. Dual-Credit/Dual-Enrollment Coursework and Long-Term College Success in Texas. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie; Wheeler, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This study was a cooperative effort of the Texas-ACT College Success Research Consortium, a research partnership between ACT and the following Texas four-year postsecondary institutions: (1) The University of Texas at Austin; (2) Texas A&M University at College Station; (3) Texas A&M University at Commerce; and (4) University of Texas--Pan…

  17. The Relationship of Student Loan and Credit Card Debt on Financial Satisfaction of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Oscar; Ferguson, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    The cost of higher education at both public and private institutions is increasing and adversely affecting college students (College Board, 2009; Idemudia & Ferguson, 2014a, 2014b, 2015a, 2015b). Utilizing an institutional dataset called Financial Survey of Students 2006 compiled at one of the largest public universities in the southwestern…

  18. The Organization and Administration of Community College Non-Credit Workforce Education and Training Cuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozachyn, Karen P.

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges are struggling financially due to underfunding. Recent state budget cuts coupled with the elimination of federal stimulus money has exacerbated the issue as these funding streams had contributed to operating costs (Moltz, 2011). In response to these budget cuts, community colleges are challenged to improve, increase, and develop…

  19. 5 CFR 582.401 - Aggregate disposable earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Consumer Credit Protection Act Restrictions § 582.401 Aggregate disposable earnings. In accordance with the Consumer Credit Protection Act, the aggregate disposable earnings under this part are the employee-obligor's pay less those amounts excluded in accordance...

  20. An Analysis of College Mathematics Departments' Credit Granting Policies for Students with High School Calculus Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate higher education mathematics departments' credit granting policies for students with high school calculus experience. The number of students taking calculus in high school has more than doubled since 1982 (NCES, 2007) and it is estimated that approximately 530,000 students took a calculus course in high…

  1. The Influence of Academic Momentum and Associate Degree Credit Requirements on Community College Student Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses gaps in the theoretical and policy literature by examining the relationship between associate degree program credit requirements and four student outcomes: associate degree attainment, time to degree, final associate degree grade point average, and persistence. Using student unit record data, a longitudinal quantitative study…

  2. Directory of Colleges and Universities Granting Credits for Attainment of Rating as Certified Professional Secretary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

    This document identifies the 32 semester hours of academic credit in six areas (behavioral science in business, business law, economics and management, accounting, office administration and communication, and office technology) recommended by the American Council on Education to be granted to those who have attained the Certified Professional…

  3. Characteristics of Concurrent/Dual Credit Students in the Gulf Coast Community Colleges of Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Association for Institutional Research (GCAIR) conducted a study of those concurrent/dual credit (CDC) students enrolled fall semester, 2001. The purpose was to determine a profile for this group of students which included gender, ethnicity, GPA, re enrollment, etc. Since there has been little research done on these students,…

  4. Adult Learner Graduation Rates at Four U.S. Community Colleges by Prior Learning Assessment Status and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Milan S.

    2012-01-01

    The college completion agenda demands improved graduation rates among adult learners and prior learning assessment (PLA) is a promising solution. PLA permits students to earn college credit for knowledge acquired outside of higher education and is associated with improved student outcomes. The current study expanded the literature regarding adult…

  5. Adult Learner Graduation Rates at Four U.S. Community Colleges by Prior Learning Assessment Status and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Milan S.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2015-01-01

    The completion agenda demands higher community college graduation rates among adult learners, and prior learning assessment (PLA) is a promising solution. PLA permits students to earn credit for college-level learning acquired outside of higher education and is associated with improved student outcomes. However, little is known regarding community…

  6. A Community College's Credit Rating: At the Top of Its Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Judy; Malinowski, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Harper Community College in Illinois, partnering with its financial advisor Kane, McKenna Capital, Inc., worked to receive the best bond rating available from Moody's Investors Service, thereby saving taxpayers three million dollars. (EV)

  7. Field of study variation throughout the college pipeline and its effect on the earnings gap: Differences between ethnic and immigrant groups in Israel.

    PubMed

    Alon, Sigal

    2015-07-01

    This study demonstrates the analytical leverage gained from considering the entire college pipeline-including the application, admission and graduation stages-in examining the economic position of various groups upon labor market entry. The findings, based on data from three elite universities in Israel, reveal that the process that shapes economic inequality between different ethnic and immigrant groups is not necessarily cumulative. Field of study stratification does not expand systematically from stage to stage and the position of groups on the field of study hierarchy at each stage is not entirely explained by academic preparation. Differential selection and attrition processes, as well as ambition and aspirations, also shape the position of ethnic groups in the earnings hierarchy and generate a non-cumulative pattern. These findings suggest that a cross-sectional assessment of field of study inequality at the graduation stage can generate misleading conclusions about group-based economic inequality among workers with a bachelor's degree. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Credit Constraints for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper exploits a natural experiment that produces exogenous variation on credit access to determine the effect on college enrollment. The paper assess how important are credit constraints to explain the gap in college enrollment by family income, and what would be the gap if credit constraints are eliminated. Progress in college and dropout…

  9. Sources of Stress among College Students--The Case of a Credit Transfer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Bessie; Cheong, K. C.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study intends to identify the types and nature of stressor experienced by students in an American Degree Transfer Program at a private university college in Malaysia. Data collection was done by an open-ended questionnaire. The findings showed that the top five most frequently reported stressors were academic workload, too many…

  10. Critical Social Network Analysis in Community Colleges: Peer Effects and Credit Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González Canché, Manuel S.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the importance of conducting critical social network analysis (CSNA) in higher education. To illustrate the benefits of CSNA, the authors use existing institutional data to examine peer effects in community colleges. The chapter ends with a discussion of the implications of using a CSNA approach to measure inequities in…

  11. Changes in Financial Aid and Student Enrollment at Historically Black Colleges and Universities after the Tightening of PLUS Credit Standards. REL 2015-082

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew; Bruch, Julie; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in financial aid and student enrollment at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) after the U.S. Department of Education increased the credit history requirements necessary to obtain Parental Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS). The study used institution-level data to examine…

  12. Changes in Financial Aid and Student Enrollment at Historically Black Colleges and Universities after the Tightening of PLUS Credit Standards. Stated Briefly. REL 2015-088

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew; Bruch, Julie; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in financial aid and student enrollment at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) after the U.S. Department of Education increased the credit history…

  13. College Learning Anytime, Anywhere. New Ways for Anyone to Get College Credits and College Degrees by Off-Campus Study and Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Ewald B.; And Others

    Nontraditional methods of qualifying for a college degree are described in this student guide to off-campus study and examination. The three external degree institutions in the United States that offer these programs are discussed. They include: Regents External Degree Program of the University of the State of New York; Thomas A. Edison College of…

  14. Changes in Financial Aid and Student Enrollment at Historically Black Colleges and Universities after the Tightening of PLUS Credit Standards: An Update for the 2013/14 School Year. REL 2017-254

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew; Bruch, Julie; Gill, Brian

    2017-01-01

    In 2011 the U.S. Department of Education tightened the credit standards for Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS). Concerned about the possible effects of this change on historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic's Historically Black Colleges and Universities College Completion…

  15. Hitting the Books Again: Factors Influencing the Intentions of Young Adults to Reenroll in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatzel, Kim; Callahan, Thomas; Davis, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Results from the analyses of data from 463 former college students between the ages of 25 and 34 years old identify those most likely to reenroll in higher education in the near future. Those who intend to reenroll are more likely to be members of minority groups, younger, single, and recently laid-off, have earned more credits, and hold strong…

  16. The Benefits of Attending Community College: A Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.; Bailey, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the existing literature on the economic and other benefits of attending community college. First, the article reports on the earnings gains across all students and reviews the evidence for subgroups by gender, minority status, and credits accumulated. The article then reviews the methodological challenges associated with…

  17. Credit Where Credit Is Due: Working with Our Service Members to Provide Credit for Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The awarding of prior learning credits for military students goes back to World War II, when the American Council on Education (ACE) first translated military training to college credit. Since then, the practice has expanded. More than 2,000 colleges and universities accept military training as a form of credit, explains Cathy Sandeen, ACE's vice…

  18. 24 CFR 904.110 - Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA... Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA) (a) Credits to the account. The LHA shall establish and maintain a separate EHPA for each homebuyer. Since the homebuyer is responsible for maintaining the home, a portion of...

  19. 24 CFR 904.110 - Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA... Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA) (a) Credits to the account. The LHA shall establish and maintain a separate EHPA for each homebuyer. Since the homebuyer is responsible for maintaining the home, a portion of...

  20. 24 CFR 904.110 - Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA... Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA) (a) Credits to the account. The LHA shall establish and maintain a separate EHPA for each homebuyer. Since the homebuyer is responsible for maintaining the home, a portion of...

  1. 24 CFR 904.110 - Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA... Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA) (a) Credits to the account. The LHA shall establish and maintain a separate EHPA for each homebuyer. Since the homebuyer is responsible for maintaining the home, a portion of...

  2. 24 CFR 904.110 - Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA... Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA) (a) Credits to the account. The LHA shall establish and maintain a separate EHPA for each homebuyer. Since the homebuyer is responsible for maintaining the home, a portion of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.53-3 - Separate rule for pass-through of jobs credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a partner in P, a calendar year partnership. A's pro rata portion of the credit earned by P in 1978... INCOME TAXES Tax Surcharge § 1.53-3 Separate rule for pass-through of jobs credit. (a) In general. Under section 53(b), in the case of a new jobs credit or targeted jobs credit earned under section 44B by a...

  4. Women's Earnings: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, women's real earnings rose whereas those of men declined. Even as the gender pay gap narrowed, earnings differences between white women and black and Hispanic women continued to grow. (Author)

  5. Certificate of Online Learning and Teaching (COLT) at the University of Hawaii: A Horse of Another Color for Earning College Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menchaca, Michael P.; Hoffman, Ellen S.

    2013-01-01

    Current conventional wisdom may perceive that higher education is outdated and maybe even likely to collapse. Online education is often predicted to replace brick-and-mortar campuses with systems providing students access to world-class learning via smartphones and tablets. Many private and commercial ventures are embracing such concepts. However,…

  6. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia's Vancouver campus on the basis of a minimum 24 transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2003/04 through 2007/08 academic years. The report mines familiar ground--similar…

  7. Validating College Course Placement Decisions Based on CLEP Exam Scores: CLEP Placement Validity Study Results. Statistical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Kelly E.; Jagesic, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    The College-Level Examination Program® (CLEP®) is a computer-based prior-learning assessment that allows examinees the opportunity to demonstrate mastery of knowledge and skills necessary to earn postsecondary course credit in higher education. Currently, there are 33 exams in five subject areas: composition and literature, world languages,…

  8. Awarding Credit Where Credit Is Due: Effective Practices for the Implementation of Credit by Exam. Adopted Spring 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Credit by Exam is a mechanism employed in the California community colleges as a means of granting credit for student learning outside of the traditional classroom. In some instances, credit by exam is the means used to award college credit for structured learning experiences in a secondary educational setting, while in other instances knowledge…

  9. A Quantitative Assessment of Texas House Bill 505: College Dual Credit Courses and Academic Success among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimitchek, Michelle Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Texas House Bill 505 expanded dual credit programs to include high school freshmen and sophomores. This study examined the relationship of high school student characteristics and academic success in first attempt dual credit courses. Characteristics refer to year in high school, gender, and high school size. Success is passing scores in English,…

  10. The Tax Credit Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, William

    1978-01-01

    The controversy between tuition tax credit and the Carter Administration's proposed tuition grants is examined. Opposition to the tax credit plan from various sources is discussed, as well as its advocates' contention that it would help middle-income college students. (LBH)

  11. 12 CFR 615.5215 - Distribution of earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....5215 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5215 Distribution of earnings. The boards of directors of System institutions may not reduce the permanent capital of the institution...

  12. 49 CFR 536.8 - Conditions for trading of credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 536.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC... categories. For credits earned in model year 2011 or thereafter, and used to satisfy compliance obligations for model year 2011 or thereafter: (1) Manufacturers may use credits originally earned by another...

  13. 49 CFR 536.8 - Conditions for trading of credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... categories. For credits earned in model year 2011 or thereafter, and used to satisfy compliance obligations for model year 2011 or thereafter: (1) Manufacturers may use credits originally earned by another... its automobile manufacturing business, it must inform NHTSA how it plans to divide the manufacturer's...

  14. Follow-Up Study of Former Materials/Logistics Management Students at Harper College, 1990-1995. Volume XXIV, Number 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A.; Magad, Eugene

    In fall 1995, William Rainey Harper College in Illinois conducted a study of former students in the Materials/Logistics Management (MLM) program to determine their evaluation of their educational experiences in the program. The sample consisted of 298 former MLM students from 1990 to 1995, including 119 students who had earned 48 credit hours but…

  15. Earnings Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan United States: 1967-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Charles M.; Lyson, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of census data indicates that earnings inequality among full-time workers increased in the 1980s. Compared to metropolitan areas, nonmetro economic inequality was greater and was explained better by both neoclassical and restructuring frameworks. Gender and college education accounted for far more earnings inequality than other sources…

  16. Follow Up: Credit Card Caution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Timothy P.

    2007-01-01

    In "Pushing Plastic," ("The New England Journal of Higher Education", Summer 2007), John Humphrey notes that many college administrators justify their credit card solicitations by suggesting that credit card access will help students learn to manage their own finances. Instead, credit card debt will teach thousands of students…

  17. Effective Practices of Financial Education for College Students: Students' Perceptions of Credit Card Use and Financial Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carla

    2013-01-01

    College students who are unprepared for financial decision making may make risky decisions such as compulsive spending and debt accumulation. Financial stress impacts both academic achievement and retention. The current literature addresses the deficiency college students have when making financially responsible decisions, but little is mentioned…

  18. What's in Your Financial Package? Student Credit Card Use and Economic Insecurity in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Benjamin D.

    2017-01-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, going to college has become increasingly financially difficult in the United States. Tuition prices continued to rise, state funding for higher education declined, and the mean family income declined or stagnated for all but the top 20 percent of families (Goldrick-Rab 2016). In a period where college has risen…

  19. Effective Practices of Financial Education for College Students: Students' Perceptions of Credit Card Use and Financial Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carla; Card, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group study was to determine the influence that a financial education intervention administered in First Year Experience courses had on students' perceptions of their financial behavior such as compulsive spending and credit card use. This study utilized the five-point Likert-type…

  20. How African American and Hispanic High School Students in an Urban Charter High School May Benefit from the Early College High School Model of Receiving College Credits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford-Nicholas, Gloria Jean

    2015-01-01

    The preparedness of students to enter college is an ongoing issue of national concern. The purpose of the study was to conduct a mixed method descriptive case study to answer the question: "How African-American and Hispanic High School Students in an Urban Charter High School may benefit from the Early College High School Model of receiving…

  1. Predicting Long-Term College Success through Degree Completion Using ACT[R] Composite Score, ACT Benchmarks, and High School Grade Point Average. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of ACT[R] Composite score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for predicting long-term college success. Outcomes included annual progress towards a degree (based on cumulative credit-bearing hours earned), degree completion, and cumulative grade point average (GPA) at 150% of normal time to degree…

  2. Labor Market Experiences after Postsecondary Education: Earnings and Other Outcomes of Florida's Postsecondary Graduates and Completers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This report results from a partnership between the State of Florida and College Measures. It focuses on the median first-year earnings of recent graduates and completers from Florida's public postsecondary educational institutions: SUS, FCS, and DTCs. The report documents the variation in first-year earnings for completers who earned degrees or…

  3. Unmarried parents in college.

    PubMed

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Sorensen, Kia

    2010-01-01

    Noting that access to higher education has expanded dramatically in the past several decades, Sara Goldrick-Rab and Kia Sorensen focus on how unmarried parents fare once they enter college. Contrary to the expectation that access to college consistently promotes family stability and economic security, the authors argue that deficiencies in current policy lead college attendance to have adverse consequences for some families headed by unmarried parents. Although rates of college attendance have increased substantially among unmarried parents, their college completion rates are low. One explanation is inadequate academic preparation. Another is financial constraints, which can force unmarried students to interrupt their studies or increase their work hours, both of which compromise the quality of their educational experiences and the outcomes for their children. The authors point out that although many public programs offer support to unmarried parents attending college, the support is neither well coordinated nor easily accessed. Over the past three decades, loans have increasingly replaced grants as the most common form of federal and state financial aid. Confusion about what is available leads many low-income students to the two most "straightforward" sources of income--loans and work, both of which involve significant costs and can operate at cross-purposes with public forms of support. Too much work can lead to reductions in public benefits, and earnings do not always replace the lost income. A growing body of experimental evidence shows that providing social, financial, and academic supports to vulnerable community college students can improve achievement and attainment. Contextualized learning programs, for example, have enabled participants not only to move on from basic skills to credit-bearing coursework, but also to complete credits, earn certificates, and make gains on basic skills tests. Another successful initiative provided low-performing students with

  4. Seeking Good Credit--And Keeping It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Katie

    2007-01-01

    Young people often have their first brush with credit when they leave home to start work or enter college. It is important to teach students about credit early, before they turn 18 and become eligible to sign up for credit cards in their own name. Credit poses risks for the unwary, and many young people get burned. They may pay high annual…

  5. Index to College Television Courseware. A Comprehensive Directory of Credit Courses and Concept Modules Distributed on Video Tape and Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prange, W. Werner; Bellinghausen, Carol R.

    A directory of college television courseware lists offerings in curriculum areas such as: social sciences, biology, black studies, business, mathematics, sciences, computer science, consumer protection, creative arts, drug education, ecology, engineering, humanities, physics, nursing, nutrition, religion, and vocational education, etc. Each course…

  6. Expanding College Opportunity: An Annual Report on Dual Credit and Other Post Secondary Opportunities for Stark County High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochford, Joseph A.; O'Neill, Adrienne; Gelb, Adele; Ross, Kimberly J.; Ughrin, Tina

    2014-01-01

    This is the eighth annual report by the Stark Education Partnership on dual enrollment and other post secondary opportunities (PSOs) for the county's high school students. In addition to dual enrollment, this report looks at a portfolio of the county's PSOs that includes Canton Early College High School, and the opportunity to bank future college…

  7. Optimizing Technical Education Pathways: Does Dual-Credit Course Completion Predict Students' College and Labor Market Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, L. Allen; Chan, Hsun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Post-recession Federal policy initiatives, such as secondary/postsecondary career pathways and gainful employment higher education accountability standards, prioritize the alignment of education practices with market-driven outcomes. Using longitudinal student record data merged from college and state K-12 data systems with the Unemployment…

  8. Crossing the Finish Line: Helping Adults with Significant College Credit Get Back on Track to a College Degree. Complete to Compete Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demaree K.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all states are grappling with the question of how to boost college attainment to meet workforce needs with the resources available. For many states, that task is complicated by the fact that the young adult population is projected neither to grow nor decline over the next several years. There is a significant opportunity, however, for…

  9. 49 CFR 536.7 - Treatment of carryback credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of carryback credits. 536.7 Section 536.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC... Treatment of carryback credits. (a) Carryback credits earned in a compliance category in any model year may...

  10. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  11. 20 CFR 225.4 - Limitation on amount of earnings used to compute a PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... compute a PIA. 225.4 Section 225.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... earnings used to compute a PIA. Certain PIA's used by the Board are based on a combination of compensation... purposes of crediting earnings when computing any PIA, compensation is always treated as wages. Regardless...

  12. War of the Credit Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1993-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges are offering affinity credit cards with attractive incentives as a marketing tool. Some in academe feel the trend may compromise educational objectives. Institutions may also face taxation on unrelated-business income generated through the cards. (MSE)

  13. Recommendations for Alternative Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenderman, Ed; And Others

    Following a review of the mathematics topics taught in accounting, electronics, auto, food and clothing, and metals courses at Linn-Benton Community College, Albany, Oregon, recommendations were made to grant one semester of mathematics credit for completing a two-year sequence of these courses. The other required semester of mathematics should be…

  14. Personality, Education and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Economists are only beginning to understand the relationship between personality traits and economic outcomes. This paper examines the influence of childhood social maladjustment on cognitive development, labor market earnings and career progression using longitudinal data drawn from the National Child Development Study. Net of differences in…

  15. Education, Occupation, Hierarchy and Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachibanaki, Toshiaki

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to estimate a recursive model of earnings distribution with education, occupation, and hierarchy, using individual data for Japanese males. Proves that hierarchical position is very significant in determining earnings level. Compares the influence of education and earnings distribution in Japan and France. Includes 3 tables and 20…

  16. How Boards and Presidents Influence Credit Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedem, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Moody's Investors Service provides credit ratings for hundreds of private and public colleges and universities--ratings that can strongly influence the interest rates higher-education institutions can obtain when they want to borrow money. How colleges are governed and managed are key determinants of those credit ratings, especially in an…

  17. Online Options for "Credit Recovery" Widen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Under pressure to raise graduation rates, some high schools are turning to online courses to help faltering students revive their academic careers and retrieve the credits they need to earn their diplomas. As alternatives to remedial lessons, summer school, and other traditional ways of getting struggling high school students back on track,…

  18. Undergraduate Neuropharmacology: A Model for Delivering College-Level Neuroscience to High School Students in situ.

    PubMed

    Martin-Morris, Linda E; Buckland, Helen T; Popa, Simina M; Cunningham, Susanna L

    2015-01-01

    Our university course for non-majors (Biology 100) on the neurobiology of drug addiction was recently retooled for delivery at high schools around the state of Washington in order to engage younger students in the study of psychoactive drugs. Many of these students are earning both high school and university credits (dual-enrollment). This paper outlines the course design principles we used to ensure that high school students are earning valid college credits. We present an analysis of learning gains experienced by both university and high school students as measured by before and after course knowledge surveys. We also describe how assessment strategies used for on-campus students have been transferred to our high school partner teachers and how generous interchange and observation ensure that the high school students are engaging deeply in their study of neuroscience. Indeed, many have had a transformative experience that inspires them to contemplate the field of neuroscience as they transition into university study.

  19. Earned Value-Added

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Earned value management [EVM] ...either you swear by it, or swear at it. Either way, there s no getting around the fact that EVM can be one of the most efficient and insightful methods of synthesizing cost, schedule, and technical status information into a single set of program health metrics. Is there a way of implementing EVM that allows a program to reap its early warning benefits while avoiding the pitfalls that make it infamous to its detractors? That s the question recently faced by the International Space Station [ISS] program.

  20. College Access and Tax Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michelle Asha

    2005-01-01

    For over a half-century, discussions of educational barriers have figured prominently on the national agenda. In the 1940's, under the leadership of President Harry Truman, the Commission on Higher Education articulated the nation's commitment to "eliminate the barriers of equality of educational opportunity." Nearly two decades later,…

  1. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section 243(b)(3) and § 1.243-5 (relating to effect of 100-percent dividends received deduction under... way create an inference that an accumulation in excess of $150,000 ($100,000 in the case of taxable...,000 and that a deduction has been allowed under section 535(b)(6) in the amount of $5,000. Since the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....535-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Corporations Used to Avoid Income Tax on Shareholders § 1.535-3... section 243(b)) and sections 1561, 1562, and 1564 (relating to limitations on certain tax benefits in the...

  3. Trends in College Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelinson, Jonathan W.

    1998-01-01

    Charts depict trends in bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded by subject between 1982-83 and 1994-95, with projections to 2006. The data show the total number of degrees earned by women increased 35%; women now earn more degrees than men. By 1994, 21% of college students were over age 35. (SK)

  4. Preparation for College and Careers. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Youth Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The financial benefits of a college degree are clear. Philadelphians with 1-3 years of college earn a third more than high school graduates over a working lifetime, and four-year degree-holders earn twice as much. Furthermore, college-goers contribute substantially more in tax revenues to support services provided through local, state and federal…

  5. 7 CFR 1767.25 - Retained earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retained earnings. 1767.25 Section 1767.25....25 Retained earnings. The retained earnings accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Retained Earnings 433-439 [Reserved] Retained Earnings 433-439 [Reserved] ...

  6. Learn to Earn: Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vella Rose B.

    The sixth grade learn-to-earn field tested unit was designed to develop career awareness and employability skills. The purpose is to help the learner understand the tasks performed in the home setting as related to the interest, aptitude, and training of the individuals performing these tasks. The lesson topics are: ways to earn money; personal…

  7. Gender Differences in Employment and Earnings in Science and Engineering in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, J.W.; Smith, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    College-educated women are less than half as likely as men to be employed in science and engineering (S&E); and if they are, earn about 20 percent less. Using data from the 1993 National Survey of College Graduates, we estimate jointly, determinants of S&E employment and earnings in both S&E and non-S&E jobs. Taking account of gender differences…

  8. The Dual Benefits of Tax Credits: Taxpayer Income Generation and Economy Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Robin; Tiggeman, Theresa; Edmond, Tracie

    2010-01-01

    Two important provisions of the Internal Revenue Code were the creation of the Earned Income Tax Credit and Child Tax Credit. Each of these credits were designed to reduce the amount of tax owed, thereby offsetting some of the increases in living expenses and federal income tax. For many this results in a smaller a tax liability. For others with…

  9. Credits and Exemptions for Children. Tax Facts from the Tax Policy Center. Tax Notes[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit (CTC), Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC), and the dependent exemption all provide benefits to families with children. In 2009, a single mom (or dad) with two children can receive benefits ranging from $0 to about $7,500--depending on her income, age of the children, and where the children live. While…

  10. 47 CFR 32.4550 - Retained earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4550 Retained earnings. (a) This account shall include the undistributed balance of retained earnings derived from the...

  11. Modeling College Major Choices using Elicited Measures of Expectations and Counterfactuals. NBER Working Paper No. 15729

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcidiacono, Peter; Hotz, V. Joseph; Kang, Songman

    2010-01-01

    The choice of a college major plays a critical role in determining the future earnings of college graduates. Students make their college major decisions in part due to the future earnings streams associated with the different majors. We survey students about what their expected earnings would be both in the major they have chosen and in…

  12. How Many Credits Should an Undergraduate Take?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attewell, Paul; Monaghan, David

    2016-01-01

    Low completion rates and increased time to degree at U.S. colleges are a widespread concern for policymakers and academic leaders. Many "full time" undergraduates currently enroll at 12 credits per semester despite the fact that a bachelor's degree cannot be completed within 4 years at that credit-load. The "academic momentum"…

  13. Credit Squeeze Exposes Weaknesses in Investments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie; Field, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the credit crisis tying global financing systems into knots has left hundreds of colleges scrambling for cash to pay their bills and to cover the spiking interest on their debts. While it is still unclear to what extent the federal government's new $700-billion bailout package will help unwind the credit tangle, the…

  14. Learning from the Past: Dual Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Nicole; Justice, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    This study involved identifying, categorizing, and comparing critical incidents related to qualifying dual credit high school students' decisions to enroll or not to enroll in dual credit coursework in either a traditional or early college high school. The purpose of the study was (a) to identify the reasons qualifying students decide to enroll in…

  15. 40 CFR 86.1870-12 - CO2 credits for qualifying full-size pickup trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... strong hybrid electric vehicle. To provide for EPA testing, the vehicle must be able to broadcast battery... leakage and/or efficiency credits as determined in § 86.1867 and § 86.1868. Pickup trucks earning the...

  16. Effectiveness of Online Community College Success Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abts, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to determine the effectiveness of two online college success courses: CPD 150 (College Success, 3 credits) and CPD 115 (Success Strategies, 1 credit), at Rio Salado College, a Maricopa Community College in Arizona. The goal of these courses is to prepare students to be college-ready by examining…

  17. The practice and earnings of preventive medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Salive, M E

    1992-01-01

    A shortage of preventive medicine (PM) physicians exists in the United States. Researchers know little about these physicians' earnings and practice characteristics. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) mailed a survey to all self-identified PM physicians on the American Medical Association (AMA) Physician Masterfile. A total of 3,771 (54%) responded; respondents' sex and region of residence were typical for PM physicians in general, with a slight excess of older physicians and those reporting board certification. A total of 2,664 (71%) were working full time, with median earnings of $85,000 (mean $90,000). Among full-time physicians, relatively higher earnings were associated with the following characteristics: male sex; age 45 to 64 years; major source of income from clinical, business, or industrial sources, rather than governmental or academic; and PM board certification. Full-time PM physicians earned much less than office-based private practitioners in several primary care specialties in 1989. The gap in earnings between PM specialists in government positions and those in the private sector is also substantial. Both disparities may require creative solutions.

  18. 26 CFR 1.53-3 - Separate rule for pass-through of jobs credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Separate rule for pass-through of jobs credit. 1... INCOME TAXES Tax Surcharge § 1.53-3 Separate rule for pass-through of jobs credit. (a) In general. Under section 53(b), in the case of a new jobs credit or targeted jobs credit earned under section 44B by a...

  19. Community Colleges: Preparing Students for Diverse Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Lou A.

    2016-01-01

    Postgraduation outcomes for community college students are complex. In addition to traditional job placement and earnings information, transferring to a 4-year institution is a positive first-destination outcome. Furthermore, community college students may have education and career goals that do not include earning a degree. Community college…

  20. The Easy Guide to Accredited Degrees through Correspondence. Earn Your Associates, Bachelors, Masters or Ph.D. from Accredited Colleges and Universities across the United States, While You Study at Home. 1st Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taji, Nancy Lydia

    This guide lists 24 accredited colleges and universities that offer degrees through correspondence courses. The colleges and universities are listed in alphabetical order. Each listing includes the following: name of the institution, a short history, the regional accrediting body by which it is accredited, a brief introduction about how each…

  1. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    PubMed

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (<45 years) conducted in 1991, we estimated a partial reduced-form model of physicians annual income and per hour income. We tested whether HMO penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  2. Exploring the Alignment between Post-Secondary Education Programs and Earnings: An Examination of 2005 Ontario Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Kristyn; Walters, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence that field of study and level of post-secondary education have on the earnings of recent graduates in Ontario. Graduates of trades, community college, and university programs are compared. Results suggest that graduates of applied and technical programs obtain higher earnings within two years of graduation than…

  3. Credit for Lifelong Learning. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Carolyn M.

    This guide to developing a prior learning portfolio was prepared to assist students in the Credit for Lifelong Learning Program (CLLP) at Sinclair Community College (SCC) in Dayton, Ohio, through the process of identifying college-level prior learning, matching their learning to specific courses, and articulating and documenting their learning.…

  4. Online Dual Credit Mathematics for Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roy Joe; Stovall, Sarah T.

    2013-01-01

    Students from small rural schools (class 1A, 2A, and 3A) historically have not had access to dual credit courses for several reasons including distance from a college campus, affordability, and district teaching strength. In an effort to address these problems and to begin the college experience sooner, a new program was developed by the…

  5. Thoughts on Earned Value Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pido, Kelle

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of Earned Value reporting and Earned Value Metrics (EVM) and the implementation for the Constellation Program. EVM is used to manage both the contract and civil service workforce, and used as a measure of contractor costs and performance. The Program EVM is not as useful for Level of Effort tasking, for either contractor, or civil service employees. Some issues and concerns in reference to EVM and the process for the use of EVM for Mission assurance are reviewed,

  6. Student Participation under Random and Delayed Credit Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspiranti, K. B.; McCleary, D. F.; McCleary, L. N.; Ga-lyon, C. E.; Blondin, C. A.; Yaw, J. S.; Williams, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of randomized and delayed credit on the percentage of college students participating at four pre-defined levels on each class discussion day: non-participation, credit-level participation, frequent participation, and dominant participation. Although the same amount of participation credit was available to students…

  7. POLICIES AFFECTING ACCEPTANCE OF TRANSFER CREDIT FOR COURSES IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PURTZER, WAYNE R.

    A 16-STATE QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY OF 80 COLLEGES WAS DESIGNED TO IDENTIFY THE POLICIES OF THESE INSTITUTIONS CONCERNING GRANTING OF CREDIT FOR TECHNICAL SKILLS ACQUIRED IN OTHER SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES, MILITARY TRAINING, AND WORK EXPERIENCE. USABLE RESPONSES WERE OBTAINED FROM 48 COLLEGES. ALL COLLEGES EXCEPT ONE GRANTED SUCH CREDIT FOR COURSES IN…

  8. White House Unveils America's College Promise Proposal: Tuition-Free Community College for Responsible Students. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In January, 2015, the President unveiled the America's College Promise proposal, which would make two years of community college free for responsible students, letting students earn the first half of a bachelor's degree and earn skills needed in the workforce at no cost. This proposal will require everyone to do their part: community colleges must…

  9. 28 CFR 523.32 - How much DCEGT can I earn?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much DCEGT can I earn? 523.32 Section 523.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER COMPUTATION OF SENTENCE District of Columbia Educational Good Time Credit § 523.32...

  10. 28 CFR 523.32 - How much DCEGT can I earn?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How much DCEGT can I earn? 523.32 Section 523.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER COMPUTATION OF SENTENCE District of Columbia Educational Good Time Credit § 523.32...

  11. 28 CFR 523.32 - How much DCEGT can I earn?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How much DCEGT can I earn? 523.32 Section 523.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER COMPUTATION OF SENTENCE District of Columbia Educational Good Time Credit § 523.32...

  12. 28 CFR 523.32 - How much DCEGT can I earn?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How much DCEGT can I earn? 523.32 Section 523.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER COMPUTATION OF SENTENCE District of Columbia Educational Good Time Credit § 523.32...

  13. 28 CFR 523.32 - How much DCEGT can I earn?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How much DCEGT can I earn? 523.32 Section 523.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER COMPUTATION OF SENTENCE District of Columbia Educational Good Time Credit § 523.32...

  14. Follow-Up Study of Students Who Enrolled in Small Business Non-Credit Courses at Harper College. Volume XXIV, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A.; Soto, Linda

    As part of a review of its Small Business Management courses and seminars, William Rainey Harper College in Illinois conducted a study of students currently enrolled in spring 1995 and students who had enrolled from fall 1993 to fall 1994 to determine the students' characteristics, the effectiveness of marketing efforts, and students' perceptions…

  15. Credit-Card Bill Seeks to Protect Students but Could Limit Their Access to Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Congress passed legislation last week that would shield students and other consumers from sudden spikes in interest rates and fees, but that could make it harder for young people to access credit to pay for college. The legislation would extend broad new consumer protections to all credit-card holders, offering special protections to college…

  16. The impact of mothers' earnings on health inputs and infant health.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Naci; Raschke, Christian; Unel, Bulent

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of mothers' earnings on birth weight and gestational age of infants in the U.S. It also analyzes the impact of earnings on mothers' consumption of prenatal medical care, and their propensity to smoke and drink during pregnancy. The paper uses census division-year-specific skill-biased technology shocks as an instrument for mothers' earnings and employs a two-sample instrumental variables strategy. About 14 million records of births between 1989 and 2004 are used from the Natality Detail files along with the CPS Annual Demographic Files from the same period. The results reveal that an increase in weekly earnings prompts an increase in prenatal care of low-skill mothers (those who have at most a high school degree) who are not likely to be on Medicaid, and that earnings have a small positive impact on birth weight and gestational age of the newborns of these mothers. Specifically, if a mother's earnings double, this produces a weight gain of the newborn by about 100g and an increase in gestational age by 0.7 weeks. An increase in earnings does not influence the health of newborns of high-skill mothers (those with at least some college education). Variations in earnings have no impact on birth weight for mothers who are likely to be on Medicaid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Women's Education and Earnings in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werschkul, Misha; Gault, Barbara; Caiazza, Amy; Hartmann, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Women have made remarkable strides in education during the past three decades, but these gains have yet to translate into full equity in pay. Women still earn less than men earn in nearly every profession and at every stage of their careers, and this earnings gap is evident in every state in the nation. This report focuses on educational…

  18. Farm Wives' Labor Force Participation and Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Deborah D.; Marlowe, Julia

    1990-01-01

    Examines relationship between employment earnings and farm wives' decisions to work off-farm. Examines effects of wives' human capital, home factors, and labor market on work decisions and earnings. Education, experience, debt, and farm size were stronger influences on wives' decisions than on their earnings variations, once employed. (TES)

  19. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earning rates. 630.604 Section 630.604... § 630.604 Earning rates. (a) For each 12 months of service abroad, an employee earns home leave at the following rate: (1) An employee who accepts an appointment to, or occupies, a position for which the agency...

  20. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Earning rates. 630.604 Section 630.604... § 630.604 Earning rates. (a) For each 12 months of service abroad, an employee earns home leave at the following rate: (1) An employee who accepts an appointment to, or occupies, a position for which the agency...

  1. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earning rates. 630.604 Section 630.604... § 630.604 Earning rates. (a) For each 12 months of service abroad, an employee earns home leave at the following rate: (1) An employee who accepts an appointment to, or occupies, a position for which the agency...

  2. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earning rates. 630.604 Section 630.604... § 630.604 Earning rates. (a) For each 12 months of service abroad, an employee earns home leave at the following rate: (1) An employee who accepts an appointment to, or occupies, a position for which the agency...

  3. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Earning rates. 630.604 Section 630.604... § 630.604 Earning rates. (a) For each 12 months of service abroad, an employee earns home leave at the following rate: (1) An employee who accepts an appointment to, or occupies, a position for which the agency...

  4. Earnings of Students Who Change Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmlund, Linda; Regner, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Using data on Swedish university entrants, this study finds that earnings are significantly lower for students who change universities compared to students who do not change. Earnings differences decrease over time and over the earnings distribution. The pattern in the estimates seems consistent with non-transfer students having higher earnings…

  5. The Earnings Gap: Research Needs and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    As almost everyone knows, the earnings gap between men and women is very large. In 1972, the average woman earned only 58 percent as much as the average man when both worked full time. The author directs her discussion toward the large volume of research on the topic of the earnings gap and points to areas where further work might be done. She…

  6. Condition of Iowa Community Colleges, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Iowa's 15 Community Colleges offer thousands of credit and non-credit courses. The 2005 "Condition of Iowa Community Colleges" report will review Iowa Community College programs and related services. The report is supported by Management Information System (MIS) data, as reported by Iowa Community Colleges to the Iowa Department of…

  7. Report of the Task Force on Continuing Education and Non-Credit Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Richard J.; And Others

    The Task Force on Continuing Education and Non-Credit Instruction was appointed to develop specific strategies for expanding lifelong learning and non-credit instruction in the Virginia community colleges. The task force reviewed a report on the state funding of non-credit instruction; wrote to the community college coordinating offices in 17…

  8. Consumer Education Resources: Credit, Credit Problems, Home Mortgages & Equity Loans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti. National Inst. for Consumer Education.

    This document contains five lists of consumer resources pertaining to credit, credit problems, and home mortgages and equity loans. The first list, targeted at adults, provides information on general credit, applying for credit and contracts, seniors and women and credit, credit options and costs, credit protection, credit reports and bureaus, and…

  9. Credit: A Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanton, Brandolyn; And Others

    Intended for teachers of secondary school students, five lessons on consumer credit are presented. In the first lesson students identify and evaluate sources of credit, compare some of the costs and benefits of credit, and learn to apply criteria used in evaluating applications for credit. In the second lesson, students learn about two basic types…

  10. Credit where It's Due

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Finbar

    2004-01-01

    Credit can be used to recognise all kinds of achievements. But there are no short cuts to doing it properly. Perhaps the clever thing to do is to take the best of practice in using credit, to observe closely how credit impacts on the reform of all education in the UK, and learn from these experiences. As the notion of credit gains currency across…

  11. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  12. Another Downer of a Year for College Endowments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulley, John L.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how most colleges lost money on their endowments again during the past fiscal year (an average of 6 percent), prompting business officers to rethink investment strategies. Includes a table listing over 650 colleges' endowment earnings. (EV)

  13. Comparing Success Rates for General and Credit Recovery Courses Online and Face to Face: Results for Florida High School Courses. REL 2015-095

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John; Zhou, Chengfu; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results of a REL Southeast study comparing student success in online credit recovery and general courses taken online compared to traditional face-to-face courses. Credit recovery occurs when a student fails a course and then retakes the same course to earn high school credit. This research question was motivated by the…

  14. Farther, Faster: Six Promising Programs Show How Career Pathway Bridges Help Basic Skills Students Earn Credentials That Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Students forced to complete a long sequence of remedial or English language classes before they can begin their postsecondary program rarely earn college certificates or degrees. This brief highlights six promising programs that show how career pathway bridges help lower-skilled students move farther and faster along college and career paths…

  15. Colleges, Not Congress, Should Decide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassirian, Barmak

    2007-01-01

    For most of the past decade, the lobbying juggernaut of the career-college sector and its political patrons have fought a battle on Capitol Hill to federalize institutional decisions about transfers of credits. They have accused traditional colleges of refusing to award academic credit for what they claim is their institutions' equivalent course…

  16. Job Satisfaction Among College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaeth, Joe L.; Handler, Lynn P.

    Job satisfaction for college graduates is examined in this report that focuses on subjective determinants. It is contended that many objective characteristics, such as education and earnings, have little impact on job satisfaction. Data are taken from the National Opinion Research Center longitudinal survey of college graduates from the class of…

  17. Multiple Measures for College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lexi; Fulton, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Roughly one third of all U.S. high school graduates do not enroll in college soon after earning a diploma. There are many reasons why students do not do so, including work obligations, affordability concerns and lack of academic preparation. Yet research suggests that many of these students often aspire to a college education. Helping these…

  18. Trends in Relative Earnings and Marital Dissolution: Are Wives Who Outearn Their Husbands Still More Likely to Divorce?

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZ, CHRISTINE R.; GONALONS-PONS, PILAR

    2016-01-01

    As women’s labor-force participation and earnings have grown, so has the likelihood that wives outearn their husbands. A common concern is that these couples may be at heightened risk of divorce. Yet with the rise of egalitarian marriage, wives’ relative earnings may be more weakly associated with divorce than in the past. We examine trends in the association between wives’ relative earnings and marital dissolution using data from the 1968–2009 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We find that wives’ relative earnings were positively associated with the risk of divorce among couples married in the late 1960s and 1970s, and that this was especially true for wives who outearned their husbands, but this was no longer the case for couples married in the 1990s. Change was concentrated among middle-earning husbands and those without college degrees, a finding consistent with the economic squeeze of the middle class over this period. PMID:27635418

  19. Career and Technical Education as Pathways: Factors Influencing Postcollege Earnings of Selected Career Clusters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Jonathan I.; Laanan, Frankie Santos; Starobin, Soko S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between student characteristics such as gender, race/ethnicity, program of study, degree completion, and earnings outcomes for students enrolled in career and technical education (CTE) programs within the business, information technology (IT), and marketing career clusters in community colleges to determine…

  20. Career Plans and Expectations of Young Women and Men: The Earnings Gap and Labor Force Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Francine D.; Ferber, Marianne A.

    1991-01-01

    Responses from 227 of 389 female and 161 of 333 male college business seniors found that, although expecting similar starting salaries, women anticipate considerably lower earnings in subsequent years. The difference was not explained by the number of years women planned to be in the labor force. (SK)

  1. Assessing the Impact of Gender and Race on Earnings in the Library Science Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeper, Darren; Smith, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, this paper examines earnings in the library science labor market and assesses the impact of gender on the income attainment process. We use this cross-sectional dataset to determine if there are significant income differences between male and female library science professionals. The…

  2. Strategies for Professors Who Service the University to Earn Tenure and Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben; Stokes, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Tenure and promotion are great aspirations for college professors. They are indicators of success in the professions. Universities stipulate in their official documents and numerous higher education publications specify what professors must achieve in order to earn tenure and promotion; which almost always cite effectiveness in teaching, research,…

  3. Credit Card Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students design credit cards and discover for themselves the mathematical realities of buying on credit. Employs multiple-intelligence theory to increase the chance that all students will be reached. (YDS)

  4. How Colleges Perpetuate Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Colleges, once seen as beacons of egalitarian hope, are becoming bastions of wealth and privilege that perpetuate inequality. The chance of a low-income child obtaining a bachelor's degree has not budged in three decades: Just 6 percent of students from the lowest-income families earned a bachelor's degree by age 24 in 1970, and in 2002 still only…

  5. Awarding Educational Credit for Women's Unpaid Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansregret, Marthe; Ekstrom, Ruth B.

    Women who seek further education and the formal credentials it provides often have acquired valuable knowledge and work experience while performing various unpaid work in their homes and communities. Awarding college credit and recognition for women's nonpaid work is a measure of social justice and equity. The three major ways to evaluate and…

  6. Towards a Global System of Credit Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Alan; McQuay, Paul

    This paper introduces a system of Program Alignment that Community Colleges for International Development, Inc. (CCID) member institutions across Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States of America can use to facilitate a system of credit transfer. The rationale for this project is drawn from the increasing importance of…

  7. Why Underprepared Students Drop out College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Many students are entering college underprepared and do not earn a degree because of the many barriers they encounter. The purpose of this study was to identify reasons underprepared students did not complete college and to examine strategies, resources, and programs that underprepared students could have used to persist in college. The…

  8. Community College Students: Recent Findings and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Alyssa N.

    This paper discusses recent trends and issues in community colleges, such as dual enrollment, reverse transfer, post-college earnings, and student involvement and experiences within community colleges. It also provides statistics on minority, female, and nontraditional student enrollment, transfer rates, and student success. Highlights include:…

  9. Relationship between Credit Recovery Programs and Graduation Rates for At-Risk Students on the Navajo Indian Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Low graduation rates of high school students are a problem for the Native American community. One possible solution for low graduation rates is a credit recovery program that may assist Native American students to recover credit not earned in their early high school years. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a credit…

  10. The Earnings Gap between Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The size of the earnings gap between men and women has not changed substantially in recent years. The sustained earnings differential contrasts significantly with recent gains women have made in the job market. Several factors contribute to the wage differences: (1) The majority of women are in lower-paying occupations and lower-status jobs even…

  11. Insult to Injury: Disability, Earnings, and Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the longitudinal effect of disability on earnings, marriage, and divorce. The data come from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data on longitudinal earnings. Using event-study methods, the results show that the onset of a work-preventing disability is associated with a precipitous decline…

  12. Need 3 Quick Credits to Play Ball? Call Western Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Western Oklahoma State College's name comes up whenever athletes get themselves in a jam: They've failed a class. They've dropped another. Maybe they're just short on credits. But they still want to play. Western Oklahoma gives them a chance, offering three credits in two weeks--and for less than $400. Almost as appealing: The community college…

  13. Intraoccupational Earnings Inequality. Human Capital and Institutional Determinants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorence, Jon

    1987-01-01

    Examines the distribution of earnings within occupations. Finds that these are more widely distributed than earnings among differing occupations. Suggests some gender differences in the processes generating earnings disparities within occupations. (CH)

  14. Achieving LEED credit for ergonomics: Laying the foundation.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Mallory

    2014-01-01

    Despite guidance from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) on the requirements for earning a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ergonomics credit in the Innovation in Design and Innovation in Operations category, few projects have received the credit. The University of California, Berkeley ergonomics program, Ergonomics@Work, has aligned the ergonomics strategy to those of the USGBC and LEED to achieve the ergonomics credit in several new buildings. This article describes the steps needed to obtain the credit and highlights the opportunities it creates to partner with the project team to promote ergonomics. As a profession it is up to ergonomists to create the road map that incorporates ergonomics into the green building design.

  15. How do nonprofit hospitals manage earnings?

    PubMed

    Leone, Andrew J; Van Horn, R Lawrence

    2005-07-01

    We hypothesize that, unlike for-profit firms, nonprofit hospitals have incentives to manage earnings to a range just above zero. We consider two ways managers can achieve this. They can adjust discretionary spending [Hoerger, T.J., 1991. 'Profit' variability in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Journal of Health Economics 10, 259-289.] and/or they can adjust accounting accruals using the flexibility inherent in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). To test our hypothesis we use regressions as well as tests of the distribution of earnings by Burgstahler and Dichev [Burgstahler, D., Dichev, I., 1997. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses. Journal of Accounting and Economics 24, 99-126.] on a sample of 1,204 hospitals and 8,179 hospital-year observations. Our tests support the use of discretionary spending and accounting accrual management. Like Hoerger (1991), we find evidence that nonprofit hospitals adjust discretionary spending to manage earnings. However, we also find significant use of discretionary accruals (e.g., adjustments to the third-party-allowance, and allowance for doubtful accounts) to meet earnings objectives. These findings have two important implications. First, the previous evidence by Hoerger that nonprofit hospitals show less variation in income may at least partly be explained by an accounting phenomenon. Second, our findings provide guidance to users of these financial statements in predicting the direction of likely bias in reported earnings.

  16. Earnings among people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, K; Loh, S Y; Omar, Z

    2011-09-01

    Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. To identify differences in earnings among participants with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their relation to demographic, injury, educational and employment-related factors. People living with SCI in the community who were members of a disability support organization. A total of 76 members who have had traumatic SCI for at least 2 years, between 15 and 64 years of age at time of study and were working before SCI were interviewed over the phone. The earnings were categorized as more, same or less than before SCI or no income for those unemployed. Of the 76 participants (who averaged about 15.1 years post SCI), only 13 participants (17.1%) were earning more than before injury, whereas majority were in the category of having no income, being unemployed at time of study, n=36 (47.4%). Factors positively related to earnings were having more years in education, both at time of injury and at time of survey. As anticipated, those currently in full time and paid employments were earning more while receipt of financial compensation was negatively related to earnings. Despite a lengthy period of time post SCI, only a minority were earning more, reflecting poorly on the quality of post SCI employment experience. The rehabilitation team should therefore focus on improving both educational and vocational opportunities for persons with SCI and aim for full time, paid employments. The current workers' compensation scheme renders the recipient at a static income and may need to be revised.

  17. Factors Affecting the Underachievement of Academically Able College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelbaum, Herta

    Reasons for the underachievement of 44 qualified college freshmen were studied. The students had above-average scores on the American College Testing program examination but earned below-average grades in their first year in college. They were invited to discuss their academic status and perceptions of college life with an academic advisor. It was…

  18. Databook: Maryland Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Board for Community Colleges, Annapolis.

    Designed to provide information about the current status and future direction of Maryland's community college system, this report offers a summary and overview of all aspects of community college functioning in the state. Section I provides an organizational chart of higher education in Maryland; and data on undergraduate credit enrollments, and…

  19. Early College, Early Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea; Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Garet, Michael; Song, Mengli; Knudson, Joel; Haxton, Clarisse; Zeiser, Kristina; Hoshen, Gur; Ford, Jennifer; Stephan, Jennifer; Keating, Kaeli; Cassidy, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) with the primary goal of increasing the opportunity for underserved students to earn a postsecondary credential. To achieve this goal, Early Colleges provide underserved students with exposure to, and support in, college while they are in…

  20. College Warm-Up: Innovative Preparation for College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Benny

    A summer program offered by Eastern Kentucky University to ease the transition to the college environment for high school seniors is described. The six-week program, called "College Warm-Up," involves seven hours of credit classes in English composition, academic orientation, and college reading and study skills. The academic orientation…

  1. Racial Earnings Differentials and Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heywood, John S.; O'Halloran, Patrick L.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative analysis between output-based payment and time rates payment is presented. It is observed that racial or gender earnings discrimination is more likely in time rates payment and supervisory evaluations.

  2. Credit Enhancement Overview Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Financing Solutions Working Group

    2014-01-01

    Provides considerations for state and local policymakers and energy efficiency program administrators designing and implementing successful credit enhancement strategies for residential and commercial buildings.

  3. Directory of Credit-Granting Policies in Medical Laboratory Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Careers in Medical Technology, Bethesda, MD.

    Ways now exist for medical laboratory workers to advance up the educational career ladder, gaining credit for prior training and/or experience. A total of 369 Certified Medical Laboratory Assistant Schools, colleges with Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technicians programs, schools of Medical Technology, and colleges with baccalaureate Medical…

  4. 12 CFR 226.58 - Internet posting of credit card agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Internet posting of credit card agreements. 226.58 Section 226.58 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 226.58 Internet posting of credit card...

  5. 12 CFR 226.58 - Internet posting of credit card agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Internet posting of credit card agreements. 226.58 Section 226.58 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 226.58 Internet posting of credit card agreements...

  6. 12 CFR 226.58 - Internet posting of credit card agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Internet posting of credit card agreements. 226.58 Section 226.58 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 226.58 Internet posting of credit card...

  7. 12 CFR 226.58 - Internet posting of credit card agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Internet posting of credit card agreements. 226.58 Section 226.58 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 226.58 Internet posting of credit card agreements...

  8. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN U.S. HOSPITALS.

    PubMed

    Dong, Gang Nathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the hospital management practices of manipulating financial earnings within the bounds of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). We conduct regression analyses that relate earnings management to hospital characteristics to assess the economic determinants of hospital earnings management behavior. From the CMS Cost Reports we collected hospital financial data of all U.S. hospitals that request reimbursement from the federal government for treating Medicare patients, and regress discretionary accruals on hospital size, profitability, asset liquidity, operating efficiency, labor cost, and ownership. Hospitals with higher profit margin, current ratio, working capital, days of patient receivables outstanding and total wage are associated with more earnings management, whereas those with larger size and higher debt level, asset turnover, days cash on hand, fixed asset age are associated with lower level of earnings manipulation. Additionally, managers of non-profit hospitals are more likely to undertake some form of window-dressing by manipulating accounting accruals without changing business models or pricing strategies than their public hospital counterparts. We provide direct evidence of the use of discretionary accruals to manage financial earnings among U.S. hospitals and the finding has profound policy implications in terms of assessing the pervasiveness of accounting manipulation and the overall integrity of financial reporting in this very special public and quasi-public service sector.

  9. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns

    PubMed Central

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988–2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature. PMID:26300582

  10. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  11. How Smith Cleared the Way for More Transfer Students from a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraghty, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Smith College (Massachusetts) has established formal articulation agreements with Santa Monica College (California) and Miami-Dade Community College (Florida) to grant credit to community college students transferring to the private college. Vassar College (New York) is another private liberal arts college seeking more community college transfer…

  12. Toward a Radical Praxis for Over-Age, Under-Credited African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Iesha

    2016-01-01

    The "over-age, under-credited" (OA/UC) student population is defined as high school students who are at least two years behind their peers in terms of age and credits earned toward a high school diploma. To date, few studies have examined the schooling of OA/UC students. The purpose of this study is to use the insights of six African…

  13. Credit Cards on Campus: Academic Inquiry, Objective Empiricism, or Advocacy Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Robert D.; Kirshak, Ray

    2005-01-01

    Professors John M. Barron and Michael E. Staten's article in Vol. 34, No. 3 of this journal, "Usage of Credit Cards Received through College Student-Marketing Programs," purports to "provide benchmark measures of college student credit card usage." Based on empirical analyses of proprietary industry data, they conclude that "There is no…

  14. Education Tax Credits: Refundability Critical to Making Credits Helpful to Low-Income Students and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…

  15. 5 CFR 844.402 - Restoration of earning capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of earning capacity. 844.402... Reinstatement of Disability Annuity § 844.402 Restoration of earning capacity. (a) Earning capacity... current rate of basic pay of the position occupied immediately before retirement, the annuitant's earning...

  16. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (JUL 2006) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  17. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (JUL 2006) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  18. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (JUL 2006) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  19. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (MAY 2014) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  20. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (JUL 2006) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... has no effect on the earnings and profits of P and S.) Example 2. Section 355 distribution. (a) Facts... section 312(h). Thus, P's earnings and profits rather than S's earnings and profits may be eliminated...) of this section, P's earnings and profits may be reduced under section 312(h) as a result of the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... has no effect on the earnings and profits of P and S.) Example 2. Section 355 distribution. (a) Facts... section 312(h). Thus, P's earnings and profits rather than S's earnings and profits may be eliminated...) of this section, P's earnings and profits may be reduced under section 312(h) as a result of the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... has no effect on the earnings and profits of P and S.) Example 2. Section 355 distribution. (a) Facts... section 312(h). Thus, P's earnings and profits rather than S's earnings and profits may be eliminated...) of this section, P's earnings and profits may be reduced under section 312(h) as a result of the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... has no effect on the earnings and profits of P and S.) Example 2. Section 355 distribution. (a) Facts... section 312(h). Thus, P's earnings and profits rather than S's earnings and profits may be eliminated...) of this section, P's earnings and profits may be reduced under section 312(h) as a result of the...

  5. Creating Opportunity for All: Building Pathways from Continuing Education to Credit Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Derek V.; Sedlak, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Community college students start college with goals including transferring to earn a bachelor's degree and gaining the skills and credentials that have immediate labor market value. These goals are not mutually exclusive. Students deserve access to clear pathways, whether they enroll in short-term education and training programs or in college…

  6. 7 CFR 1030.55 - Transportation credits and assembly credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation credits and assembly credits. 1030.55... assembly credits. (a) Each handler operating a pool distributing plant described in § 1030.7(a), (b), (d... shall receive an assembly credit on the portion of such milk eligible for the credit pursuant to...

  7. 7 CFR 1030.55 - Transportation credits and assembly credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Transportation credits and assembly credits. 1030.55... assembly credits. (a) Each handler operating a pool distributing plant described in § 1030.7(a), (b), (d... shall receive an assembly credit on the portion of such milk eligible for the credit pursuant to...

  8. 7 CFR 1030.55 - Transportation credits and assembly credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation credits and assembly credits. 1030.55... assembly credits. (a) Each handler operating a pool distributing plant described in § 1030.7(a), (b), (d... shall receive an assembly credit on the portion of such milk eligible for the credit pursuant to...

  9. 7 CFR 1030.55 - Transportation credits and assembly credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation credits and assembly credits. 1030.55... assembly credits. (a) Each handler operating a pool distributing plant described in § 1030.7(a), (b), (d... shall receive an assembly credit on the portion of such milk eligible for the credit pursuant to...

  10. 7 CFR 1030.55 - Transportation credits and assembly credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Transportation credits and assembly credits. 1030.55... assembly credits. (a) Each handler operating a pool distributing plant described in § 1030.7(a), (b), (d... shall receive an assembly credit on the portion of such milk eligible for the credit pursuant to...

  11. Nitrogen credits after peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cooperative Extension throughout the Southeast currently recommends 22-67 kg N/ha credit to subsequent crops following peanut. However, these values are not supported in the peer-reviewed literature. Most of the peer-reviewed literature has shown that N credits to subsequent crops are negligible. Da...

  12. Cracking the Credit Hour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitinen, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The basic currency of higher education--the credit hour--represents the root of many problems plaguing America's higher education system: the practice of measuring time rather than learning. "Cracking the Credit Hour" traces the history of this time-based unit, from the days of Andrew Carnegie to recent federal efforts to define a credit…

  13. Tax Credits for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, James A.; And Others

    This report is comprised of two separate papers, "A Tax Credit for Certain Educational Expenses" by James A. Maxwell and Bernard L. Weinstein and "Income Tax Credits for Tuitions and Gifts in Nonpublic School Education" by Roger A. Freeman. The first paper is based on the assumption that provision of financial relief to parents who send their…

  14. Credit Constraints in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…

  15. "Badges" Earned Online Pose Challenge to Traditional College Diplomas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of a seemingly playful alternative to traditional diplomas, inspired by Boy Scout achievement patches and video-game power-ups, suggests that the standard certification system no longer works in today's fast-changing job market. Educational upstarts across the Web are adopting "badges" to certify skills and abilities. If scouting…

  16. "Badges" Earned Online Pose Challenge to Traditional College Diplomas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of a seemingly playful alternative to traditional diplomas, inspired by Boy Scout achievement patches and video-game power-ups, suggests that the standard certification system no longer works in today's fast-changing job market. Educational upstarts across the Web are adopting systems of "badges" to certify skills and abilities.…

  17. A Portrait of Students at Bellevue Community College, Fall 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talltree, Claire; Hodge, Valerie

    Two surveys were administered to samples of Bellevue Community College (BCC) (Washington) students in fall 1999: the Faces of the Future (FOF) survey (administered to 399 credit and 195 non-credit students), and the Community College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CCSEQ) survey (administered to 370 credit students). Significant findings are…

  18. Bangladesh's SMP earns top marks.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    A recent evaluation funded by the US Agency for International Development (AID) confirms that Bangladesh's contraceptive social marketing program has exceeded its planner's goals and demonstrated the ability of such a system to widely distribute contraceptive products at a low cost. The project, which began contraceptive sales in 1975, distributes condoms, oral contraceptives, and foaming vaginal tablets. Almost 25% of contraceptive users in Bangladesh are serviced by the social marketing program. By the end of 1983, the program was providing 1,022,000 couple years of protection; this included 84 million condoms, 1.7 million pill cycles, and 5.1 million spermicidal tablets each year. The program's cost for 1 couple year of protection is US$1.66. Social marketing sales have accounted for all increases in couple years of protection experienced by the country's national population program since 1975. Sales have been boosted by recent efforts to draw rural medical practitioners into family planning activities. Mobile film units have further increased sales. The USAID report identifies 3 elements that have spearheaded the social marketing program's achievements: 1) the existence of a committed core management team, 2) the granting of autonomy to make daily decisions to this management team, and 3) central control fo the product distribution system by management rather than by subcontractors. Overall, the social marketing program is credited with legitimizing discussion of contraception in a country formerly considered too conservative to tolerate open product promotion.

  19. The Female-Male Earnings Gap: A Review of Employment and Earnings Issues. Report 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Janet L.

    In the last 20 years, an increase in the number of working women has been accompanied by changes in the female labor force and in the concentration of women in particular occupations and industries. These changes have a profound effect upon women's earnings. The Current Population Survey (CPS) shows a wide disparity in the median earnings of women…

  20. 20 CFR 422.125 - Statements of earnings; resolving earnings discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statements of earnings; resolving earnings discrepancies. 422.125 Section 422.125 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND... investigation the district office or branch office, where appropriate, contacts the employer and the employee or...

  1. Career Education and Liberal Arts Education: Benefits and Drawbacks, Credit Transferability, and Online Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicola, Joseph Robert

    2011-01-01

    In a time of economic recession, many working adults pursue higher education. Those looking to go back to school must consider the benefits and disadvantages of both Career Education and Liberal Arts Education options. Transferability of credits earned, financial commitment, and the increase of online education are correspondingly discussed.…

  2. A Classroom Market for Extra Credit: A Semester-Long Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staveley-O'Carroll, James

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovative pedagogical technique, applicable to most economics courses, that offers students a deeper understanding of market equilibrium, inflation, real and nominal interest rates, intertemporal choice, and financial markets. Students earn extra credit, pooled together for the entire class, by correctly answering…

  3. 7 CFR 1955.117 - Processing credit sales on program terms (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... For MFH credit sales to profit or limited profit buyers, any excess earnest money deposit will be... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY.... However, if a profit or limited profit applicant desires to earn a return, the applicant will be required...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.117 - Processing credit sales on program terms (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... For MFH credit sales to profit or limited profit buyers, any excess earnest money deposit will be... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY.... However, if a profit or limited profit applicant desires to earn a return, the applicant will be required...

  5. 7 CFR 1955.117 - Processing credit sales on program terms (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... For MFH credit sales to profit or limited profit buyers, any excess earnest money deposit will be... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY.... However, if a profit or limited profit applicant desires to earn a return, the applicant will be required...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.117 - Processing credit sales on program terms (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... For MFH credit sales to profit or limited profit buyers, any excess earnest money deposit will be... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY.... However, if a profit or limited profit applicant desires to earn a return, the applicant will be required...

  7. 7 CFR 1955.117 - Processing credit sales on program terms (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... For MFH credit sales to profit or limited profit buyers, any excess earnest money deposit will be... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY.... However, if a profit or limited profit applicant desires to earn a return, the applicant will be required...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1870-12 - CO2 credits for qualifying full-size pickup trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... broadcast battery pack voltage via an on-board diagnostics parameter ID channel. (1) Full size pickup trucks... conditioning leakage and/or efficiency credits as determined in §§ 86.1867 and 6.1868. Pickup trucks earning...

  9. Hours to Graduation: A National Survey of Credit Hours Required for Baccalaureate Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitter, Gita Wijesinghe; And Others

    In the context of an increased emphasis on accountability in higher education and time taken to earn a baccalaureate degree, the Board of Regents of the State University System of Florida conducted a national survey of 75 public universities concerning the minimum credit hours required for the baccalaureate degree for various disciplines. The…

  10. A Study of Entropy in the Perception of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robin A.

    2011-01-01

    People who earn college degrees are more likely positioned socially, occupationally, and economically for consideration of leadership roles and salary increases. Research conducted by Adams (2008) revealed that regardless of a students' gender, race, social, or economic status, the impact of a college education on lifetime earnings is 20%…

  11. Are We Ready for College-Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGriff, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Through the years, educators, parents, and the general public believed that a college degree is one of the most powerful strategies for our nation's war on poverty. The increased earning power of individuals with college degrees and the contribution to our economic security were frequently acknowledged. Our commitment and attention to college…

  12. Gender Inequalities in the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Background: In terms of high school graduation, college entry, and persistence to earning a college degree, young women now consistently outperform their male peers. Yet most research on gender inequalities in education continues to focus on aspects of education where women trail men, such as women's underrepresentation at top-tier institutions…

  13. Why African American College Students Miss the Perfect Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben; Stokes, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans were imbued with the cliché that they must work twice as hard as others to be a success in life. Entering college, students with this belief put extensive effort into earning top grades to ensure quality preparation for their chosen career; yet, some fail to earn top scores. Why? This is the million dollar question, but the…

  14. Education and Lifetime Earnings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Christopher R; Kim, ChangHwan; Sakamoto, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    Differences in lifetime earnings by educational attainment have been of great research and policy interest. Although a large literature examines earnings differences by educational attainment, research on lifetime earnings--which refers to total accumulated earnings from entry into the labor market until retirement--remains limited because of the paucity of adequate data. Using data that match respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal tax earnings as recorded by the Social Security Administration, we estimate the 50-year work career effects of education on lifetime earnings for men and women. By overcoming the purely synthetic cohort approach, our results provide a more realistic appraisal of actual patterns of lifetime earnings. Detailed estimates are provided for gross lifetime earnings by education; net lifetime earnings after controlling for covariates associated with the probability of obtaining a bachelor's degree; and the net present 50-year lifetime value of education at age 20. In addition, we provide estimates that include individuals with zero earnings and disability. We also assess the adequacy of the purely synthetic cohort approach, which uses age differences in earnings observed in cross-sectional surveys to approximate lifetime earnings. Overall, our results confirm the persistent positive effects of higher education on earnings over different stages of the work career and over a lifetime, but also reveal notably smaller net effects on lifetime earnings compared with previously reported estimates. We discuss the implications of these and other findings.

  15. House Price Growth When Children Are Teenagers: A Path to Higher Earnings? Working Paper No. 14-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Daniel; Luengo-Prado, María José

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether a rise in house prices that occurs immediately prior to children entering college has an impact on their earnings as adults. Higher house prices provide homeowners with additional funds to invest in their children's human capital. The results show that a 1 percentage point increase in house prices, when children are 17…

  16. Employment and Earnings of International Science and Engineering Graduates of U.S. Universities: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Throy A.; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Bista, Krishna

    2018-01-01

    International students represent a large percentage of the student population in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs at American colleges and universities. Although graduates of these programs are identified as having high employability, productivity, and earnings in the 21st-century job market, there is limited…

  17. The earnings game. Everyone plays, nobody wins.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, H

    2001-06-01

    Quarterly earnings numbers dominate the decisions of executives, analysts, investors, and auditors. Yet for all the attention paid to these numbers, they're not much use in predicting a company's future performance and cash flows. Even economists are unanimous in their view that these numbers say next to nothing about a company's prospects beyond the next quarter. Nonetheless, meetings analysts' expectations that earnings will rise in a smooth, steady, unbroken line has become, at many corporations, a game whose imperatives override even the imperative to deliver the highest possible return to shareholders. The fetishistic attention paid to this almost meaningless indicator might be cause for amusement, except for one thing: the earnings game does real harm. It distorts corporate decision making. It reduces securities analysis and investing to a guessing contest. It compromises the integrity of corporate audits. Ultimately, it undermines the capital markets. As market participants increasingly come to view the quarterly number as a sort of collective fiction, offered and received in a spirit of mutual cynicism, they lose faith in the numbers affected by quarterly earnings--including stock prices themselves. And no market can survive long if its participants see no connection between prices and the intrinsic value of the goods on offer. In this article, HBR senior editor Harris Collingwood takes an in-depth look at these effects, examining the intricacies of the earnings game and why companies believe they have no choice but to play it. Until more corporate executives change their practices, he explains, the earning game will never lack for players.

  18. Agricultural Credit Expansion Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Owens, William L. [D-NY-23

    2011-03-02

    House - 03/09/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, and Credit. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Public Service? Tax Credits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Acknowledges the good work of private schools but resists the provision of further direct or indirect government aid to these schools. Argues that tax credits will adversely affect public education and American society. (Author/WD)

  20. Community Colleges and the Business of Workforce Development. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pindar, SaraLee

    This paper highlights New Jersey's community colleges and their efforts to respond to market and consumer needs. Since one-third of the average New Jersey community college operating budget is paid by credit and non-credit students and clients, the colleges must approach their business like private sector enterprises, performing market research…

  1. Understanding the Working College Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.

    2010-01-01

    Working is now a fundamental responsibility for many undergraduates. But understanding how employment affects students' educational experiences is complicated by why students work. Many students must work to pay the costs of attending college. Some traditional-age students may use employment as a way to explore career options or earn spending…

  2. The Community College Transfer Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Once a high school dropout, Hamilton Cunningham beat the odds in navigating the transition from earning a GED, serving in the U.S. Air Force, and attending community college to enrolling at Howard University in fall 2007 as a sophomore where he is now a Truman Scholar and a Jack Kent Cooke Foundation undergraduate transfer scholarship recipient.…

  3. Paying for College: Strategies to Afford Higher Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilorio, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    A college degree is often the key to jumpstarting a career. And data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) consistently show that workers who have a college degree earn more than workers who don't. Not surprisingly, a college education is increasingly popular. For example, according to the U.S. Department of Education National Center for…

  4. The Gender Gap at Connecticut Colleges and Universities. Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The disparity in the college enrollment and graduation of women and men is persistent and troubling but not unique to Connecticut. Across the country, women college students outnumber men by almost 2.6 million and they earn 1.4 times more degrees. A snapshot of gender across colleges in Connecticut reveals the following findings: (1) Men first…

  5. Some Selected Economic Benefits and Characteristics of Junior College Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgey, George W.

    This report is an addendum to a study whose purpose was to determine variables that contribute to the earning capacity of Illinois junior college graduates. Data were gathered from the Illinois Junior College Board and Bureau of the Budget, and from questionnaires sent to the 1968 graduates of three junior colleges in areas of high youth…

  6. Aspen Competition Drives Innovative Ideas for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When Valencia College became the first recipient of the Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence last month, an unsung sector earned uncommon recognition. Now that the speeches are over and the prize money has been awarded, the Aspen Institute is sharing early lessons from its yearlong effort to determine the top community college in the…

  7. Community Colleges Are Portals to New Career Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how people with bachelor's and even advanced degrees are using two-year colleges as a form of graduate school. It defies the stereotype of community college as a place of last resort, and counters the norm of the first-time college students earning an associate degree and then transferring to a four-year institution. For the…

  8. The High School to College Transition: Minding the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The value of a college degree is well documented. College graduates earn at least 60% more than high school graduates. Beyond the economic value, college graduates show higher rates of civic participation, engage in volunteer work and even have a much higher likelihood of being "happy." Students who drop out without attaining a college…

  9. Graduates of Denver Public Schools: College Access and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Pamela; Muraskin, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Denver Public Schools (DPS), the Denver Scholarship Foundation, The Piton Foundation, and the Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education undertook a study to learn how DPS graduates perform in college. The report describes who enrolls in college, and who persists and earns a college certificate or degree. In addition, the…

  10. Learning Communities for Students in Developmental English: Impact Studies at Merced College and the Community College of Baltimore County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Evan; Cullinan, Dan; Cerna, Oscar; Safran, Stephanie; Richman, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    Across the United States, community colleges offer millions of students an open-access, low-cost postsecondary education. However, of the students who enroll in community college hoping to earn a credential or transfer to a four-year institution, only about half achieve their goal within six years. For students who enter college needing…

  11. An Event to Encourage High School Students to Pursue College Degrees in Physics and Math

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukiet, Bruce; Thomas, Gordon

    2003-04-01

    We discuss a Math and Physics Day for high school students and teachers, with hands-on activities and seminars involving mathematics and physics. Participants also learn about careers for those who go on to major in physics and mathematics in college. The New York State Section of the APS has provided generous support for this workshop through its Outreach grant program. Approximately a dozen high schools and 100 students attend each year. The program, which runs from 9:15 AM until 2:15 PM, includes an introduction to undergraduate degree programs in Mathematics, Statistics, Optics, Actuarial Science and Applied Physics, a group physics experiment/contest, brief talks over lunch by speakers from industry who have degrees in Math or Physics, and an afternoon seminar. Teachers earn Professional Development credit.

  12. Education and Lifetime Earnings in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tamborini, Christopher R.; Kim, ChangHwan; Sakamoto, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Differences in lifetime earnings by educational attainment have been of great research and policy interest. Although a large literature examines earnings differences by educational attainment, research on lifetime earnings—which refers to total accumulated earnings from entry into the labor market until retirement—remains limited because of the paucity of adequate data. Using data that match respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal tax earnings as recorded by the Social Security Administration, we estimate the 50-year work career effects of education on lifetime earnings for men and women. By overcoming the purely synthetic cohort approach, our results provide a more realistic appraisal of actual patterns of lifetime earnings. Detailed estimates are provided for gross lifetime earnings by education; net lifetime earnings after controlling for covariates associated with the probability of obtaining a bachelor’s degree; and the net present 50-year lifetime value of education at age 20. In addition, we provide estimates that include individuals with zero earnings and disability. We also assess the adequacy of the purely synthetic cohort approach, which uses age differences in earnings observed in cross-sectional surveys to approximate lifetime earnings. Overall, our results confirm the persistent positive effects of higher education on earnings over different stages of the work career and over a lifetime, but also reveal notably smaller net effects on lifetime earnings compared with previously reported estimates. We discuss the implications of these and other findings. PMID:26100983

  13. Higher Education, Productivity, and Earnings: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pencavel, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides a review of research on the contribution of education to the organization and productivity of a nation's resources. Focuses on what is known about the particular contribution of higher education to U.S. economic growth. Discusses the relationship between earnings and additional schooling. Concludes that increased education probably has…

  14. Opportunity Texas[TM]: Learn. Earn. Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Texas faces numerous challenges but also has abundant opportunities to build the middle class and increase prosperity. Unfortunately, too many Texans are on the sideline, lacking access to opportunities to learn, earn, and save to secure a more prosperous future for themselves and their families. To create jobs, increase income, and promote…

  15. E-Learning Strategy for Earning Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The study enlightens the effectiveness of e-learning strategy in learning English among the in-service teachers who are studying B.Ed in School of Distance Education, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. E-learning strategy is a life long learning strategy for earning in-service teachers. It is a strategy of remaining in employment, which can be…

  16. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  17. The Earnings Gap Between Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Differences between the earnings of men and women suggest that women are being paid less for doing the same job. Factors that attribute to the wage differences are (1) women are concentrated in those occupations which are less skilled and in which wages are relatively low, (2) women working on full-time schedules tend to work less overtime than…

  18. 26 CFR 301.7507-5 - Earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... correctly compute the tax liability, even though in the opinion of the taxpayer it is immune from tax... of the $6,400 immune from collection from 1954 earnings may be collected thereafter from unsegregated... for 1955, is not available for collection of the tax for prior years, which became immune as described...

  19. 26 CFR 301.7507-5 - Earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... correctly compute the tax liability, even though in the opinion of the taxpayer it is immune from tax... of the $6,400 immune from collection from 1954 earnings may be collected thereafter from unsegregated... for 1955, is not available for collection of the tax for prior years, which became immune as described...

  20. EARNINGS IN THE MACHINERY INDUSTRIES, MID-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAUER, FREDERICK L.

    RESULTS OF A MID-1966 NATIONWIDE SURVEY BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS SHOWED THAT THE EARNINGS OF PRODUCTION AND RELATED NONELECTRICAL MACHINERY WORKERS IN 21 LARGE OCCUPATIONAL AREAS VARIED BY OCCUPATION, SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT, AND COMMUNITY, INDUSTRY, LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONTRACT STATUS, AND LOCATION. THE AVERAGE HOURLY WAGE WAS $2.84. HIGHER…

  1. School Desegregation, Academic Attainment, and Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Steven G.

    2000-01-01

    High School and Beyond longitudinal survey data were used to investigate the impact of school racial composition and quality on achievement, educational attainment, and earnings for blacks. Results support the idea that school quality improvement is likely to be much more effective than desegregation as a means of improving academic and labor…

  2. Differences in Occupational Earnings by Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Derek

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of the female/male wage gap in diverse countries looks at pay scales/job rates, average wage/salary rates, and average earnings in medical, public service, banking, and finance occupations. Explanations for differences and discussion of methodological issues are offered. (SK)

  3. Enterprise Bargaining and the Gender Earnings Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooden, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Examination of the widening gender earnings gap in Australia indicates that women's wages continue to lag behind those of men. The main factor appears to be women's concentration in part-time work in enterprises where bargaining is less likely to occur. (JOW)

  4. 26 CFR 301.7507-5 - Earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... correctly compute the tax liability, even though in the opinion of the taxpayer it is immune from tax... of the $6,400 immune from collection from 1954 earnings may be collected thereafter from unsegregated... for 1955, is not available for collection of the tax for prior years, which became immune as described...

  5. 26 CFR 301.7507-5 - Earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... correctly compute the tax liability, even though in the opinion of the taxpayer it is immune from tax... of the $6,400 immune from collection from 1954 earnings may be collected thereafter from unsegregated... for 1955, is not available for collection of the tax for prior years, which became immune as described...

  6. 26 CFR 301.7507-5 - Earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... correctly compute the tax liability, even though in the opinion of the taxpayer it is immune from tax... of the $6,400 immune from collection from 1954 earnings may be collected thereafter from unsegregated... for 1955, is not available for collection of the tax for prior years, which became immune as described...

  7. NASA Earned Value Management (EVM) Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerby, Jerald

    2013-01-01

    Earned Value Management (EVM) is an integrated management control system for assessing, understanding and qualifying what a project is achieving with the resoures. EVM integrates technical cost and schedules with risk management. It allows objective assessment and quantification of current project performance, and helps predict future performance-based trents.

  8. What Are the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks? Information Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The ACT College Readiness Benchmarks are the minimum ACT® college readiness assessment scores required for students to have a high probability of success in credit-bearing college courses--English Composition, social sciences courses, College Algebra, or Biology. This report identifies the College Readiness Benchmarks on the ACT Compass scale…

  9. Lifetime earnings for physicians across specialties.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Tancredi, Daniel; Jerant, Anthony; Romano, Patrick S; Kravitz, Richard L

    2012-12-01

    Earlier studies estimated annual income differences across specialties, but lifetime income may be more relevant given physicians' long-term commitments to specialties. Annual income and work hours data were collected from 6381 physicians in the nationally representative 2004-2005 Community Tracking Study. Data regarding years of residency were collected from AMA FREIDA. Present value models were constructed assuming 3% discount rates. Estimates were adjusted for demographic and market covariates. Sensitivity analyses included 4 alternative models involving work hours, retirement, exogenous variables, and 1% discount rate. Estimates were generated for 4 broad specialty categories (Primary Care, Surgery, Internal Medicine and Pediatric Subspecialties, and Other), and for 41 specific specialties. The estimates of lifetime earnings for the broad categories of Surgery, Internal Medicine and Pediatric Subspecialties, and Other specialties were $1,587,722, $1,099,655, and $761,402 more than for Primary Care. For the 41 specific specialties, the top 3 (with family medicine as reference) were neurological surgery ($2,880,601), medical oncology ($2,772,665), and radiation oncology ($2,659,657). The estimates from models with varying rates of retirement and including only exogenous variables were similar to those in the preferred model. The 1% discount model generated estimates that were roughly 150% larger than the 3% model. There was considerable variation in the lifetime earnings across physician specialties. After accounting for varying residency years and discounting future earnings, primary care specialties earned roughly $1-3 million less than other specialties. Earnings' differences across specialties may undermine health reform efforts to control costs and ensure adequate numbers of primary care physicians.

  10. College Choice: Informing Students' Trade-Offs between Institutional Price and College Completion. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pender, Matea; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Howell, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research on the returns to postsecondary education provides a near universal consensus that college confers numerous advantages for both individuals and society. Not only do individuals with a college degree earn more money than their peers with only a high school degree, they lead healthier lifestyles, experience greater job…

  11. Transition to College: Nonacademic Factors That Influence Persistence for Underprepared Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges provide access to higher education for a broad range of students. The majority require "remedial" coursework in reading, writing and, especially, math. Most students who begin with this remedial coursework do not go on to earn a certificate or degree. Low levels of college graduation have high direct cost, adversely…

  12. Her earnings: Exploring variation in wives' earning contributions across six major Asian groups and Whites.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Veena S

    2015-07-01

    Previous research on understanding race-ethnic differentials in employment and economic contributions by married women has primarily focused on Blacks, Hispanics, or Whites. This study investigates variations in wives' earning contributions as measured by wives earnings as a proportion of total annual household earnings among six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese relative to native born non-Hispanic White. I disaggregate the six Asian groups by their ethnicity and nativity status. Using pooled data from 2009-2011 American Community Survey, the findings show significance of human capital, hours of paid labor market engagement and nativity status. There is strong and negative association between husbands' human capital and labor supply with wives' earning contributions suggesting near universality of male-breadwinner status. Notwithstanding the commonalities, there is significant intergroup diversity. While foreign born and native born Filipina wives despite their spouses' reasonably high human capital and work hours, contribute one of the highest shares, the same cannot be said for the Asian Indians and Japanese. For foreign born Asian Indian and to some extent Japanese women, their high human capital is not translated to high earning contribution after controlling for husband's human capital. Further, nativity status impacts groups differentially. Native born Vietnamese wives contribute the greatest. Overall, the findings underscore the relevance of employing multiple conceptual frameworks in understanding earning contributions of foreign and native born Asian wives belonging to the six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Earnings Differences between Women and Men. Facts on Working Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Although the gap between women's and men's wages differs slightly depending on how the gap is measured, no matter how they are measured, women's earnings are below those received by men in 97% of the occupations for which data are available. Since 1979, women's earnings have been climbing when compared with men's earnings, gaining steeply during…

  14. 20 CFR 209.13 - Employers' gross earnings reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.13 Employers' gross earnings reports. (a) Each employer is required to report the gross earnings of a one-percent sample group of railroad employees. The... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employers' gross earnings reports. 209.13...

  15. Can Motherhood Earnings Losses Be Ever Regained? Evidence from Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuelin

    2010-01-01

    This study examines earnings losses associated with motherhood using longitudinal administrative Canadian data. Contrary to the endogenous motherhood hypothesis, the author found no dips in earnings for women during their prechildbirth years. Although the results show that earnings losses incurred by mothers in the year of childbirth and the year…

  16. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  17. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  18. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  19. 48 CFR 1852.234-2 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Earned Value Management... and Clauses 1852.234-2 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 1834.203-70(b) insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (NOV 2006) (a) In the performance of this contract, the...

  20. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  1. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (APR 2008) (a) In the performance of this...

  2. 48 CFR 1852.234-2 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Earned Value Management... and Clauses 1852.234-2 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 1834.203-70(b) insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (NOV 2006) (a) In the performance of this contract, the...

  3. The Nation's Colleges Show a Modest Improvement in African-American Graduation Rates, but a Huge Racial Gap Remains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Nationwide, fewer than two out of five entering black college students earn their degrees, while three out of five entering white students go on to graduate. Nearly 19 out of 20 black students at highly competitive universities earn their diplomas. Black women outpace black men in college completion. Examines trends in black graduation rates at…

  4. Dual Credit Instructor and Counselor Opinions Concerning the Effectiveness of Dual Credit Programs on Post-Secondary Readiness in Southwest Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Natalie Gail

    2017-01-01

    Dual enrollment numbers continue to increase in public school districts; therefore, dual credit programs must be effective for students, adequately challenging them academically and preparing them for the college environment (Flores, 2014). The intention of this study was to survey dual credit instructors and counselors to determine their opinions…

  5. The Labor Market Returns to Math Courses in Community College. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Liu, Vivian Yuen Ting

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the returns to math courses relative to courses in other subjects for students in community college. Using matched college transcript and earnings data on over 80,000 students entering community college during the 2000s, we find that college-level math coursework has an indirect positive effect on award completion that is…

  6. Who Is Likely to Graduate High School Ready for College? Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Jizhi; Radunzel, Justine

    2017-01-01

    A majority of high school graduates aspire to earn a college degree (ACT, 2016), yet many students are graduating from high school unprepared to do college-level work. As a result, about one-third of college freshmen enroll in at least one developmental course upon entry to college (Skomsvold, 2014). Because developmental courses are often not…

  7. Community and Videos: An Action Plan to Increase Success Rates in California Community College Developmental Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Success rates in California community college developmental mathematics courses have hovered around 50% for decades. These gatekeeper courses have prevented many students from earning college degrees. Since community college is the starting point for the majority of California's potential college graduates and the majority of these students…

  8. Institutional Determinants of Labor Market Outcomes for Community College Students in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalleberg, Arne L.; Dunn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The labor market success of community college students depends on both the attributes of individual students and the characteristics of the community colleges they attend. In this article, we examine the impact of community college characteristics on the earnings of first-time college students who enrolled in the North Carolina…

  9. The New Tax Credits: How Much Will They Offset Higher Student Fees in California? Report 09-22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jessika

    2009-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) significantly increases federal tax credits for people who pay for college education. For many families, these tax credits will offset most of the recent fee increases at University of California (UC), California State University (CSU), and the community colleges. Some students will likely be…

  10. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages...

  11. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages...

  12. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages...

  13. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages...

  14. Carbon credit of renewable energy projects in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, X.; Lam, W. H.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    The introduction of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to Malaysia improves the environment of the country. Besides achieving sustainable development, the carbon credit earned through CDM enhances the financial state of the nation. Both CDM and renewable energy contribute to the society by striving to reduce carbon emission. Most of the CDM projects are related to renewable energy, which recorded 69% out of total CDM projects. This paper presents the energy overview and status of renewable energies in the country. Then, the renewable energy will be related to the CDM.

  15. Teaching Debits and Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamos, Thomas

    1973-01-01

    One of the most difficult concepts for beginning accounting students is an understanding of debits and credits. A rule has been formulated which covers most other rules: Beginning balances and increases appear on the same side of the account as the account appears in the fundamental equation (assets = liabilities + capital). (SC)

  16. 26 CFR 1.1551-1 - Disallowance of surtax exemption and accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... effect of preventing the avoidance or evasion of income taxes. Such principles of law and such provisions... of section 1551. The purpose of section 1551 is to prevent avoidance or evasion of the surtax imposed... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES § 1.1551-1 Disallowance of surtax...

  17. Social Security: More Must Be Done to Credit Earnings to Individuals’ Accounts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    recorded by SSA.. In at 1985 study to examine the usefulness of data ifRs furnished (indicating that ss:% mnay not have received certl am employers...8217 ’, ’.’ ," "." ".- . " " . , ",- " - " ’" -’" - ’ - ." . - .’ , .’ ,’- ’- , - ,’ ’- ’. . - " ’.N-’ \\ ppe ndix IV MS Response to GAO Inquiry of June 11, 1986 COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE Washrigton DC 20224 NOV? 5 9 Mr

  18. Demographic Differences and Attitudes toward Computers among Healthcare Professionals Earning Continuing Education Credits On-Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Ananda; Joshi, Suchi; Kemper, Kathi J.; Woods, Charles; Gobble, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    The use of technology, such as the Web, has become an increasingly popular means for disseminating professional development and continuing education. Often, these methods assume a set of attitudes and skills related to the computer as a pedagogic and communication tool. We argue that it is, however, important to measure the actual attitudes of…

  19. 26 CFR 1.1551-1 - Disallowance of surtax exemption and accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 482, which have the effect of preventing the avoidance or evasion of income taxes. Such principles of... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) § 1.1551-1 Disallowance... transfer. (b) Purpose of section 1551. The purpose of section 1551 is to prevent avoidance or evasion of...

  20. 49 CFR 526.5 - Earning offsetting monetary credits in future model years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... each planned product action (e.g., new model, mix change) which will affect the average fuel economy of... Act must contain the following information: (a) Projected average fuel economy and production levels for the class of automobiles which may fail to comply with a fuel economy standard and for any other...